WorldWideScience

Sample records for bore nb3sn quadrupole

  1. Assembly And Test Of A 120 MM Bore 15 T Nb3Sn Quadrupole For The LHC Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, H.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; Joseph, J.; Lizarazo, J.; Sabbi, G.L.; Wang, X.; Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bossert, R.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been developing a 1-meter long, 120 mm bore Nb 3 Sn IR quadrupole magnet (HQ). With a design short sample gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K and a peak field approaching 15 T, one of the main challenges of this magnet is to provide appropriate mechanical support to the coils. Compared to the previous LARP Technology Quadrupole and Long Quadrupole magnets, the purpose of HQ is also to demonstrate accelerator quality features such as alignment and cooling. So far, 8 HQ coils have been fabricated and 4 of them have been assembled and tested in HQ01a. This paper presents the mechanical assembly and test results of HQ01a.

  2. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb 3 Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb 3 Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure

  3. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Fermilab; Brookhaven; LBL, Berkeley; Texas A-M

    2007-01-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb3Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb3Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure

  4. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb 3 Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb 3 Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure

  5. Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnets for the LHC IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbi, G.; Caspi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Coccoli, M.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb 3 Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb 3 Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented.

  6. Nb3Sn Quadrupoles Designs For The LHC Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, Helene

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for the LHC luminosity upgrades, high field and large aperture Nb 3 Sn quadrupoles are being studied. This development has to incorporate all the relevant features for an accelerator magnet like alignment and cooling channels. The LARP HQ model is a high field and large bore quadrupole that will meet these requirements. The 2-layer coils are surrounded by a structure based on key and bladder technology with supporting iron yoke and aluminum shell. This structure is aimed at pre-stress control, alignment and field quality. We present here the magnetic and mechanical design of HQ, along with recent progress on the development of the first 1-meter model.

  7. Development of a large aperture Nb3Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steven A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, AurelioR.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; McInturff, Alfred D.; Nyman, Mark; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), a collaboration between BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, has among its major objectives the development of advanced magnet technology for an LHC luminosity upgrade. The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Group supports this program with a broad effort involving design studies, Nb 3 Sn conductor development, mechanical models, and basic prototypes. This paper describes the development of a large aperture Nb 3 Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet using four racetrack coils from the LBNL Subscale Magnet (SM) Program. The magnet provides a gradient of 95 T/m in a 110 mm bore, with a peak field in the conductor of 11.2 T. The coils are prestressed by a mechanical structure based on a pre-tensioned aluminum shell, and axially supported with aluminum rods. The mechanical behavior has been monitored with strain gauges and the magnetic field has been measured. Results of the test are reported and analyzed

  8. Design Studies of Nb3Sn High-Gradient Quadrupole Models for LARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Nikolai; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel; Ferracin, Paolo; Ghosh, Arup; Kashikhin, Vadim; Lietzke, Al; Novitski, Igor; Zlobin, Alexander; McInturff, Alfred; Sabbi, GianLuca

    2007-01-01

    Insertion quadrupoles with large aperture and high gradient are required to achieve the luminosity upgrade goal of 10 35 cm -2 s -1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In 2004, the US Department of Energy established the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) to develop a technology base for the upgrade. Nb 3 Sn conductor is required in order to operate at high field and with sufficient temperature margin. We report here on the conceptual design studies of a series of 1 m long 'High-gradient Quadrupoles' (HQ) that will explore the magnet performance limits in terms of peak fields, forces and stresses. The HQ design is expected to provide coil peak fields of more than 15 T, corresponding to gradients above 300 T/m in a 90 mm bore. Conductor requirements, magnetic, mechanical and quench protection issues for candidate HQ designs will be presented and discussed

  9. Tests results of Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnets using a shell-based support structure

    CERN Document Server

    Caspi, S

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a 90 mm aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting quadrupole for the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), test results of five quadrupole magnets are compared. All five assemblies used key and bladder technology to compress and support the coils within an iron yoke and an aluminium shell. The first three models (TQS01a, b, c) used Nb$_{3}$Sn MJR conductor and segmented bronze poles. The last two models (TQS02a, b) used Nb$_{3}$Sn RRP conductor, and segmented titanium alloy (TiAl6V4) poles, with no axial gaps during reaction. This presentation summarizes the magnets performance during assembly, cool-down and excitation and compares measurements with design expectations.

  10. Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnets for the LHC IR

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, G L; Chiesa, L; Coccoli, M; Dietderich, D R; Ferracin, P; Gourlay, S A; Hafalia, R R; Lietzke, A F; McInturff, A D; Scanlan, R M

    2003-01-01

    The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 * 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb/sub 3/Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb/sub 3/Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented. (25 refs).

  11. Structure for an LHC 90mm Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafalia, A.R.; Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hannaford, C.R.; Higley, H.; Lietzke, A.F.; Lau, B.; Liggins, N.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.L.; Scanlan, R.M.; Swanson, J.

    2005-01-01

    A full-scale mechanical model of the LHC Nb 3 Sn quadrupole magnet structure has been designed, built and tested. The structure will support a 90mm bore, 1m long magnet prototype as part of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). The structure utilizes Bladder and Key Technology to control and transfer pre-stress from an outer aluminum shell to an inner coil. Axial aluminum rods take care of pre-stress at the ends--ensuring that the coil is fully constrained along all three axes. The outer aluminum shell and an inner ''dummy coil'' (aluminum tube) were extensively instrumented with strain gauges. The gauges were used to monitor and map the effectiveness of the stress relation between the loading structure and a ''dummy'' coil through varying mechanical load conditions --from bladder and key pre-stress at room temperature through cool-down. Test results of the stress distribution in the structure and the in dummy coil is reported and compared with expected results calculated with the structural analysis program ANSYS

  12. Study of Nb3Sn cables for superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otmani, R.

    1999-10-01

    In particle physics, the quest for higher energies may be satisfied by the use of niobium-tin superconducting magnets. Such magnets are made of Rutherford type cables which are wound from superconducting strands. The strands are made by the 'internal tin' method. The aim of this study is to determine the main parameters for the fabrication of a quadrupole. The two main requirements the cable must fulfill are high critical current and low losses. The main parameters were determined from different measurements and models. Thus, the key parameters for the current transport capacity are the number and the diameter of the filaments, the number of sub-elements, the surface of superconductor and the copper-to-non-copper ratio. For the hysteresis losses, the main parameters appear to be the effective filament diameter and the spacing of the filaments. For intra-strand losses, the main parameters appear to be the filaments' diameter, the filament spacing, the nature of the diffusion barrier and the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper. The interstrand resistances for the cable are the key parameters for the losses. Thus, the nature of the strands coating or the presence of a stainless steel core can strongly diminish the cable losses. Finally, a design, for the strands and the cables for the fabrication of a quadrupole is proposed. (author)

  13. Mitigating radiation loads in Nb_{3}Sn quadrupoles for the CERN Large Hadron Collider upgrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mokhov

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Challenging beam-induced energy deposition issues are addressed for the next generation of the LHC high-luminosity interaction regions based on Nb_{3}Sn quadrupoles. Detailed mars15 Monte Carlo energy deposition calculations are performed for various coil diameters, thicknesses, and materials of the inner absorber at a field gradient of 200   T/m. It is shown that using the inner absorber made of tungsten-based materials can make the final focus superconducting quadrupoles compatible with a luminosity of 10^{35}   cm^{-2} s^{-1}.

  14. Performance of the first short model 150 mm aperture Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole MQXFS for the High- Luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlachidze, G.; et al.

    2016-08-30

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN combined their efforts in developing Nb3Sn magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The ultimate goal of this collaboration is to fabricate large aperture Nb3Sn quadrupoles for the LHC interaction regions (IR). These magnets will replace the present 70 mm aperture NbTi quadrupole triplets for expected increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 5. Over the past decade LARP successfully fabricated and tested short and long models of 90 mm and 120 mm aperture Nb3Sn quadrupoles. Recently the first short model of 150 mm diameter quadrupole MQXFS was built with coils fabricated both by the LARP and CERN. The magnet performance was tested at Fermilab’s vertical magnet test facility. This paper reports the test results, including the quench training at 1.9 K, ramp rate and temperature dependence studies.

  15. Test Results of the LARP Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole HQ03a

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarco, J; Anerella, M; Bajas, H; Chlachidze, G; Borgnolutti, F; Bossert, R; Cheng, D W; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Pan, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Godeke, A; Hafalia, A R; Marchevsky, M; Orris, D; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G; Salmi, T; Schmalzle, J; Stoynev, S; Strauss, T; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Todesco, E; Wanderer, P; Wang, X R; Yu, M

    2016-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been developing $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupoles of progressively increasing performance for the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. The 120 mm aperture High-field Quadrupole (HQ) models are the last step in the R&D; phase supporting the development of the new IR Quadrupoles (MQXF). Three series of HQ coils were fabricated and assembled in a shell-based support structure, progressively optimizing the design and fabrication process. The final set of coils consistently applied the optimized design solutions, and was assembled in the HQ03a model. This paper reports a summary of the HQ03a test results, including training, mechanical performance, field quality and quench studies.

  16. Performance of HQ02, an optimized version of the 120 mm $Nb_3Sn$ LARP quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Chlachidze, G; Anerella, M; Borgnolutti, F; Bossert, R; Caspi, S; Cheng, D W; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Godeke, A; Hafalia A R; Marchevsky, M; Orris, D; Roy, P K; Sabbi, G L; Salmi, T; Schmalzle, J; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J; Wanderer, P; Wang, X R; Zlobin, A V

    2014-01-01

    In preparation for the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is developing a new generation of large aperture high-field quadrupoles based on Nb$_{3}$Sn technology. One meter long and 120 mm diameter HQ quadrupoles are currently produced as a step toward the eventual aperture of 150 mm. Tests of the first series of HQ coils revealed the necessity for further optimization of the coil design and fabrication process. A new model (HQ02) has been fabricated with several design modifications, including a reduction of the cable size and an improved insulation scheme. Coils in this magnet are made of a cored cable using 0.778 mm diameter Nb$_{3}$Sn strands of RRP 108/127 sub-element design. The HQ02 magnet has been fabricated at LBNL and BNL, and then tested at Fermilab. This paper summarizes the performance of HQ02 at 4.5 K and 1.9 K temperatures.

  17. Coil End Optimization of the Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Bossert, R; Cheng, D; Ferracin, P; Krave, ST; Perez, J C; Schmalzle, J; Yu, M

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi-LHC) program, the US LARP collaboration and CERN are working together to design and build a 150 mm aperture quadrupole magnet that aims at providing a nominal gradient of 140 T/m. The resulting conductor peak field of more than 12 T requires the use of Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting coils. In this paper the coil design for the quadrupole short model (SQXF) is described, focusing in particular on the optimization of the end-parts. We first describe the magnetic optimization aiming at reducing the peak field enhancement in the ends and minimizing the integrated multipole content. Then we focus on the analysis and tests performed to determine the most suitable shapes of end turns and spacers, minimizing the mechanical stress on the cables. We conclude with a detailed description of the baseline end design for the first series of the short model coils.

  18. Preliminary proposal of a Nb3Sn quadrupole model for the low β insertions of the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Ametrano, F.; Bellomo, G.; Broggi, F.; Rossi, L.; Volpini, G.

    1995-09-01

    In recent years Nb 3 Sn based conductors have shown wide applicability for superconducting magnets in many research areas like high field solenoids for laboratory experiment, for NMR spectroscopy and high field magnets for fusion. Nb 3 Sn technology is progressing fast, increasing both technical reliability and availability. The Nb 3 Sn technology, which has a higher critical field than NbTi, seems attractive for IR (Insertion Region) quadrupoles of large colliders . In this paper it is proposed the construction of a superconducting quadrupole wound with Nb 3 Sn cable for a second generation IR inner triplet low β quadrupoles, for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The low β quadrupoles, control the beam focusing at collision points, therefore a gain in term of focus strength and/or coil aperture can increase significantly machine performance. Two are the main steps for the whole project: 1) design and construction of a 1 metre long quadrupole to demonstrate the actual feasibility, which is the subject of this proposal; 2) study for integration of the quadrupole in the machine and final design of 5 m long quadrupoles finalized to the LHC

  19. Magnetic Analysis of the Nb$_3$Sn low-beta Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Chlachidze, G; Ferracin, P; Holik, E; Di Marco, J; Todesco, E; Sabbi, G L; Vallone, G; Wang, X

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi-LHC) program, the US LARP collaboration and CERN are working together to design and build 150 mm aperture $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupoles for the LHC interaction regions. A first series of 1.5 m long coils were fabricated, assembled and tested in the first short model. This paper presents the magnetic analysis, comparing magnetic field measurements with the expectations and the field quality requirements. The analysis is focused on the geometrical harmonics, iron saturation effect and cold-warm correlation. Three dimensional effects such as the variability of the field harmonics along the magnet axis and the contribution of the coil ends are also discussed. Moreover, we present the influence of the conductor magnetization and the dynamic effects.

  20. Mechanical Design of an Alternate Structure for LARP Nb$_{3}$Sn Quadrupole Magnets for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Anerella, M; Kovach, P; Schmalzle, J; Wanderer, P; Ambrosio, G; Lamm, M J; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G L

    2011-01-01

    An alternative structure for the 120 mm Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnet is presently under development for use in the upgrade for LHC at CERN. The design aims to build existing technology developed in LARP with the LQ and HQ magnets and to further optimize the features required for operation in the accelerator. The structure includes features for maintaining mechanical alignment of the coils to achieve the required field quality. It also includes a helium containment vessel and provisions for cooling with 1.9 K helium. The development effort includes the assembly of a six inch model to verify required coil load is achieved. Status of the R&D effort and an update on the magnet design, including its incorporation into the design of a complete one meter cold mass is presented.

  1. Conceptual design study of Nb3Sn low-beta quadrupoles for 2nd generation LHC IRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander V Zlobin et al.

    2002-01-01

    Conceptual designs of 90-mm aperture high-gradient quadrupoles based on the Nb 3 Sn superconductor, are being developed at Fermilab for possible 2nd generation IRs with the similar optics as in the current low-beta insertions. Magnet designs and results of magnetic, mechanical, thermal and quench protection analysis for these magnets are presented and discussed

  2. Conceptual Design Study of Nb(3)Sn Low-beta Quadrupoles for 2nd Generation LHC IRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobin, A. V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bauer, P.

    2002-10-01

    Conceptual designs of 90-mm aperture high gradient quadrupoles based on the Nb3Sn superconductor, are being developed at Fermilab for possible 2nd generation IRs with the similar optics as in the current low-beta insertions. Magnet designs and results of magnetic, mechanical, thermal and quench protection analysis for these magnets are presented and discussed.

  3. Assembly and Tests of SQ02, a Nb3Sn Racetrack Quadrupole Magnet for LARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lizarazo, J.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.L.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) consists of four US laboratories (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC) collaborating with CERN to achieve a successful commissioning of the LHC and to develop the next generation of Interaction Region magnets. In 2004, a large aperture Nb 3 Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet (SQ01) has been fabricated and tested at LBNL. The magnet utilized four subscale racetrack coils and was instrumented with strain gauges on the support structure and directly over the coil's turns. SQ01 exhibited training quenches in two of the four coils and reached a peak field in the conductor of 10.4 T at a current of 10.6 kA. After the test, the magnet was disassembled, inspected with pressure indicating films, and reassembled with minor modifications. A second test (SQ01b) was performed at FNAL and included training studies, strain gauge measurements and magnetic measurements. Magnet inspection, test results, and magnetic measurements are reported and discussed, and a comparison between strain gauge measurements and 3D finite element computations is presented

  4. Quench Protection System Optimization for the High Luminosity LHC Nb $_3$Sn Quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Auchmann, B; Ferracin, P; Maciejewski, M; Rodriguez-Mateos, F; Sabbi, GL; Todesco, E; Verweij, A P

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the large hadron collider to achieve higher luminosity requires the installation of twenty-four 150 mm aperture, 12 T, $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupole magnets close to the two interaction regions at ATLAS and CMS. The protection of these high-field magnets after a quench is particularly challenging due to the high stored energy density, which calls for a fast, effective, and reliable protection system. Three design options for the quench protection system of the inner triplet circuit are analyzed, including quench heaters attached to the coil's outer and inner layer, Coupling-Loss Induced Quench (CLIQ), and combinations of those. The discharge of the magnet circuit and the electromagnetic and thermal transients occurring in the coils are simulated by means of the TALES and LEDET programs. The sensitivity to strand parameters and the effects of several failure cases on the coil's hot-spot temperature and peak voltages to ground are assessed. A protection system based only on quench heaters attached to the o...

  5. Assembly and Test of HD2, a 36 mm bore high field Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, P.; Bingham, B.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.W.; Dietderich, D.R.; Felice, H.; Godeke, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A.F.; Lizarazo, J.; Sabbi, G.; Trillaud, F.; Wang, X.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the fabrication, assembly, and test of the Nb 3 Sn dipole magnet HD2. The magnet, aimed at demonstrating the application of Nb 3 Sn superconductor in high field accelerator-type dipoles, features a 36 mm clear bore surrounded by block-type coils with tilted ends. The coil design is optimized to minimize geometric harmonics in the aperture and the magnetic peak field on the conductor in the coil ends. The target bore field of 15 T at 4.3 K is consistent with critical current measurements of extracted strands. The coils are horizontally pre-stressed during assembly using an external aluminum shell pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders. Axial pre-loading of the coil ends is accomplished through two end plates and four aluminum tension rods. The strain in coil, shell, and rods is monitored with strain gauges during assembly, cool-down and magnet excitation, and compared with 3D finite element computations. Magnet's training performance, quench locations, and ramp-rate dependence are then analyzed and discussed.

  6. Magnetic Measurements of the First Nb$_3$Sn Model Quadrupole (MQXFS) for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarco, J; Chlachidze, G; Ferracin, P; Holik, E; Sabbi, G; Stoynev, S; Strauss, T; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Todesco, E; Velev, G; Wang, X

    2017-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN are developing high-gradient Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets for the High Luminosity LHC interaction regions. Magnetic measurements of the first 1.5 m long, 150 mm aperture model quadrupole, MQXFS1, were performed during magnet assembly at LBNL, as well as during cryogenic testing at Fermilab’s Vertical Magnet Test Facility. This paper reports on the results of these magnetic characterization measurements, as well as on the performance of new probes developed for the tests.

  7. Status of Long Coil Production for the MQXFB Nb3Sn Prototype Quadrupole for the HiLumi LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Friedrich; Ferracin, Paolo; Todesco, Ezio; Triquet, Stephan; Pozzobon, Marc; Luzieux, S.; Perez, J. C.; Scheuerlein, Christian; Cavanna, Eugenio; Ohnweiler, Timm; Revilak, Philipp; Genestier, Thibault; Principe, Rosario; Prin, Herve; Duret, Max; Savary, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The High luminosity LHC upgrade target is to increase the integrated luminosity by a factor 10, resulting in an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. One major improvement foreseen is the reduction of the beam size at the collision points. This requires the development of 150 mm single aperture quadrupoles for the interaction regions. These quadrupoles are under development in a joint collaboration between CERN and the US-LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). The chosen approach for achieving a nominal quadrupole field gradient of 132.6 T/m is based on the Nb3Sn technology. The coils with a length of 7281 mm will be the longest Nb3Sn coils fabricated so far for accelerator magnets. The production of the long coils was launched in 2016 based on practise coils made from copper. This paper provides a status of the production of the first low grade and full performance coils and describes the production process and applied quality control. Furthermore an outlook for the prototype assembly is provided.

  8. Performance of the first short model 150 mm aperture Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole MQXFS for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Chlachidze, G; Anerella, M; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; DiMarco, J; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Grosclaude, P; Guinchard, M; Hafalia, A R; Holik, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Krave, S; Marchevsky, M; Nobrega, F; Orris, D; Pan, H; Perez, J C; Prestemon, S; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G L; Salmi, T; Schmalzle, J; Stoynev, S; Strauss, T; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Todesco, E; Vallone, G; Velev, G; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M

    2017-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN combined their efforts in developing Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The ultimate goal of this collaboration is to fabricate large aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupoles for the LHC interaction regions (IR). These magnets will replace the present 70 mm aperture NbTi quadrupole triplets for expected increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 5. Over the past decade LARP successfully fabricated and tested short and long models of 90 mm and 120 mm aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupoles. Recently the first short model of 150 mm diameter quadrupole MQXFS was built with coils fabricated both by the LARP and CERN. The magnet performance was tested at Fermilab’s vertical magnet test facility. This paper reports the test results, including the quench training at 1.9 K, ramp rate and temperature dependence studies.

  9. Second Generation Coil Design of the Nb$_{3}$Sn low-beta Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Ballarino, A; Cavanna, E; Bossert, R; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Hagen,P; Holik, E; Perez, J C; Rochepault, E; Schmalzle, J; Todesco, E; Yu, M

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi-LHC) program, the US LARP collaboration and CERN are working together to design and build a 150 mm aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole for the LHC interaction regions. A first series of 1.5 m long coils were fabricated and assembled in a first short model. A detailed visual inspection of the coils was carried out to investigate cable dimensional changes during heat treatment and the position of the windings in the coil straight section and in the end region. The analyses allow identifying a set of design changes which, combined with a fine tune of the cable geometry and a field quality optimization, were implemented in a new, second-generation, coil design. In this paper we review the main characteristics of the first generation coils, describe the modification in coil lay-out, and discuss their impact on parts design and magnet analysis.

  10. Assembly and Test of SQ01b, a Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for the LHC Accelerator Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bartlett, S. E.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.H.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lamm, M.J.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sabbi, G.L.; Sylvester, C.D.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Velev, G.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) consists of four US laboratories (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC) collaborating with CERN to achieve a successful commissioning of the LHC and to develop the next generation of Interaction Region magnets. In 2004, a large aperture Nb 3 Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet (SQ01) has been fabricated and tested at LBNL. The magnet utilized four subscale racetrack coils and was instrumented with strain gauges on the support structure and directly over the coil's turns. SQ01 exhibited training quenches in two of the four coils and reached a peak field in the conductor of 10.4 T at a current of 10.6 kA. After the test, the magnet was disassembled, inspected with pressure indicating films, and reassembled with minor modifications. A second test (SQ01b) was performed at FNAL and included training studies, strain gauge measurements and magnetic measurements. Magnet inspection, test results, and magnetic measurements are reported and discussed, and a comparison between strain gauge measurements and 3D finite element computations is presented

  11. Assembly Tests of the First Nb$_{3}$Sn Low-Beta Quadrupole Short Model for the Hi-Lumi LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, H; Cheng, D W; Anderssen, E; Ambrosio, G; Perez, J C; Juchno, M; Ferracin, P; Prestemon, S O

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) in collaboration with CERN is pursuing the development of MQXF: a 150-mm-aperture high-field Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnet. The development phase starts with the fabrication and test of several short models (1.2-m magnetic length) and will continue with the development of several long prototypes. All of them are mechanically supported using a shell-based support structure, which has been extensively demonstrated on several R&D; models within LARP. The first short model MQXFS-AT has been assembled at LBNL with coils fabricated by LARP and CERN. In this paper, we summarize the assembly process and show how it relies strongly on experience acquired during the LARP 120-mm-aperture HQ magnet series. We present comparison between strain gauges data and finite-element model analysis. Finally, we present the implication of the MQXFS-AT experience on the design of the long prototype support...

  12. Assembly and Tests of SQ02, a Nb3Sn Racetrack Quadrupole Magnet for LARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lizarazo, J.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.L.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2007-06-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) consists of four US laboratories (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC) collaborating with CERN to achieve a successful commissioning of the LHC and to develop the next generation of Interaction Region magnets. In 2004, a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet (SQ01) has been fabricated and tested at LBNL. The magnet utilized four subscale racetrack coils and was instrumented with strain gauges on the support structure and directly over the coil's turns. SQ01 exhibited training quenches in two of the four coils and reached a peak field in the conductor of 10.4 T at a current of 10.6 kA. After the test, the magnet was disassembled, inspected with pressure indicating films, and reassembled with minor modifications. A second test (SQ01b) was performed at FNAL and included training studies, strain gauge measurements and magnetic measurements. Magnet inspection, test results, and magnetic measurements are reported and discussed, and a comparison between strain gauge measurements and 3D finite element computations is presented.

  13. Summary of Test Results of MQXFS1—The First Short Model 150 mm Aperture Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole for the High-Luminosity LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Stoynev, S; Anerella, M; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; DiMarco, J; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Chlachidze, G; Ghosh, A; Grosclaude, P; Guinchard, M; Hafalia, A R; Holik, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Krave, S; Marchevsky, M; Nobrega, F; Orris, D; Pan, H; Perez, J C; Prestemon, S; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G; Salmi, T; Schmalzle, J; Strauss, T; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Todesco, E; Vallone, G; Velev, G; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M

    2017-01-01

    The development of $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupole magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade is a joint venture between the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP)* and CERN with the goal of fabricating large aperture quadrupoles for the LHC in-teraction regions (IR). The inner triplet (low-β) NbTi quadrupoles in the IR will be replaced by the stronger Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets boosting the LHC program of having 10-fold increase in integrated luminos-ity after the foreseen upgrades. Previously LARP conducted suc-cessful tests of short and long models with up to 120 mm aperture. The first short 150 mm aperture quadrupole model MQXFS1 was assembled with coils fabricated by both CERN and LARP. The magnet demonstrated strong performance at the Fermilab’s verti-cal magnet test facility reaching the LHC operating limits. This paper reports the latest results from MQXFS1 tests with changed pre-stress levels. The overall magnet performance, including quench training and memory, ramp rate and temperature depend-ence, is also sum...

  14. Summary of Test Results of MQXFS1 - The First Short Model 150 mm Aperture $Nb_3Sn$ Quadrupole for the High-Luminosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoynev, S.; et al.

    2017-01-01

    The development of $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupole magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade is a joint venture between the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP)* and CERN with the goal of fabricating large aperture quadrupoles for the LHC in-teraction regions (IR). The inner triplet (low-β) NbTi quadrupoles in the IR will be replaced by the stronger Nb3Sn magnets boosting the LHC program of having 10-fold increase in integrated luminos-ity after the foreseen upgrades. Previously LARP conducted suc-cessful tests of short and long models with up to 120 mm aperture. The first short 150 mm aperture quadrupole model MQXFS1 was assembled with coils fabricated by both CERN and LARP. The magnet demonstrated strong performance at the Fermilab’s verti-cal magnet test facility reaching the LHC operating limits. This paper reports the latest results from MQXFS1 tests with changed pre-stress levels. The overall magnet performance, including quench training and memory, ramp rate and temperature depend-ence, is also summarized.

  15. Study of Quench Protection for the Nb$_3$Sn Low-β Quadrupole for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade (HiLumi-LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, E; Bellomo, G; Sorbi, M; Ambrosio, G; Chlachidze, G; Felice, H; Marchevsky, M; Salmi, T

    2015-01-01

    The HiLumi program is aiming to develop and build new Nb$_{3}$Sn, high-field (12 T) and large aperture (150 mm) superconducting quadrupoles, which will be inserted in the LHC interaction regions and will provide the final focusing of the beam, in the program of the luminosity upgrade. The quench protection of these magnets is one of the most challenging aspects, mainly because of the large value of the magnet inductance (160 mH for the configuration with two 8 m long magnets in series), of the large value of the stored magnetic energy density in the coils (0.12 J/mm3, a factor 2 larger than in the conventional NbTi quadrupoles) and of the use of Nb$_{3}$Sn as conductor, which has never been used for large accelerator magnets. Previous works have demonstrated that a “standard” conservative analysis, assuming quench heaters only on the coils outer layer, gives high hot spot temperature, close to the design limit (350 K). In this paper, a new study of quench protection is presented. The benefic effects of la...

  16. Mechanical Design of HD2, a 15 T Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet with a 35 mm Bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferracin, P.; Bartlett, S.E.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.L.

    2006-06-01

    After the fabrication and test of HD1, a 16 T Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole magnet based on flat racetrack coil configuration, the Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is developing the Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole HD2. With a dipole field above 15 T, a 35 mm clear bore, and nominal field harmonics within a fraction of one unit, HD2 represents a further step towards the application of block-type coils to high-field accelerator magnets. The design features tilted racetrack-type ends, to avoid obstructing the beam path, and a 4 mm thick stainless steel tube, to support the coil during the preloading operation. The mechanical structure, similar to the one used for HD1, is based on an external aluminum shell pretensioned with pressurized bladders. Axial rods and stainless steel plates provide longitudinal support to the coil ends during magnet excitation. A 3D finite element analysis has been performed to evaluate stresses and deformations from assembly to excitation, with particular emphasis on conductor displacements due to Lorentz forces. Numerical results are presented and discussed.

  17. Mechanical Qualification of the Support Structure for MQXF, the Nb$_{3}$Sn Low-Beta; Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Juchno, M; Anerella, M; Bajas, H; Bajko, M; Bourcey, N; Cheng, D W; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Grosclaude, P; Guinchard, M; Perez, J C; Prin, H; Schmalzle

    2016-01-01

    Within the scope of the High Luminosity LHC project, the collaboration between CERN and U.S. LARP is developing new low-β quadrupoles using the Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting technology for the upgrade of the LHC interaction regions. The magnet support structure of the first short model was designed and two units were fabricated and tested at CERN and at LBNL. The structure provides the preload to the collars-coils subassembly by an arrangement of outer aluminum shells pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders. For the mechanical qualification of the structure and the assembly procedure, superconducting coils were replaced with solid aluminum “dummy coils”, the structure was preloaded at room temperature, and then cooled-down to 77 K. Mechanical behavior of the magnet structure was monitored with the use of strain gauges installed on the aluminum shells, the dummy coils and the axial preload system. This paper reports on the outcome of the assembly and the cool-down tests with dummy coils, which were per...

  18. Mechanical Performance of Short Models for MQXF, the Nb$_{3}$Sn Low-β Quadrupole for the Hi-Lumi LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vallone, Giorgio; Anderssen, Eric; Bourcey, Nicolas; Cheng, Daniel W; Felice, Helene; Ferracin, Paolo; Fichera, Claudio; Grosclaude, Philippe; Guinchard, Michael; Juchno, Mariusz; Pan, Heng; Perez, Juan Carlos; Prestemon, Soren

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the Hi-Lumi LHC Project, CERN and U.S. LARP are jointly developing MQXF, a 150-mm aperture high-field Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole for the upgrade of the inner triplet of the low-beta interaction regions. The magnet is supported by a shell-based structure, providing the preload by means of bladder-key technology and differential thermal contraction of the various components. Two short models have been produced using the same cross section currently considered for the final magnet. The structures were preliminarily tested replacing the superconducting coils with blocks of aluminum. This procedure allows for model validation and calibration, and also to set performance goals for the real magnet. Strain gauges were used to monitor the behavior of the structure during assembly, cool down and also excitation in the case of the magnets. The various structures differ for the shell partitioning strategies adopted and for the presence of thick or thin laminations. This paper presents the results obtained ...

  19. Development and manufacturing of a Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnet Model at CEA/Saclay for TESLA Interaction Region

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Maria; Fratini, M; Leboeuf, D; Segreti, M; Védrine, Pierre; 10.1109/TASC.2004.829129

    2004-01-01

    One possible application of Nb/sub 3/Sn, whose superconducting properties far exceed those of NbTi, is the fabrication of short and powerful quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions of large particle accelerators. In some projects, as in the future linear collider TESLA, the quadrupole magnets are inside the detector solenoid and must operate in its background field. This situation gives singular Lorentz force distribution in the ends of the magnet. To learn about Nb/sub 3/Sn technology, evaluate fabrication techniques and test the interaction with a solenoidal field, DAPNIA /SACM at CEA/Saclay has started the manufacturing of a 1-m-long, 56- mm-single-aperture quadrupole magnet model. The model relies on the same coil geometry as the LHC arc quadrupole magnets, but has no iron yoke. It will produce a nominal field gradient of 211 T/m at 11,870 A. The coils are wound from Rutherford-type cables insulated with glass fiber tape, before being heat-treated and vacuum-impregnated with epoxy resin. Laminated,...

  20. A conduction-cooled, 680-mm-long warm bore, 3-T Nb3Sn solenoid for a Cerenkov free electron laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; den Ouden, A.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Wieland, J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A compact, cryocooler cooled Nb3Sn superconducting magnet system for a Cerenkov free electron laser has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet is positioned directly behind the electron gun of the laser system. The solenoidal field compresses and guides a tube-shaped 100 A, 500 kV electron

  1. Assembly and Test of SQ01b, a Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for the LHC Accelerator Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bartlett, S. E.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.H.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lamm, M.J.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sabbi, G.L.; Sylvester, C.D.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Velev, G.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.

    2006-06-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) consists of four US laboratories (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC) collaborating with CERN to achieve a successful commissioning of the LHC and to develop the next generation of Interaction Region magnets. In 2004, a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet (SQ01) has been fabricated and tested at LBNL. The magnet utilized four subscale racetrack coils and was instrumented with strain gauges on the support structure and directly over the coil's turns. SQ01 exhibited training quenches in two of the four coils and reached a peak field in the conductor of 10.4 T at a current of 10.6 kA. After the test, the magnet was disassembled, inspected with pressure indicating films, and reassembled with minor modifications. A second test (SQ01b) was performed at FNAL and included training studies, strain gauge measurements and magnetic measurements. Magnet inspection, test results, and magnetic measurements are reported and discussed, and a comparison between strain gauge measurements and 3D finite element computations is presented

  2. A conduction-cooled, 680-mm-long warm bore, 3-T Nb3Sn solenoid for a Cerenkov free electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; den Ouden, A.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Wieland, J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A compact, cryocooler cooled Nb3Sn superconducting magnet system for a Cerenkov free electron laser has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet is positioned directly behind the electron gun of the laser system. The solenoidal field compresses and guides a tube-shaped 100 A, 500 kV electron beam. A two-stage GM cryocooler, equipped with a first generation ErNi5 regenerator, cools the epoxy impregnated solenoid down to the operating temperature of about 7.5 K. This leaves a conservati...

  3. Fabrication of the 7.3 m long coils for the prototype of MQXFB, the Nb$_{3}$Sn low-b quadrupole magnet for the HiLumi LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, F; Ambrosio, G; Todesco, E; Duret, M; Triquet, S; Pozzobon, M; Luzieux, S; Perez, J C; Scheuerlein, C; Sahner, T; Michels, M; Semeraro, M; Bourcey, N; Cavanna, E; Revilak, P; Genestier, T; Axensalva, J; Principe, R; Prin, H; Savary, F

    2017-01-01

    The High luminosity LHC upgrade target is to increase the integrated luminosity by a factor 10, resulting in an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. One major improvement foreseen is the reduction of the beam size at the collision points. This requires the development of 150 mm single aperture quadrupoles for the interaction regions. These quadrupoles are under development in a joint collaboration between CERN and the US-LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). The chosen approach for achieving a nominal quadrupole field gradient of 132.6 T/m is based on the Nb$_{3}$Sn technology. The coils with a length of 7281 mm will be the longest Nb$_{3}$Sn coils fabricated so far for accelerator magnets. The production of the long coils was launched in 2016 based on practise coils made from copper. This paper provides a status of the production of the first low grade and full performance coils and describes the production process and applied quality control. Furthermore an outlook for the prototype assembly is provided.

  4. A Nb3Sn high field dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClusky, R.; Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    A dipole magnet approximately 1 meter long with an 8 cm bore has been fabricated from cable made from Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary strands. The coil consists of four layers of conductor wound in pairs to eliminate internal joints. Each set of layers is separately constrained with Kevlar-epoxy bands and the complete assembly clamped in a split laminated iron yoke. The inner coil pairs were wound before heat treating while the outer coils were formed from pre-reacted cable using conventional insulation. A NbTi version of the magnet was fabricated using SSC version of the magnet was fabricated using SSC conductor to test the construction techniques. This magnet reached a maximum central field of 7.6 Tesla, at 4.4K which is very close to the limit estimated from conductor measurements. The Nb 3 Sn magnet, however, only reached a maximum field at 8.1T considerably short of the field expected from measurements on the inner cable. 7 refs., 5 figs

  5. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  6. Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  7. Design of Nb3Sn Coils for LARP Long Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Lietzke, A. F.

    2007-01-01

    The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has a primary goal to develop, assemble, and test full size Nb 3 Sn quadrupole magnet models for a luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A major milestone in this development is to assemble and test, by the end of 2009, two 4 m-long quadrupole cold masses, which will be the first Nb 3 Sn accelerator magnet models approaching the length of real accelerator magnets. The design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupoles (TQ), under development at FNAL and LBNL, with gradient higher than 200 T/m and aperture of 90 mm. The mechanical design will be chosen between two designs presently explored for the TQs: traditional collars and Al-shell based design (preloaded by bladders and keys). The fabrication of the first long quadrupole model is expected to start in the last quarter of 2007. Meanwhile the fabrication of 4 m-long racetrack coils started this year at BNL. These coils will be tested in an Al-shell based supporting structure developed at LBNL. Several challenges have to be addressed for the successful fabrication of long Nb 3 Sn coils. This paper presents these challenges with comments and solutions adopted or under study for these magnets. The coil design of these magnets, including conductor and insulation features, and quench protection studies are also presented

  8. Design of Nb3Sn coils for LARP long magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Gourlay, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Zlobin, A.V.; Fermilab; Brookhaven; LBL, Berkeley; Texas A-M

    2006-01-01

    The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has a primary goal to develop, assemble, and test full size Nb 3 Sn quadrupole magnet models for a luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A major milestone in this development is to assemble and test, by the end of 2009, two 4m-long quadrupole cold masses, which will be the first Nb3Sn accelerator magnet models approaching the length of real accelerator magnets. The design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupoles (TQ), under development at FNAL and LBNL, with gradient higher than 200 T/m and aperture of 90 mm. The mechanical design will be chosen between two designs presently explored for the TQs: traditional collars and Al-shell based design (preloaded by bladders and keys). The fabrication of the first long quadrupole model is expected to start in the last quarter of 2007. Meanwhile the fabrication of 4m-long racetrack coils started this year at BNL. These coils will be tested in an Al-shell based supporting structure developed at LBNL. Several challenges have to be addressed for the successful fabrication of long Nb 3 Sn coils. This paper presents these challenges with comments and solutions adopted or under study for these magnets. The coil design of these magnets, including conductor and insulation features, and quench protection studies are also presented

  9. Nb3Sn for Radio Frequency Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godeke, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the suitability of Nb3Sn to improve the performance of superconducting Radio-Frequency (RF) cavities is discussed. The use of Nb3Sn in RF cavities is recognized as an enabling technology to retain a very high cavity quality factor (Q0) at 4.2 K and to significantly improve the cavity accelerating efficiency per unit length (Eacc). This potential arises through the fundamental properties of Nb3Sn. The properties that are extensively characterized in the literature are, however, mainly related to improvements in current carrying capacity (Jc) in the vortex state. Much less is available for the Meissner state, which is of key importance to cavities. Relevant data, available for the Meissner state is summarized, and it is shown how this already validates the use of Nb3Sn. In addition, missing knowledge is highlighted and suggestions are given for further Meissner state specific research

  10. Advances in Nb3Sn Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godeke, Arno

    2008-01-01

    Nb 3 Sn wires with non-Cu critical current densities (J c ) that surpass 3 kAmm -2 at 12 T and 4.2 K are commercially available in piece lengths longer than 10 km. Accelerator-type magnets that utilize these conductors have achieved record magnetic fields. This article summarizes key developments in the last decade that have led to these significant improvements in the performance of Nb 3 Sn wires.

  11. Study of superconducting Nb3Sn coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivet, B.

    1963-01-01

    Composite superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm and a length of about 100 m were made, and Hc-Ic diagrams were plotted up to fields of 80 kgauss for short lengths. Two solenoids producing fields of about 20 kgauss were studied. Nb 3 Sn solenoids, as opposed to those of Nb-Zr or Nb-Ti, appear to have a predictable behavior. Solenoids with less insulation produced stronger fields than heavily insulated solenoids. (author) [fr

  12. Aluminium stabilized Nb$-3$/Sn superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoener, M.; Krauth, H.; Rudolph, J.; Szulczyk, A.

    1988-01-01

    Composite superconductors made of reacted Nb 3 Sn stabilized with high purity Al were produced. Two methods were tested. The first involved soft soldering a Cu clad aluminum tape to the Nb 3 Sn conductor. In the second method the conductor, cable or monolith, was coextruded with the aluminum. Results obtained from using both methods indicated that mechanically reinforcing materials can be easily introduced into superconductors. Tests were conducted to determine magnetoresistance, electric contact resistance, yield strength, Young modulus, critical current, and other properties of the composites. Strengthening with Duratherm during coextrusion was also evaluated

  13. Instrumentation and Quench Protection for LARP Nb3Sn Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, H.; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidize, G.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.C.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, X.

    2008-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is developing Nb 3 Sn prototype quadrupoles for the LHC interaction region upgrades. Several magnets have been tested within this program and understanding of their behavior and performance is a primary goal. The instrumentation is consequently a key consideration, as is protection of the magnet during quenches. In all LARP magnets, the flexible circuits traces combine the instrumentation and the protection heaters. Their fabrication relies on printed circuit technology based on a laminate made of a 45-micron thick kapton sheet and a 25-micron thick foil of stainless steel. This paper reviews the protection heaters designs used in the TQ (Technology Quadrupole) and LR (Long Racetrack) series as well as the one used in LBNL HD2a high field dipole and presents the design of the traces for the Long Quadrupole (LQ), addressing challenges associated with the stored energy and the length of the magnet.

  14. Experimental results and analysis from the 11 T Nb3Sn DS dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlachidze, G; Novitski, I; Zlobin, A V; Auchmann, B; Karppinen, M

    2013-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing a 5.5-m-long twin-aperture Nb3Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. A 2-m-long single-aperture demonstrator dipole with 60 mm bore, a nominal field of 11 T at the LHC nominal current of 11.85 kA and 20% margin has been developed and tested. This paper presents the results of quench protection analysis and protection heater study for the Nb3Sn demonstrator dipole. Extrapolations of the results for long magnet and operation in LHC are also presented. (author)

  15. New tests on the 40 kA Nb3Sn CEA conductor for ITER applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Bessette, D.; Katheder, H.

    1994-01-01

    New tests have been performed on the 40 kA CEA Nb 3 Sn conductor in the Sultan III facility. The aim of these tests is to obtain key experimental data on the behaviour of Nb 3 Sn conductors for fusion applications under high field and large transport current. The 40 kA Nb 3 Sn CEA conductor has a shape and an internal arrangement of the superconducting wires which is very similar to the ITER conductors. The level of the ac losses experienced by these conductors under varying fields influences deeply their design. The basic experiment consists of producing field pulses on the conductor by means of a coil installed in the bore of the Sultan magnet and recording the integrated voltage obtained on pick-up coils placed on the conductor as a function of time. (author) 4 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Dimensional Changes of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford Cables During Heat Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Rochepault, E; Ambrosio, G; Anerella, M; Ballarino, A; Bonasia, A; Bordini, B; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D R; Felice, H; Garcia Fajardo, L; Ghosh, A; Holik, E F; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Perez, J C; Pong, I; Schmalzle, J; Yu, M

    2016-01-01

    In high field magnet applications, Nb$_{3}$Sn coils undergo a heat treatment step after winding. During this stage, coils radially expand and longitudinally contract due to the Nb$_{3}$Sn phase change. In order to prevent residual strain from altering superconducting performances, the tooling must provide the adequate space for these dimensional changes. The aim of this paper is to understand the behavior of cable dimensions during heat treatment and to provide estimates of the space to be accommodated in the tooling for coil expansion and contraction. This paper summarizes measurements of dimensional changes on strands, single Rutherford cables, cable stacks, and coils performed between 2013 and 2015. These samples and coils have been performed within a collaboration between CERN and the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program to develop Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnets for the HiLumi LHC. The results are also compared with other high field magnet projects.

  17. submitter Optimization of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford Cables Geometry for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fleiter, Jerome; Bonasia, Angelo; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole and dipole magnets for the LHC High Luminosity (HL-LHC) upgrade will be based on Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cables that operate at 1.9 K and experience magnetic fields of up to about 12 T. An important step in the design of these magnets is the development of the high aspect ratio Nb$_{3}$Sn cables to achieve the nominal field with sufficient margin. The strong plastic deformation of unreacted $Nb_3Sn$ strands during the Rutherford cabling process may induce non negligible $I_c$ and RRR degradation. In this paper, the cabling degradation is investigated as a function of the cable geometry for both PIT and RRP conductors. Based on this analysis, new baseline geometries for both 11 T and QXF magnets of HL-LHC are proposed.

  18. submitter Optimization of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford Cables Geometry for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fleiter, Jerome; Bonasia, Angelo; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole and dipole magnets for the LHC High Luminosity (HL-LHC) upgrade will be based on Nb3Sn Rutherford cables that operate at 1.9 K and experience magnetic fields of up to about 12 T. An important step in the design of these magnets is the development of the high aspect ratio Nb3Sn cables to achieve the nominal field with sufficient margin. The strong plastic deformation of unreacted $Nb_3Sn$ strands during the Rutherford cabling process may induce non negligible $I_c$ and RRR degradation. In this paper, the cabling degradation is investigated as a function of the cable geometry for both PIT and RRP conductors. Based on this analysis, new baseline geometries for both 11 T and QXF magnets of HL-LHC are proposed.

  19. Tunneling spectroscopy on superconducting Nb3Sn with artioficial barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, U.

    1984-03-01

    Tunneling diodes on Nb 3 Sn were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The superconducting transition temperatures of the Nb 3 Sn films were in the range of 5 to 18 K. An energetically low-lying structure in the tunneling density of states has been localized by detailed studies of the second derivative of the current-voltage characteristics of the diodes. This structure was found near 5.5 meV for stoichiometric Nb 3 Sn (Tsub(c) approx.= 18 K) and at 6.7 meV for understoichiometric Nb 3 Sn (Tsub(c) approx.= 5 K). The minimum in the conductance at zero energy found in the normal state could be identified to be mainly due to inelastic phonon processes of barrier phonons and Nb 3 Sn phonons. Deformations were found in the tunneling density of states of stoichiometric Nb 3 Sn diodes which lead to contradiction when explained by proximity effects. (orig./GSCH)

  20. A review and prospects for Nb3Sn superconductor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingchen

    2017-09-01

    Nb3Sn superconductors have significant applications in constructing high-field (>10 T) magnets. This article briefly reviews development of Nb3Sn superconductor and proposes prospects for further improvement. It is shown that significant improvement of critical current density (J c) is needed for future accelerator magnets. After a brief review of the development of Nb3Sn superconductors, the factors controlling J c are summarized and correlated with their microstructure and chemistry. The non-matrix J c of Nb3Sn conductors is mainly determined by three factors: the fraction of current-carrying Nb3Sn phase in the non-matrix area, the upper critical field B c2, and the flux line pinning capacity. Then prospects to improve the three factors are discussed respectively. An analytic model was developed to show how the ratios of precursors determine the phase fractions after heat treatment, based on which it is predicted that the limit of current-carrying Nb3Sn fraction in subelements is ∼65%. Then, since B c2 is largely determined by the Nb3Sn stoichiometry, a thermodynamic/kinetic theory is presented to show what essentially determines the Sn content of Nb3Sn conductors. This theory explains the influences of Sn sources and Ti addition on stoichiometry and growth rate of Nb3Sn layers. Next, to improve flux pinning, previous efforts in this community to introduce additional pinning centers to Nb3Sn wires are reviewed, and an internal oxidation technique is described. Finally, prospects for further improvement of non-matrix J c of Nb3Sn conductors are discussed, and it is seen that the only opportunity for further significantly improving J c lies in improving flux pinning.

  1. R and D of Nb(3)Sn accelerator magnets at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobin, A.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E; Bordini, B.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chichili, D.R.; DiMarco, J.; Elementi, L.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kephart, R.; Lamm, M.; Limon, P.J.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Schlabach, P.; Stanek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fermilab is developing and investigating different high-field magnet designs for present and future accelerators. The magnet RandD program was focused on the 10-12 T accelerator magnets based on Nb 3 Sn superconductor and explored both basic magnet technologies for brittle superconductors--wind-and-react and react-and-wind. Magnet design studies in support of LHC upgrades and VLHC are being performed. A series of 1-m long single-bore models of cos-theta Nb 3 Sn dipoles based on wind-and-react technique was fabricated and tested. Three 1-m long flat racetracks and the common coil dipole model, based on a single-layer coil and wide reacted Nb 3 Sn cable, have also been fabricated and tested. Extensive theoretical studies of magnetic instabilities in Nb 3 Sn strands, cable and magnet were performed which led to successful 10 T dipole model. This paper presents the details of the Fermilab's high field accelerator magnet program, reports its status and major results, and formulates the program next steps

  2. Fabrication and component testing results for a Nb3Sn dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orco, D.; Scanlan, R.M.; Taylor, C.E.; Lietzke, A.; Caspi, S.; van Oort, J.M.; McInturff, A.D.

    1994-10-01

    At present, the maximum field achieved in accelerator R ampersand D dipoles is slightly over 10T, with NbTi conductor at 1.8 K. Although Nb 3 Sn has the potential to achieve much higher fields, none of the previous dipoles constructed from Nb 3 Sn have broken the 10T barrier. We report here on the construction of a dipole with high current density Nb 3 Sn with a predicted short sample limit of 13T. A wind and react technique, followed by epoxy impregnation of the fiberglass insulated coils, was used. The problems identified with the use of Nb 3 SD in earlier dipole magnets were investigated in a series of supplemental tests. This includes measurement of the degradation of J c with transverse strain, cabling degradation, joint resistance measurements, and epoxy strength tests. In addition, coff assembly techniques were developed to ensure that adequate prestress could be applied without damaging the reacted Nb 3 Sn cable. We report here the results of these tests and the construction status of this 50 mm bore dipole

  3. Advantage and Challenges of $Nb_3Sn$ Superconducting Undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Turrinoni, D. [Fermilab; Ivanyushenkov, Yu. [Argonne; Kesgin, I. [Argonne

    2018-04-01

    Utilization of Nb3Sn superconducting wires offers the possibility to increase undulators’ nominal operation field and temperature margin, but requires overcoming chal-lenges that are described in this paper. The achievable field levels for a Nb3Sn version of superconducting undulators being developed at APS-ANL and the conductor choice are also presented and discussed.

  4. Design And Construction Of A 15 T, 120 MM Bore IR Quadrupole Magnet For LARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Sabbi, G.S.; Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bossert, R.; Kashikhin, V.; Pasholk, D.; Zlobin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pushing accelerator magnets beyond 10 T holds a promise of future upgrades to machines like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Nb 3 Sn conductor is at the present time the only practical superconductor capable of generating fields beyond 10 T. In support of the LHC Phase-II upgrade, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is developing a large bore (120 mm) IR quadrupole (HQ) capable of reaching 15 T at its conductor peak field and a peak gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K. While exploring the magnet performance limits in terms of gradient, forces and stresses the 1 m long two-layer coil will demonstrate additional features such as alignment and accelerator field quality. In this paper we summarize the design and report on the magnet construction progress.

  5. Fabrication and Analysis of 150 mm Aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn LARP MQXF Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, E F; Anerella, M; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D R; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A K; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Krave, S; Nobrega, A; Perez, J C; Pong, I; Rochepault; Sabbi, G L; Schmalzle, J; Yu, M

    2016-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN are combining efforts for the HiLumi-LHC upgrade to design and fabricate 150 mm aperture, interaction region quadrupoles with a nominal gradient of 130 T/m using Nb$_{3}$Sn. To successfully produce the necessary long MQXF triplets, the HiLumi-LHC collaboration is systematically reducing risk and design modification by heavily relying upon the experience gained from the successful 120 mm aperture LARP HQ program. First generation MQXF short (MQXFS) coils were predominately a scaling up of the HQ quadrupole design allowing comparable cable expansion during Nb$_{3}$Sn formation heat treatment and increased insulation fraction for electrical robustness. A total of 13 first generation MQXFS coils were fabricated between LARP and CERN. Systematic differences in coil size, coil alignment symmetry, and coil length contraction during heat treatment are observed and likely due to slight variances in tooling and insulation/cable systems. Analysis of coil cross sect...

  6. VAMAS Nb3Sn test conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A bronze-process Nb 3 Sn conductor was measured as part of the second VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) international critical-current round robin. The conductor specifications are given in Table 15. The critical current was measured as a function of magnetic field and axial tensile strain. The measured data are presented in Table 16 and in Figs. 23 and 24. The I c and J c values are based on an electric field criterion (E c ) of 1 μV/cm. In the first VAMAS round robin tests, differences in the test specimens' axial strain, caused by variations in the thermal contraction of different test fixtures, was a major source of interlaboratory variation in the critical-current data. Consequently, electromechanical characterization of the test specimen is important for data interpretation and error analysis. In the second round robin, the test apparatus and procedure were more rigidly specified. This increased experimental control reduced the critical-current variation by a factor of 3.5. The results of our measurements will be published in the final VAMAS report

  7. High-Field Nb3Sn Cos-theta Dipole with Stress Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitski, Igor [Fermilab; Carmichael, Justin [Fermilab; Kashikhin, Vadim V. [Fermilab; Zlobin, Alexander V. [Fermilab

    2017-01-01

    Cost-effective superconducting dipole magnets with operating fields up to 16 T are being considered for the LHC en-ergy upgrade (HE-LHC) and a Future Circular Collider (FCC). To demonstrate feasibility of 15 T accelerator quality dipole mag-nets, FNAL as a part of the US-MDP is developing a single-aper-ture Nb3Sn dipole demonstrator based on a 4-layer graded cos-theta coil with 60 mm aperture and cold iron yoke. In parallel, to explore the limit of the Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology, op-timize magnet design and performance parameters, and reduce magnet cost, magnet design studies are also being performed to push the nominal bore field to 16 T in a 60-mm aperture cos-theta dipole. Results of these studies are reported and discussed in this paper.

  8. Design of the Nb3Sn dipole D20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orco, D.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.E.

    1992-08-01

    The design of a 50 mm bore superconducting Nb 3 Sn dipole with a short sample field of 13 T at 4.3 K and a current of 5500 A/turn is presented. The magnet is composed by two double pancake layers. The inner cable has 37 strands with a strand diameter of 0.75 mm and a Cu/Sc ratio of 0.4; the outer cable has 47 strands with a diameter of 0.48 mm and a Cu/Sc ratio of 1.15. In order to obtain a high transfer function and low saturation effects on the multipoles, the stainless steel collar is elliptical and the iron yoke is ''close-in.'' The thin collar itself provides only a minimum prestress and the full prestress of 100 MPa is given by a 25 mm welded stainless steel shell or by winding a wire around the yoke. Aluminum spacers are used as assembly tools and as a means to control the gap size in the vertically split iron yoke. This paper presents the magnetic design and the calculated stress and strain distribution in structure and coils. A 1 m model called D20 is to be built and tested at LBL

  9. Nb3Sn dipole magnet reacted after winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Scanlan, R.; Peters, C.; Wolgast, R.; Gilbert, W.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.

    1984-09-01

    A 5 cm bore dia., 1-m-long dipole model magnet was constructed by winding un-reacted cable, followed by reaction and epoxy-impregnation. Experience and test results are described on the 1.7 mm dia. internal-tin wire, the eleven-strand flattened cable, fiberglass insulation, and construction of the magnet. Each half of the magnet has two double-pancake-type windings that were reacted in a single operation. The two double-pancakes were then separately vacuum impregnated after soldering the flexible Nb-Ti leads to the Nb 3 Sn conductors. No iron flux return yoke was used. In initial tests a central field of 8.0 T was reached at 4.4 K. However, evidence from training behavior, and 1.8 K tests indicate that premature quenching, rather than critical current of the cable, limited the field intensity. The magnet was reassembled and more rigidly clamped; additional test results are reported

  10. Quench protection challenges in long nb3sn accelerator magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Tiina-Mari; Ambrosio, G.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidze, Guram; Dhallé, Marc; Felice, Helene; Ferracin, Paolo; Marchevsky, M.; Sabbi, G. L.; ten Kate, H. H. J.

    2012-06-01

    The quench protection of the several meter long, large aperture high-field Nb3Sn quadrupoles that the LARP collaboration is developing for the LHC interaction region upgrade, requires efficient protection heaters to quickly generate large resistive segments across the windings. To support the protection design, experiments in the recently tested LARP R&D magnets are aimed to characterize the coil response to different protection schemes. In particular, the delay to quench and the final hotspot temperatures are evaluated after firing the heaters at different powering regimes and coverage. Also, the contribution of external energy extraction is investigated. Based on the performed studies and computer simulations, it seems that if the same protection efficiency per unit length that is measured in a 1 m long model magnet can be scaled to a 3.6 m long magnet, and the heater coverage can be improved, about 1 MJ/m of stored energy can be absorbed in the magnet after a quench. However, significant technology developments are needed to scale the protection heater efficiency to longer magnets and to increase the coverage.

  11. Improved multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductors produced by the titanium-bronze process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Itoh, K.; Kamata, K.; Moriai, H.; Tada, N.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a titanium addition to the bronze matrix of superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires have been investigated. The titanium addition to the matrix remarkably increases the Nb 3 Sn growth rate and the high-field, critical current density of the wire. An overall critical-current density of 3.8 . 10 4 A/cm 2 at 15 T has been obtained for the multifilamentary Nb/Cu-7.5 at.% Sn-0.4 at.% Ti wire with 4.7 μm-diameter 31 x 331 cores. The anisotropy in the critical current with respect to the field direction becomes larger with increasing aspect ratio of the rectangular-shaped multifilamentary wires. A 9.5 mm wide and 1.8mm thick Nb/Cu-7.5Sn-0.4Ti conductor with 5 μm-diameter 349 x 361=125 989 cores has been successfully fabricated on an industrial scale. This conductor carries a superconducting current of over 1300 A at 16.5 T. The newly developed Ti-bronze Nb 3 Sn conductor makes it feasible to generate a field of proportional 15 T in a large diameter bore. (orig.)

  12. Impact of the Residual Resistivity Ratio on the Stability of Nb$_{3}$Sn Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B; Oberli, L; Rossi, L; Takala, E

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is envisioned to be upgraded in 2020 to increase the luminosity of the machine. The major upgrade will consist in replacing the NbTi quadrupole magnets of the interaction regions with larger aperture magnets. The Nb$_{3}$Sn technology is the preferred option for this upgrade. The critical current density Jc of Nb$_{3}$Sn strands have reached sufficiently high values (in excess of 3000 A/mm2 at 12 T and 4.2 K) allowing larger aperture/stronger field magnets. Nevertheless, such large Jc values may cause magneto-thermal instabilities that can drastically reduce the conductor performance by quenching the superconductor prematurely. In Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets, a relevant parameter for preventing premature quenches induced by magneto-thermal instabilities is the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the conductor stabilizing copper. An experimental and theoretical study was carried out to investigate how much the value of the RRR affects the magnet stability and to identify the proper ...

  13. Stress effects on multifilamentary Nb3Sn wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Taylor, R.D.; Thompson, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Critical current I/sub c/ measurements were obtained on highly stabilized mf Nb 3 Sn wires as a function of heat treatment, stress, temperature, and applied magnetic field. The ratio of the area of the copper to bronze core-niobium tube is about 8, and the filaments are concentrated in the inner 30% of the wire cross section. Values of I/sub c/ and T/sub c/ were determined for samples subjected to a wide range of heat treatments. Diffusion reaction times and temperatures in the ranges 16 to 128 hr and 700 to 750 0 C provided a number of mf Nb 3 Sn wires having similar I/sub c/ characteristics. To some extent the residual compressive loading on the Nb 3 Sn wires varied with the particular heat treatment. This loading arises primarily from the differential contraction of the remaining bronze and the Nb 3 Sn layer when cooled from the reaction temperature to the operating temperature. It was found that, by controlled bending or stretching of the wires, whereby some of the strain in the Nb 3 Sn is relieved, the I/sub c/ at 14 K is increased by as much as 30% and the critical temperature is increased by up to 1 K

  14. Multifilamentary Cu-Nb3Sn superconductor wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, D.; Pinatti, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on one of the main technological problems concerning Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires production which is the optimization of heat treatments for the formation of the A-15 intermetallic compound. At the present work, Nb 3 Sn superconducting wire is produced by solid-liquid diffusion method which increases considerably the critical current values of the superconductor. Through this method, niobium, copper and Sn 7% wt Cu alloy are kept in the pure state. Thus, the method dispenses intermediate heat treatments of recrystallization during the manufacturing process of the wire. After the wire was ready, optimization work of heat treatments was accomplished aiming to obtain its best superconducting characteristics, Measurement of critical temperature, critical current versus magnetic field, normal and at room temperature resistivity were performed, as well as scanning electron microscopy for determination of Nb 3 Sn layers and transmission electron microscopy measurements of redetermining the grain sizes in Nb 3 Sn formed in each treatment. It was obtained critical current densities of 1.8 x 10 6 A/cm 2 in the Nb 3 Sn layer, at 10 Teslas and 4.2 K. The samples were analyzed by employing the superconducting collective flux pinning theories and a satisfactory agreement between the experimental and theoretical data was attained. The production process and the small size of the filaments used made a successful optimization of the wire possible

  15. Stress-strain effects in alumina-Cu reinforced Nb3Sn wires fabricated by the tube process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Satoru; Nakayama, Shigeo; Masegi, Tamaki; Koyanagi, Kei; Nomura, Shunji; Shiga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Norio; Watanabe, Kazuo.

    1997-01-01

    In order to fabricate a large-bore, high-field magnet which achieves a low coil weight and volume, a high strength compound superconducting wire is required. For those demands we have developed the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire using alumina dispersion strengthened copper (alumina-Cu) as a reinforcement material and the tube process of the Nb 3 Sn wire fabrication. The ductility study of the composites which consisted of the reinforcement, Nb tube, Cu, and Cu clad Sn brought a 1 km long alumina-Cu reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire successfully. Using fabricated wires measurements and evaluations of critical current density as parameters of magnetic field, tensile stress, tensile strain, and transverse compressive stress, and those of stress-strain curves at 4.2 K were performed. They showed superior performance such as high 0.3% proof stress (240 MPa at 0.3% strain) and high maximum tolerance stress (320 MPa) which were two times as large as those of conventional Cu matrix Nb 3 Sn wire. The strain sensitivity parameters were obtained for the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire and the Cu matrix one using the scaling law. Residual stress of the component materials caused by cooling down to 4.2 K from heat-treatment temperature was calculated using equivalent Young's modulus, equivalent yield strength, thermal expansion coefficient and other mechanical parameters. Calculated stress-strain curves at 4.2 K for the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire and the Cu matrix one based on calculation of residual stress, had good agreement with the experimental values. (author)

  16. Stabilization of a Nb3Sn persistent current switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, M.; Maeda, H.; Nakayama, S.; Yoneda, E.; Oda, Y.; Kumano, T.; Aoki, N.; Tomisaki, T.; Kabashima, S.

    1993-01-01

    A 2000 A class Nb 3 Sn persistent current switch has been successfully fabricated in the Toshiba R and D Center. The Nb tube processed conductor with Cu-10 wt.% Ni matrix has been developed for the switch in the Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co. Ltd. The magnetic instability which was observed in the previous 35 Ω Nb 3 Sn persistent current switch was improved in the present switch. The problem of quench current degradation and flux jump on magnetization, emerged in the previous switch, were confirmed to be solved. In the fast ramp, however, the switch degrades from the calculated results assuming the self field ac loss. In the Nb 3 Sn reaction process, Sn in the bronze diffuses into the Nb tube, which decreases the switch resistance. It was observed by a computer aided micro analysis (CMA) that Ni in the CuNi matrix precipitated on the Nb tube, which slightly reduced the switch resistance. (orig.)

  17. Alternating field losses in Nb3Sn multifilamentary superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.; Deis, D.W.; Shaw, B.J.; Walker, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Transverse alternating field losses at 4.2K have been measured from 0.5 Hz to 10 kHz in a Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary superconductor in bias fields to 5 Tesla. The 0.020 inch diameter sample was prepared by heat treating a Cu, Nb-1 wt percent Zr, CuSn composite at 700 0 C for 20 hours to form Nb 3 Sn on the inside surface of the annular filaments. Metallurgical studies have been made to determine the Sn distribution and to estimate the thickness of the Nb 3 Sn layer. The I/sub c/-H curve and resistive and inductive transition curves are presented. The losses are analyzed with respect to the present loss theories using the conductor characteristics measured and excellent agreement between experiment and theory is achieved. 1 table, 6 figures

  18. Development of Nb3Sn AC superconducting wire. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Hobun; Torii, Shinji; Akita, Shirabe; Ueda, Kiyotaka; Kubota, Yoji; Yasohama, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Ogasawara, Takeshi.

    1993-01-01

    For the realization of superconducting power apparatus, it is important that the development of highly stable superconducting cables. Nb 3 Sn wire has higher critical temperature than NbTi wire. Therefore, it is possible to make highly stable superconducting wires. In this report, we examine a manufacturing process of Ac Nb 3 Sn wire. This manufacturing process has four times higher critical current density than conventional processes. We have made a 400 kVA class AC coil with React and Wind method. The loss density of this coil was 20MW/m 3 at just before the quench. In this case, the temperature of cable increased about 3.8 K. This means that the Nb 3 Sn coil has a very high stability. (author)

  19. Studies on Nb3Sn field coils for superconducting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, H.; Nose, S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies on several coils wound with multifilamentary (MF) Nb 3 Sn cables with reinforcing strip for superconducting rotating machine application. To use a Nb 3 Sn superconductor to field winding of a rotating machine, several coil performances of pre-reacted, bronze processed and stranded MF Nb 3 Sn cables were investigated, mainly in relation to stress effect. Bending strain up to 0.64% in strand and winding stress of 5 kg/mm 2 have resulted in nondegradation in coil performance. A pair of impregnated race-track coils designed for a 30 MVA synchronous condenser was energized successfully up to 80% of critical current without quench. 8 refs

  20. The European Nb3Sn advanced strand development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostner, A.; Salpietro, E.

    2005-01-01

    Strands relevant for fusion with high critical current densities and moderate hysteresis losses were developed and already produced on industrial scale. Based on these achievements EFDA-CSU Garching has launched a Nb 3 Sn strand development and procurement action inside Europe in order to assess the current status of the Nb 3 Sn strand production capability. All six addressed companies have replied positively to the strand R and D programme which includes the three major Nb 3 Sn production techniques namely the bronze, internal-tin and powder-in-tube (PIT) route. According to the strand requirements for the ITER TF conductor a critical current density of 800 A/mm 2 (at 12 T, 4.2 K and 10 μV/m) and overall strand hysteresis losses below 500 kJ/m 3 have been specified as the minimum guaranteed strand performance. The second major objective of this programme is to motivate the strand manufacturers to develop and design high performance Nb 3 Sn strands optimised for the ITER conductor. For this purpose, a target critical current density of 1100 A/mm 2 has been added to the specification. This paper describes the strategy behind the strand development programme, the actual status of the strand production as well as first preliminary results obtained from the strand suppliers

  1. Design and Test of a Nb3Sn Subscale Dipole Magnet for Training Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, Helene; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Felice, Helene; Ferracin, Paolo; Gourlay, Steve A.; Hafalia, Aurelo R.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mailfert, Alain; Sabbi, GainLuca; Vedrine, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    As part of a collaboration between CEA/Saclay and the Superconducting Magnet Group at LBNL, a subscale dipole structure has been developed to study training in Nb3Sn coils under variable pre-stress conditions. This design is derived from the LBNL Subscale Magnet and relies on the use of identical Nb 3 Sn racetrack coils. Whereas the original LBNL subscale magnet was in a dual bore 'common-coil' configuration, the new subscale dipole magnet (SD) is assembled as a single bore dipole made of two superposed racetrack coils. The dipole is supported by a new mechanical structure developed to withstand the horizontal and axial Lorentz forces and capable of applying variable vertical, horizontal and axial preload. The magnet was tested at LBNL as part of a series of training studies aiming at understanding of the relation between pre-stress and magnet performance. Particular attention is given to the coil ends where the magnetic field peaks and stress conditions are the least understood. After a description of SD design, assembly, cool-down and tests results are reported and compared with the computations of the OPERA3D and ANSYS magnetic and mechanical models

  2. Round and Extracted Nb3Sn Strand Tests for LARP Magnet R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Rodger; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Dan; Ferracin, Paolo; Ghosh, Arup; Turrioni, Daniele; Yamada, Ryuji; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2006-01-01

    The first step in the magnet R and D of the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is fabrication of technology quadrupoles TQS01 and TQC01. These are two-layer magnets which use cables of same geometry made of 0.7 mm MJR Nb 3 Sn. Through strand billet qualification and tests of strands extracted from the cables, predictions of magnet performance are made. Measurements included the critical current, I c , using the voltage-current (VI) method at constant field, the stability current, I S , as the minimal quench current obtained with the voltage-field (VH) method at constant current in the sample, and RRR. Magnetization was measured at low and high fields to determine the effective filament size and to detect flux jumps. Effects of heat treatment duration and temperature on I c and I S were also studied. The Nb 3 Sn strand and cable samples, the equipment, measurement procedures, and results are described. Based on these results, strand specifications were formulated for next LARP quadrupole models

  3. Performance of Nb3Sn multifilamentary superconductors in solenoidal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, W.B.; Suenaga, M.; Robins, K.E.

    High current Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary conductors have been formed by heat treating cables braided from three types of composite wire. In the simplest configuration, these wires contain niobium filaments in a pure copper matrix. After braiding the conductor is coated with a layer of tin which diffuses through the copper during heat treatment to form Nb 3 S n filaments. The second configuration is made from wires containing niobium filaments in a copper-tin alloy and requires only heat treatment to form the Nb 3 Sn filaments. The third type of braid has wires which consist of groups of niobium filaments in the bronze matrix which are in turn in a copper matrix. Tantalum barriers surround each group of filaments to prevent the tin from contaminating the pure copper matrix. The cables have been wound into solenoids after heat treatment and the effect of mechanical handling was studied by monitoring the resistive voltage distribution in the coils. (U.S.)

  4. Analysis of voltage spikes in superconducting Nb3Sn magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Donnelly, C.

    2008-01-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has been developing a new generation of superconducting accelerator magnets based on Niobium Tin (Nb 3 Sn). The performance of these magnets is influenced by thermo-magnetic instabilities, known as flux jumps, which can lead to premature trips of the quench detection system due to large voltage transients or quenches at low current. In an effort to better characterize and understand these instabilities, a system for capturing fast voltage transients was developed and used in recent tests of R and D model magnets. A new automated voltage spike analysis program was developed for the analysis of large amount of voltage-spike data. We report results from the analysis of large statistics data samples for short model magnets that were constructed using MJR and RRP strands having different sub-element size and structure. We then assess the implications for quench protection of Nb 3 Sn magnets

  5. Nb3Sn conductor development for the ITER magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.

    1997-01-01

    The ITER magnet system consists of Toroidal Field (TF) coils, Poloidal Field (PF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and error field correction coils (CC). The conductors for the coils are Nb 3 Sn or NbTi cable in conduit type, forced flow cooled with supercritical helium having a maximum operating current in the range 40-60 kA. To qualify the Nb 3 Sn conductor, two large model coils (energy up to 640 MJ) are being wound by the Home Teams of the Parties to the ITER EDA Agreement. A total of 24 t of strand has been completed for the CS model coil and 4 t for the TF model coil, and fabricated into 7 km of conductor in unit lengths up to 210 m, by an international collaboration involving 12 companies in Europe, Japan, Russia and the USA

  6. Low-temperature field evaporation of Nb3Sn compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul'ko, V.B.; Kutsenko, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation results on field evaporation of superconducting Nb 3 Sn compound wth A15 lattice are presented. Compound evaporation is shown to proceed in two stages. Evaporation field and ionic composition of evaporating material are determined. It is found out that in strong electric fields compound surface represents niobium skeleton, wich does not form regular image. Comparison of ion-microscopic and calculated images formed by low-temperature field evaporation indicates to possibility of sample surface reconstruction after preferable tin evaporation

  7. Performance of multifilamentary Nb3Sn under mechanical load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, D.S.; Schwall, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    The critical current of a commercial multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor has been measured under the application of uniaxial tension at 4.2 K and following bending at room temperature. Significant reductions in J/subc/ are observed under uniaxial loading. Results are presented for a monolithic conductor manufactured by the bronze diffusion technique and for cable conductors formed by the tin-dip technique

  8. Performance of multifilamentary Nb3Sn under mechanical load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, D.S.; Schwall, R.E.

    1976-11-01

    The critical current density of commercial multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor has been measured during the application of uniaxial tension at 4.2 0 K and after bending at room temperature. Significant reductions in the critical current density J/sub c/ occurred under uniaxial loading. Results are presented for a monolithic conductor manufactured by the bronze diffusion technique and for cable conductors formed by the tin-dip technique

  9. Properties of idealized designs of NB3SN composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, D.B.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Lee, P.J.; Marken, K.R.; McDonald, W.K.; O'Larey, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of seven idealized bronze-Nb 3 Sn composites were manufactured by the MJR process with varying matrix to filament ratios and pure Nb and Nb 0.8 wt.% Ti cores. The central core of each composite was sealed by a diffusion barrier which results in each filament having an identical source of tin. Initial evaluations of the composites from critical current and transmission electron microscopy measurements are presented and their properties compared to standard MJR composites. The Nb 3 Sn current density does not appear to be a strong function of bronze to Nb ratio over the range 2.4 to 3.2:1. The standard MJR composites have higher critical current densities than the idealized composites. It is proposed that the major reason for the increased current density of the normal MJR conductors is the intrinsically higher quality of the filaments close to the central tin core. It is postulated that the high Sn content of the bronze surrounding these filaments leads to an intrinsically higher Nb 3 Sn filament current density

  10. Flux pinning in bronze-processed Nb3Sn wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    The scaling law derived by Kramer for magnetic flux pinning in high magnetic fields was examined for its applicability to the magnetic field dependence of critical-current densities in the bronze processed monofilamentary Nb 3 Sn wires. From this it was concluded that: (1) its prediction for the form of the dependence of critical current on magnetic field and grain size [/J vector /sub c/ x H vector/ approx. h/sup 1/2/(1-h) 2 (1-a 0 √rho) -2 ] was found to be very good in most cases including wires with very small Nb 3 Sn grains (approx. 400 A). It was found very useful in comparison of J/sub c/ for different wires and in extrapolating to obtain H/sub c2/ for these wires. (2) However, it could not account consistently for the anisotropy in critical current of a tape which was measured with H applied perpendicular and parallel to the tape face. (3) The values of kappa 1 which were determined with the scaling law were too small by a factor of 2 to 3, and the trend in the variation with heat-treating time was opposite to that which is reasonably to be expected. That the behavior of kappa 1 is thus seriously in contradiction with the expected behavior for Nb 3 Sn suggests basic faults in the derivation of the scaling equation for critical currents at high magnetic fields

  11. Design and Fabrication of a Single-Aperture 11T Nb3Sn Dipole Model for LHC Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, N.; Apollinari, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Auchmann, B.; Karppinen, M.

    2011-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system includes additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas of points 2, 3 and 7. To provide the necessary longitudinal space for the collimators, a replacement of 8.33 T Nb-Ti LHC main dipoles with 11 T dipoles based on Nb 3 Sn superconductor compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems is being considered. To demonstrate this possibility FNAL and CERN have started a joint program to develop a 2 m long single-aperture dipole magnet with the nominal field of 11 T at ∼11.85 kA current and 60 mm bore. This paper describes the demonstrator magnet magnetic and mechanical designs and analysis, coil fabrication procedure. The Nb 3 Sn strand and cable parameters and test results are also reported.

  12. Nb3Sn High Field Magnets for the High Luminosity LHC Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires a new generation of high field superconducting magnets. High field large aperture quadrupoles (MQXF) are needed for the low-beta triplets close to the ATLAS and CMS detectors, and high field two-in-one dipoles (11 T dipoles) are needed to make room for additional collimation. The MQXF quadrupoles, with a field gradient of 140 T/m in 150 mm aperture, have a peak coil field of 12.1 T at nominal current. The 11 T dipoles, with an aperture of 60 mm, have a peak coil field of 11.6 T at nominal current. Both magnets require Nb3Sn conductor and are the first applications of this superconductor to actual accelerator magnets.

  13. Mechanical properties of high-current multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Hoard, R.W.; Cornish, D.N.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Nb 3 Sn is a strain-sensitive superconductor which exhibits large changes in properties for strains of less than 1 percent. The critical current density at 12 T undergoes a reversible degradation of a factor of two for compressive strains of about 1 percent and undergoes an irreversible degradation for tensile strains on the Nb 3 Sn greater than 0.2 percent. Consequently, the successful application of Nb 3 Sn in large high-field magnets requires a complete understanding of the mechanical properties of the conductor. One conductor which is being used for many applications consists of filaments of Nb 3 Sn in a bronze matrix, and much progress has been made in understanding the mechanical behavior of this composite. The Nb 3 Sn filaments are placed in compression due to the differential thermal contraction between Nb 3 Sn and bronze which occurs when the composite is cooled from the Nb 3 Sn formation temperature (typically 700 0 C) to the 4.2 0 K operating temperature. The general behavior of the critical current when this conductor is subjected to a tensile stress is an increase to a maximum when the compressive strain on the Nb 3 Sn is relieved, followed by a decrease as the Nb 3 Sn filemants are placed in tension. The degree of precompression is controlled largely by the ratio of bronze to Nb 3 Sn in the conductor

  14. Development of Nb3Sn strands for ITER in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, T.; Nunoya, Y.; Matsui, K.; Nabara, Y.; Koizumi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Okuno, K.

    2007-01-01

    Nb 3 Sn strands for ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coils and Central Solenoids (CS) are required to have both high current density (Jc) and low hysteresis loss. The required Jc at 12 T, 4.2 K and no external strain is lager than 700 A/mm 2 for bronze processed strand and lager than 800 A/mm 2 for internal tin processed one at 12 T, 4.2 K and no external strain. Upper limit of hysteresis loss is 1,000 mJ/cm 3 at 4.2 K and a cycle of ±3 T. Outer diameter is 0.82 mm and 0.83 mm for TF coils and CS, respectively. Area ratio of copper to non copper is one and outer surface is Cr plated. Japan will procure 25% of Nb 3 Sn for ITER TF coils and 100% for ITER CS. There are four Nb 3 Sn strand suppliers in Japan; three of them use bronze process and the other uses internal tin process. For bronze processed strand, increase Jc was achieved by using bronze with high tin content of 15 to 16%. To keep productivity while using the harder bronze with high tin content, Nb is used for barrier in place of Ta. The material is expected to have better adhesion to other materials such as bronze and copper. For internal tin process, size of modules, each of which has a tin rod and a lot of Nb filaments embedded in a copper cylinder, is reduced, while total amount of tin increase in order to satisfy both required high Jc and low hysteresis loss. Each supplier fabricated a strand of more than 0.1 ton for TF coils and succeeded to develop a strand satisfying the ITER requirements of Jc and hysteresis loss. (authors)

  15. Internal friction and elastic softening in polycrystalline Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussiere, J.F.; Faucher, B.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Welch, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    The vibrating-reed technique was used to measure internal friction and Young's modulus of polycrystalline Nb 3 Sn in the form of composite Nb/Nb 3 Sn tapes from 6 to 300 K. In tapes with only small residual strain in the A15 layers, a dramatic increase in internal friction with decreasing temperature is observed with an abrupt onset at approx.48 K. The internal friction Q -1 between 6 and 48 K is believed to be associated with stress-induced motion of martensitic-domain walls. In this temperature range, Q -1 is approximately proportional to the square of the tetragonal strain of the martensitic phase; Q -1 α (c/a-1) 2 . With residual compressive strains of approx.0.2%, the internal friction associated with domain-wall motion is considerably reduced. This is attributed to a biasing of domain-wall orientation with residual stress, which reduces wall motion induced by the (much smaller) applied stress. The transformation temperature, however, is unchanged (within +- 1 K) by residual strains of up to 0.2%. Young's modulus exhibits substantial softening on cooling from 300 to 6 K. This softening, is substantially reduced in the presence of small residual compressive strains, indicating a highly nonlinear stress-strain relationship as previously reported for V 3 Si

  16. Recent progress and tests of radiation resistant impregnation materials for Nb3Sn coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, R.; Krave, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Fermilab is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. An important component of this work is the development of materials that are sufficiently radiation resistant for use in critical areas of the upgrade. This paper describes recent progress in characterization of materials, including the baseline CTD101K epoxy, cyanate ester blends, and Matrimid 5292, a bismaleimide-based system. Structural properties of "ten stacks" of cable impregnated with these materials are tested at room and cryogenic temperatures and compared to the baseline CT-101K. Experience with potting 1 and 2 meter long coils with Matrimid 5292 are described. Test results of a single 1-m coil impregnated with Matrimid 5292 are reported and compared to similar coils impregnated with the traditional epoxy.

  17. Recent progress and tests of radiation resistant impregnation materials for Nb3Sn coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.; Krave, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Fermilab is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. An important component of this work is the development of materials that are sufficiently radiation resistant for use in critical areas of the upgrade. This paper describes recent progress in characterization of materials, including the baseline CTD101K epoxy, cyanate ester blends, and Matrimid 5292, a bismaleimide-based system. Structural properties of “ten stacks” of cable impregnated with these materials are tested at room and cryogenic temperatures and compared to the baseline CT-101K. Experience with potting 1 and 2 meter long coils with Matrimid 5292 are described. Test results of a single 1-m coil impregnated with Matrimid 5292 are reported and compared to similar coils impregnated with the traditional epoxy

  18. Field Quality Measurements of LARP Nb$_{3}$Sn Magnet HQ02

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarco, J; Buehler, M; Chlachidze, G; Orris, D; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Velev, G; Yu, M; Zlobin, A; Ghosh, A; Schmalzle, J; Wanderer, P; Borgnolutti, F; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Godeke, A; Hafalia, R; Joseph, J; Lizarazo, J; Marchevsky, M; Prestemon, S O; Sabbi, G L; Salehi, A,; Wang, X; Ferracin, P; Todesco, E

    2014-01-01

    Large-aperture, high-field, Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupoles are being developed by the US LHC accelerator research program (LARP) for the High luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HiLumi-LHC). The first 1 m long, 120 mm aperture prototype, HQ01, was assembled with various sets of coils and tested at LBNL and CERN. Based on these results, several design modifications have been introduced to improve the performance for HQ02, the latest model. From the field quality perspective, the most relevant improvements are a cored cable for reduction of eddy current effects, and more uniform coil components and fabrication processes. This paper reports on the magnetic measurements of HQ02 during recent testing at the Vertical Magnet Test Facility at Fermilab. Results of baseline measurements performed with a new multi-layer circuit board probe are compared with the earlier magnet. An analysis of probe and measurement system performance is also presented.

  19. Recent Progress in Application of Internal Oxidation Technique in Nb3Sn Strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen [Fermilab; Peng, Xuan [Hyper Tech Research Inc.; Sumption, Michael [Ohio State U.; Collings, E. W. [Ohio State U.

    2016-10-13

    The internal oxidation technique can generate ZrO2 nano particles in Nb3Sn strands, which markedly refine the Nb3Sn grain size and boost the high-field critical current density (Jc). This article summarizes recent efforts on implementing this technique in practical Nb3Sn wires and adding Ti as a dopant. It is demonstrated that this technique can be readily incorporated into the present Nb3Sn conductor manufacturing technology. Powder-in-tube (PIT) strands with fine subelements (~25 µm) based on this technique were successfully fabricated, and proper heat treatments for oxygen transfer were explored. Future work for producing strands ready for applications is proposed.

  20. Radiation Limits for Nb3Sn Superconductors for ITER Magnets: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    The data base on radiation damage to Nb 3 Sn superconductors is compiled from the literature and assessed in this report. Nb 3 Sn superconductors are currently under procurement for use in ITER magnet prototypes. In contrast to the data base on insulation materials proposed for use in ITER magnets, the data base on the radiation damage of Nb 3 Sn is much more complete. Key results have often been confirmed by several groups at different institutions. The investigation of variables that influence radiation damage has also been much more complete for Nb 3 Sn than for insulators. Furthermore, in situ testing of superconducting parameters is much easier than in situ mechanical testing of insulators, and in situ testing has invariably been performed after cryogenic irradiation of Nb 3 Sn. However, in recent years, Nb 3 Sn testing has also suffered from the lack of 4-K irradiation facilities. Just as new processing methods to obtain more economical Nb 3 Sn conductor products in large quantity were being developed, cryogenic irradiation sources were being phased out. Therefore, this brief introductory section presents some basic information on the properties and structure of Nb 3 Sn superconducting composites and the distinctions between different fabrication processes. This provides a background to assess the adequacy of the current cryogenic data base on radiation damage, Also, since synergistic effects of strain and irradiation have recently been investigated, a brief discussion of the effects of strain on Nb 3 Sn properties is included in this introduction

  1. Method of stabilizing Nb3Sn superconducting foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruzliak, J.; Lences, P.; Allarova, H.

    1982-01-01

    The stabilization of niobium-tin Nb 3 Sn superconducting foils with copper is carried out by deposition or by diffusion in pure copper or in a tin bath containing different copper levels, with the surface etched or unetched. The foils are covered with a copper film at a temperature of 300 to 5O0 degC using a tin solder, spread on a copper, silver or nickel layer deposited on the foil surface from solutions for electroless plating. The bond between the surface of the superconducting foil and the electroless plated metal layer is annealed in a controlled atmosphere or in a vacuum at a temperature of 200 to 500 degC for over 20 to 60 minutes. The copper stabilization layer can also be produced electrolytically. (J.B.)

  2. Design of a 16T Nb3Sn twin dipole with a window-frame conductor layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Oort, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    A simplified design study of a 16T Nb 3 Sn twin bore accelerator dipole magnet is presented. The philosophy behind the study is to design a high field magnet with a coil structure optimized for a reasonable Lorentz-load and easy of construction. The coils are of the rectangular window-frame type with modular flat pancake windings, thus eliminating the need for complex coil return ends. The magnetic and structural design Is presented and a comparison is made with existing coil layouts for high field magnets

  3. Production and testing of an s-band resonator with a Nb3Sn surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiniger, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the preparation of a niobium s-band resonator with Nb3Sn surface using a special vapor phase deposition method. High-frequency superconductivity tests were performed on this resonator. Measurements of transition temperature, penetration depth, energy gap, and temperature dependence of surface conductivity of Nb3Sn, and resonator behaviour at high electrical field strengths are reported. (GSCH)

  4. Studies on advanced superconductors for fusion device. Pt. 1. Present status of Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji; Yamamoto, Junya

    1996-03-01

    Nb 3 Sn conductors have been developed with great expectation as an advanced high-field superconductor to be used in fusion devices of next generation. Furthermore, Nb 3 Sn conductors are being developed for NMR magnet and superconducting generator as well as for cryogen-free superconducting magnet. A variety of fabrication procedures, such as bronze process, internal tin process and Nb tube method, have been developed based on the diffusion reaction. Recently, Nb 3 Sn conductors with ultra-thin filaments have been fabricated for AC use. Both high-field and AC performances of Nb 3 Sn conductors have been significantly improved by alloying addition. The Ti-doped Nb 3 Sn conductor has generated 21.5T at 1.8K operation. This report summarizes manufacturing procedures, superconducting performances and applications of Nb 3 Sn conductors fabricated through different processes in different countries. More detailed subjects included in this report are high-field properties, AC properties, conductors for fusion with large current capacities, stress-strain effect and irradiation effect as well as standardization of critical current measurement method regarding to Nb 3 Sn conductors. Comprehensive grasp on the present status of Nb 3 Sn conductors provided by this report will act as a useful data base for the future planning of fusion devices. (author). 172 refs

  5. Development of an experimental 10 T Nb3Sn dipole magnet for the CERN LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, H.H.J.; den Ouden, A.; ter Avest, D.; Wessel, S.; Dubbeldam, R.; van Emden, W.; Daum, C.; Bona, M.; Perin, R.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental 1-m long twill aperture dipole magnet developed using a high-current Nb3Sn conductor in order to attain a magnetic field well beyond 10 T at 4.2 K is described. The emphasis in this Nb3Sn project is on the highest possible field within the known Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

  6. Test results of Nb3Sn ribbons for the Princeton D coil test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaugerts, J.; File, J.; Willard, J.W.

    1974-10-01

    A previously described D coil test program was modified. Details of a smaller Nb 3 Sn D coil test program are described. Cusp coil tests were made with several Nb 3 Sn composite ribbons. Measurements of both the quench and recovery currents as a function of magnetic field component perpendicular to the wide edge of the ribbon are presented. (auth)

  7. Technology development of fabrication NbTi and Nb3 Sn superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, D.; Bormio, C.; Baldan, C.A.; Ramos, M.J.; Pinatti, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The technology development of NbTi and Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires are studied, mentioning the use of fluxes capture theory in the sizing of wires fabrication. The fabrication process, the thermal treatment and the experimental datas of critical temperature and current of Nb 3 Sn wires are described. (C.G.C.) [pt

  8. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up based on cos-theta coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    After successful testing of a 1 m long dipole mirror magnet and three dipole models based on two-layer Nb 3 Sn coils, Fermilab has started a Nb 3 Sn technology scale-up program using the dipole mirror design and the developed Nb 3 Sn coil fabrication technology based on the wind-and-react method. The scale-up will be performed in several steps starting from a 2 m long coil made of Powder-in-Tube (PIT) strand. This will be followed by 4 m long Nb 3 Sn coils made of PIT and RRP strands that will be fabricated into dipole mirror magnets and tested. This paper presents a summary of Fermilab's wind-and-react short model program. It includes details on the 2 m and 4 m long, 2 layer Nb 3 Sn dipole mirror magnet design, mechanical structure, and fabrication infrastructure

  9. Synchrotron radiation techniques for the characterization of Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Buta, F

    2009-01-01

    The high flux of high energy x-rays that can be provided through state-of-the-art high energy synchrotron beam lines has enabled a variety of new experiments with the highly absorbing Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductors. We report different experiments with Nb$_{3}$Sn strands that have been conducted at the ID15 High Energy Scattering beam line of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Synchrotron x-ray diffraction has been used in order to monitor phase transformations during in-situ reaction heat treatments prior to Nb$_{3}$Sn formation, and to monitor Nb$_{3}$Sn growth. Fast synchrotron micro-tomography was applied to study void growth during the reaction heat treatment of Internal Tin strands. The elastic strain in the different phases of fully reacted Nb$_{3}$Sn composite conductors can be measured by high resolution x-ray diffraction during in-situ tensile tests.

  10. Influence of stresses on superconducting properties of Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Luhman, T.S.; Sampson, W.B.; Onishi, T.; Klamut, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    This investigation of the degradation in the superconducting properties of Nb 3 Sn conductors when subjected to mechanical strain can be divided into the following areas: (I) monofilamentary Nb 3 Sn wires, (II) multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductors and wires, (III) effects of additives to Nb 3 Sn, (IV) mechanisms for degradation, and (V) construction of test facilities. Efforts to the present time have been concentrated in the investigation of T/sub c/, J/sub c/, and H/sub c2/ variations in monofilamentary wires. The most important finding in this study is that a Nb 3 Sn composite wire can sustain an effective mechanical strain well beyond ''1%'' if a proper ratio of the matrix to the Nb core has been chosen

  11. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb 3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-10-01

    Young's modulus of Nb3Sn filaments in Nb3Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb3Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb3Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb3Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb3Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb3Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb3Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values.

  12. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-01-01

    Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn filaments in Nb 3 Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb 3 Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb 3 Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb 3 Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb 3 Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb 3 Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values

  13. Test Results for HD1, a 16 Tesla Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, A.F.; Bartlett, S.; Bish, P.; Caspi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Goli, M.; Hafalia, R.R.; Higley, H.; Hannaford, R.; Lau, W.; Liggens, N.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.; Swanson, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been developing the technology for using brittle superconductor in high-field accelerator magnets. HD1, the latest in a series of magnets, contains two, double-layer Nb 3 Sn flat racetrack coils. This single-bore dipole configuration, using the highest performance conductor available, was designed and assembled for a 16 tesla conductor/structure/pre-stress proof-of-principle. With the combination of brittle conductor and high Lorentz stress, considerable care was taken to predict the magnet's mechanical responses to pre-stress, cool-down, and excitation. Subsequent cold testing satisfied expectations: Training started at 13.6 T, 83% of 'short-sample', achieved 90% in 10 quenches, and reached its peak bore field (16 T) after 19 quenches. The average plateau, ∼92% of 'short-sample', appeared to be limited by 'stick-slip' conductor motions, consistent with the 16.2 T conductor 'lift-off' pre-stress that was chosen for this first test. Some lessons learned and some implications for future conductor and magnet technology development are presented and discussed.

  14. Measurement of a Conduction Cooled Nb3Sn Racetrack Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HS; Kovacs, C.; Rochester, J.; Sumption, MD; Tomsic, M.; Peng, X.; Doll, D.

    2017-12-01

    Use of superconducting coils for wind turbines and electric aircraft is of interest because of the potential for high power density and weight reduction. Here we test a racetrack coil developed as a proof-of-concept for cryogen-free superconducting motors and generators. The coil was wound with 1209 m of 0.7-mm-diameter insulated tube-type Nb3Sn wire. The coil was epoxy-impregnated, instrumented, covered with numerous layers of aluminized mylar insulation, and inserted vertically into a dewar. The system was cooled to 4.2 K, and a few inches of liquid helium was allowed to collect at the bottom of the dewar but below the coil. The coil was cooled by conduction via copper cooling bars were attached to the coil but also were immersed in the liquid helium at their lower ends. Several current tests were performed on the coil, initially in voltage mode, and one run in current mode. The maximum coil Ic at 4.2 K was 480 A, generating 3.06 T at the surface of the coil. The coil met the design targets with a noticeable margin.

  15. RRP Nb3Sn strand studies for LARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Rodger; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ferracin, Paolo; Ghosh, Arup; Turrioni, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    The Nb 3 Sn strand chosen for the next step in the magnet R and D of the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program is the 54/61 sub-element Restacked Rod Process by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. To ensure that the 0.7 mm RRP strands to be used in the upcoming LARP magnets are suitable, extensive studies were performed. Measurements included the critical current, e , using the voltage-current (V-I) method, the stability current, I S , as the minimal quench current obtained with the voltage-field (V-H) method, and RRR. Magnetization was measured at low and high fields to determine the effective filament size and to detect flux jumps. Effects of heat treatment temperature and durations on I e and I S were also studied. Using strand billet qualification and tests of strands extracted from cables, the short sample limits of magnet performance were obtained. The details and the results of this investigation are herein described

  16. RRP Nb3Sn Strand Studies for LARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Rodger; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ferracin, Paolo; Ghosh, Arup; Turrioni, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    The Nb 3 Sn strand chosen for the next step in the magnet R and D of the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program is the 54/61 sub-element Restacked Rod Process by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. To ensure that the 0.7 mm RRP strands to be used in the upcoming LARP magnets are suitable, extensive studies were performed. Measurements included the critical current, I c , using the voltage-current (V-I) method, the stability current, I S , as the minimal quench current obtained with the voltage-field (V-H) method, and RRR. Magnetization was measured at low and high fields to determine the effective filament size and to detect flux jumps. Effects of heat treatment temperature and durations on I c and I S were also studied. Using strand billet qualification and tests of strands extracted from cables, the short sample limits of magnet performance were obtained. The details and the results of this investigation are herein described

  17. Mechanical Design of a Second Generation LHC IR Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    One of the proposed options to increase the LHC luminosity is the replacement of the existing inner triplets at the Interaction Regions with new low-beta larger aperture quadrupoles operating at the same gradient. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is carrying out preliminary studies of a large-bore Nb 3 Sn quadrupole. The mechanical design presents a support structure based on the use of keys and bladders without self-supporting collars. This technology has been proven effective in several successful common coil Nb 3 Sn dipoles built at LBNL, and it is for the first time applied to a cos(2(var t heta)) design. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the quadrupole mechanical behavior, demonstrating the possibility of delivering, through this method, well-controlled coil precompression during assembly, cool-down and excitation. The study has been performed with the finite element program ANSYS

  18. Degradation mechanism of Nb3Sn composite wires under tensile strain at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, T.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.O.; Kaiho, K.

    1978-01-01

    Bronze-processed Nb 3 Sn composite wire conductors exhibit changes in their superconducting parameters when strained in tension. This paper describes a detailed study of the effect of strain on critical current and an analysis by optical and SEM techniques of crack formation in the Nb 3 Sn layer under strain. The effect of strain history on both reversible and irreversible changes in critical current and the roles of differential thermal contraction induced residual strains and of Nb 3 Sn cracking are discussed

  19. Quench performance of a 4-m long Nb3Sn shell-type dipole coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlachidze, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab has finished the first phase of Nb 3 Sn technology scale up by testing 2-m and 4-m long shell-type dipole coils in a 'magnetic mirror' configuration. The 2-m long coil, made of Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb 3 Sn strand, reached its short sample limit at a field level of 10 T. The 4-m long coil, made of advanced Nb 3 Sn strand based on the Restack Rod Process (RRP) of 108/127 design, has been recently fabricated and tested. Coil test results at 4.5 K and 2.2 K are reported and discussed

  20. PERSISTENT CURRENT EFFECT IN 15-16 T NB3SN ACCELERATOR DIPOLES AND ITS CORRECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V. V. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab

    2016-11-08

    Nb3Sn magnets with operating fields of 15-16 T are considered for the LHC Energy Doubler and a future Very High Energy pp Collider. Due to large coil volume, high critical current density and large superconducting (SC) filament size the persistent current effect is very large in Nb3Sn dipoles al low fields. This paper presents the results of analysis of the persistent current effect in the 15 T Nb3Sn dipole demonstrator being developed at FNAL, and describes different possibilities of its correction including passive SC wires, iron shims and coil geometry.

  1. A multiple-field coupled resistive transition model for superconducting Nb3Sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the superconducting transition width as functions of the applied magnetic field and strain is performed in superconducting Nb3Sn. A quantitative, yet universal phenomenological resistivity model is proposed. The numerical simulation by the proposed model shows predicted resistive transition characteristics under variable magnetic fields and strain, which in good agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore, a temperature-modulated magnetoresistance transition behavior in filamentary Nb3Sn conductors can also be well described by the given model. The multiple-field coupled resistive transition model is helpful for making objective determinations of the high-dimensional critical surface of Nb3Sn in the multi-parameter space, offering some preliminary information about the basic vortex-pinning mechanisms, and guiding the design of the quench protection system of Nb3Sn superconducting magnets.

  2. Manufacturing development of the Westinghouse Nb3Sn coil for the Large Coil Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.L.; Vota, T.L.; Singh, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Westinghouse Nb 3 Sn Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Large Coil Program (LCP) is currently well into the manufacturing phase. This paper identifies the manufacturing processes and development tasks for his unique, advanced coil

  3. A multiple-field coupled resistive transition model for superconducting Nb3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Ding, He; Zhang, Xin; Qiao, Li

    2016-12-01

    A study on the superconducting transition width as functions of the applied magnetic field and strain is performed in superconducting Nb3Sn. A quantitative, yet universal phenomenological resistivity model is proposed. The numerical simulation by the proposed model shows predicted resistive transition characteristics under variable magnetic fields and strain, which in good agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore, a temperature-modulated magnetoresistance transition behavior in filamentary Nb3Sn conductors can also be well described by the given model. The multiple-field coupled resistive transition model is helpful for making objective determinations of the high-dimensional critical surface of Nb3Sn in the multi-parameter space, offering some preliminary information about the basic vortex-pinning mechanisms, and guiding the design of the quench protection system of Nb3Sn superconducting magnets.

  4. Development of Nb3Sn cabled conductor by external diffusion process and the effect of strain on the critical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, G.; Ekin, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The planned extension of the High Field Test Facility SULTAN at SIN to provide 12 T operation in a 60 cm bore has led to an increased involvements on the part of SIN in the development of reliable A15 multifilamentary conductors. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the development of stranded Nb 3 Sn conductors using the external diffusion technique. Although not fully optimized, the primary cables have high overall critical current densities. Problems associated with the diffusion of the tin into the copper matrix, such as tin coalescence and development of Kirkendall porosity were successfully solved using small diameter wires and by appropriate diffusion and reaction heat treatment conditions. The elastic strain sensitivity of the critical current of a previously developed cable was comparable to that of bronze processed monolithic Nb 3 Sn, while the irreversible strain limit of 1.2% was significantly higher, On the other hand a longer current transfer length (about 4 times that of bronze processed monolithic conductors) was found

  5. Magnetic Analysis of a Single-Aperture 11T Nb3Sn Demonstrator Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchmann, B. [CERN; Karppinen, M. [CERN; Kashikhin, V. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system foresees additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas around points 2, 3, and 7. The necessary longitudinal space for the collimators could be provided by replacing some 8.33-T 15-m-long NbTi LHC main dipoles with shorter 11-T Nb3Sn dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. To demonstrate this possibility, in 2011 Fermilab and CERN started a joint R&D program with the goal of building a 5.5-m-long tw in-aperture dipole prototype suitable for installation in the LHC by 2014. The first step of this program is the development of a 2-m-long single-aperture demonstration dipole with the nominal field of 11 T at the LHC nominal current of ~11.85 kA and 60-m m bore with ~20% margin. This paper presents the results of magnetic analysis of the single-aperture Nb3Sn demonstrator dipole for the LHC collimation system upgrade.

  6. Fabrication and testing of the Nb3Sn superconductor for High-Field Test Facility (HFTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.; Adam, E.; Gregory, E.; Marancik, W.; Sanger, P.; Scanlan, R.; Cornish, D.

    1979-01-01

    A 5000 A-12 T fully stable Nb 3 Sn superconductor has to be produced for the insert magnet of the high-field test facility being built at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A process is described which permits the fabrication of long lengths of large fully transposed monolithic superconductors containing in excess of 100,000 filaments of Nb 3 Sn. Measurements of critical current as a function of magnetic field and longitudinal strain on prototype samples are reported

  7. Development of the EuCARD Nb$_{3}$Sn Dipole Magnet FRESCA2

    CERN Document Server

    Ferracin, P; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Fessia, P; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Munoz Garcia, J; Oberli, L; Perez, J; Rifflet, J; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F; Todesco, E

    2013-01-01

    The key objective of the Superconducting High Field Magnet work package of the European Project EuCARD, and specifically of the High Field Model task, is to design and fabricate the Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole magnet FRESCA2. With an aperture of 100 mm and a target bore field of 13 T, the magnet is aimed at upgrading the FRESCA cable test facility at CERN. The design features four 1.5 m long double-layer coils wound with a 21 mm wide cable. The windings are contained in a support structure based on a 65 mm thick aluminum shell pre-tensioned with bladders. In order to qualify the assembly and loading procedure and to validate the finite element stress computations, the structure will be assembled around aluminum blocks, which replace the superconducting coils, and instrumented with strain gauges. In this paper, we report on the status of the assembly and we update on the progress on design and fabrication of tooling and coils.

  8. Analysis of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cable production and strand deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Peggiani, Sonia; Beghi, Marco

    The development of cutting-edge 11-12 T superconducting magnets made from Nb$_{3}$Sn technology is one of the major milestones for the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The upgrade, called High Luminosity LHC Project, was planned in order to reach higher luminosity and discover new particles. Replacing the NbTi superconductor with the Nb$_{3}$Sn makes it possible to reach a practical operating magnetic field limit of up to 16 T. The superconducting coils are formed by Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cables with a trapezoidal cross section and composed of 40 strands. Since the superconducting phase of Nb$_{3}$Sn is very brittle and it is reached after a thermal cycle, the Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cable needs to be wound in a coil before the thermal treatment. The cabling process is a delicate step in the production of high performing cables that need different systems to control their quality. This work aims to provide practical tools to analyze the Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cable production and the strands defo...

  9. Thermo-magnetic instabilities in Nb3Sn Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordini, Bernardo; Pisa U.

    2006-01-01

    The advance of High Energy Physics research using circulating accelerators strongly depends on increasing the magnetic bending field which accelerator magnets provide. To achieve high fields, the most powerful present-day accelerator magnets employ NbTi superconducting technology; however, with the start up of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007, NbTi magnets will have reached the maximum field allowed by the intrinsic properties of this superconductor. A further increase of the field strength necessarily requires a change in superconductor material; the best candidate is Nb 3 Sn. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are currently working on developing Nb 3 Sn accelerator magnets, and although these magnets have great potential, it is suspected that their performance may be fundamentally limited by conductor thermo-magnetic instabilities: an idea first proposed by the Fermilab High Field Magnet group early in 2003. This thesis presents a study of thermo-magnetic instability in high field Nb 3 Sn accelerator magnets. In this chapter the following topics are described: the role of superconducting magnets in High Energy Physics; the main characteristics of superconductors for accelerator magnets; typical measurements of current capability in superconducting strands; the properties of Nb 3 Sn; a description of the manufacturing process of Nb 3 Sn strands; superconducting cables; a typical layout of superconducting accelerator magnets; the current state of the art of Nb 3 Sn accelerator magnets; the High Field Magnet program at Fermilab; and the scope of the thesis

  10. Finite Element Analysis of Transverse Compressive Loads on Superconducting Nb3Sn Wires Containing Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hauthuille, Luc; Zhai, Yuhu; Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Collaboration; University of Geneva Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    High field superconductors play an important role in many large-scale physics experiments, particularly particle colliders and fusion devices such as the LHC and ITER. The two most common superconductors used are NbTi and Nb3Sn. Nb3Sn wires are favored because of their significantly higher Jc, allowing them to produce much higher magnetic fields. The main disadvantage is that the superconducting performance of Nb3Sn is highly strain-sensitive and it is very brittle. The strain-sensitivity is strongly influenced by two factors: plasticity and cracked filaments. Cracks are induced by large stress concentrators due to the presence of voids. We will attempt to understand the correlation between Nb3Sn's irreversible strain limit and the void-induced stress concentrations around the voids. We will develop accurate 2D and 3D finite element models containing detailed filaments and possible distributions of voids in a bronze-route Nb3Sn wire. We will apply a compressive transverse load for the various cases to simulate the stress response of a Nb3Sn wire from the Lorentz force. Doing this will further improve our understanding of the effect voids have on the wire's mechanical properties, and thus, the connection between the shape & distribution of voids and performance degradation.

  11. Comparing the thermal stability of NbTi and Nb3Sn wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breschi, M; Trevisani, L; Bottura, L; Devred, A; Trillaud, F

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of quenching in low temperature superconducting wires is of great relevance for a proper design of superconductive cables and magnets. This paper reports the experimental results of a vast measurement campaign of quench induced by laser pulses on NbTi and Nb 3 Sn wires in pool boiling helium I. A comparison of the quench behavior of two typical NbTi and Nb 3 Sn wires is shown from different standpoints. Different qualitative behaviors of the voltage traces recorded during quenches and recoveries on NbTi and Nb 3 Sn wires are reported and analyzed. It is shown that the Nb 3 Sn wire exhibits a quench or no-quench behavior, whereas quenches and recoveries are exhibited by the NbTi wire. The two wires are also compared by considering the behaviors of the two main parameters describing quench, i.e. quench energies and quench velocities, with respect to operating current, pulse duration, and magnetic field. It is shown that the Nb 3 Sn wire exhibits a 'kink' of the quench energy versus current curve that makes the quench energy of Nb 3 Sn lower than that of NbTi at some intermediate current levels. Both the qualitative differences of the voltage traces and the different behaviors of quench energies and velocities are interpreted through a coupled electromagnetic-thermal model, with special emphasis on the detailed description of heat exchange with liquid helium.

  12. Magneto-Thermal Stability in LARP Nb$_{3}$Sn TQS Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B; Caspi, S; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Rossi, L; Sabbi, G L; Takala, E

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Program (LARP), three US laboratories BNL, FNAL and LBNL are developing Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. At present CERN is supporting this activity by testing some of the LARP 1 m long 90 mm aperture magnets. Recently two magnets using a shell based key and bladder technology (TQS) have been tested at CERN. These magnets (TQS02c, TQS03a) share the same mechanical structure and use a 27 strand Rutherford cable based one on the 0.7 mm RRP® strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST). The main difference between the two magnets is the strand sub-element layout (54/61 in TQS02c versus 108/127 in TQS03a) and the strand critical current. The TQS03a wire has a significantly lower critical current, a larger amount of copper stabilizer, and a larger number of superconducting sub-elements with respect to the TQS02c strand. The tests show that TQS02c was stable between 4.3 K and 2.7 K while it was limited by ...

  13. Analysis of Nb3Sn surface layers for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Chaoyue; Posen, Sam; Groll, Nickolas; Cook, Russell; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Hall, Daniel Leslie; Liepe, Matthias; Pellin, Michael; Zasadzinski, John; Proslier, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    We present an analysis of Nb3Sn surface layers grown on a bulk Niobium (Nb) coupon prepared at the same time and by the same vapor diffusion process used to make Nb3Sn coatings on 1.3 GHz Nb cavities. Tunneling spectroscopy reveals a well-developed, homogeneous superconducting density of states at the surface with a gap value distribution centered around 2.7 ± 0.4 meV and superconducting critical temperatures (Tc) up to 16.3 K. Scanning transmission electron microscopy performed on cross sections of the sample's surface region shows an ˜2 μm thick Nb3Sn surface layer. The elemental composition map exhibits a Nb:Sn ratio of 3:1 and reveals the presence of buried sub-stoichiometric regions that have a ratio of 5:1. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments indicate a polycrystalline Nb3Sn film and confirm the presence of Nb rich regions that occupy about a third of the coating volume. These low Tc regions could play an important role in the dissipation mechanisms occurring during RF tests of Nb3Sn-coated Nb cavities and open the way for further improving a very promising alternative to pure Nb cavities for particle accelerators.

  14. Comparing Thermal Stability of NbTi and Nb$_3$Sn Wires

    CERN Document Server

    Breschi, M; Bottura, L; Devred, A; Trillaud, F

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of quenching in low temperature superconducting wires is of great relevance for a proper design of superconductive cables and magnets. This paper reports the experimental results of a vast measurement campaign of quench induced by laser pulses on NbTi and Nb$_{3}$Sn wires in pool boiling Helium I. A comparison of the quench behavior of two typical NbTi and Nb$_{3}$Sn wires is shown from different standpoints. Different qualitative behaviors of the voltage traces recorded during quenches and recoveries on NbTi and Nb$_{3}$Sn wires are reported and analyzed. It is shown that the Nb$_{3}$Sn wire exhibits a quench or no-quench behavior, whereas quenches and recoveries are exhibited by the NbTi wire. The two wires are also compared considering the behaviors of the two main parameters describing quench, i.e. quench energies and quench velocities, with respect to operation current and pulse duration and magnetic field. It is shown that the Nb$_{3}$Sn wire exhibits a ‘kink’ of the quench energy ...

  15. Analysis of Nb3Sn surface layers for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Chaoyue; Posen, Sam; Hall, Daniel Leslie; Groll, Nickolas; Proslier, Thomas; Cook, Russell; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Liepe, Matthias; Pellin, Michael; Zasadzinski, John

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of Nb 3 Sn surface layers grown on a bulk Niobium (Nb) coupon prepared at the same time and by the same vapor diffusion process used to make Nb 3 Sn coatings on 1.3 GHz Nb cavities. Tunneling spectroscopy reveals a well-developed, homogeneous superconducting density of states at the surface with a gap value distribution centered around 2.7 ± 0.4 meV and superconducting critical temperatures (T c ) up to 16.3 K. Scanning transmission electron microscopy performed on cross sections of the sample's surface region shows an ∼2 μm thick Nb 3 Sn surface layer. The elemental composition map exhibits a Nb:Sn ratio of 3:1 and reveals the presence of buried sub-stoichiometric regions that have a ratio of 5:1. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments indicate a polycrystalline Nb 3 Sn film and confirm the presence of Nb rich regions that occupy about a third of the coating volume. These low T c regions could play an important role in the dissipation mechanisms occurring during RF tests of Nb 3 Sn-coated Nb cavities and open the way for further improving a very promising alternative to pure Nb cavities for particle accelerators

  16. Method for the manufacture of a superconductive Nb3Sn layer on a niobium surface for high frequency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, H.

    1978-01-01

    A manufacturing method for depositing an Nb 3 Sn layer on a niobium surface for high frequency applications comprising developing a tin vapor atmosphere which also contains a highly volatile tin compound in the gaseous state, and holding the portions of the surface which are to be provided with the Nb 3 Sn layer at a temperature of between 900 0 and 1500 0 C for a predetermined period of time to form the Nb 3 Sn layer permitting niobium surfaces of any shape to be provided with Nb 3 Sn layers of high uniformity and quality

  17. Quench Protection Studies of the 11-T $Nb_3Sn$ Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; BAJAS, Hugues; Bajko, Marta; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Chlachidze, Guram; Karppinen, Mikko; Rysti, Juho; Savary, Frederic; Willering, Gerard; Zlobin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system foresees additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas. Fermilab and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole to replace some 8.33 T-15-m-long Nb-Ti LHC main dipoles providing longitudinal space for the collimators. In case of a quench, the large stored energy and the low copper stabilizer fraction make the protection of the 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipoles challenging. This paper presents the results of quench protection analysis, including quench protection heater design and efficiency, quench propagation and coil heating. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data from the 2-m-long Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models. The validated model is used to predict the current decay and hot spot temperature under operating conditions in the LHC and the presently foreseen magnet protection scheme is discussed.

  18. Analysis of critical current-bend strain relationships in composite Nb3Sn superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, T.; Welch, D.O.

    1979-01-01

    In order to be used successfully in fusion magnets, Nb 3 Sn conductors must meet several mechanical strain criteria, including tolerance to bending strains encountered during magnet construction. Since Nb 3 Sn is extremely brittle much information has been generated regarding the sensitivity of these conductros to tensile strain. A recent comparison of critical current-bend and tensile test data indicates that the strain required to initiate compound cracking during bending is significantly less than the strain required to do so by tensile of critical current on bending strains in monofilamentary Nb 3 Sn wires is calculated and compared with experimental data. The calculation takes into account a shift in the composite's neutral axis which occurs during bending. The analysis correctly predicts the observed depdndence of the critical current on bending strains

  19. Test Results of HD1b, an upgraded 16 Tesla Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, A.F.; Bartlett, S.E.; Bish, P.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Higley, H.; Lau, W.; Liggins, N.; Mattafirri, S.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.; Swanson, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been developing high-field, brittle-superconductor, accelerator magnet technology, in which the conductor's support system can significantly impact conductor performance (as well as magnet training). A recent H-dipole coil test (HD1) achieved a peak bore-field of 16 Tesla, using two, flat-racetrack, double-layer Nb 3 Sn coils. However, its 4.5 K training was slow, with an erratic plateau at ∼92% of its un-degraded ''short-sample'' expectation (∼16.6 T). Quench-origins correlated with regions where low conductor pre-stress had been expected (3-D FEM predictions and variations in 300 K coil-size). The coils were re-assembled with minor coil-support changes and re-tested as ''HD1b'', with a 185 MPa average pre-stress (30 MPa higher than HD1, with a 15-20 MPa pole-turn margin expected at 17 T). Training started higher (15.1 T), and quickly reached a stable, negligibly higher plateau at 16 T. After a thermal cycle, training started at 15.4 T, but peaked at 15.8 T, on the third attempt, before degrading to a 15.7 T plateau. The temperature dependence of this plateau was explored in a sub-atmospheric LHe bath to 3.0 K. Magnet performance data for both thermal cycles is presented and discussed, along with issues for future high-field accelerator magnet development

  20. Development and test of Nb(3)Sn cos-theta dipoles based on PIT strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobin, A.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chichili, D.R.; Elementi, L.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Yamada, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fermilab is involved in the development of new generation high-field accelerator magnets using state-of-the-art Nb 3 Sn strands produced using different technologies. Two 1-m long models--mirror configuration and dipole magnet--were fabricated recently at Fermilab based on powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb 3 Sn strands with small effective filament size. This paper describes the parameters of superconducting strands and cable, the details of magnet design and fabrication procedure, and reports the results of PIT coil testing

  1. Quench Protection Studies of 11T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Models for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, Alexander [Fermilab; Chlachidze, Guram [Fermilab; Nobrega, Alfred [Fermilab; Novitski, Igor [Fermilab; Karppinen, Mikko [CERN

    2014-07-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb3Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb3Sn dipole coil tested in a magnetic mirror configuration.

  2. Status of 11 T 2-in-1 Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Development for LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, Alexander [Fermilab; Andreev, Nicolai [Fermilab; Apollinari, Giorgio [Fermilab; Barzi, Emanuela [Fermilab; Bossert, Rodger [Fermilab; Buehler, Marc [Fermilab; Chlachidze, Guram [Fermilab; DiMarco, Joseph [Fermilab; Nobrega, Alfred [Fermilab; Novitski, Igor [Fermilab; Turrioni, Daniele [Fermilab; Velev, Gueorgui [Fermilab; Auchmann, Bernhard [CERN; Karppinen, Mikko [CERN; Rossi, Lucio [CERN; Smekens, David [CERN

    2014-07-01

    The LHC upgrade plans foresee installation of additional collimators in the LHC lattice. To provide the necessary longitudinal space for these collimators, shorter and stronger Nb3Sn dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems could be used. This paper describes the design and status of the twin-aperture Nb3Sn dipole being developed by FNAL and CERN for the LHC, and reports test results of two collared coils to be used in the first 1 m long twin-aperture dipole model.

  3. Magnetization of in situ multifilamentary superconducting Nb3Sn-Cu composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, S.S.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Magnetic properties are reported for in situ superconducting Nb 3 Sn composites that have exhibited attractive electrical properties and superior mechanical characteristics. Magnetization measurements were conducted up to 4 T at 4.2 K on a variety of samples of different sizes and twist pitches, and the results are presented in absolute M-H curves and losses per cycle. It is observed that the magnetization of such composites is generally proportional to the size of the wire (approx. 0.25 to 0.51 mm) rather than the fiber size (approx. 10 -7 m), which indicates a strong coupling effect among Nb 3 Sn fibers

  4. Effect of transverse loads up to 300 MPa on the critical currents of Nb3Sn cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, H.; Verweij, A.P.; Verweij, A.P.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of the development of an experimental 10-T Nb3Sn dipole coil for the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, the effects of transverse stress on Rutherford-type Nb3Sn cable were investigated. For this purpose a special facility was designed and put into operation in which the

  5. Transverse Load Optimisation in Nb3Sn CICC Design; Influence of Cabling, Void Fraction and Strand Stiffness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Arend; Ilyin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a model that describes the transverse load degradation in Nb3Sn CICCs, based on strand and cable properties, and that is capable of predicting how such degradation can be prevented. The Nb3Sn cable in conduit conductors (CICCs) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental

  6. Design Concept and Parameters of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ Dipole Demonstrator for a 100 TEV Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab; Andreev, N. [Fermilab; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Kashikhin, V. V. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    FNAL has started the development of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale hadron collider. This paper describes the design concept and parameters of the 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator. The dipole magnetic, mechanical and quench protection concept and parameters are presented and discussed.

  7. Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb3Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, J.H.; Hornsveld, E.M.; den Ouden, A.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2000-01-01

    New Nb3Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment

  8. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology R and D at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobin, A.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Accelerator magnets based on Nb 3 Sn superconductor are being developed at Fermilab. Six nearly identical 1-m long dipole models and several mirror configurations were built and tested demonstrating magnet performance parameters and their reproducibility. The technology scale up program has started by building and testing long dipole coils. The results of this work are reported in the paper

  9. Neutron irradiation effects on in situ Nb3Sn superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Y.; Fukumoto, M.; Kodaka, H.; Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.; Yoshida, H.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of ''in situ'' Nb 3 Sn conductors have been studied to determine the detrimental effects of neutron irradiation on critical temperature, critical current and AC losses. It was found that at fluences of 10 18 n/cm 2 , the critical temperature is degraded by approximately 10%. Degradation of AC loss is discussed in comparison with that of critical current density

  10. Advances in development of Nb3Sn superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, Sam; Liepe, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    A 1.3 GHz Nb3Sn superconducting radio-frequency cavity prepared with a modified annealing step reached Bp k>50 mT , well above Bc 1=25 ±7 mT , without the strong Q -slope observed in previous Nb3Sn cavities. At 4.2 K, it has a Q0 of approximately 1 ×1 010 at >10 MV /m , far outperforming Nb at useable gradients. At 2 K, quench occurred at ˜55 mT , apparently due to a defect, so additional treatment may increase the maximum gradient. Material parameters of the coating were extracted from Q vs T data, including a Tc of 18.0 ±0.1 K , close to the maximum literature value. High power pulses were used to reach fields far higher than in CW measurements, and near Tc, quench fields close to the superheating field were observed. Based on a review of previous experience with Nb3Sn cavities, a speculative mechanism involving weak link grain boundaries is presented to explain how the modified annealing step could be the cause of the absence of strong Q -slope. Finally, an analysis of the progress to date provides hints that the path forward for Nb3Sn cavities should focus on minimizing defects.

  11. QUANTUM ELECTRONIC DEVICES: Superconducting Nb3Sn point contact in the submillimeter range of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenov, É. M.; Danileĭko, M. V.; Derkach, V. E.; Romanenko, V. I.; Uskov, A. V.

    1988-05-01

    An investigation was made of the influence of submillimeter radiation emitted by an HCN laser operating at a frequency νl = 891 GHz on a superconducting point contact made of Nb3Sn. Three steps of the electric current were recorded. The experimental results indicated that such a contact could be used for frequency multiplication up to 3 THz.

  12. Continuous, flexible, and high-strength superconducting Nb3Ge and Nb3Sn filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Heffernan, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Fabrication of continuous, flexible, and high-strength (1600 MN/m 2 ) composite filaments of Nb 3 Ge (T/subc/ 18 0 K) and Nb 3 Sn is reported, involving chemical vapor deposition of these compounds on Nb-coated high-strength W--1% ThO 2 filaments

  13. Advances in development of Nb_{3}Sn superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Posen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 1.3 GHz Nb_{3}Sn superconducting radio-frequency cavity prepared with a modified annealing step reached B_{pk}>50  mT, well above B_{c1}=25±7  mT, without the strong Q-slope observed in previous Nb_{3}Sn cavities. At 4.2 K, it has a Q_{0} of approximately 1×10^{10} at >10  MV/m, far outperforming Nb at useable gradients. At 2 K, quench occurred at ∼55  mT, apparently due to a defect, so additional treatment may increase the maximum gradient. Material parameters of the coating were extracted from Q vs T data, including a T_{c} of 18.0±0.1  K, close to the maximum literature value. High power pulses were used to reach fields far higher than in CW measurements, and near T_{c}, quench fields close to the superheating field were observed. Based on a review of previous experience with Nb_{3}Sn cavities, a speculative mechanism involving weak link grain boundaries is presented to explain how the modified annealing step could be the cause of the absence of strong Q-slope. Finally, an analysis of the progress to date provides hints that the path forward for Nb_{3}Sn cavities should focus on minimizing defects.

  14. Statistical analysis of the Nb3Sn strand production for the ITER toroidal field coils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vostner, A.; Jewell, M.C.; Pong, I.; Sullivan, N.; Devred, A.; Bessette, D.; Bevillard, G.; Mitchell, N.; Romano, G.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The ITER toroidal field (TF) strand procurement initiated the largest Nb3Sn superconducting strand production hitherto. The industrial-scale production started in Japan in 2008 and finished in summer 2015. Six ITER partners (so-called Domestic Agencies, or DAs) are in charge of the procurement and

  15. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet development around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Lamm

    2003-06-23

    During the past 30 years superconducting magnet systems have enabled accelerators to achieve energies and luminosities that would have been impractical if not impossible with resistive magnets. By far, NbTi has been the preferred conductor for this application because of its ductility and insensitivity of Jc to mechanical strain. This is despite the fact that Nb{sub 3}Sn has a more favorable Jc vs. B dependence and can operate at much higher temperatures. Unfortunately, NbTi conductor is reaching the limit of it usefulness for high field applications. Despite incremental increases in Jc and operation at superfluid temperatures, magnets are limited to approximately a 10 T field. Improvements in conductor performance combined with future requirements for accelerator magnets to have bore fields greater than 10 T or operate in areas of large beam-induced heat loads now make Nb{sub 3}Sn look attractive. Thus, laboratories in several countries are actively engaged in programs to develop Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets for future accelerator applications. A summary of this important research activity is presented along with a brief history of Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnet development and a discussion of requirements for future accelerator magnets.

  16. Research and development of stabilized multifilamentary Nb3 Sn superconductors. Technical report for the period, 12 September 1976 through 30 September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormand, F.T.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of tensile properties of multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductors indicated that composites containing less than 12.5 volume percent (v/o) Nb 3 Sn were usually ductile. Composites containing more than 12.5 v/o Nb 3 Sn were brittle

  17. Development and manufacturing of bronze-processed Ta-added Nb3Sn wires for the ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kenichi; Seidou, Masahiro; Iwaki, Genzou; Sakai, Syuuji; Moriai, Hidezumi; Nishi, Masataka; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Isono, Takaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    Development work to produce a high-performance Nb 3 Sn superconducting wire for the center solenoid coil of the ITER was carried out. The effects of concurrently adding Ti and Ta to bronze-processed Nb 3 Sn wires were examined. In addition, a high-Sn-concentration bronze matrix was applied. Then, the relation between hysteresis loss and filament diameter was examined. Moreover, the cause of wire breakage during processing was elucidated. As a result, a reliable manufacturing process for high-performance Nb 3 Sn superconducting wire was established. (author)

  18. ac loss and dc critical current densities of Nb3Sn tapes by the solid state diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Klamut, C.; Bussiere, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of metallurgical processing on 60 Hz ac losses and dc critical currents in Nb 3 Sn tapes fabricated by the solid state diffusion technique were investigated. An addition of Al to the Cu--Sn alloy for the matrix resulted in large reduction in the ac losses of Nb 3 Sn tapes, but the highest linear critical current densities were observed in Nb 3 Sn tapes produced with a Nb-1 wt percent Zr core in a Cu-13 wt percent Sn matrix. Values of the losses and the critical currents in these tapes can meet the present requirements for the ac superconducting power cables

  19. Peak Fields of Nb$_{3}$Sn Superconducting Undulators and a Scaling Law

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S H

    2005-01-01

    The peak fields on the beam axis and the maximum fields in the conductor of Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting undulators (SCUs) were calculated for an undulator period length of 16 mm. Using a simple scaling law for SCUs [1], the peak fields, as well as the conductor maximum fields and the current densities, were calculated for a period range of 8 to 32 mm. The critical current densities of commercially available Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting strands were used for the calculations. The achievable peak fields are limited mainly by the flux-jump instabilities at low fields. The possible or feasible peak field will also be compared with that achieved in prototype development of SCUs.

  20. Investigation on the enhancement of the critical current densities in bronze-process Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, M.; Wu, I.W.; Morris, J.W. Jr.; Gilbert, W.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Taylor, C.

    1981-10-01

    The work reported here addressed the problem of improving the critical current characteristic of a comercial multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn strand by varying its heat treatment. The work was done from the perspective that the critical current characteristic is controlled by the metallurgical state of the reacted layer, which is, in turn, fixed by the processing the wire has undergone. The research was carried out in parallel with metallographic studies which analyzed the microstructure and composition profile within the reacted Nb 3 Sn layer as a function of heat treatment. The combined results of metallographic and processing research suggest that it is possible to engineer the microstructure of the reacted layer to improve J/sub c/(H). The specific product of the work is a tailored double-aging treatment which introduces a favorable combination of microstructure and composition in the reacted layer and causes a substantial improvement in the critical current characteristic of the strand

  1. Magnetic Parameters Of A NB3SN Superconducting Magnet For A 56 HGz ECR Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.M.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G.L.; Todd, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Third generation Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources operate at microwave frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz and employ NbTi superconducting magnets with a conductor peak field of 6-7 T. A significant gain in performance can be achieved by replacing NbTi with Nb 3 Sn, allowing solenoids and sextupole coils to reach a field of 15 T in the windings. In this paper we describe the design of a Nb 3 Sn superconducting magnet for a fourth generation ECR source operating at a microwave frequency of 56 GHz. The magnet design features a configuration with an internal sextupole magnet surrounded by three solenoids. A finite element magnetic model has been used to investigate conductor peak fields and the operational margins. Results of the numerical analysis are presented and discussed.

  2. Introduction of Nonlinear Properties Into Hierachical Models of Nb3Sn Strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, B.; Krishnan, J.; Arbelaez, D.; Ferracin, P.; Prestemon, S.O.; Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D.R.; Zohdi, T.I.

    2011-01-01

    The development of computational models representing Rutherford cable formation and deformation is necessary to investigate the strain state in the superconducting filaments in Nb 3 Sn magnets. The wide variety of length scales within accelerator magnets suggests usage of a hierarchical structure within the model. As part of an ongoing investigation at LBNL, a three-dimensional simplified nonlinear multiscale model is developed as a way to extend previous linear elastic versions. The inclusion of plasticity models into the problem formulation allows an improved representation of strand behavior compared to the linear elastic model. This formulation is applied to a single Nb 3 Sn strand to find its effective properties as well as the strain state in the conductor under loading.

  3. Metallographic investigation of fracture behavior in ITER-style Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting strands

    CERN Document Server

    Jewell, M C; Larbalestier, D C; Nijhuis, A

    2009-01-01

    In this work we specify the extent to which fracture in two ITER-style Nb$_{3}$Sn composite strands occurs in a collective or individual manner, under mechanical tension and bending from the TARSIS apparatus at the University of Twente. A bronze-route strand from European Advanced Superconductors (EAS), which has very uniform, well-spaced filaments, has a widely distributed (200 μm) fracture field and exhibits a composite of individual and collective cracks. An internal tin strand from Oxford Instruments – Superconducting Technology (OST) demonstrates much more localized, collective fracture behavior. The filaments in this strand are about four times larger (in area) than the filaments in the EAS strand, and also agglomerate significantly during heat treatment upon conversion of the Nb to Nb$_{3}$Sn. These results demonstrate that the architecture of the strand can play a significant role in determining the mechanical toughness of the composite, and that strand design should incorporate mechanical consider...

  4. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.; Brandt, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb 3 Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb 3 Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V 3 Si. The high-field data for V 3 Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γ/sup trans/ 3 Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same ''kink'' in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V 3 Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb

  5. Strain dependence of the critical current and critical field in multifilamentary Nb3Sn composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekin, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    High-J/sub c/ multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductors with widely varying amounts of prestrain and critical field values can be characterized fairly accurately by a single normalized critical field-strain relationship. Such a relationship permits first order prediction of critical-current degradation at arbitrary magnetic field magnitudes with knowledge of only two parameters for any conductor, the prestrain and the maximum critical field. Some of the conductor-fabrication factors affecting the parameters are considered

  6. Testing of a Single 11 T $Nb_3Sn$ Dipole Coil Using a Dipole Mirror Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, Alexander [Fermilab; Andreev, Nicolai [Fermilab; Barzi, Emanuela [Fermilab; Chlachidze, Guram [Fermilab; Kashikhin, Vadim [Fermilab; Nobrega, Alfred [Fermilab; Novitski, Igor [Fermilab; Turrioni, Daniele [Fermilab; Karppinen, Mikko [CERN; Smekens, David [CERN

    2014-07-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb3Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. To optimize coil design parameters and fabrication process and study coil performance, a series of 1 m long dipole coils is being fabricated. One of the short coils has been tested using a dipole mirror structure. This paper describes the dipole mirror magnetic and mechanical designs, and reports coil parameters and test results.

  7. Low-temperature heat capacity of small Nb3Sn polycrystals by ac calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Johnston, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown by an ac calorimetry technique that the multiple heat capacity anomalies which occur below the superconducting transition temperature for small polycrystalline Nb 3 Sn samples are intrinsic to these samples. The recent suggestions that shear stresses can account for these results are analyzed for their validity. The dependence of the occurrence of these multiple anomalies upon the thermal history of the samples was investigated

  8. Development and manufacture of a Nb3Sn superconductor for the high-field test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Cornish, D.N.; Spencer, C.R.; Gregory, E.; Adam, E.

    1981-01-01

    The High-Field Test Facility (HFTF) project has two primary goals. The first is to establish manufacturing capability for a Nb 3 Sn conductor suitable for use in a mirror fusion coil. The second is to provide a test facility for evaluating other fusion conductor designs at high fields. This paper describes some of the problems encountered and the solutions devised in working toward the first goal. Construction of the test facility coils will be described in a subsequent paper

  9. Industrial powder metallurgy processing for production of high field Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, A.; Gregory, E.; Wong, J.; Thieme, C.L.H.; Foner, S.

    1988-01-01

    Technology transfer is discussed for fabricating Nb 3 Sn(Ti) via powder metallurgy methods from laboratory scale production at MIT to industrial production at Supercon Inc. Industrial production techniques such as hydrostatic extrusion and drawing have produced superconducting wires with promising critical current densities in preliminary field measurements. Initial steps toward process modification and optimization to improve the commercial feasibility of the powder metallurgy process are evaluated. These modifications are aimed at reducing production time and increasing process flexibility

  10. Understanding Irreversible Degradation of Nb3Sn Wires with Fundamental Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yuhu [PPPL; Calzolaio, Ciro [Univ of Geneva; Senatore, Carmine [Univ of Geneva

    2014-08-01

    Irreversible performance degradation of advanced Nb3Sn superconducting wires subjected to transverse or axial mechanical loading is a critical issue for the design of large-scale fusion and accelerator magnets such as ITER and LHC. Recent SULTAN tests indicate that most cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER coils made of Nb3Sn wires processed by various fabrication techniques show similar performance degradation under cyclic loading. The irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and local strain accumulation in Nb3Sn wires cannot be described by the existing strand scaling law. Fracture mechanic modeling combined with X-ray diffraction imaging of filament micro-crack formation inside the wires under mechanical loading may reveal exciting insights to the wire degradation mechanisms. We apply fundamental fracture mechanics with a singularity approach to study influence of wire filament microstructure of initial void size and distribution to local stress concentration and potential crack propagation. We report impact of the scale and density of the void structure on stress concentration in the composite wire materials for crack initiation. These initial defects result in an irreversible degradation of the critical current beyond certain applied stress. We also discuss options to minimize stress concentration in the design of the material microstructure for enhanced wire performance for future applications.

  11. Magnetic and Structural Design of a 15 T $Nb_3Sn$ Accelerator Depole Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V. V. [Fermilab; Andreev, N. [Fermilab; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    Hadron Colliders (HC) are the most powerful discovery tools in modern high energy physics. A 100 TeV scale HC with a nominal operation field of at least 15 T is being considered for the post-LHC era. The choice of a 15 T nominal field requires using the Nb3Sn technology. Practical demonstration of this field level in an accelerator-quality magnet and substantial reduction of the magnet costs are the key conditions for realization of such a machine. FNAL has started the development of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale HC. The magnet design is based on 4-layer shell type coils, graded between the inner and outer layers to maximize the performance. The experience gained during the 11-T dipole R&D campaign is applied to different aspects of the magnet design. This paper describes the magnetic and structural designs and parameters of the 15 T $Nb_3Sn$ dipole and the steps towards the demonstration model.

  12. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND TEST OF THE REACT AND WIND, NB(3)SN, LDX FLOATING COIL CONDUCTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, B.A.; MICHAEL, P.C.; MINERVINI, J.V.; TAKAYASU, M.; SCHULTZ, J.H.; GREGORY, E.; PYON, T.; SAMPSON, W.B.; GHOSH, A.; SCANLAN, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is a novel approach for studying magnetic confinement of a fusion plasma. In this approach, a superconducting ring coil is magnetically levitated for up to 8 hours a day in the center of a 5 meter diameter vacuum vessel. The levitated coil, with on-board helium supply, is called the gloating Coil (F-Coil). Although the maximum field at the coil is only 5.3 tesla, a react-and-wind Nb 3 Sn conductor was selected because the relatively high critical temperature will enable the coil to remain levitated while it warms from 5 K to 10 K. Since pre-reacted Nb 3 Sn tape is no longer commercially available, a composite conductor was designed that contains an 18 strand Nb 3 Sn Rutherford cable. The cable was reacted and then soldered into a structural copper channel that completes the conductor and also provides quench protection. The strain state of the cable was continuously controlled during fabrication steps such as: soldering into the copper channel, spooling, and coil winding, to prevent degradation of the critical current. Measurements of strand and cable critical currents are reported, as well as estimates of the effect of fabrication, winding and operating strains on critical current

  13. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G. R.; Brandt, B. L.

    1984-04-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb3Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb3Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V3Si. The high-field data for V3Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γtransJunod and Muller [Solid State Commun. 36, 721 (1980)]. Nb3Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same "kink" in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V3Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb.

  14. Quench in a conduction-cooled Nb3Sn SMES magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Aki; Lehtonen, Jorma; Mikkonen, Risto; Perälä, Raine

    2003-11-01

    Due to the rapid development of cryocoolers, conduction-cooled Nb3Sn devices are nowadays enabled. A 0.2 MJ conduction-cooled Nb3Sn SMES system has been designed and constructed. The nominal current of the coil was 275 A at 10 K. The quench tests have been performed and in this paper the experimental data are compared to the computational one. Due to a slow normal zone propagation, Nb3Sn magnets are not necessarily self-protective. In conduction-cooled coils, a thermal interface provides a protection method known as a quench back. The temperature rise in the coil during a quench was measured with a sensor located on the inner radius of the coil. The current decay was also monitored. The measured temperature increased for approximately 15 s after the current had already decayed. This temperature rise is due to the heat conduction from the hot spot. Thus, the measured temperature does not represent the hot-spot temperature. A computational quench model which takes into account quench back and heat conduction after the current decay was developed in order to understand the measured temperatures. According to the results, a quench back due to the eddy current induced heating of the thermal interface of an LTS coil was an adequate protection method.

  15. The effect of transverse loads up to 300 MPa on the critical currents of Nb3Sn cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschman, H.; Verweij, A.P.; Wessel, S.; ten Kate, H.H.J.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of the development of an experimental 10 T Nb 3 Sn dipole coil for the LHC at CERN the effects of transverse stress on Rutherford type of Nb 3 Sn cables have been investigated. For this purpose a special facility was designed and taken into operation in which the voltage-current behavior of short pieces of Nb 3 Sn cables can be investigated in a background field up to 11 T and an applied stress of 300 MPa. The repulsive Lorentz force of 250 kN, generated by a set of superconducting coils, is used to impress the cable over an area of 20 x 42 mm 2 maximum, in presence of a transport current up to 40 kA. In this paper the testing equipment is described and the first results of the observed critical current degradation of two Nb 3 Sn cables are discussed

  16. Quench performance of Nb3Sn cos-theta coils made of 108/127 RRP strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobin, A.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.

    2007-01-01

    A series of 1-m long Nb 3 Sn dipole models has been built at Fermilab in an attempt to refine the wind-and-react technology for Nb3Sn accelerator magnets. Three models made with Powder-in-Tube Nb 3 Sn strand reached their design field of 10 T demonstrating a good reproducibility of magnet quench performance and field quality. Recently a new dipole 'mirror' model based on Nb 3 Sn coil made of improved Restack Rod Process strand was constructed and tested reaching the maximum field above 11 T. This paper describes the parameters of the RRP strand and cable used as well as the design, fabrication and test results of this magnet

  17. Effect of copper additions in tin molten pool on stability temperature and critical current of Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruzliak, J.; Hutka, P.; Tomasich, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tested is the effect of 55 at% copper addition into the tin bath on the stability temperature and crytical current of Nb 3 Sn, prepared by the diffusion method. It is shown that copper presence in the tin bath transfers the stability temperature of NbSn 2 and Nb 6 Sn 5 phases below the annealing temperature of 700 deg C. It results in Nb 3 Sn appearance at the annealing temperatures above 600 deg C. The critical current increase is explained as follows: lower Nb 3 Sn appearance temperatures provide fine-grained structure of superconducting Nb 3 Sn layer with greater density of binning centers and with higher critical current in accordance with NbSn prepared by the diffusion of pure tin into niobium

  18. Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracin, P; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Leitner, D; Lyneis, C M; Prestemon, S; Sabbi, G L; Todd, D S

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb(3)Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb(3)Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb(3)Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb(3)Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb(3)Sn, particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell pretensioned with water

  19. High field Nb3Sn Axicell insert coils for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) axicell configuration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    Two 12-tesla superconducting insert coils are being designed by General Dynamics Convair Division for the axicell regions of MFTF-B for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A major challenge of this project is to ensure that combined fabrication and operational strains induced in the conductor are within stringent limitations of the relatively brittle Nb 3 Sn superconductor filaments. These coils are located in the axicell region of MFTF-B. They have a clear-bore diameter of 36.195cm (14.25 inches) and consist of 27 double pancakes (i.e., 54 pancakes per coil) would on an electrically insulated 304LN stainless steel/bobbin helium vessel. Each pancake has 57 turns separated by G-10CR insulation. The complete winding bundle has 4.6 million ampere-turns and uniform current density of 2007 A/cm 2 . In conjunction with the other magnets in the system, they produce a 12-tesla central field and a 12.52-tesla peak field. A multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor was selected to meet these requirements. The conductor consists of a monolithic insert soldered into a copper stabilizer. Sufficient cross-sectional area and work-hardening of the copper stabilizer has been provided for the conductor to self-react the electromagnetic Lorentz force induced hoop stresses with normal operational tensile strains less than 0.07 percent

  20. Stress distribution and lattice distortions in Nb3Sn multifilament wires under uniaxial tensile loading at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuerlein, C; Flükiger, R; Kadar, J; Bordini, B; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Di Michiel, M; Buta, F; Seeber, B; Senatore, C; Siegrist, T; Besara, T

    2014-01-01

    The lattice parameter changes in three types of Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires during uniaxial stress–strain measurements at 4.2 K have been measured by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The nearly-stress-free Nb 3 Sn lattice parameter has been determined using extracted filaments, and the elastic strain in the axial and transverse wire directions in the different wire phases has been calculated. The mechanical properties of the PIT and RRP wire are mainly determined by the properties of Nb 3 Sn and unreacted Nb. This is in contrast to the bronze route wire, where the matrix can carry substantial loads. In straight wires the axial Nb 3 Sn pre-strain is strongest in the bronze route wire, its value being smaller in the PIT and RRP wires. A strong reduction of the non-Cu elastic modulus of about 30% is observed during cool-down from ambient temperature to 4.2 K. The Nb 3 Sn Poisson ratio at 4.2 K measured in the untwisted bronze route wire is 0.35. The present study also shows that the process route has a strong influence on the Nb 3 Sn texture. (paper)

  1. Contribution to the design of superconducting Nb3Sn dipole windings for particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, H.

    2006-10-01

    Improvement of particle accelerators relies on complex technologies such as the design and fabrication of superconducting magnets. A key parameter in magnet design is the mechanical pre-stress, applied at room temperature to insure compression of the coil during excitation. In dipole magnets, high field and high mechanical stresses in windings combined with the Nb 3 Sn stress sensitivity ask the question of the limit of the mechanical stress that the Nb 3 Sn can undergo without degradation. This limit estimated around 150 MPa is still discussed and has to be investigated. Whatever its value, preliminary studies show that conventional cosine theta design induces mechanical stresses (> 200 MPa) in large aperture (> 130 mm) and high field configurations, which underscore the need of alternative coil arrangements. The first part of this thesis gives an introduction to the issues and challenges encountered by the designers of superconducting ma nets. The second part is devoted to the study of large aperture (88, 130 and 160 mm) and high field (13 T) dipoles based on intersecting ellipses. After a theoretical study, a 2D magnetic design is detailed for each aperture and a mechanical study is developed for the 130 mm aperture dipole. In the last part, an experimental device dedicated to the study of the influence of the pre-stress on the training of sub-scale Nb 3 Sn dipole and to the investigation of the mechanical stress limit is presented. The design of this magnet is detailed and the result of the first test carried out with the structure is reported. (author)

  2. Analytical model of the critical current of a bent Nb3Sn strand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Murakami, Haruyuki; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    The critical current performance of a large Nb 3 Sn cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) was degraded by periodic bending of strands due to a large transverse electromagnetic force. The degradation of each strand due to this bending should be evaluated in calculations of the critical current of a CICC, but a suitable model has not been developed yet. Therefore, the authors have developed a new analytical model which takes into account plastic deformation of copper and bronze and filament breakage. The calculated results were compared with test results for uniformly bent Nb 3 Sn bronze-route strands. The calculated results assuming a high transverse resistance model (HTRM) show good agreement with the test results, a finding which confirms the validity of the model. Because of a much shorter calculation time than for numerical simulation, the developed model seems much more practical for use in calculating the critical current performance of a Nb 3 Sn CICC. In addition, simulation results show that since the neutral axis of a bent strand shifts to the compressive side due to plastic deformation of the copper and bronze, and/or filament breakage, the strand is elongated by bending. This elongation may enhance the strand's critical current performance. Moreover, the calculated results indicate that the dependence of the critical current on the bending strain is affected by the bending history if the strand is excessively bent, especially when filaments are broken. In a real magnet, since a strand in a CICC is normally subject to the maximum electromagnetic force prior to an evaluation of its performance at a lower electromagnetic force, the effect of over-bending should be taken into account in calculations of its critical current performance, especially when filament breakage occurs.

  3. Measured Strain of Nb3Sn Coils During Excitation and Quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hannaford, C.R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lietzke, S.; Mattafirri, M.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.

    2005-01-01

    The strain in a high field Nb 3 Sn coil was measured during magnet assembly, cool-down, excitation and spot heater quenches. Strain was measured with a full bridge strain gauge mounted directly over the turns and impregnated with the coil. Two such coils were placed in a ''common coil'' fashion capable of reaching 11T at 4.2K. The measured steady state strain in the coil is compared with results obtained using the FEM code ANSYS. During quenches, the transient strain (due to temperature rise) was also measured and compared with the calculated mechanical time response to a quench

  4. Specific heat studies of pure Nb3Sn single crystals at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, R; Morales, F; Bernes, S

    2009-01-01

    Specific heat measurements performed on high purity vapor-grown Nb 3 Sn crystals show clear features related to both the martensitic and superconducting transitions. Our measurements indicate that the martensitic anomaly does not display hysteresis, meaning that the martensitic transition could be a weak first-order or a second-order thermodynamic transition. Careful measurements of the two transition temperatures display an inverse correlation between them. At low temperature, specific heat measurements show the existence of a single superconducting energy gap feature.

  5. Effect of transverse compression on I/sub c/ of Nb3Sn multifilamentary wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specking, W.; Goldacker, W.; Fluekiger, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of transverse compressive stress on critical current in bronze processed Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary wires was measured at 13.5 T. For the same wire the critical current was more sensitive to this stress than to axial stress. An increase in this stress first caused a slight enhancement of the critical current followed by a drastic decrease of 50 percent at a stress equal to 100 MPa. X-ray diffraction under transverse compression revealed a decrease in the spacing between the lattice planes parallel to the wire axis. This provided a physical basis for the initial enhancement of the critical current under transverse compressive stress

  6. Workshop on effects of chromium coating on Nb3Sn superconductor strand: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Chromium coating on superconductor strand -- an overview; technology of chromium plating; comparison of wires plated by different platers; search for chromium in copper; strand manufactures' presentations; chromium plating at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; a first look at a chromium plating process development project tailored for T.P.X. and I.T.E.R. strand; and influence of chromium diffusion and related phenomena on the reference ratios of bare and chromium plated Nb 3 Sn strand

  7. 11 T Twin-Aperture Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Development for LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, A V; Apollinari, G; Auchmann, B; Barzi, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Bossert, R; Buehler, M; Chlachidze, G; DiMarco, J; Karppinen, M; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Rossi, L; Smekens, D; Tartaglia, M; Turrioni, D; Velev, Genadi

    2015-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing a twin-aperture 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. This paper describes the design and parameters of the 11 T dipole developed at FNAL for the LHC upgrades in both single-aperture and twin-aperture configurations, and presents details of the constructed dipole models. Results of studies of magnet quench performance, quench protection and magnetic measurements performed using short 1 m long coils in the dipole mirror and single-aperture configurations are reported and discussed.

  8. 11 T Twin-Aperture Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Development for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab; Andreev, N. [Fermilab; Apollinari, G. [Fermilab; Auchmann, B. [CERN; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Izquierdo Bermudez, S. [CERN; Bossert, R. [Fermilab; Buehler, M. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Karppinen, M. [CERN; Nobrega, F. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [CERN; Rossi, L. [CERN; Smekens, D. [CERN; Tartaglia, M. [Fermilab; Turrioni, D. [Fermilab; Velev, Genadi [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing a twin-aperture 11 T Nb3Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. This paper describes the design and parameters of the 11 T dipole developed at FNAL for the LHC upgrades in both single-aperture and twin-aperture configurations, and presents details of the constructed dipole models. Results of studies of magnet quench performance, quench protection and magnetic measurements performed using short 1 m long coils in the dipole mirror and single-aperture configurations are reported and discussed.

  9. Ordering of Nb3Sn layer formed in the bronze process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.K.; Nagpal, K.C.; Narlikar, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The work reported here suggests that the ordering of superconducting Nb 3 Sn compound layers formed in the bronze process is much more intriguing than previously assumed. Various possible mechanisms of ordering of the layers have been examined in conjunction with the observed data on short duration annealed samples. The analysis suggests the ordering to be governed by a sequential operation of both Ist and IInd order kinetics, and seems to fall in line with the studies on disordered bulk samples annealed for long durations. (author)

  10. Stress induced degradation of critical currents in filamentary Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.L.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the critical stress and strain values of bronze, Nb 3 Sn composites at 4.2 K has been made with simultaneous determination of critical currents in a field of 2.5 Tesla. Evidence of grain boundary microcrack formation has been found associated with reversible degradation of critical current. At a critical strain characteristic of the composite geometry these cracks propagate to give a GB fracture network. A compound with a small grain size formed at low temperatures has the best mechanical properties with a critical strain to the onset of reversible degradation of about 0.5%. (author)

  11. Low-field Instabilities in Nb$_{3}$Sn Multifilamentary Wires the Possible Role of Unreacted Nb

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, A; Celentano, G; Fabbricatore, P; Ferdeghini, C; Greco, M; Gambardella, U

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental study aiming to demonstrate the not negligible role of unreacted Nb on the magnetic instabilities in superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn multifilamentary wires, observable through partial flux jumps at magnetic field values below 0.5 T. The analysed wires were recently developed for use as dipoles required in future high-energy proton accelerators and are based on powder-in-tube technology. We studied both unreacted (only involving Nb filaments) and reacted wires, finding flux jump instabilities in both cases when performing magnetic measurements. The results can be interpreted on the basis of the critical state model and are coherent with the intrinsic stability criterion.

  12. A model for phase evolution and volume expansion in tube type Nb3Sn conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, an analytic model for phase formation and volume expansion during heat treatment in tube type Nb3Sn strands is presented. Tube type Nb3Sn conductors consist of Nb or Nb-Ta alloy tube with a simple Cu/Sn binary metal insert to form the basic subelement (filament). A number of these elements, each with an outer Cu jacket, are restacked to form a multifilamentary strand. The present tube type conductors, with 4.2 K, 12 T non-Cu critical current density (Jc) in the 2000-2500 A mm-2 range and effective subelement diameters (deff) in the 12-36 μm range, are of interest for a number of applications. During the reaction of typical tube type strands, the Sn-Cu becomes molten and reacts with the Nb tube first to form NbSn2, then Nb6Sn5. At later times in the reaction sequence, all of the NbSn2 and Nb6Sn5 is converted to Nb3Sn. Some of the Nb3Sn is formed by a Nb-Sn reaction and has a fine grain (FG) structure, while some is converted from Nb6Sn5, which results in a coarse grain (CG) region. The fractions of FG and CG A15 are important in determining the final conductor properties. In this work we develop an analytic model to predict the radial extents of the various phases, and in particular the final FG and CG fractions based on the starting Nb, Cu, and Sn amounts in the subelements. The model is then compared to experimental results and seen to give reasonable agreement. By virtue of this model we outline an approach to minimize the CG regions in tube type and PIT strands and maximize the final FG area fractions. Furthermore, the volume change during the various reaction stages was also studied. It is proposed that the Sn content in the Cu-Sn alloy has a crucial influence on the radial expansion.

  13. Fundamental simulations of transverse load effects on Nb3Sn strands using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Chiesa, L.; Takayasu, M.

    2012-06-01

    A 2D finite element elasto-plastic analysis with various property values of the materials in composite Nb3Sn wires has been conducted to simulate the transverse compression effect on a single strand and a 3-strand cable as basic elements of a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC). The simulation results have been compared with previously reported experimental results. A parametric study of the stress-strain characteristics of copper at 4 K was considered. The simulation results showed that wire and cable deformations due to the transverse load are very sensitive to the elasto-plastic material properties of copper and bronze. In a triplet it is found that the strain distributions inside the superconducting strand are very different along its axis, that is, for a configuration in which two strands lined in parallel to the transverse load direction shows much higher internal strain than other configurations under the same transverse load. The simulation results agree with the reported experimental results indicating a low Young's modulus for Nb3Sn wires under transverse compression. The simulation also supports the reported contact mechanics model for critical current degradation.

  14. Measurement of inter-strand contact resistance in epoxy impregnated Nb3Sn Rutherford cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio Ambrosio

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for the measurement, under transverse pressure, of the inter-strand contact resistance in epoxy-impregnated Nb 3 Sn Rutherford cables has been recently assembled at Fermilab. Procedures have been developed to instrument and measure samples extracted from Nb 3 Sn coils. Samples were extracted from coils fabricated with the Wind-and-React and the React-and-Wind technology, both presently under development at Fermilab. A ceramic binder is used to improve the insulation and to simplify the fabrication of coils using the Wind-and-React technology. Synthetic oil is used to prevent sintering during the heat treatment of coils to be wound after reaction. In order to evaluate the effects of the ceramic binder and of the synthetic oil on the inter-strand resistance, measurements of samples extracted from coils were compared with measurements of cable stacks with varying characteristics. In this paper we describe the apparatus, the sample preparation, the measurement procedure, and the results of the first series of tests

  15. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up using cos-theta dipole coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, F.; Andreev, N.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Fermilab is working on the development of Nb 3 Sn accelerator magnets using shell-type dipole coils and the wind-and-react method. As a part of the first phase of technology development, Fermilab built and tested six 1 m long dipole model magnets and several dipole mirror configurations. The last three dipoles and two mirrors reached their design fields of 10-11 T. The technology scale up phase has started by building 2 m and 4 m dipole coils and testing them in a mirror configuration in which one of the two coils is replaced by a half-cylinder made of low carbon steel. This approach allows for shorter fabrication times and extensive instrumentation preserving almost the same level of magnetic field and Lorentz forces in the coils as in a complete dipole model magnet. This paper presents details on the 2 m (HFDM07) and 4 m long (HFDM08) Nb 3 Sn dipole mirror magnet design and fabrication technology, as well as the magnet test results which are compared with 1 m long models

  16. Selection of a cryostabilized Nb3Sn conductor cooling system for the large coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, J.W.H.; Murphy, J.H.; Jones, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Large Coil Project (LCP) is a program to design, fabricate and test relatively large superconducting toroidal field coils for tokamak fusion reactor applications. Some basic requirements that affect the conductor design are cryostabilization, 8 tesla peak magnetic field, and a specified maximum refrigeration load. The engineering considerations that led to the selection of a forced flow supercritical helium-cooled cable conductor are described. Comparisons of forced flow supercritical helium cooled cable conductors with pool boiling cooled monolithic conductors were made with regard to a number of factors such as the thermal capacity of the coolant, the thermal design margins, propensity for conductor normalization, predictability of the thermal-flow performance, controllability of the cooling conditions, etc. It was concluded that, although there exists a number of design uncertainties and engineering problems, forced flow supercritical helium cooled conductors can provide a far more reliable coil design than the pool boiling monolithic concept. The design of a cryostabilized Nb 3 Sn hollow cabled conductor involved detailed considerations of the need for fully transposed conductor strands, the nonuniform void and helium flow distributions, heat transfer from the twisted conductor strands, and helium flow rate and pump work requirements. The uncertainties in the design are discussed and the specifications of a reference Nb 3 Sn conductor concept that meets the design requirements and constraints are presented

  17. Volume pinning force and upper critical field of irradiated Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, P.; Seibt, E.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation by neutrons and ions in A15 superconductors (Nb 3 Sn, V 3 Ga) exerts a stronger influence on the pinning behavior than in nonordered alloys (NbTi). In this work it is shown for deuteron irradiated Nb 3 /Sn wires prepared by the bronze process that the dose curve of the volume pinning force P/sub V/ can be conveniently described by a sum of two terms, due to the grain boundary pinning and to the radiation pinning, respectively. After deduction of the contribution by the radiation-induced pinning centers, good agreement is obtained between the measured P/sub V/ values and those calculated using the upper critical field B/sub c/2 and the transition temperature T/sub c/ on the basis of the irradiation fluence. The use of a theoretical relationship between B/sub c/2 and T/sub c/ is supported by measured values. Application to multifilamentary superconductors with high current carrying capabilities simplifies the calculation of P/sub V/, since the radiation induced volume pinning force can be neglected

  18. Low-temperature deuteron irradiation of differently reacted Nb3Sn superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, P.; Seibt, E.

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation measurements with 50 MeV deuterons at 18 K and subsequent annealing measurements were performed on Nb 3 Sn single and multifilamentary superconductors at the Helium-Bath Irradiation Facility of the Karlsruhe Cyclotron. The critical current densities jsub(c) of Nb 3 Sn bronze-reacted wire samples at various reaction temperatures (Tsub(R)=650,700,750,800 and 850 0 C) with equal layer thickness were measured for integral deuteron fluxes up to PHIsub(t)=0.7x10 18 cm -2 . After a decrease in jsub(c) of 85% at maximum dose a relatively small annealing effect (4 to 10%) was observed at ambient temperatures. The maximum value of the normalized critical current density, jsub(c)/jsub(c0), at PHIsub(t)approximately=10 17 cm -2 increases with increasing reaction temperature. The difference in volume pinning forces before and after irradiation increases less than linear (approximately√PHIsub(t)) with the irradiation dose. An almost linear dependence between the inverse grain diameter (dsub(K) -1 )) and volume pinning force is obtained both before and after irradiation. (Auth.)

  19. Effect of bronze on the compression of Nb3Sn in multifilamentary conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, G.

    1978-01-01

    Nb 3 Sn in multifilamentary conductors is subject to compressive strain as a result of the relatively small thermal contraction of the filaments as compared to bronze. The critical current Isub(c) is consequently degraded. The critical current increases, when an external tensile stress is applied, and passes through a maximum. The ratio of the maximum critical current to the initial critical current increases with the flux density and reaches a value of two at a flux density of 16 T for technical conductors. The strain epsilonsub(m), at which Isub(c) maximum is reached, lies between 0.4% and 0.7% for the conductors investigated and depends on the material parameters. For a constant ratio of bronze to filament cross section this strain epsilonsub(m) is reduced as the Nb 3 Sn layer thickness is increased and can be determined approximately by a graphical method from the stress-strain diagram. Epsilonsub(m) is to a large extent dependent on the metallurgical properties of bronze, which vary to a considerable extent depending upon the heat treatment. (author)

  20. Status of the 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn Dipole Project for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savary, F.; et al.

    2015-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system includes additional collimators in the LHC lattice. The longitudinal space for the collimators could be obtained by replacing some LHC main dipoles with shorter but stronger dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. A joint development program with the goal of building a 5.5 m long two-in-one aperture Nb_3Sn dipole prototype suitable for installation in the LHC is being conducted by FNAL and CERN magnet groups. As part of the first phase of the program, 1 m long and 2 m long single aperture models are being built and tested, and the collared coils from these magnets will be assembled and tested in two-in-one configuration in both laboratories. In parallel with the short model magnet activities, the work has started on the production line in view of the scale-up to 5.5 m long prototype magnet. The development of the final cryo-assembly comprising two 5.5 m long 11 T dipole cold masses and the warm collimator in the middle, fully compatible with the LHC main systems and the existing machine interfaces, has also started at CERN. This paper summarizes the progress made at CERN and FNAL towards the construction of 5.5 m long 11 T Nb_3Sn dipole prototype and the present status of the activities related to the integration of the 11 T dipole and collimator in the LHC.

  1. Design of Nb$_{3}$Sn magnetic devices to study the superconductor degradation under variable mechanical load

    CERN Document Server

    Regis, Federico

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a two-ring, superconducting synchrotron accelerator and collider installed in a 27 km long tunnel aiming at the discovery of the Higgs particle and the study of rare events with center mass collision energies of up to 14 TeV. The number of collisions per unit of area and time in a collider are evaluated trough the Luminosity function. Inside the LHC, superconducting magnets aligned with a precision of a few tenths of millimeters are used to bend and focus the particle trajectories. The LHC can be considered as the state of the art for superconducting magnets using the Nb-Ti superconductor technology. Therefore, a higher luminosity and beam energy can be achieved in the LHC only by using a more performing superconductor, such as the Nb$_{3}$Sn. This is considered as the most suitable superconductor to be used in high field magnets, allowing peak field of the order of 15 T. Nevertheless, the critical current jc variations in a Nb$_{3}$Sn has been found as strongly dependent on...

  2. Development of Nb$_3$Sn coatings by magnetron sputtering for SRF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Rosaz, G.; Leaux, F.; Motschmann, F.; Mydlarz, Z.; Taborelli, M.; Vollenberg, W.

    2016-01-01

    Cost and energy savings are an integral requirement in the design of future particle accelerators. Very low losses SRF accelerating systems, together with high-efficiency cryogenics systems, have the potential of low running costs. The association to the capital cost reduction allowed by thin films coated copper cavities may represent the best overall cost-performance compromise. This strategy has been applied for instance in LEP, the LHC and HIE-ISOLDE with the niobium thin films technology. New materials must be considered to improve the quality factor of the cavities, such as Nb$_{3}$Sn, which could also ideally operate at higher temperature thus allowing further energy savings. The study considers the possibility to coat a copper resonator with an Nb$_{3}$Sn layer by means of magnetron sputtering using an alloyed target. We present the impact of the process parameters on the as-deposited layer stoichiometry. The latter is in good agreement with previous results reported in the literature and can be tuned ...

  3. Development of Nb3Sn based multi-filamentary superconductor wires for fusion reactor magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Sayandeep; Singh, A.K.; Hussain, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nb 3 Sn is a proposed type II superconductor material to be used as superconducting magnet in fusion reactor for its superior superconducting properties. Fabrication of long single length wire containing Nb 3 Sn filaments is a challenge. The usual manufacturing philosophy involves deforming an assembly of tin and niobium in copper matrix to the final size, followed by the heat treatment to produce superconducting phase at Nb-Cu interface. Multi-filamentary wires were fabricated by hot extrusion of superconductor billet followed by several stages of cold drawing. Heat treatments at various temperature and time were carried out on as formed wire containing multiple filaments in order to see the growth of superconducting intermetallic phase during subsequent characterization. Post heat treatment characterization through SEM, EBSD and EDS revealed the presence of intermetallic phase of Nb and Sn, hypo stoichiometric in Sn, at the Cu-Nb interface growing towards the center of Nb filament. The manufacturing process till the desired final size of the wire happened to be a challenge, mainly because it required extraordinary co-deformability between various materials in such an assembly. Post-trial failure analysis through destructive testing using optical and scanning electron micrographs revealed the propensity of internal radial cracks at Cu-Sn interfaces, while the Nb-Cu interfaces were found to be relatively unaffected. This paper will discuss the details of the fabrication process. (author)

  4. Manufacture and Test of a Small Ceramic-Insulated Nb$_{3}$Sn Split Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B; Rossi, L; Tommasini, D

    2008-01-01

    A small split solenoid wound with high-Jc Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor, constituted by a 0.8 mm Rod Re-stack Process (RRP®) strand, was built and tested at CERN in order to study the applicability of: 1) ceramic wet glass braid insulation without epoxy impregnation of the magnet; 2) a new heat treatment devised at CERN and particularly suitable for reacting RRP® Nb$_{3}$Sn strands. This paper briefly describes the solenoid and the experimental results obtained during 4.4 K and 1.9 K tests. The split solenoid consists of two coils (25 mm inner diameter, 51.1 mm outer diameter, 12.9 mm height). The coils were initially separately tested, in an iron mirror configuration, and then tested together in split solenoid configuration. In all the tests at 4.4 K the coils reached a current higher than 95 % of their short sample limits at the first quench; in split solenoid configuration the maximum field values in the coils and in the aperture were respectively 10.7 T and 12.5 T. At 1.9 K the coils had premature quenches due ...

  5. Development of cost-effective Nb3Sn conductors for the next generation hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Dietderich, D.R.; Zeitlin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in demonstrating that reliable, efficient high field dipole magnets can be made with Nb 3 Sn superconductors. A key factor in determining whether these magnets will be a cost-effective solution for the next generation hadron collider is the conductor cost. Consequently, DOE initiated a conductor development program to demonstrate that Nb 3 Sn can be improved to reach a cost/performance value of $1.50/kA-m at 12T, 4.2K. The first phase of this program was initiated in Jan 2000, with the goal of improving the key properties of interest for accelerator dipole magnets--high critical current density and low magnetization. New world record critical current densities have been reported recently, and it appears that significant potential exists for further improvement. Although new techniques for compensating for magnetization effects have reduced the requirements somewhat, techniques for lowering the effective filament size while maintaining these high Jc values are a program priority. The next phase of this program is focused on reducing the conductor cost through substitution of lower cost raw materials and through process improvements. The cost drivers for materials and fabrication have been identified, and projects are being initiated to demonstrate cost reductions

  6. An exponential scaling law for the strain dependence of the Nb3Sn critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordini, B; Alknes, P; Bottura, L; Rossi, L; Valentinis, D

    2013-01-01

    The critical current density of the Nb 3 Sn superconductor is strongly dependent on the strain applied to the material. In order to investigate this dependence, it is a common practice to measure the critical current of Nb 3 Sn strands for different values of applied axial strain. In the literature, several models have been proposed to describe these experimental data in the reversible strain region. All these models are capable of fitting the measurement results in the strain region where data are collected, but tend to predict unphysical trends outside the range of data, and especially for large strain values. In this paper we present a model of a new strain function, together with the results obtained by applying the new scaling law on relevant datasets. The data analyzed consisted of the critical current measurements at 4.2 K that were carried out under applied axial strain at Durham University and the University of Geneva on different strand types. With respect to the previous models proposed, the new scaling function does not present problems at large strain values, has a lower number of fitting parameters (only two instead of three or four), and is very stable, so that, starting from few experimental points, it can estimate quite accurately the strand behavior in a strain region where there are no data. A relationship is shown between the proposed strain function and the elastic strain energy, and an analogy is drawn with the exponential form of the McMillan equation for the critical temperature. (paper)

  7. Fracture behavior of filament in Nb_3Sn strands with crack-bridging model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Huadong; Yang, Penglei; Xue, Cun; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The crack-bridging model is used to study the fracture behavior of filaments. • Two different fracture modes are characterized by the number of bridging bronzes. • Short twist pitch has better mechanical stability for the tensile loadings. • The widths of bridging bronze and filament have different effects for the central crack and two collinear cracks. - Abstract: The Nb_3Sn strands which have high critical field are used in cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs). The superconducting strands are twisted multistage and experience complex thermal and electromagnetic loadings. Due to their brittleness, the cracking of the Nb_3Sn filaments will occur under mechanical loading. In this paper, based on the linear elastic fracture theory, we study the effects of tension loading on the fracture behavior of central crack firstly. The strain energy release rates for different twist pitches and cabling stages are presented. As the triplet is subjected to the uniaxial strain, the cracking probability will increase with the twist pitch. The crack number increases with the applied strain, and wider filament or bronze can lead to smaller crack number under the same applied strain. In addition, multistage cabling has better mechanical stability. Next, the two collinear crack problem is considered. The variations of microcrack number show that the wider bronze can provide more resistance for the propagating of the large cracks. We can conclude that the bronze plays an important role in improving the stability and strength.

  8. The influence of strain introduced by differential thermal contraction on the critical current of Nb3Sn supercontractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, G.; Jakob, B.

    1992-01-01

    The NET Team initiated in 1988 a development program for a high current cable-in-conduit superconductor planned for fusion magnets. The basic strand chosen for the cable was a Nb 3 Sn wire of TWCA made by the MJR method. The electrical testing of the stand and sub-cables was carried out at several European Laboratories including PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute). The inter-laboratory comparison of the results revealed large differences in the measured critical currents of the strands. Obviously, each laboratory performed the measurement of critical current in its own way, and as a result some discrepancies in the measured values were inevitable. No standard technique of measuring critical current has been developed for Nb 3 Sn wires. The main source of difficulty arises from the strain sensitivity of Nb 3 Sn. It has been shown that the sample holder material and geometry as well as the bonding method of the specimen to its holder have important effects on the critical current measurements. It was found recently that the reaction mandrel material significantly influences the current-carrying capacity of Nb 3 Sn wires. The aim of this paper is to improve current understanding of the effect of sample configuration on critical current in Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary wires. The present study confirms the important role of reaction mandrel material on critical current. Based on comparative critical current measurements of straight and coil samples, an attempt is made to find the sample configuration which eliminates the strain induced in the specimen

  9. Quench Performance and Field Quality of FNAL Twin-Aperture 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn Dipole Model for LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Stoynev, S; Apollinari, G; Auchmann, B; Barzi, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Bossert, R; Chlachidze, G; DiMarco, J; Karppinen, M; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Rossi, F; Savary, F; Smekens, D; Strauss, T; Turrioni, D; Velev, G; Zlobin, A V

    2017-01-01

    A 2 m long single-aperture dipole demonstrator and two 1 m long single-aperture models based on Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor have been built and tested at FNAL. The two 1 m long collared coils were then assembled in a twin-aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole demonstrator compatible with the LHC main dipole and tested in two thermal cycles. This paper summarizes the quench performance of the FNAL twin-aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn 11 T dipole in the temperature range of 1.9-4.5 K. The results of magnetic measurements for one of the two apertures are also presented. Test results are compared to the performance of coils in a single-aperture configuration. A summary of quench propagation studies in both apertures is given.

  10. New Insights into the Limitations on the Efficiency and Achievable Gradients in Nb3Sn SRF Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel Leslie

    The A15 superconductor Nb3Sn has shown great promise to replace niobium as the material of choice for the construction of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities. It promises, at least on paper, greater efficiency and higher accelerating gradients, with the potential to enable the construction of smaller yet more powerful accelerators than can be constructed using niobium. Although the state-of-the-art performance of cavities coated with Nb3Sn has shown great potential, the achievable limits in cavity quality factor Q0 and accelerating gradient Eacc are still below that expected given theoretical limits. In this work we present and discuss results of experiments carried out to understand the current limitations on Q0 and Eacc, and propose methods to improve these further. We will conclude with an outlook to the future, and the prospects that Nb3Sn could enable.

  11. Fatigue and strain effects in NbTi, Nb3Sn, and V2(Hf, Zr) multifilamentary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Wada, H.; Tachikawa, K.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of cyclic strain on critical current were studied in NbTi, bronze processed Nb 3 Sn, and composite diffusion processed V 2 (Hf,Zr) multifilamentary wires. No appreciable changes in critical current were found in NbTi wires until just prior to fatigue-induced fracture. Critical current degradation was also not observed in Nb 3 Sn or V 2 (Hf,Zr) as long as the wires were strained below the reversible limit strain. For strains beyond this limit strain the critical current was first degraded by an increasing number of cycles and then remained constant after a certain cycle number was passed

  12. Technology development and commercial production of current-carrying elements on the basis of Nb3Sn superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.D.; Shikov, A.K.; Davydov, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    A description of a current carrying element intended for Tokamak-15 magnetic system is presented. The element is produced from multicore wires with superconducting Nb 3 Sn cores and calculated for 8.5 kA critical current in magnetic field of 8 T. Main processing procedures of its manufacturing are shown. Extrusion conditions needed for production of composite bronze-niobium rods and multicore wire 1.5 mm in diameter with 14641 niobium cores are determined. Heat treatment used results in formation of Nb 3 Sn intermetallics and assures maximal current-carrying capacity of 910-920 A in 8 T magnetic field. 15 refs., 9 figs

  13. Quench protection studies of 11T 2-in-1 Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models for LHC upgrades

    OpenAIRE

    Zlobin, AV; Chlachidze, G; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Karppinen, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb3Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb3Sn dipole coil ...

  14. Quench protection studies of 11T 2-in-1 Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models for LHC upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, AV; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Karppinen, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole coil tested in a magnetic mirror configuration.

  15. Fabrication and Test of a 1 m Long Single-Aperture 11 T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab; Andreev, N. [Fermilab; Apollinari, G. [Fermilab; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Bossert, R. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Nobrega, F. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [Fermilab; Turrioni, D. [Fermilab; Velev, G. [Fermilab; Auchmann, B. [CERN; Karppinen, M. [CERN; Rossi, L. [CERN; Smekens, D. [CERN

    2013-06-01

    FNAL and CERN are carrying out a joint R&D program with the goal of building a 5.5-m long twin-aperture Nb$_3$Sn dipole prototype suitable for installation in the LHC. An important part of the program is the development and test of a series of short single-aperture demonstration dipoles with a nominal field of 11 T at the LHC nominal current of 11.85 kA and 20% margin. This paper describes design features and test results of a 1 m long single-aperture Nb3Sn demonstrator dipole.

  16. World-Wide Benchmarking of ITER Nb$_{3}$Sn Strand Test Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Jewell, MC; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Shikov, Alexander; Devred, Arnaud; Vostner, Alexander; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yu; Jewell, Matthew C; Boutboul, Thierry; Bessette, Denis; Park, Soo-Hyeon; Isono, Takaaki; Vorobieva, Alexandra; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Seo, Kazutaka

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide procurement of Nb$_{3}$Sn and NbTi for the ITER superconducting magnet systems will involve eight to ten strand suppliers from six Domestic Agencies (DAs) on three continents. To ensure accurate and consistent measurement of the physical and superconducting properties of the composite strand, a strand test facility benchmarking effort was initiated in August 2008. The objectives of this effort are to assess and improve the superconducting strand test and sample preparation technologies at each DA and supplier, in preparation for the more than ten thousand samples that will be tested during ITER procurement. The present benchmarking includes tests for critical current (I-c), n-index, hysteresis loss (Q(hys)), residual resistivity ratio (RRR), strand diameter, Cu fraction, twist pitch, twist direction, and metal plating thickness (Cr or Ni). Nineteen participants from six parties (China, EU, Japan, South Korea, Russia, and the United States) have participated in the benchmarking. This round, cond...

  17. Effect of strain on the martensitic phase transition in superconducting Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoard, R.W.; Scanlan, R.M.; Smith, G.S.; Farrell, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The connection between the cubic-to-tetragonal martensitic phase transformation and the phenomenon of superconductivity in A15 compounds is being investigated. The degradation of the critical parameters, such as T/sub c/, H/sub c2/, and J/sub c/, with mechanical straining is of particular interest. Low-temperature x-ray diffraction experiments are performed on Nb 3 Sn ribbons (with the bronze layers etched off) mounted on copper and indium sample stages. The cryostat used is unique in that it has a vacuum mechanical insert which allows the superconductor to be placed under both compressive and tensile strains while at low temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that the martensitic phase transition temperature, T/sub m/, increases with compressive strains. Other effects of strain on tetragonal phase production are also discussed

  18. Investigation of mechanical behavior of copper in Nb3Sn superconducting composite wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Tanaka, M.; Adachi, T.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical properties and the thermal residual stress distribution of copper in Nb 3 Sn/Cu composite superconductor were investigated in detail. The stabilizer copper was removed from the composite wire, and the stress-strain behavior of this wire was compared with that of the original composite wire. The subtraction yielded the stress-strain curves of the copper when the Bauschinger effect was taken into account. The tensile test of the composites from which about 30% and 60% of copper was removed suggested the existence of the distribution of the thermal residual stress in the stabilizer copper. When this factor was taken into account, the analytical stress-strain curve agreed well with the experimental stress-strain curve. Thus, the stress-stain behavior of each component was fully understood

  19. Voltage spikes in Nb3Sn and NbTi strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordini, B.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet program at Fermilab several NbTi and Nb 3 Sn strands were tested with particular emphasis on the study of voltage spikes and their relationship to superconductor instabilities. The voltage spikes were detected under various experimental conditions using voltage-current (V-I) and voltage-field (V-H) methods. Two types of spikes, designated ''magnetization'' and ''transport current'' spikes, have been identified. Their origin is most likely related to magnetization flux jump and transport current redistribution, respectively. Many of the signals observed appear to be a combination of these two types of spikes; the combination of these two instability mechanisms should play a dominant role in determining the minimum quench current

  20. Development and test of a Nb3Sn racetrack magnet using the react and wind technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bauer, P.; Carcagno, R.; Chichili, D.; Ewald, K.; Feher, S.; Imbasciati, L.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Limon, P.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.; Yadav, S.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Fermilab is involved in the development of a high field accelerator magnet for future hadron colliders using Nb 3 Sn superconductor and the react-and-wind technology. The magnet design is based on single-layer common coils wound simultaneously into a laminated mechanical structure and impregnated with epoxy. In order to develop and optimize the fabrication techniques and to study the conductor performance, a magnet with flat racetrack type coils in a common coil configuration was assembled and tested. The coils were wound in the mechanical structure and in situ impregnated following a procedure that will be used in the single-layer common coil. The magnetic and mechanical design of the racetrack magnet, the fabrication techniques and the test results are presented and discussed in this paper

  1. Mechanical Analysis of the Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet HD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steve A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, Aurelio R.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has recently fabricated and tested HD1, a Nb3Sn dipole magnet. The magnet reached a 16 T field, and exhibited training quenches in the end regions and in the straight section. After the test, HD1 was disassembled and inspected, and a detailed 3D finite element mechanical analysis was done to investigate for possible quench triggers. The study led to minor modifications to mechanical structure and assembly procedure, which were verified in a second test (HD1b). This paper presents the results of the mechanical analysis, including strain gauge measurements and coil visual inspection. The adjustments implemented in the magnet structure are reported and their effect on magnet training discussed

  2. Superconducting properties of powder-metallurgically produced Cu-Nb3Sn composite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, W.; Wecker, J.; Heine, K.; Bormann, R.; Freyhardt, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The critical current density of composite superconducting wires can be improved by ternary or quaternary additions. If these additions are incorporated into the A15 phase the upper critical field can be increased. An increase in this field, however, can only be realized if the additions do not strongly deteriorate the critical temperature. An enhanced upper critical field in connection with a favorable grain size of the A15 phase finally leads to improved critical current densities in the entire field range. With these parameters as guidelines, the effects of Ti, In, Ga, and Ge additions to the bronze and of Ta additions to the niobium on the superconducting properties of PM produced Cu-Nb 3 Sn wires were investigated

  3. Heat Treatment Optimization Studies on PIT Nb$_3$Sn Strand for the NED Project

    CERN Document Server

    Boutboul, T; den Ouden, A; Pedrini, D; Seeber, B; Volpini, G

    2009-01-01

    For the Next European Dipole (NED) program, a Powder-In-Tube (PIT) strand was successfully developed by SMI. This high-performance Nb$_{3}$Sn strand presents a non-copper critical current density of ~ 2500 A/mm2 at 12 T applied field and 4.2 K and a filament diameter around 50 µm. Extensive heat treatment optimization studies were performed in order to maximize both critical current and RRR, with a plateau temperature down to 625 oC and duration up to 400 hours. It appears that a critical current enhancement of ~ 10 % can be achieved for a reaction schedule of 320 hours at 625 oC with non-copper critical current density respectively exceeding 2700 and 1500 A/mm2 at 12 and 15 T (4.2 K). Thanks to this modified heat treatment, this strand completely fulfils the NED stringent specification.

  4. Mechanical analysis of the Nb3Sn dipole magnet HD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steve A.; Hannaford, Carles R.; Hafalia, Aurelio R.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has recently fabricated and tested HD1, a Nb 3 Sn dipole magnet. The magnet reached a 16 T field, and exhibited training quenches in the end regions and in the straight section. After the test, HD1 was disassembled and inspected, and a detailed 3D finite element mechanical analysis was done to investigate for possible quench triggers. The study led to minor modifications to mechanical structure and assembly procedure, which were verified in a second test (HD1b). This paper presents the results of the mechanical analysis, including strain gauge measurements and coil visual inspection. The adjustments implemented in the magnet structure are reported and their effect on magnet training discussed

  5. Thermal, Electrical and Mechanical Response to a Quench in Nb3Sn Superconducting Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, F.; Caspi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Imbasciati, L.; Lietzke, A.F.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    During a quench, significant temperatures can arise as a magnet's stored energy is dissipated in the normal zone. Temperature gradients during this process give rise to localized strains within the coil. Reactive forces in the magnet structure balance the electromagnetic and thermal forces and maintain on equilibrium. In this paper we present a complete 3D finite element analysis of a racetrack coil. Specifically, the analysis focuses on thermal, electrical and mechanical conditions in a 10 T Nb 3 Sn coil built and tested as part of LBNL's Subscale Magnet Program. The study attempts to simulate time history of the temperature and voltage rise during quench propagation. The transient thermal stress after the quench is then evaluated and discussed

  6. Quench Modeling in High-field Nb3Sn Accelerator Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, S. Izquierdo; Bajas, H.; Bottura, L.

    The development of high-field magnets is on-going in the framework of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The resulting peak field, in the range of 12 T to 13 T, requires the use Nb3Sn as superconductor. Due to the high stored energy density (compact winding for cost reduction) and the low stabilizer fraction (to achieve the desired margins), quench protection becomes a challenging problem. Accurate simulation of quench transientsin these magnets is hence crucial to the design choices, the definition of priority R&D and to prove that the magnets are fit for operation. In this paper we focus on the modelling of quench initiation and propagation, we describe approaches that are suitable for magnet simulation, and we compare numerical results with available experimental data.

  7. The First Benchmarking of ITER BR Nb3Sn Strand of CNDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Feng; Liu Fang; Wu Yu; Ni Zhipeng

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Procurement Arrangement (PA) of Cable-In-Conduit Conductor (CICC) unit lengths for the Toroidal Field (TF) and Poloidal Field (PF) magnet systems of ITER, at the start of process qualification, the Domestic Agency (DA) shall be required to conduct a benchmarking of the room and low temperature acceptance tests carried out at the Strand Suppliers and/or at its Reference Laboratories designated by the ITER Organization (IO). The first benchmarking was carried out successfully in 2009. Nineteen participants from six DAs (China, European Union, Japan, South Korea, Russia, and the United States) participated in the first benchmarking. Bronze-route (BR) Nb 3 Sn strand and samples prepared by the ITER reference lab (CERN) were sent out to each participant by CERN. In this paper, the test facility and test results of the first benchmarking by the Chinese DA (CNDA) are presented.

  8. Production of multifilamentary Nb3Sn composites incorporating a high tin bronze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovich, A.; Zeithlin, B.A.; Walker, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    The economics and processing methods have been examined for the fabrication of multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn using a high tin bronze reactive matrix. Four conductor configurations utilizing the high tin bronze were compared with a conventional Cu-13 wt % Sn bronze. The most promising of these designs is potentially 40% lower in cost per ampere meter than the conventional composite. Large hydrostatic extrusion facilities, which are required for the high tin processing, are not presently available in this country but can be made by conversion of conventional presses. They exist in Europe. Experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of hydrostatic extrusion, and billet components were successfully prepared using the hydrostatic extrusion technique. We have concluded that the economics, availability of facilities and initial fabrication results are favorable for this type of conductor and that the next stage in this program of scale up to extrusion and drawing of 2'' to 3'' diameter composite billets should be undertaken

  9. On the formation of voids in internal tin Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Haibel, A

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe three void growth mechanisms in Nb$_{3}$Sn strands of the internal tin design on the basis of combined synchrotron micro-tomography and x-ray diffraction measurements during in-situ heating cycles. Initially void growth is driven by a reduction of void surface area by void agglomeration. The main void volume increase is caused by density changes during the formation of Cu3Sn in the strand. Subsequent transformation of Cu-Sn intermetallics into the lower density a-bronze reduces the void volume again. Long lasting temperature ramps and isothermal holding steps can neither reduce the void volume nor improve the chemical strand homogeneity prior to the superconducting A15 phase nucleation and growth.

  10. Magnetization measurements on multifilamentary Nb3Sn and NbTi conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The effective filament size has been determined for a number of high current Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary composites. In most cases it is much larger than the nominal filament size. For the smallest filaments (approx. 1 micron) the effective size can be as much as a factor of forty times the nominal size. Samples made by the internal tin, bronze route, and jelly roll methods have been examined with filaments in the range one to ten microns. Rate dependent magnetization and flux jumping have been observed in some cases. NbTi composites ranging in filament size from nine to two hundred microns and with copper to super-conductor ratios between 1.6:1 and 7:1 have been examined in the same apparatus. Low field flux jumping was only observed in conductors with very large filaments and relatively little stabilizing copper. 9 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  11. International round robin test for mechanical properties of Nb3Sn superconductive wires at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osamura, K; Nyilas, A; Thoener, M; Seeber, B; Fluekiger, R; Ilyin, Y; Njihuis, A; Ekin, J; Clickner, C; Walsh, R P; Toplosky, V; Shin, H; Katagiri, K; Ochiai, S; Hojo, M; Kubo, Y; Miyashita, K

    2008-01-01

    An international RRT has been carried out in order to establish the test method for mechanical properties of commercial Nb 3 Sn superconductive wires under the cooperation of eleven worldwide research groups. From the stress-strain curve, the following quantities were evaluated; modulus of elasticity, transition of elastic to plastic deformation, proof strength, tensile strength and elongation to fracture. The scatter of measured values was analyzed to evaluate the COV, which is the standard deviation divided by the average. The results made clear how the experimental conditions influence the determination of physical quantities. The most important point is that large COVs for modulus of elasticity and proof strength from the initial slope are caused by the narrow elastic limit. Methods have been discussed to improve the statistics of experimental results obtained from the international RRT

  12. Review of NB3 SN magnets completed or under manufacture and relevant for future fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poehlchen, R.

    1992-05-01

    Nb 3 Sn magnets make use of a forced flow of helium in the longitudinal direction through the individual conductor. The well established vacuum-pressure-impregnation process can be employed in order to achieve a mechanically monolithic winding pack with a highly reliable electric insulation with a high electric strength of 20 KV and above. This is of crucial importance for the Poloidal Coils in normal operation already, but even more important in case of a fast discharge of the Poloidal Coil system or the Toroidal Coil system. The higher the acceptable dump voltage is, the faster the discharge can be thus, making it easier to keep hot spot temperatures at acceptable levels. (author)

  13. Superconductivity optimization and phase formation kinetics study of internal-Sn Nb3Sn superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chaowu

    2007-07-01

    Superconductors Nb 3 Sn wires are one of the most applicable cryogenic superconducting materials and the best choice for high-field magnets exceeding 10 T. One of the most significant utilization is the ITER project which is regarded as the hope of future energy source. The high-Cu composite designs with smaller number of sub-element and non-reactive diffusion barrier, and the RRP (Restacked Rod Process) internal-Sn technology are usually applied for the wire manufacturing. Such designed and processed wires were supplied by MSA/Alstom and WST/NIN in this research. The systematic investigation on internal-Sn superconducting wires includes the optimization of heat treatment (HT) conditions, phase formation and its relation with superconductivity, microstructure analysis, and the phase formation kinetics. Because of the anfractuosity of the configuration design and metallurgical processing, the MF wires are not sufficient for studying a sole factor effect on superconductivity. Therefore, four sets of mono-element (ME) wires with different Sn ratios and different third-element addition were designed and fabricated in order to explore the relationship between phase formation and superconducting performances, particularly the A15 layer growth kinetics. Different characterization technic have been used (magnetization measurements, neutron diffraction and SEM/TEM/EDX analysis). The A15 layer thicknesses of various ME samples were measured and carried out linear and non-linear fits by means of two model equations. The results have clearly demonstrated that the phase formation kinetics of Nb 3 Sn solid-state reaction is in accordance with an n power relation and the n value is increased with the increase of HT temperature and the Sn ratio in the wire composite. (author)

  14. Superconducting properties and uniaxial strain characteristics of Nb3Sn fiber-reinforced superconductors with tantalum reinforcement fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kazuaki; Umeda, Masaichi; Agatsuma, Koh; Tateishi, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    We have been developing fiber-reinforced superconductors (FRS) for high-field and large-scale magnets. Tungsten fibers have been selected as the reinforcement fiber for FRS so far because tungsten has the highest elastic modulus of approximately 400 GPa which can minimize the strain from electromagnetic force. The preparation process of FRS consists of sputtering deposition and heat treatment because it may be difficult to apply drawing methods to materials of high-elastic modulus such as tungsten. Tantalum has high elastic modulus of 178 GPa and its thermal expansion coefficient that is closer to that of Nb 3 Sn than tungsten's, which means prestrain in Nb 3 Sn in FRS is reduced by adopting tantalum fibers. Tantalum has been used as barriers between bronze and copper in conventional Nb 3 Sn superconductors which are usually prepared with drawing process despite of the tantalum's high elastic modulus. That implies drawing process may be applied to prepare FRS with tantalum reinforcement fibers. In this paper, FRS using tantalum fibers prepared with sputtering process are described with making comparison with FRS of tungsten to clarify the basic properties of FRS using tantalum fibers. Depth profiles in Nb 3 Sn layer in FRS were measured to examine reaction between superconducting layers and reinforcement fibers. Superconducting properties including strain and stress characteristics were shown. Those data will contribute to design of FRS using tantalum reinforcement fibers with adopts the drawing processes. (author)

  15. Comparison of direct inter-filament resistance measurement on Nb3Sn strands between University of Twente and ENEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Nijhuis, Arend; Breschi, M.; Spina, T.; Della Corte, A.; Corato, V.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental results of interfilament resistance measurements obtained with different facilities are compared. Two internal tin Nb3Sn strand types are tested at the University of Twente (UT) and ENEA Frascati. The direct interfilament resistance is measured with a standard four-point voltage-current

  16. Improvements in the critical current densities of Nb3Sn by solid solution additions of Sn in Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, T.; Suenaga, M.

    1975-01-01

    The effectiveness of solid solution additions of Sn to Nb in improving the superconducting properties of diffusion processed Nb 3 Sn conductors was examined. It was found that an increase in the superconducting critical current density, Jc, as function of layer thickness (d) may be obtained for thick Nb 3 Sn layers by solid solution additions of Sn in Nb. A large increase in J/sub c/ (d) is also achieved by increasing the Sn content in the bronze matrix material. In addition to uses of this material in magnet fabrications a potential application of these improved J/sub c/(d) values may lie in the use of Nb 3 Sn in power transmission lines. Here, a high superconducting critical current density is necessary throughout the material to carry the increased current during fault conditions. The magnetic field dependence of J/sub c/ is a function of alloy content but the alloying changes studied here do not increase the high field critical current capability of Nb 3 Sn. (auth)

  17. Protection of the 6 T YBCO insert in the 13 T Nb$_{3}$Sn Fresca II dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Stenvall, A.; Fazilleau, Ph.; Devaux, M.; Durante, M.; Lecrevisse, T.; Rey, J. -M.; Fleiter, J.; Sorbi, M.; Volpini, G.; Tixador, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the EuCARD project, we aim to construct a dipole magnet in YBCO producing 6 T in the background field of a 13 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole FRESCA II. This paper reviews the quench analysis and protection of the YBCO coil. In addition, a recommendation for the protection system of the YBCO coil is presented.

  18. DT fusion neutron irradiation of LLL Nb3Sn and LLL superconductor wires at 4.20K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    The DT fusion neutron irradiation of one LLL superconductor wire and one LLL Nb 3 Sn foil at 4.2 0 K is described. The sample position, beam-on time, and neutron dose record are given. The results from two ''profile'' dosimetry foils measuring the lateral variation in neutron flux are included

  19. submitter 16 T Nb$_{3}$Sn Racetrack Model Coil Test Result

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J C; Bajko, M; Bottura, L; Bordini, B; Chiuchiolo, A; De Rijk, G; Ferracin, P; Feuvrier, J; Grosclaude, P; Juchno, M; Rochepault, E; Rysti, J; Sarasola, X

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the European project EuCARD, the High Field Magnet project, led by a CERN-CEA collaboration, implied the development of a large aperture Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole magnet called FRESCA2. The magnet uses four double-pancake block-type coils, each about 1.5 m long. In order to characterize strand and cable properties, as well as to qualify the coil fabrication process, CERN started in 2012 the design and fabrication of the Racetrack Model Coil (RMC) magnet, a short model magnet using the same cable as FRESCA2 magnet with only two flat double-pancake coils about 0.8 m long. In 2013, two superconducting coils have been fabricated, making use of two different types of superconductor. In 2014 and 2015, the coils were tested both in a single and in a double-coil configuration in a support structure based on an external aluminum shell pre-loaded with water-pressurized bladders. In this paper, we describe the design of the RMC magnet and its coils, provide the main parameters of the superconductor, and repo...

  20. submitter Geometrical Behavior of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford Cables During Heat Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Maria; Ferracin, Paolo; Manil, Pierre; Perez, Juan Carlos; Rifflet, Jean-Michel; Rondeaux, Francoise

    2016-01-01

    In Nb$_{3}$Sn accelerator magnets, non-superconducting precursor cables are wound into their final coil shape and then heat treated at a high temperature to form the A15 superconducting phase. The growth of cable strands during reaction and the differential thermal dilatation in the coil components lead to both stress in the cable and geometrical deformations of the winding, with possible consequences on magnet performances. An experimental campaign on different types of Rutherford cables has been carried out at CEA Saclay, in collaboration with CERN, in order to measure cable dimension changes in all directions, with respect to cable configuration and winding geometry. A 700-mm-long versatile test bench has been designed for several cable topologies up to 22 mm in width. This paper describes the tooling and presents the results of the experimental campaign led on the cables, made of powder-in-tube and restacked-rod-process strands, of FRESCA2, a 13-T dipole magnet

  1. Development of multifilamentary NbTi and Nb3Sn composite conductors with very fine filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, T.; Hubota, T.; Makiura, T.; Oda, Y.; Okon, H.; Yasohama, K.

    1986-01-01

    A NbTi multifilamentary composite conductor with about 10,000 filaments has been manufactured in long lengths. A filament diameter of 0.52 μm, a twist pitch of 1.13 mm, a strand diameter of 0.1 mm and a Cu/CuNi mixed matrix result in strongly reduced a.c. losses. The hysteresis loss and the coupling loss are 73 kW/m 3 and 56 kW/m 3 for a 50 Hz magnetic field with an amplitude of 1.5 T. From three strands a conductor was formed with a twist pitch of 2.4 mm. Several small coils were wound and operated at 50 Hz. One of the coils generated a maximum field of 1.52 T(center) at an operating current of the same size as the static critical current. Similarily the construction of a Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary composite conductor with about 280,000 sub-micron filaments for a.c. use was tried

  2. Quench Analysis of High Current Density Nb$_{3}$Sn Conductors in Racetrack Coil Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Bajas, H; Bordini, B; Bottura, L; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Feuvrier, J; Chiuchiolo, A; Perez, J C; Willering, G

    2015-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires the development of new type of superconducting cables based on advanced Nb$_{3}$Sn strands. In the framework of the FP7 European project EUCARD the cables foreseen for the HL-LHC project have been tested recently in a simplified racetrack coil configuration, the so-called Short Model Coil (SMC). In 2013 to 2014, two SMCs wound with 40-strand (RRP 108/127) cables, with different heat treatment processes, reached during training at 1.9 K a current and peak magnetic field of 15.9 kA, 13.9T,and 14.3 kA, 12.7 Trespectively. Using the measured signals from the voltage taps, the behavior of the quenches is analyzed in terms of transverse and longitudinal propagation velocity and hot spot temperature. These measurements are compared with both analytical and numerical calculations from adiabatic models.The coherence of the results from the presented independent methods helps in estimating the relevance of the material properties and the adiabatic a...

  3. Comparison of mechanical concepts for $Nb_3Sn$ high field accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084469; Peter, Schmolz

    Several magnets using Nb$_{3}$Sn as conductor are currently developed at CERN; these magnets are either slated for future updates of the LHC or for research purposes relating to future accelerators. The mechanical structure is one of the challenging aspects of superconducting high-field magnets. The main purpose of the mechanical structure is to keep the coils in compression till the emergence of the highest electromagnetic forces that are developed in the ultimate field of the magnet. Any loss of pre-compression during the magnet’s excitation would cause too large deformation of the coil and possibly a quench in the conductor owing to relative movements of strands in contact associated with excessive local heat release. However, too high pre-compression would overstrain the conductor and thereby limit the performance of the magnet. This thesis focuses on the mechanical behaviour of three of these magnets. All of them are based on different mechanical designs, “bladder and key” and “collar-based”, ...

  4. A new generation Nb3Sn wire, and the prospects for its use in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gourlay, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated a Conductor Development Program aimed at demonstrating a high current density, cost effective Nb3Sn conductor for use in accelerator magnets. The first goal, an increase in current density by 50%, has been achieved in a practical conductor. The program is focused at present on achieving the second goal of reduced losses. The different approaches for achieving these goals will be discussed, and the status will be presented. Magnet technology R and D has been proceeding in parallel with the conductor development efforts, and these two technologies are reaching the level required for the next step--introduction into operating accelerator magnets. An obvious point for introducing this technology is the LHC interaction region magnets, which require large apertures and high fields (or high field gradients). By upgrading the interaction region magnets, machine performance can be enhanced significantly without replacing the arc magnets, which represent most of the cost of an accelerator. Design requirements generated by recent studies and workshops will be reviewed, and a roadmap for the development of the next-generation interaction region magnets will be presented

  5. Characterization of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cables for the LHC 11-T Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Wuis, A J; Ballarino, A; Oberli, L; Ten Kate, H H J

    2013-01-01

    The so-called CERN-LHC DS upgrade relies on the use of 11 T dipole magnets. For these magnets 40 strands Nb$_{3}$Sn type Rutherford cables based on 0.7 mm wires are being developed. Recently four samples of the cables were characterized in the CERN FRESCA cable test station. The critical current and the premature quench current due to magneto-thermal instability were measured at 1.9 K and 4.3 K in a background magnetic field between 0 and 9.6 T (the peak magnetic field on the conductor, including the self-field of the cable, ranges from ~ 2 T to ~ 12 T). Two cable samples were based on Powder-In-Tube (PIT) wire and two on Restacked-Rod-Process (RRP) wire. The PIT samples were identical and without a core in the cable while one of the RRP samples features a 25 μm thick stainless steel core. All cables samples tested have a width and a thickness of about 14.7 mm and 1.25 mm, respectively. Cables and sample holders were manufactured at CERN. In this paper we report and discuss the cable test results and compare...

  6. Test Results of a Nb3Sn Wind/React ''Stress-Managed'' Block Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.; Bish, P.; Blackburn, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Hafalia Jr., R.; Henchel, W.; Jaisle, A.; Lau, W.; Lietzke, A.; McIntyre, P.; Noyes, P.; Nyman, M.; Sattarov, A.; Sattarov, A.

    2006-01-01

    A second phase of a highfield dipole technology development has been tested. A Nb3Sn block-coil model dipole was fabricated, using magnetic mirror geometry and wind/react coil technology. The primary objective of this phase was to make a first experimental test of the stress-management strategy pioneered at Texas A and M. In this strategy a high-strength support matrix is integrated with the windings to intercept Lorentz stress from the inner winding so that it does not accumulate in the outer winding. The magnet attained a field that was consistent with short sample limit on the first quench; there was no training. The decoupling of Lorentz stress between inner and outer windings was validated. In ramp rate studies the magnet exhibited a remarkable robustness in rapid ramping operation. It reached 85 percent of short sample(ss) current even while ramping 2-3 T/s. This robustness is attributed to the orientation of the Rutherford cables parallel to the field in the windings, instead of the transverse orientation that characterizes common dipole designs. Test results are presented and the next development phase plans are discussed

  7. Fabrication of fine-grain tantalum diffusion barrier tube for Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, K. T.; Balachandran, S.; Mezyenski, R.; Seymour, N.; Robinson, J.; Barber, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion barriers used in Nb 3 Sn wire are often fabricated by wrapping Ta sheet into a tube with an overlap seam. A common result of such practice is non-uniform deformation in the Ta sheet as it thins by wire drawing because of non-uniform grain size and texture in the original Ta sheet. Seamless Ta tube with a fine-grain and uniform microstructure would be much better for the diffusion barrier application, but such material is expensive and difficult to manufacture. This report presents results on a new fabrication strategy for Ta tube that shows promise for manufacture of less costly tube with an improved microstructure. The fabrication method begins with seam-welded tube but gives a fine-grain uniform microstructure with little difference between the longitudinal seam weld region and the parent metal after post-weld processing. Severe plastic deformation processing (SPD) applied by area reduction extrusion and tube equal channel angular extrusion (tECAE) are used to refine and homogenize the microstructure. Microstructure and mechanical property results are presented for Ta tubes fabricated by this new processing strategy

  8. Fabrication of fine-grain tantalum diffusion barrier tube for Nb3Sn conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, K. T.; Balachandran, S.; Mezyenski, R.; Seymour, N.; Robinson, J.; Barber, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion barriers used in Nb3Sn wire are often fabricated by wrapping Ta sheet into a tube with an overlap seam. A common result of such practice is non-uniform deformation in the Ta sheet as it thins by wire drawing because of non-uniform grain size and texture in the original Ta sheet. Seamless Ta tube with a fine-grain and uniform microstructure would be much better for the diffusion barrier application, but such material is expensive and difficult to manufacture. This report presents results on a new fabrication strategy for Ta tube that shows promise for manufacture of less costly tube with an improved microstructure. The fabrication method begins with seam-welded tube but gives a fine-grain uniform microstructure with little difference between the longitudinal seam weld region and the parent metal after post-weld processing. Severe plastic deformation processing (SPD) applied by area reduction extrusion and tube equal channel angular extrusion (tECAE) are used to refine and homogenize the microstructure. Microstructure and mechanical property results are presented for Ta tubes fabricated by this new processing strategy.

  9. GLAG theory for superconducting property variations with A15 composition in Nb3Sn wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen

    2017-04-25

    We present a model for the variation of the upper critical field H c2 with Sn content in A15-type Nb-Sn wires, within the Ginzburg-Landau-Abrikosov-Gor'kov (GLAG) theory frame. H c2 at the vicinity of the critical temperature T c is related quantitatively to the electrical resistivity ρ, specific heat capacity coefficient γ and T c . H c2 versus tin content is theoretically formulated within the GLAG theory, and generally reproduces the experiment results. As Sn content gradually approaches the stoichiometry, A15-type Nb-Sn undergoes a transition from the dirty limit to clean limit, split by the phase transformation boundary. The H-T phase boundary and pinning force show different behaviors in the cubic and tetragonal phase. We dipict the dependence of the composition gradient on the superconducting properties variation in the A15 layer, as well as the curved tail at vicinity of H c2 in the Kramer plot of the Nb 3 Sn wire. This helps understanding of the inhomogeneous-composition inducing discrepancy between the results by the state-of-art scaling laws and experiments.

  10. The SMC (Short Model Coil) Nb$_{3}$Sn Program: FE Analysis with 3D Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kokkinos, C; Guinchard, M; Karppinen, M; Manil, P; Perez, J C; Regis, F

    2012-01-01

    The SMC (Short Model Coil) project aims at testing superconducting coils in racetrack configuration, wound with Nb$_{3}$Sn cable. The degradation of the magnetic properties of the cable is studied by applying different levels of pre-stress. It is an essential step in the validation of procedures for the construction of superconducting magnets with high performance conductor. Two SMC assemblies have been completed and cold tested in the frame of a European collaboration between CEA (FR), CERN and STFC (UK), with the technical support from LBNL (US). The second assembly showed remarkable good quench results, reaching a peak field of 12.5T. This paper details the new 3D modeling method of the SMC, implemented using the ANSYS® Workbench environment. Advanced computer-aided-design (CAD) tools are combined with multi-physics Finite Element Analyses (FEA), in the same integrated graphic interface, forming a fully parametric model that enables simulation driven development of the SMC project. The magnetic and struct...

  11. Influence of Compaction During Reaction Heat Treatment on the Interstrand Contact Resistances of Nb3Sn Rutherford Cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collings, E.W.; Sumption, Mike D.; Majoros, Milan; Wang, Xiaorong; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Yagotyntsev, K.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2018-01-01

    The amplitudes of multipoles in the bore fields of dipole and quadrupole magnets, induced by ramp-rate-dependent coupling currents, are under the control of the interstrand contact resistances - crossing-strand, Rc, adjacent strand, Ra, or a combination of them, Reff. Although two decades ago it was

  12. Superconducting critical-current densities of commercial multifilamentary Nb3Sn(Ti) wires made by the bronze process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Tsuchiya, K.; Higuchi, N.; Tachikawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    Superconducting critical-current densities Jsub(c) in fields up to 24 T and at 4.2 and 1.8 K were measured for a number of commercial Nb 3 Sn wires which were alloyed with Ti. The best values of Jsub(c) at 20 T and at 4.2 and 1.8 K were 78 and 156 A mm -2 , respectively. In order to achieve these high current densities at H>20 T, it was shown that nonuniformity of the filaments had to be minimized. It was also shown that the grain size of Nb 3 Sn is not very important in determining Jsub(c) at these high magnetic fields, and that achieving high values of critical magnetic field Hsub(c2) is more important than small grain size. (author)

  13. Embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors for true temperature monitoring in Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiolo, A.; Bajas, H.; Bajko, M.; Consales, M.; Giordano, M.; Perez, J. C.; Cusano, A.

    2016-05-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) planned at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) requires the development of a new generation of superconducting magnets based on Nb3Sn technology. The instrumentation required for the racetrack coils needs the development of reliable sensing systems able to monitor the magnet thermo-mechanical behavior during its service life, from the coil fabrication to the magnet operation. With this purpose, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been embedded in the coils of the Short Model Coil (SMC) magnet fabricated at CERN. The FBG sensitivity to both temperature and strain required the development of a solution able to separate mechanical and temperature effects. This work presents for the first time a feasibility study devoted to the implementation of an embedded FBG sensor for the measurement of the "true" temperature in the impregnated Nb3Sn coil during the fabrication process.

  14. Analysis of Uncertainties in Protection Heater Delay Time Measurements and Simulations in Nb$_{3}$Sn High-Field Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Salmi, Tiina; Marchevsky, Maxim; Bajas, Hugo; Felice, Helene; Stenvall, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The quench protection of superconducting high-field accelerator magnets is presently based on protection heaters, which are activated upon quench detection to accelerate the quench propagation within the winding. Estimations of the heater delay to initiate a normal zone in the coil are essential for the protection design. During the development of Nb3Sn magnets for the LHC luminosity upgrade, protection heater delays have been measured in several experiments, and a new computational tool CoHDA (Code for Heater Delay Analysis) has been developed for heater design. Several computational quench analyses suggest that the efficiency of the present heater technology is on the borderline of protecting the magnets. Quantifying the inevitable uncertainties related to the measured and simulated delays is therefore of pivotal importance. In this paper, we analyze the uncertainties in the heater delay measurements and simulations using data from five impregnated high-field Nb3Sn magnets with different heater geometries. ...

  15. Analysis of Uncertainties in Protection Heater Delay Time Measurements and Simulations in Nb$_{3}$Sn High-Field Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Salmi, Tiina; Marchevsky, Maxim; Bajas, Hugo; Felice, Helene; Stenvall, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The quench protection of superconducting high-field accelerator magnets is presently based on protection heaters, which are activated upon quench detection to accelerate the quench propagation within the winding. Estimations of the heater delay to initiate a normal zone in the coil are essential for the protection design. During the development of Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets for the LHC luminosity upgrade, protection heater delays have been measured in several experiments, and a new computational tool CoHDA (Code for Heater Delay Analysis) has been developed for heater design. Several computational quench analyses suggest that the efficiency of the present heater technology is on the borderline of protecting the magnets. Quantifying the inevitable uncertainties related to the measured and simulated delays is therefore of pivotal importance. In this paper, we analyze the uncertainties in the heater delay measurements and simulations using data from five impregnated high-field Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets with different heater ge...

  16. Embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors for true temperature monitoring in Nb$_3$Sn superconducting magnets for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuchiolo, A; Bajko, M; Consales, M; Giordano, M; Perez, J C; Cusano, A

    2016-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) planned at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) requires the development of a new generation of superconducting magnets based on Nb$_{3}$Sn technology. The instrumentation required for the racetrack coils needs the development of reliable sensing systems able to monitor the magnet thermo-mechanical behavior during its service life, from the coil fabrication to the magnet operation. With this purpose, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been embedded in the coils of the Short Model Coil (SMC) magnet fabricated at CERN. The FBG sensitivity to both temperature and strain required the development of a solution able to separate mechanical and temperature effects. This work presents for the first time a feasibility study devoted to the implementation of an embedded FBG sensor for the measurement of the "true" temperature in the impregnated Nb$_{3}$Sn coil during the fabrication process. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Inst...

  17. Specific heat of Nb3Sn and V2Zr compounds irradiated with high fluences fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar'kin, A.E.; Mirmel'shtejn, A.V.; Arkhipov, V.E.; Goshchitskij, B.N.

    1987-01-01

    Specific heat of Nb 3 Sn (structure A15) and V 2 Zr (C15) specimens irradiated with high fluences of bast neutrons has been measured. It is shown that in these compounds the temperature reduction of superconducting transition T c under neutron irradiation is accompanied with high decrease of N(E F ). Phonon spectrum of the irradiated V 2 Zr (amorphous phase) on the whole is harder, than at an initial state, for irradiated Nb 3 Sn state (disordered crystalline structure) phonon spectrum is differ weakly from initial one. General regularities of parameter change of electron and phonon subsystems for A15 compounds investigated here and earlier (V 3 Si, Mo 3 Si, Mo 3 Ge) have been analysed

  18. Validation of Finite-Element Models of Persistent-Current Effects in Nb3Sn Accelerator Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Collings, E. W.; Dietderich, D. R.; DiMarco, J.; Felice, H.; Ghosh, A. K.; Godeke, A.; Gourlay, S. A.; Marchevsky, M.; Prestemon, S. O.; Sabbi, G.; Sumption, M. D.; Velev, G. V.; Xu, X.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent magnetization currents are induced in superconducting filaments during the current ramping in magnets. The resulting perturbation to the design magnetic field leads to field quality degradation, in particular at low field where the effect is stronger relative to the main field. The effects observed in NbTi accelerator magnets were reproduced well with the critical-state model. However, this approach becomes less accurate for the calculation of the persistent-current effects observed in Nb 3 Sn accelerator magnets. Here a finite-element method based on the measured strand magnetization is validated against three state-of-art Nb3Sn accelerator magnets featuring different subelement diameters, critical currents, magnet designs and measurement temperatures. The temperature dependence of the persistent-current effects is reproduced. Based on the validated model, the impact of conductor design on the persistent current effects is discussed. The performance, limitations and possible improvements of the approach are also discussed

  19. The influence of the thermal regime of the multifilamentary wires preparation to the creation of the Nb3Sn phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Hucl, M.; Bajci, P.; Kruzliak, J.; Benacka, S.; Hut'ka, P.; Kovac, P.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the results obtained by Moessbauer spectroscopy and by measuring the critical temperature by means of the inductive method, the possibility of creating the Nb 3 Sn phase in the composite filaments CuSn-Nb is discussed. The filaments were prepared by pressing at room temperature, and at temperatures of 550 to 600 deg C. Experimental details are given. Results are given and discussed. (author)

  20. High-energy-neutron damage in Nb3Sn: changes in critical properties, and damage-energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Parkin, D.M.; Guinan, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    Filamentary wires of Nb 3 Sn have been irradiated with fission-reactor, 14.8-MeV, and d-Be neutrons and the changes in critical properties measured. The changes observed scale reasonably well with the calculated damage energies for the irradiations. A critical dose for operation of these conductors in fusion-magnet applications is determined to be 0.19 eV/atom damage energy or 0.0019 dpa

  1. Thermal fluctuations in the classical superconductor Nb3Sn from high-resolution specific-heat measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lortz, Rolf; Wang Yuxing; Junod, Alain; Toyota, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The range of thermal fluctuations in 'classical' bulk superconductors is extremely small and especially in low-fields hardly experimentally accessible. With a new type of calorimeter we were able to detect a tiny lambda anomaly in the specific-heat of the superconductor Nb 3 Sn within a narrow temperature range around the H c2 line. We show that the evolution of the anomaly as a function of magnetic field follows scaling laws expected in the presence of critical thermal fluctuations

  2. Self-field instabilities in high-$J_{c}$ Nb$_{3}$Sn strands the effect of copper RRR

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B

    2009-01-01

    High critical current density (Jc) Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor is the best candidate for next generation high field (> 10 T) accelerator magnets. Although very promising, state of the art high-Jc Nb$_{3}$Sn strands suffer of magneto-thermal instabilities that can severely limit the strand performance. Recently it has been shown that at 1.9 K the self field instability is the dominating mechanism that limits the performance of strands with a low (<10) Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the stabilizing copper. At CERN several state of the art high–Jc Nb$_{3}$Sn wires have been tested at 4.2 K and 1.9 K to study the effects on strand self-field instability of: RRR and strand impregnation with stycast. To study the effect of the RRR value on magneto-thermal instabilities, a new 2-D finite element model was also developed at CERN. This model simulates the whole development of the flux jump in the strand cross section also taking into account the heat and current diffusion in the stabilizing copper. In this paper th...

  3. Proof-of-principle demonstration of Nb3Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high Q0 applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, S.; Liepe, M.; Hall, D. L.

    2015-02-01

    Many future particle accelerators require hundreds of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities operating with high duty factor. The large dynamic heat load of the cavities causes the cryogenic plant to make up a significant part of the overall cost of the facility. This contribution can be reduced by replacing standard niobium cavities with ones coated with a low-dissipation superconductor such as Nb3Sn. In this paper, we present results for single cell cavities coated with Nb3Sn at Cornell. Five coatings were carried out, showing that at 4.2 K, high Q0 out to medium fields was reproducible, resulting in an average quench field of 14 MV/m and an average 4.2 K Q0 at quench of 8 × 109. In each case, the peak surface magnetic field at quench was well above Hc1, showing that it is not a limiting field in these cavities. The coating with the best performance had a quench field of 17 MV/m, exceeding gradient requirements for state-of-the-art high duty factor SRF accelerators. It is also shown that—taking into account the thermodynamic efficiency of the cryogenic plant—the 4.2 K Q0 values obtained meet the AC power consumption requirements of state-of-the-art high duty factor accelerators, making this a proof-of-principle demonstration for Nb3Sn cavities in future applications.

  4. Electrical Resistance of Nb$_{3}$Sn/Cu Splices Produced by Electromagnetic Pulse Technology and Soft Soldering

    CERN Document Server

    Schoerling, D; Scheuerlein, C; Atieh, S; Schaefer, R

    2011-01-01

    The electrical interconnection of Nb$_{3}$Sn/Cu strands is a key issue for the construction of Nb$_{3}$Sn based damping ring wigglers and insertion devices for third generation light sources. We compare the electrical resistance of Nb$_{3}$Sn/Cu splices manufactured by solid state welding using Electromagnetic Pulse Technology (EMPT) with that of splices produced by soft soldering with two different solders. The resistance of splices produced by soft soldering depends strongly on the resistivity of the solder alloy at the operating temperature. By solid state welding splice resistances below 10 nOhm can be achieved with 1 cm strand overlap length only, which is about 4 times lower than the resistance of Sn96Ag4 soldered splices with the same overlap length. The comparison of experimental results with Finite Element simulations shows that the electrical resistance of EMPT welded splices is determined by the resistance of the stabilizing copper between the superconducting filaments and confirms that welding of ...

  5. Multifilamentar superconductor wires of Cu-Nb-Al and Cu-Nb3Sn obtained by a new method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, O.F. de

    1985-01-01

    A new method to prepare multifilamentar wires of Cu-Nb 3 Sn which is based on power metallurgy is developed. Wires of Cu+xw%Nb++2wt%Al (x =10,30) were tinned and heat treated for Sn diffusion and reaction (T = 700 0 C), leading to the Nb 3 Sn A 15 phase. Final wires showed microfilament density around 8 x 10 4 mm -2 . The superconducting properties (T sup(c), J sup(c) x H), mechanical properties (tau x epsilon) and eletrical resistivity for Cu-Nb-Al wires were as normally expected. The Cu-Nb 3 Sn wires showed high T sub(c) approx. 17.9 K, very near that for the pure A 15 phase. J sub(c) x H curves were approx. 4 times lower than typical published results for wires prepared by other methods. The experimental evidence shows that J sub(c) increases when decreases the initial Nb particle size. (Author) [pt

  6. Critical current scaling and the pivot-point in Nb3Sn strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, Y; Hampshire, D P

    2012-01-01

    Detailed measurements are provided of the engineering critical current density (J c ) and the index of transition (n-value) of two different types of advanced ITER Nb 3 Sn superconducting strand for fusion applications. The samples consist of one internal-tin strand (OST) and two bronze-route strands (BEAS I and BEAS II—reacted using different heat treatments). Tests on different sections of these wires show that prior to applying strain, J c is homogeneous to better than 2% along the length of each strand. J c data have been characterized as a function of magnetic field (B ≤ 14.5 T), temperature (4.2 K ≤ T ≤ 12 K) and applied axial strain ( − 1% ≤ ε A ≤ 0.8%). Strain-cycling tests demonstrate that the variable strain J c data are reversible to better than 2% when the applied axial strain is in the range of − 1% ≤ ε A ≤ 0.5%. The wires are damaged when the intrinsic strain (ε I ) is ε I ≥ 0.55% and ε I ≥ 0.23% for the OST and BEAS strands, respectively. The strain dependences of the normalized J c for each type of strand are similar to those of prototype strands of similar design measured in 2005 and 2008 to about 2% which makes them candidate strands for a round-robin interlaboratory comparison. The J c data are described by Durham, ITER and Josephson-junction parameterizations to an accuracy of about 4%. For all of these scaling laws, the percentage difference between the data and the parameterization is larger when J c is small, caused by high B, T or |ε I |. The n-values can be described by a modified power law of the form n=1+rI c s , where r and s are approximately constant and I c is the critical current. It has long been known that pivot-points (or cross-overs) in J c occur at high magnetic field and temperature. Changing the magnetic field or temperature from one side of the pivot-point to the other changes the highest J c sample to the lowest J c sample and vice versa. The pivot-point follows the B–T phase boundary

  7. Thermal and mechanical effects of quenches on Nb3Sn high field hadron collider magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryuji, Yamada

    2001-01-01

    Thermal and its resulting mechanical stress due to quenches inside short and long epoxy impregnated Nb 3 Sn high field magnets are studied with a quench simulation program, Kuench, and ANSYS program. For the protection of a long high field magnet, we have to use heaters to dump the stored energy uniformly inside the magnet, after detection of a spontaneous quench. The time delay of starting a forced quench with heaters, is estimated using ANSYS. Using this information, the thermal distribution in two-dimensional magnet cross section is studied. First a one meter model magnet with a dump resistor is used to estimate the effects and then a 10 meter long magnet is studied. The two-dimensional temperature distributions in the magnet cross sections are recorded every 5 ms, and visually displayed. With this visual animation displays we can understand intuitively the thermal and quench propagation in 2-dimensional field. The quenching cables get heated locally much more than the surrounding material and non-quenching conductor cables. With a one meter magnet with a dump resistor of 30 mOmega, typically only the quench starting cables and its neighbor cables get heated up to 100 K without significant effects from the heaters. With a10 meter magnet, heaters cause the quenches to most of the conductor blocks. The quench initiating cables get up to 250 to 300 K in 100 ms, but the surrounding and wedges are not heated up significantly. This causes the excessive stress in the quenching conductors and in their insulation material locally. The stress and strain in the conductor as well as in the insulation become excessive, and they are studied using the ANSYS stress analysis, using Von Mises criterion. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for the extended ten meter long magnet [1

  8. Final Report SBIR Phase I, Improvement of Properties of Tubular Internal-Tin Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Final report of SBIR to develop an economical process that can produce the best material for high field magnets to be used in the next generation of accelerators. The overall problem is to develop an economical process that can produce material with good properties for high field magnets to be used in the future for High Energy Physics (HEP) applications. The Internal-tin (IT) process, called by some the Restacked Rod process (RRP), for making Nb 3 Sn has been very successful in achieving high J c properties in the high field region. As a result it has been used effectively in several high field magnets. Originally, when this material was processed to give the highest J c it behaved unstably in the low field region and consequently did not perform as well in magnets designed for intermediate field applications. In this field range, the Powder-in-Tube (PIT) material, that has a lower d eff and a high RRR, behaved more reliably. The IT material has been improved to give better stability in the low field range and consequently the process offers a considerable challenge to the PIT process for application in both types of magnets. The PIT material has two principal drawbacks - lower J c and high cost. Work has been carried out to address these two problems and Supergenics I LLC has reported, on a low cost tubular process that is under development. It has fewer problems than the (IT) process in making low d eff materials and is of lower cost than both the IT and PIT processes. At the present stage, the J c 's that have been achieved are similar to those of the PIT material but are below those of the IT material. The purpose of the work proposed here is to improve the properties of the material made by this tubular process that has been described previously.

  9. Thermodynamics of superconducting Nb3Al, Nb3Ge, Nb3Sn, and V3Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrovic, B.; Schachinger, E.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    We have calculated the superconducting thermodynamic properties for several high-transition-temperature A15 compounds: Nb-Al, Nb-Ge, Nb-Sn, and V-Ga. In our calculations we have used the tunneling electron-phonon--coupling spectra α 2 F for all four systems considered, and in the case of Nb-Al and Nb-Ge we have also used α 2 F = CG, where G is the measured generalized phonon density of states and C is a constant. We find that all Nb-based A15 compounds display similar thermodynamic properties, which do not depend explicitly on the band density of states: 2Δ 0 /k/sub B/T/sub c/approx. =4.6, ΔC/γT/sub c/approx. =2.5--2.6, -T/sub c/[dH/sub c/(T)/dT]c/ H/sub c/(0)approx. =2.1, γ[T/sub c//H/sub c/(0)] 2 approx. =0.134, and positive D(t)'s with the maximum value around 0.02. For Nb 3 Sn we find good agreement between the calculated properties and the old specific-heat experimental results (γapprox. =52 mJ/mol K 2 ). The same applies to V 3 Ga, where the theoretical results have been compared with the experiments of Junod et al. However, we do not find good agreement between calculated ΔC/γT/sub c/, -T/sub c/[dH/sub c/(T)/dT]c/H/sub c/(0), γ[T/sub c//H/sub c/(0)] 2 , and experimental values for Nb 3 Al and Nb 3 Ge, presumably due to broadened transitions. It is argued that the tunneling experiments underestimate the value of the gap which should be associated with the inverted α 2 F

  10. Thermodynamics of superconducting Nb3Al, Nb3Ge, Nb3Sn, and V3Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, B.; Schachinger, E.; Carbotte, J. P.

    1984-06-01

    We have calculated the superconducting thermodynamic properties for several high-transition-temperature A15 compounds: Nb-Al, Nb-Ge, Nb-Sn, and V-Ga. In our calculations we have used the tunneling electron-phonon-coupling spectra α2F for all four systems considered, and in the case of Nb-Al and Nb-Ge we have also used α2F=CG, where G is the measured generalized phonon density of states and C is a constant. We find that all Nb-based A15 compounds display similar thermodynamic properties, which do not depend explicitly on the band density of states: 2Δ0κBTc≅4.6, ΔCγTc≅2.5-2.6,-Tc[dHc(T)dT]TcHc(0)≅2.1, γ[TcHc(0)]2≅0.134, and positive D(t)'s with the maximum value around 0.02. For Nb3Sn we find good agreement between the calculated properties and the old specific-heat experimental results (γ≅52 mJ/mol K2). The same applies to V3Ga, where the theoretical results have been compared with the experiments of Junod et al. However, we do not find good agreement between calculated ΔCγTc, - Tc[dHc(T)dT]TcHc(0), γ[TcHc(0)]2, and experimental values for Nb3Al and Nb3Ge, presumably due to broadened transitions. It is argued that the tunneling experiments underestimate the value of the gap which should be associated with the inverted α2F.

  11. A review of the properties of Nb3Sn and their variation with A15 composition, morphology and strain state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godeke, A

    2006-01-01

    Significant efforts can be found throughout the literature to optimize the current-carrying capacity of Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires. The achievable transport current density in wires depends on the A15 composition, morphology and strain state. The A15 sections in wires contain, due to compositional inhomogeneities resulting from solid-state diffusion A15 formation reactions, a distribution of superconducting properties. The A15 grain size can be different from wire to wire, and is also not necessarily homogeneous across the A15 regions. Strain is always present in composite wires, and the strain state changes as a result of thermal contraction differences and Lorentz forces in magnet systems. To optimize the transport properties, it is thus required to identify how composition, grain size and strain state influence the superconducting properties. This is not possible accurately in inhomogeneous and spatially complex systems such as wires. This article therefore gives an overview of the available literature on simplified, well-defined (quasi-)homogeneous laboratory samples. After more than 50 years of research on superconductivity in Nb 3 Sn, a significant amount of results are available, but these are scattered over a multitude of publications. Two reviews exist on the basic properties of A15 materials in general, but no specific review for Nb 3 Sn is available. This article is intended to provide such an overview. It starts with a basic description of the niobium-tin intermetallic. After that, it maps the influence of Sn content on the electron-phonon interaction strength and on the field-temperature phase boundary. The literature on the influence of Cu, Ti and Ta additions will then be summarized briefly. This is followed by a review of the effects of grain size and strain. The article concludes with a summary of the main results. (topical review)

  12. Development and test of Nb3sn cos-theta coils made of high-jc rrp strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    A series of 1-m long Nb3Sn dipole magnets have been built at Fermilab in an attempt to refine the wind-and-react technology for Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor. Models have been made with MJR and PIT strand with varying degrees of success. Subsequently two new dipole ''mirror'' magnets based on RRP Nb{sub 3}Sn coils were constructed and tested. This paper describes the design, fabrication and test results of those magnets.

  13. Use of High Resolution DAQ System to Aid Diagnosis of HD2b, a High Performance Nb3Sn Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizarazo, J.; Doering, D.; Doolittle, L.; Galvin, J.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Godeke, A.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A.F.; Ratti, A.; Sabbi, G.L.; Trillaud, F.; Wang, X.; Zimmerman, S.

    2008-01-01

    A novel voltage monitoring system to record voltage transients in superconducting magnets is being developed at LBNL. This system has 160 monitoring channels capable of measuring differential voltages of up to 1.5kV with 100kHz bandwidth and 500kS/s digitizing rate. This paper presents analysis results from data taken with a 16 channel prototype system. From that analysis we were able to diagnose a change in the current-temperature margin of the superconducting cable by analyzing Flux-Jump data collected after a magnet energy extraction failure during testing of a high field Nb 3 Sn dipole.

  14. Comments on Moessbauer-effect studies on 2-MeV proton-irradiated Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.E.; Sweedler, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    In a recent paper, Herber and Kalish have presented 119 Sn Moessbauer data for Nb 3 Sn irradiated by 2-MeV protons which they interpret in terms of a statistical distribution of site defects rather than interchange of Nb and Sn atoms. Further analysis of these data leads to the conclusion that they are in fact quite consistent with the presence of a substantial amount of radiation-induced site-exchange disorder. This is in agreement with the findings of a number of recent diffraction studies

  15. Ion implantation in superconducting niobium and Nb3 Sn thin films: adjustment of Josephson microbridges and SQUID devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robic, J.Y.; Piaguet, J.; Duret, D.; Veler, J.C.; Veran, J.L.; Zenatti, D.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of operation of Josephson junctions and SQUIDS are resumed. An ion implantation technique for the adjustment of the critical current is presented. High quality superconducting thin films were obtained by electron gun evaporation of niobium on heated substrates. Polycrystalline Nb 3 Sn was made by annealing (1000 K, 10 -6 Torr) a multilayer structure of successively evaporated niobium and thin films. Selected ions (helium, neon, argon) were implanted at doses ranging from 10 13 to 10 17 cm -2 . After implantation the critical temperature, the critical current and the normal resistivity were measured on special photoetched geometries. The variations of these electrical properties depend on the nuclear energy loss. The critical temperature of Nb 3 Sn is decreased by ion implantation and can be increased again by a new annealing. The parameters of the ion implantation were defined in order to obtain a critical temperature slightly higher than the operating temperature. The geometries of the microbridges and the implanted areas where then chosen to obtain appropriate criticals currents (approximately 10 μA) at the operating temperature. The obtained microbridges were used as junction elements in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID)

  16. The investigation of the effect of niobium artificial doping with titanium on Nb3Sn superconductors properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.; Shikov, A.; Beliakov, N.; Semin, M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect on titanium doping of Nb filaments, and thus on the properties of bronze processed multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn wires and wires with internal tin sources with copper volume fraction up to 65 %, has been analysed. Either titanium rods or rods of the Nb-50Ti alloy, inserted in the axial area of each filament, were used as a source of titanium. The influence of doping on the quantity, composition, structure and superconducting properties of intermetallic compound Nb 3 Sn after heat treatments at 570-750 degrees C with duration up to 350 h was investigated by means of electrical measurements, optical metallography and methods of microanalysis and X-ray analysis. It was shown that the non-copper critical current density of the doped wires attained 600 and 270 A/mm 2 in 12.5 and 16 T respectively for bronze processed wires and 800 and 300 A/mm 2 for wires with internal tin source. Upper critical field calculated in accordance with Kramer's extrapolation was equal to 29-32 T

  17. Evidence from EXAFS for Different Ta/Ti Site Occupancy in High Critical Current Density Nb3Sn Superconductor Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Steve M; Tarantini, Chiara; Lee, Peter J; Brown, Michael D; Sung, ZuHawn; Ghosh, Arup K; Larbalestier, David C

    2018-03-19

    To meet critical current density, J c , targets for the Future Circular Collider (FCC), the planned replacement for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high field performance of Nb 3 Sn must be improved, but champion J c values have remained static for the last 10 years. Making the A15 phase stoichiometric and enhancing the upper critical field H c2 by Ti or Ta dopants are the standard strategies for enhancing high field performance but detailed recent studies show that even the best modern wires have broad composition ranges. To assess whether further improvement might be possible, we employed Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) to determine the lattice site location of dopants in modern high-performance Nb 3 Sn strands with J c values amongst the best so far achieved. Although Ti and Ta primarily occupy the Nb sites in the A15 structure, we also find significant Ta occupancy on the Sn site. These findings indicate that the best performing Ti-doped stand is strongly sub-stoichiometric in Sn and that antisite disorder likely explains its high average H c2 behavior. These new results suggest an important role for dopant and antisite disorder in minimizing superconducting property distributions and maximizing high field J c properties.

  18. Study of high field Nb3Sn superconducting dipoles: electrical insulation based made of ceramic and magnetic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochepault, E.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of LHC upgrades, significant efforts are provided to design accelerator magnets using the superconducting alloy Nb 3 Sn, which allows to reach higher magnetic fields (≥12 T). The aim of this thesis is to propose new computation and manufacturing methods for high field Nb 3 Sn dipoles. A ceramic insulation, previously designed at CEA Saclay, has been tested for the first time on cables, in an accelerator magnet environment. Critical current measures, under magnetic field and mechanical stress, have been carried out in particular. With this test campaign, the current ceramic insulation has been shown to be too weak mechanically and the critical current properties are degraded. Then a study has been conducted, with the objective to improve the mechanical strength of the insulation and better distribute the stress inside the cable. Methods of magnetic design have also been proposed, in order to optimize the coils shape, while fulfilling constraints of field homogeneity, operational margins, forces minimization... Consequently, several optimization codes have been set up. They are based on new methods using analytical formulas. A 2D code has first been written for block designs. Then two 3D codes have been realized for the optimization of dipole ends. The former consists in modeling the coil with elementary blocs and the latter is based on a modeling of the superconducting cables with ribbons. These optimization codes allowed to propose magnetic designs for high field accelerator magnets. (author) [fr

  19. Recent status of studies on the neutron irradiation effect focusing on Nb3Sn and Nb3Al strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Arata

    2011-01-01

    A fusion reactor generates a lot of 14 MeV neutrons, some of which penetrate shielding blankets, stream out of ports and reach superconducting magnets. Some important studies were performed in the 1970s and a basic understanding of the mechanisms of neutron irradiation effect was established. Advances in the design concept of nuclear fusion reactors led to the need for consistent studies on the neutron irradiation effect of A-15 strands such as Nb 3 Sn and Nb 3 Al, which are strong candidates for fusion reactors. In the early 2000s, a progressive attempt to organize the collaborative research of universities and national institutes was started using a 14 MeV neutron source at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. This paper outlines the neutron irradiation issues related to superconducting magnets for fusion, and a brief history of research on the neutron irradiation effect is provided. In addition, experimental results regarding changes in the superconducting properties of Nb 3 Sn and Nb 3 Al strands by neutron irradiation obtained in the newly established collaborative framework are presented, and general mechanisms for the property changes are introduced. (author)

  20. Comparative study of heat transfer from Nb-Ti and Nb_{3}Sn coils to He II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco La China

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In superconducting magnets, the energy deposited or generated in the coil must be evacuated to prevent temperature rise and consequent transition of the superconductor to the resistive state. The main barrier to heat extraction is represented by the electric insulation wrapped around superconducting cables. In the LHC, insulation improvement is a key point in the development of interaction region magnets and injector chain fast-pulsed magnets for luminosity upgrade; the high heat load of these magnets, in fact, is not compatible with the use of current insulation schemes. We review the standard insulation schemes for Nb-Ti and Nb_{3}Sn technology from the thermal point of view. We implement, in an analytical model, the strongly nonlinear thermal resistances of the different coil components including the permeability to superfluid helium of Nb-Ti insulations, measured during the LHC main dipole development. We use such a model to compare Nb-Ti and Nb_{3}Sn technologies by taking into account their specific operating margin in different working conditions. Finally, we propose an insulation scheme to enhance the heat transfer capability of Nb-Ti coils.

  1. Influence of oxygen content on some properties of Nb3Sn tape used for superconducting transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jergel, M.; Melisek, T.; Allarova, H.; Synak, D.; Neuschl, J.; Ivan, J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the presence of oxygen in the Nb-Zr substrate upon some physical and mechanical properties of the Nb-ZrO 2 substrate and/or Nb 3 Sn tape superconductor prepared from such a substrate has been studied The results have shown that the Nb 3 Sn grains are much finer in the case of Nb-ZrO 2 , than those obtained on Nb-Zr substrate. As a result, both the electrical and mechanical properties have been substantially improved. The critical current at a field of 5 T increased by between 100 and 200%, the alternating current losses decreased by about one order of magnitude, the tensile strength increased by about a factor of three and the microhardness value also increased by about a factor of three for oxygen contents in the range 0.03 to 0.70 wt%. The specific resistance of this substrate increased at the same time from 17 to 22 μΩ cm and the relative elongation decreased from 5 to 3%. (author)

  2. Cu-Nb3Sn superconducting wires prepared by ''Copper Liquid Phase Sintering method'' using the Nb-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende, A.T. de.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-30% Nb in weighting were prepared by the method of Copper sintering liquid phase the method was improved by substitution of Nb power by Nb-H powder, obtaining a high density material with good mechanical properties, which was reduced to fine. Wire, Without heat treatment. The Cu-Nb 3 Sn wires were obtained by external diffusion process depositing tin in the Cu-30%Nb wires, and by internal diffusion process using the Sn-8.5% Cu in weighting, which was reduced to rods of 3.5 mm. These Cu-30%Nb rods were enclosed in copper tubes and deformed mechanically by rotary swaging and drawing. During the drawing step some wires were fractured, that were analysed and correlated with the microstructure of the Sn-8.5 Wt% Cu alloy. External and internal diffusion samples; after a fast thermal treatment for Sn diffusion, were submited to the temperature of 700 0 C to provide the reaction between Sn and Nb, leading to the Nb 3 Sn phase. Samples with several reaction times, and its influence on T c and J c critical parameters and normal resistivity were prepared and analysed. (author) [pt

  3. Comparative Study of Heat Transfer from Nb-Ti and Nb$_3$Sn coils to He II

    CERN Document Server

    La China, M

    2008-01-01

    In superconducting magnets, the energy deposited or generated in the coil must be evacuated to prevent temperature rise and consequent transition of the superconductor to the resistive state. The main barrier to heat extraction is represented by the electric insulation wrapped around superconducting cables. In the LHC, insulation improvement is a key point in the development of interaction region magnets and injector chain fast-pulsed magnets for luminosity upgrade; the high heat load of these magnets, in fact, is not compatible with the use of current insulation schemes. We review the standard insulation schemes for Nb-Ti and Nb$_{3}$Sn technology from the thermal point of view. We implement, in an analytical model, the strongly nonlinear thermal resistances of the different coil components including the permeability to superfluid helium of Nb-Ti insulations, measured during the LHC main dipole development. We use such a model to compare Nb-Ti and Nb$_{3}$Sn technologies by taking into account their specific...

  4. An Experimental Setup to Measure the Minimum Trigger Energy for Magneto-Thermal Instability in Nb$_{3}$Sn Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Takala, E; Bremer, J; Balle, C; Bottura, L; Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    Magneto-thermal instability may affect high critical current density Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting strands that can quench even though the transport current is low compared to the critical current with important implications in the design of next generation superconducting magnets. The instability is initiated by a small perturbation energy which is considerably lower than the Minimum Quench Energy (MQE). At CERN, a new experimental setup was developed to measure the smallest perturbation energy (Minimum Trigger Energy, MTE) which is able to trigger the magneto-thermal instability in superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn-strands. The setup is based on Q-switched laser technology which is able to provide a localized perturbation in nano-second time scale. Using this technique the energy deposition into the strand is well defined and reliable. The laser is located outside the cryostat at room temperature. The beam is guided from room temperature on to the superconducting strand by using a UV-enhanced fused silica fibre. The ...

  5. Extensive Characterization of the 1 mm PIT Nb$_{3}$Sn strand for the 13-T FRESCA2 Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B; Mondonico, G; Oberli, L; Richter, D; Seeber, B; Senatore, C; Takala, E; Valentinis, D

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the EuCARD program, CERN is participating in the development of a 13 T 100-mm-aperture dipole magnet to upgrade the superconducting cable test facility FRESCA at CERN. The conductor candidates for building this magnet are two 1-mm Nb$_{3}$Sn strands: the Powder In Tube (PIT) produced by Bruker-EAS and the 132/169 RRP by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST). Recently the PIT strand has been extensively characterized by CERN in collaboration with the University of Geneva (UniGe). The critical current dependence on the magnetic field and on the axial strain e has been measured at different temperatures. Furthermore, the strand magnetization has been measured at different temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Finally the magneto-thermal stability of this strand was studied by measuring the quench current between 0 T and 12 T at 1.9 K and 4.3 K. The experimental results are compared with an optimized scaling law for the critical current of Nb$_{3}$Sn strands. In this paper the r...

  6. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT - Critical Current Metrology for Nb3Sn Conductor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, Loren F.

    2011-01-01

    aggressive performance goals. The latest high-performance Nb 3 Sn wires are being designed with higher current densities, larger effective filament diameter, less Cu stabilizer, and, in some cases, larger wire diameters than ever before. In addition, some of the conductor designs and heat treatments cause the residual resistivity ratio (RRR, ratio of room temperature resistivity to the resistivity at 20 K) of the stabilizer to be less than 20. These parameters are pushing the conductors towards less intrinsic stability, into a region we call marginally stable. These parameters also create a whole series of challenges for routine I c testing on short-samples, even when tested with the sample immersed in liquid helium. High-current, variable-temperature I c measurements are even more difficult than those made in liquid helium because the sample is only cooled by flowing helium gas. Providing accurate I c results under these conditions requires a complex system that provide adequate cooling as well as uniform sample temperature. We have been make variable-temperature measurements for about 15 years, but we started to design the first high-current (at least 500 A), variable-temperature, variable-strain apparatus in late 2006. Our first critical-current measurements as a function of strain, temperature, and magnetic field, I c (B,T,(var e psilon)), in a new single, unified apparatus (full matrix characterization) were made in the summer of 2008. This is the only such facility in the U.S. and it has some unique components that are not duplicated anywhere in the world. The compounding of all three variables (H, T, (var e psilon)) makes an already labor and time intensive characterization very formidable; however, the results cannot be generated any other way and are needed to answer key questions about strain and temperature safety margins and about the reliability of using scaling laws based on small data sets to predict performance. In the future, this new apparatus will allow

  7. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Giorgio [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2016-04-14

    This report presents the reference design of MQXFS1, the first 1.5 m prototype of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. The MQXF quadrupoles have 150 mm aperture, coil peak field of about 12 T, and use $Nb_{3}Sn$ conductor. The design is based on the LARP HQ quadrupoles, which had 120 mm aperture. MQXFS1 has 1st generation cable cross-section and magnetic design.

  8. Design Studies and Optimization of High-Field Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Magnets for a Future Very High Energy PP Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V. V. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    High filed accelerator magnets with operating fields of 15-16 T based on the $Nb_3Sn$ superconductor are being considered for the LHC energy upgrade or a future Very High Energy pp Collider. Magnet design studies are being conducted in the U.S., Europe and Asia to explore the limits of the $Nb_3Sn$ accelerator magnet technology while optimizing the magnet design and performance parame-ters, and reducing magnet cost. The first results of these studies performed at Fermilab in the framework of the US-MDP are reported in this paper.

  9. Transverse load optimization in Nb3Sn CICC design; influence of cabling, void fraction and strand stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhuis, A; Ilyin, Y

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a model that describes the transverse load degradation in Nb 3 Sn CICCs, based on strand and cable properties, and that is capable of predicting how such degradation can be prevented. The Nb 3 Sn cable in conduit conductors (CICCs) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) show a significant degradation in their performance with increasing electromagnetic load. Not only do the differences in the thermal contraction of the composite materials affect the critical current and temperature margin, but mostly electromagnetic forces cause significant transverse strand contact and bending strain in the Nb 3 Sn layers. Here, we present the model for transverse electro-magnetic load optimization (TEMLOP) and report the first results of computations for the ITER type of conductors, based on the measured properties of the internal tin strand used for the toroidal field model coil (TFMC). As input, the model uses data describing the behaviour of single strands under periodic bending and contact loads, measured with the TARSIS set-up, enabling a discrimination in performance reduction per specific load and strand type. The most important conclusion of the model computations is that the problem of the severe degradation of large CICCs can be drastically and straightforwardly improved by increasing the pitch length of subsequent cabling stages. It is the first time that an increase of the pitches has been proposed and no experimental data are available yet to confirm this beneficial outcome of the TEMLOP model. Larger pitch lengths will result in a more homogeneous distribution of the stresses and strains in the cable by significantly moderating the local peak stresses associated with the intermediate-length twist pitches. The twist pitch scheme of the present conductor layout turns out to be unfortunately close to a worst-case scenario. The model also makes clear that strand bending is the dominant mechanism causing degradation. The

  10. Optimization of the heat treatment schedule for next european dipole (NED) powder in tube $Nb_{3}Sn$ strand

    CERN Document Server

    Boutboul, T; den Ouden, A; Pedrini, D; Volpini, G

    2009-01-01

    A Nb3Sn strand was successfully developed by the company SMI for Next European Dipole (NED) activity and on the basis of Powder-In-Tube (PIT) method. This strand, after the standard reaction recommended by the firm (84 h @ 675 oC), presents attractive performances as a critical current density in the non-copper part of ~ 2500 A/mm2 for 4.2 K and 12 T applied field, an effective filament diameter of ~ 50 μm and limited flux jumps at low magnetic fields. Heat treatment optimization studies are currently performed at CERN to try to optimize the strand electric abilities. For this purpose, various heat treatment schedules were already investigated with a plateau temperature as low as 625 oC. The preliminary results of these studies are summarized here.

  11. Quench performance of Nb3Sn cos-theta coils made of 108/127 RRP strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    A series of 1-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole models has been built at Fermilab in an attempt to refine the wind-and-react technology for Nb3Sn accelerator magnets. Three models made with Powder-in-Tube Nb{sub 3}Sn strand reached their design field of 10 T demonstrating a good reproducibility of magnet quench performance and field quality. Recently a new dipole 'mirror' model based on Nb{sub 3}Sn coil made of improved Restack Rod Process strand was constructed and tested reaching the maximum field above 11 T. This paper describes the parameters of the RRP strand and cable used as well as the design, fabrication and test results of this magnet.

  12. Performance of Nb3Sn RRP strands and cables based on a 108/127 stack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pishalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Field, M.; Hong, S.; Parrell, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The high performance Nb 3 Sn strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) with the Restack Rod Process (RRP) is presently considered as a baseline conductor for the Fermilab's accelerator magnet R and D program. To improve the strand stability in the current and field range expected in magnet models, the number of subelements in the strand was increased by a factor of two (from 54 to 108), which resulted in a smaller effective filament size. The performance of the 1.0 and 0.7 mm strands of this design was studied using virgin and deformed strand samples. 27-strand Rutherford cables made of 1 mm strand were also tested using a superconducting transformer, small racetrack and 1-m shell-type dipole coils. This paper presents the RRP strand and cable parameters, and reports the results of strand, cable and coil testing

  13. Application of calorimetry to the assessment of the performance of ITER Nb3Sn TF conductor samples in SULTAN tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, L Savoldi; Zanino, R

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), several short full-size Nb 3 Sn samples of candidate toroidal field (TF) conductors were tested in 2007 at the SULTAN facility, PSI Villigen, Switzerland, in conditions relevant to the ITER TF (background magnetic field of 10.78 T and transport current of 68 kA). The performance of a SULTAN sample is determined by the current sharing temperature T CS . This can be obtained in principle from voltage measurements along the conductor sample, but the procedure is not free of issues and ambiguities. Here a complementary approach, based on the calorimetric assessment of the Joule heating due to current sharing, is critically discussed. Suitable algorithms are defined and the respective error bars are estimated, also based on numerical thermal-hydraulic modeling. The calorimetric approach is then applied to assess the performance of the samples tested in 2007 and compared with the results of the standard (electrical) approach

  14. submitter Hysteresis Losses and Effective $J_{c}(B)$ Scaling Law for ITER Nb$_{3}$Sn Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, E; Bordini, B; Bottura, L; Bessette, D; Vostner, A; Devred, A

    2016-01-01

    Hysteresis losses of five Nb$_{3}$Sn International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor reference strands were investigated by means of magnetization loop measurements in a vibrating sample magnetometer in a perpendicularly applied magnetic field. The magnetization loops were recorded while continuously sweeping the applied field between the extreme values $±B_m$, covering a wide range of maximum applied fields (0.2-10 T). In this paper, we compare the directly determined hysteresis losses based on the area of the smaller measured loops and the losses calculated by the integration of the width ΔM of the $B_m$ = 10 T magnetization loop. A suitable fitting function is proposed to describe the ΔM(B) dependence, which leads, for each strand, to an excellent agreement with the experimentally determined hysteresis losses, magnetization, and pinning force. Transport critical current measurements in a perpendicularly applied magnetic field were also performed for all the strands, and on the basis of the comparison w...

  15. Controlling Cu–Sn mixing so as to enable higher critical current densities in RRP® Nb3Sn wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Charlie; Field, Michael; Lee, Peter J.; Miao, Hanping; Parrell, Jeff; Larbalestier, David C.

    2018-06-01

    Dipole magnets for the proposed Future Circular Collider (FCC) demand specifications significantly beyond the limits of all existing Nb3Sn wires, in particular a critical current density (J c) of more than 1500 A mm‑2 at 16 T and 4.2 K with an effective filament diameter (D eff) of less than 20 μm. The restacked-rod-process (RRP®) is the technology closest to meeting these demands, with a J c (16 T) of up to 1400 A mm‑2, residual resistivity ratio > 100, for a sub-element size D s of 58 μm (which in RRP® wires is essentially the same as D eff). An important present limitation of RRP® is that reducing the sub-element size degrades J c to as low as 900 A mm‑2 at 16 T for D s = 35 μm. To gain an understanding of the sources of this J c degradation, we have made a detailed study of the phase evolution during the Cu–Sn ‘mixing’ stages of the wire heat treatment that occur prior to Nb3Sn formation. Using extensive microstructural quantification, we have identified the critical role that the Sn–Nb–Cu ternary phase (Nausite) can play. The Nausite forms as a well-defined ring between the Sn source and the Cu/Nb filament pack, and acts as an osmotic membrane in the 300 °C–400 °C range—greatly inhibiting Sn diffusion into the Cu/Nb filament pack while supporting a strong Cu counter-diffusion from the filament pack into the Sn core. This converts the Sn core into a mixture of the low melting point (408 °C) η phase (Cu6Sn5) and the more desirable ε phase (Cu3Sn), which decomposes at 676 °C. After the mixing stages, when heated above 408 °C towards the Nb3Sn reaction, any residual η liquefies to form additional irregular Nausite on the inside of the membrane. All Nausite decomposes into NbSn2 on further heating, and ultimately transforms into coarse-grain (and often disconnected) Nb3Sn which has little contribution to current transport. Understanding this critical Nausite reaction pathway has allowed us to simplify the mixing heat treatment to

  16. Conceptual design of a 15T-class pulsed conductor with fiber-reinforced Nb3Sn superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Hiroshi; Arai, Kazuaki; Agatsuma, Koh

    1997-01-01

    We have been developing a new type of Nb 3 Sn superconductor with high elastic modulus fibers for the application of high field pulsed superconducting magnets. We call this type of conductor FRS(Fiber-Reinforced Superconductor). This paper tries to show that FRS has great potential for the construction of a 15T-class pulsed magnet, with the size of which equals to that of the central solenoid of ITER(International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), because each monofilamentary FRS can support the part of hoop stress under operation of the magnet. Conceptual design of a basic strand with monofilamentary FRS, construction of the first- and second- level subcable, cooling condition of CICC(Cable in conduit conductor), stability and ac losses of the conductor are discussed. (author)

  17. Nb3Sn single crystals, polycrystals and multifilamentary wires: common and different features in the magnetic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, M G; Uglietti, D; Fluekiger, R; Polichetti, M; Pace, S

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic response of different Nb 3 Sn samples has been investigated studying the temperature dependence of both the 1st and 3rd harmonics of the AC magnetic susceptibility, in presence of a DC field up to 19 T. In single crystal and in polycrystalline samples, the occurrence of a Peak Effect was observed within DC magnetic fields ranging from 3 T to about 13 T. It corresponds to a transition in the vortex lattice between the Bragg Glass phase and a disordered phase. This transition has been also detected at higher magnetic fields in both the samples, thanks to the 3rd harmonics measurements. In contrast to single crystals and polycrystals, no Peak Effect and no indications about the Bragg/disordered phase transition have been detected in the analysed multifilamentary wires

  18. Production of superconducting Nb3Sn wire using Nb or Nb(Ti) and Sn(Ga) solid solution powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, C.L.H.; Foner, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on superconducting Nb 3 Sn wire produced by the powder metallurgy method using Nb or Nb-2.9 at% Ti powder in combination with Sn-x at% Ga powders (x = 3, 4.2, 6.2 and 9.0). Ga additions to the Sn caused considerable solid solution hardening which improved its workability. It made the Nb-Sn(Ga) powder combinations convenient for swaging and extensive wire drawing. Anneals at 950 degrees C produced wires with an overall J c of 10 4 A/cm 2 at 21.9 T for wires with both Ti in the Nb and 6.2 at% Ga in the Sn. Comparison of this wire with the best Nb(Ti)-Cu-internal Sn(Ti) shows a higher J c per A15 areas, especially in fields of 22T and above

  19. A 120 mm Bore Quadrupole for the Phase 1 LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Borgnolutti, F; Regis, F; Richter, D; Todesco, E

    2010-01-01

    The phase I LHC upgrade foresees the installation of a new final focusing for the high luminosity experiences in order to be able to focus the beams in the interaction points to b*~ 0.25 cm. Key element of this upgrade is a large bore (120 mm) superconducting quadrupole. This article proposes a magnet design that will make use of the LHC main dipole superconducting cable. Due to the schedule constraints and to the budget restrictions, it is mandatory to integrate in the design the maximum number of features successfully used during the LHC construction. This paper presents this design option and the rationales behind the several technical choices.

  20. Direct measurements of inter-filament resistance in various multi-filamentary superconducting NbTi and Nb3Sn strands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Miyoshi, Y.; van Lanen, E.P.A.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2012-01-01

    For a proper characterization of multi-filamentary NbTi and Nb3Sn strands and a better understanding of their performance in short sample tests, as well as for increased understanding of inter-strand current redistribution in cabled conductors, a quantitative knowledge of the inter-filament

  1. Inter-filament resistance, effective transverse resistivity and coupling loss in superconducting multifilamentary NbTi and Nb3Sn strands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2012-01-01

    The effective transverse resistivity of a range of multi-filamentary Nb3Sn and NbTi strands is measured with a direct four-probe method and the data are compared to the transverse resistivity values obtained from AC coupling loss experiments. Correspondence between both is satisfactory provided that

  2. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure and superelastic properties of a Ti-18Zr-4.5Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    In this study a new superelastic Ti-18Zr-4.5Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy was prepared by adding 2at% of Mo as a substitute for Nb to the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy, and heat treatment at different temperatures was conducted. The temperature dependence of superelasticity and annealing texture was investigated. Texture showed a dependence of annealing temperature: the specimen annealed at 923K for 0.3ks exhibited {113} β β type texture which was similar to the deformation texture, while specimens annealed at 973, 1073K, and 1173K showed {001} β β type recrystallization texture which was preferable for recovery strain. The largest recovery strain of 6.2%, which is the same level as that of the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy, was obtained in the specimen annealed at 1173K for 0.3ks due to the well-developed {001} β β type recrystallization texture. The Ti-18Zr-3Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy presented a higher tensile strength compared with the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy when heat treated at 1173K for 0.3ks, which was due to the solid solution strengthening effect of Mo. Annealing at 923K for 0.3ks was effective in obtaining a good combination of a high strength as 865MPa and a large recovery strain as 5.6%. The high recovery strain was due to the high stress at which the maximum recovery stain was obtained which was attributed to the small grain size formed at low annealing temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. R and D of Nb(3)Sn accelerator magnets at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E; Bordini, B.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chichili, D.R.; DiMarco, J.; Elementi, L.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kephart, R.; Lamm, M.; Limon, P.J.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Schlabach, P.; Stanek, R.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    Fermilab is developing and investigating different high-field magnet designs for present and future accelerators. The magnet R&D program was focused on the 10-12 T accelerator magnets based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor and explored both basic magnet technologies for brittle superconductors--wind-and-react and react-and-wind. Magnet design studies in support of LHC upgrades and VLHC are being performed. A series of 1-m long single-bore models of cos-theta Nb{sub 3}Sn dipoles based on wind-and-react technique was fabricated and tested. Three 1-m long flat racetracks and the common coil dipole model, based on a single-layer coil and wide reacted Nb{sub 3}Sn cable, have also been fabricated and tested. Extensive theoretical studies of magnetic instabilities in Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, cable and magnet were performed which led to successful 10 T dipole model. This paper presents the details of the Fermilab's high field accelerator magnet program, reports its status and major results, and formulates the program next steps.

  4. Powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb$_{3}$Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenhovius, J L H; den Ouden, A; Wessel, W A J; ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    New Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment of the conductor lay-out. It uniquely combines a non-copper current density of 2680 A/mm/sup 2/@10 T with an effective filament diameter of about 20 mu m. This binary conductor may be used in a 10 T, wide bore model separator dipole magnet for the LHC, which is being developed by a collaboration of the University of Twente and CERN. A ternary (Nb/7.5wt%Ta)/sub 3/Sn conductor containing 37 filaments is particularly suited for application in extremely high-field superconducting solenoids. This wire features a copper content of 43%, a non-copper current density of 217 A/mm/sup 2/@20 T and a B/sub c2/ of 25.6 T. The main issues and the experimental results of the development program of PIT Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors a...

  5. Design Modifications, Fabrication and Test of HFDB-03 Racetrack Magnet Wound with Pre-Reacted Nb3Sn Rutherford Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bhashyam, S.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Imbasciati, L.; Lamm, M.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A 10 T racetrack magnet (HFDB-03) wound with pre-reacted Nb3Sn Rutherford cable has been fabricated and tested at Fermilab. This magnet is the third one in a proof-of-principle series for the use of the React-and-Wind technology in common-coil dipole magnets for future accelerators. It consists of two flat racetrack coils (28 turns each) separated by 5 mm. The maximum field on the coil, at the short sample limit of 16530 A, is 10 tesla. The cable has 41 strands with 0.7 mm diameter and the minimum bend radius in the magnet ends is 90 mm. The predecessor of this magnet (HFDB-02) reached 78 % of the short sample limit at 7.7 T. The mechanical design was improved and the fabrication procedure was slightly modified in order to address possible causes of limitation. In this paper we present the mechanical design and analysis of HFDB-03, the modifications to the fabrication procedure and the test results

  6. Effect of starting materials and processing variables for the production of discontinuous filament Nb3Sn wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, P.L.; Dew-Hughes, D.

    1986-01-01

    Discontinuous multifilamentary wires of Nb 3 Sn have been prepared from compacted mixtures of 30 wt. %Nb in Cu, extruded, drawn, annealed, tin plated and reacted. Processing variables include starting materials, extrusion ratio and extrusion temperature. Continuous lengths of wire could be satisfactorily produced from compacts of either ultra-pure Nb (VPN about 95 kg mm -2 ) and Cu powder or from centrifugal arc-cast Nb spheroids (VPN about 120 kg mm -2 ) and tough pitch Cu powder. After a total area reduction of 10 4 : 1, the latter materials resulted in long, unbroken, highly regular filaments of Nb about 6μm in diameter. The high degree of perfection of these filaments is due in part to the uniformity of the initial spheroids, compared to the highly irregular hydride-dehydride Nb powder. However their greater hardness requires that the spheroids be coprocessed in a less-pure Cu matrix. Critical currents were measured on helical specimens involving more than 1m length of wire, in fields up to 15T at 4.2 K, after reaction for various times at different temperatures. Overall current densities of 3 X 10 8 Am -2 were obtained at 12T in the best samples. Further reductions are expected to produce material with improved current densities

  7. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb$_{3}$Sn conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, Christopher; Sung, Zu Hawn; Lee, Peter J; Sailer, Bernd; Thoener, Manfred; Schlenga, Klaud; Ballarino, Amalia; Bottura, Luca; Bordini, Bernardo; Scheuerlein, Christian; Larnalestier, David C

    2016-01-01

    High critical current density ( Jc) Nb$_{3}$Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain (SG), superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In powder-in-tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5 wt%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this study we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a Jc (12 T, 4.2 K) up to ∼2500 A mm−2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ∼1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2–3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or le...

  8. Magnetization and loss measurements on Nb3Sn and NbTi strands for ITER and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foitl, M.

    2001-05-01

    this work, magnetization and loss measurements on 20 different strand samples which were taken from different billets supplied by two manufacturers of NbTi strands are reported, which with the use of an Integrating Coil Magnetometer as well as micro Hall sensors magnetization loops of single strands were studied. Variations in the strand magnetization could be either correlated with systematical irregularities in the strand characteristics (e.g. filament diameter) or with variations of the strand's critical current density jC. The second part of this work is related to the annealing process of superconducting magnets manufactured from internal tin Nb3Sn strands to be used for the magnetic confinement of fusion plasma. After the successful generation of plasma burning pulses of several seconds duration (Joint European Torus, JET), magnetic fusion energy research has reached a point where a tokamak burning plasma facility, in which the thermonuclear heating balances transport and radiation losses for periods of 500 s or longer, can be seriously contemplated as a next step. Achieving this goal would be a major step forward, both in science and technology, towards the ultimate goal of magnetic fusion generation of electrical power. Therefore the main objectives of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be the demonstration of the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy on a scale close to that of an eventual thermonuclear power reactor. The magnitude of the magnetic field (∼ 11.8 T) needed to confine stable a plasma of sufficient pressure to generate ∼ 0.5 GW of fusion power is comparable to the limiting magnetic fields that a toroidal superconducting magnet system can produce. In order to achieve the best magnet performance possible, the toroidal field (TF) coils made of superconducting Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit type conductors have to be optimized with respect to the maximum transport current and transient field losses

  9. Bend strain tolerances of a Nb3Sn conductor proposed for use in the magnetic fusion energy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, T.; Welch, D.O.; Suenaga, M.

    1980-01-01

    Bend strain tolerances were studied on a 2869 filament bronze-processed Nb 3 Sn wire conductor in magnetic fields to 8 T. Relative values of the wire's current transfer length to twist pitch were shown to influence the bend-strain tolerance. Low matrix resistivities, associated with Sn-depleted bronzes following heat-treatments of 48 h at 725 0 C, produce current transfer lengths less than the twist pitch, 10 mm. The resulting bend-strain tolerances, at 10 -12 ohm.cm, are improved over those found for shorter heat-treatment times. Results from bend-fatigue experiments were divided into two domains separated by the strain value required to produce compound cracking, epsilon/sub f//sup B/. Applied bending strains less than epsilon/sub f//sup B/ were found to increase zero strain critical current values and this increase was independent of the number of fatigue cycles. When applying strains large enough to produce cracking in the compounds critical currents decreased from their asreacted values tending to reach a minimum after several fatigue cycles. Evidence exists for a neutral axis shift during bending and slight differences between tensile and bend strain tolerances are accounted for in terms of such a shift

  10. Contact mechanical characteristics of Nb3Sn strands under transverse electromagnetic loads in the CICC cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiyue; Luo Wei; Zhou Youhe; Zheng Xiaojing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new code for the two-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) and relevant simulations to quantitatively characterize the contact force behavior of the Nb 3 Sn strands in the ITER CICC cross-section under a transverse electromagnetic load. In order to obtain the essential parameters in the contact force model employed in the DEM, a simulation of the experiments conducted by Nijhuis et al (2004 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 14 1489–94) is first performed, where the load–displacement curve predicted by the code is in good agreement with the measurements. After that, the contact force chain between strands and its distribution is quantitatively analyzed by the code. It is found that the contact force distribution among strands is heterogeneous and strongly anisotropic. In other words, the force chain distribution, which determines the behavior of the assembly of strands with discrete media, and the distribution of area average magnitude of the contact force are obviously inhomogeneous. To describe this inhomogeneity, here, the probability density function (PDF) is used in the statistical analysis. The numerical results show that the PDFs of the magnitudes of the resultant contact force, normal contact force, and tangential contact force all decay with an exponential law, and that PDFs of the directions of the contact forces are all anisotropic and exhibit about six periodic changes in which the peak values in the direction parallel to the applied electromagnetic load are appreciably larger than the other peaks. (paper)

  11. Numerical investigation on transverse heat transfer properties in cross section of full size Nb3Sn CICC ITER conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuming Jia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The contact mechanical characteristics in the cross section of the Nb3Sn cable are sensitive to the cryogenic cooling and cyclic transverse electromagnetic loads, which may affect the cable’s performance. In this paper, based on a proposed discrete dynamic model (DEM, where the contact heat transfer among strands and the convective heat transfer in liquid helium are taken into account, the cooling process under two heat transfer mechanisms is performed. Simulation results show that the temperature variation of Poloidal Field Insert Sample (PFIS cable with time agrees well with the existing experimental results, and the role of contact heat transfer cannot be neglected during cryogenic cooling. It is obtained from the further analysis that the effect of contact heat transfer becomes more prominent with the decrease of mass flow rate of liquid helium, which leads to the stress status within cable changed significantly. With the temperature boundary condition imposed on the cable radial direction, the effective thermal conductivity (ETC of cable can be obtained. It can be found that the ETC increases with increasing the transverse loads and is sensitive to the low temperature environment, while it is not affected by load cycles basically. These results may provide the guide for the design and application of the future CICC conductors.

  12. The Short Model Coil (SMC) dipole: an R&D program towards Nb$_{3}$Sn accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bajko, M; Canfer, S; Ellwood, G; Feuvrier, J; Guinchard, M; Karppinen, M; Kokkinos, C; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Oberli, L; Perez, J-C; Regis, F; de Rijk, G

    2011-01-01

    The Short Model Coil (SMC) assembly has been designed, as test bench for short racetrack coils wound with Nb$_{3}$Sn cable. The mechanical structure comprises an iron yoke surrounded by a 20 mm thick aluminium alloy shell, and includes four loading pads that transmit the required pre-compression from the outer shell into the two coils. The outer shell is pre-tensioned with mechanical keys that are inserted with the help of pressurized bladders and two 30 mm diameter aluminium alloy rods provide the axial loading to the coil ends. The outer shell, the axial rods, and the coils are instrumented with strain gauges, which allow precise monitoring of the loading conditions during the assembly and at cryogenic temperature during the magnet test. Two SMC assemblies have been completed and cold tested in the frame of a European collaboration between CEA (FR), CERN and STFC (UK) and with the technical support from LBNL (US). This paper describes the main features of the SMC assembly, the experience from the dummy asse...

  13. The SMC (Short Model Coil) dipole: An R&D program for Nb$_{3}$Sn accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J C; Bordini, B; Canfer, S; Ellwood, G; Feuvrier, J; Guinchard, M; Karppinen, M; Kokkinos, C; Manil, P; Milanese, A; Oberli, L; Regis, F; de Rijk, G

    2012-01-01

    The Short Model Coil (SMC) assembly has been designed, as test bench for short racetrack coils wound with Nb$_{3}$Sn cable. The mechanical structure comprises an iron yoke surrounded by a 20 mm thick aluminium alloy shell, and includes four loading pads that transmit the required pre-compression from the outer shell into the two coils. The outer shell is pre-tensioned with mechanical keys that are inserted with the help of pressurized bladders and two 30 mm diameter aluminium alloy rods provide the axial loading to the coil ends. The outer shell, the axial rods, and the coils are instrumented with strain gauges, which allow precise monitoring of the loading conditions during the assembly and at cryogenic temperature during the magnet test. Two SMC assemblies have been completed and cold tested in the frame of a European collaboration between CEA (FR), CERN and STFC (UK) and with the technical support from LBNL (US). This paper describes the main features of the SMC assembly, the experience from the dummy ass...

  14. Field Quality Study of a 1-m-Long Single-Aperture 11-T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Model for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Andreev, N. [Fermilab; Apollinari, G. [Fermilab; Auchmann, B. [CERN; Barzi, E. [Fermilab; Bossert, R. [Fermilab; Fiscarelli, L. [CERN; Karppinen, M. [CERN; Nobrega, F. [Fermilab; Novitski, I. [Fermilab; Rossi, L. [CERN; Smekens, D. [CERN; Turrioni, D. [Fermilab; Velev, G. V. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab

    2014-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are carrying out a joint R&D program with the goal of building a 5.5-m-long twin-aperture 11-T Nb_3Sn dipole prototype that is suitable for installation in the LHC. An important part of the program is the development and test of a series of short single-aperture and twin-aperture dipole models with a nominal field of 11 T at the LHC operation current of 11.85 kA and 20% margin. This paper presents the results of magnetic measurements of a 1-m-long single-aperture Nb_3Sn dipole model fabricated and tested recently at FNAL, including geometrical field harmonics and effects of coil magnetization and iron yoke saturation.

  15. Effects of differential thermal contraction between the matrix and the filaments in mono- and multifilamentary Nb3Sn on the superconducting critical temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aihara, K.; Suenage, M.; Luhman, T.

    1979-01-01

    The strain on Nb 3 Sn due to the differential thermal contraction between the matrix (Cu, bronze) and the filaments (Nb, Nb 3 Sn, Ta) of a superconducting wire is known to decrease the superconducting critical temperature T/sub c/. In order to study the effects of heat treatment conditions and filament size on the degradation of T/sub c/ by the strain. T/sub c/ for monofilamentary wires [(Nb 3 Sn and bronze in Ta) in Cu matrix, and (bronze in Nb tubings) in Cu matrix] were measured for heat-treating periods in of 1 to 120 h at 725 0 C. Several observations were made regarding the effects on T/sub c/ of thermal contraction strains from various components of the conductors. The influence of a Cu matrix on T/sub c/ was small (approx. 0.2 K). When the bronze matrix was inside Nb tubing the degradation of T/sub c/ due to strains was substantially larger than when the Nb filaments were in a bronze. Wires with smaller filament diameters achieved a maximum T/sub c/ in shorter heat treatment times than those with larger filaments. These results are discussed in terms of the critical currents of these wires under applied tensile strains

  16. Optimization of ITER Nb3Sn CICCs for coupling loss, transverse electromagnetic load and axial thermal contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhuis, A; Van Lanen, E P A; Rolando, G

    2012-01-01

    The ITER cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) are built up from sub-cable bundles, wound in different stages, which are twisted to counter coupling loss caused by time-changing external magnet fields. The selection of the twist pitch lengths has major implications for the performance of the cable in the case of strain-sensitive superconductors, i.e. Nb 3 Sn, as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. At present, this is a great challenge for the ITER central solenoid (CS) CICCs and the solution presented here could be a breakthrough for not only the ITER CS but also for CICC applications in general. After proposing longer twist pitches in 2006 and successful confirmation by short sample tests later on, the ITER toroidal field (TF) conductor cable pattern was improved accordingly. As the restrictions for coupling loss are more demanding for the CS conductors than for the TF conductors, it was believed that longer pitches would not be applicable for the conductors in the CS coils. In this paper we explain how, with the use of the TEMLOP model and the newly developed models JackPot-ACDC and CORD, the design of a CICC can be improved appreciably, particularly for the CS conductor layout. For the first time a large improvement is predicted not only providing very low sensitivity to electromagnetic load and thermal axial cable stress variations but at the same time much lower AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up–cool-down degradation can be reached by applying longer twist pitches in a particular sequence for the sub-stages, offering a large cable transverse stiffness, adequate axial flexibility and maximum allowed lateral strand support. Analysis of short sample (TF conductor) data reveals that increasing the twist pitch can lead to a gain of the effective axial compressive strain of more than 0.3% with practically no degradation from bending. This is probably explained

  17. Mechanical and physical properties of Bi-2223 and Nb3Sn superconducting materials between 300 K and 7 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyilas, Arman; Osamura, Kozo; Sugano, Michinaka

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of IEC/TC90-WG5 and VAMAS/TWA16, superconducting (SC) materials are investigated with respect to their mechanical properties between 300 K and 7 K. Besides the mechanical tests, physical and electrical properties are also determined for high T c SC-tapes. The mechanical tests comprised the characterization of tensile properties at ambient temperature as well as at 7 K of Nb 3 Sn-reacted strands, Bi2223 tapes, pure silver tapes, silver bars, silver alloy tapes and bare filaments extracted from Bi-2223 tapes. All these investigations are carried out using a variable temperature helium gas flow cryostat equipped with a servo hydraulic tensile machine (MTS, model 810). For the load measurements specially developed, highly sensitive cryogenic proof in situ working load cells are used. For the strain determination of the wires, a high resolution ultra-light double extensometer system with a specially developed low noise signal conditioner is used. The engineering parameters such as yield strength and elastic modulus are evaluated using the obtained data with newly developed software. For the tiny and brittle filaments load versus displacement data are obtained. A determined master line (Young's modulus versus machine compliance) established by thin 0.125 mm O wires of different pure metals is used for the Young's modulus estimation of filaments. For the 4 K electrical voltage-current measurements under magnetic fields of up to 13 T, an existing test facility is used for the high T c tapes. No dependency between applied strain up to 0.3% and the critical current under magnetic field could be observed for the selected specific Bi-2223 tapes. In addition, thermal expansion curves of Bi-2223 tapes along with pure silver and silver alloy (AgMg) are determined between 290 K and 7 K using in situ working extensometers. The coefficient of thermal expansion is evaluated by the determined thermal expansion versus temperature curve

  18. Analysis of DC properties and current distribution in TFAS ITER conductor samples using high Jc Nb3Sn advanced strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, L.; Ciazynski, D.; Torre, A.; Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Dewittler, R.; Staehli, F.

    2007-01-01

    Two full-size conductor samples using advanced Nb 3 Sn strands were tested in the SULTAN facility in 2005-2006 within (I,B,T) ranges close to the ITER operating conditions (B MAX ∼ 12 T, T ∼ 5 K). Each sample includes two conductor legs, connected together by a twin-box joint in their lower part. The conductor design is the same for the four legs, similar to that of the ITER Toroidal Field Model Coil, but each leg uses specific strands newly developed and industrially produced to reach higher J c performances than in previous samples. In addition to classical voltage taps and temperature sensors, the sample instrumentation included Hall probe (HP) heads positioned so as to discriminate current distribution between conductor main sub-cables (petals). In a first simple approach, we analyse the results supposing that the conductor drives a uniform current among strands. The model is mainly based on geometrical considerations associated with a global approach on strand mechanical behavior. In a second part, we model the conductor in a more realistic way with different currents shared between main sub-cables. Taking into account various geometrical aspects (spiral trajectories, precise self-field maps...) the current in all petals are reconstructed with help of HP's signals, expected to experience self-field from CICC's. The mechanical aspects are also tentatively considered (electromagnetic load, bending strain...). Global results for both samples are shown, and possible inaccuracies due to geometrical parameters (petals positioning) are discussed. Those data are then injected into a Matlab program for electrical and geometrical CICC modeling (derived from the previous ENSIC code from CEA) and compared with dedicated experimental runs. Results are finally commented on the basis of overall consistency with HP's signals. (authors)

  19. Exploring the limits of a very large Nb3Sn conductor: the 80 kA conductor of the ITER toroidal field model coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Ciazynski, D.; Guerber, O.; Park, S.H.; Zani, L.

    2003-01-01

    In Phase II experiment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field Model Coil (TFMC) the operation limits of its 80 kA Nb 3 Sn conductor were explored. To increase the magnetic field on the conductor, the TFMC was tested in presence of another large coil: the EURATOM-LCT coil. Under these conditions the maximum field reached on the conductor, was around 10 tesla. This exploration has been performed at constant current, by progressively increasing the coil temperature and monitoring the coil voltage drop in the current sharing regime. Such an operation was made possible thanks to the very high stability of the conductor. The aim of these tests was to compare the critical properties of the conductor with expectations and assess the ITER TF conductor design. These expectations are based on the documented critical field and temperature dependent properties of the 720 superconducting strands which compose the conductor. In addition the conductor properties are highly dependent on the strain, due to the compression appearing on Nb 3 Sn during the heat treatment of the pancakes and related to the differential thermal compression between Nb 3 Sn and the stainless steel jacket. No precise model exists to predict this strain, which is therefore the main information, which is expected from these tests. The method to deduce this strain from the different tests is presented, including a thermalhydraulic analysis to identify the temperature of the critical point and a careful estimation of the field map across the conductor. The measured strain has been estimated in the range -0.75% to -0.79 %. This information will be taken into account for ITER design and some adjustment of the ITER conductor design is under examination. (authors)

  20. Analysis of the quench propagation along Nb3Sn Rutherford cables with the THELMA code. Part I: Geometric and thermal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, G.; Bellina, F.

    2016-12-01

    The paper describes the new lumped thermal model recently implemented in THELMA code for the coupled electromagnetic-thermal analysis of superconducting cables. A new geometrical model is also presented, which describes the Rutherford cables used for the accelerator magnets. A first validation of these models has been given by the analysis of the quench longitudinal propagation velocity in the Nb3Sn prototype coil SMC3, built and tested in the frame of the EUCARD project for the development of high field magnets for LHC machine. This paper shows in detail the models, while their application to the quench propagation analysis is presented in a companion paper.

  1. Development of manufacturing capability for the fabrication of the Nb3Sn superconductor for the High Field Test Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.R.

    Construction of High Field Test Facility (HFTF) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) requires an extended surface Nb 3 Sn superconductor cable of carrying currents in excess of 7500 amperes in a 12 Tesla magnetic field. This conductor consists of a 5.4 mm x 11.0 mm superconducting core onto whose broad surfaces are soldered embossed oxygen free copper strips. Two different core designs have been developed and the feasibility of each design evaluated. Equipment necessary to produce the conductor were developed and techniques of production were explored

  2. An intermetallic powder-in-tube approach to increased flux-pinning in Nb3Sn by internal oxidation of Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motowidlo, L. R.; Lee, P. J.; Tarantini, C.; Balachandran, S.; Ghosh, A. K.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the development of multifilamentary Nb3Sn superconductors by a versatile powder-in-tube technique (PIT) that demonstrates a simple pathway to a strand with a higher density of flux-pinning sites that has the potential to increase critical current density beyond present levels. The approach uses internal oxidation of Zr-alloyed Nb tubes to produce Zr oxide particles within the Nb3Sn layer that act as a dispersion of artificial pinning centres (APCs). In this design, SnO2 powder is mixed with Cu5Sn4 powder within the PIT core that supplies the Sn for the A15 reaction with Nb1Zr filament tubes. Initial results show an average grain size of ˜38 nm in the A15 layer, compared to the 90-130 nm of typical APC-free high-J c strands made by conventional PIT or Internal Sn processing. There is a shift in the peak of the pinning force curve from H/H irr of ˜0.2 to ˜0.3 and the pinning force curves can be deconvoluted into grain boundary and point-pinning components, the point-pinning contribution dominating for the APC Nb-1wt%Zr strands.

  3. Fabrication and Test of a Nb$_{3}$Sn Model Magnet With Ceramic Insulation for the Next Generation Undulator of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, N; Dalexandro, N; Giloux, C; Bordini, B; Maccaferri, R

    2010-01-01

    The future run of the Large Hadron Collider with lead ions will require important modifications in the synchrotron radiation profile monitor system, which at present comprises two superconducting undulators wound from Nb-Ti conductor, delivering 5 T in a 60 mm gap, and with a period of 280 mm. Whilst the gap and the nominal field of the future undulators will remain the same, the period shall be 140 mm, which translates to a peak field of over 8 T in the coils and hence requires the use of Nb$_{3}$Sn technology. In this paper the electromagnetic design of the undulator is summarized. We describe the fabrication of a race-track coil wound with a 0.8 mm diameter Nb$_{3}$Sn strand with ceramic insulation. Finally, the results of successful tests made at 4.3 K and 1.9 K in a mirror configuration are presented. 10 T at 4.3 K and 11.5 T at 1.9 K were measured in the yoke gap, thus validating this concept for the future undulator.

  4. Thermal conductivity measurements of impregnated Nb3Sn coil samples in the temperature range of 3.5 K to 100 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koettig, T.; Maciocha, W.; Bermudez, S.; Rysti, J.; Tavares, S.; Cacherat, F.; Bremer, J.

    2017-02-01

    In the framework of the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, high-field magnets are under development. Magnetic flux densities of up to 13 T require the use of Nb3Sn superconducting coils. Quench protection becomes challenging due to the high stored energy density and the low stabilizer fraction. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the combination of insulating layers and Nb3Sn based cables are an important thermodynamic input parameter for quench protection systems and superfluid helium cooling studies. A two-stage cryocooler based test stand is used to measure the thermal conductance of the coil sample in two different heat flow directions with respect to the coil package geometry. Variable base temperatures of the experimental platform at the cryocooler allow for a steady-state heat flux method up to 100 K. The heat is applied at wedges style copper interfaces of the Rutherford cables. The respective temperature difference represents the absolute value of thermal conductance of the sample arrangement. We report about the measurement methodology applied to this kind of non-uniform sample composition and the evaluation of the used resin composite materials.

  5. Comparative cost study of the processes for producing niobium--tin (Nb3Sn) superconducting tapes for their application to power transmission lines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    This report considers the manufacture of superconducting Nb 3 Sn tapes for ac superconducting transmission cables. The 14 product examples studied are produced by processes involving solid-state diffusion of Sn and Nb and/or physical vapor deposition. Production of 80,000 km per year is assumed, sufficient for 100 km of 3 phase ac line. Results are summarized in a table entitled ''Variants of 6 mm wide Nb 3 Sn Superconducting Tapes with Economics of Manufacture.'' The table identifies the 14 product examples by method of manufacture; by the composition of the layers integrated into the tape; and by the final thickness of Nb used in 12 of the product examples. The estimated fixed capital for plant is listed for each product example together with the estimated costs of manufacture in cents per meter of tape. The total manufacturing cost given is the sum of the costs of raw materials, operating labor, depreciation and other overhead. The depreciation is calculated on a 10 year straight line basis. Stainless steel strip (304L) is used in 6 of the product examples. The final line in the table shows the ''selling price'' which will earn the equivalent of 20 percent p.a. on the total capital, fixed and working, employed at any time during an eleven-year plant life where depreciation is sum of year digits for a 10 year period, investment credit is 10 percent, and income tax is 48 percent. 13 tables, 21 figures

  6. In-Situ Neutron Diffraction Under Tensile Loading of Powder-in-Tube Cu/Nb$_{3}$Sn Composite Wires Effect of Reaction Heat Treatment on Texture, Internal Stress State and Load Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Thilly, L

    2007-01-01

    The strain induced degradation of Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductors can hamper the performance of high field magnets. We report elastic strain measurements in the different phases of entire non-heat treated and fully reacted Nb$_{3}$Sn composite strands as a function of uniaxial stress during in-situ deformation under neutron beam. After the reaction heat treatment the Cu matrix loses entirely its load carrying capability and the applied stress is transferred to the remaining Nb-Ta alloy and to the brittle (Nb-Ta)3Sn phase, which exhibits a preferential grain orientation parallel to the strand axis.

  7. Heat treatment effect on the strain dependence of the critical current for an internal-tin processed Nb3Sn strand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sangjun; Park, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Chulhee; Choi, Heekyung; Kim, Keeman

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study on the effects of heat treatment, especially, the duration of the A15 reaction temperature plateau on the strain dependence of the critical current for an internal-tin processed Nb 3 Sn strand has been carried out. The strain dependence of the critical current is measured by a variable temperature Walter spiral probe that we have developed. It was shown that prolonged heat treatment can be a very effective way to improve the strain dependency. For a quantitative analysis, the measured data were analyzed with various proposed scaling laws: the scaling law based on strong-coupling theory, the modified deviatoric strain scaling law, and the interpolative scaling law. We found that there is a slight increase in the critical temperature and a substantial improvement in the maximum pinning force. The origin of improved strain dependency is further discussed.

  8. A novel modeling to predict the critical current behavior of Nb$_{3}$Sn PIT strand under transverse load based on a scaling law and Finite Element Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tiening; Takayasu, Makoto; Bordini, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn Powder-In-Tube (PIT) strands could be used for the superconducting magnets of the next generation Large Hadron Collider. The strands are cabled into the typical flat Rutherford cable configuration. During the assembly of a magnet and its operation the strands experience not only longitudinal but also transverse load due to the pre-compression applied during the assembly and the Lorentz load felt when the magnets are energized. To properly design the magnets and guarantee their safe operation, mechanical load effects on the strand superconducting properties are studied extensively; particularly, many scaling laws based on tensile load experiments have been established to predict the critical current dependence on strain. However, the dependence of the superconducting properties on transverse load has not been extensively studied so far. One of the reasons is that transverse loading experiments are difficult to conduct due to the small diameter of the strand (about 1 mm) and the data ...

  9. Development and test of Nb3Sn cos-theta magnets based on RRp and PIT strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bordini, B.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet program at Fermilab three cos(Θ) magnets--two mirror dipole magnets utilizing RRP cable and one dipole magnet utilizing PIT cable--have been designed, fabricated and tested recently. Both mirror magnets with RRP strands only reached ∼50-60% of their estimated critical current limit. The PIT conductor based dipole however reached its critical current limit producing over 10 T magnetic field in the bore of the magnet. This paper describes the parameters of superconducting strands and cable, the details of magnet design and fabrication procedure, and reports the results

  10. Development and test of Nb3Sn cos-theta magnets based on RRP and PIT strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bordini, B.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet program at Fermilab three cos({theta}) magnets--two mirror dipole magnets utilizing RRP cable and one dipole magnet utilizing PIT cable--have been designed, fabricated and tested recently. Both mirror magnets with RRP strands only reached {approx}50-60% of their estimated critical current limit. The PIT conductor based dipole however reached its critical current limit producing over 10 T magnetic field in the bore of the magnet. This paper describes the parameters of superconducting strands and cable, the details of magnet design and fabrication procedure, and reports the results.

  11. submitter Simulation of a quench event in the upgraded High-Luminosity LHC Main dipole circuit including the 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Navarro, Alejandro Manuel; Verweij, Arjan P; Bortot, Lorenzo; Mentink, Matthias; Prioli, Marco; Auchmann, Bernhard; Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; Ravaioli, Emmanuele; Yammine, Samer

    2018-01-01

    To achieve the goal of increased luminosity, two out of eight main dipole circuits of the accelerator will be reconfigured in the coming LHC upgrade by replacing one standard 14.3-m long, Nb-Ti-based, 8.3 T dipole magnet by two 5.3-m long, Nb$_{3}$Sn-based, 11.2 T magnets (MBH). The modified dipole circuits will contain 153 Nb-Ti magnets and two MBH magnets. The latter will be connected to an additional trim power converter to compensate for the differences in the magnetic transfer functions. These modifications imply a number of challenges from the point of view of the circuit integrity, operation, and quench protection. In order to assess the circuit performance under different scenarios and to validate the circuit quench protection strategy, reliable and accurate numerical transient simulations have to be performed. We present the field/circuit coupling simulation of the reconfigured main dipole magnet chain following the introduction of the MBH magnets. 2-D distributed LEDET models of the MBH's have been ...

  12. In-pile creep behaviour of Zry-4 and ZrNb3Sn1 cladding under uniaxial and biaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehner, G.; Wildhagen, B.; Wilhelm, H.

    1987-01-01

    An irradiation programme - started in 1977 - was performed at the research reactor FRG-2 at Geesthacht, Germany, as a joint project of GKSS and KWU in order to study the in-pile creep behaviour of zirconium alloy cladding tubes of PWR fuel rods. The test objective was to establish a data base which allows refined modelling of the in-pile creep phenomenon. A wide test matrix was realized in which each of the precisely monitored test conditions (hoop stress, temperature, fast neutron flux) was varied separately. Different cladding materials (Zircaloy-4 and Zirconium-Niob-Tin alloy ZrNb3Sn1) were subjected to those varying test conditions. Cladding tube specimens of 10.75 mm outer diameter were irradiated in test capsules under various stress conditions and levels up to approx. 6000 h, at temperatures ranging from 300 0 C to 400 0 C and fast neutron flux (E > 1 MeV) of approx. 3x10 13 cm -2 .s -1 . Diametrical and/or axial creep deformation of all tubes were measured in the Hot Cells several times in the course of the tests. In order to extract the irradiation induced creep strain some out-pile experiments were carried out under the very same test conditions as the in-pile tests concerned. (orig./GL)

  13. Fabrication of First 4-m Coils for the LARP MQXFA Quadrupole and Assembly in Mirror Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, E F; Anerella, M; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D R; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A K; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Krave, S; Nobrega, A; Perez, J C; Pong, I; Sabbi, G L; Santini, C; Schmalzle, J; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M

    2017-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program is constructing prototype interaction region quadrupoles as part of the US in-kind contribution to the Hi-Lumi LHC project. The low-beta MQXFA Q1/Q3 coils have a 4-m length and a 150 mm bore. The design is first validated on short, one meter models (MQXFS) developed as part of the longstanding Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole R&D; by LARP in collaboration with CERN. In parallel, facilities and tooling are being developed and refined at BNL, LBNL, and FNAL to enable long coil production, assembly, and cold testing. Long length scale-up is based on the experience from the LARP 90 mm aperture (TQ-LQ) and 120 mm aperture (HQ and Long HQ) programs. A 4-m long MQXF practice coil was fabricated, water jet cut and analyzed to verify procedures, parts, and tooling. In parallel, the first complete prototype coil (QXFP01a) was fabricated and assembled in a long magnetic mirror, MQXFPM1, to provide early feedback on coil design and fabrication following the successful experience of previo...

  14. Analysis of ITER NbTi and Nb3Sn CICCs experimental minimum quench energy with JackPot, MCM and THEA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, T.; Duchateau, J. L.; Breschi, M.; Devred, A.; Nijhuis, A.

    2017-09-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) for ITER magnets are subjected to fast changing magnetic fields during the plasma-operating scenario. In order to anticipate the limitations of conductors under the foreseen operating conditions, it is essential to have a better understanding of the stability margin of magnets. In the last decade ITER has launched a campaign for characterization of several types of NbTi and Nb3Sn CICCs comprising quench tests with a singular sine wave fast magnetic field pulse and relatively small amplitude. The stability tests, performed in the SULTAN facility, were reproduced and analyzed using two codes: JackPot-AC/DC, an electromagnetic-thermal numerical model for CICCs, developed at the University of Twente (van Lanen and Nijhuis 2010 Cryogenics 50 139-148) and multi-constant-model (MCM) (Turck and Zani 2010 Cryogenics 50 443-9), an analytical model for CICCs coupling losses. The outputs of both codes were combined with thermal, hydraulic and electric analysis of superconducting cables to predict the minimum quench energy (MQE) (Bottura et al 2000 Cryogenics 40 617-26). The experimental AC loss results were used to calibrate the JackPot and MCM models and to reproduce the energy deposited in the cable during an MQE test. The agreement between experiments and models confirm a good comprehension of the various CICCs thermal and electromagnetic phenomena. The differences between the analytical MCM and numerical JackPot approaches are discussed. The results provide a good basis for further investigation of CICC stability under plasma scenario conditions using magnetic field pulses with lower ramp rate and higher amplitude.

  15. Thermal properties of a large-bore cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet for a hybrid magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Hamajima, T.; Itou, T.; Sakuraba, J.; Nishijima, G.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-01-01

    A cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet with a 360 mm room temperature bore has been developed for a hybrid magnet. The superconducting magnet cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers has been designed to generate a magnetic field of 10 T. Since superconducting wires composed of coils were subjected to large hoop stress over 150 MPa and Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires particularly showed a low mechanical strength due to those brittle property, Nb 3 Sn wires strengthened by NbTi-filaments were developed for the cryocooled superconducting magnet. We have already reported that the hybrid magnet could generate the resultant magnetic field of 27.5 T by adding 8.5 T from the superconducting magnet and 19 T from a water-cooled Bitter resistive magnet, after the water-cooled resistive magnet was inserted into the 360 mm room temperature bore of the cryocooled superconducting magnet. When the hybrid magnet generated the field of 27.5 T, it achieved the high magnetic-force field (B x ∂Bz/∂z) of 4500 T 2 /m, which was useful for magneto-science in high fields such as materials levitation research. In this paper, we particularly focus on the cause that the cryocooled superconducting magnet was limited to generate the designed magnetic field of 10 T in the hybrid magnet operation. As a result, it was found that there existed mainly two causes as the limitation of the magnetic field generation. One was a decrease of thermal conductive passes due to exfoliation from the coil bobbin of the cooling flange. The other was large AC loss due to both a thick Nb 3 Sn layer and its large diameter formed on Nb-barrier component in Nb 3 Sn wires.

  16. Effect of Twist Pitch in the Strands on the Saturation and Losses in the Nb3Sn Strands for the ITER TF CICC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, N.N.

    2007-01-01

    cryostability limit (by Stekly), or if there are enough losses to bring the temperature above the current sharing temperature taking into account limited heat capacity of the CICC, the strand will not recover, and the CICC will go normal. Conservatively, we will consider that if we find an instantaneous unstable situation, it is not acceptable. In presence of a transport current, the situation is sensitive to the direction of the strand twist, direction of the pulsed field and direction of the transport current. Recently, ITER decided to increase the twist pitch of the TF strands from 15 mm to 30 mm to improve the stability of the strands against the longitudinal field. In this report we will quantify the effects of this proposed change and perform a trade off study. The issue is that by increasing the twist pitch of the strands we not only increase the coupling losses in the transverse magnetic field, as expected in classical multifilamentary composite superconductors, but also increase the hysteresis losses in the strands with internal tin. In classical multifilamentary superconductors, twist pitch change should not cause an increase of the hysteresis losses in the transverse field. However the high Nb3Sn content internal tin strands develop transverse links, which couple the filaments into clusters. These links turn out to contribute a significant fraction to hysteresis losses [5]. If we project the results of [5] onto the ITER proposal to increase the twist pitch from 15 to 30 mm, we should expect the hysteresis losses to increase by a factor of two, which will likely disqualify strands with 30 mm twist pitch. This very strand twisted to 15 mm twist pitch would likely pass the ITER criteria. So, increasing the twist pitch has a very negative consequence and we need to make sure that it is absolutely necessary. Recently, A. Vostner (private communication) reported preliminary results on the losses in candidate TF strands. In agreement with what was reported in [5]; he found

  17. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Wanderer, P; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  18. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Sabbi, G. [LBNL, Berkeley

    2016-10-06

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  19. Development of LHC-IR model quadrupoles in the US

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, G

    2007-01-01

    Insertion quadrupoles with large aperture and high gradient are required to achieve the luminosity upgrade goal of 1035 cm-2 s-1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In 2004, the US Department of Energy established the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) to develop a technology base for the upgrade. The focus of the magnet program, which is a collaboration of three US laboratories, BNL, FNAL and LBNL, is on development of high gradient quadrupoles using Nb$_{3}$Sn in order to operate at high field and with sufficient temperature margin. Other program components address issues regarding magnet design, radiation-hard materials, long magnet scale-up, quench protection, fabrication techniques and conductor and cable R&D. This paper reports on the development od model quadrupoles and outlines the long-term goals of the program.

  20. Detailed design of the large-bore 8 T superconducting magnet for the NAFASSY test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corato, V.; Affinito, L.; Anemona, A.; Besi Vetrella, U.; Di Zenobio, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Freda, R.; Messina, G.; Muzzi, L.; Perrella, M.; Reccia, L.; Tomassetti, G.; Turtù, S.; della Corte, A.

    2015-03-01

    The ‘NAFASSY’ (NAtional FAcility for Superconducting SYstems) facility is designed to test wound conductor samples under high-field conditions at variable temperatures. Due to its unique features, it is reasonable to assume that in the near future NAFASSY will have a preeminent role at the international level in the qualification of long coiled cables in operative conditions. The magnetic system consists of a large warm bore background solenoid, made up of three series-connected grading sections obtained by winding three different Nb3Sn Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. Thanks to the financial support of the Italian Ministry for University and Research the low-field coil is currently under production. The design has been properly modified to allow the system to operate also as a stand-alone facility, with an inner bore diameter of 1144 mm. This magnet is able to provide about 7 T on its axis and about 8 T close to the insert inner radius, giving the possibility of performing a test relevant for large-sized NbTi or medium-field Nb3Sn conductors. The detailed design of the 8 T magnet, including the electro-magnetic, structural and thermo-hydraulic analysis, is here reported, as well as the production status.

  1. Performance boundaries in Nb3Sn superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godeke, A.

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting magnets for High Energy Physics, Fusion, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, benefit from the extremely high current densities that can be achieved in superconductors compared to normal conducting materials. These magnets are usually constructed starting

  2. Josephson effects in Nb3Sn microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.W.; Falco, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    Josephson effects in long narrow Nb/sub 3/Sn microbridges at temperatures up to 17 K were studied. These microbridges are formed by photolithographic techniques and subsequently subjected to controlled electrical discharges to modifY the intrinsic T/sub c/ of the bridge region. The bridges exhibit 10 GHz microwave steps in their I-V characteristics whose amplitudes are in agreement with the Resistively Shunted Junction (RSJ) model. I-V characteristics can be fit assuming an effective temperature approximately 15 K above the bath temperature. Structures in the I-V characteristics in the absence of microwaves were also investigated. It was demonstrated that phase-slip centers are induced at weak superconducting positions along the bridge when the S-N boundarY of an expanding hot spot reaches within a thermal healing distance. The critical current of the phase-slip center thus formed exhibits a temperature dependence (1-T/T/sub c/)/one-half/ insteady of the usual mean field result (1-T/T/sub c/)/sup 3/2/. 12 refs

  3. Development and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQC) Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Whitson, G.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hannaford, R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90 mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5 K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current. Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented

  4. Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2008-06-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence.

  5. Development and test of LARP technological quadrupole (TQC) magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.

    2006-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90-mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the construction and test of model TQC01. ANSYS calculations of the structure are compared with measurements during construction. Fabrication experience is described and in-process measurements are reported. Test results at 4.5K are presented, including magnet training, current ramp rate studies and magnet quench current . Results of magnetic measurements at helium temperature are also presented

  6. Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence

  7. Magnetic Measurements on the First CERN-Built Models of the Insertion Quadrupole MQXF for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fiscarelli, L; Dunkel, O; Ferracin, P; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Russenschuck, S; Todesco, E; Ambrosio, G

    2018-01-01

    The high-luminosity upgrade of the large hadron collider (HL-LHC) requires new high-field and large-aperture quadrupole magnets for the low-beta inner triplets (MQXF). CERN and LARP are currently collaborating to develop a 150-mm-aperture quadrupole based on Nb$_3$Sn superconducting cables for the coils, and an aluminum shell with the bladder-key technology for the support structure. This paper presents the test setup for magnetic measurements, both at ambient and cryogenic temperatures, and the instrumentation being used for the first two short-models of MQXF built and tested at CERN. Finally, the measurement results, in terms of field quality, effects of persistent currents, and iron saturation are reported and discussed.

  8. Test of Optimized 120-mm LARP $Nb_{3}S_n$ Quadrupole Coil Using Magnetic Mirror Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Chlachidze, G; Andreev, N; Anerella, M; Barzi, E; Bossert, R; Caspi, S; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Godeke, A; Hafalia, A R; Kashikhin, V V; Lamm, M; Marchevsky, M; Nobrega, A; Novitski, I; Orris, D; Sabbi, G L; Schmalzle, J; Wanderer, P; Zlobin, A V

    2013-01-01

    The US LHC accelerator research program (LARP) is developing a new generation of large - aperture high - field quadrupoles based on Nb 3 Sn conductor for the High luminosity upgrade of Large Hadron Collider (HiLumi - LHC). Tests of the first series of 120 - mm aperture HQ coils revealed the necessity for further optimization of the coil design and fabrication process. Modifications in coil design were gradually implemented in two HQ coils previously tested at Fermi National Accelerato r Laboratory (Fermilab) using a magnetic mirror structure (HQM01 and HQM02). This paper describes the construction and test of an HQ mirror model with a coil of optimized design and with an interlayer resistive core in the conductor. The cable for this co il was made of a smaller diameter strand, providing more room for coil expansion during reaction. The 0.8 - mm strand, used in all previous HQ coils was replaced with a 0.778 - mm Nb 3 Sn strand of RRP 108/127 sub - element design. The coil was instrumented with voltage taps, h...

  9. A Dual Operational Refrigerator/Flow Cryostat with Wide Bore Medium Field Magnet for Application Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. A.; Bailey, W. O. S.; Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Beduz, C.; Yang, Y.; Chappell, S.; Twin, A.

    Since stand alone cryocooler systems have become more widely available, there has been increased commercial interest in superconductor applications in the temperature range intermediate to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen. There are however few facilities that have large in-field bore size with variable temperatures. A large bore system can reduce costs associated with full scale demonstration magnets by testing smaller coils and qualify medium length (up to meters) conductors. A 5 T, wide bore, (170 mm) Nb3Sn Oxford Instrument magnet has been integrated into a custom built dual mode refrigerator/helium flow cryostat with 600A HTS current leads. In one mode the system can be used with zero field without cost of liquid helium relying for cooling on a Sumitomo GM cryocooler with 1.5W at 4.2K: (no He) this can be used either as the sole characterisation method, or as a preliminary check before more expensive and extensive measurements are taken. The first measurements using MgB2 wire from 10 to 20K were made using a transient current step of ∼5s duration, as opposed to a DC measurement. This has the advantage of not requiring thermal equilibrium to be achieved at nominal current. The feasibility of this technique for determining critical transport properties is discussed.

  10. Method of making Nb3Sn composite wires and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Fietz, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    By providing a nickel or copper overcoat to a tin coating on a niobium-copper multifilamentary composite wire, one can avoid the necessity for choosing between poor superconducting properties due to tin droplet formation and substantially increasing production costs by adding a number of special processing steps. 9 claims, 1 figure

  11. Method of stabilizing superconducting diffusion Nb3Sn strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, M.; Hlasnik, I.; Sabo, M.; Okali, D.

    1982-01-01

    The claim of the patent is a method consisting in the etching of the remnant of tin or bronze with HCl or a solution of HCl and HNO 3 or another suitable etching agent after the end of the diffusion process. Then the strip is copper coated in an alkaline solution containing Seignette salt, NaOH and CuSO 4 with a layer of copper 1 μm thick. On this layer is electrolytically plated the stabilizing copper in an acid copper-plating solution. This method makes it possible to obtain a contact resistance between the superconducting material and the copper stabilizing layer as low as 6 to 8x10 - 9 Ohm.cm - 2 and to increase the mechanical cohesion of the superconducting material and the stabilizing layer. (Ha)

  12. Strand critical current degradation in $Nb_{3}$ Sn Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Barzi, E; Higley, H C; Scanlan, R M; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab is developing 11 Tesla superconducting accelerator magnets based on Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor. Multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn strands produced using the modified jelly roll, internal tin, and powder-in-tube technologies were used for the development and test of the prototype cable. To optimize the cable geometry with respect to the critical current, short samples of Rutherford cable with packing factors in the 85 to 95% range were fabricated and studied. In this paper, the results of measurements of critical current, n-value and RRR made on the round virgin strands and on the strands extracted from the cable samples are presented. (5 refs).

  13. Electromagnetic Design Study for a Large Bore 15T Superconducting Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Schwerg, N; Devred, Arnaud; Henke, H

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of research and development (R&D) activities at CERN the Next European Dipole (NED) program is one which is to the development of a high-field dipole magnet using Nb_3Sn superconductors. Part of the NED activities is a design study of different possible dipole configurations which is shared amongst the collaborating institutes. This thesis covers the electromagnetic design study of an 88 mm large bore superconducting 15 T dipole magnet with a coil cross section in cos-theta-layer design. Based on analytically describable geometries the sources of multipole errors are studied and elementary estimations of the magnet are carried out, e.g., the required amount of superconductors or the influence of the iron yoke thickness on the field quality. The magnet cross section for NED is optimized by means of the CERN field computation program ROXIE. The preliminary NED design serves as starting point for the coil cross section optimization with respect to field quality and a radial positioning of th...

  14. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments

  15. 1999 Review of superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1999-12-01

    The quest for elementary particles has promoted the development of particle accelerators producing beams of increasingly higher energies. In a synchrotron-type accelerator, the particle energy is directly proportional to the product of the machine's radius times the bending magnets' field strength. Present proton experiments at the TeV scale require facilities with circumferences ranging from a few to tens of kilometers and relying on a large number (several hundreds to several thousands) of high field dipole magnets and high field gradient quadrupole magnets. These electro-magnets use high current density, low critical temperature superconducting cables and are cooled down at liquid helium temperature. They are among the most costly and the most challenging components of the machine. After explaining what are the various types of accelerator magnets and why they are needed (section 1), we present a brief history of large superconducting particle accelerators, and we detail ongoing superconducting accelerator magnet R and D programs around the world (Section 2). Then, we review the superconducting materials that are available at industrial scale (chiefly, NbTi and Nb3Sn), and we describe the manufacturing of NbTi wires and cables (section 3). We also present the difficulties of processing and insulating Nb3Sn conductors which, so far, have limited the use of this material in spite of its superior performances. We continue by presenting the complex formalism used to represent two-dimensional fields (section 4), and we discuss the two-dimensional current distributions that are the most appropriate for generating pure dipole and pure quadrupole fields (section 5). We explain how these ideal distributions can be approximated by so-called cosθ and cos 2 θ coil designs and we describe the difficulties of realizing coil ends. Next, we present the mechanical design concepts that have been developed to restrain magnet coils and to ensure proper conductor positioning

  16. 1999 Review of superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets for particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CERN, Conseil Europeen pour la recherche nucleaire, Laboratoire europeen pour la physique des particules Geneve (Switzerland)

    1999-12-01

    The quest for elementary particles has promoted the development of particle accelerators producing beams of increasingly higher energies. In a synchrotron-type accelerator, the particle energy is directly proportional to the product of the machine's radius times the bending magnets' field strength. Present proton experiments at the TeV scale require facilities with circumferences ranging from a few to tens of kilometers and relying on a large number (several hundreds to several thousands) of high field dipole magnets and high field gradient quadrupole magnets. These electro-magnets use high current density, low critical temperature superconducting cables and are cooled down at liquid helium temperature. They are among the most costly and the most challenging components of the machine. After explaining what are the various types of accelerator magnets and why they are needed (section 1), we present a brief history of large superconducting particle accelerators, and we detail ongoing superconducting accelerator magnet R and D programs around the world (Section 2). Then, we review the superconducting materials that are available at industrial scale (chiefly, NbTi and Nb3Sn), and we describe the manufacturing of NbTi wires and cables (section 3). We also present the difficulties of processing and insulating Nb3Sn conductors which, so far, have limited the use of this material in spite of its superior performances. We continue by presenting the complex formalism used to represent two-dimensional fields (section 4), and we discuss the two-dimensional current distributions that are the most appropriate for generating pure dipole and pure quadrupole fields (section 5). We explain how these ideal distributions can be approximated by so-called cos{theta} and cos{sup 2}{theta} coil designs and we describe the difficulties of realizing coil ends. Next, we present the mechanical design concepts that have been developed to restrain magnet coils and to ensure proper

  17. Mind where you bore!

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    With renewable energies on the up and up, geothermal heating is becoming increasingly popular. An ardent supporter of sustainable development, CERN welcomes this trend, even though it has certain risks for the Laboratory.   More and more people in Switzerland and France are switching to geothermal heating, with the result that more and more bore holes are being sunk for geothermal probes. Since, on average, such bore holes go down to depths of 100 m they can have an impact on CERN’s underground facilities, which are also located at approximately that depth. In the Canton of Geneva, all bore holes, whatever their depth, are subject to planning permission. Applications for planning permission are granted – or refused – only after consultation with the Ground survey department (GESDEC). In France, only bore holes below a depth of 100 m require planning permission. In theory, bore holes to lesser depths simply need to be declared to the DREAL (Dire...

  18. A boring solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiuk, M I; Iushkova, N E; Kozubovskii, A I

    1979-10-25

    A boring solution is being patented for boring for oil and gas, which can be used in wells, where the temperature of the circulating liquid reaches 100/sup 0/. Polyvinyl acetate emulsion (PVE) is added for the purpose of decreasing viscosity of the solution at a temperature of agression into the boring solution containing clay, water, carboxymethylcellulose (CBC), a chloride from the number of sodium, potassium, or magnesium chlorides. The solution has the following composition in %: clay, 10 to 20; CBC, 1.5 to 2.0; chloride, 5 to 20; PVE, 0.5 to 2; water, up to 100. In accordance to GOST 1000-62 for the accepted PVE, the compound has the following composition, in %: monomer, 0.8; dry residue, greater than or equal to 50; plasticizer (tributyl phthalate), 5 to 15. The boring solution is processed according to the following method. The original solution, containing clay, water, salts, receives 1.5 to 2% CBC and afterwards it is processed with 0.5 to 2% PVE.

  19. Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F

    2001-09-10

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.

  20. Conductor Specification and Validation for High-Luminosity LHC Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L. D.; Ghosh, A. K.; Dietderich, D. R.; Pong, I.

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will replace the main ring inner triplet quadrupoles, identified by the acronym MQXF, adjacent to the main ring intersection regions. For the past decade, the U.S. LHC Accelerator R&D Program, LARP, has been evaluating conductors for the MQXFA prototypes, which are the outer magnets of the triplet. Recently, the requirements for MQXF magnets and cables have been published in P. Ferracin et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 26, no. 4, 2016, Art. no.4000207, along with the final specification for Ti-alloyed Nb3Sn conductor determined jointly by CERN and LARP. This paper describes the rationale beneath the 0.85 mm diameter strand’s chief parameters, which are 108 or more sub-elements, a copper fraction not less than 52.4%, strand critical current at 4.22 K not less than 631 A at 12 T and 331 A at 15 T, and residual resistance ratio of not less than 150. This paper also compares the performance for ~100 km production lots of the five most recent LARP conductors to the first 163 km of strand made according to the HL-LHC specification. Two factors emerge as significant for optimizing performance and minimizing risk: a modest increase of the sub-element diameter from 50 to 55 μm, and a Nb:Sn molar ratio of 3.6 instead of 3.4. Furthermore, the statistics acquired so far give confidence that the present conductor can balance competing demands in production for the HL-LHC project.

  1. Superconductive coil characterization for next dipoles and quadrupoles generation

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Malathe

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the most sophisticated scientific machine ever built as a device that allows the scientists to explore the universe and its origin. Scientists from all over the world are working to upgrade the LHC to open the door for new physics. HL-LHC (high luminosity LHC) project is the core project at CERN which was approved in 2013 by CERN’s council. In order to increase the integrated luminosity up to 3000 fb-1 within this decade. To do so it is crucial to design cutting edge superconducting magnets that can elevate the magnetic field up to 20T, which is Nb$_{3}$Sn. However this material is brittle when it functions as superconductor, which makes it hard to be used as a cold magnet. So in this report the fabrication of 10 stacks of Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting multifilament wires was investigated as well as primary test using experimental setup and creating material model for Nb$_{3}$Sn with the finite element analysis [ANSYS] is carried out.

  2. Tunnel boring machine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.K.; McDonald, R.; Saunders, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that characterization of Yucca Mountain for a potential repository requires construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Mechanical excavating methods have been proposed for construction of the ESF as they offer a number of advantages over drilling and blasting at the Yucca Mountain site, including; less ground disturbance and therefore a potential for less adverse effects on the integrity of the site, creation of a more stable excavation cross section requiring less ground support, and an inherently safer and cleaner working environment. The tunnel boring machine (TBM) provides a proven technology for excavating the welded and unwelded Yucca Mountain tuffs. The access ramps and main underground tunnels form the largest part of the ESF underground construction work, and have been designed for excavation by TBM

  3. ISABELLE insertion quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaugerts, J.; Polk, I.; Sampson, W.; Dahl, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Beam focussing and control at the beam intersection regions of ISABELLE is accomplished by a number of superconducting insertion quadrupoles. These magnets differ from the standard ISABELLE quadrupoles in various ways. In particular, the requirements of limited space near the intersections and aperture for beam extraction impose constraints on their configuration. To achieve optimum beam focussing and provide tuning flexibility calls for stronger quadrupole trim windings than those in the standard quadrupoles. The magnetic and mechanical design of the insertion quadrupoles and their associated correction and steering windings to accomplish the above tasks is presented

  4. $Nb_{3}Sn macrostructure, microstructure, and property comparisons for bronze and internal Sn process strands

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, P J; Larbalestier, D C

    2000-01-01

    The variation in irreversibility field, B*(T), with temperature has been measured for Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting strands manufactured for ITER using vibrating sample and SQUID magnetometers. The high performance strands were developed for both high transport critical current density, J/sub c/, and low hysteresis loss. Despite a wide variety of designs and components, the strands could be split into two distinctive groups, based on the extrapolated irreversibility fields, which lie about 10% lower than the upper critical field. "Bronze-process" strands exhibited consistently higher B*(T) (28 T to 31 T) compared with "internal Sn" process (24 T to 26 T) conductors. The intrinsic critical current density of the superconductor, J/sub c (sc)/, and the specific pinning force of the grain boundaries, Q/sub gb/, were evaluated using the measured J/sub c/, and image analysis of the macro- and micro-structures. A bronze-processed Nb(-Ta)/sub 3 /Sn was found to have a higher J/sub c(sc)/ but lower Q/sub gb/ than Nb/sub...

  5. Manufacturing of Nb3Sn Sample Conductor for CFETR Central Solenoid Model Coil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Jing Gang; Wu, Yu; Xiang, Bing Lun; Dai, Chao; Mao, Zhe Hua; Jin, Huan; Liao, Guo Jun; Liu, Fang; Xue, Tianjun; Wei, Zhou Rong; Devred, Arnaud; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao

    2017-01-01

    China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) is a new tokamak device, whose magnet system includes the toroidal field, central solenoid (CS), and poloidal field coils. In order to develop the manufacturing process for the full-size CS coil, the CS model coil (CSMC) project was launched first. The

  6. Ontwikkeling van een 11 Tesla Nb3Sn dipoolmagneet voor de LHC van CERN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Ouden, A.

    1996-01-01

    In synchrone deeltjesversnellers (kortweg synchrotrons) worden twee tegengesteld gerichte bundels geladen deltjes, zoals protonen of elektronen, in een cirkelvormige baan tot vrijwel de lichtsnelheid versneld... Het doel van dergelijke experimenten is om het karakter van deze samenstellende krachten

  7. Development and test of Nb(3)Sn cos-theta dipoles based on PIT strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chichili, D.R.; Elementi, L.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Yamada, R.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    Fermilab is involved in the development of new generation high-field accelerator magnets using state-of-the-art Nb{sub 3}Sn strands produced using different technologies. Two 1-m long models--mirror configuration and dipole magnet--were fabricated recently at Fermilab based on powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb{sub 3}Sn strands with small effective filament size. This paper describes the parameters of superconducting strands and cable, the details of magnet design and fabrication procedure, and reports the results of PIT coil testing.

  8. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up using cos-theta dipole coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, F.; Andreev, N.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fermilab is working on the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets using shell-type dipole coils and the wind-and-react method. As a part of the first phase of technology development, Fermilab built and tested six 1 m long dipole model magnets and several dipole mirror configurations. The last three dipoles and two mirrors reached their design fields of 10-11 T. The technology scale up phase has started by building 2 m and 4 m dipole coils and testing them in a mirror configuration in which one of the two coils is replaced by a half-cylinder made of low carbon steel. This approach allows for shorter fabrication times and extensive instrumentation preserving almost the same level of magnetic field and Lorentz forces in the coils as in a complete dipole model magnet. This paper presents details on the 2 m (HFDM07) and 4 m long (HFDM08) Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole mirror magnet design and fabrication technology, as well as the magnet test results which are compared with 1 m long models.

  9. Voltage spikes in Nb3Sn and NbTi strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordini, B.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin,; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet program at Fermilab several NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn strands were tested with particular emphasis on the study of voltage spikes and their relationship to superconductor instabilities. The voltage spikes were detected under various experimental conditions using voltage-current (V-I) and voltage-field (V-H) methods. Two types of spikes, designated ''magnetization'' and ''transport current'' spikes, have been identified. Their origin is most likely related to magnetization flux jump and transport current redistribution, respectively. Many of the signals observed appear to be a combination of these two types of spikes; the combination of these two instability mechanisms should play a dominant role in determining the minimum quench current.

  10. Quench performance of a 4-m long Nb3Sn shell-type dipole coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlachidze, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    Fermilab has finished the first phase of Nb{sub 3}Sn technology scale up by testing 2-m and 4-m long shell-type dipole coils in a 'magnetic mirror' configuration. The 2-m long coil, made of Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb{sub 3}Sn strand, reached its short sample limit at a field level of 10 T. The 4-m long coil, made of advanced Nb{sub 3}Sn strand based on the Restack Rod Process (RRP) of 108/127 design, has been recently fabricated and tested. Coil test results at 4.5 K and 2.2 K are reported and discussed.

  11. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology R&D at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, A.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Accelerator magnets based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor are being developed at Fermilab. Six nearly identical 1-m long dipole models and several mirror configurations were built and tested demonstrating magnet performance parameters and their reproducibility. The technology scale up program has started by building and testing long dipole coils. The results of this work are reported in the paper.

  12. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up based on cos-theta coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    After successful testing of a 1 m long dipole mirror magnet and three dipole models based on two-layer Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, Fermilab has started a Nb{sub 3}Sn technology scale-up program using the dipole mirror design and the developed Nb{sub 3}Sn coil fabrication technology based on the wind-and-react method. The scale-up will be performed in several steps starting from a 2 m long coil made of Powder-in-Tube (PIT) strand. This will be followed by 4 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils made of PIT and RRP strands that will be fabricated into dipole mirror magnets and tested. This paper presents a summary of Fermilab's wind-and-react short model program. It includes details on the 2 m and 4 m long, 2 layer Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole mirror magnet design, mechanical structure, and fabrication infrastructure.

  13. Measurement of Fast Voltage Transients in High-Performance Nb3Sn Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, A. F.; Sabbi., G. L.; Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Zimmerman, S.; Joseph, J.; Doering, D.; Lizarazo, J.

    2008-06-01

    The Superconducting Magnet group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been developing Nb{sub 3}Sn high-field accelerator magnet technology for the last fifteen years. In order to support the magnet R&D effort, we are developing a diagnostic system that can help identify the causes of performance limiting quenches by recording small flux-changes within the magnet prior to quench-onset. These analysis techniques were applied to the test results from recent Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets. This paper will examine various types of events and their distinguishing characteristics. The present measurement techniques are discussed along with the design of a new data acquisition system that will substantially improve the quality of the recorded signals.

  14. R&D of Nb$_{3}$Sn accelerator magnets at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, A V; Andreev, N; Barzi, E; Bordini, B; Bossert, R; Carcagno, R; Chichili, D R; Di Marco, J; Elementi, L; Fehér, S; Kashikhin, V S; Kashikhin, V V; Kephart, R; Lamm, M J; Limon, P J; Novitski, I; Orris, D; Pischalnikov, Y; Schlabach, P; Stanek, R; Strait, J; Sylvester, C D; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J C; Turrioni, D; Velev, G; Yamada, R; Yarba, V A; 10.1109/TASC.2005.849507

    2005-01-01

    Fermilab is developing and investigating different high-field magnets (HFM) for present and future accelerators. The HFM R&D program focused on the 10-12 T magnets based on Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor and explored both basic magnet technologies for brittle superconductors-wind-and-react and react-and-wind. Magnet design studies in support of LHC upgrades and VLHC were conducted. A series of 1-m long cos-theta dipole models based on the wind-and-react technique was fabricated and tested. Three 1-m long flat racetracks and the common coil dipole model, based on a single-layer coil and react-and-wind technique, were also fabricated and tested. Extensive theoretical and experimental studies of electro-magnetic instabilities in Nb/sub 3/Sn strands, cables and magnets were performed and led to a successful 10 T dipole model. This paper presents the details of Fermilab's HFM program, reports its status and major results, and formulates the next steps for the program.

  15. Improved Fin Designs to Reduce D Effective ln Internal-Tin Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Eric

    2010-01-01

    As interest has moved to higher field properties, we are now aiming to make 2000 A/mm2 at 15 T. With a view to approaching this we inserted Ti into the Sn core in the EG 36 sub-element. The data after testing is shown in Figs 39-42. The 12 T values are lower than when no Ti is present but the 15 T data is higher giving 1800 A/mm2. In summary, while we failed to show that the split sub-element method could yield sufficiently high properties to compete with the other approaches, we did achieve properties at least as high as those obtained by Oxford using the standard internal tin approach.

  16. MAGNETIC PARAMETERS OF A NB3SN SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET FOR A 56 HGz ECR ION SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Todd, D. S.

    2009-05-04

    Third generation Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources operate at microwave frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz and employ NbTi superconducting magnets with a conductor peak field of 6-7 T. A significant gain in performance can be achieved by replacing NbTi with Nb{sub 3}Sn, allowing solenoids and sextupole coils to reach a field of 15 T in the windings. In this paper we describe the design of a Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet for a fourth generation ECR source operating at a microwave frequency of 56 GHz. The magnet design features a configuration with an internal sextupole magnet surrounded by three solenoids. A finite element magnetic model has been used to investigate conductor peak fields and the operational margins. Results of the numerical analysis are presented and discussed.

  17. Development of a single-layer Nb3Sn common coil dipole model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor Novitski et al.

    2002-12-13

    A high-field dipole magnet based on the common coil design was developed at Fermilab for a future Very Large Hadron Collider. A short model of this magnet with a design field of 11 T in two 40-mm apertures is being fabricated using the react-and-wind technique. In order to study and optimize the magnet design two 165-mm long mechanical models were assembled and tested. A technological model consisting of magnet straight section and ends was also fabricated in order to check the tooling and the winding and assembly procedures. This paper describes the design and technology of the common coil dipole magnet and summarizes the status of short model fabrication.The results of the mechanical model tests and comparison with FE mechanical analysis are also presented.

  18. Parametric studh on coupling loss in subsize ITER Nb3Sn cabled specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Arend; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Bottura, Luca

    1996-01-01

    The cable in conduit conductors for the various ITER coils are required to function under pulse conditions and fields up to 13 T. A parametric study, restricted to a limited variation of the reference cable lay out, is carried out to clarify the quantitative impact of various cable parameters on the

  19. Fabrication of Nb3Sn cables for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Takaaki; Tsutsumi, Fumiaki; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Hideo; Ishibashi, Tatsuji; Sato, Go; Chida, Kenji; Suzuki, Rikio; Tanji, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER toroidal field (TF) coils will be operated at 68 kA and 11.8 T. The cable is composed of 1,422 strands with a diameter of 0.82 mm. There were two options for initial procurement. For option 2, the twist pitches at lower stages are longer than in option 1. Trials were performed to assess the feasibility of these options. In the trials for option 1, the nominal outer diameter of sub-cables and reduction schedule of final cables were evaluated and finalized. In the trials for option 2, problems were encountered at the third stage cabling. These problems were resolved through increasing the die size in that stage and improving the tension balance of the second-stage cables to reduce friction between the die and the cable, and also through avoiding loose twisting at both edges of the third cables. Option 2 was finally selected in 2009 based on superconducting performance enhancement of the cable. After the qualification of the fabrication procedure using fabrication of a 760-m dummy cable and a 415-m superconducting cable, mass production of the cables started in March 2010. (author)

  20. High and ulta-high gradient quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunk, W.O.; Walz, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    Small bore conventional dc quadrupoles with apertures from 1 to 2.578cm were designed and prototypes built and measured. New fabrication techniques including the use of wire electric discharge milling (EDM) to economically generate the pole tip contours and aperture tolerances are described. Magnetic measurement data from a prototype of a 1cm aperture quadrupole with possible use in future e + /e - super colliders are presented. At a current of 400A, the lens achieved a gradient of 2.475 T/cm, and had an efficiency of 76.6%

  1. Centering of quadrupole family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinayev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for finding the individual centers for a family of quadrupoles fed with a single power supply is described. The method is generalized for using the correctors adjacent to the quadrupoles. Theoretical background is presented as well as experimental data for the NSLS rings. The method accuracy is also discussed

  2. Superconducting magnetic quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.

  3. Measurement of time dependent fields in high gradient superconducting quadrupoles for the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, M.J.; Coulter, K.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    Magnetic field measurements have been performed on prototype and production magnets from two high gradient superconducting quadrupoles designs. One design is a double shell quadrupole with 36 strand Rutherford cable. The other design is a single shell quadrupole with 5 individually monolithic strands connected in series. These magnets have similar bore diameters and cable dimensions. However, there are significant differences between the two designs, as well as differences between prototype and production magnets within each design, with regard to Cu to superconductor ratio, filament diameter and filament spacing to strand diameter. The time dependence of fixed currents of the measured magnetic fields is discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Quadrupole Ion Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to do precision spectroscopic measurements on these ions. ... Bonn, investigated the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter, .... the details of which will be discussed in the subse- ... the radial plane the ion undergoes a circular motion with the.

  5. SPS Quadrupole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    A stack of SPS Quadrupole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a total of 216 laminated normal conducting lattice quadrupoles with a length of 3.13 m for the core, 3.3 m overall. The F and D quads. have identical characteristics: inscribed circle radius 44 mm, core height and width 800 mm, maximum gradient 20 Tesla/m.

  6. Quadrupole moments of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M.I.

    1985-01-01

    In chiral bag model an expression is obtained for the quark wave functions with account of color and pion interaction of quarks. The quadrupole moments of nonstrange hadrons are calculated. Quadrupole moment of nucleon isobar is found to be Q(Δ)=-6.3x10 -28 esub(Δ)(cm)sup(2). Fredictions of the chiral bag model are in strong disagreement with the non-relativistic quark model

  7. Design and construction of superconducting quadrupole magnets for ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Ludwig, H.; Turner, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    A high gradient superconducting quadrupole has been designed and developed as the heavy ion beam focussing element in the low velocity portions of an rf linac for the Argonne Ion Beam Fusion Reactor. The quadrupole magnets will require an extremely short magnet coil length (approximately 20 cm to 30 cm) and extremely high central gradients (approximately 100 T/m to 200 T/m). The useful warm bore will be about 4 to 6 cm and the integral gradient homogeneity should be constant to +-5% over the useful warm bore. Special techniques have been developed which are especially suitable for multilayer coil winding and coil assembly with high average current density over the coil cross section. A 5-layer quadrupole with 9 cm winding bore has been built and tested to the full performance of about 100 T/m with little training. The achieved average current density is 22,000 A/cm 2 at a peak field in conductor of about 5.0 T. An 8-layer quadrupole is under construction for a design gradient of 140 T/m over 9 cm winding bore. The peak field will be about 7.2 T

  8. Atmospheric noise of a breaking tidal bore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    A tidal bore is a surge of waters propagating upstream in an estuary as the tidal flow turns to rising and the flood tide propagates into a funnel-shaped system. Large tidal bores have a marked breaking roller. The sounds generated by breaking tidal bores were herein investigated in the field (Qiantang River) and in laboratory. The sound pressure record showed two dominant periods, with some similarity with an earlier study [Chanson (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(6), 3561-3568]. The two distinct phases were the incoming tidal bore when the sound amplitude increased with the approaching bore, and the passage of the tidal bore in front of the microphone when loud and powerful noises were heard. The dominant frequency ranged from 57 to 131 Hz in the Qiantang River bore. A comparison between laboratory and prototype tidal bores illustrated both common features and differences. The low pitch sound of the breaking bore had a dominant frequency close to the collective oscillations of bubble clouds, which could be modeled with a bubble cloud model using a transverse dimension of the bore roller. The findings suggest that this model might be over simplistic in the case of a powerful breaking bore, like that of the Qiantang River.

  9. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. Based on preliminary tests, it was seen that permanent quadrupole magnets can offer a low cost, reliable solution in applications requiring small, fixed-field focusing devices for use in ion or electron-beam transport systems. Permanent magnets do require special considerations in design, fabrication, handling, and service that are different than encountered in conventional quadrupole magnets. If these basic conditions are satisfied, the resulting beam-focusing device would be stable, maintenance free, with virtually an indefinite lifetime

  10. Torques on quadrupoles

    OpenAIRE

    Torres del Castillo, G.F; Méndez Garrido, A

    2006-01-01

    Making use of the fact that a 2l-pole can be represented by means of l vectors of the same magnitude, the torque on a quadrupole in an inhomogeneous external field is expressed in terms of the vectors that represent the quadrupole and the gradient of the external field. The conditions for rotational equilibrium are also expressed in terms of these vectors. Haciendo uso de que un multipolo de orden 2l puede representarse mediante l vectores de la misma magnitud, la torca sobre un cuadripolo...

  11. High gradient superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.

    1987-07-01

    Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed

  12. Variable high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole (QUAPEVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, F.; Ghaith, A.; N'Gotta, P.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Valléau, M.; Kitegi, C.; Loulergue, A.; Vétéran, J.; Sebdaoui, M.; André, T.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.; Vallerand, C.; Oumbarek, D.; Cosson, O.; Forest, F.; Jivkov, P.; Lancelot, J. L.; Couprie, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Different applications such as laser plasma acceleration, colliders, and diffraction limited light sources require high gradient quadrupoles, with strength that can reach up to 200 T/m for a typical 10 mm bore diameter. We present here a permanent magnet based quadrupole (so-called QUAPEVA) composed of a Halbach ring and surrounded by four permanent magnet cylinders. Its design including magnetic simulation modeling enabling us to reach 201 T/m with a gradient variability of 45% and mechanical issues are reported. Magnetic measurements of seven systems of different lengths are presented and confirmed the theoretical expectations. The variation of the magnetic center while changing the gradient strength is ±10 μm. A triplet of QUAPEVA magnets is used to efficiently focus a beam with large energy spread and high divergence that is generated by a Laser Plasma Acceleration source for a free electron laser demonstration and has enabled us to perform beam based alignment and control the dispersion of the beam.

  13. ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.

  14. Rf quadrupole beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Crandall, K.R.; Stovall, J.E.; Swenson, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed to analyze the beam dynamics of the radiofrequency quadrupole accelerating structure. Calculations show that this structure can accept a dc beam at low velocity, bunch it with high capture efficiency, and accelerate it to a velocity suitable for injection into a drift tube linac

  15. ISR "Terwilliger" Quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    There were 48 of these Quadrupoles in the ISR. They were distributed around the rings according to the so-called Terwilliger scheme. Their aperture was 184 mm, their core length 300 mm, their gradient 5 T/m. Due to their small length as compared to the aperture, the end fringe field errors had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles.

  16. TMI-2 core bore acquisition summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, E.L.; Smith, R.P.; Martin, M.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Core bore samples were obtained from the severely damaged TMI-2 core during July and August, 1986. A description of the TMI-2 core bore drilling unit used to obtain samples; a summary and discussion of the data from the ten core bore segments which were obtained; and the initial results of analysis and evaluation of these data are presented in this report. The impact of the major findings relative to our understanding of the accident scenario is also discussed

  17. Energy Efficiency of Tunnel Boring Machines.

    OpenAIRE

    Grishenko, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Herrenknecht AG is a German world-leading Tunnel Boring Machines manufacturer showing strong awareness and concern regarding environmental issues. The company supports research on the Energy Efficiency (EE) of their products, aimed at the development of intelligent design for a green Tunnel Boring Machine. The aim of this project is to produce a ’status quo’ report on EE of three types of Tunnel Boring Machines (Hardrock, EPB and Mixshield TBM). In the framework of this research 39 projects a...

  18. Status of the quadrupoles for RHIC [Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Cottingham, J.G.; Garber, M.

    1989-01-01

    The proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will require 408 regular arc quadrupoles. Two full size prototypes have been constructed and tested. The construction uses the single layer, collarless concept which has been successful in the RHIC dipoles. Both the magnets attained short sample current, which is 60% higher than the operating current. This corresponds to a gradient of 113 T/m with clear bore of 80 mm. The preliminary field measurements are in agreement with the calculations, with the exception of an unexpectedly large show sextupole. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  20. Railgun bore material test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.; Burton, R.L.; Witherspoon, F.D.; Bloomberg, H.W.; Goldstein, S.A.; Tidman, D.A.; Winsor, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    GT-Devices, Inc. has constructed a material test facility (MTF) to study the fundamental heat transfer problem of both railgun and electrothermal guns, and to test candidate gun materials under real plasma conditions. The MTF electrothermally produces gigawatt-level plasmas with pulse lengths of 10-30 microseconds. Circular bore and non-circular bore test barrels have been successfully operated under a wide range of simulated heating environments for EM launchers. Diagnostics include piezoelectric MHz pressure probes, time-of-flight probes, and current and voltage probes. Ablation measurements are accomplished by weighing and optical inspection, including borescope, optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). From these measurements the ablation threshold for both the rail and insulator materials can be determined as a function of plasma heating. The MTF diagnostics are supported by an unsteady 1-D model of MTF which uses the flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithm to calculate the fluid equations in conservative form. A major advantage of the FCT algorithm is that it can model gas dynamic shock behaviour without the requirement of numerical diffusion. The principle use of the code is to predict the material surface temperature ΔT/α from the unsteady heat transfer q(t)

  1. Permanent quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. (author)

  2. On quantum quadrupole radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, L.; Mankoc-Borstnik, N.

    1981-02-01

    In this paper it is shown that for the electromagnetic decay of a quantum system in a coherent rotational state the total quadrupole radiation is proportional to (d 5 Q/dt 5 )(dQ/dt)sup(*)+c.c. For the radiation flux out of a sphere of large radius a different quantity, closer to the classical expression (d 3 Q/dt 3 ) 2 , is found. (author)

  3. Superconducting Panofsky quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    A design for a rectangular aperture quadrupole magnet without pole-tips was introduced by Hand and Panofsky in 1959. This design was quite radical but simple to construct. Few magnets of this design were ever built because of the large power needed. With the advent of superconducting coils there has been a renewed interest in them. The mathematical basis, field characteristics, and present and future construction of these magnets are described

  4. Measurements of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, J.L.; Fourie, D.T.; Cornell, J.C.; Lloyd, G.C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements carried out on quadrupole magnets using a long asymmetric rotating coil are described. Although the method itself is fairly well-known, the introduction of microprocessors has made this once-tedious technique into a useful and simple method of evaluating quadrupole magnets. The rotating-coil device and a variety of coil sizes are now commercially available. The coil contains a large number of extremely fine wires, embedded in a carefully balanced fibre-glass rotor, resulting in a reasonable induced voltage when the coil is rotated. A digital harmonic analyser is then used to obtain the integrated multipole content of the waveform, while the coil is rotating. By integrating over time, one can average out random noise and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements. Because the harmonic analysis is done in real time, the method is quick, easy and accurate, and has been extended to locate the precise magnetic centre of the quadrupole magnet by adjusting its position relative to the coil axis so as to minimize the dipole content of the output waveform. Results of these measurements are compared with those obtained with an optical method using a suspension of magnetite. The observed light pattern is explained analytically. (author)

  5. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  6. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  7. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  8. The eight superconducting quadrupoles for the ISR high-luminosity insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billan, J.; Henrichsen, K.N.; Laeger, H.; Lebrun, Ph.; Perin, R.; Pichler, S.; Pugin, P.; Resegotti, L.; Rohmig, P.; Tortschanoff, T.; Verdier, A.; Walckiers, L.; Wolf, R.

    1980-01-01

    Eight superconducting quadrupoles for a high-luminosity insertion in the ISR have been produced by industrial firms according to CERN design and manufacturing specifications, and assembled and tested at CERN. The horizontal cylindrical cryostats, which contain windings and steel yoke in a boiling helium bath, have a 173 mm warm bore. For 31 GeV beam energy, the maximum operating gradient on the quadrupole axis is 43 T m -1 and the maximum field in the windings is 5.5 T. Sextupole windings provide a linear variation of the gradient of up to 4 % over the bore width and dodecapole windings trim the field pattern as a function of excitation. This paper reports about production history, acceptance tests, and performance. The results of magnetic measurements are also summarized. The insertion will be installed into the ISR as from August 1980. (Auth.)

  9. Use of High Resolution DAQ System to Aid Diagnosis of HD2b, a High Performance Nb3Sn Dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizarazo, J.; Doering, D.; Doolittle, L.; Galvin, J.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Godeke, A.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A. F.; Ratti, A.; Sabbi, G. L.; Trillaud, F.; Wang, X.; Zimmerman, S.

    2008-08-17

    A novel voltage monitoring system to record voltage transients in superconducting magnets is being developed at LBNL. This system has 160 monitoring channels capable of measuring differential voltages of up to 1.5kV with 100kHz bandwidth and 500kS/s digitizing rate. This paper presents analysis results from data taken with a 16 channel prototype system. From that analysis we were able to diagnose a change in the current-temperature margin of the superconducting cable by analyzing Flux-Jump data collected after a magnet energy extraction failure during testing of a high field Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole.

  10. Comparison Between Nb3Al and Nb3Sn Strands and Cables for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, A.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Rusy, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Velev, V.; Wake, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The Nb{sub 3}Al small racetrack magnet, SR07, has been successfully built and tested to its short sample limit beyond 10 Tesla without any training. Thus the practical application of Nb{sub 3}Al strands for high field accelerator magnets is established. The characteristics of the representative F4 strand and cable, are compared with the typical Nb{sub 3}Sn strand and cable. It is represented by the OST high current RRP Nb{sub 3}Sn strand with 108/127 configuration. The effects of Rutherford cabling to both type strands are explained and the inherent problem of the Nb{sub 3}Sn strand is discussed. Also the test results of two representative small racetrack magnets are compared from the stand point of Ic values, and training. The maximum current density of the Nb{sub 3}Al strands is still smaller than that of the Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, but if we take into account of the stress-strain characteristics, Nb{sub 3}Al strands become somewhat favorable in some applications.

  11. Performance of Nb3Sn RRP strands and cables based on a 108/127 stack design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab /Oxford Supercond. Tech., Carteret

    2006-08-01

    The high performance Nb{sub 3}Sn strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) with the Restack Rod Process (RRP) is presently considered as a baseline conductor for the Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program. To improve the strand stability in the current and field range expected in magnet models, the number of subelements in the strand was increased by a factor of two (from 54 to 108), which resulted in a smaller effective filament size. The performance of the 1.0 and 0.7 mm strands of this design was studied using virgin and deformed strand samples. 27-strand Rutherford cables made of 1 mm strand were also tested using a superconducting transformer, small racetrack and 1-m shell-type dipole coils. This paper presents the RRP strand and cable parameters, and reports the results of strand, cable and coil testing.

  12. Comparison of the costs of superconducting accelerator dipoles using NbTi, Nb3Sn and NbTiTa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1981-03-01

    The present study, which is based on the assumption that future, high-energy accelerators will use superconductors, is a comparison of the costs of 5 to 12 Tesla NbTi, Nb 3 S/sub n/, and NbTiTa accelerator magnets operating at 4.2 K or 1.8 K. The object of this evaluation is not to determine the actual cost of future accelerators, rather, its purpose is to provide some rationale for research on the next generation of superconducting accelerator magnets. Thus, though the actual costs of accelerator magnets may be different from those given here, the comparisons are valid

  13. FENIX experimental results of large-scale CICC made of bronze-processed Nb3Sn strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, S.S.; Felker, B.; Moller, J.M.; Parker, J.M.; Isono, T.; Yasukawa, Y.; Hosono, F.; Nishi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fusion ENgineering International eXperiments (FENIX) Test Facility recently has successfully complete the testing of a pair of Nb 3 rSn cable-in-conduit conductors developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. These conductors, made of bronze-processed strands, were designed to operate stably with 40-kA transport current at a magnetic field of 13 T. In addition to the measurements of major design parameters such as current-sharing temperature, FENIX provided several experiments specifically designed to provide results urgently needed by magnet designers. Performed experiments include measurements of ramp-rate limit, current-distribution, stability, and joint performance. This paper presents the design and results of these special experiments

  14. Progress on the Development of the $Nb_3Sn$ 11T Dipole for the High Luminosity Upgrade of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Savary, Frederic; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Fiscarelli, Lucio; Fleiter, Jerome; Foussat, Arnaud; Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; Karppinen, Mikko; Lackner, Friedrich; Loffler, Christian H; Nilsson, Emelie; Perez, Juan Carlos; Prin, Herve; Principe, Rosario; Ramos, Delio; de Rijk, Gijs; Rossi, Lucio; Smekens, David; Sequeira Tavares, Sandra; Willering, Gerard; Zlobin, Alexander V

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity large hadron collider (LHC) project at CERN entered into the production phase in October 2015 after the completion of the design study phase. In the meantime, the development of the 11 T dipole needed for the upgrade of the collimation system of the machine made significant progress with very good performance of the first two-in-one magnet model of 2-m length made at CERN. The 11 T dipole, which is more powerful than the current main dipoles of LHC, can be made shorter with an equivalent integrated field. This will allow creating space for the installation of additional collimators in specific locations of the dispersion suppressor regions. Following tests carried out during heavy ions runs of LHC in the end of 2015, and a more recent review of the project budget, the installation plan for the 11 T dipole was revised. Consequently, one 11 T dipole full assembly containing two 11 T dipoles of 5.5-m length will be installed on either side of interaction point 7. These two units shall be inst...

  15. Protecting a full-scale Nb3Sn magnet with CLIQ, the new coupling-loss-induced quench system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravaioli, Emanuele; Bajas, H.; Datskov, V.I.; Desbiolles, V.; Feuvrier, J.; Kirby, G.; Maciejewski, M.; Sabbi, G.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Verweij, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    A new protection system for superconducting magnets called coupling-loss induced quench system (CLIQ) has been recently developed at CERN. Recent tests on Nb-Ti coils have shown that CLIQ is a valid, efficient, and promising method for the protection of high-magnetic-field superconducting magnets.

  16. Magnetization and loss measurements on Nb$_{3}$Sn and NbTi strands for ITER and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Foitl, M

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics have led to a demand for high magnetic fields which cannot be generated permanently by conventional magnets wound from Cu cables. The acceleration of protons in a ring accelerator up to particle energies of several TeVs or the magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas of sufficient pressure to generate approx 1 GW of fusion power, or even more, are only two examples. To reach beam to beam collision energies of several TeV for hadrons or heavy ions, accelerator magnets have to provide very high magnetic fields which can only be produced by superconducting magnets. In the case of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is planned to be commissioned in the year 2005, the circumference of the beam line is given by the dimensions of the 27 Km Large Electron Positron (LEP) Collider tunnel. Consequently each superconducting arc dipole has to provide a field of 8.36 T to bend 7 TeV protons around the ring. Apart from the total magnitude of the bending field, which necessitates t...

  17. 2D/3D quench simulation using ANSYS for epoxy impregnated Nb3Sn high field magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryuji Yamada et al.

    2002-09-19

    A quench program using ANSYS is developed for the high field collider magnet for three-dimensional analysis. Its computational procedure is explained. The quench program is applied to a one meter Nb{sub 3}Sn high field model magnet, which is epoxy impregnated. The quench simulation program is used to estimate the temperature and mechanical stress inside the coil as well as over the whole magnet. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for longer magnets.

  18. Research and development of stabilized multifilamentary Nb3Sn superconductors. Technical report, January 1, 1976--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormand, F.T.

    1976-01-01

    The basic objectives of this work included: making additional test samples of 1000 A (at 12 T) conductor, scaling up the production of 3500 A conductor to larger billets, and improving the performance of 1000 A size conductor by utilizing 13.5 wt% tin-bronze rather than 10% bronze. Additional samples of 1000 A conductor were made successfully from a 51 mm diameter third-stage billet. This 1.68 x 5.00 mm conductor had a critical current of 1060 A at 12 T, 4.2 K and 10 -13 Ω m. A 101 mm diameter third-stage billet of 3500 A configuration was extruded, drawn, and reacted successfully to make 3.12 x 9.40 mm conductor. Current was 3600 A at 12 T, 4.2 K and 10 -13 Ω m. A 187 mm diameter third-stage billet of 3500 A configuration, packed with hexes from two scaled-up 152 mm diameter second-stage billets, was unsuccessful. Longitudinal cracks appeared in some portions of the second-stage extrusions during drawing. Multiple breaks were found in each of the tantalum barriers after drawing the third-stage extrusion. It is not yet clear whether these problems are attributable to impurities, or unfavorable metallurgical conditions in the tantalum or the bronze, or to scaling up to a larger size. First-, second- and third-stage billets containing 13.5 wt% tin-bronze were extruded and drawn to appropriate sizes. The 1.68 x 5.00 mm conductor was reacted to give a critical current of 1800 A at 12 T, 4.2 K and 10 -13 Ω m

  19. Multi-contact behaviors among Nb3Sn strands associated with load cycles in a CS1 cable cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Shuming; Wang, Dengming; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents the contact mechanical characteristics in the cable cross section. • Transverse compression stresses that affect cable performance are performed. • The effect of adjacent number on the stress distribution are also presented. - Abstract: Cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) are an essential part of the superconducting magnets for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The cable performance maybe significantly influenced by the transverse compressive stresses among the strands, which is quite sensitive to the cyclic loading. To systematically explore the underlying mechanism within this complicated phenomenon, more cyclic transverse loads have been successfully applied on the CS1 cable based upon discrete element method (DEM) in Jia’s work (Jia et al., 2014). In this work, the effects of load cycles on the contact mechanical characteristics among strands in the cable cross section are studied in detail. The distribution characteristics of contact forces among strands are analyzed firstly. It can be found that the probability density of the normal and tangential contact forces all decay with an exponential law and they are unaffected by cycle numbers. Sequentially, the distribution and evolution features of the transverse compressive stresses of strands associated with cycle numbers are investigated. The numerical results show that the peak of the occurrence probability distribution decreases and the range of high stress becomes broader with increasing cycle numbers. In addition, the variation of each strand’s adjacent number with respect to cycle loads and its effect on the stress distribution are also presented. It is found that the stress distribution may be largely affected by the adjacent number, which is significantly related to the cycle numbers. It is promising to provide basic and useful instruction for further cable design

  20. Laboratory scale electroplating and processing of long lengths of an in situ Cu-Nb3Sn superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeHuy, H.; Germain, L.; Roberge, R.; Foner, S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    A laboratory scale continuous tin electroplating system is described and used to evaluate the effect of various parameters of the alkaline and acid baths plating process. Tin electroplating is shown to be simple and reliable. With an 8 m immersion length production speeds of the order of 1 m min -1 are possible in an alkaline bath at 80degC. An acid bath gives satisfactory tinning deposits with a production speed of up to 3 m min -1 at room temperature. (author)

  1. Processing of Bi-2212 and Nb$_3$Sn studied in situ by high energy synchrotron diffraction and micro-tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kadar, Julian

    Next generation superconducting wires have been studied to obtain more information on the evolution of phase growth, crystallite size and strain state during wire processing. The high energy scattering beam line ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility provides a very high flux of high energy photons for very fast in situ X-ray diffraction and micro-tomography studies of Bi-2212/Ag and Nb$_3$S/Cu wire samples. The typical wire processing conditions could be imitated in the X-ray transparent furnace at ID15 for diffraction and tomography studies. Efficient data analysis is mandatory in order to handle the very fast data acquisition rate. For this purpose an Excel-VBA based program was developed that allows a semi-automated fitting and tracking of peaks with pre-set constraints. With this method, more than one thousand diffraction patterns have been analysed to extract d-spacing, peak intensity and peak width values. X ray absorption micro tomograms were recorded simultaneously with the X-ray diffrac...

  2. Experimental investigation of cooling perimeter and disturbance length effect on stability of Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.R.

    1992-02-01

    The stability of three coils, with similar parameters besides having differing strand diameters, was investigated experimentally using inductive heaters to input disturbances. One of the coils stability was also tested by doubling the inductive heated disturbance length to 10 cm. By computationally deriving approximate inductive heater input energy at 12 T, stability curves show fair agreement with zero-dimensional and one-dimensional computer predictions. Quench velocity and limiting currents also show good agreement with earlier work. Also, the stability measured on one of the coils below its limiting current by disturbing a 10 cm length of conductor was much less than the same samples stability using a 5 cm disturbance length. (author)

  3. Magnetization and loss measurements on Nb3Sn and NbTi strands for ITER and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Foitl, M

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics have led to a demand for high magnetic fields which cannot be generated permanently by conventional magnets wound from Cu cables. The acceleration of protons in a ring accelerator up to particle energies of several TeVs or the magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas of sufficient pressure to generate approx 1 GW of fusion power, or even more, are only two examples. To reach beam to beam collision energies of several TeV for hadrons or heavy ions, accelerator magnets have to provide very high magnetic fields which can only be produced by superconducting magnets. In the case of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is planned to be commissioned in the year 2005, the circumference of the beam line is given by the dimensions of the 27 Km Large Electron Positron (LEP) Collider tunnel. Consequently each superconducting arc dipole has to provide a field of 8.36 T to bend 7 TeV protons around the ring. Apart from the total magnitude of the bending field, which necessitates t...

  4. Minimisation of higher order harmonics for large aperture super-ferric quadrupole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Atanu; Sharma, P.R.; Dey, M.K.; Bhunia, U.; Nandy, C.; Roy, S.; Pal, G.; Mallik, C.

    2011-01-01

    We have analysed the magnetic field of finite length (effective length of 1200 mm), large bore (pole radius of 350 mm) superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in Low Energy Branch of Super FRS with the program TOSCA. In particularly we have tried to minimize the 12-pole and 20-pole components, which would contribute to geometric aberrations. At the same time we have tried to keep the gradient field uniformity at reference radius 300 mm within ±8.0E-04. (author)

  5. High-gradient quadrupole magnet for a polarized-beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.P.; Hoffman, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Mataya, K.F.; Niemann, R.C.; Turner, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype quadrupole magnet with 2.8 m effective length is under design and construction for use in a polarized beam transport system at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The operating gradient required is 50 T/m and the higher multipole error fields must not exceed a few parts in one thousand over a 10 cm diameter bore. For cryogenic efficiency the magnet will operate at 1000 amperes and a cold iron yoke will provide complete field shielding

  6. A high gradient superconducting quadrupole for a low charge state ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting quadrupole magnet has been designed for use as the focusing element in a low charge state linac proposed at Argonne. The expected field gradient is 350 T/m at an operating current of 53 A, and the bore diameter is 3 cm. The use of rare earth material holmium for pole tips provides about 10% more gradient then iron pole tips. The design and the status of construction of a prototype singlet magnet is described

  7. TMI-2 core boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.M.; Helbert, H.J.; Laney, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    An important and essential aspect of the TMI-2 defueling effort is to determine what occurred in the core region during the accident. Remote cameras and probes only portray a portion of the overall picture. What lies beneath the rubble bed and solidified sublayer is, as yet, unknown. This paper discusses the TMI-2 Core Boring Machine, which has been developed to drill into the damaged core of the TMI-2 reactor and extract stratified samples of the core. This machine, its unique support structure, positioning and leveling systems, and specially designed drill bits, combine to provide a unique mechanical system. In addition, the machine is controlled by a microprocessor; which actually controls the drilling operation, allowing relatively inexperienced operators to drill the core samples. A data acquisition system is data integral with the controlling system and collects data relative to system conditions and monitored parameters during drilling. Data obtained during the actual drilling operations are collected in a data base which will be used for actual mapping of the core region, identifying materials and stratification levels that are present

  8. Tunnel boring waste test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricio, J.G.

    1984-03-01

    The test plan has been prepared in anticipation of the need to excavate certain repository openings by relying upon mechanical excavation techniques. The test plan proposes that specific technical issues can be resolved and key design parameters defined by excavating openings in basalt near the surface, utilizing a full face tunnel boring machine (TBM). The purpose and objective of this type of testing will define the overall feasibility and attributes of mechanical excavation in basalt. The test plan recognizes that although this technology is generally available for underground construction for some geologic settings, the current state of technology for excavation in basalt is limited and the potential for improvement is considerable. The test plan recommends that it is economically advantageous to conduct additional testing in the laboratory to allow refinement of this plan based on the laboratory results. Thus, this test plan is considered preliminary in nature, with respect to detailed testing recommendations. However, the gross design attributes and resource requirements of a near-surface TBM demonstration are considered to be valid. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Quadrupole shunt experiments at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Hettel, R.O.; Nuhn, H.-D.

    1996-05-01

    As part of a program to align and stabilize the SPEAR storage ring, a switchable shunt resistor was installed on each quadrupole to bypass a small percentage of the magnet current. The impact of a quadrupole shunt is to move the electron beam orbit in proportion to the off-axis beam position at the quadrupole, and to shift the betatron tune. Initially, quadrupole shunts in SPEAR were used to position the electron beam in the center of the quadrupoles. This provided readback offsets for nearby beam position monitors, and helped to steer the photon beams with low-amplitude corrector currents. The shunt-induced tune shift measurements were then processed in MAD to derive a lattice model

  10. Quadrupole shunt experiments at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Hettel, R.O.; Nuhn, H.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a program to align and stabilize the SPEAR storage ring, a switchable shunt resistor was installed on each quadrupole to bypass a small percentage of the magnet current. The impact of a quadrupole shunt is to move the electron beam orbit in proportion to the off-axis beam position at the quadrupole and to shift the betatron tune. Initially, quadrupole shunts in SPEAR were used to position the electron beam in the center of the quadrupoles. This provided readback offsets for nearby beam position monitors and helped to steer the photon beams with low-amplitude corrector currents. The shunt-induced tune shift measurements were then processed in MAD to derive a lattice model. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. CLIC Quadrupole Module final report

    CERN Document Server

    Artoos, K; Mainaud-Durand, H

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line. The CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole (MBQ) module has been defined and studied. It is meant as a test stand for stabilisation and pre-alignment with a MB Quadrupole. The main topic that has been tackled concerns the Quadrupole magnet stabilisation to 1nm at 1Hz. This is needed to obtain the desired CLIC luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2m-1. The deliverable was demonstrated by procuring a MBQ and by stabilising a powered and cooled CLIC MBQ quadrupole. In addition, the stabilisation system has to be compatible with the pre-alignment procedures. Pre-alignment movement resolution has been demonstrated to 1m. The last step is the combined test of stability with a quadrupole on a CLIC Module with the pre-alignment.

  12. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  13. Tunnel Boring Machine Performance Study. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Full face tunnel boring machine "TBM" performance during the excavation of 6 tunnels in sedimentary rock is considered in terms of utilization, penetration rates and cutter wear. The construction records are analyzed and the results are used to inves...

  14. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T.

    1996-11-01

    As a part of the Finnish radioactive waste disposal research three holes (the size of deposition holes) were bored in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto in Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string an the purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of charges in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. (refs.)

  15. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-11-01

    As a part of the Finnish radioactive waste disposal research three holes (the size of deposition holes) were bored in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto in Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string an the purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of charges in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. (refs.).

  16. Compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet with holmium poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Lobb, C.T.; Menzel, M.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walstrom, P.L. (Grumman Space Systems, Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1992-03-15

    A compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and built with poles made of the rare-earth metal holmium. The magnet is intended for use in superconducting coupled-cavity linear accelerators where compact high-field quadrupoles are needed, but where the use of permanent magnets is ruled out because of trapped-flux losses. The magnet has a clear bore diameter of 1.8 cm, outside diameter of 11 cm, length of 11 cm, and pole tip length of 6 cm. The effect of using holmium, a material with a higher saturation field than iron, was investigated by replacing poles made of iron with identical poles made of holmium. The magnet was operated at a temperature of 4.2 K and reached a peak quadrupole field gradient of 355 T/m, a 10% increase over the same magnet with iron poles. This increase in performance is consistent with calculations based on B-H curves that were measured for holmium at 4.2 K. (orig.).

  17. Magnetic field measurements of LHC inner triplet quadrupoles fabricated at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velev, G.V.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; DiMarco, J.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Orris, D.; Schlabach, P.; Strait, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fermilab, as part of the US-LHC Accelerator Project, is producing superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These 5.5 m long magnets are designed to operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a nominal gradient of 205 T/m in the 70 mm bore. Two quadrupoles separated by a dipole orbit corrector in a single cryogenic assembly comprise the Q2 optical elements of the final focus triplets in the LHC interaction regions. The field quality of the quadrupoles is measured at room temperature during construction of the cold masses as well as during cold testing of the cryogenic assembly. We summarize data from the series measurements of the magnets and discuss various topics of interest

  18. Magnetic field measurements of LHC inner triplet quadrupoles fabricated at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velev, G.V.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; DiMarco, J.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Orris, D.; Schlabach, P.; Strait, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Fermilab, as part of the US-LHC Accelerator Project, is producing superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These 5.5 m long magnets are designed to operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a nominal gradient of 205 T/m in the 70 mm bore. Two quadrupoles separated by a dipole orbit corrector in a single cryogenic assembly comprise the Q2 optical elements of the final focus triplets in the LHC interaction regions. The field quality of the quadrupoles is measured at room temperature during construction of the cold masses as well as during cold testing of the cryogenic assembly. We summarize data from the series measurements of the magnets and discuss various topics of interest.

  19. A Superstrong Adjustable Permanent Magnet for the Final Focus Quadrupole in a Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.

    2004-01-01

    A super strong permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) was fabricated and tested. It has an integrated strength of 28.5T with overall length of 10 cm and a 7mm bore radius. The final focus quadrupole of a linear collider needs a variable focal length. This can be obtained by slicing the magnet into pieces along the beamline direction and rotating these slices. But this technique may lead to movement of the magnetic center and introduction of a skew quadrupole component when the strength is varied. A ''double ring structure'' can ease these effects. A second prototype PMQ, containing thermal compensation materials and with a double ring structure, has been fabricated. Worm gear is selected as the mechanical rotating scheme because the double ring structure needs a large torque to rotate magnets. The structure of the second prototype PMQ is shown

  20. Mechanisms for closing bores and releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to mechanisms for closing bores of tubular passages and for releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load. The system includes an axially movable latch, an actuator and locking devices. Embodiments of the invention can be used as closure mechanisms for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors. (UK)

  1. Mechanisms for closing bores and releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to mechanisms for closing bores of tubular passages and for releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load. The system includes an axially movable actuator and a latch which engages the tubular opening. Embodiments of the invention can be used as closure mechanisms for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors. (UK)

  2. Quadrupole magnetic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The following connection of windings of electromagnet is suggested for simplification of the design of qUadrupole magnetic lens intended for use in radiotechnical and electron-optical devices. The mentioned windings are connected with each other by a bridge scheme and the variable resistors are switched in its diagonals in the lens containing four electromagnet with windings connected with two variable resistors the mobile contacts of which are connected with a direct current source. Current redistribution between left windings and right windings takes place at shift of mobile contact of variable resistor, and current redistribution between upper and low coils of electromagnets takes place at shifting mobile contact of the other variable resistor. In this case smooth and independent electron-optical misalignment of lens by two mutually perpendicular directions proceeds. Use of the given design of the lens in the oscillograph permits to use printing assembly for alignment plate and to reduce the number of connections at the expense of decreasing the number of resistors

  3. In-bore instrumentation/diagnostics for large-bore EMLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.J.; Ager, S.A.; Hudson, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a flying laboratory technique of in-bore diagnostics for large-bore electromagnetic launchers (EMLs). The high pressure, heat, and magnetic flux environment of the EML and its containment structures do not allow easy implementation of conventional diagnostic techniques. Researchers have relied on remote sensing methods, such as B probes (isolated from the bore), for data. The accuracy and relevance of such discrete, remote measurement is somewhat questionable. An in-house program has been initiated to determine the feasibility of making measurement of EML parameters on board a projectile. This technique utilizes off-the-shelf components in a configuration that has been proven effective in measuring projectile acceleration in the bore of propellant driven guns

  4. Electromagnetic design of superconducting quadrupoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rossi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We study how the critical gradient depends on the coil layout in a superconducting quadrupole for particle accelerators. We show that the results relative to a simple sector coil are well representative of the coil layouts that have been used to build several quadrupoles in the past 30 years. Using a semianalytical approach, we derive a formula that gives the critical gradient as a function of the coil cross-sectional area, of the magnet aperture, and of the superconducting cable parameters. This formula is used to evaluate the efficiency of several types of coil layouts (shell, racetrack, block, open midplane.

  5. Adjustable permanent quadrupoles for the next linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, James T.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 138 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 141 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 to -20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. Four different prototypes have been built. All magnets have iron poles and use Samarium Cobalt to provide the magnetic fields. Two use rotating permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient, one uses a sliding shunt to vary the gradient and the fourth uses counter rotating magnets. Preliminary data on gradient strength, temperature stability, and magnetic center position stability are presented. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnetic prototype

  6. Adjustable Permanent Quadrupoles for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2001-01-01

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 138 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 141 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 to - 20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. Four different prototypes have been built. All magnets have iron poles and use Samarium Cobalt to provide the magnetic fields. Two use rotating permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient, one uses a sliding shunt to vary the gradient and the fourth uses counter rotating magnets. Preliminary data on gradient strength, temperature stability, and magnetic center position stability are presented. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnetic prototype

  7. High Reliability Prototype Quadrupole for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2001-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 5600 magnets, each of which must be highly reliable and/or quickly repairable in order that the NLC reach its 85% overall availability goal. A multidiscipline engineering team was assembled at SLAC to develop a more reliable electromagnet design than historically had been achieved at SLAC. This team carried out a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on a standard SLAC quadrupole magnet system. They overcame a number of longstanding design prejudices, producing 10 major design changes. This paper describes how a prototype magnet was constructed and the extensive testing carried out on it to prove full functionality with an improvement in reliability. The magnet's fabrication cost will be compared to the cost of a magnet with the same requirements made in the historic SLAC way. The NLC will use over 1600 of these 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles with a range of integrated strengths from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of 0 to -20% and core lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. A magnetic measurement set-up has been developed that can measure sub-micron shifts of a magnetic center. The prototype satisfied the center shift requirement over the full range of integrated strengths

  8. Design of permanent magnet quadrupole for LEHIPA DTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2011-01-01

    The drift tube linac (DTL) of the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA) has been designed to accelerate 30 mA proton beam from 3 MeV to 20 MeV in a distance of around 13 m. A FFDD lattice structure is selected to provide strong transverse focusing, where each drift tube includes one quadrupole magnet. Beam dynamics simulations specified an effective magnet length of 47 mm, maximum field gradient of 47 T/m, and bore aperture of 24 mm. For these specifications, a detailed design of a very thin permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is presented. Four types of PMQ designs have been compared: a 16-segment trapezoidal design in the Halbach configuration, two 16-segment rectangular designs (with and without gaps), and an 8-segment rectangular design. 2D and 3D modeling codes, POISSON and CST Studio suite are used for the design studies. The good field region is calculated based on field gradient deviation in the transverse plane and integral field homogeneity. The very low aspect ratio of these PMQs leads to edge effects, thereby reducing the central field strength. The 3D simulations are used to study these edge effects. (author)

  9. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different...... design methods. The methods proposed by Fleming et al. and Reese & O’Neill seem to produce the best match with the test results....

  10. Integrated test plan for directional boring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    This integrated test plan describes the field testing of the DITCH WITCH Directional Boring System. DITCH WITCH is a registered trademark of The Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, Oklahoma. The test is being conducted as a coordinated effort between Charles Machine Works (CMW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Funding for the WHC portion of the project is through the Volatile Organic Compound-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The purpose of the test is to evaluate the performance of the directional boring system for possible future use on environmental restoration projects at Hanford and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The test will be conducted near the 200 Areas Fire Station located between the 200 East and 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The directional boring system will be used to drill and complete (with fiberglass casing) two horizontal boreholes. A third borehole will be drilled to test sampling equipment but will not be completed with casing

  11. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    Three holes the size of deposition holes (depth 7.5 m and diameter 1.5 m) were bored in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto, Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string. The purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. The boring method was found to be technically feasible and efficient. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the hole, measurements of the surface roughness using a laser profilometer and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, He-gas diffusion and the {sup 14}C-polymethylmethacrylate methods. 43 refs.

  12. Nuclear quadrupole resonance of arsenolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarazo, R.

    1988-01-01

    A pulsed Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) spectrometer was constructed using imported Matec units. Peripherical components were specially assembled and tested for the implantation of the spin-echo technique in the Laboratorio de Centros de Cor of IFUSP. The R.F. operation range is from 50 to 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times were carried out at room temperature in arsenolite. The 75 As NQR frequency measured at room temperature is 116.223 MHz. (author) [pt

  13. Pulverization of boron element and proportions of boron carbide in boron; Broyage de bore element et dosage de carbure de bore dans le bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, F M; Finck, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    It is possible to reduce boron element into fine powder by means of a mortar and pestle made of sintered boron carbide, the ratio of boron carbide introduced being less than one per cent. Boron element at our disposal is made of sharp edged, dark brown, little grains of average size greater than 5 {mu}. Grain sizes smaller than 1{mu} are required for applying thin layers of such boron. (author) [French] Il est possible de pulveriser finement du bore element au moyen de mortier et pilon en carbure de bore fritte, le taux de carbure de bore introduit etant inferieur a 1 pour cent. Le bore element dont nous disposons est constitue de petits grains brun fonce, a aretes vives, de dimension moyenne superieure a 5 {mu}. L'application de ce bore en couches minces demande des grains de dimensions inferieures a 1 {mu}. (aute0008.

  14. Simulation of bearing capacity of bored piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how one can possibly predict the ultimate load for the piles that did not reach failure. This challenge was acquired through Chin- Konder method by which, the estimated settlement that correspond to failure load is well defined. Hence, this research aims to make a comparative study between the results of pile load tests carried out in Al-Basrah sewage treatment plant project, and those results induced from the numerical analysis in term of ultimate pile capacity. Consequently, it may give a clear idea on the ability of numerical simulation in getting close to the actual behavior of piles. In the current study, a numerical study using Plaxis 3D Foundation program has been performed on bored piles by the assistance of site investigations of soil. Mohr- Coulomb and linear elastic models were adopted in the simulation for soil and pile respectively. Ten bored piles were used in this analysis under different values of loading. The diameter and length of pile are 0.6m and 24m respectively. The test results indicate that, an excellent agreement has been found as a response of pile capacity between the field and numerical studies. Also, ideal load- settlement curves were created using Chin- Konder method to predict the failure load of bored piles. Also, the results have demonstrated that, the pile capacity obtained from the simulation process is larger about 51% than that design load estimated before the design of piles. This may present a priority to use the finite element method to be accounted as an effective approach in the primary analysis.

  15. A Computer-Controlled Laser Bore Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Charles C.

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes the design and engineering of a laser scanning system for production applications. The laser scanning techniques, the timing control, the logic design of the pattern recognition subsystem, the digital computer servo control for the loading and un-loading of parts, and the laser probe rotation and its synchronization will be discussed. The laser inspection machine is designed to automatically inspect the surface of precision-bored holes, such as those in automobile master cylinders, without contacting the machined surface. Although the controls are relatively sophisticated, operation of the laser inspection machine is simple. A laser light beam from a commercially available gas laser, directed through a probe, scans the entire surface of the bore. Reflected light, picked up through optics by photoelectric sensors, generates signals that are fed to a mini-computer for processing. A pattern recognition techniques program in the computer determines acceptance or rejection of the part being inspected. The system's acceptance specifications are adjustable and are set to the user's established tolerances. However, the computer-controlled laser system is capable of defining from 10 to 75 rms surface finish, and voids or flaws from 0.0005 to 0.020 inch. Following the successful demonstration with an engineering prototype, the described laser machine has proved its capability to consistently ensure high-quality master brake cylinders. It thus provides a safety improvement for the automotive braking system. Flawless, smooth cylinder bores eliminate premature wearing of the rubber seals, resulting in a longer-lasting master brake cylinder and a safer and more reliable automobile. The results obtained from use of this system, which has been in operation about a year for replacement of a tedious, manual operation on one of the high-volume lines at the Bendix Hydraulics Division, have been very satisfactory.

  16. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdiviez, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  17. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  18. The Bored Self in Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    of the bored self as a combination of unfilled aspirations and the sense of stagnation, leading to an arrested identity. Our contribution is to expand extant conceptualizations of employee interactions with identity regulation, in particular relating to identity work and identification. The findings provide......This article draws attention to reported experiences of boredom in knowledge work. Drawing on extensive qualitative data gathered at two management consultancy firms, we analyze these experiences as a particular interaction with identity regulation and work experiences. We conceptualize the reports...

  19. Conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneton, Philippe; Filippini, Andrea Gilberto; Arpaia, Luca; Bonneton, Natalie; Ricchiuto, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increasing interest in tidal bore dynamics. However most studies have been focused on small-scale bore processes. The present paper describes the first quantitative study, at the estuary scale, of the conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries. When freshwater discharge and large-scale spatial variations of the estuary water depth can be neglected, tide propagation in such estuaries is controlled by three main dimensionless parameters: the nonlinearity parameter ε0 , the convergence ratio δ0 and the friction parameter ϕ0. In this paper we explore this dimensionless parameter space, in terms of tidal bore occurrence, from a database of 21 estuaries (8 tidal-bore estuaries and 13 non tidal-bore estuaries). The field data point out that tidal bores occur for convergence ratios close to the critical convergence δc. A new proposed definition of the friction parameter highlights a clear separation on the parameter plane (ϕ0,ε0) between tidal-bore estuaries and non tidal-bore estuaries. More specifically, we have established that tidal bores occur in convergent estuaries when the nonlinearity parameter is greater than a critical value, εc , which is an increasing function of the friction parameter ϕ0. This result has been confirmed by numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Saint Venant equations. The real-estuary observations and the numerical simulations also show that, contrary to what is generally assumed, tide amplification is not a necessary condition for tidal bore formation. The effect of freshwater discharge on tidal bore occurrence has been analyzed from the database acquired during three long-term campaigns carried out on the Gironde/Garonne estuary. We have shown that in the upper estuary the tidal bore intensity is mainly governed by the local dimensionless tide amplitude ε. The bore intensity is an increasing function of ε and this relationship does not depend on freshwater

  20. Design of an electrostatic magnetic quadrupole accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of electrostatic acceleration system, electrostatic magnetic quadrupole (ESMQ) acceleration system, is proposed for efficient acceleration of negative ion beams. In this system, permanent magnets are buried in the acceleration electrodes so as to produce a quadrupole magnetic field in the electrode aperture region. Envelope simulation indicates that the quadrupole field can deflect electrons stripped from the negative ions. Beam envelope simulations for deuterium ions and electrons have been carried out using the beam envelope code TRACE. Electrons are largely divergent and most appear likely to hit downstream electrodes. Furthermore, maximum beam divergence of the deuterium ions is reduced to the focusing effect of the quadrupole magnetic field

  1. Nuclear quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in the inelastic scattering of aligned deuterons from deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, H.; Frick, R.; Graw, G.; Schiemenz, P.; Seichert, N.

    1983-01-01

    The 2 1 + -excitation of deformed nuclei by tensor polarized deuterons provides an alignment of both nuclei and thus a means to study specifically the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between both nuclei. The tensor analyzing power Asub(xz)(theta) has been measured for the elastic and inelastic scattering on 24 Mg and 28 Si. The coupled channel analysis including a deformed tensor potential reveals a clear signature of the quadrupole-quadrupole part of the nuclear projectile-target interaction. (orig.)

  2. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Chlachidize, G; Cooley, L D; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Hafalia, R; Holik, E F; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Juchno, M; Krave, S; Marchevsky, M; Muratore, J; Nobrega, F; Pan, H; Perez, J C; Pong, I; Prestemon, S; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G L; Santini, C; Schmalzle, J; Schmalzle, J; Stoynev, S; Strauss, T; Vallone, G; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  3. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Anerella, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bossert, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cavanna, E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cheng, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chlachidize, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Cooley, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dietderich, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Felice, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ferracin, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Ghosh, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hafalia, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Holik, E. F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bermudez, S. Izquierdo [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Juchno, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Krave, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchevsky, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Muratore, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nobrega, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perez, J. C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Pong, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prestemon, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ravaioli, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sabbi, G. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Santini, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schmalzle, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stoynev, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Strauss, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vallone, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yu, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-07-16

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  4. Simulation of a quadrupole resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleindienst, Raphael [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Modern particle accelerators often rely on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology for accelerating cavities. In particular in CW operation, very high quality factors up into the high range are desirable, since one of the main cost drivers of such an accelerator, the cryogenic refrigeration plant, is inversely proportional to Q{sub 0}. Present day superconducting cavities are generally made of solid Niobium. A possibility to increase the quality factor as well as accelerating fields is to use thin film coated cavities. Apart from Niobium thin films, other superconducting materials, such as MgB{sub 2}, NbN and Nb{sub 3}Sn are promising candidates. Measuring and understanding the RF-properties of superconducting thin films, specifically the surface resistance, is needed to drive forward this development. Currently only few facilities exist capable of measuring the surface resistance of thin films samples with a resolution in the nano-ohm range at the operating frequency of typical cavities(e.g. L-band). A dedicated test stand consisting of a quadrupole resonator is therefore being constructed at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin. This system is based on the 400 MHz quadrupole resonator at CERN, with the design adapted to 433 MHz (making available the higher harmonic mode at 1.3 GHz) and optimized with respect to resolution and maximum achievable fields using simulation data obtained with CST Microwave Studio as well as ANSYS. The simulated design is being manufactured. An outlook for future physics runs is given.

  5. Automating horizontal boring and milling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.A.R.; Mahmood, T.; Choudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the requirements of modification for many old import machine tools in industry, the schemes suited to the renovation are presented in this paper. A horizontal boring and milling machine (HBM) involved in machining of tank Al-Khalid has been modified using Mitsubishi FX-1N and FX-2N PLC. The developed software is for control of all the functions of the said machine. These functions include power on/off oil pump, spindle rotation and machine movement in all axes. All the decisions required by the machine for actuation of instructions are based on the data acquired from the control panel, timers and limit switches. Also the developed software minimize the down time, safety of operator and error free actuation of instructions. (author)

  6. Borehole imaging tool detects well bore fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.A.; Bigelow, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on borehole imaging data which can provide high quality geological and petrophysical information to improve fracture identification, dip computations, and lithology determinations in a well bore. The ability to visually quantify the area of a borehole wall occupied by fractures and vugs enhances reservoir characterization and well completion operations. The circumferential borehole imaging log (CBIL) instrument is an acoustic logging device designed to produce a map of the entire borehole wall. The visual images can confirm computed dips and the geological features related to dip. Borehole geometry, including breakout, are accurately described by complete circumferential caliper measurements, which is important information for drilling and completion engineers. In may reservoirs, the images can identify porosity type, bedding characteristics, and petrophysical parameters

  7. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  8. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  9. Electrostatic quadrupoles for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.; Faltens, A.

    1993-05-01

    Voltage-holding data for three quadrupole electrode sizes and inter-electrode spacings are reported. The dependence of the breakdown voltage on system size and its influence on the optimum quadrupole size for beam transport in a multiple beam array are discussed

  10. A strong focussing cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yaochang

    1986-01-01

    The construction and performance of small cylindrical electrostatic quadrupole, which is installed in JM-400 pulse electrostatic accelerator, are described. This electrostatic quadrupole is not only used in neutron generator, but also suitable for ion injector as well as for low energy electron accelerator

  11. Quadrupole interaction in zinc metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterling, W.T.; Pound, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    To allow measurement of the quadrupole interaction in zinc metal, the enriched ZnO was reduced to zinc metal powder and compressed into a pill of thickness 1.4 gm/cm 2 . Sources were made by diffusing 20 mCi of 67 Ga into sintered copper pills. The transducer was based on a cylinder of PZT-4 with 1 / 2 -inch length and could cover linearly a velocity range of +-100 μ/s at 200 Hz. The multiscalar was a modified Northern model NS600, with a minimum dwell time of 20 μs, and with a 10-count buffer at the input to eliminate deadtime from memory cycling

  12. Characterization of the ELIMED prototype permanent magnet quadrupole system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.D.; Schillaci, F.; Romano, F.; Amato, A.; Amico, A.G.; Calanna, A.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; Amato, C.; Luca, G. De; Gallo, G.; Grmek, A.; Rosa, G. La; Leanza, R.; Pommarel, L.; Flacco, F.A.; Malka, V.; Giove, D.; Maggiore, M.

    2017-01-01

    The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, [1]. It has been realized by the researchers of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and SIGMAPHI, a French company, using a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs), [2]. The final system that will be installed in Prague is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u, around 10 times more than the energies involved in the present work. The prototype, shown in this work, has been tested in collaboration with the SAPHIR experimental facility group at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqueé) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics.

  13. Characterization of the ELIMED prototype permanent magnet quadrupole system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A. D.; Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Amato, A.; Amico, A. G.; Calanna, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; Amato, C.; De Luca, G.; Flacco, F. A.; Gallo, G.; Giove, D.; Grmek, A.; La Rosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Maggiore, M.; Malka, V.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Scuderi, V.; Vauzour, B.; Zappalà, E.

    2017-01-01

    The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, [1]. It has been realized by the researchers of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and SIGMAPHI, a French company, using a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs), [2]. The final system that will be installed in Prague is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u, around 10 times more than the energies involved in the present work. The prototype, shown in this work, has been tested in collaboration with the SAPHIR experimental facility group at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqueé) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics.

  14. Adjustable Permanent Quadrupoles Using Rotating Magnet Material Rods for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2002-01-01

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 -20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micrometer during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce estimated costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. All magnets have iron poles and use either Samarium Cobalt or Neodymium Iron to provide the magnetic fields. Two prototypes use rotating rods containing permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient. Gradient changes of 20% and center shifts of less than 20 microns have been measured. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnet prototype. See High Reliability Prototype Quadrupole for the Next Linear Collider by C.E Rago, C.M SPENCER, Z. Wolf submitted to this conference

  15. Adjustable Permanent Quadrupoles Using Rotating Magnet Material Rods for the Next Linear Collider.

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, C M

    2002-01-01

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 -20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micrometer during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce estimated costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. All magnets have iron poles and use either Samarium Cobalt or Neodymium Iron to provide the magnetic fields. Two prototypes use rotating rods containing permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient. Gradient changes of 20% and center shifts of less than 20 microns have been measured. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnet prototype. See High Reliability Prototype Quadrupole for the Next Linear Collider by C.E Rago, C.M SPENC...

  16. Revisiting resolution in hydrodynamic countercurrent chromatography: tubing bore effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, A; Faure, K

    2015-04-17

    A major challenge in countercurrent chromatography (CCC), the technique that works with a support-free biphasic liquid system, is to retain the liquid stationary phase inside the CCC column (Sf parameter). Two solutions are commercially available: the hydrostatic CCC columns, also called centrifugal partition chromatographs (CPC), with disks of interconnected channels and rotary seals, and the hydrodynamic CCC columns with bobbins of coiled open tube and no rotary seals. It was demonstrated that the amount of liquid stationary phase retained by a coiled tube was higher with larger bore tubing than with small bore tubes. At constant column volume, small bore tubing will be longer producing more efficiency than larger bore tube that will better retain the liquid stationary phase. Since the resolution equation in CCC is depending on both column efficiency and stationary phase retention ratio, the influence of the tubing bore should be studied. This theoretical work showed that there is an optimum tubing bore size depending on solute partition coefficient and mobile phase flow rate. The interesting result of the theoretical study is that larger tubing bores allow for dramatically reduced experiment durations for all solutes: in reversed phase CCC (polar mobile phase), hydrophobic solutes are usually highly retained. These apolar solutes can be separated by the same coil at high flow rates and reduced Sf with similar retention times as polar solutes separated at smaller flow rates and much higher Sf. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation on vibrational evaluation criteria for small-bore pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Takashi; Maekawa, Akira; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Kato, Minoru; Torigoe, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    The well-known organization such as API and SwRI in USA developed criteria for piping vibrational evaluation. These criteria are targeted for main pipes, but not branch pipes with small bore. In this study, applicability of criteria of API and SwRI to branch pipes was investigated. Vibration test using piping system with small bore branch pipe was conducted and amplitudes of vibrational stress and displacement were measured for various exciting force. In comparison of the measurements with the two criteria, though the criteria of API and SwRI were applicable to small bore branch pipe, they made too conservative evaluation. (author)

  18. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  19. Bored tunnel storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penberthy, L.

    1983-01-01

    Contrary to the current emphasis on deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste, simple bored tunnels offer many advantages. Much lower cost is important in this period of severe budget crisis. Recoverability is feasible from a tunnel in a mountain, but dubious from a flooded mine 3000 ft deep. It is quite possible that the world will need the breeder energy cycle urgently 200 years from now. In the writer's opinion, it would be a sin for our generation to make so much fertile and fissile uranium fuel unavailable for future generations. Storage conditions in a near-surface repository are much better than deep because the temperature can be kept down, pressure will be atmospheric instead of potentially 1200 psi, and flooding will not occur. The so-called ''hydrothermal'' conditions are thus completely avoided. Accordingly, endless studies of hydrogeology, water pathway times, waste-host rock interactions and the like are unnecessary, and the time for action is much shorter

  20. Optimization of large bore gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiminger, S.

    1999-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with the experimental part of combustion optimization of a large bore gas engine. Nevertheless there was a very close co-operation with the simultaneous numeric simulation. The terms of reference were a systematic investigation of the optimization potential of the current combustion mode with the objective target to get a higher brake efficiency and lower NO x emissions. In a second part a new combustion mode for fuels containing H 2 , for fuels with very low heating value and for special fuels should be developed. The optimization contained all relevant components of the engine to achieve a stable and well suited combustion with short duration even with very lean mixture. After the optimization the engine was running stable with substantial lower NO x emissions. It was world-wide the first time when a gas medium-sized engine could reach a total electrical efficiency of more than 40 percent. Finally a combustion mode for gaseous fuels containing H 2 was developed. The engine is running now with direct ignition and with prechamber ignition. Both modes reach approximately the same efficiency and thermodynamic stability. (author)

  1. Field measurement of a Fermilab-built full scale prototype quadrupole magnet for the LHC interaction regions

    CERN Document Server

    Bossert, R; Di Marco, J; Fehér, S; Glass, H; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Nobrega, A; Nicol, T H; Ogitsu, T; Orris, D; Page, T; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sabbi, G L; Schlabach, P; Strait, J B; Sylvester, C D; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J C; Velev, G V; Zlobin, A V

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions of the Large Hadron Collider have been developed by the US- LHC Accelerator Project. These 70 mm bore 5.5 m long quadrupoles are intended to operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a nominal field gradient of 215 T/m. Following a series of 2 m long models, a full scale cryostated cold mass has been fabricated and cold tested at Fermilab. Magnetic field measurements of the prototype, including determination of the field axis using a single stretched wire, have been performed. These measurements and comparisons with results from the model magnets as well as field quality and alignment requirements are reported in this paper. (8 refs).

  2. Eight piece quadrupole magnet, method for aligning quadrupole magent pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaski, Mark S.; Liu, Jie; Donnelly, Aric T.; Downey, Joshua S.; Nudell, Jeremy J.; Jain, Animesh

    2018-01-30

    The invention provides an alternative to the standard 2-piece or 4-piece quadrupole. For example, an 8-piece and a 10-piece quadrupole are provided whereby the tips of each pole may be adjustable. Also provided is a method for producing a quadrupole using standard machining techniques but which results in a final tolerance accuracy of the resulting construct which is better than that obtained using standard machining techniques.

  3. Superconducting magnet development program progress report, July 1974--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, D.N.; Harvey, A.R.; Nelson, R.L.; Taylor, C.E.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    During FY 1975, the superconducting magnet development program at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory was primarily directed toward the development of multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor for large CTR machines. It was secondarily concerned with preliminary work for the MX experiment and with the acquisition of additional testing facilities. Among the significant achievements was the construction and operation of a 27-cm-bore coil to its short-sample limit of 7-T at the windings. The coil was wound with a 100-m length of 67,507-filament Nb 3 Sn conductor

  4. Tunnel Boring Machine for nuclear waste repository research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzon, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    A description is presented of a Tunnel Boring Machine and its intended use on a research project underway in Sweden for demonstrating and testing methods for rock investigation at a suitable depth for a deep repository for nuclear waste

  5. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  6. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components

  7. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  8. AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.

  9. R&D for a single-layer Nb$_{3}$Sn common coil dipole using the react-and-wind fabrication technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Barzi, E; Bauer, P; Chichili, D R; Ewald, K D; Fehér, S; Imbasciati, L; Kashikhin, V V; Limon, P J; Litvinenko, L; Novitski, I; Rey, J M; Scanlan, R M; Yadav, S; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2002-01-01

    A dipole magnet based on the common coil design, using prereacted Nb /sub 3/Sn superconductor, is under development at Fermilab, for a future Very Large Hadron Collider. This magnet has some innovative design and technological features such as single layer coils, a 22 mm wide 60-strand Rutherford type cable and stainless steel collars reinforced by horizontal bridges inserted between coil blocks. Both left and right coils are wound simultaneously into the collar structure and then impregnated with epoxy. In order to optimize the design and fabrication techniques an R&D program is underway. The production of cables with the required characteristics was shown possible. Collar laminations were produced, assembled and tested in order to check the effectiveness of the bridges and the validity of the mechanical design. A mechanical model consisting in a 165 mm long section of the magnet straight section was assembled and tested. This paper summarizes the status of the program, and reports the results of fabrica...

  10. Analysis of the quench propagation along Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cables with the THELMA code. Part II: application to the quench longitudinal propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Manfreda, G.; Bajas, H.; Perez, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the technology of the new generation of accelerator magnets, prototypes are being manufactured and tested in several laboratories. In parallel, many numerical analyses are being carried out to predict the magnets behaviour and interpret the experimental results. This paper focuses on the quench propagation velocity, which is a crucial parameter as regards the energy dissipation along the magnet conductor. The THELMA code, originally developed for cable-in-conduit conductors for fusion magnets, has been used to study such quench propagation. To this purpose, new code modules have been added to describe the Rutherford cable geometry, the material non-linear thermal properties and to describe the thermal conduction problem in transient regime. THELMA can describe the Rutherford cable at the strand level, modelling both the electrical and thermal contact resistances between strands and enabling the analysis of the effects of local hot spots and quench heaters. This paper describes the model application...

  11. Analysis of ITER NbTi and Nb3Sn CICCs experimental minimum quench energy with JackPot, MCM and THEA models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagni, T.; Duchateau, J.L.; Breschi, M.; Devred, A.; Nijhuis, A.

    2017-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) for ITER magnets are subjected to fast changing magnetic fields during the plasma-operating scenario. In order to anticipate the limitations of conductors under the foreseen operating conditions, it is essential to have a better understanding of the stability

  12. Compressive pre-strain in Nb3Sn strand by steel tube and effect on the critical current measured on standard ITER barrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Arend; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; Knoopers, H.G.; Ilyin, Y.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Della Corte, A.

    2005-01-01

    The large Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) designed for the magnet coils in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), are composed of Nb/sub 3/Sn strand bundles in a Stainless Steel (SS) or Incoloy conduit. Both, the thermal contraction of the strand composite and the conduit

  13. Nuclei quadrupole coupling constants in diatomic molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.; Rebane, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    An approximate relationship between the constants of quadrupole interaction of nuclei in a two-atom molecule is found. It enabled to establish proportionality of oscillatory-rotation corrections to these constants for both nuclei in the molecule. Similar results were obtained for the factors of electrical dipole-quadrupole screening of nuclei. Applicability of these relationships is proven by the example of lithium deuteride molecule. 4 refs., 1 tab

  14. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 first. Shims and washers on the wide quadrupoles (QFW, QDW; located in the lattice where dispersion was large) served mostly for corrections of those lattice parameters which were a function of momentum. After mounting shims and washers, the quadrupoles were measured to determine their magnetic centre and to catalogue the effect of washer constellations. Raymond Brown is busy measuring a wide quad.

  15. Laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Behrsing, G.U.; Halbach, K.; Marks, J.S.; Morrison, M.E.; Nelson, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    A laced permanent magnet quadrupole drift tube magnet has been constructed for a proof-of-principle test. The magnet is a conventional tape-wound quadrupole electromagnet, using iron pole- pieces, with the addition of permanent magnet material (neodymium iron) between the poles to reduce the effects of saturation. The iron is preloaded with magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet material, resulting in an asymmetrical saturation curve. Since the polarity of the quadrupole magnets in a drift tube linac is not reversed we can take advantage of this asymmetrical saturation to provide greater focusing strength. The magnet configuration has been optimized and the vanadium permendur poles needed in a conventional quadrupole have been replaced with iron poles. The use of permanent magnet material has allowed us to increase the focusing strength of the magnet by about 20% over that of a conventional tape-wound quadrupole. Comparisons will be made between this magnet and the conventional tape-wound quadrupole. 3 refs., 5 figs

  16. The Future of Superconducting Technology for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: - Colliders constructed and operated - Future High Energy Colliders under Study - Superconducting Phases and Applications - Possible Choices among SC Materials Superconducting Magnets and the Future - Advances in SC Magnets for Accelerators - Nb$_{3}$Sn for realizing Higher Field - NbTi to Nb$_{3}$Sn for realizing High Field (> 10 T) - HL-LHC as a critical milestone for the Future of Acc. Magnet Technology - Nb$_{3}$Sn Superconducting Magnets (> 11 T)and MgB2 SC Links for HL-LHC - HL-LHC, 11T Dipole Magnet - Nb$_{3}$Sn Quadrupole (MQXF) at IR - Future Circular Collider Study - Conductor development (1998-2008) - Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor program - 16 T Dipole Options and R&D sharing - Design Study and Develoment for SppC in China - High-Field Superconductor and Magnets - HTS Block Coil R&D for 20 T - Canted Cosine Theta (CCT) Coil suitable with Brittle HTS Conductor - A topic at KEK: S-KEKB IRQs just integrated w/ BELLE-II ! Superconducting RF and the Future - Superconducting Phase...

  17. The Future of Superconducting Technology for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: - Colliders constructed and operated - Future High Energy Colliders under Study - Superconducting Phases and Applications - Possible Choices among SC Materials Superconducting Magnets and the Future - Advances in SC Magnets for Accelerators - Nb3Sn for realizing Higher Field - NbTi to Nb3Sn for realizing High Field (> 10 T) - HL-LHC as a critical milestone for the Future of Acc. Magnet Technology - Nb3Sn Superconducting Magnets (> 11 T)and MgB2 SC Links for HL-LHC - HL-LHC, 11T Dipole Magnet - Nb3Sn Quadrupole (MQXF) at IR - Future Circular Collider Study - Conductor development (1998-2008) - Nb3Sn conductor program - 16 T Dipole Options and R&D sharing - Design Study and Develoment for SppC in China - High-Field Superconductor and Magnets - HTS Block Coil R&D for 20 T - Canted Cosine Theta (CCT) Coil suitable with Brittle HTS Conductor - A topic at KEK: S-KEKB IRQs just integrated w/ BELLE-II ! Superconducting RF and the Future - Superconducting Phases and Applications - Poss...

  18. Irradiation effects in low T$_{c}$ superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Flükiger, René

    2009-01-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the superconducting parameters Tc, Bc2 and Jc of Nb3Sn are reviewed in view of the determination of the radiation limit in the LHC upgrade magnets. The variation of Jc in binary as well as in Ti and Ta alloyed Nb3Sn wires is presented. The coexisting defect mechanisms in irradiated Nb3Sn type compounds are briefly presented and a model is discussed explaining the site exchange mechanism which leads to a decrease of atomic ordering after irradiation. Based on calculations of F. Cerutti and coworkers (CERN), the neutron fluence at the inner winding of the quadrupole Q2a is estimated to values below 1018 neutrons /cm2 for a life time of 10 years, which is within the safety margin with respect to the critical current density and Bc2.

  19. Removing well bore liquid blockage by gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Tarek

    2000-01-01

    Gas condensate reservoirs have long presented production problems when the pressure around the well bore drops below the dew point pressure. The formation of the condensate around the well bore can be thought of as an additional 'skin' that causes a reduction in the gas flow rates. Many processes have been used successfully to prevent or reduce the formation of liquids within the entire reservoir, such as pressure maintenance schemes and gas cycling processes. The pressure maintenance scheme is designed to keep the reservoir pressure at or above the dew point pressure while the gas cycling process is intended to reduce the liquid dropout by vaporization.Often times the pressure in the near-well bore region of the reservoir falls below the dew point pressure, while the pressure in the reservoir remains higher than the dew point pressure. As the near-well bore pressure drops below the dew point pressure, retrograde condensation occurs leading to the formation and then the mobilization of the condensate phase towards the producing wells. The liquid phase accumulates in the near Well bore region, forming a ring, which progressively reduces the gas deliverability. This study is designed to provide an insight into the mechanism of gas injection process in reducing gas-well productivity losses due to condensate blocking in the near well bore region. The study also evaluates the effectiveness of lean gas, N 2 , and CO 2 Huff 'n' Puff injection technique in removing the liquid dropout accumulation in and around the well bore. Results of the study show the importance of selecting the optimum injection volume and pressure. (author)

  20. Optimization of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for the HighCurrent Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, GianLuca; Gourlay, Steve; Gung, Chen-yu; Hafalia, Ray; Lietzke, Alan; Martovetski, Nicolai; Mattafirri, Sara; Meinke, Rainer; Minervini, Joseph; Schultz, Joel; Seidl, Peter

    2005-09-16

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program is progressing through a series of physics and technology demonstrations leading to an inertial fusion power plant. The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physics of intense beams with high line-charge density. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles have been developed for the HCX magnetic transport studies. A baseline design was selected following several pre-series models. Optimization of the baseline design led to the development of a first prototype that achieved a conductor-limited gradient of 132 T/m in a 70 mm bore, without training, with measured field errors at the 0.1% level. Based on these results, the magnet geometry and fabrication procedures were adjusted to improve the field quality. These modifications were implemented in a second prototype. In this paper, the optimized design is presented and comparisons between the design harmonics and magnetic measurements performed on the new prototype are discussed.