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Sample records for borderline intellectual functioning

  1. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  2. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  3. Motor Performance of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…

  4. Intellectual Disabilities and Power Spectra Analysis during Sleep: A New Perspective on Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M.; Carotenuto, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of sleep in cognitive processes has been confirmed by a growing number of reports for all ages of life. Analysing sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra may be useful to study cortical organisation in individuals with Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF), as seen in other disturbances even if it is not considered a…

  5. Visual orientation in hospitalized boys with early onset conduct disorder and borderline intellectual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jacob; Börger, Norbert; Pirila, Silja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate visual orientation in hospitalized boys with severe early onset conduct disorder and borderline intellectual functioning. It is tested whether boys with the dual diagnosis have a stronger action-oriented response style to visual-cued go signals than the

  6. Visual orientation in hospitalized boys with early onset conduct disorder and borderline intellectual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jacob; Börger, Norbert; Pirila, Silja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate visual orientation in hospitalized boys with severe early onset conduct disorder and borderline intellectual functioning. It is tested whether boys with the dual diagnosis have a stronger action-oriented response style to visual-cued go signals than the

  7. Towards a framework for psychological resilience in children and adolescents with Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychological well-being is one of the greatest concerns in children and adolescents with Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF. Those youths are frequently exposed to stress and social inequality, and they are particularly prone to developing mental health issues which persist through adolescence and into adult life. The purpose of this article is to introduce a framework for promoting psychological resilience in children and adolescents with BIF. Three interrelated and complementary factors require professional attention and efforts to improve resilience in children with borderline intelligence: a protecting a child’s self-worth, b generating sources of social support, c training of adaptive coping skills. The significance of early diagnosis and continuous monitoring of a child’s development is also discussed. Children with BIF should be provided with internal (self-worth, coping skills and external (social support resources to enhance their resilience and ability to confront adversities, and to reduce the risk of mental health issues.

  8. Math Practice and Its Influence on Math Skills and Executive Functions in Adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariet J.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an…

  9. Math Practice and Its Influence on Math Skills and Executive Functions in Adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariet J.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an…

  10. Math practice and its influence on math skills and executive functions in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; de Lange, E.; van der Molen, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this

  11. Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities and Externalizing Behavior: Individual Characteristics, Family functioning and Treatment Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those

  12. The effectiveness of racket-sport intervention on visual perception and executive functions in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning

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    Chen MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ming-De Chen,1,2 Hsien-Yu Tsai,1 Chih-Chung Wang,3 Yee-Pay Wuang1,4 1Department of Occupational Therapy, Kaohsiung Medical University, 2Department of Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, 3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of table tennis training (TTT versus standard occupational therapy (SOT on visual perception and executive functions in school-age children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.  Subjects and methods: Children (n=91 were randomly assigned to intervention with either SOT (n=46, 20 females, mean age =10.9±3.9 years or TTT (n=45, 21 females, mean age =10.6±3.6 years, while another 41 (18 females, mean age =10.7±4.0 years served as controls. Both the SOT and TTT programs were administered 60 minutes per session, three times a week, for 16 weeks. The Test of Visual Perceptual Skill–third edition (TVPS-3 was used to evaluate visual perception, and executive functions were assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-card version (WCST-64 and the Stroop test.  Results: At postintervention, the two intervention groups significantly outperformed the control group on all measures of visual perception and executive functions. Participants in the TTT group had significantly greater before–after changes on all measures of the TVPS-3, WCST-64, and the Stroop test compared to the SOT and controls.  Conclusion: Table tennis could be considered a therapy option while treating cognitive/perceptual problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning. Implications for clinical professionals and recommendations for further research are discussed. Keywords: visual perception, executive function, table tennis, intellectual disabilities

  13. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with a psychiatric disorder and mild intellectual disability to borderline intellectual functioning: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Lidwien; van der Waa, Anne; Klip, Helen; Staal, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability frequently have difficulties in adapting to their environment. The extent of the experienced problems does not only depend on cognitive functioning but is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a psychiatric disorder or other brain disorders, or adverse environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies show that children with intellectual disabilities are at an increased risk to develop psychiatric disorders. This is also true for youth with a mild intellectual disability and even those with borderline intellectual functioning (mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID)). Psychiatric disorders are often overlooked because behavioral problems are rather attributed to the intellectual disability. Consequently, effective psychiatric interventions, which are needed to improve the level of functioning, are not applied. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the currently available, qualitatively sound research concerning the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, specifically directed at psychiatric disorders in children with MBID. Assessed for eligibility were 1409 unique reports, and the review ultimately included only 12 reports. Review of the results and meta-analyses showed that the majority of studies suffer from multiple limitations and that methodological variations between studies are extensive. This possibly reflects the high variance of factors that may be involved in MBID. It will be important in future research to address multi-causality.

  14. Original article Stability of WISC-R scores in students with borderline intellectual functioning

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    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Previous studies on the measurement of intelligence in students with learning difficulties indicate low stability of results observed over time. Therefore, careful analysis of changes in intelligence quotient, as well as in results within Verbal and Performance scale subtests, is necessary. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE The aim of the research was to analyze changes in WISC-R scores over time in students with borderline intellectual functioning. Test-retest stability of WISC-R was evaluated for Full, Verbal (VIQ, and Performance (PIQ scales. The study involved 30 students, who were tested three times, when their mean age was 8, 10.8, and 13.6 years old. RESULTS The results showed that Full Scale IQ was fairly stable over time and remained below the average level, between –1.01 and –2.00 standard deviations. Significant changes were observed in the Verbal and Performance scale; VIQ decreased and PIQ increased over time. An initially insignificant statistical difference between the scales grew as time progressed. Furthermore, considerable subtest score fluctuation was observed; over time scores in the Vocabulary subtest significantly decreased whereas in Block Design and Picture Arrangement they increased. CONCLUSIONS The authors argue that delayed acquisition of verbal skills may result from chronic school failure and deficiency of educational support experienced by this group of students. Meanwhile, non-verbal skills, that are less dependent on educational influences and academic knowledge, improve with students’ development through their engagement in everyday life activities.

  15. Event-related potentials study in children with borderline intellectual functioning

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    Neelam Vaney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low general cognitive ability is a common cause for learning and academic difficulties. The present study was undertaken to objectively investigate the cognitive functioning of children having borderline intelligence using electrophysiological measures. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on children having borderline intelligence (IQ: 70-85. The cognitive functioning of children was assessed using event-related potentials. Results: Significant prolongation of the latency of P200, N200, and P300 with no significant difference in the amplitudes was seen in the children having borderline intelligence as compared to controls. Conclusions: Brain systems that are important for stimulus discrimination and using cognitive representation to guide cognition and behavior are impaired in children with borderline intelligence.

  16. Skill-related physical fitness versus aerobic fitness as a predictor of executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Esther; Smith, Joanne; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2017-03-10

    Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) or borderline intellectual disabilities (BIF) often demonstrate impairments in executive functioning (EF). Studies in typically developing children show that aerobic fitness (AF) is positively related with EF. Skill-related physical fitness (SF) might, however, be a stronger predictor of EF than AF, as cognitive challenges are inherent in application of these skills. In this study, AF and SF were examined simultaneously in relationship with domains of EF in children with ID or BIF. Seventy-three children (age range 8-11; 51 boys) with ID (IQ range 56-79) or BIF (IQ range 71-79) were measured annually over a period of 4 years on AF (20-m endurance shuttle run test) and SF (plate tapping and 10×5m run). EF was measured with the Stroop Color-Word test (inhibition), Trailmaking and Fluency test (cognitive flexibility), Self-ordered pointing task (working memory) and the Tower of London (planning). Multilevel models showed that SF was significantly associated with inhibition and both measures of cognitive flexibility, but in the same models no significant associations between AF and EF were found. In addition, age was significantly related to working memory and cognitive flexibility, favouring the older children. In children with ID or BIF, SF is of greater importance than AF in relationship with core domains of EF.

  17. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning

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    Francesca eBaglio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. Aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in borderline intellectual functioning children.Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale and a Magnetic Resonance (MR examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel based morphometry (VBM analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional gray matter volume in bilateral sensori-motor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased gray matter volume in right parahippocampal gyrus. Gray matter volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices.Our is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to general population, contributes to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention.

  18. Social competence in children with borderline intellectual functioning: delayed development of Theory of Mind across all complexity levels

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    Gisella Baglio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an Intelligence Quotient (IQ between 70-85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that people with BIF still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study BIF children investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM as a pillar of social competence. Children with BIF (N=28, 16 male/12 female, mean age 9.46 ± 1.26 years and children with typical development (TD (N=31, 17 male/14 female; mean age 8.94 years ± 0.99 underwent a neurocognitive assessment and a ToM assessment. Children with BIF showed a significant lower performance across all the levels of ToM development investigated compared to the control group, and a correlation between executive functions and the advanced levels of ToM reasoning. These results constitute a first step in the direction of defining the clinical profile of BIF concerning ToM development, opening the way to future interventions in order to support the developmental evolution of this people in an adaptive direction.

  19. Social Competence in Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Delayed Development of Theory of Mind Across All Complexity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglio, Gisella; Blasi, Valeria; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Baglio, Francesca; Valle, Annalisa; Zanette, Michela; Marchetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that this population still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study children with BIF investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) as a pillar of social competence. Children with BIF (N = 28, 16 male/12 female, and mean age 9.46 ± 1.26 years) and children with typical development (TD; N = 31, 17 male/14 female; mean age 8.94 years ± 0.99) underwent a neurocognitive assessment and a ToM assessment. Children with BIF showed a significant lower performance across all the levels of ToM development investigated compared to the control group, and a correlation between executive functions and the advanced levels of ToM reasoning. These results constitute a first step in the direction of defining the clinical profile of children with BIF concerning ToM development, opening the way to future interventions in order to support the developmental evolution of this population in an adaptive direction.

  20. Social Competence in Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Delayed Development of Theory of Mind Across All Complexity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglio, Gisella; Blasi, Valeria; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Baglio, Francesca; Valle, Annalisa; Zanette, Michela; Marchetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that this population still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study children with BIF investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) as a pillar of social competence. Children with BIF (N = 28, 16 male/12 female, and mean age 9.46 ± 1.26 years) and children with typical development (TD; N = 31, 17 male/14 female; mean age 8.94 years ± 0.99) underwent a neurocognitive assessment and a ToM assessment. Children with BIF showed a significant lower performance across all the levels of ToM development investigated compared to the control group, and a correlation between executive functions and the advanced levels of ToM reasoning. These results constitute a first step in the direction of defining the clinical profile of children with BIF concerning ToM development, opening the way to future interventions in order to support the developmental evolution of this population in an adaptive direction. PMID:27818637

  1. Math practice and its influence on math skills and executive functions in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R J; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariët J

    2013-05-01

    Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an MBID-sample using computerized math training. Also, it was investigated whether EF and math performance were related and whether computerized math training had beneficial effects on EF. The sample consisted of a total of 58 adolescents (12-15 years) from special education. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or a treatment as usual (TAU) group. In the experimental condition, participants received 5 weeks of training. Math performance and EF were assessed before and after the training period. Math performance improved equally in both groups. However, frequently practicing participants improved more than participants in the control group. Visuo-spatial memory skills were positively related to addition and subtraction skills. Transfer effects from math training to EF were absent. It is concluded that math skills may increase if a reasonable effort in practicing math skills is made. The relation between visuo-spatial memory skills provides opportunities for improving math performance.

  2. Original article Parenting style and locus of control, motivation, and school adaptation among students with borderline intellectual functioning

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    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Parenting style impacts children’s psychosocial development. Students with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF are especially sensitive to the quality of parental care. The objective of this study was to compare parenting styles of mothers of children with BIF and mothers of typically developing peers, and establish associations between parenting styles and children’s psychosocial traits, which determine their school functioning. Participants and procedure Forty-two primary school students in Grades 4 to 6, their teachers, and mothers participated in the study. Based on their IQ level they comprised two groups: students with BIF (criterion group; n = 21 and students with average IQ (comparison group; n = 21. A series of measures were used to assess mothers’ parenting style and students’ psychosocial traits. Questionnaires measuring students’ psychosocial pro­perties were administered to children and their teachers in order to compare their perspectives. Results Mothers of children with BIF in comparison to mothers in the control group presented greater inclinations towards over-parenting. Based on self-reports, students with BIF did not differ from their typically developing classmates in terms of school motivation, anxiety, locus of control, or social adjustment, despite their lower academic performance. According to teachers, students with BIF had significantly lower school motivation and delayed socialization. For students with BIF but not for the comparison group, a negative correlation was found between mothers’ tendency to dominate over their child and students’ locus of control and school motivation. Conclusions Children with BIF are especially sensitive to the quality of mothers’ parenting style, which can have an adverse effect on their school adjustment.

  3. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention.

  4. Working memory training in children with neuropsychiatric disorders and mild to borderline intellectual functioning, the role of coaching; a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roording-Ragetlie, S.; Klip, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working memory training (WMT) has been shown to offer therapeutic benefits to both patients with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and patients with mild to borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID; 60 < IQ < 85). However, robust evidence for transfer effects and tr

  5. Treatment of Chronic Skin-Picking in an Adolescent With Asperger Syndrome and Borderline Intellectual Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.; Didden, H.C.M.; Sigafoos, J.; Rispoli, M.; Regester, A.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a 17-year-old girl with Asperger syndrome and borderline intellectual disability with a 5-year history of chronic skin-picking. Our intervention approach included an initial functional assessment to identify variables maintaining skin-picking, followed by evaluation of a

  6. Treatment of Chronic Skin-Picking in an Adolescent With Asperger Syndrome and Borderline Intellectual Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.; Didden, H.C.M.; Sigafoos, J.; Rispoli, M.; Regester, A.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a 17-year-old girl with Asperger syndrome and borderline intellectual disability with a 5-year history of chronic skin-picking. Our intervention approach included an initial functional assessment to identify variables maintaining skin-picking, followed by evaluation of a behav

  7. Treatment of Chronic Skin-Picking in an Adolescent With Asperger Syndrome and Borderline Intellectual Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.; Didden, H.C.M.; Sigafoos, J.; Rispoli, M.; Regester, A.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a 17-year-old girl with Asperger syndrome and borderline intellectual disability with a 5-year history of chronic skin-picking. Our intervention approach included an initial functional assessment to identify variables maintaining skin-picking, followed by evaluation of a behav

  8. Working memory training in children with neuropsychiatric disorders and mild to borderline intellectual functioning, the role of coaching; a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

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    Roording-Ragetlie, Sammy; Klip, Helen; Buitelaar, Jan; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2017-03-28

    Working memory training (WMT) has been shown to offer therapeutic benefits to both patients with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and patients with mild to borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID; 60 coaching not based on their actual training performance. Active coaching based on individual training results (such as in clinical practice) might enhance the efficacy of Cogmed WMT. Furthermore, clinical experience and the general treatment approach to these vulnerable children has shown that the intensity and duration of WMT is often too stressful. This study therefore investigated the efficacy of a less intensive, but more prolonged Cogmed WMT (including active personalized coaching and feedback) in reducing behavioral symptoms and improving neurocognitive functioning and academic achievements in children with MBID and neuropsychiatric disorders. A double-blind RCT with children (age 10.0-13.11) with neuropsychiatric disorders (ADHD and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD)) and MBID (IQ: 60 coaching and feedback based on their actual individual performance during Cogmed training. The other group will only receive general non-personalized coaching (i.e. no receive personalized coaching and feedback). Both groups will undergo a neurocognitive assessment (working memory, executive functioning, academic achievements) before and after training and complete several questionnaires (behavioral problems, parenting style) with a 6 months follow-up. This study will add to the literature since the role of coaching in Cogmed WMT has not been studied before. It will also provide opportunities to investigate an alternative version of WMT in a large group of vulnerable children, for whom few evidence-based treatments are available. Ultimately, this will allow us to advise mental health care professionals and special education schools about the use of this type of intervention for children with MBID and neuropsychiatric disorders. Dutch Trial Register. NTR5223

  9. Emotional Profile and Intellectual Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Alesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient literature has been produced addressing children with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF and gifted intellectual functioning (GIF. The goal of this work is to compare levels of self-esteem, depression, anxiety at school, and insecurity among children with BIF and GIF, and a control group of average intellectual functioning (AIF. There were participants of 104 children (fourth grade of primary school. Analyses revealed that children with BIF showed a lower level of self-esteem and higher levels of depression and school anxiety. Moreover, our findings highlight the co-occurrence of school anxiety, depressed mood, and insecurity among the BIF and AIF groups. One of the issues that emerge from this study is the need to implement prevention programs aimed at identifying children with lower or higher levels of intellectual functioning. These findings highlight the importance of establishing what the most appropriate educational and clinical interventions are in reducing the risks of mental disorders in this population.

  10. Social Information Processing in Boys with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

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    Embregts, P.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of the socially inadequate behaviour of children…

  11. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

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    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  12. Working memory development in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Henry, L. A.; Van Luit, J. E H

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to examine the developmental progression in working memory (WM) between the ages of 9 and 16 years in a large sample of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Baddeley's influential WM model was used as a

  13. Working memory structure in 10- and 15-year old children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore,

  14. Working Memory Development in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Henry, L. A.; Van Luit, J. E. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to examine the developmental progression in working memory (WM) between the ages of 9 and 16 years in a large sample of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Baddeley's influential WM model was used as a theoretical framework. Furthermore, the…

  15. Assessing posttraumatic stress disorder in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen, E.H.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Jongh, A. de

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ 50-85) have an elevated risk for both being exposed to potentially traumatic events and developing a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this target group, PTSD often remains undiscovered du

  16. Assessing posttraumatic stress disorder in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen, L.; Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.; de Jongh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ 50–85) have an elevated risk for both being exposed to potentially traumatic events and developing a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this target group, PTSD often remains undiscovered due

  17. Working memory development in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Henry, L. A.; Van Luit, J. E H

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to examine the developmental progression in working memory (WM) between the ages of 9 and 16 years in a large sample of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Baddeley's influential WM model was used as a th

  18. Autonomy support in people with mild-to-borderline intellectual disability: Testing the Health Care Climate Questionnaire-Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frielink, Noud; Schuengel, Carlo; Embregts, Petri J C M

    2017-05-24

    Autonomy support in people with intellectual disability (ID) is an important yet understudied topic. Psychometrically sound instruments are lacking. This study tested the factor structure and reliability of an instrument for assessing the extent people with intellectual disability perceive their support staff as autonomy supportive. In a single wave, 185 adults with mild-to-borderline intellectual disability filled in an adapted version of the Health Care Climate Questionnaire (i.e., HCCQ-ID). Forty of them participated in a second wave to determine test-retest-reliability. The HCCQ-ID consists of 15 items on a 5-point Likert scale. The expected one-factor structure was found. Internal consistency (α = 0.93) and test-retest reliability (r = .85) were good. The score distribution was skewed towards high satisfaction. The factor structure and reliability of the HCCQ-ID were supported for people with mild-to-borderline intellectual disability. Given the homogeneous factor structure and the high reliability, the number of items may be further optimized. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Impulse control and aggressive response generation as predictors of aggressive behaviour in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. Orobio; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    2009-01-01

    A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recentl

  20. Contextual variables affecting aggressive behaviour in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities who live in a residential facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. METHOD: Respondents were 87 direct-care

  1. Impulse control and aggressive response generation as predictors of aggressive behaviour in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. Orobio; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However,

  2. Distinguishing subtypes of extrinsic motivation among people with mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frielink, N; Schuengel, C; Embregts, P

    2017-07-01

    According to self-determination theory, motivation is ordered in types, including amotivation, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Self-determination theory defines four subtypes of extrinsic motivation: external motivation, introjected motivation, identified motivation and integrated motivation. Although it has been argued theoretically that the different types of motivation are universally applicable, Reid et al. () proposed a dichotomy of broad subtypes of extrinsic motivation for people with intellectual disability (ID) due to their cognitive limitations. The current study challenges this proposal by testing whether the four subtypes of extrinsic motivation can be differentiated among people with ID as well. The subtypes of extrinsic motivation were measured using two adapted versions of the Self-Regulation Questionnaire, one regarding exercise and one regarding support. In total, 186 adults with mild to borderline ID participated in the study. Results supported the distinction between the four subtypes of extrinsic motivation regarding both exercise and support. In addition, the correlation coefficients supported a quasi-simplex pattern of correlations among the subtypes, indicating that adjacent subtypes were more closely related than non-adjacent subtypes. Moreover, the study showed sufficient Cronbach's alphas and test-retest reliabilities for early stage research. Overall, the results of the current study provide initial evidence for the universality of the four subtypes of extrinsic motivation across populations with and without ID. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research published by MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disibilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Impact of Behavioural Executive Functioning and Intelligence on Math Abilities in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, M. C.; Ziermans, T. B.; Swaab, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of behavioural executive functioning (EF) skills and level of intelligence (IQ) on math abilities in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Method: Teachers of 63 children attending a school for special education (age: 10 to 13 years; IQ: 50 to 85) filled out a Behaviour Rating…

  4. Assessing posttraumatic stress disorder in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Mevissen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests that children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ 50–85 have an elevated risk for both being exposed to potentially traumatic events and developing a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this target group, PTSD often remains undiscovered due to a lack of diagnostic instruments. Valid instruments for the assessment of PTSD in children with MBID are therefore needed. Objective: The aim of the current study was to validate the adapted PTSD section of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS-C for the assessment of PTSD in children with MBID according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Method: Eighty children (aged 6–18 years with MBID who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric service and their primary caregivers were interviewed using the adapted ADIS-C. Results: The adapted ADIS-C PTSD section has excellent interrater reliability and good convergent validity. PTSD symptoms described spontaneously by children with MBID and their caregivers closely matched those included in the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5. Many of the children who met Criterion A did not meet PTSD symptom criteria. Conversely, children meeting the full PTSD criteria were more likely than other children with MBID to have been exposed to at least one traumatic event meeting Criterion A and to a higher total number of potentially traumatic events. Conclusions: The results support the reliability and validity of the adapted ADIS-C PTSD section for assessing PTSD in children with MBID. The use of this clinical interview helps to improve detection of PTSD and subsequent access to trauma-focused interventions for this at risk target group.

  5. Substance use in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability : A comparison between self-report, collateral-report and biomarker analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDerNagel, Joanneke E L; Kiewik, Marion; van Dijk, Marike; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; van der Palen, Job; Buitelaar, Jan K; Uges, Donald R A; Koster, Remco A; de Jong, Cor A J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individuals with mild or borderline intellectual disability (MBID) are at risk of substance use (SU). At present, it is unclear which strategy is the best for assessing SU in individuals with MBID. This study compares three strategies, namely self-report, collateral-report, and

  6. Substance use in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability: A comparison between self-report, collateral-report and biomarker analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDerNagel, Joanneke E.L.; Kiewik, Marion; Dijk, van Marike; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert P.L.M.; Palen, van der Job; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Uges, Donald R.A.; Koster, Remco A.; Jong, de Cor A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Individuals with mild or borderline intellectual disability (MBID) are at risk of substance use (SU). At present, it is unclear which strategy is the best for assessing SU in individuals with MBID. This study compares three strategies, namely self-report, collateral-report, and b

  7. Prevalence and determinants of need for formal parenting support among parents raising a child with a borderline to mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Raising children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) and psychosocial problems may yield a strong need for support among parents, but evidence for this is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of need for parenting support in this population,

  8. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with

  9. Risk-taking in adolescents with mild-to-borderline intellectual disability and/or behavior disorder: An experimental study of cognitive and affective processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bexkens, A.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that real-life risk taking, such as sexual risk-taking, substance abuse and delinquency, is increased in adolescents with Mild-to-Borderline Intellectual Disability (MBID) compared to the general population. MBID is defined by an IQ between 50 and 85 in addition to (

  10. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  11. Efficacy of Atypical Antipsychotic Medication in the Management of Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Gemma L.; Deb, Shoumitro

    2011-01-01

    The use of medications to manage problem behaviours is widespread. However, robust evidence to support their use seems to be lacking. The aim was to review research evidence into the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic medication in managing problem behaviour in children with intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence. A systematic…

  12. Substance use in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability : A comparison between self-report, collateral-report and biomarker analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDerNagel, Joanneke E. L.; Kiewik, Marion; van Dijk, Marilee; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; van der Palen, Job; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Koster, Remco A.; de Jong, Cor A. J.

    Background and aims: Individuals with mild or borderline intellectual disability (MBID) are at risk of substance use (SU). At present, it is unclear which strategy is the best for assessing SU in individuals with MBID. This study compares three strategies, namely self-report, collateral-report, and

  13. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with

  14. Attachment and Reflective Functioning in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoud, Deborah; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Germond, Charlotte; Luyten, Patrick; Perroud, Nader; Debbané, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Insecure attachment and impairments in reflective functioning (RF) are thought to play a critical role in borderline personality disorder (BPD). In particular, the mentalization-based model argues that insecure attachment indirectly accounts for increased BPD features, notably via disruption of RF capacities. Although the mediation relationship between attachment, RF, and BPD is supported by previous evidence, it remains to be directly tested in adults with BPD. In the current study, a sample of 55 female adult BPD patients and 105 female healthy controls completed a battery of self-report measures to investigate the interplay between attachment, RF capacities, and BPD clinical status. Overall, the results showed that BPD patients predominantly reported insecure attachment, characterized by negative internal working models of the self as unlovable and unimportant to others, and decreased RF abilities. Our findings further indicated that actual RF capacities mediated the relationships between adult insecure attachment and BPD clinical status.

  15. Loneliness, Social Networks, and Social Functioning in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebke, Lisa; Bungert, Melanie; Thome, Janine; Hauschild, Sophie; Gescher, Dorothee Maria; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2016-08-08

    Persistent loneliness is often reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, empirical studies investigating this aspect of BPD psychopathology are sparse. Studies from social psychology revealed that social isolation and low social functioning contribute to loneliness, that is, the subjective feeling of being alone. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the understanding of loneliness in BPD by investigating its relation to social isolation and functioning in different domains of life. Subjective experience of loneliness was measured in 80 women (40 BPD patients, 40 healthy controls) with the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Social isolation and social functioning were assessed with the Social Network Inventory and the Social Functioning Scale. In addition, we assessed global functioning with the Global Assessment of Functioning. BPD patients reported stronger feelings of loneliness compared to healthy participants. In general, the level of loneliness was linked to network size, social engagement, and prosocial behavior. Diversity of social networks and functioning in the domain of interpersonal communication were associated with the level of loneliness only in BPD. A reduced variety of roles in social life together with impairments in interpersonal communication were particularly relevant for the experience of loneliness in BPD, suggesting an indirect path to target this psychopathological feature in therapeutic interventions. However, both social isolation and social functioning were not sufficient to explain the severely increased loneliness experienced by these patients, stressing the need for further investigation of determinants of loneliness in this clinical population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Markers for aggression in inpatient treatment facilities for adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenneij, N.H.; Didden, H.C.M.; Stolker, J.J.; Koot, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In high care settings for persons with intellectual disability (ID) aggressive incidents often occur. Still little is known about factors that are associated with an increased risk for aggressive behavior in clients who are admitted to an inpatient treatment facility. In four inpatient facilities, 1

  17. The Role of Executive Control and Readiness to Change in Problematic Drinkers with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2017-09-01

    Problematic alcohol use is associated with neuropsychological consequences, including cognitive biases. The goal of the study was to explore the moderating role of executive control and readiness to change on the relationship between alcohol use and cognitive biases in light and problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Participants (N = 112) performed the visual dot probe task to measure the strength of the cognitive biases. Executive control was measured using two computerised tasks for working memory capacity (Corsi block-tapping task) and inhibitory control (Go/No-go task). Readiness to change was measured using the Readiness to Change Questionnaire. No cognitive biases or executive dysfunctions were found in problematic drinkers. Working memory capacity and inhibitory control were impaired among individuals with MBID, irrespective of severity of alcohol use-related problems. Executive control and readiness to change did not moderate the relationship between alcohol use and cognitive biases. The results fail to support the dual-process models of addiction, but results need to be treated with caution given the problematic psychometric qualities of the visual dot probe task. Implementing a neurocognitive assessment and protocols in the treatment of substance use disorders seems premature. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Executive functions and high intellectual capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, S; Viana-Saenz, L

    2016-01-01

    High intellectual capacity is a process in development in which the executive functions (inhibition, working memory and flexibility) play a role in the optimal manifestation of their potential. To explore the effectiveness of executive functioning among the profiles of high capacity giftedness and (convergent or divergent) talent. The study examines 78 children with high intellectual capacity aged 8-15 years with profiles of giftedness (n = 21), convergent talent (n = 39) or divergent talent (n = 18). A series of tests were administered including the Battery of Differential and General Aptitudes or the Differential Aptitude Test (depending on the age) and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, as well as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Corsi Test and the Go-No Go Test by means of the Psychology Experiment Building Language platform. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed to determine the relationship between executive function and intellectual profile. Significant differences are obtained between the profiles studied and the executive functions of flexibility and inhibition, but not in working memory. Working memory is similar across the profiles studied, but the complex profile of giftedness displays better executive functioning, with greater flexibility and inhibition than talent, especially of the convergent type.

  19. Intellectual property and regulation of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Slobodan D.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, there exist scientific evidences that functional foods have favorable physiological and psychological effects as well as additional functions in relation to health, apart from the basic nutritional effects, thus offering the potential of enhance health or reduced the risk of diseases. Since interest in this category of foods has increased, new products have appeared as well as the need to introduce and set up standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of such foods. Technological development in this area and involvement of great multinationals in research investment and development of new products have reinforced the importance of the intellectual property rights, especially of patent protections and trademarks.

  20. Functional connectivity of pain-mediated affect regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Niedtfeld

    Full Text Available Affective instability and self-injurious behavior are important features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Whereas affective instability may be caused by a pattern of limbic hyperreactivity paired with dysfunctional prefrontal regulation mechanisms, painful stimulation was found to reduce affective arousal at the neural level, possibly underlying the soothing effect of pain in BPD.We used psychophysiological interactions to analyze functional connectivity of (para- limbic brain structures (i.e. amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex in Borderline Personality Disorder in response to painful stimulation. Therefore, we re-analyzed a dataset from 20 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and 23 healthy controls who took part in an fMRI-task inducing negative (versus neutral affect and subsequently applying heat pain (versus warmth perception.Results suggest an enhanced negative coupling between limbic as well as paralimbic regions and prefrontal regions, specifically with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, when patients experienced pain in addition to emotional arousing pictures. When neutral pictures were combined with painful heat sensation, we found positive connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder between (para-limbic brain areas and parts of the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, putamen, as well areas involved in self-referential processing (precuneus and posterior cingulate.We found further evidence for alterations in the emotion regulation process in Borderline Personality Disorder, in the way that pain improves the inhibition of limbic activity by prefrontal areas. This study provides new insights in pain processing in BPD, including enhanced coupling of limbic structures and basal ganglia.

  1. Are executive functions related to emotional intelligence? A correlational study in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M M; Triviño, M; Arnedo, M; Roldán, G; Tudela, P

    2016-12-30

    This research explored the relationship between executive functions (working memory and reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Trail Making and Stroop tests, fluency and planning tasks, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) and emotional intelligence measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test in patients with schizophrenia or borderline personality disorder compared to a control group. As expected, both clinical groups performed worse than the control group in executive functions and emotional intelligence, although the impairment was greater in the borderline personality disorder group. Executive functions significantly correlated with social functioning. Results are discussed in relation to the brain circuits that mediate executive functions and emotional intelligence and the findings obtained with other models of social cognition.

  2. The Mental Health of British Adults with Intellectual Impairments Living in General Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning may have poorer mental health than their peers. The present authors sought to (i) estimate the risk of poorer mental health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments and (ii) estimate the extent to which any between-group differences in…

  3. Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning in Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian; Sreenivasan, Aditya; Bachur, Catherine; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Comi, Anne; Zabel, T. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the intellectual and adaptive functioning in a sample of children and young adults with Sturge-Weber Syndrome. A total of 80 research participants from a SWS study database underwent full neurological evaluation as part of their participation or concurrent medical care. Twenty-nine of the participants received neuropsychological evaluations. Analyses indicated no significant demographic or neurological differences between those who did and did not receive neuropsychological evaluations. Overall, the neuropsychological evaluation sample displayed significantly lower functioning relative to published normative data across domains of intellectual and adaptive functioning. 32% of the sample displayed impaired performance (standard score ≤ 75) in intellectual functioning and 58% displayed impaired performance in adaptive functioning. Hemiparesis status independently predicted overall adaptive functioning while seizure frequency independently predicted overall intellectual functioning. Younger participants displayed significantly higher (more intact) ratings in adaptive functioning compared to older participants, specifically in overall adaptive functioning, motor skills, and community living skills. A composite measure of neurological status (SWS-NRS) incorporating seizure and hemiparesis status effectively distinguished between individuals with impaired or non-impaired adaptive and intellectual functioning, and showed promise as a screening method for identifying individuals with more involved intellectual and/or adaptive needs. PMID:25952468

  4. Comparison of Executive Function and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation in Addicted with Upper and Lower Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bayrami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Borderline Personality Disorder is one of the most important health problems of people with undesirable consequences on family councils. The aim of the present study was to compare the executive function and difficulties in emotion regulation in addicted with upper and lower borderline personality traits. Methods: The present causal-comparative study included all male drug abusers who had been referred to addiction treatment centers. 80 addicts were selected by accessible sampling method and using a borderline personality traits (STB. Then, they were divided into two groups of 40 people for drug addicts in high and low. Using The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the scale of difficulty in the emotional regulation was conducted on two groups. Statistical data using multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA and LSD test were analyzed.   Results: The results indicated that compared to drug addicts with high borderline traits, the ones with low borderline traits had lower performance in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test  and the number of perseveration errors (p = 0.018 and total error (p = 0.002 was higher. Moreover, addicts with high borderline traits varied significantly higher scores in difficulty in emotional regulation (p=0.002 of the drug with low borderline personality traits.   Conclusion: The results indicated that addicts with high borderline traits, had weaker performance in executive function and higher levels of difficulty with emotional regulation. This may be due to neurological effects of drug addiction on their performance which leads to poorer performance compared with drug people with low borderline traits.    

  5. Reflective Self Function in Early Attachment and Borderline States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter

    Work in developmental psychiatry and psychology has increasingly focused on how internal representations of early experiences with primary figures of childhood affect relationship formation in later childhood and adulthood. Investigations of the reflective self function, which involves mental states in which individuals become the subject of their…

  6. Multiple cluster axis II comorbidity and functional outcome in severe patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Nerea; McMaster, Antonia; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; de la Vega, Irene; Montes, Ana; Carrasco, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    Current literature suggests that personality disorder comorbidity negatively contributes to both the severity and prognosis of other disorders; however, little literature has been devoted to its influence on borderline personality disorder (BPD). The objective of the present work is to study comorbidity with other personality disorders in a severe clinical sample of patients with BPD, and its relationship with global functionality. A sample of 65 patients with severe borderline personality disorder was included in the study. Clinical and functionality measures were applied in order to study comorbidity of BPD with other disorders and its relationship with functionality. Associations with other comorbid PDs were analyzed with t-tests and linear correlations. Most patients (87%) presented comorbidity with other PDs. Almost half of the sample (42%) presented more than two PDs, and cluster A (paranoid) and C (obsessive and avoidant) PD were more frequent than cluster B (histrionic and antisocial). Only the presence of avoidant PD predicted a worse functional outcome in the long term (U Mann Withney ppersonality disorder might negatively predict for prognosis.

  7. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants.

  8. A Comparison of Intellectual and Behavioral Functioning in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael C.; Kramer, Nanette A.

    In order to ascertain the extent to which older persons' levels of behavioral functioning parallel their levels of intellectual functioning, 42 female patients, aged 61-99, of an outpatient comprehensive care geriatric clinic, completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL), the…

  9. A Comparison of Intellectual and Behavioral Functioning in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael C.; Kramer, Nanette A.

    In order to ascertain the extent to which older persons' levels of behavioral functioning parallel their levels of intellectual functioning, 42 female patients, aged 61-99, of an outpatient comprehensive care geriatric clinic, completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL), the…

  10. Changes in Neurocognitive Functioning After 6 Months of Mentalization-Based Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Uliaszek, Amanda A

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have deficits in neurocognitive function that could affect their ability to engage in psychotherapy and may be ameliorated by improvements in symptom severity. In the current study, 18 patients with BPD completed neurocognitive tests prior...... working memory. After 6 months of treatment, patients showed significantly greater increases in sustained attention and perceptual reasoning than controls, with initial deficits in sustained attention among patients resolving after treatment. Improved emotion regulation over the follow-up period...... was associated with increased auditory-verbal working memory capacity, whereas interpersonal functioning improved in parallel with perceptual reasoning. These findings suggest that changes in neurocognitive functioning may track improvements in clinical symptoms in mentalization-based treatment for BPD....

  11. Functional Grouping in Residential Homes for People with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Jim; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Macdonald, Susan; Ashman, Bev

    2003-01-01

    The effects of functional grouping of 303 people with intellectual disabilities on care practices in English group homes were investigated. Residents who were non-ambulant were rated as receiving care with less interpersonal warmth and residents with severe challenging behavior were rated as receiving care with less interpersonal warmth and…

  12. Intellectual Ability and Executive Function in Pediatric Moyamoya Vasculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tricia S.; Westmacott, Robyn; Dlamini, Nomazulu; Granite, Leeor; Dirks, Peter; Askalan, Rand; MacGregor, Daune; Moharir, Mahendranath; Deveber, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Moyamoya vasculopathy is characterized by progressive stenosis of the major arteries of the Circle of Willis, resulting in compromised cerebral blood flow and increased risk of stroke. The objectives of the current study were to examine intellectual and executive functioning of children with moyamoya and to evaluate the impact of moyamoya…

  13. Intellectual Ability and Executive Function in Pediatric Moyamoya Vasculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tricia S.; Westmacott, Robyn; Dlamini, Nomazulu; Granite, Leeor; Dirks, Peter; Askalan, Rand; MacGregor, Daune; Moharir, Mahendranath; Deveber, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Moyamoya vasculopathy is characterized by progressive stenosis of the major arteries of the Circle of Willis, resulting in compromised cerebral blood flow and increased risk of stroke. The objectives of the current study were to examine intellectual and executive functioning of children with moyamoya and to evaluate the impact of moyamoya…

  14. Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Martine M; Nijhof, Karin S; Otten, R; Vermaes, Ignace P R; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-10-01

    This study tests the validity of Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in 135 adolescents using linear regression. The cognitive error 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was more prevalent among adolescents with MBID than among adolescents with average intelligence. This was the only negative cognitive error that predicted depressive symptoms. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of the three response styles. In line with the theory, ruminating was positively and problem-solving was negatively related to depressive symptoms. Distractive response styles were not related to depressive symptoms. The relationship between response styles, cognitive errors and depressive symptoms were similar for both groups. The main premises of both theories of depression are equally applicable to adolescents with and without MBID. The cognitive error 'Underestimation of the ability to cope' poses a specific risk factor for developing a depression for adolescents with MBID and requires special attention in treatment and prevention of depression. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Despite the high prevalence of depression among adolescents with MBID, little is known about the etiology and cognitive processes that play a role in the development of depression in this group. The current paper fills this gap in research by examining the core tenets of two important theories on the etiology of depression (Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory) in a clinical sample of adolescents with and without MBID. This paper demonstrated that the theories are equally applicable to adolescents with MBID, as to adolescents with average intellectual ability. However, the cognitive bias 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was the only cognitive error

  15. Assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in individuals with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen-Renckens, E.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), including individuals with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF; IQ 70-85), are a large minority in mental health care services. Evidence indicates that they are more often exposed to potentially traumatic events than individuals without ID. They

  16. The DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning and Severity of Iranian Patients With Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Khodaie Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Lotfi, Mozhgan

    2015-08-01

    Fundamental problems with Personality Disorders (PD) diagnostic system in the previous version of DSM, led to the revision of DSM. Therefore, a multidimensional system has been proposed for diagnosis of personality disorder features in DSM-5. In the dimensional approach of DSM-5, personality disorders diagnosis is based on levels of personality functioning (Criteria A) and personality trait domains (Criteria B). The purpose of this study was firstly, to examine the DSM-5 levels of personality functioning in antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and second, to explore which levels of personality functioning in patients with antisocial and borderline personality disorders can better predicted severity than others. This study had a cross sectional design. The participants consisted of 252 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline personality disorders (n = 130). They were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry centers of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II and DSM-5 levels of personality functioning were used to diagnose and assess personality disorders. The data were analyzed by correlation and multiple regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Firstly, it was found that DSM-5 levels of personality functioning have a strong correlation with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms, specially intimacy and self-directedness (P < 0.001). Secondly, the findings showed that identity, intimacy and self-directedness significantly predicted antisocial personality disorder severity (P < 0.0001). The results showed that intimacy and empathy were good predictors of borderline personality disorder severity, as well (P < 0.0001). Overall, our findings showed that levels of personality functioning are a significant predictor of personality disorders severity. The results partially confirm

  17. Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : the effects of functional movement activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of functional movement activities within the MOVE ( Mobility Opportunities Via Education) curriculum on the independence of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Subjects: Forty-four children with profound intellectual and multiple disabili

  18. Original article The regulative function of mentalization and mindfulness in borderline personality organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Marszał

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to broaden the understanding of the emotional difficulties of borderline personality organization (BPO by reference to a meta-ability named ‘orientation on the internal world’, here conceptualized as mentalization and mindfulness, in the framework of object relation theory. It was assumed that it is not mentalization “in itself”, but mainly its regulatory function, that is important for BPO. Participants and procedure The clinical and control groups (30 individuals each were examined using The Mental States Task, The Difficulties of Emotion Regulation Scale and The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Results Individuals with BPO functioned worse than the control group in terms of mentalization, mindfulness, and emotion regulation. The relationship between BPO and the meta-abilities was mediated by emotional dysregulation: total mediation was revealed for one mentalization dimension, and partial mediation was observed for mindfulness. Conclusions Orientation on emotional experience and emotional dysregulation are not independent predictors of BPO, but they can be treated as levels in the hierarchical model. Mentalization determines and influences emotion regulation in BPO.

  19. Bipolar and borderline patients display differential patterns of functional connectivity among resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pritha; Calhoun, Vince; Malhi, Gin S

    2014-09-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality (BPD) disorder share clinical features such as emotional lability and poor interpersonal functioning but the course of illness and treatment differs in these groups, which suggests that the underlying neurobiology of BD and BPD is likely to be different. Understanding the neural mechanisms behind the pathophysiology of BD and BPD will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform the administration of targeted treatment. Since deficits in social cognition or emotion regulation or in the self-referential processing system can give rise to these clinical features, and impairment in these domains have been observed in both patient groups, functional connectivity within and between networks subserving these processes during resting was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Data were acquired from 16 patients with BD, 14 patients with BPD, and 13 healthy controls (HC) and functional connectivity strength was correlated with scores using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Functional network connectivity (FNC) patterns differentiated BD and BPD patients from HC. In BD, FNC was increased while in BPD it was decreased. In BD impaired FNC was evident primarily among networks involved in self-referential processing while in BPD it also involved the emotion regulatory network. Impaired FNC displayed an association with impulsivity in BPD and emotional clarity and emotional awareness in BD. This study shows that BD and BPD can perhaps be differentiated using resting state FNC approach and that the neural mechanisms underpinning overlapping symptoms discernibly differ between the groups. These findings provide a potential platform for elucidating the targeted effects of psychological interventions in both disorders.

  20. Theory of mind and its relationship with executive functions and emotion recognition in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Marengo, Juan; Perez, Ana; Huepe, David; Font, Fernanda Giralt; Rial, Veronica; Gonzalez-Gadea, María Luz; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-09-01

    Impaired social cognition has been claimed to be a mechanism underlying the development and maintenance of borderline personality disorder (BPD). One important aspect of social cognition is the theory of mind (ToM), a complex skill that seems to be influenced by more basic processes, such as executive functions (EF) and emotion recognition. Previous ToM studies in BPD have yielded inconsistent results. This study assessed the performance of BPD adults on ToM, emotion recognition, and EF tasks. We also examined whether EF and emotion recognition could predict the performance on ToM tasks. We evaluated 15 adults with BPD and 15 matched healthy controls using different tasks of EF, emotion recognition, and ToM. The results showed that BPD adults exhibited deficits in the three domains, which seem to be task-dependent. Furthermore, we found that EF and emotion recognition predicted the performance on ToM. Our results suggest that tasks that involve real-life social scenarios and contextual cues are more sensitive to detect ToM and emotion recognition deficits in BPD individuals. Our findings also indicate that (a) ToM variability in BPD is partially explained by individual differences on EF and emotion recognition; and (b) ToM deficits of BPD patients are partially explained by the capacity to integrate cues from face, prosody, gesture, and social context to identify the emotions and others' beliefs.

  1. Functional MRI correlates of the recall of unresolved life events in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Mertens, Markus; Wingenfeld, Katja; Piefke, Martina; Rullkoetter, Nina; Silva-Saavedra, Anamaria; Mensebach, Christoph; Reddemann, Luise; Rau, Harald; Markowitsch, Hans J; Wulff, Hella; Lange, Wolfgang; Berea, Cristina; Ollech, Isabella; Woermann, Friedrich G

    2006-06-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently report unresolved life events but it is still poorly understood, how these experiences are represented in the brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study aimed at investigating the neural correlates of the recall of unresolved life events in patients with BPD and healthy controls. Twenty female BPD patients and 21 healthy control subjects underwent fMRI. During measurement subjects recalled unresolved and resolved negative life events. Individual cue words were used to stimulate autobiographical memory. After scanning, subjects rated their emotional states during the recall of both types of memories. When contrasting unresolved and resolved life events, patients showed significant bilateral activation of frontotemporal areas including the insula, amygdala, and the anterior cingulate cortex, the left posterior cingulate cortex, right occipital cortex, the bilateral cerebellum and the midbrain. In healthy subjects, no differential brain activation was related to these conditions. The 2 x 2 factorial analysis (DeltaBPD - Deltacontrols) revealed similar results with bilateral activation of the frontal cortex including parts of the insula and of the orbitofrontal cortex, temporal activation including the amygdala, activation of the right occipital cortex, and parts of the cerebellum. Patients but not controls reported higher levels of anxiety and helplessness during the unresolved versus resolved memory condition. The activation of both, the amygdala and prefrontal areas, might reflect an increased effortful but insufficient attempt to control intensive emotions during the recall of unresolved life events in patients with BPD.

  2. Executive Function in Children with Intellectual Disability--The Effects of Sex, Level and Aetiology of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, H.; Sinanovic, O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Executive function is very important in the children's overall development. The goal of this study was to assess the executive function in children with intellectual disability (ID) through the use of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) teacher version. An additional goal was to examine the differences in…

  3. Loss-of-function variants in HIVEP2 are a cause of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Siddharth; Engels, Hartmut; Schanze, Ina; Cremer, Kirsten; Wieland, Thomas; Menzel, Moritz; Schubach, Max; Biskup, Saskia; Kreiß, Martina; Endele, Sabine; Strom, Tim M; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Zenker, Martin; Gupta, Siddharth; Cohen, Julie; Zink, Alexander M; Naidu, SakkuBai

    2016-04-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) affects 2-3% of the population. In the past, many genetic causes of ID remained unidentified due to its vast heterogeneity. Recently, whole exome sequencing (WES) studies have shown that de novo variants underlie a significant portion of sporadic cases of ID. Applying WES to patients with ID or global developmental delay at different centers, we identified three individuals with distinct de novo variants in HIVEP2 (human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein), which belongs to a family of zinc-finger-containing transcriptional proteins involved in growth and development. Two of the variants were nonsense changes, and one was a 1 bp deletion resulting in a premature stop codon that was reported previously without clinical detail. In silico prediction programs suggest loss-of-function in the mutated allele leading to haploinsufficiency as a putative mechanism in all three individuals. All three patients presented with moderate-to-severe ID, minimal structural brain anomalies, hypotonia, and mild dysmorphic features. Growth parameters were in the normal range except for borderline microcephaly at birth in one patient. Two of the patients exhibited behavioral anomalies including hyperactivity and aggression. Published functional data suggest a neurodevelopmental role for HIVEP2, and several of the genes regulated by HIVEP2 are implicated in brain development, for example, SSTR-2, c-Myc, and genes of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, HIVEP2-knockout mice exhibit several working memory deficits, increased anxiety, and hyperactivity. On the basis of the genotype-phenotype correlation and existing functional data, we propose HIVEP2 as a causative ID gene.

  4. Intellectual functioning and the long-term course of schizophrenia-spectrum illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Jessica; Parnas, J; Urfer-Parnas, A;

    2010-01-01

    relationships between intellectual functioning and schizophrenia-spectrum illness remain unclear.MethodLongitudinal data from the Copenhagen High-Risk Project (CHRP) were used to evaluate the importance of intellectual functioning in the prediction of diagnostic and functional outcomes associated...... with the schizophrenia spectrum. The effect of spectrum illness on intellectual and educational performance was also evaluated. The sample consisted of 311 Danish participants: 99 at low risk, 155 at high risk, and 57 at super-high risk for schizophrenia. Participants were given intellectual [Weschler's Intelligence...

  5. Assessment of Executive Functions in Prader-Willi Syndrome and Relationship with Intellectual Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalere, J.; Postal, V.; Jauregui, J.; Copet, P.; Laurier, V.; Thuilleaux, D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Prader--Willi syndrome (PWS) have impaired global executive functioning and whether this deficit is linked with intellectual disability. Another objective focussed on the variability in performance of intellectual quotient (IQ) and executive functions (EF)…

  6. Age and Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with ASD: The Effects of Intellectual Functioning and ASD Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trenesha L.; Gray, Sarah A. O.; Kamps, Jodi L.; Enrique Varela, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity on the relation between age and adaptive functioning in 220 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regression analysis indicated that intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity moderated the relation between age and adaptive…

  7. Factors of the Earning Functions and Their Influence on the Intellectual Capital of an Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile; Tanasoiu, Ovidiu Emil

    2008-01-01

    This paper tries to consider some earning function as "start point" for the construction of indicators for intellectual capital measure. The analyze combines concepts from Mincer's and Becker theories and intellectual capital definitions currently in use. The correlation, significance and relation between elements are shown using three econometric…

  8. Sociodemographic Risk Factors to Intellectual and Academic Functioning in Children with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Stacy; Holmes, Clarissa S.; Dunlap, William P.; Frentz, Johnette

    1997-01-01

    The independent contributions of ethnicity and socioeconomic status to intellectual and academic functioning in children with diabetes were studied with 58 diabetic children and 58 comparisons. Findings indicate that black children with diabetes, regardless of social class, are at greater risk for intellectual deficits and learning problems than…

  9. The Impact of Intellectual Disability, Caregiver Burden, Family Functioning, Marital Quality, and Sense of Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R.; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir

    2011-01-01

    The present article is the first to consider the impact of intellectual disability on Bedouin-Arab families' caregiver burden, family functioning, marital quality, and sense of coherence. A random sample of 300 Bedouin-Arab parents with one or more intellectually disabled children, and a control group (n = 100) completed the McMaster Family…

  10. [Formula: see text]Intellectual and adaptive functioning in Sturge-Weber Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian; Sreenivasan, Aditya; Bachur, Catherine; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Comi, Anne; Zabel, T Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the intellectual and adaptive functioning in a sample of children and young adults with Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS). A total of 80 research participants from a SWS study database underwent full neurological evaluation as part of their participation or concurrent medical care. Twenty-nine of the participants received neuropsychological evaluations. Analyses indicated no significant demographic or neurological differences between those who did and did not receive neuropsychological evaluations. Overall, the neuropsychological evaluation sample displayed significantly lower functioning relative to published normative data across domains of intellectual and adaptive functioning. Thirty-two percent of the sample displayed impaired performance (standard score ≤ 75) in intellectual functioning and 58% displayed impaired performance in adaptive functioning. Hemiparesis status independently predicted overall adaptive functioning while seizure frequency independently predicted overall intellectual functioning. Younger participants displayed significantly higher (more intact) ratings in adaptive functioning compared to older participants, specifically in overall adaptive functioning, motor skills, and community living skills. A composite measure of neurological status (SWS-NRS) incorporating seizure and hemiparesis status effectively distinguished between individuals with impaired or nonimpaired adaptive and intellectual functioning and showed promise as a screening method for identifying individuals with more involved intellectual and/or adaptive needs.

  11. Intellectual functioning of adolescent and adult patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Christina M T; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Snellen, Wim M; Sternheim, Lot C; Hoek, Hans W; Danner, Unna N

    2017-05-01

    Intelligence is a known vulnerability marker in various psychiatric disorders. In eating disorders (ED) intelligence has not been studied thoroughly. Small-scale studies indicate that intelligence levels might be above general population norms, but larger scale studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine intellectual functioning in ED patients and associations with severity of the disorder. Wechsler's Full scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ) of 703 adolescent and adult ED patients were compared with population norms. Exploratory analyzes were performed on associations between IQ and both somatic severity (BMI and duration of the disorder) and psychological/behavioral severity (Eating Disorder Inventory [EDI-II] ratings) of the ED. Mean IQ's were significantly higher than population means and effect-sizes were small-to-medium (d = .28, .16 and .23 for VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ). No linear associations between IQ and BMI were found, but the most severely underweight adult anorexia nervosa (AN) patients (BMI ≤ 15) had higher VIQ (107.7) than the other adult AN patients (VIQ 102.1). In adult AN patients PIQ was associated with psychological/behavioral severity of the ED. Our findings suggest that, in contrast with other severe mental disorders where low intelligence is a risk factor, higher than average intelligence might increase the vulnerability to develop an ED. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:481-489). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Functions of non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents and young adults with Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Londahl-Shaller, Esme A; Piatigorsky, Auran; Fordwood, Samantha; Stuart, Barbara K; McNiel, Dale E; Klonsky, E David; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Yaeger, Alison M

    2014-05-15

    Rates of deliberate non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) increase during adolescence and young adulthood, particularly in clinical samples, making these important developmental stages for understanding the functions of NSSI. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms also begin to emerge in adolescence, though little research has examined relationships between BPD symptoms and the functions of NSSI in youth, the primary goal of the present study. Adolescents and young adults recruited from an outpatient psychotherapy clinic (N=36) endorsed a range of NSSI functions on the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury (Klonsky and Glenn, 2009). Participants engaged in NSSI to serve intrapersonal functions (e.g., regulate affect, punish oneself) more frequently than interpersonal functions (e.g., bond with peers, establish autonomy). As predicted, linear regression analyses indicated that BPD affective dysregulation symptoms were associated with the intrapersonal but not the interpersonal functions of NSSI. In contrast, BPD interpersonal dysfunction symptoms were differentially associated with the interpersonal rather than intrapersonal functions of NSSI. These preliminary data indicate that clusters of BPD symptoms show unique relationships with functions of NSSI in treatment-seeking adolescents and young adults, relationships that can be used to target specific functions of NSSI in treatment planning.

  13. Water Arsenic Exposure and Intellectual Function in 6-Year-Old Children in Araihazar, Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gail A. Wasserman; Xinhua Liu; Faruque Parvez; Habibul Ahsan; Pam Factor-Litvak; Jennie Kline; Alexander van Geen; Vesna Slavkovich; Nancy J. Lolacono; Diane Levy; Zhongqi Cheng; Joseph H. Graziano

    Background: We recently reported results of a cross-sectional investigation of intellectual function in 10-year-olds in Bangladesh, who had been exposed to arsenic from drinking water in their home wells. Objectives...

  14. Borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  15. A Comparison of Support for Two Groups of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…

  16. Functions and timescale of self-cutting in participants suffering from borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Nader; Dieben, Karen; Nicastro, Rosetta; Muscionico, Michel; Huguelet, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the meanings and timescale of self-cuttings in a cohort of 22 outpatients suffering from borderline personality disorder. Sixty-one events were recorded using the newly developed self-cutting-checklist (SCUC) designed to investigate the severity of self-cuttings, and intent to die, suicidal ideation, inner tension, sense of relief and anesthesia, and consequences associated with this behavior. We found that typical self-cuttings were associated with a decrease in inner tension and suicidal ideation. Moreover self-cuttings associated with a desire to die differentiated from those associated with no desire to die by significantly less reduction in inner tension. Finally, self-cuttings occurred significantly more often during evenings and nights than during daytime. In conclusion, self-cuttings can be reasonably addressed by self-report. Attention to specific issues such as intent to die and the time of the self-cuttings may improve the outcome of these particularly high-risk subjects.

  17. Borderline disorder and attachment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Keller, A; Links, P; Patrick, J

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the theoretical and empirical association between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline personality disorder. Attachment theory focuses on the maintenance of a sense of safety and security through a close personal relationship with a particular person. Based on a biological behavioural system, functional attachment relationships in adulthood rely on experiences and expectations of security within the relationship. These issues are also important to the definition and dynamics of borderline personality disorder. The dimensions and patterns of reciprocal attachment were compared with other scales measuring components of psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. In a sample of 85 female outpatients, only four of the attachment scales--feared loss, secure base, compulsive care-seeking and angry withdrawal--identified patients with high scores on a measure of borderline disorder. Of these four scales, feared loss had the predominant effect. These empirical results support the hypothesized relationship between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline disorder.

  18. Subjective cognitive complaints and functional disability in patients with borderline personality disorder and their nonaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Lam, Jaeger; McMain, Shelley F

    2014-06-01

    To examine the contributions of subjective cognitive complaints to functional disability in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their nonaffected relatives. Patients with BPD (n = 26), their first-degree biological relatives (n = 17), and nonpsychiatric control subjects (n = 31) completed a self-report measure of cognitive difficulties and rated the severity of their functional disability on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. After accounting for group differences in age and severity of depressive symptoms, patients and relatives endorsed more inattention and memory problems than control subjects. Whereas probands reported greater disability than relatives and control subjects across all functional domains, relatives described more difficulties than control subjects in managing multiple life activities, including domestic activities and occupational and academic functioning, and participating in society. For both probands and relatives, inattention and memory problems were linked primarily to difficulties with life activities, independent of depression and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. Problems with inattention and forgetfulness may lead to difficulties carrying out activities of daily living and occupational or academic problems in patients with BPD, as well as their nonaffected first-degree relatives.

  19. Executive function in children with intellectual disability--the effects of sex, level and aetiology of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, H; Sinanovic, O

    2014-09-01

    Executive function is very important in the children's overall development. The goal of this study was to assess the executive function in children with intellectual disability (ID) through the use of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) teacher version. An additional goal was to examine the differences in executive function in relation to child's sex, level and aetiology of ID. The sample consisted of 90 children with ID attending two special education schools in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. There were 42 children with mild ID and 48 children with moderate ID. Of those, 54 were boys and 36 were girls. Children were classified into three etiological categories: 30 children with Down syndrome, 30 children with other genetic cause or organic brain injury and 30 children with unknown aetiology of ID. Special education teachers, who knew the children for at least 6 months filled the BRIEF. Children with ID had a significant deficit in executive function as measured by the BRIEF. There were no statistically significant differences in executive function in relation to the child's sex. Level of ID had a significant effect on executive function. In relation to the aetiology of ID, the only significant difference was on the Shift scale of the BRIEF. Knowing what executive function is most impaired in children with ID will help professionals design better intervention strategies. More attention needs to be given to the assessment of executive function and its subsequent intervention in the school settings. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Resting cardiac function in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: The impact of borderline personality disorder symptoms and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Rinnewitz, Lena; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Thayer, Julian F; Kaess, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is reduced in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with comorbid psychopathology, in particular BPD. We aimed to examine differences in cardiac function (vmHRV and heart rate [HR]) comparing adolescents (12-17 years) engaging in NSSI (n=30) and healthy controls (n=30). Further, we aimed to determine clinical concomitants of cardiac function in patients with NSSI. Analyses showed no significant group differences on cardiac function. Controlling for a host of confounding variables resting state HR and vmHRV in adolescents with NSSI were significantly correlated with BPD symptoms and the current level of functioning.

  1. Relationship between working memory and intellectual functioning in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the relationship between working memory and intelligence in children with mild intellectual disability (MID, ages 10 to 14. The sample encompassed 53 children with MID, 47.2% of girls and 52.8% of boys. Their IQ ranges from 50 to 70 (AS=63.17; SD=6.56. The tasks that assess the Central Executive aspect of the working memory system, namely in verbal and non-verbal modality, have been selected. The obtained results indicate that working memory ('central executor' and intelligence are the constructs that significantly correlate in the range of 0.29 to 0.41, depending upon the working memory modality. It was determined that IQ category explains about 19% of the variability of the verbal and non-verbal working memory results, grouped in the unified model (p<0.05. However, the statistically significant relation was determined by means of the individual variables analysis only between IQ and non-verbal working memory (p<0.01. The statistically significant differences have also been determined in the non-verbal working memory development in the participants belonging to lower and higher IQ categories (p<0.05.

  2. Executive Functioning in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, R. L.; Visser, E. M.; Berger, H. J. C.; Prins, J. B.; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, H. M. J.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Executive functioning (EF) is important for adequate behavioural functioning and crucial for explaining symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in individuals with normal intelligence, but is scarcely studied in individuals with ASD and intellectual disabilities (ID). We therefore study EF in an ID population by comparing…

  3. Intellectual and neurological functioning in Morquio syndrome (MPS IVa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, J E; Kearney, S; Horton, J; Foster, K; Peet, A C; Hendriksz, C J

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVa (MPS IVa, Morquio syndrome OMIM #253000) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS, EC 3.1.6.4; encoded by GALNS gene at 16q24.3). Unlike other MPS disorders involving excessive heparan and dermatan sulfate, Morquio syndrome has not been associated with neurological involvement nor with intellectual impairment as this disorder of keratan sulfate has been described as a purely visceral and skeletal disorder. Neurocognitive assessment was undertaken of MPS IVa patients with age appropriate intellectual tests as well as a Child Behaviour Checklist as part of clinical follow up. Available neuroimaging studies (MRI and MR spectroscopy) were reviewed. Whilst more than half of the overall IQ scores fell in the average range, scores for 3/8 children fell below average. A number of behavioural problems were highlighted, including anxiety/depression, attention and somatic complaints. Subtle neuroimaging abnormalities were demonstrated in over half of the children. These findings present a challenge to existing assumptions about the nature of Morquio A syndrome. A hypothesis regarding the potential role of calcium signalling is explored.

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  5. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  6. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy Taking Care of Yourself Questions About ...

  7. Evidence-Base of a Functional Curriculum for Secondary Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Satsangi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    This study represents a follow-up to a review of research on functional curriculum for secondary students with mild intellectual disability by Bouck and Flanagan (2010), which focused on the years 1994-2009. This systematic review focused on research involving functional curriculum for secondary students with mild intellectual disability published…

  8. Psychodiagnosis of personality structure. II: Borderline personality organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acklin, M W

    1993-10-01

    The borderline conditions have been the focus of considerable debate and controversy for over 30 years. This article, second in a series of three articles focusing on Kernberg's (1975, 1984) psychostructural diagnosis of personality organization, examines Rorschach contributions to the description and diagnosis of borderline personality organization. Rorschach approaches integrating nomothetic and idiographic data are applied to borderline personality functioning and appraised in light of the Rorschach's contribution to the clarification of the controversial and poorly delineated borderline diagnosis.

  9. A study of the similarity between three models of interpersonal functioning of patients with borderline personality disorder. Submitted as a brief research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trepanier, Lyane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional interpersonal patterns are a defining feature of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD. A number of studies have aimed to determine if there are specific patterns in the interpersonal functioning of patients with BPD. The vast majority of these studies have used a widely-used rating system called the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme method [1]. To date, three main models of interpersonal functioning of patients with BPD have been developed using the CCRT [2, 3] including one model developed by ourteam [4]. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent these three empirically-derived models of interpersonal functioning in patients with BPD overlap.

  10. Structural and Functional Characteristics of the Social Networks of People with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.

    2013-01-01

    In the research on people with intellectual disabilities and their social networks, the functional characteristics of their networks have been examined less often than the structural characteristics. Research on the structural characteristics of their networks is also usually restricted to the size and composition of the networks, moreover, with…

  11. Strengths and Weaknesses in Executive Functioning in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Henrik; Henry, Lucy; Messer, David; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2012-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in…

  12. Psychological and School Functioning of Latino Siblings of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Seifer, Ronald; Grullon, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Siblings of children with disabilities are at risk for internalizing psychological disorders; however, little is known about how culture influences this effect. This study examined the psychological and school functioning of Latino siblings of children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: Participants were 100 Latino (L) and…

  13. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  14. Loss of Intellectual Function in Children with Phenylketonuria after Relaxation of Dietary Phenylalanine Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seashore, Margretta R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discontinuation at ages five to six of dietary restriction in 14 children with classic phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder which, if untreated, is associated with mental retardation) resulted in deterioration in intellectual function for some of the Ss. Deficits included visual motor integration and cognitive problem solving. (CL)

  15. The Relationship between Borderline Personality Disorder and Academic and Interpersonal Functioning among College Students: Does Religiosity Moderate the Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosack, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    The significantly negative effects of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are widely known among researchers and clinicians. Individuals with BPD struggle in many areas. College students with BPD have been found to particularly struggle in academic and interpersonal ways. Over the last two decades, religiosity has been examined as a moderator of…

  16. Functional analysis of challenging behavior in people with severe intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Casas, C; Navarro, J I; Garcia-Gonzalez-Gordon, R; Marchena, E

    2014-12-01

    Challenging behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities often hinder the acquisition of academic, social, and life skills. Functional analysis has been useful for assessing challenging behavior in various settings. The purpose of this study was to implement an operant methodology for recognizing the functional properties of challenging behavior in people with intellectual disabilities. Four adults diagnosed with profound intellectual disability received assessment under several experimental conditions using a functional analysis methodology: social attention as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement such as the termination of demands, positive tangible reinforcements, absence of social contingencies, and escape from noisy stimuli. Results showed that different types of reinforcement or avoiding contingencies affected the rate of aggression, self-injury, disruption, stereotypy, or socially offensive behaviors, and functional analysis may potentially be a viable alternative for identifying challenging behaviors.

  17. Intellectual functioning and the long-term course of schizophrenia-spectrum illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Jessica; Parnas, J; Urfer-Parnas, A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia, together with substantial evidence of neurocognitive dysfunction among people with schizophrenia, have led to a widespread view that general cognitive deficits are a central aspect of schizophrenic pathology. However, the temporal rel...... with an evident family history of schizophrenia.......BACKGROUND: Recent neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia, together with substantial evidence of neurocognitive dysfunction among people with schizophrenia, have led to a widespread view that general cognitive deficits are a central aspect of schizophrenic pathology. However, the temporal...... relationships between intellectual functioning and schizophrenia-spectrum illness remain unclear.MethodLongitudinal data from the Copenhagen High-Risk Project (CHRP) were used to evaluate the importance of intellectual functioning in the prediction of diagnostic and functional outcomes associated...

  18. Difficulties in social functioning of adolescents with different family and intellectual status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelić Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind limited effects of interventions focused on the child and its limitations the attention of researches is more and more directed to immediate and wider ambience factors in the prevention of negative forms of behaviour of children. The aim of the research was to determine the level of connectedness of family and intellectual status of adolescents and different aspects of their social functioning. The sample of 416 adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was divided into two groups. The group without parental care included 210 respondents (130 with typical development - TD and 80 with mild intellectual disability - MID, and the group with parental care (130 TD and 76 MID. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with subscales: behavioral problems, emotional problems and problems with peers. Family problems were divided in socioeconomic problems, partners' problem, mental health of parents, abuse, and neglect. The results confirmed that the young without parental care showed more problems in behavior than their peers with parental care, and that family status affects behavior more than intellectual status. Family is the protective factor for the development of emotional problems of the young TD students, while it is risky for MID students. Problems with peers are not significantly connected with family or intellectual status. Some implications of the results are stressed.

  19. Intellectual Functioning in Adults with ADHD: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Full Scale IQ Differences between Adults with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Walker, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Although attention has been given to the intellectual functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to their non-ADHD peers, few studies have examined intellectual functioning in adults with ADHD. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine differences in intellectual ability between adults with…

  20. Hemimegalencephaly in an adult with normal intellectual function and mild epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Boire, Isabelle; Lortie, Anne; Bissonnette, Johanne; Prevost, Sylvain; Bergeron, Denis; Bocti, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation, usually associated with mental retardation, * refractory epilepsy, and progressive neurological deficits. We report the case of a 19-year-old female with de novo diagnosis of right hemimegalencephaly, normal intellectual function, and history of non-refractory epilepsy. She presented with weakness and paraesthesia of the left leg. Extensive evaluation was negative for other causes for the weakness, which was attributed to progressive neurological damage secondary to long-standing subclinical epileptic activity in the hemimegalencephalic hemisphere. This patient underwent a cerebral fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography that demonstrated near-normal cortical metabolism. Formal neuropsychological evaluation revealed mild deficits in the affected hemisphere, but preserved general intellectual function. This case illustrates the wide phenotypic variations in this condition and raises questions about prenatal counselling for hemimegalencephaly. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Autobiographical memory in borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Morten; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a severe psychiatric illness. A key feature of the disorder is a disorganized sense of self often referred to as identity diffusion. Autobiographical memory is memory for personal life events. One of the main functions of these memories is to enable us...... to understand who we are by connecting past, present and future experiences. It seems that autobiographical memory is in some way disrupted in individuals with borderline personality disorder. A systematic review is conducted looking at studies that focus on the potential connections. We find that although......, autobiographical memory and borderline personality disorder....

  2. Intellectual Performance as a Function of Repression and Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Performance on complex (Space Relations and Verbal Reasoning) and simple (Digit Symbol) tests was investigated as a function of Byrne's Repression-Sensitization (RS) dimension, phase of menstrual cycle and premenstrual-menstrual (PM) symptomatology in a group of females not taking oral contraceptives. Two control groups, consisting of males and…

  3. Structural and functional characteristics of the social networks of people with mild intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A E; Embregts, P J C M; Hendriks, A H C

    2013-04-01

    In the research on people with intellectual disabilities and their social networks, the functional characteristics of their networks have been examined less often than the structural characteristics. Research on the structural characteristics of their networks is also usually restricted to the size and composition of the networks, moreover, with little attention to such characteristics as the variety, accessibility, length and origin of the relationships or the frequency and initiation of the contacts. A comprehensive examination of both the structural and functional characteristics of the social networks of 33 people with intellectual disabilities was therefore undertaken. The social networks of the individuals who all lived in the community varied from 4 to 28 members (mean 14.21); 42.65% of the network members were family members, 32.84% acquaintances and 24.51% professionals. Remarkable is the high frequency of contact with network members; the finding that the participants considered themselves to be the main initiator of contact more often than the other members of their networks as the main initiators; the high scores assigned to neighbours and professionals for functional characteristics; and the relatively low scores assigned to network members for the connection characteristic of the social networks. The important role of professionals in the social networks of people with mild intellectual disabilities and practical implications to facilitate their social inclusion are discussed.

  4. Intellectual and motor functions in school children from severely iodine deficient region in Sikkim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, R; Rai, B; Pulger, T; Sankar, G; Srinivasan, T; Srinivasan, L; Pandav, C S

    1994-01-01

    High prevalence of endemic goitre (54%) and endemic cretinism (3.5%) exist in Sikkim. The level of intellectual functioning and motor performance were assessed in 90 school children in the age group of 10 to 12 years selected randomly from four severely iodine-deficient villages. Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, Binet-Kamat Test for mental ability and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices were the tests used. The results show an impairment in intellectual and other neuropsychological functions in a high percentage of the children. Visuomotor coordination was poor in 62 (69%). Binet-Kamat test results showed that 19 (21%) children were intellectually subnormal (IQ 80%) had significant impairment in language, meaningful memory, non-meaningful memory, conceptual thinking, numerical reasoning and motor skills. The children did better on non-verbal reasoning and social intelligence. Goitre was detected in 82 (91.1%). Urine samples for iodine estimations was collected from every second child examined. The mean urinary iodine concentration was 4.23 micrograms/dl (SD 2.16). Urinary iodine concentration was less than 2 micro gm/dl in 26.1% (11 children) and less than 5 micro gm/dl in 84.8% (39 children) indicating severe iodine deficiency. The test results show impairment of psychomotor development in children born and brought up in iodine-deficient environment.

  5. Borderline Space for Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  6. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... co-occurring mental disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders, along with substance abuse, self- ... Study Borderline Personality Disorder Studies Research Results PubMed: Journal Articles about Borderline Personality ... Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA ...

  7. Intellectual functioning in a 70-year-old urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E; Berg, S; Lawenius, M; Svanborg, A

    1978-01-01

    A subsample of 229 persons from the population study "70-year-olds in Gothenburg" was studied with different intelligence tests. The non-response was 15%, and another 4% refused to take part in the psychological examination or had handicaps which made the performance of all or some of the tests impossible. Measurements were made of verbal meaning (SRB1), reasoning (SRB2), spatial ability (SRB3), perceptual speed (Ps-if) and logical thinking and observation (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices). There were no differences in the tests between men and women except with Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, where the men had a better score. Amongst the women, those who had received a longer education had a better score compared with those who had had less education. Norm-tables for the different tests are presented. As far as could be judged from cross-sectional comparisons the average general cognitive capability was good, even though the 70-year-olds to a higher degree were suffering from mental disorders than younger individuals and more often were living in social situations that could have influenced basic physical and mental functions. The perceptual speed was the only ability that showed a marked change at the age of 70.

  8. Learning disabilities and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E; Culbertson, Jan L; Accornero, Veronica H; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C; Bandstra, Emmalee S

    2006-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (Wechsler, 1991) short form, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler, 1993) Screener by examiners blind to exposure status. LDs were categorized based on ability-achievement discrepancy scores, using the regression-based predicted achievement method described in the WIAT manual. The sample in this report included 409 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 197 non-cocaine-exposed) from the birth cohort with available data. Cumulative incidence proportions and relative risk values were estimated using STATA software (Statacorp, 2003). No differences were found in the estimate of relative risk for impaired intellectual functioning (IQ below 70) between children with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (estimated relative risk = .95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 1.39; p = .79). The cocaine-exposed children had 2.8 times greater risk of developing a LD by age 7 than non-cocaine-exposed children (95% CI = 1.05, 7.67; p = .038; IQ >/= 70 cutoff). Results remained stable with adjustment for multiple child and caregiver covariates, suggesting that children with prenatal cocaine exposure are at increased risk for developing a learning disability by age 7 when compared to their non-cocaine-exposed peers.

  9. Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeland, Margareth I; Torgersen, Svenn

    2004-01-01

    Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorders (BPDs) were examined in 25 DSM-IV-diagnosed subjects with BPD and 107 non-borderline control subjects on the basis of medical records and 28 years follow-up. Abuse, neglect, environmental instability, paternal psychopathology, and lower score on protective factors differentiated significantly between the groups. Environmental instability and lower score on protective factors such as artistic talents, superior school performance, above average intellectual skills, and talents in other areas were found to be independent predictors of BPD diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that both abuse and neglect, unpredictable and unstable early environment, as well as deficit in protective factors may substantially contribute to the development of BPD in persons constitutionally predisposed for the disorder. The results of the study also suggest that future research should address the impact of social and cultural context, as well as the absence of protective factors, on the development of the BPD.

  10. Analyzing the association between functional connectivity of the brain and intellectual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Gustavo S P; Santos Neto, Gérson S; Rosset, Sara R E; Rogers, Baxter P; Salmon, Carlos E G

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of functional connectivity support the hypothesis that the brain is composed of distinct networks with anatomically separated nodes but common functionality. A few studies have suggested that intellectual performance may be associated with greater functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and enhanced global efficiency. In this fMRI study, we performed an exploratory analysis of the relationship between the brain's functional connectivity and intelligence scores derived from the Portuguese language version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) in a sample of 29 people, born and raised in Brazil. We examined functional connectivity between 82 regions, including graph theoretic properties of the overall network. Some previous findings were extended to the Portuguese-speaking population, specifically the presence of small-world organization of the brain and relationships of intelligence with connectivity of frontal, pre-central, parietal, occipital, fusiform and supramarginal gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Verbal comprehension was associated with global network efficiency, a new finding.

  11. Intellectual functioning in children with congenital heart defects treated with surgery or by catheter interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ryberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies suggest that children with congenital heart defects (CHD are at risk for adverse intellectual functioning. However, factors related to lower intellectual functioning in this group are largely unknown. This study describes intellectual functioning in children with CHD in relation to severity of the heart defect, the child´s age and the socioeconomic status of the family (SES.Methods: 228 children treated with surgery or by catheter technique were tested using the Wechsler intelligence scales to determine Full Scale IQ (FSIQ. FSIQ was then analyzed in relation to age (3- 5- , 9-, and 15-year-olds, severity of the diagnosis (mild, moderate, and severe, and SES (low, medium, and high. The median age was 70 months (5.8 years with a range of 162 months (30 months (2.5 years to 192 months (16.0 years. Results: The total mean score on FSIQ was 100.8 (SD = 14.5. Children with severe CHD had significantly lower FSIQ than children with mild and moderate CHD, and 9- and 15-year-olds had significantly lower FSIQ compared to the 3-year-olds. Children from families with low SES had significantly lower FSIQ than children from medium SES and high SES families. No interaction between severity of diagnosis, age, and SES was found for FSIQ.Conclusions: 83% of the children with CHD performed at or above average with respect to FSIQ. SES and severity of diagnosis had significant main effects on FSIQ. These factors should be considered when planning interventions and follow-up programs for children with CHD.

  12. INTELLECTUAL SENSOR SYSTEM OF SOIL LIGHT-COLOR CONTROL: REALIZATION OF SELF-SUSTAINABILITY FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Koleshko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An intellectual sensor module of soil light-color control designed for an accurate agriculture technology which comprises functions of self-diagnostics, self-corrections and self-attestation. Circuit diagrams sensor module components have been developed on the basis of a micro-controller, a photo-diode driver, an interface integrated circuit and a receiving block of optical pulses. An algorithm and an operational program of a microcontroller have been devised for executing control over light pulses, processing of  photoelectric receptor signals, data receive-transmit operations, correction of sensitive elements, diagnostics of system failure and attestation of control results.

  13. Balance training improves postural balance, gait, and functional strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities: Single-blinded, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongjin; Lee, Myungmo; Song, Changho

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disabilities often present with problems of balance and mobility. Balance training is an important component of physical activity interventions, with growing evidence that it can be beneficial for people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of balance training on postural balance, gait, and functional strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-two adolescents with intellectual disabilities aged 14-19 years were randomly assigned either to a balance training group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 16). Subjects in the balance training group underwent balance training for 40 min per day, two times a week, for 8 weeks. All subjects were assessed with posture sway and the one-leg stance test for postural balance; the timed up-and-go test and 10-m walk test for gait; and sit to stand test for functional strength. Postural balance and functional strength showed significant improvements in the balance training group (p strength showed no significant improvements in the control group. Further, postural balance and functional strength significantly improved in the balance training group compared with those in the control group. Balance training for adolescents with intellectual disabilities might be beneficial for improving postural balance and functional strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnosing Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Sample: Gender and Age Effects on the Relationship between Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between adaptive behaviour and cognitive functioning in offenders with intellectual disabilities is not well researched. This study aims to examine gender and age effects on the relationship between these two areas of functioning. Method: The "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales" (VABS) and the "Kaufman…

  15. Incorporating Functional Digital Literacy Skills as Part of the Curriculum for High School Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel; Smith, Cate C.; McMahon, Don; Kraiss, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of teaching functional digital literacy skills to three high school students with intellectual disability. Functional digital literacy skills included sending and receiving email messages, organizing social bookmarking to save, share, and access career websites, and accessing cloud storage to…

  16. High Intellectual Function in Individuals with Mutation-Positive Microform Holoprosencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, B D; Pineda-Alvarez, D E; Gropman, A L; Willis, M J; Hadley, D W; Muenke, M

    2012-09-01

    Holoprosencephaly is the most common malformation of the forebrain and typically results in severe neurocognitive impairment with accompanying midline facial anomalies. Holoprosencephaly is heterogeneous and may be caused by chromosome aberrations or environmental factors, occur in the context of a syndrome or be due to heterozygous mutations in over 10 identified genes. The presence of these mutations may result in an extremely wide spectrum of severity, ranging from brain malformations incompatible with life to individuals with normal brain findings and subtle midline facial differences. Typically, clinicians regard intellectual disability as a sign that a parent or relative of a severely affected patient may be a mildly affected mutation 'carrier' with what is termed microform holoprosencephaly. Here we present 5 patients with clear phenotypic signs of microform holoprosencephaly, all of whom have evidence of above-average intellectual function. In 4 of these 5 individuals, the molecular cause of holoprosencephaly has been identified and includes mutations affecting SHH, SIX3, GLI2, and FGF8. This report expands the phenotypic spectrum of holoprosencephaly and is important in the counseling of patient and affected families.

  17. A comparison of thought and perception disorders in borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia: psychotic experiences as a reaction to impaired social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Francesco; Dalmotto, Marinella; Pirfo, Elvezio; Furlan, Pier Maria; Picci, Rocco Luigi

    2014-10-03

    Although previous studies suggest a high frequency of psychotic symptoms in DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) there is currently no consensus on their prevalence and characteristics (type, frequency, duration, location etc.). Similarly, there are few papers addressing psychotic reactivity, the crucial aspect of BPD included in the ninth criterion for DSM-IV BPD, which remained unchanged in DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5. The purposes of the present study were to compare thought and perception disorders in patients with DSM-IV BPD and schizophrenia (SC), investigating their relationship with social functioning. Thought and perception disorders and social functioning over the previous two years were assessed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Revised (DIB-R) and Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) respectively in outpatients with DSM-IV BPD (n = 28) or DSM-IV SC (n = 28). Quasi-psychotic thought (i.e. transient, circumscribed and atypical psychotic experiences) was more frequent in BPD (BPD = 82.1%, SC = 50%, p = 0.024); whereas true psychotic thought (i.e. Schneiderian first-rank, prolonged, widespread and bizarre psychotic symptoms) was more frequent in SC (SC = 100%, BPD = 46.4%, p delusional paranoia (e.g. undue suspiciousness and ideas of references) was ubiquitous but was more severe in BPD than SC patients (U(54) = 203.5, p = 0.001). In the BPD group there was a strong negative correlation between personal and social functioning and non-delusional paranoia (τ(28) = 0.544, p = 0.002) and level of personal and social functioning was a significant predictor of the severity of non-delusional paranoia only in the BPD group (β = -0.16, t(23) = 2.90, p = 0.008). BPD patients reported less severe psychotic experiences with more frequent quasi-psychotic thought, less frequent true psychotic thought and more severe non-delusional paranoia than SC patients. Interpersonal functioning seems to

  18. Loss-of-Function and Gain-of-Function Mutations in KCNQ5 Cause Intellectual Disability or Epileptic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Anna; Thouta, Samrat; Mancini, Grazia M S; Naidu, Sakkubai; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; McWalter, Kirsty; Person, Richard; Mwenifumbo, Jill; Salvarinova, Ramona; Guella, Ilaria; McKenzie, Marna B; Datta, Anita; Connolly, Mary B; Kalkhoran, Somayeh Mojard; Poburko, Damon; Friedman, Jan M; Farrer, Matthew J; Demos, Michelle; Desai, Sonal; Claydon, Thomas

    2017-07-06

    KCNQ5 is a highly conserved gene encoding an important channel for neuronal function; it is widely expressed in the brain and generates M-type current. Exome sequencing identified de novo heterozygous missense mutations in four probands with intellectual disability, abnormal neurological findings, and treatment-resistant epilepsy (in two of four). Comprehensive analysis of this potassium channel for the four variants expressed in frog oocytes revealed shifts in the voltage dependence of activation, including altered activation and deactivation kinetics. Specifically, both loss-of-function and gain-of-function KCNQ5 mutations, associated with increased excitability and decreased repolarization reserve, lead to pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  19. [Concerning the borderline (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestin, J

    1980-03-01

    A general survey of the borderline literature is presented. The diagnostic label "borderline" has predominantly been used in North America; nevertheless, many roots of this conception originate in the classical European psychiatry and psychoanalysis. The various diagnostic (mainly descriptive) criteria and characteristics of the borderline are discussed, as well as the most important psychoanalytic hypotheses and conceptions (such as splitting, projective identification, identity diffusion). The therapeutic principles are mentioned as well. The analysis of the surveyed literature reveals on the one hand, that a well defined borderline exists neither as a generally acknowledged clinical entity nor as a circumscribed psychopathological syndrome. On the other hand, there are three various borderline concepts clearly discernible: 1) borderline conceptualized as a form of schizophrenia, 2) borderline conceptualized as synonymous with the general category of psychopathy (personality disorder) and 3) borderline conceptualized as a special form of psychopathy.

  20. Long-Term Intellectual Functioning and School-Related Behavioural Outcomes in Children and Adolescents after Invasive Treatment for Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerboer, A. W.; Utens, E. M. W. J.; Bogers, A. J. J. C.; Verhulst, F. C.; Helbing, W. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, long-term intellectual functioning and school-related behavioural outcomes were assessed in a patient sample that underwent invasive treatment for congenital heart disease (ConHD) between 1990 and 1995. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was used to measure intellectual functioning and the Teacher's Report Form to…

  1. Long-Term Intellectual Functioning and School-Related Behavioural Outcomes in Children and Adolescents after Invasive Treatment for Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerboer, A. W.; Utens, E. M. W. J.; Bogers, A. J. J. C.; Verhulst, F. C.; Helbing, W. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, long-term intellectual functioning and school-related behavioural outcomes were assessed in a patient sample that underwent invasive treatment for congenital heart disease (ConHD) between 1990 and 1995. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was used to measure intellectual functioning and the Teacher's Report Form to…

  2. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Kang, Yijun; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hong

    2016-03-29

    Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronutrients and continued to reside in two rural counties in China were followed. We measured their Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) and Processing Speed Index (PSI) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). Multilevel analyses were used to assess sex differences in intellectual functioning in 7-10-year-old children in rural China. Boys' adjusted mean FSIQ score was 0.97 points higher (95% CI: -2.22 - 0.28) than that of girls. Girls obtained higher mean WMI and PSI scores, with 1.32 points (95% CI: 0.14 - 2.51) and 3.10 points (95% CI: 1.82-4.38) higher adjusted means, respectively. Boys' adjusted mean VCI and PRI scores were significantly higher than those of girls, and the mean differences were 2.44 points (95% CI: 0.95 - 3.94) and 3.68 points (95% CI: 2.36 - 5.01), respectively. There is no evidence to suggest sex differences in the general intelligence of early school-aged children in rural China. However, a difference in general intelligence between 10-year-old boys and girls was evident. Girls and boys in rural China tended to show different specific cognitive abilities.

  3. Self-Monitoring Checklists for Inquiry Problem-Solving: Functional Problem-Solving Methods for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Three students with mild to moderate intellectual and multiple disability, enrolled in a self-contained functional curriculum class were taught to use a self-monitoring checklist and science notebook to increase independence in inquiry problem-solving skills. Using a single-subject multiple-probe design, all students acquired inquiry…

  4. Intellectual Ability, Self-Perceived Social Competence, and Depressive Symptomatology in Children with High-Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerstaff, Sandy; Heriot, Sandra; Wong, Michelle; Lopes, Ana; Dossetor, David

    2007-01-01

    Although social competence deficits in children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders (HFASD) are well documented, there is little research investigating self-perceptions of social limitations. This study replicated research showing a negative association between self-perceived social competence and intellectual ability and…

  5. Self-Monitoring Checklists for Inquiry Problem-Solving: Functional Problem-Solving Methods for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Three students with mild to moderate intellectual and multiple disability, enrolled in a self-contained functional curriculum class were taught to use a self-monitoring checklist and science notebook to increase independence in inquiry problem-solving skills. Using a single-subject multiple-probe design, all students acquired inquiry…

  6. Teaching Core Content Embedded in a Functional Activity to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability Using a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Jennifer; Collins, Belva C.; Hager, Karen D.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous prompting procedure in teaching four secondary students with moderate intellectual disability to acquire and generalize core content embedded in a functional activity. Data gathered within the context of a multiple probe design revealed that all participants learned the…

  7. Analyzing the association between functional connectivity of the brain and intellectual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Santo Pedro Pamplona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of functional connectivity support the hypothesis that the brain is composed of distinct networks with anatomically separated nodes but common functionality. A few studies have suggested that intellectual performance may be associated with greater functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and enhanced global efficiency. In this fMRI study, we performed an exploratory analysis of the relationship between the brain's functional connectivity and intelligence scores derived from the Portuguese language version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III in a sample of 29 people, born and raised in Brazil. We examined functional connectivity between 82 regions, including graph theoretic properties of the overall network. Some previous findings were extended to the Portuguese-speaking population, specifically the presence of small-world organization of the brain and relationships of intelligence with connectivity of frontal, pre-central, parietal, occipital, fusiform and supramarginal gyrus and caudate nucleus. Verbal comprehension was associated with global network efficiency, a new finding.

  8. Is there a protective effect of normal to high intellectual function on mental health in children with chronic illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundervold Astri J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intellectual function is considered as a protective factor for children's mental health. Few studies have investigated the effect of intellectual function on mental health in children with chronic illness (CI. The aim of the present study was twofold: First, we asked if normal to high intellectual function (IQ has a protective effect on mental health in children with CI, and secondly, if this effect is more substantial than in their peers (NCI. Methods The participants were selected among children who participated in the Bergen Child Study (BCS: 96 children with CI (the CI-group and 96 children without CI (the NCI-group. The groups were matched on intellectual function as measured by the WISC-III by selecting the same number of children from three levels of the Full Scale IQ Score (FSIQ: "very low" (84. CI was reported by parents as part of a diagnostic interview (Kiddie-SADS-PL that also generated the mental health measures used in the present study: the presence of a DSM-IV psychiatric diagnosis and the score on the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Results The risk of a psychiatric diagnosis was significantly lower for children with a normal to high FSIQ-level than for children with a very low and low FSIQ-level in the CI-group as well as in the NCI-group. The group differences were statistically non-significant for all three FSIQ-levels, and the effect of the interaction between the group-variable (CI/NCI and the FSIQ-level was non-significant on both measures of mental health. Conclusion The present study showed a protective effect of normal to high intellectual function on children's mental health. This protective effect was not more substantial in children with CI than in children without CI.

  9. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior and Functional Communication Training in Three Adults with a Dual Diagnosis of a Significant Intellectual Disability and a Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chezan, Laura Claudia

    2012-01-01

    I conducted two studies. First, I examined the applicability of discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) for identifying the function of problem behavior in three adults with a dual diagnosis of a significant intellectual disability and a mental illness. Results indicated clear patterns of problem behavior for each participant. Second, I used a…

  10. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior and Functional Communication Training in Three Adults with a Dual Diagnosis of a Significant Intellectual Disability and a Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chezan, Laura Claudia

    2012-01-01

    I conducted two studies. First, I examined the applicability of discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) for identifying the function of problem behavior in three adults with a dual diagnosis of a significant intellectual disability and a mental illness. Results indicated clear patterns of problem behavior for each participant. Second, I used a…

  11. Elderly Persons with Intellectual Disability: A Study of Clinical Characteristics, Functional Status, and Sensory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Carmeli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Longer life expectancy is resulting in increasing numbers of elderly adults with intellectual disability (ID. There has been the question whether persons with ID demonstrate early signs of aging before the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if persons with ID (with and without Down syndrome showed premature aging changes compared with a control group. Elderly persons (n = 24, average age of 61 from one residential care center in Israel and younger adults from another center (n = 37, average age of 45 were compared with elderly residents without ID in an independent living facility. The study considered demographic data, medical data, anthropometric measurements, body fat and body mass index, flexibility, and sensorimotor function tests. The results showed that the persons with ID had basically similar body composition to that of persons without ID, however, the functional performance of elderly adults with ID was more impaired. We postulate that the slower functioning responses may be explained by a less physically active lifestyle, that may accelerate the onset of disease and result in symptoms associated with aging that are detrimental to health. It is therefore important that persons with ID participate in physical activity and exercises in order to promote health and prevent disease.

  12. Borderline personality features as a predictor of forms and functions of aggression during middle childhood: examining the roles of gender and physiological reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banny, Adrienne M; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Pitula, Clio E; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    The present longitudinal investigation examined borderline personality features as a predictor of aggression 1 year later. Moderation by physiological reactivity and gender was also explored. One hundred ninety-six children (M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.64) participated in a laboratory stress protocol in which their systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and skin conductance reactivity to recounting a relational stressor (e.g., threats to relationships or exclusion) were assessed. Teachers provided reports on subtypes of aggressive behavior (i.e., reactive relational, proactive relational, reactive physical, and proactive physical), and children completed a self-report measure of borderline personality features. Path analyses indicated that borderline personality features predicted increases in reactive relational aggression and proactive relational aggression among girls who evinced heightened physiological reactivity to interpersonal stress. In contrast, borderline personality features predicted decreases in proactive physical aggression in girls. Findings suggest that borderline personality features promote engagement in relationally aggressive behaviors among girls, particularly in the context of emotional dysregulation.

  13. Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Intellectual Disability Jun 16, 2010 NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet 8 ... ready! Back to top What is an Intellectual Disability? Intellectual disability is a term used when a ...

  14. Adaptive and maladaptive functioning in Kleefstra syndrome compared to other rare genetic disorders with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, K.; Boer, A. de; Janzing, J.G.E.; Koolen, D.A.; Ockeloen, C.W.; Willemsen, M.H.; Verhoef, F.M.; Deurzen, P.A.M. van; Dongen, L. van; Bokhoven, H. van; Egger, J.I.M.; Staal, W.G.; Kleefstra, T.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed neurobehavioural profiles are of major value for specific clinical management, but have remained underexposed in the population with intellectual disabilities (ID). This was traditionally classified based on IQ level only. Rapid advances in genetics enable etiology based stratification in

  15. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods and Their Ingredients: Positioning Options for Innovations at the Borderline Between Foods and Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer acceptance is pivotal for the market success of new functional food products. Thereby, the acceptance is mainly influenced by three factors: consumer characteristics, purchasing situation and products characteristics. The study at hand analyses these influence factors using the example of j

  16. Adaptive and maladaptive functioning in Kleefstra syndrome compared to other rare genetic disorders with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Karlijn; de Boer, Anneke; Janzing, Joost G E; Koolen, David A; Ockeloen, Charlotte W; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Verhoef, Floor M; van Deurzen, Patricia A M; van Dongen, Linde; van Bokhoven, Hans; Egger, Jos I M; Staal, Wouter G; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2017-05-12

    Detailed neurobehavioural profiles are of major value for specific clinical management, but have remained underexposed in the population with intellectual disabilities (ID). This was traditionally classified based on IQ level only. Rapid advances in genetics enable etiology based stratification in the majority of patients, which reduces clinical heterogeneity. This paper illustrates that specific profiles can be obtained for rare syndromes with ID. Our main aim was to study (mal)adaptive functioning in Kleefstra Syndrome (KS) by comparing and contrasting our findings to three other subgroups: Koolen-de Vries Syndrome, GATAD2B-related syndrome, and a mixed control group of individuals with ID. In total, we studied 58 individuals (28 males, 30 females) with ID; 24 were diagnosed with KS, 13 with Koolen-de Vries Syndrome, 6 with the GATAD2B-related syndrome, and 15 individuals with undefined neurodevelopmental disorders. All individuals were examined with a Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, mini PAS-ADD interview, and an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule to obtain measures of adaptive and maladaptive functioning. Each of the three distinctive genetic disorders showed its own specific profile of adaptive and maladaptive functioning, while being contrasted mutually. However, when data of the subgroups altogether are contrasted to the data of KS, such differences could not be demonstrated. Based on our findings, specific management recommendations were discussed for each of the three syndromes. It is strongly suggested to consider the genetic origin in individuals with congenital neurodevelopmental disorders for individual based psychiatric and behavioral management. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. One-year functional magnetic resonance imaging follow-up study of neural activation during the recall of unresolved negative life events in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, M; Wingenfeld, K; Rullkoetter, N; Mensebach, C; Woermann, F G; Mertens, M; Beblo, T

    2009-03-01

    Recall of adverse life events under brain imaging conditions has been shown to coincide with activation of limbic and prefrontal brain areas in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We investigate changes of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation patterns during the recall of unresolved adverse life events (ULE) over 1 year. Thirteen female BPD patients participated in the study. During fMRI measurement subjects recalled ULE and negative but resolved life events (RLE) after individual cue words to stimulate autobiographical memory retrieval. Subjective intensity of emotional and sensoric experiences during recall was assessed as well as standardized measures of psychopathology. A 2x2 factorial analysis of fMRI data (Deltat1/t2xDeltaULE/RLE) revealed major right more than left differences of activation (i.e. t1>t2) of the posterior more than anterior cingulate, superior temporal lobes, insula, and right middle and superior frontal lobes (second-level analysis, t=3.0, puncorrected=0.003). The opposite contrast (Deltat2/t1xDeltaULE/RLE) did not reveal any differences. We did not find changes of emotional or sensoric qualities during recall (ULE versus RLE) or of psychopathology measures over the 1-year period. Although subjective and clinical data did not change within 1 year, we observed a substantial decrease of temporo-frontal activation during the recall of ULE from t1 to t2. If future research confirms these findings, the question arises whether the decrease of neural activation precedes clinical improvement in BPD.

  18. The prevalence of cyclothymia in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, A J; Joffe, R T; Ennis, J; MacDonald, C; Kutcher, S P

    1990-08-01

    Sixty patients with personality disorders were evaluated by several different diagnostic instruments to determine the prevalence of cyclothymia in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and in other personality disorders (OPD). Cyclothymia occurred more frequently in BPD than in OPD, regardless of which diagnostic system was used. In contrast, the prevalence of major, minor, and intermittent depression, hypomania, and bipolar disorder was not significantly different in BPD as compared with OPD. Cyclothymic borderlines and noncyclothymic borderlines could not be distinguished on behavioral or functional measures. These results have implications for the diagnostic validity of both BPD and cyclothymia.

  19. [Concordance between a head circumference growth function and intellectual disability in relation with the cause of microcephaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, R; Macaya Ruíz, A; Giraldo Arjonilla, J; Roig-Quilis, M

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to investigate the correlations between patterns of head growth and intellectual disability among distinct aetiological presentations of microcephaly. 3,269 head circumference (HC) charts of patients from a tertiary neuropediatric unit were reviewed and 136 microcephalic participants selected. Using the Z-scores of registered HC measurements we defined the variables: HC Minimum, HC Drop and HC Catch-up. We classified patients according to the presence or absence of intellectual disability (IQ below 71) and according to the cause of microcephaly (idiopathic, familial, syndromic, symptomatic and mixed). Using Discriminant Analysis a C-function was defined as C=HC Minimum + HC Drop with a cut-off level of C=-4.32 Z-score. In our sample 95% of patients scoring below this level, severe microcephaly, were classified in the disabled group while the overall concordance was 66%. In the symptomatic-mixed group the concordance between HC function and outcome reached 82% in contrast to only 54% in the idiopathic-syndromic group (P-value=0.0002). We defined a HC growth function which discriminates intellectual disability of microcephalic patients better than isolated HC measurements, especially for those with secondary and mixed aetiologies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  1. Role of biological factors in etiopathogenesis of borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally labile personality of borderline type (borderline personality occurs in 1-2% of individuals from general population; 75% of this group are women. Similarly to most of the other mental disorders, the borderline personality results from a combination of biological, social and psychological factors. The subject of this study is a survey of the current knowledge on biological factors of borderline personality. Most researchers are of the opinion that these personality disorders are determined genetically, with such inherited temperamental traits as: dysregulation, impulsivity, and hypersensitivity. Perhaps hereditary is also a defect within the serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system and/or dopaminergic system related to the reward system. Many researchers have recently perceived the dysfunction of endogenous opioid system as an integral component of borderline personality. There is now a lot of evidence showing that this dysfunction as well as that of the reward system may account for most of the borderline personality symptoms which constitute an involuntary attempt of stimulating the inefficient systems. This is how e.g. the presence of reckless sexual behaviours, unstable interpersonal relationships and inability to delay the reward in borderline personality is accounted for. Such observations may in the future constitute an important indication for seeking a more effective pharmacotherapy for patients with borderline personality. It is possible that in some patients the described dysfunctions may be alleviated with time. This is implied by the results of comprehensive prospective studies which show a significant regression of symptoms and improvement in functioning of most patients with borderline personality after at least several years.

  2. Treatment of borderline adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M R

    1983-01-01

    A recent revision of the proposed DSM III description of the borderline category is presented with reference to the work of Masterson (1972) and Grinker (1968). The contributions of Roger Shapiro et al. to a psychoanalytic formulation of the developmental and familial dynamics are summarized with reference to the genetic factors and the lack of validation to date of any general hypothesis. Treatment recommendations of Wolberg, Shapiro and Jacobson (1971) are described. Grinker's operational criteria were chosen for the pilot study: a defect in affectional relationships with no enduring close ties; child-like angry relationships with parental or authority figures, particularly in the dysphoric group; low self-esteem very poor sense of identity; a chronic depression characterized more by loneliness and boredom than by guilt or loss, and a pervading sense of anger or resentment. Cases are presented to illustrate treatment strategies. A brief differential diagnostic statement is made describing "borderline" as a separate category from other disorders manifesting oppositional, antisocial, and violent behavior.

  3. The Diagnosis of Depression in People with Severe Limitations in Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Haleigh; Havercamp, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) were once considered immune to developing psychopathology, including affective disorders such as depression. Now research has shown that people with ID do suffer from depression, and the focus is on understanding how to best diagnose and provide treatment. Research has come a long way in adapting the…

  4. Predicting the Accuracy of Facial Affect Recognition: The Interaction of Child Maltreatment and Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying…

  5. The Diagnosis of Depression in People with Severe Limitations in Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Haleigh; Havercamp, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) were once considered immune to developing psychopathology, including affective disorders such as depression. Now research has shown that people with ID do suffer from depression, and the focus is on understanding how to best diagnose and provide treatment. Research has come a long way in adapting the…

  6. Household Work Complexity, Intellectual Functioning, and Self-Esteem in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Leslie J.; Schooler, Carmi

    2006-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. longitudinal investigation of psychological effects of occupational conditions (a project of the National Institute of Mental Health's unit on Socioenvironmental Studies), we examined the relationship between the complexity of household work and 2 psychological variables: intellectual flexibility and self-esteem.…

  7. Plasticity in the Developing Brain: Intellectual, Language and Academic Functions in Children with Ischaemic Perinatal Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Angela O.; Spilkin, Amy M.; Hesselink, John; Trauner, Doris A.

    2008-01-01

    The developing brain has the capacity for a great deal of plasticity. A number of investigators have demonstrated that intellectual and language skills may be in the normal range in children following unilateral perinatal stroke. Questions have been raised, however, about whether these skills can be maintained at the same level as the brain…

  8. Health and Social Functioning of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lisa; McCarthy, Jane; Tsakanikos, Elias; Howlin, Patricia; Bouras, Nick; Craig, Tom K. J.

    2012-01-01

    There is little information on the mental health needs of adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Such evidence is much needed for the development of more effective mental health services for this group. The aim of this study is to compare adults with ID and ASD receiving specialist mental health services…

  9. Predicting the Accuracy of Facial Affect Recognition: The Interaction of Child Maltreatment and Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying…

  10. ATTACHMENT, BORDERLINE PERSONALITY, AND ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP DYSFUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jonathan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Wan, Ming Wai; Hope, Holly; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated attachment and disturbances in romantic relationships as important indicators for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current research extends our current knowledge by examining the specific associations among attachment, romantic relationship dysfunction, and BPD, above and beyond the contribution of emotional distress and nonromantic interpersonal functioning in two distinct samples. Study 1 comprised a community sample of women (N = 58) aged 25-36. S...

  11. [Borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machizawa, S

    1994-05-01

    Although Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) overlaps considerably with Major Depression, recent studies of biology, genetics and childhood trauma have demonstrated that there are substantial differences between the two disorders. It is suggested that their apparent relationship is rather nonspecific. In this paper, the author emphasizes that the core symptom of BPD is impulsiveness, which causes depressive symptoms and/or is induced by depressive episodes, forming a vicious cycle. Furthermore, in BPD patients, depressive symptoms are modified by impulsiveness, masochism, vanity, despair, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. The author concludes that BPD is not a homogeneous but heterogeneous syndrome, classified into subtypes: depressive type, impulsive type, and identity diffusion type. Treatment needs to be considered according to these types.

  12. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children.

  13. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  14. Co-occurrence of dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ferrell, Lynn; Schroeder, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that, among individuals with borderline personality disorder, pathological dissociation correlates with a wide range of impairments and difficulties in psychological function. It also predicts a poorer response to dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. We hypothesized that (a) dissociative identity disorder commonly co-occurs with borderline personality disorder and vice versa, and (b) individuals who meet criteria for both disorders have more comorbidity and trauma than individuals who meet criteria for only 1 disorder. We interviewed a sample of inpatients in a hospital trauma program using 3 measures of dissociation. The most symptomatic group was those participants who met criteria for both borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder on the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, followed by those who met criteria for dissociative identity disorder only, then those with borderline personality disorder only, and finally those with neither disorder. Greater attention should be paid to the relationship between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder.

  15. Cardiac status in juvenile borderline hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, W S; Sodt, P C; Messerli, F H; Ruschhaupt, D G; Arcilla, R A

    1983-01-01

    A prospective M-mode echocardiographic study was done to look for early cardiovascular changes in children prone to hypertension with blood pressures between the 75th and 95th percentiles for age. Average systolic/diastolic pressures in 27 children with borderline hypertension were 137/89 mm Hg compared to 110/68 mm Hg for the 26 controls. Echocardiographic measurements were normalized for comparison using two methods. The borderline hypertensive group mean values were significantly greater than controls for left ventricular wall thickness (p less than 0.05 for method 1; p less than 0.001 for method 2), left ventricular mass (p less than 0.001; p less than 0.005) and left ventricular wall thickness to radius ratio (p less than 0.001, both methods). Echocardiographic estimates of left ventricular function were lower in the hypertensive group. This study suggests that cardiac hypertrophy can be shown by noninvasive means in some children before arterial pressure becomes elevated. To assess the incidence and possible consequences of early target organ changes, more extensive clinical evaluation of borderline hypertension in children is recommended.

  16. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability : Reactivity and Number of Days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2012-01-01

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to we

  17. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Reactivity and Number of Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2012-01-01

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to wear a pedometer for 14 days. The outcome measure…

  18. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in daily functioning in older adults with intellectual disabilities : Results of the HA-ID study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2014-01-01

    A high incidence of limitations in daily functioning is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), along with poor physical fitness levels. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for daily functioning after 3 years, in 602 older adults with border

  19. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in daily functioning in older adults with intellectual disabilities : Results of the HA-ID study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2014-01-01

    A high incidence of limitations in daily functioning is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), along with poor physical fitness levels. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for daily functioning after 3 years, in 602 older adults with

  20. [Whose borderline is it? Reconsidering diagnosing borderline personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Tsvi E

    2008-11-01

    The present article critically discusses diagnosing borderline personality, demonstrating ideas raised with a treated case. In contrast to routine diagnoses made by psychiatrists according to common diagnosing systems (such as the American DSM or the WHO's ICD), we wonder whether this diagnosis reflects a medico-social construct, which is associated to the female status in masculine (or even patriarch) society, and probably associated even to the context of a woman diagnosed by a psychiatric system. In the context of critically viewing aetiological hypotheses to borderline personality (presented in our former article as a personality constellated around complex and prolonged trauma) in this article we suggest viewing borderline behaviours and symptoms as manifestations of coping and survival of a woman-victim in abusing surroundings.

  1. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  2. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008

  3. Borderline lepromatous leprosy with neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angoori Gnaneshwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of leprosy with neurofibromatosis is rare both the diseases present with nerve thickening and skin lesions (patches and nodules. The coexistence of neurofibroma with borderline tuberculoid, lepromatous, histoid, and neuritic leprosy has been reported in the past. We report here a case of borderline lepromatous leprosy coexisting with neurofibromatosis in a 60 year-old male, who presented with neurofibromata and nerve thickening. Histopathology of skin biopsy from the leprosy and neurofibroma nodules confirmed the diagnosis of leprosy and neurofibroma.

  4. Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  5. Comparison of Short and Long Versions of the Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test and the K-BIT in Participants with Intellectual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Stephen P.; Wigham, Ann; Cicchetti, Domenic; Margallo-Lana, Marisa; Moore, P. Brian; Reid, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    The Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test (PCFT) directly measures the cognitive abilities of people with intellectual impairment. This study examined the relationship between this instrument and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) and two shorter versions of the same scale. High correlations between the verbal and performance sections of the…

  6. Comparison of Constant Time Delay and Simultaneous Prompting Procedures: Teaching Functional Sight Words to Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Rasheeda; Lane, Justin D.; Gast, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Constant time delay (CTD) and simultaneous prompting (SP) are effective response prompting procedures for teaching students with moderate to severe disabilities. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of CTD and SP when teaching functional sight words to four students, 8-11 years of age, with moderate intellectual disability (ID)…

  7. Comparing Teacher-Directed and Computer-Assisted Constant Time Delay for Teaching Functional Sight Words to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mari Beth; Hurley, Kevin J.; Cihak, David F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of teacher-directed and computer-assisted constant time delay strategies for teaching three students with moderate intellectual disability to read functional sight words. Target words were those found in recipes and were taught via teacher-delivered constant time delay or…

  8. Video Self-Modeling on an iPad to Teach Functional Math Skills to Adolescents with Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Cami E.; Anderson, Darlene H.; Prater, Mary Anne; Dyches, Tina T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers suggest that video-based interventions can provide increased opportunity for students with disabilities to acquire important academic and functional skills; however, little research exists regarding video-based interventions on the academic skills of students with autism and intellectual disability. We used a…

  9. Intellectual Functioning in Relation to Autism and ADHD Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, E.; Swaab, H.; Sonneville, L. M. J.; Engeland, H.; Sijmens-Morcus, M. E. J.; Klaassen, P. W. J.; Duijff, S. N.; Vorstman, J. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome) is associated with an increased risk of various disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between intellectual functioning and severity of ASD and ADHD…

  10. Les scientifiques et les fonctions d’intellectuel Scientists and the functions of intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Zaccai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le sujet de cette contribution trouve son origine dans un certain étonnement à constater la présence relativement faible de scientifiques parmi les intellectuels reconnus, en dépit de l’importance majeure des sciences dans les sociétés. Certains éléments explicatifs sont proposés tels que la moindre demande pour ce type de savoir dans le public, et du côté interne aux universités, des formations disciplinaires et méthodes d’évaluation qui n’incitent pas à ces prises de parole.L’article est construit à travers l’analyse de cinq catégories de prise de position, ou de “fonction” d’intellectuel. Trois d’entre elles concernent de larges publics et des discours influents : se prononcer sur un sujet de sa spécialité, se prononcer sur les implications de sa discipline, prendre position sur tout type de sujet. Une quatrième catégorie concerne des collaborations plus ponctuelles de type “science citoyenne”. La cinquième enfin porte sur la gestion académique et professionnelle des domaines de savoirs.The topic of this paper is rooted in some kind of astonishment at the relatively weak part of scientists among recognized intellectuals despite the major importance of sciences in societies. Some reasons are put forward, such as a lower demand for this type of knowledge among the public but also in universities, which offer disciplinary trainings as well as assessment methods that fail to encourage such expressions.The paper is based on the analysis of five categories of statements, or “functions” of intellectuals. Three of them concern a large public along with influential speeches: expressing oneself on a topic from one’s area of expertise; on the implications of one’s discipline; on any kind of issue. A fourth category concerns more occasional collaborations such as “citizen science”. The last category addresses the academic and professional management of the fields of knowledge.

  11. False memories and memory confidence in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Nagel, Matthias; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-12-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding memory in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Prior reports and anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with BPD are prone to false memories but this assumption has to been put to firm empirical test, yet. Memory accuracy and confidence was assessed in 20 BPD patients and 22 healthy controls using a visual variant of the false memory (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) paradigm which involved a negative and a positive-valenced picture. Groups did not differ regarding veridical item recognition. Importantly, patients did not display more false memories than controls. At trend level, borderline patients rated more items as new with high confidence compared to healthy controls. The results tentatively suggest that borderline patients show uncompromised visual memory functions and display no increased susceptibility for distorted memories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reading fluency estimates of current intellectual function: demographic factors and effects of type of stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Sideridis, Georgios D; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Mouzaki, Angeliki

    2013-03-01

    The study explores the potential clinical value of reading fluency measures in complementing demographic variables as indices of current intellectual capacity. IQ estimates (based on the PPVT-R, WASI Vocabulary and Block Design subtests) were obtained from a representative, non-clinical sample of 386 Greek adults aged 48–87 years along with two measures of reading efficiency (one involving relatively high-frequency words—WRE—and the second comprised of phonotactically matched pseudowords—PsWRE). Both reading measures (number of items read correctly in 45 s) accounted for significant portions of variability in demographically adjusted verbal and performance IQ indices. Reading measures provided IQ estimates which were significantly closer to those predicted by demographic variables alone in up to 22% of individuals with fewer than 7 (across all ages) or 13 years of formal education (in the 70–87 year age range). PsWRE scores slightly outperformed WRE scores in predicting a person’s estimated verbal or performance IQ. Results are discussed in the context of previous findings using reading accuracy measures for low-frequency words with exceptional spellings in less transparent orthographic systems such as English.

  13. Effect of moderate-intensity exercise training on the cognitive function of young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Robert M; Stopka, Christine B; Delisle, Anthony T; Hass, Chris J

    2012-12-01

    In addition to cognitive impairment, young adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are also more likely to be in poor health. Exercise may help ameliorate both of these deficits. While the health benefits of exercise are well documented and understood, the cognitive benefits of exercise are emerging. Exercise has been shown to improve the cognitive function of young, old, and diseased populations but few studies have evaluated the effect of exercise training on the cognitive functioning of individuals with IDs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise training on the cognitive function of young adults with IDs. Fourteen students (age, 19.4 ± 1.3 years) with mild to moderate IDs participated in an 8-week comprehensive exercise intervention program based on circuit training, aerobic dancing, and adapted sport activities. Sessions lasted 45 minutes, and intensity was maintained at 60-70% of maximum heart rate (HR(max)). Aerobic fitness was assessed via the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) step test, and intellectual functioning was assessed via 3 subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities once before and after the intervention. Performance was significantly improved on all 3 cognitive tests (all, p Aerobic fitness also significantly improved (p speed, a measure taking into account each individual's performance on the 3 subtests, was 103%. The mean individual improvement in aerobic fitness was 17.5%. Moderate-intensity exercise training can yield robust improvements in the cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness of young adults with IDs. These effects support the inclusion of exercise into the lives of young adults with ID to promote their physical and cognitive health. Fourteen students (age, 19.4 ± 1.3 years) with mild to moderate IDs participated in an 8-week comprehensive exercise intervention program based on circuit training, aerobic dancing, and adapted sport activities

  14. Neurobiologien ved borderline-personlighedsforstyrrelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder characterised by instability of affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. The aim of this status article is to provide a brief overview of the neurobiological underpinnings of the core di...

  15. Neurobiologien ved borderline-personlighedsforstyrrelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder characterised by instability of affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. The aim of this status article is to provide a brief overview of the neurobiological underpinnings of the core...

  16. Intellectual property

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Montenue, a distinct French scholar of intellectual property, has suggested that IP is a “tool which surprisingly helps a lot”, and this definition on science, arts, culture, since the 16th century. Now, what would be the definition of intellectual property for the 21st century? Apparently not a “strange” tool, but a necessary tool, primary for enriching human knowledge, and for the new world order, especially in the global market sphere. Intellectual property is an integral part of inter...

  17. Executive Functions in Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparison between Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Floriana; Varuzza, Cristiana; Menghini, Deny; Addona, Francesca; Gianesini, Tiziana; Vicari, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions are a set of high cognitive abilities that control and regulate other functions and behaviors and are crucial for successful adaptation. Deficits in executive functions are frequently described in developmental disorders, which are characterized by disadaptive behavior. However, executive functions are not widely examined in…

  18. Executive Functions in Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparison between Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Floriana; Varuzza, Cristiana; Menghini, Deny; Addona, Francesca; Gianesini, Tiziana; Vicari, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions are a set of high cognitive abilities that control and regulate other functions and behaviors and are crucial for successful adaptation. Deficits in executive functions are frequently described in developmental disorders, which are characterized by disadaptive behavior. However, executive functions are not widely examined in…

  19. Altered fronto-striatal functions in the Gdi1-null mouse model of X-linked Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morè, Lorenzo; Künnecke, Basil; Yekhlef, Latefa; Bruns, Andreas; Marte, Antonella; Fedele, Ernesto; Bianchi, Veronica; Taverna, Stefano; Gatti, Silvia; D'Adamo, Patrizia

    2017-03-06

    RAB-GDP dissociation inhibitor 1 (GDI1) loss-of-function mutations are responsible for a form of non-specific X-linked Intellectual Disability (XLID) where the only clinical feature is cognitive impairment. GDI1 patients are impaired in specific aspects of executive functions and conditioned response, which are controlled by fronto-striatal circuitries. Previous molecular and behavioral characterization of the Gdi1-null mouse revealed alterations in the total number/distribution of hippocampal and cortical synaptic vesicles as well as hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity, and memory deficits. In this study, we employed cognitive protocols with high translational validity to human condition that target the functionality of cortico-striatal circuitry such as attention and stimulus selection ability with progressive degree of complexity. We previously showed that Gdi1-null mice are impaired in some hippocampus-dependent forms of associative learning assessed by aversive procedures. Here, using appetitive-conditioning procedures we further investigated associative learning deficits sustained by the fronto-striatal system. We report that Gdi1-null mice are impaired in attention and associative learning processes, which are a key part of the cognitive impairment observed in XLID patients.

  20. Executive function across syndromes associated with intellectual disabilities: a developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, N.; Dawkins, T.; Huizinga, M.; Burack, J.A.; Burack, J.A.; Hodapp, R.M.; Iarocci, G.; Zigler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is a general construct used to represent brain functions related to the conscious control of thought and action. This chapter reviews literature that supports the notion of a componential view of EF, as some disorders were associated with developmentally appropriate performan

  1. Neurobiologien ved borderline-personlighedsforstyrrelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder characterised by instability of affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. The aim of this status article is to provide a brief overview of the neurobiological underpinnings of the core...... dimensions in BPD, as well as of the potential clinical implications. The latest results from genetic, endocrinologic, neuropsychologic, and neuroimaging research in identifying the dysfunctional neurobiological systems that could play a role in diathesis to BPD are presented....

  2. The influence of stress on social cognition in patients with borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. Deckers; J. Lobbestael; G.A. van Wingen; R.P.C. Kessels; A. Arntz; J.I.M. Egger

    2014-01-01

    Background: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe difficulties in interpersonal relationships and emotional functioning. Theories of BPD suggest that individuals with BPD have heightened emotional sensitivity, increased stress reactivity, and problems in making sense of in

  3. Psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Luis H

    2013-06-01

    The best available evidence for psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is outlined here. BPD is defined by disturbances in identity and interpersonal functioning, and patients report potential medication treatment targets such as impulsivity, aggression, transient psychotic and dissociative symptoms, and refractory affective instability Few randomized controlled trials of psychopharmacological treatments for BPD have been published recently, although multiple reviews have converged on the effectiveness of specific anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotic agents, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Stronger evidence exists for medication providing significant improvements in impulsive aggression than in affective or other interpersonal symptoms. Future research strategies will focus on the potential role of neuropeptide agents and medications with greater specificity for 2A serotonin receptors, as well as optimizing concomitant implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, in order to improve BPD patients' overall functioning.

  4. A Gain-of-Function Mutation in NALCN in a Child with Intellectual Disability, Ataxia, and Arthrogryposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Kyota; Rossignol, Elsa; Hamdan, Fadi F; Mulcahy, Ben; Xie, Lin; Nagamatsu, Shinya; Rouleau, Guy A; Zhen, Mei; Michaud, Jacques L

    2015-08-01

    NALCN and its homologues code for the ion channel responsible for half of background Na(+) -leak conductance in vertebrate and invertebrate neurons. Recessive mutations in human NALCN cause intellectual disability (ID) with hypotonia. Here, we report a de novo heterozygous mutation in NALCN affecting a conserved residue (p.R1181Q) in a girl with ID, episodic and persistent ataxia, and arthrogryposis. Interestingly, her episodes of ataxia were abolished by the administration of acetazolamide, similar to the response observed in episodic ataxia associated with other ion channels. Introducing the analogous mutation in the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue nca-1 induced a coiling locomotion phenotype, identical to that obtained with previously characterized C. elegans gain-of-function nca alleles, suggesting that p.R1181Q confers the same property to NALCN. This observation thus suggests that dominant mutations in NALCN can cause a neurodevelopmental phenotype that overlaps with, while being mostly distinct from that associated with recessive mutations in the same gene. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Muscle reaction function of individuals with intellectual disabilities may be improved through therapeutic use of a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Arabatzi, Fotini; Kellis, Eleftherios; Liga, Maria; Karra, Chrisanthi; Amiridis, Ioannis

    2013-09-01

    Reaction time and muscle activation deficits might limit the individual's autonomy in activities of daily living and in participating in recreational activities. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a 14-week hippotherapy exercise program on movement reaction time and muscle activation in adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Nineteen adolescents with moderate ID were assigned either to an experimental group (n=10) or a control group (n=9). The experimental group attended a hippotherapy exercise program, consisting of two 30-min sessions per week for 14 weeks. Reaction time, time of maximum muscle activity and electromyographic activity (EMG) of rectus femoris and biceps femoris when standing up from a chair under three conditions: in response to audio, visual and audio with closed eyes stimuli were measured. Analysis of variance designs showed that hippotherapy intervention program resulted in significant improvements in reaction time and a reduction in time to maximum muscle activity of the intervention group comparing to the control group in all 3 three conditions that were examined (phippotherapy training. Hippotherapy probably creates a changing environment with a variety of stimuli that enhance deep proprioception as well as other sensory inputs. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that hippotherapy can improve functional task performance by enhancing reaction time.

  6. Parental socioeconomic status and child intellectual functioning in a Norwegian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilertsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Holm, Silje Elisabeth Hasmo; Bøe, Tormod; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT – A NEW MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita-Maria GOGAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain competitive advantage organizations need more efficient use of intellectual capital. Therefore, management of intellectual capital has become one of the functions of growth in companies today. Focus on managing intelectul capital is due to the role intelectula competencies and knowledge in contemporary business which is significant. The most common terms for intellectual capital management functions at the organizational level are competence management and competence development. Managers conduct activities to manage intellectual capital in the need for knowledge on personnel competencies and their development in operative functions. The literature presents a series of intellectual capital management models, most belonging to the researchers in the Nordic countries. The aim of this paper is to developea new model of managing intellectual capital that improve the existing models. Thus, by using the proposed model is expected that the relationship between intellectual capital management and strategy of a company should intensify on medium term.

  8. GATAD2B loss-of-function mutations cause a recognisable syndrome with intellectual disability and are associated with learning deficits and synaptic undergrowth in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Willemsen, M. H.; Nijhof, B.; Fenckova, M.; Nillesen, W.M.; Bongers, E M H F; Castells-Nobau, A.; Asztalos, L.; Viragh, E.; Bon, B.W.M. van; Tezel, E.; Veltman, J.A.; Brunner, H G; de Vries, B B; de Ligt, J.; Yntema, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GATA zinc finger domain containing 2B (GATAD2B) encodes a subunit of the MeCP1-Mi-2/nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase complex involved in chromatin modification and regulation of transcription. We recently identified two de novo loss-of-function mutations in GATAD2B by whole exome sequencing in two unrelated individuals with severe intellectual disability. METHODS: To identify additional individuals with GATAD2B aberrations, we searched for microdeletions overlapping with GAT...

  9. Intellectual emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev, Igor A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.

  10. The experience of borderline phenomena through cinema: Guentin Tarantino's Reservoir dogs, true romance, and pulp fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Donald R; Favero, Marcus

    2002-01-01

    The experience of many patients with borderline personality is intense and kaleidoscopic. These qualities may be represented in film in ways that reflect and convey their essential features that are less readily captured in words. Quentin Tarantino has produced a trilogy of films that bring to light and to life the borderline experience. We use these movies to illustrate and discuss five key borderline themes: the fluid nature of drive derivatives, the discontinuous experience of time and space, the coniflicted search for an idealized parent, antisocial distortions of the superego, and the organizing and stabilizing function of a central romantic fantasy.

  11. Physical Fitness and Functional Ability of Children with Intellectual Disability: Effects of a Short-Term Daily Treadmill Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Lotan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons with intellectual disability (ID and associated multiple disabilities have been found by many researchers to be a population with deficient physical fitness measures, which can be explained by an inactive lifestyle, a result of lack of awareness of the positive physical effects of physical exercise, or lack of motivation for any motor activity. Various plans for physical exercise have been put forward, but many are found impractical in nonresearch-based intervention. In this study, 15 children with ID on a motor functioning level of 7—14 months used a treadmill daily for 2 months. Our findings indicated a most significant improvement in the level of physical fitness of the participants (p < 0.005, as measured by pulse at rest and during effort. The improvement in physical fitness modestly (r = 0.5, but significantly (p < 0.05, correlated with a significant (p < 0.0007 improvement in functional ability of the participating children. Further examination a year after intervention terminated showed a return to preintervention pulse-at-rest values. The research examined the treadmill training method and found that it can be operated with the support of an unskilled staff person under the supervision of a physiotherapist. The research was performed under real-life conditions, enabling relatively easy implementation in the existing conditions of special education centers. This method is a type of exercise that is easy to operate without entailing long-term budgetary expenses and might improve the health status of children with ID, who are a population at risk for developing heart-related diseases at a young age.

  12. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Senija Tahirovic; Adela Bajric

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992). Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998). The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) describe th...

  13. Intellectual mobile Ad Hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sova, Oleg; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Bunin, Sergey; Zhuk, Pavlo

    2012-01-01

    In this article intellectualization of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks resources management is offered. It was proposed decomposition of the primary goal of MANET functioning into easy subgoals, and fragment of the MANET node target structure is presented.

  14. Attachment, borderline personality, and romantic relationship dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Wan, Ming Wai; Hope, Holly; Morse, Jennifer Q; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated attachment and disturbances in romantic relationships as important indicators for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current research extends our current knowledge by examining the specific associations among attachment, romantic relationship dysfunction, and BPD, above and beyond the contribution of emotional distress and nonromantic interpersonal functioning in two distinct samples. Study 1 comprised a community sample of women (N = 58) aged 25-36. Study 2 consisted of a psychiatric sample (N = 138) aged 21-60. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 demonstrated that (1) attachment was specifically related to BPD symptoms and romantic dysfunction, (2) BPD symptoms were specifically associated with romantic dysfunction, and (3) the association between attachment and romantic dysfunction was statistically mediated by BPD symptoms. The findings support specific associations among attachment, BPD symptoms, and romantic dysfunction.

  15. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  16. The Intellectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Novak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Book jackets sometimes provide insightful provocation about the content and flavour of a text. Certainly the designers of the front jacket for Steve Fuller’s The Intellectual intended to be provocative when they placed the words, “the positive power of negative thinking,” at the top centre.

  17. Intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mercury, and other toxins reduces the risk of disability. Teaching women about the risks of alcohol and drugs during ... 2013;33-41. Shapiro BK, Batshaw ML. Intellectual disability. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  18. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  19. Hanseníase borderline virchowiana Borderline lepromatous leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Matsuo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado caso de hanseníase borderline virchowiana com quatro anos de evolução e lesões cutâneas de difícil diagnóstico na rede de saúde. O exame histopatológico mostrando estruturas granulomatosas desorganizadas e múltiplos bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes foi essencial para o diagnóstico. Casos como o descrito possibilitam a contaminação dos conviventes e o surgimento de novos casos de hanseníase no futuro.It is presented a case of borderline lepromatous leprosy with 4 years of evolution and cutaneous lesions of difficult diagnosis in the National Health System. The histopathological evaluation, which was essential for the diagnosis, showed disorganized granulomatous structures and multiple alcohol -acid resistant bacilli. Cases like the one described here are responsible for the contamination of cohabitants and the appearance of new cases of leprosy.

  20. CASE REPORT: THE USE OF WISC-IV IN ASSESSING INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony kwabena Nkyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide detailed description of clinical assessment of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV that can be used by clinicians to assess the level of intelligence of children and adolescents. The WISC-IV is a standardized intelligence test provides essential information and critical clinical insights into a child’s cognitive functioning. Literature review and analysis of how to interpret the WISC-IV are described. A psychological report of a 15 year African girl with the use of WISC-IV is reported and clinical impression is given. Information from several sources including interviews with parents, test scores and behavioral observations were used to develop a hypothesis about the child’s skills. Her Full Scale IQ of 125 is classified in the superior or higher range of intelligence. Recommendations about how to address problem areas are discussed.

  1. [Affective mentalizing in Addictive Borderline Personality: A literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecointe, P; Bernoussi, A; Masson, J; Schauder, S

    2016-10-01

    This literature review concerns affective mentalizing in borderline addictive personality. This concept postulates the group between addictions and borderline personalities may correspond to Personality Disorders (PDs). First, we will present conceptualizations and evaluations of affective mentalizing. The latter refers to one dimension of mentalization, a process by which an individual interprets his/her mental states and those of others. Lecours and Bouchard proposed a hierarchic model: the Élaboration verbale de l'affect (EVA). They also developed an empiric methodology: the Grille de l'élaboration verbale de l'affect (GEVA). The methodological approach of Lecours fulfils the requirements made by Cho-Kain, Gunderson and Luyten, involving a narrower operationalization of the mentalization concept through the evaluation of its dimensions. Conceptualizations and evaluations enabled focus on mentalization psychopathology. Fonagy and Bateman studied this latter in the subjects with PDs, particularly in Borderline Personality Disorders (BPD). We describe mentalization failure, its etiology and consequences in the BPD. Several forms of mentalization psychopathology are identified. Its etiology is largely environmental. Fonagy and Bateman developed the optimum developmental model of mentalization and referred to it to explain etiology of mentalization failure in BPD. Consequences of mentalization failure explicate its functioning. Mentalization may be considered as essential in their comprehension and their care. Research about mentalization of PDs does not integrate addiction as one comorbidity factor. However, Allen, Fonagy and Bateman describe a bidirectional interaction between mentalization failure and addiction. We propose to examine the mentalization of Borderline Addictive Personality. This concept groups addictions and borderline personalities in just one clinical entity other than their links of co-morbidities. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris

  2. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  3. Borderline Clients: Practice Implications of Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harriette C.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews current research on treatment of borderline clients with medication, individual counseling, and family interventions. Notes that recent studies indicate that borderline personality is heterogeneous condition in which different underlying disorders (affective, schizotypal, and neurological) may be present. Reviews effectiveness of various…

  4. Impairment of intellectual functions after surgery and posterior fossa irradiation in children with ependymoma is related to age and neurologic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalifa Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the neuropsychological outcome of children treated with surgery and posterior fossa irradiation for localized infratentorial ependymoma. Methods 23 patients (age 0.3 – 14 years at diagnosis who were treated with local posterior fossa irradiation (54 Gy underwent one (4 patients or sequential (19 patients neuropsychologic evaluation. The last evaluation was performed at a median of 4.5 (1 to 15.5 years after RT. Results Mean last full scale IQ (FSIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ and PIQ were 89.1, 94.0, and 86.2 respectively. All patients had difficulties with reading, and individual patients showed deficits in visuospatial, memory and attentional tasks. There was no trend for deterioration of intellectual outcome over time. All 5 children with IQ scores ≤ 75 were under the age of four at diagnosis. There was a significant association between the presence of cerebellar deficits and impaired IQ (72.0 vs 95.2, p Conclusion Within the evaluated cohort, intellectual functions were moderately impaired. Markedly reduced IQ scores were only seen with early disease manifestation and treatment, and postoperative neurological deficits had a strong impact on intellectual outcome.

  5. Intellectual Enrichment Is Linked to Cerebral Efficiency in Multiple Sclerosis: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence for Cognitive Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F.; Wylie, Glenn R.; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive reserve hypothesis helps to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in people with neurologic diseases, including Alzheimer's; disease and multiple sclerosis. Lifetime intellectual enrichment (estimated with education or vocabulary knowledge) lessens the negative impact of brain disease on…

  6. Effects of MISC Intervention on Cognition, Autonomy, and Behavioral Functioning of Adult Consumers with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Klein, Pnina S.; Cohen, Sara Fridel

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a yearlong Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC; Klein, 1992) on: (a) the quality of interactions between rehabilitation day center paraprofessional staff (n=10) and their adult consumers (n=19) with severe intellectual disability (ID) and (b) the consumers' cognition, autonomy, and…

  7. Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Montenue, a distinct French scholar of intellectual property, has suggested that IP is a “tool which surprisingly helps a lot”, and this definition on science, arts, culture, since the 16th century. Now, what would be the definition of intellectual property for the 21st century? Apparently not a “strange” tool, but a necessary tool, primary for enriching human knowledge, and for the new world order, especially in the global market sphere. Intellectual property is an integral part of international trade, and its importance keeps increasing, since effective use of knowledge is increasingly influencing the economic prosperity of peoples. One may say that there is little originality in the creative sphere. Naturally, this originality can only be reflected by individuality and human identity in intellectual creativity The author rights in the Kosovo legislation is a novelty, a necessity of developing a creative environment in the fields of science, arts and industrial property. First and foremost, the individual benefit, which is secured by the author as the creator of the work, is a moral and material right. Secondly, there is a need for harmonization, not only of values for the creator, but also for the development of science, culture, increased competitive advantage, and the public sphere, as a benefit for the public health and security, and the fiscal policy. The deficiency one must record is with the Office for Copy Rights, which is to play a strong role in implementing and protecting copy rights and other related rights by licensing collective management agencies, imposing administrative fines, awareness raising, provision of information, and other capacity building and educative measures. Naturally, the enactment of good legislation is a system without any meaning or sense if not associated with the court practice. Any establishment of a legal system not pursued with enforcement mechanisms remains only in legal frameworks.

  8. Borderline Personality in the Medical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with borderline personality disorder in mental health settings tend to present with relationship difficulties, mood instability/dysphoria, and overt self-harm behavior. In contrast, it appears that individuals with borderline personality disorder in medical settings manifest physical symptoms that are medically difficult to substantiate. Through a review of the literature, we examine 2 symptom manifestations among patients with borderline personality in primary care and general medical settings—namely pain sensitivity and multiple somatic complaints. In addition to reviewing the research of others, we also highlight our own investigations into these 2 areas. Data Sources: We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database and a previous version of the PsycINFO search engine (no restrictions). Search terms included borderline personality, borderline personality disorder, personality disorders; chronic pain, pain, pain syndromes; and somatization disorder, Briquet’s syndrome, somatic preoccupation, somatic. Study Selection: Published articles related to borderline personality, pain and somatic symptoms (ie, somatization disorder, somatic preoccupation) were examined. Results: According to our review, the literature indicates higher-than-expected rates of borderline personality disorder among patients in primary care and general medical settings who present with chronic pain conditions and/or somatic preoccupation. Conclusions: Unlike patients with borderline personality disorder in mental health settings, who tend to present with relationship difficulties, mood instability/dysphoria, and overt self-harm behavior, patients with borderline personality disorder in primary care settings tend to present with unsubstantiated chronic pain of various types as well as somatic preoccupation. PMID:26644960

  9. The course of marriage/sustained cohabitation and parenthood among borderline patients followed prospectively for 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Reich, D Bradford; Wedig, Michelle M; Conkey, Lindsey C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of marriage/sustained cohabitation and parenthood reported by recovered and nonrecovered borderline patients, the age first undertaken, and the stability of these relationships. Borderline patients were interviewed about these topics during their index admission and eight times over 16 years of prospective follow-up. Recovered borderline patients were significantly more likely than nonrecovered borderline patients to have married/lived with an intimate partner and to have become a parent. In addition, they first married/cohabited and became a parent at a significantly older age. They were also significantly less likely to have been divorced or ended a cohabiting relationship. In addition, they were significantly less likely to have given up or lost custody of a child. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that stable functioning as a spouse/partner and as a parent are strongly associated with recovery status for borderline patients.

  10. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in…

  11. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities : Relations With Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-base

  12. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in…

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Mood Management in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Bita; Ratanasiripong, Paul; Holladay, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often display mental health symptoms that may benefit from psychotherapy. In this pilot study, a newly designed cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group treatment targeting mood difficulties was provided to 8 adults with mild-borderline ID. Assessment occurred at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 4…

  14. Mental Health Problems in Youths with Intellectual Disability: Need for help and help-seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.H. Douma (Jolanda)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, the results are presented of a follow-up study on psychopathology in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) that started in 1996. That study, but also other studies showed that children and adolescents (i.e., youths) with moderate to borderline ID have a three to fo

  15. Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease Among Inpatients Who Have Mild Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, S.; Haw, C.; Kirk, J.; Stubbs, J.

    2005-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. The aim of this study was to screen inpatients with mild or borderline intellectual disability, many of whom also have mental illness, for risk factors for CHD. Participants were interviewed, measured and had blood samples taken. Of the 53 participants, 20 (37.7%)…

  16. Substance use among persons with mild intellectual disability: Approaches to screening and interviewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Kemna, L.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of substances by persons with a mild or borderline intellectual disability (IQ 50-85) (ID) is frequently missed, as our cases illustrate. The first client, a 19-year-old man, denied illicit drug use on admittance to a facility for persons with ID. His mood swings, irritability, and fatigue cou

  17. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Relations with Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-based social problem-solving task. Of these, 130…

  18. Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Jan; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...... it forms a starting point for understanding and managing value-creating processes. Three distinct agendas within IC management and research can be identified. The first concerns to measure the components of IC, the second attempts to relate indicators to effects using statistical models, while the third...

  19. Incompressible Boussinesq equations and borderline Besov spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We prove local-in-time existence and uniqueness of an inviscid Boussinesq-type system. We assume the density equation contains nonzero diffusion and that our initial vorticity and density belong to a space of borderline Besov type.

  20. Philosophy and the Disciplines: The Borderlines | Minimah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy and the Disciplines: The Borderlines. ... the practitioners of the disciplines are concerned with mere definitions or meaning of concepts, ... greater extent than other disciplines leads to the improvement in language for the purpose of ...

  1. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    .... Given the generality of this definition, most mental disorders will inevitably involve some difficulties with mentalization, but it is the application of the concept to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD...

  2. [Concepts of the borderline personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-08-01

    For many years, the borderline personality disorders have mainly been researched in terms of psychoanalytical theories, such as theories on relations with the object. Nowadays, there are three kinds of concepts that are distinguishable. The first ones are those which are group models, serving attempts to made characteristic sets of qualities, represented by individuals suffering from the borderline personality disorders, more precise. The remaining concepts are models of conflict and deficit, which explain complicated mechanisms of interactions of social, psychological and biological factors, and therefore, contribute to better understanding of the genesis of the symptoms of this disorder. Upon the basis of the attempts made so far in the field of describing the borderline personality disorders, one may indicate certain criteria, representative for the entire group of individuals with this diagnosis, regardless of the assumptions applicable to the genesis of the disorder and its symptoms, even though the population of the infirm suffering from the borderline personality disorders is not internally homogenous. The interest of psychologists, attempting to describe the borderline personality disorders, is focused upon certain sets of qualities, presented as the examples of descriptive models. Among the researchers, working on the issues of the borderline personality disorders in this manner, there are: Gunderson, Kernberg, Kohut, Winnicot, Guntrip, Fairbaim, Adler and Buie.

  3. NATURE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INSURANCE AND ITS ROLE IN MODERN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bazylevych

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to theoretical analysis of nature and mechanism of intellectual property insurance. Types of intellectual property relations and its role in public reproduction are investigated. Peculiarities of intellectual property relations are considered. Classification of intellectual property objects depending on their most essential features is analyzed. Different approaches to classification of intellectual property subjects are considered. Nature and preconditions of origin of intellectual property insurance are investigated. Goals and functions of intellectual property insurance are specified. Risks that related to disposal and commercialisation of intellectual property and connected with peculiarities of intellectual property objects and growing rate of intellectual property rights infringements are analyzed. Three groups of risks concerning disposal and commercialization of intellectual property objects are singled out: risks related to loss or abridgement of intellectual property rights; risks related to possible losses, contingencies and half-received profits connected with commercialization of intellectual property objects; risks of professional responsibility of participants of intellectual property market. On the basis of analysis of hands-on experience four types of intellectual property insurance are investigated: insurance of intellectual property rights; liability insurance of the intellectual property subjects; professional liability insurance of participants of intellectual property market; liability insurance of the contractors concerning intellectual property disposal. Factors that restrains development of intellectual property insurance in Ukraine are analyzed.

  4. Non-specialist psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with intellectual disability or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Reichow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of effective treatments for use by non-specialists is listed among the top research priorities for improving the lives of people with mental illness worldwide. The purpose of this review is to appraise which interventions for children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders delivered by non-specialist care providers in community settings produce benefits when compared to either a no-treatment control group or treatment-as-usual comparator. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched electronic databases through 24 June 2013 to locate prospective controlled studies of psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist providers to children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders. We screened 234 full papers, of which 34 articles describing 29 studies involving 1,305 participants were included. A majority of the studies included children exclusively with a diagnosis of lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders (15 of 29, 52%. Fifteen of twenty-nine studies (52% were randomized controlled trials and just under half of all effect sizes (29 of 59, 49% were greater than 0.50, of which 18 (62% were statistically significant. For behavior analytic interventions, the best outcomes were shown for development and daily skills; cognitive rehabilitation, training, and support interventions were found to be most effective for improving developmental outcomes, and parent training interventions to be most effective for improving developmental, behavioral, and family outcomes. We also conducted additional subgroup analyses using harvest plots. Limitations include the studies' potential for performance bias and that few were conducted in lower- and middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review support the delivery of psychosocial interventions by non-specialist providers to children who have intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning

  5. An intellectual property primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Mark D

    2008-06-01

    While many may think of it as an "invention" of the modern age, intellectual property ("IP") has existed since at least as early as the 17th Century with the advent of the Statute of Monopolies in the U.K. Intellectual property has evolved significantly since then into an important aspect of modern day society touching all of our lives in some form or another Canadian health care in the 21st Century is no exception. This article attempts to provide health care professionals who may not be familiar with this subject matter with a general overview of what is "intellectual property". Many readers may be aware ofintellectual property on some level but may not understand how the various types of IP function and interrelate, as well as the possible impact on the nature and scope of health care services. The purpose of this article is to attempt to provide the reader with the tools, definition and 'jargon" to understand IP so that they can appreciate the issues discussed in greater detail in the remaining papers of this special edition.

  6. Borderline Personality Disorder: Why 'fast and furious'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin

    2016-02-28

    The term 'Borderline Personality Disorder' (BPD) refers to a psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, irritability, feelings of emptiness, self-injury and fear of abandonment, as well as unstable interpersonal relationships. BPD is not only common in psychiatric populations but also more prevalent in the general community than previously thought, and thus represents an important public health issue. In contrast to most psychiatric disorders, some symptoms associated with BPD may improve over time, even without therapy, though impaired social functioning and interpersonal disturbances in close relationships often persist. Another counterintuitive and insufficiently resolved question is why depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors can occur simultaneously in the same individual. Moreover, there is an ongoing debate about the nosological position of BPD, which impacts on research regarding sex differences in clinical presentation and patterns of comorbidity.In this review, it is argued that many features of BPD may be conceptualized within an evolutionary framework, namely behavioral ecology. According to Life History Theory, BPD reflects a pathological extreme or distortion of a behavioral 'strategy' which unconsciously aims at immediate exploitation of resources, both interpersonal and material, based on predictions shaped by early developmental experiences. Such a view is consistent with standard medical conceptualizations of BPD, but goes beyond classic 'deficit'-oriented models, which may have profound implications for therapeutic approaches.

  7. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  8. Annotation: New research into general psychiatric services for adults with intellectual disability and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, R

    2009-03-01

    There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either model with research being often of a poor quality, lacking replication, and outcome measures were often inappropriate or varied between studies. This review aims assess differences in outcome for patients with ID and mental disorders treated in general or specialised ID mental health services. A literature review was conducted using electronic databases and websites of ID and mental health organisations to locate all references where people with ID receive mental health care in general psychiatric services from 2003. No meta-analysis was attempted because of the divergent nature of the studies. People with ID (especially severe ID) have reduced access to general psychiatric services. General psychiatric inpatient care is unpopular especially with carers but can be improved by providing specially trained staff and in-reach from community ID teams. Opportunities may exist to enhance the care of people with borderline intellectual functioning within general psychiatric services. Although no new randomised controlled trials have been published, the weight of research is accumulating to suggest that provision of general psychiatric services without extra help is not sufficient to meet the needs of people with ID.

  9. An integrative perspective on psychotherapeutic treatments for borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, E.R.; Verheul, R.; Trijsburg, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Although there is an abundance of literature on the psychotherapeutic treatment of borderline pathology, little is known about differences and similarities between treatments of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Potential differences and similarities are especially important in the absence of e

  10. Intellectual disability and the prison setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tort

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1 To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2 Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1 A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398 of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons33 to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2 We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3 Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. Results: The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. Conclusions: The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.

  11. The Death of the Concerned Intellectual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongyi Feng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a definition of the intellectual covering both professional and moral dimensions: An intellectual is a specialist who creates and communicates symbolised knowledge as means of living, and hopefully intervenes in social and political affairs in the name of universal values, truth and justice. "Symbolised knowledge" is used in the definition to avoid the confusion with other forms of knowledge derived from direct personal experience in production and life. The purpose of using "specialist" as the subject term is to exclude those categories such politicians, soldiers and business people who exercise political, military, financial and other forms of power instead of intellectual power in their social function. This paper argues that there are many roles played by intellectuals, and the social location and function of intellectuals can be fundamentally different in different societies. When production and communication of knowledge are taken as the primary concern of intellectuals, ‘the death of the concerned intellectual’ becomes an unwarranted anxiety, because there is no reason to believe that knowledge and truth will no longer be pursued and valued by humankind. Political marginalisation of critical intellectuals, where it is a reality, seems to be caused not so much by the lack of power of intellectuals as by the lack of solidarity among intellectuals to fight for a common cause. The problem lies as much in the lack of enthusiasm among intellectuals to transcend the boundaries of their professional relevance and intervene in broad social and political issues, as in institutional structures consuming too much energy and time of the intellectuals and seducing them to give up their social responsibilities for personal career.

  12. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Talk About: Coaches What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... becoming an independent person. continue What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...

  13. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Curiae Briefs Legislative Goals Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities National Goals 2015 SIS Product Information Benefits of ... SIS-A Contact Us New 2017 Products Intellectual Disability Historical Context Definition FAQs on Intellectual Disability Diagnostic ...

  14. Application of new WAIS-III/WMS-III discrepancy scores for evaluating memory functioning: relationship between intellectual and memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  15. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND UNIVERSITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Papin-Ramcharan, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Universities and other institutions of higher learning like the University of the West Indies (UWI), are in the business of creating intellectual property. This article describes the importance of intellectual property protection particularly for developing countries. It also gives the experience of The St. Augustine Campus of the University of the West Indies with intellectual property protection.

  16. Reactive Perforating Collagenosis In Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendiratta Vibhu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55 year old male having borderline lepromatous leprosy receiving MB-MDT for one and half year developed several keratoic papules and plaques with central plug and scar formation, mainly on his extremities. Histopathology form the lesion was consistent with reactive perforating collagenosis. Trivial trauma from scratching might have resulted in this phenomenon.

  17. Increased serum prolactin in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Korkmaz, Sevda; Ustundag, Bilal; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Although there is an important interaction between serotonergic system, prolactin and suicidal behavior, and impulsivity, no investigation examined the prolactin values in borderline personality disorder in which suicidal behavior and impulsivity are core symptom dimensions. In this context, in the present investigation, we planned to measure serum prolactin levels in the patients with borderline personality disorder. The study comprised 15 patients with borderline personality disorder and 15 healthy controls. Prolactin values were measured in both patients and control subjects. The patients had abnormally higher mean value of prolactin compared to those of healthy controls (48.66 ± 36.48 mg/dl for patients vs. 15.20 ± 7.81 mg/dl for healthy controls). There was no correlation between prolactin values and any demographic variables for both the patients and control subjects. In conclusion, our present results suggest that prolactin values increased in the patients with borderline personality disorder and are required to be replicated by more comprehensive and detailed further studies to decipher the exact roles of prolactin increase.

  18. Management of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit; Mahipal; Jessica; Frakes; Sarah; Hoffe; Richard; Kim

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the United States. Surgery remains the only curative option; however only 20% of the patients have resectable disease at the time of initialpresentation. The definition of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer is not uniform but generally denotes to regional vessel involvement that makes it unlikely to have negative surgical margins. The accurate staging of pancreatic cancer requires triple phase computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas. Management of patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer remains unclear. The data for treatment of these patients is primarily derived from retrospective single institution experience. The prospective trials have been plagued by small numbers and poor accrual. Neoadjuvant therapy is recommended and typically consists of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The chemotherapeutic regimens continue to evolve along with type and dose of radiation therapy. Gemcitabine or 5-fluorouracil based chemotherapeutic combinations are administered. The type and dose of radiation vary among different institutions. With neoadjuvant treatment, approximately 50% of the patients are able to undergo surgical resections with negative margins obtained in greater than 80% of the patients. Newer trials are attempting to standardize the definition of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer and treatment regimens. In this review, we outline the definition, imaging requirements and management of patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer.

  19. Stress at the place of work and cognitive functions among women performing intellectual work during peri- and post-menopausal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujski, Mariusz; Pinkas, Jarosław; Juńczyk, Tomasz; Pawełczak-Barszczowska, Adrianna; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-10-06

    The analysis of the relationship between stress at work and results of cognitive functions amongst women, at peri- and post-menopausal age, performing intellectual work. The study group included women, aged 45-66 years old, employed as intellectual workers. Research instruments were: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; computer tests of the CNS Vital Signs; the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, and a questionnaire designed by the author. The results were statistically analyzed. Nearly a half of respondents experienced high stress at the place of work; 1/3 - on the average level, on a low level - every fifth. The largest number of respondents experienced stress caused by social contacts. Among a half of the women, stress was caused by the lack of awards at work, followed by the lack of support. Slightly fewer of them experienced stress caused by the feeling of psychological load related to the complexity of work or the feeling of uncertainty caused by the organization of work. Every third woman experienced stress due to the sense of responsibility or the lack of control. The smallest number experienced stress caused by physical arduousness, the sense of threat and unpleasant working conditions. The examined women obtained the best results with respect to simple attention, the worst results - with respect to the reaction time. The results concerning the remaining 9 cognitive functions were ranked in the middle of the aforementioned results. The intensity of stress at work and factors which caused this stress, negatively correlated with simple attention of women in the early peri-menopausal period, while positively correlating with the psychomotor and processing speed of women in the late peri-menopausal period. Among the post-menopausal women, negative correlations were observed between the majority of cognitive functions and the intensity of stress at work, and the majority of factors which caused this stress. Cognitive functions of the examined women

  20. Abnormalities in cortical gray matter density in borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberta; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Pievani, Michela; Boccardi, Marina; Rasser, Paul E; Thompson, Paul M; Cavedo, Enrica; Cotelli, Maria; Rosini, Sandra; Beneduce, Rossella; Bignotti, Stefano; Magni, Laura R; Rillosi, Luciana; Magnaldi, Silvia; Cobelli, Milena; Rossi, Giuseppe; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a chronic condition with a strong impact on patients‘ affective,cognitive and social functioning. Neuroimaging techniques offer invaluable tools to understand the biological substrate of the disease. We aimed to investigate gray matter alterations over the whole cortex in a group of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods Magnetic resonance-based cortical pattern matching was used to assess cortical gray matter density (GMD) in 26 BPD patients and in their age- and sex-matched HC (age: 38±11; females: 16, 61%). Results BPD patients showed widespread lower cortical GMD compared to HC (4% difference) with peaks of lower density located in the dorsal frontal cortex, in the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulate, the right parietal lobe, the temporal lobe (medial temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus) and in the visual cortex (p<0.005). Our BPD subjects displayed a symmetric distribution of anomalies in the dorsal aspect of the cortical mantle, but a wider involvement of the left hemisphere in the mesial aspect in terms of lower density. A few restricted regions of higher density were detected in the right hemisphere. All regions remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons via permutation testing. Conclusions BPD patients feature specific morphology of the cerebral structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing and social cognition/mentalization, consistent with clinical and functional data. PMID:25561291

  1. Abnormalities in cortical gray matter density in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R; Lanfredi, M; Pievani, M; Boccardi, M; Rasser, P E; Thompson, P M; Cavedo, E; Cotelli, M; Rosini, S; Beneduce, R; Bignotti, S; Magni, L R; Rillosi, L; Magnaldi, S; Cobelli, M; Rossi, G; Frisoni, G B

    2015-02-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a chronic condition with a strong impact on patients' affective, cognitive and social functioning. Neuroimaging techniques offer invaluable tools to understand the biological substrate of the disease. We aimed to investigate gray matter alterations over the whole cortex in a group of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). Magnetic resonance-based cortical pattern matching was used to assess cortical gray matter density (GMD) in 26 BPD patients and in their age- and sex-matched HC (age: 38 ± 11; females: 16, 61%). BPD patients showed widespread lower cortical GMD compared to HC (4% difference) with peaks of lower density located in the dorsal frontal cortex, in the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulate, the right parietal lobe, the temporal lobe (medial temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus) and in the visual cortex (Pmultiple comparisons via permutation testing. BPD patients feature specific morphology of the cerebral structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing and social cognition/mentalization, consistent with clinical and functional data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The neurobiology of empathy in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Luis H; Snyder, Rebekah; Steele, Howard; Siever, Larry J

    2013-03-01

    We present a neurobiological model of empathic dysfunction in borderline personality disorder (BPD) to guide future empirical research. Empathy is a necessary component of interpersonal functioning, involving two distinct, parallel neural networks. One form of empathic processing relies on shared representations (SR) of others' mental states, while the other is associated with explicit mental state attribution (MSA). SR processing is visceral and automatic, contributing to attunement, but also emotional contagion. MSA processing contributes to deliberate, perspectival forms of empathic understanding. Empathic dysfunction in BPD may involve hyper-reactivity of SR networks and impairment of MSA networks. Nevertheless, this empathic dysfunction is subtle, but contributes to interpersonal difficulties. Interaction between genetic factors and traumatic attachment stressors may contribute to development of BPD, with painful attachment insecurity and disorganization affecting SR and MSA network functioning. Future avenues for BPD research will include developmental assessment of attachment and neurobiological functioning under varying conditions.

  3. Patient-reported outcomes in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Hopwood, Christopher J; Jacob, Gitta A; Brändle, Laura S; Schulte-Vels, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an overview of currently used BPD outcome measures and discuss them from clinical, psychometric, experimental, and patient perspectives. In addition, we review the most promising leads to improve BPD PROs, including the DSM-5 Section III, the Recovery Approach, Ecological Momentary Assessments, and novel experimental measures of social functioning that are associated with functional and social outcomes.

  4. Romantic Relationships of People with Borderline Personality: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gómez, Sara; Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationships are one of the most interesting areas of interpersonal functioning in people with borderline personality. The aim of this narrative review was to synthesise empirical findings on this issue. The PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched for pertinent materials published between 1980 and March 2016. Thirty articles met the inclusion criteria. Several longitudinal and cross-sectional studies showed that people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or BPD traits had more - but less prolonged - romantic relationships than people without BPD. The stable relationships of people with BPD or with BPD traits were also less satisfying and more hostile than those of people without BPD. People with BPD or BPD traits had relationships characterised by insecure attachment and passive-aggressive communications. Personality disorders and anxious attachment were more prevalent among the partners of people with BPD or with BPD traits when compared with partners of people without BPD. Unstable and chaotic romantic relationships are at the core of interpersonal dysfunction in BPD. More longitudinal research is needed to delineate the relationship between BPD symptoms and romantic relationship dysfunction, including the modulating role of the partner's clinical features in such an association. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Autistic barriers in the psychoanalysis of borderline adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Jay, S M

    1996-10-01

    The authors discuss Frances Tustin's work on childhood autism in order to clarify the nature and protective function of autistic barriers in adult patients who present challenging resistances in treatment. Tustin's thesis is that childhood autism constitutes a massive formation of avoidance reactions that develop in infancy to ward off traumatic awareness of bodily separateness. She describes two forms of childhood pathology that may develop: the encapsulated child who defends against all 'not me' experience by means of self-generated bodily sensations that augment the illusion of complete bodily continuity with the mother; and the entangled child who generates a protective illusion of being enfolded inside the body of the mother to minimise the experience of separateness. The transference resistances of borderline adults can be categorised according to Tustin's typology of encapsulation and entanglement. Clinical material is presented from the analyses of two borderline patients, one encapsulated and the other entangled. Despite seemingly different transference manifestations, both belong to the category of autistic barriers inasmuch as they ward off awareness of separation-induced injury to the primal self. The countertransference difficulties that the analyst encounters with patients who employ autistic barriers are discussed and treatment issues are reviewed.

  6. Assessment of the Self-Determination of Spanish Students with Intellectual Disabilities and other Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Vela, Maria; Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez Gil, Francisca; Corbella, Marta Badia; Wehmeyer, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the self-determination of Spanish high school students with Intellectual Disability and other Special Educational Needs (SEN). A total of 371 students between 11 and 17 years of age participated in the study. Of these, 46.4% (n=171) presented SEN, specifically learning disabilities (n=97; 26.2%), borderline and intellectual disability with higher IQ scores (n=43; 11.6%) and mild intellectual disability (n=32; 8.6%). The remaining students without SEN made up the control group. The assessment was carried out using a translated and validated Spanish version of The Arc's Self-Determination Scale (Wehmeyer, 1995). This measure had appropriate psychometric properties. Students with SEN obtained significantly lower scores than their peers without SEN. However, no differences were found in relation to the type of SEN or, more specifically, in relation to the presence of intellectual disability. The educational implications of the results are discussed.

  7. Differences in the intellectual profile of children with intellectual vs. learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Giofrè, David; Orsini, Arturo; Pezzuti, Lina

    2014-09-01

    The WISC-IV was used to compare the intellectual profile of two groups of children, one with specific learning disorders (SLDs), the other with intellectual disabilities (ID), with a view to identifying which of the four main factor indexes and two additional indexes can distinguish between the groups. We collected information on WISC-IV scores for 267 children (Mage=10.61 [SD=2.51], range 6-16 years, females=99) with a diagnosis of either SLD or ID. Children with SLD performed better than those with ID in all measures. Only the SLD children, not the ID children, revealed significant differences in the four main factor indexes, and their scores for the additional General Ability Index (GAI) were higher than for the Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI). Children with a diagnosis of SLD whose Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) was <85 showed a similar pattern. Our findings confirm the hypothesis that children with SLD generally obtain high GAI scores, but have specific deficiencies relating to working memory and processing speed, whereas children with ID have a general intellectual impairment. These findings have important diagnostic and clinical implications and should be considered when making diagnostic decisions in borderline cognitive cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Study of intellectual activity in twins. I. Developmental features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantonistova, N S

    1980-01-01

    The investigation of 234 twins and 100 singletons at the age from 7 till 16 years old was carried out by WISC method. The intellectual development of twins was established to fall behind singletons at the expense of lower level of verbal intellectual functions. It is due to organic changes of nervous system, arising as the result of the action of unfavourable factors during antenatal period. Slight asphyxia and prematurity as well as the order of birth do not exert essential effect on intellectual development of twins. Low weight at birth combines with lower intellectual index only in cases when lowering of weight is due to the action of unfavourable factors during intrauterine period. "Twins situation" apparently renders positive influence on twins intellectual activity during school are, distracting children's attention in cases of unfavourable psychological situation in family. Intellectual environment renders positive influence on intellectual development of twins.

  9. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Scott H; Young, Jeffrey E

    2006-04-01

    This article presents the Schema Therapy (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003) approach to the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Schema therapy draws on the cognitive-behavioral, attachment, psychodynamic, and emotion-focused traditions and conceptualizes patients who have borderline personality disorder as being under the sway of five modes or aspects of the self. The goal of the therapy is to reorganize this inner structure. To this end, there are four core mechanisms of change that are used in this therapy: (1) limited reparenting, (2) experiential imagery and dialogue work, (3) cognitive restructuring and education, and (4) behavioral pattern breaking. These interventions are used during the three phases of treatment: (1) bonding and emotional regulation, (2) schema mode change, and (3) development of autonomy.

  10. Social interaction in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Stefanie; Bohus, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Studies on natural long-term course of borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well as on treatment outcome suggest that social integration remains seriously unsatisfactory in the majority of the subjects concerned. Identification of typical borderline problems in social interaction should facilitate both, treatment development and elucidation of the related neuropsychological mechanisms and underpinnings. This review focuses on the experimental investigation of three core domains of social interaction: social affiliation, cooperation and hostility. Data converge, that patients meeting criteria for BPD show a tendency to misinterpret neutral situations, feel socially rejected during normative inclusion conditions and reveal difficulties in repairing cooperation after experiencing disappointment. While from a clinical perspective, most attention has been focused on relationships of BPD patients with their significant others, the literature suggests that encounters with unknown individuals also indicate impairments in interaction behavior, and that such impairments can be linked to altered cerebral processing. Considering these findings psychosocial treatments should extend the programs and develop trainings in normative behavior.

  11. Incest, Freud's seduction theory, and borderline personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M H

    1992-01-01

    In the early 1890s Freud expressed the belief that many cases of hysteria had a basis in childhood incest. Later he expressed a different view, emphasizing childhood fantasies of sexual intimacies with a parent that never actually took place. Freud never totally repudiated his original seduction theory, however, maintaining to the end of his life that at least some cases of actual incest occurred and that these instances underlay certain types of psychopathology. In our era we have become aware that incest is frequently a forerunner of subsequent borderline disorders, especially in women hospitalized with borderline personality disorder (B.P.D.). All the clinical manifestations of B.P.D. can be related to the prior incest experiences.

  12. [Screening measure for borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Vonau, Melanie; Kliem, Sören; Kosfelder, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a life-threatening mental disorder. To date, there is no German screening tool available. To examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD). A heterogeneous outpatient sample (N=168) was used to examine discriminatory ability, diagnostic efficiency as well as indicators for internal consistency and convergent validity. The area under the curve was AUC=0.90 (CI 95%: 0.85 internal consistency was 0.81. Associations with other self-rating measures were found as expected. The German version of the MSI-BPD has demonstrated good psychometric properties for a screening tool. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Adaptive functioning and behaviour problems in relation to level of education in children and adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, A; Sytema, S; Kraijer, D; Sparrow, S; Minderaa, R

    Background The interrelationship between adaptive functioning, behaviour problems and level of special education was studied in 186 children with IQs ranging from 61 to 70. The objective was to increase the insight into the contribution of adaptive functioning and general and autistic behaviour

  14. Web-based support for daily functioning of people with mild intellectual disabilities or chronic psychiatric disorders: A feasibility study in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica de Wit

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The initial results of the use of web-based support for this client population seem promising and justify further research on online support for clients with mild intellectual disabilities or chronic psychiatric disorders.

  15. The Self- and Other-Deception Questionnaires-Intellectual Disabilities (SDQ-ID and ODQ-ID): component analysis and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Laura; Stanbury, Alexandra; Langdon, Peter E

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) investigate the component structure and psychometric properties of the Self- and Other-Deception Questionnaires-Intellectual Disabilities (SDQ-ID and ODQ-ID), (2) examine the relationship between social desirability and IQ, and (3) compare social desirability scores of those with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and a history of criminal offending to the social desirability scores of participants with IDs and those without IDs and no such history, controlling for general intellectual functioning. Men with mild to borderline IDs detained within medium secure inpatient forensic mental health services (N=40) completed the SDQ-ID and ODQ-ID at Time 1 and then two-weeks later at Time 2. Data for the men with and without IDs and no known criminal offending history were taken from a previous study (N=60). Following exploratory Principal Components Analysis, the number of questionnaire items were reduced, and a two-factor structure was found for the SDQ-ID which was labelled: (1) Positive Self Representation and (2) Denial of Intrusive Thoughts. A two-factor structure was also found for the ODQ-ID and these two factors were labelled: (1) Denial of Negative Social Interaction and (2) Untrustworthiness. Both the SDQ-ID and ODQ-ID had acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Fifteen percent of the variance in SDQ-ID scores was explained by Full Scale IQ, while 21% of the variance in ODQ-ID scores was explained by Full Scale IQ. Between group comparisons controlling for intelligence did not yield any significant differences. The shortened SDQ-ID and ODQ-ID have promising psychometric properties, and their component structures appear robust. Differences between men with and without IDs on these two measures of social desirability can be accounted for by differences in general intellectual functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conceptualization of an intellectual maintenance management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Kazunori; Yonekawa, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-04-01

    It is studied in many research institute to enhance availability and safety of nuclear power plants operation and maintenance. On this account, development of autonomous plants has been carried out to replace the role of operators with artificial intelligence and autonomous robots. We have been developing an intellectual maintenance management system since 1994. As the first step, concept of an intellectual maintenance management system was constructed. The intellectual maintenance managerial system is in charge of maintenance function of an autonomous plant. The intellectual maintenance managerial system has three functions which is monitoring state and judging abnormal machine and deciding maintenance plan by autonomy. This system has an important role of indication and communication of the result to an autonomous operation system and autonomous robot. In this examination, we adopted the distributed and cooperative system technique by multi-agent of AI technology and examined a method to enforce problem solving by cooperation of sensor and actuator. In this report, we examined trouble detection and troubleshooting evaluation and maintenance plan decision function by the distributed and cooperative system technology, the distributed and cooperative system communication-function that these information releases functions was taken on. In conceptualization of the intellectual maintenance managerial system, we clarified of major functions to constitute this system and relation between autonomous operation system and autonomous robots. We clarified the information exchange scheme between this system and an outside system furthermore. In future, we will prototype each function and inspect the total system. (author)

  17. Staying in the Here-and-Now: A Pilot Study on the Use of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy Group Skills Training for Forensic Clients with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakdalan, J. A.; Shaw, J.; Collier, V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dialectic behaviour therapy (DBT) has been widely used with individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder who exhibit severe emotional and behavioural dysregulation. There is a paucity of research in assessing the effectiveness of DBT with forensic clients with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: This pilot study aims…

  18. Conversational Synchronization in Naturally Occurring Settings : A Recurrence-Based Analysis of Gaze Directions and Speech Rhythms of Staff and Clients with Intellectual Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuzel, E.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Cox, Ralf; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Jahoda, A.

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that rapport and cooperation between individuals is related to the level of nonverbal synchrony they achieve in their interactions. This study investigates the extent to which staff and clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability achieve interactional synchrony in

  19. Do Social Networks Differ? Comparison of the Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disabilities, People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other People Living in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.; Wegman, K. M.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences in social network characteristics, satisfaction and wishes with respect to the social network between people with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities (ID), people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a reference group. Data were gathered from 105 young adults…

  20. Do Social Networks Differ? Comparison of the Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disabilities, People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other People Living in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.; Wegman, K. M.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences in social network characteristics, satisfaction and wishes with respect to the social network between people with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities (ID), people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a reference group. Data were gathered from 105 young adults…

  1. Intellectual package that uses knowledge of an object region and functional models in the planning of computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhshtab, Yu.A.; Gorlin, A.I.; Kamynin, S.S.; Koryagin, D.A.; Lyubimskiy, E.Z.

    1981-09-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. A method is proposed for constructing a system for filling a package of applied programs. The system is capable of automatic planning of computations, based on the use of knowledge of regarding the object region of the package and regarding the semantics of modules appearing in the functional filling of the package. An experimental package constructed in accordance with proposed principles is described, and an example of work with them is included.

  2. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchini, Roberto G., E-mail: lucchini@med.unibs.it [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Zoni, Silvia [Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Guazzetti, Stefano [Public Health Service, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Bontempi, Elza [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia (Italy); Micheletti, Serena [Cognition Psychology Neuroscience lab., University of Pavia and Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Civil Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Broberg, Karin [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Parrinello, Giovanni [Statistics and Biometry, University of Brescia (Italy); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Santa Cruz (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11-14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 {mu}g/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44-10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 {mu}g/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00-24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 {mu}g/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 {mu}g/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  3. Scholars, Intellectuals, and Bricoleurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores three orientations to knowledge: the scholar, the intellectual, and the bricoleur. It argues that although the scholar and the intellectual are tied closely to the Liberal Arts and Humanities and dominate academic public relations discourse, both students and faculty increasingly use the practice of bricolage to gather and…

  4. Adult attachment in the clinical management of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with severe functional impairment, high rates of suicide and comorbid psychiatric illness, intensive use of treatment, and high costs to society. The etiology and pathogenesis of BPD are still uncertain, although an interaction between biological and psychosocial factors has been proposed to explain how the condition develops. Attachment disturbances represent one of the developmental risk factors that have been most consistently found to be associated with BPD, with a number of studies reporting a significant strong association between insecure attachment and BPD, notwithstanding the variety of measures and attachment types employed in these studies. In this article, the author first reviews clinical descriptions and research findings concerning the association between attachment disturbances and BPD and then discusses how attachment theory may help clinicians who work with patients with BPD better understand the psychopathology of the illness and plan treatment.

  5. The development of borderline personality disorder--a mentalizing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Bateman, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes a mentalization-based model of the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The model takes into account constitutional vulnerability and is rooted in attachment theory and its elaboration by contemporary developmental psychologists. The model suggests that disruption of the attachment relationship early in development in combination with later traumatic experiences in an attachment context interacts with neurobiological development. The combination leads to hyper-responsiveness of the attachment system which makes mentalizing, the capacity to make sense of ourselves and others in terms of mental states, unstable during emotional arousal. The emergence of earlier modes of psychological function at these times accounts for the symptoms of BPD. The model has clinical implications and suggests that the aim of treatment is not only to encourage development of mentalizing but also to facilitate its maintenance when the attachment system is stimulated.

  6. KNOWLEDGE INTEGRITY IN METHODOLOGY OF INTELLECTUAL SCIENTIFIC-RESEARCH SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    V. M. Koleshko; A. V. Gulay; V. A. Gulay

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes a category of knowledge integrity in philosophical and methodological conception of the intellectual technology. Relationship of knowledge integrity and its uncertainty in the methodology of intellectual scientific research is considered in the paper. The paper  reveals a role of purpose uncertainty of intellectual research process in formation of knowledge integrity properties. An analysis of integrity notion functioning has been executed while considering a problem on rel...

  7. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  8. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  9. Use of dialectical behavior therapy in inpatient treatment of borderline personality disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Jill Myerow; Woodward, Eva N; Susmaras, Teresa; Pantalone, David W

    2012-09-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an empirically supported treatment for outpatients with borderline personality disorder. However, the utility of DBT strategies for inpatients with the disorder is unclear. This review summarizes and synthesizes findings from trials of DBT in inpatient settings. Multiple research databases were searched for articles published through June 2011 that reported on any implementation of DBT in an inpatient setting to address symptoms related to borderline personality disorder, including suicidal and self-injurious behavior. Eleven studies that reported pre- and posttreatment symptoms related to borderline personality disorder were evaluated. Studies indicated that many variations of standard DBT have been used in inpatient settings, including approaches that do not include phone consultation, that include group therapy only, and that vary in treatment duration (from two weeks to three months). Most studies reported reductions in suicidal ideation, self-injurious behaviors, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, whereas results for reducing anger and violent behaviors were mixed. Follow-up data indicated that symptom reduction was often maintained between one and 21 months posttreatment. On the basis of the evidence, the authors identify essential components of an inpatient DBT package and discuss its potential function as an "intensive orientation" to outpatient DBT services. There is considerable variation in the configuration and duration of DBT implementation for inpatients with borderline personality disorder. However, findings suggest that DBT may be effective in reducing symptoms related to borderline personality disorder in inpatient settings. Future research should standardize and systematically test inpatient DBT. (Psychiatric Services 63:881-888, 2012; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201100311).

  10. Spatial navigation impairments among intellectually high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder: exploring relations with theory of mind, episodic memory, and episodic future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E; Williams, David M; Raber, Jacob; Peel, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills--that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment--and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  11. [Inductance transducers for borderline localization of metallic foreign bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudov, V I; Reutov, Iu Ia; Korotkikh, S A

    1996-01-01

    The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of a ferroprobe inductance transducer used in the borderline localization of a foreign ferromagnetic body. To eliminate the ferroprobe transducer-inherent disadvantages, a whirl-current inductance transducer has been developed. The transducer localizes a foreign nonferromagnetic and ferromagnetic body in its borderline localization in the eye and in the whole body.

  12. Assessment of Intellectual and Visuo- Spatial Abilities in Children and Adults with Williams Syndrome / Evaluación de habilidades intelectuales y visuoespaciales de niños y adultos con Síndrome de Williams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Williams-Beuren syndrome (SWB, also known as Williams syndrome, is a contiguous gene deletion of the region 7q.11.23. The main clinical characteristics are typical faces, supravalvular aortic stenosis, failure to thrive, short stature, transient neonatal hypercalcemia, delayed language, friendly personality, hyperacusis and intellectual disability. The diagnosis of SWB is confirmed by the detection of micro deletion by different techniques of molecular cytogenetics, FISH, MLPA or polymorphic markers. This study assessed the verbal intelligence quotient (IQ and performance and visuospatial skills in children and adults with WBS. The composed group was of 31 WBS patients (19 M and 12 F, whose ages ranged from 9 to 26 years (M 14.45 y. All patients had the diagnosis confirmed molecularly. The tests used were the WISC-III, WAIS-III and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. The results indicated a total IQ ranged from 51 to 86 (M 63: 22 with mild intellectual disability, 4 with moderate intellectual disability, 4 borderlines and 1 below the normal media. All patients had marked visual-spatial deficits. The results suggest nonverbal reasoning, visuo-spatial perception, spatial representation, working memory, motor planning and executive functions are very affected in this group.

  13. Psychomotor and intellectual development (Neurocognitive Function) of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Transversal and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Beatriz; Puga, Paloma Gil; de Arriba, Antonio; Armendariz, Yolanda; Labarta, Jose I; Longas, Angel Ferrandez

    2009-02-01

    Although much is now known about the effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on children born SGA with regard to anthropometric and biochemical parameters and their treatment, there are still many gaps associated with its impact on neurocognitive functions. In our experience published several years ago, IUGR has a negative effect on neurocognitive development, regardless of whether these children showed evidence of catch-up growth or not or of the socio-economic conditions that might contribute to the situation. We have now accumulated a large number of cases, many of whom have been followed longitudinally, some for up to 7 years, many having been treated with GH from the time when this therapy was first approved by the EMA. Apart from the cases mentioned, other confounding factors such as gestational age, Apgar score, neonatal comorbidity and the possible effects of GH treatment have also been included. In addition and using our own reference standards, we now present our experience, which confirms what we had already noted in the past, that IUGR is in itself a condition that often causes psychomotorintellectual impairment, may be extremely severe and tends to worsen. This negative impact of IUGR on neurocognitive development does not depend on how the child grows,spontaneous growth is better and when growth is not altered by GH therapy. Later studies will be able to confirm whether early treatment with GH throughout the 2nd year of life, or an early specific stimulation programme, or the sum of both, can improve the neurocognitive development of these children. IUGR prevention, acting on causal factors that are partly avoidable such as smoking, working conditions and stress during pregnancy (see the corresponding article in this supplement) proves once again to be the best way to stop this negative impact on the IQ of many children born SGA.

  14. Transtorno borderline: história e atualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Dalgalarrondo

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho é feita uma revisão histórica e psicopatológica do distúrbio borderline. O autor sugere que a categoria clínica introduzida por Kahlbaum, em 1890, “heiboidophenie”, pode ser considerada como um protoconceito na origem do conceito de transtorno borderline. No final dos anos 70 e 80, sob a influência do DMS-III, a esquizofrenia latente ou borderline se transformava em dois subtipos de transtorno de personalidade: borderline e esquizotípico. Alguns aspectos psicopatológicos do Transtorno de Personalidade Borderline são revistos, com especial ênfase sobre os sintomas afetivos e as alterações no plano das relações interpessoais.

  15. Relationship between schizotypal and borderline traits in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Paino, Mercedes; Sierra-Baigrie, Susana; Muñiz, José

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to analyze the relationship between self-reported schizotypal and borderline personality traits in a sample of 759 college students (M = 19.63 years; SD = 2.03). For this purpose, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B; Raine and Benishay, 1995) and Borderline Personality Questionnaire (BPQ; Poreh et al., 2006) were administered. The results showed that schizotypal and borderline features are partially related at subclinical level. The exploratory factor analysis conducted on the subscales revealed a three-factor solution comprised of the following factors: Identity/Interpersonal, Lack of Control and Schizotypal. The canonical correlation analysis showed that schizotypal features and borderline personality traits shared 34.8% of the variance. The data highlight the overlap between schizotypal and borderline personality traits in nonclinical young adults. Future studies should continue to examine the relationship and the degree of overlap between these traits in community samples.

  16. Intellectual Disability in Children; a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasteh Goli N.*BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.

  17. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Nordem Sjåstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. METHODS: In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773, we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043 had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636. Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. RESULTS: More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than

  18. Affective Disorders among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W.; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. Methods In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. Results More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar

  19. Intellectual Ability in the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Dystrophin Gene Mutation Location

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    Rasic Milic V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common form of muscular dystrophy during childhood. Mutations in dystrophin (DMD gene are also recognized as a cause of cognitive impairment. We aimed to determine the association between intelligence level and mutation location in DMD genes in Serbian patients with DMD. Forty-one male patients with DMD, aged 3 to 16 years, were recruited at the Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth in Belgrade, Serbia. All patients had defined DMD gene deletions or duplications [multiplex ligation- dependent probe amplification (MLPA, polymerase chain reaction (PCR] and cognitive status assessment (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Brunet-Lezine scale, Vineland-Doll scale. In 37 patients with an estimated full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ, six (16.22% had borderline intelligence (70intellectually impaired (FSIQ <70. The FSIQ was not associated with proximal and distal mutations when boundaries were set at exons 30 and 45. However, FSIQ was statistically significantly associated with mutation location when we assumed their functional consequence on dystrophin isoforms and when mutations in the 5’-untranslated region (5’UTR of Dp140 (exons 45-50 were assigned to affect only Dp427 and Dp260. Mutations affecting Dp140 and Dp71/Dp40 have been associated with more frequent and more severe cognitive impairment. Finally, the same classification of mutations explained the greater proportion of FSIQ variability associated with cumulative loss of dystrophin isoforms. In conclusion, cumulative loss of dystrophin isoforms increases the risk of intellectual impairment in DMD and characterizing the genotype can define necessity of early cognitive interventions in DMD patients.

  20. A Comparison of Two Cognitive Reading Strategies on the Comprehension of Functional Expository Text by High School Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation report focuses on the results of an intervention study that examined the effectiveness of two cognitive-based reading strategies ("5 Ws and an H" and paragraph summarization) on the reading comprehension skills of 13 high school students with mild intellectual disabilities as well as the students' abilities to…

  1. A systematic review of the effects of motor interventions to improve motor, cognitive, and/or social functioning in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    While if is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, the specific benefits in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to motor

  2. A systematic review of the effects of motor interventions to improve motor, cognitive, and/or social functioning in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    While if is generally agreed that motor activity promotes motor, cognitive, and social development, the specific benefits in people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (S-PID) are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence related to motor intervent

  3. Health and Functional Status of Adults with Intellectual Disability Referred to the Specialist Health Care Setting: A Five-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Method. The Developmental Disability Database in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at a metropolitan hospital was audited for observations on adults with Intellectual Disability living in the local region (total population 180,000 who were seen in an identified multidisciplinary specialist clinic, during 2006–2010. Results. There were 162 people (representing half the known number of adults with Intellectual Disability living in the region: 77 females, 85 males, age range 16–86 years. The most common complex disabilities referred to the specialists in this clinic were epilepsy (52%, challenging or changing behavior (42% and movement disorders (34%. Early onset dementia was a feature of the group (7%. The prevalence of prescription of medications for gastro-oesophageal reflux was high (36% and similar to the numbers of people taking psychotropic medications. The rates of chronic cardiovascular disease (2%, chronic respiratory disease (10% and generalised arthritis (11% were low overall, but did rise with increasing age. Conclusions. Complex neurological disabilities are common, and chronic medical illnesses are uncommon in adults with Intellectual Disability referred to specialist clinicians in this region. A combined, coordinated, multidisciplinary clinic model addresses some of the barriers experienced by adults with Intellectual Disability in the secondary health system.

  4. Neurocognitive impairment in dramatic personalities: histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J W

    1992-06-01

    Thirty-seven patients with personalities in the dramatic cluster (DSM-III-R histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial) and 40 controls matched for age and gender were evaluated on 16 neurocognitive variables. The evaluation screened for deficits in functions of attention, memory, language, abstraction, and behavior planning/sequencing. Analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in neurocognitive performance among patients with dramatic personalities, particularly in subtests requiring multi-step, multi-element associative operations.

  5. Delphion Intellectual Property Network

    CERN Document Server

    Delphion Inc. Lisle, IL

    Delphion solutions empower business and intellectual property (IP) professionals to analyze, manage and leverage IP assets - including ideas, patents and licensing opportunities - to generate new levels of revenue and profitability from R&D investmen

  6. Maori intellectual property rights and the formation of ethnic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This article questions and contextualizes the emergence of a discourse of intellectual property rights in Māori society. It is argued that Māori claims regarding intellectual property function primarily to demarcate ethnic boundaries between Māori and non-Māori. Māori consider the reinforcement of e

  7. Intellectual Property Rights Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  8. Intellectual property rights management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke

    Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....

  9. Latin American intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos MONSIVÁIS

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The article carefully reviews the intellectual history of Latin America since the 19th Century, when the process of cultural secularization took place, until current times when the literary city has been replaced by its cybernetic version. Employing analyses of the multiple definitions, polemics, conducts, masks and pretenses of the intellectual class, the article draws a reliable portrait that serves as a conceptual frame that looks deeply into the most significant names and schools of the period.

  10. Borderline Personality and the Detection of Angry Faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Hepp

    Full Text Available Many studies have assessed emotion recognition in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and considerable evidence has been accumulated on patients' ability to categorize emotions. In contrast, their ability to detect emotions has been investigated sparsely. The only two studies that assessed emotion detection abilities found contradictory evidence on patients' ability to detect angry faces.To clarify whether patients with Borderline Personality Disorder show enhanced detection of angry faces, we conducted three experiments: a laboratory study (n = 53 with a clinical sample and two highly powered web studies that measured Borderline features (n1 = 342, n2 = 220. Participants in all studies completed a visual search paradigm, and the reaction times for the detection of angry vs. happy faces were measured.Consistently, data spoke against enhanced detection of angry faces in the Borderline groups, indicated by non-significant group (Borderline vs. healthy control × target (angry vs. happy interactions, despite highly satisfactory statistical power to detect even small effects.In contrast to emotion categorization, emotion detection appears to be intact in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and individuals high in Borderline features. The importance of distinguishing between these two processes in future studies is discussed.

  11. Borderline personality features in depressed or anxious patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Marijn A; Smit, Johannes H; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-07-30

    Anxiety and depression frequently co-occur with borderline personality disorder. Relatively little research examined the presence of borderline personality features and its main domains (affective instability, identity problems, negative relationships and self-harm) in individuals with remitted and current anxiety and depression. Participants with current (n=597) or remitted (n=1115) anxiety and/or depression and healthy controls (n=431) were selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Assessments included the Personality Assessment Inventory - Borderline Features Scale and several clinical characteristics of anxiety and depression. Borderline personality features were more common in depression than in anxiety. Current comorbid anxiety and depression was associated with most borderline personality features. Anxiety and depression status explained 29.7% of the variance in borderline personality features and 3.8% (self-harm) to 31% (identity problems) of the variance in the four domains. A large part of the variance was shared between anxiety and depression but both disorders also explained a significant amount of unique variance. The severity of anxiety and depression and the level of daily dysfunctioning was positively associated with borderline personality features. Individuals with a longer duration of anxiety and depression showed more affective instability and identity problems. These findings suggest that patients with anxiety and depression may benefit from an assessment of personality pathology as it may have implications for psychological and pharmacological treatment.

  12. The prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in 16-18 year old adolescents.In this cross sectional - descriptive study, 422 high school students (211 boys, 211 girls aged 16-18 were selected by cluster random sampling and simple random sampling in 2011-2012. The participants were assessed using the revised diagnostic interview for borderline questionnaire (DIB-R and demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient.Of the participants, 0/9% (0/22 % of the 16 year olds, 0.45 % of the 17 year olds and 0/22% of the 18 year olds were diagnosed with borderline personality symptoms. Also, the prevalence of borderline personality symptoms in boys was 0/45 % of the total sample and it was 0/45 % of the total sample in girls. With respect to the relationship between demographic variables (age, sex, location, parents' occupation, parents' kinship, parents' education and birth order and borderline personality symptoms, only parents' kinship showed a weak correlation with borderline personality symptoms.In the view of the prevalence of 0.9% of the borderline personality symptoms in adolescents, attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Furthermore, works need to be done to improve the mental health and quality of life of adolescents.

  13. The Effect of Physical Training on Static Balance in Young People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowicz-Szymanska, A.; Mikolajczyk, E.; Wojtanowski, W.

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects all spheres of people's lives who suffer from it. It lowers the level of intellectual functioning, often stigmatizes, characteristically changing features, and decreases motor performance. Unfortunately, modern medicine cannot cure intellectual disability; however, there is a chance to improve the quality of life of…

  14. The Effect of Physical Training on Static Balance in Young People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowicz-Szymanska, A.; Mikolajczyk, E.; Wojtanowski, W.

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects all spheres of people's lives who suffer from it. It lowers the level of intellectual functioning, often stigmatizes, characteristically changing features, and decreases motor performance. Unfortunately, modern medicine cannot cure intellectual disability; however, there is a chance to improve the quality of life of…

  15. Neural response during the activation of the attachment system in patients with borderline personality disorder: An fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Buchheim; Susanne Erk; Carol George; Horst Kächele; Philipp Martius; Dan Pokorny; Manfred Spitzer; Henrik Walter

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by emotional instability, impaired emotion regulation and unresolved attachment patterns associated with abusive childhood experiences. We investigated the neural response during the activation of the attachment system in BPD patients compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven female patients with BPD without posttraumatic stress disorder and seventeen healthy female controls matched...

  16. Dracula. Disorders of the self and borderline personality organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J M; Raines, L C; Singer, M

    1994-12-01

    It has been proposed that Bram Stoker's novel Dracula can best be understood as a dramatic, hyperbolic, and fantastic expression of themes consistent with contemporary psychoanalytic conceptions of borderline personality disorder organization. Such an understanding may, in turn, shed further light on the nature of the intrapsychic world and experiences of borderline patients. Excerpts from the novel can be used to support the conceptualization of recent contributions to object relations theory and the understanding of borderline personality organization. It is uncanny how consistent Dracula's characteristics are to the generally seen complaints of patients suffering from this disorder.

  17. Definition and Management of Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denbo, Jason W; Fleming, Jason B

    2016-12-01

    Patients with localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma seek potentially curative treatment, but this group represents a spectrum of disease. Patients with borderline resectable primary tumors are a unique subset whose successful therapy requires a care team with expertise in medical care, imaging, surgery, medical oncology, and radiation oncology. This team must identify patients with borderline tumors then carefully prescribe and execute a combined treatment strategy with the highest possibility of cure. This article addresses the issues of clinical evaluation, imaging techniques, and criteria, as well as multidisciplinary treatment of patients with borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  18. Hypersensitivity in borderline personality disorder during mindreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Frick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD is the instability in interpersonal relationships. This might be related to existent differences in mindreading between BPD patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: We examined the behavioural and neurophysiological (fMRI responses of BPD patients and healthy controls (HC during performance of the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET. RESULTS: Mental state discrimination was significantly better and faster for affective eye gazes in BPD patients than in HC. At the neurophysiological level, this was manifested in a stronger activation of the amygdala and greater activity of the medial frontal gyrus, the left temporal pole and the middle temporal gyrus during affective eye gazes. In contrast, HC subjects showed a greater activation in the insula and the superior temporal gyri. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that BPD patients are highly vigilant to social stimuli, maybe because they resonate intuitively with mental states of others.

  19. Sleep and borderline personality disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, Sina

    2013-12-01

    Sleep problems are very common among psychiatric patients. Borderline personality disorder, as a common and severe mental disorder, is associated with different types of sleep disturbances, such as disturbances of sleep continuity, altered REM sleep regulation and nightmares. These disturbances are the result of interaction of the personality traits, concomitant and comorbid diseases and environmental factors. Despite the high prevalence of sleep related disorders in BPD patients, this aspect of BPD is still neglected in clinical and research settings. To date there has been little agreement on sleep characteristics of BPD among different studies, and presence of some uncontrolled confounding factors, make interpretation of the results difficult. However, it seems that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders in BPD patients might lead to better outcome. This article aimed to review the current literature of sleep studies in BPD. Some recommendations and suggestions were made for future researches in this field.

  20. Social networks in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Allan; Pilkonis, Paul A; McCarty, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    The interpersonal dysfunction that characterizes borderline personality disorder (BPD) has generally been studied using broad global measures, leading to a lack of precision. We report on a novel methodology using social network analysis (SNA) to quantify interactions with others in the patient's social world. We assessed the social networks of 22 clinical patients, diagnosed with either BPD (N = 11) or no personality disorder (No PD; N = 11). The social networks of patients with BPD contained a greater number of former romantic partners, and a greater number of relationships that had been terminated. Mixed model analyses found that the No PD group reported higher levels of positive relationships (e.g., trust, social support) with more central members of their social networks, whereas the BPD group did not discriminate among members of their networks. Results suggest deficits in social cognition for positive relations, but not for negative relations such as interpersonal conflict.

  1. Borderline personality disorder and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Mathell; Schuurmans, Hanneke; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Smeets, Guus; Verkoeijen, Peter; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated emotional intelligence (EI) in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that patients with BPD (n = 61) compared with patients with other personality disorders (PDs; n = 69) and nonpatients (n = 248) would show higher scores on the ability to perceive emotions and impairments in the ability to regulate emotions. EI was assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso [New York: MHS, 2002]). As compared with the PD group and the nonpatient group, the patients with BPD displayed the anticipated deficits in their ability to understand, whereas no differences emerged with respect to their ability to perceive, use, and regulate emotions. In addition, a negative relationship was found between the severity of BPD and total EI score. However, this relationship disappeared when intelligence quotient was partialled out. These results suggest that BPD is associated with emotion understanding deficits, whereas temporary severity of BPD is associated with emotion regulation deficits.

  2. Borderline personality and substance use in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feske, Ulrike; Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2006-01-01

    The association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorder (SUD) was examined in a predominantly psychiatric (77.6%) sample of 232 women. BPD proved to be a significant predictor of a lifetime diagnosis of SUD across four different categories: any SUD (including alcohol); alcohol use; drug use; and heroin, cocaine, or poly-substance use. BPD continued to be a predictor of SUD even when the effects of other cluster B and all cluster C PDs were controlled statistically. Antisocial personality disorder generally yielded larger odds ratios than BPD and emerged as a partial mediator of the relation between BPD and SUD. Histrionic PD was the only other PD that showed meaningful relations with SUD.

  3. Computational Psychiatry in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Sarah K; Stahl, Dylan; Corlett, Philip

    2017-03-01

    We review the literature on the use and potential use of computational psychiatry methods in Borderline Personality Disorder. Computational approaches have been used in psychiatry to increase our understanding of the molecular, circuit, and behavioral basis of mental illness. This is of particular interest in BPD, where the collection of ecologically valid data, especially in interpersonal settings, is becoming more common and more often subject to quantification. Methods that test learning and memory in social contexts, collect data from real-world settings, and relate behavior to molecular and circuit networks are yielding data of particular interest. Research in BPD should focus on collaborative efforts to design and interpret experiments with direct relevance to core BPD symptoms and potential for translation to the clinic.

  4. Compulsive buying and borderline personality symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Sellbom, Martin; Bidwell, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between compulsive buying and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptomatology--two disorders possibly linked through impulsivity. Using a survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of nonemergent female outpatients from an obstetrics/gynecology clinic, the authors assessed compulsive buying with the compulsive buying scale (CBS) and BPD symptomatology through the BPD scale of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) and the self-harm Inventory (SHI). In this sample, 8% of Caucasian women and 9% of African-American women scored positively for compulsive buying. The correlations between scores on the CBS and the PDQ-4 and SHI were 0.43 and 0.41, respectively-both statistically significant at the p compulsive buying and BPD, particularly among African-American women.

  5. Dissociation in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pec O

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondrej Pec,1,2 Petr Bob,1,3 Jiri Raboch1 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 2Psychotherapeutic and Psychosomatic Clinic ESET, Prague, 3Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Dissociation likely plays a key role in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD, although empirical studies that compare specific manifestations of these symptoms in schizophrenia and BPD are rare. In this context, the purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of dissociative and other psychopathological symptoms in these disorders, and to assess the possible influence of antipsychotic medication on the dissociative symptoms. Methods: We assessed 31 patients with schizophrenia and 36 patients with BPD. Dissociative symptoms were measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, symptoms related to stress and traumatic experiences were assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40, and other psychopathological symptoms were measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS. We also assessed actual daily doses of antipsychotic medication in chlorpromazine equivalents in all participants. Results: The results show that symptoms of traumatic stress measured by the TSC-40 had significantly higher scores in the BPD group. The data also show that dissociative symptoms (DES were significantly correlated with symptoms of traumatic stress (TSC-40 and with symptoms assessed by the HoNOS. Remarkably significant correlations were found between levels of antipsychotic medication and the DES and between antipsychotic medication and the depersonalization/derealization component of the DES in BPD patients. Conclusion: The results support an important role of dissociative processes in schizophrenia and BPD and suggest a significant relationship between manifestations

  6. Borderline personality disorder and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Slepecky, Milos; Kotianova, Antonia; Sedlackova, Zuzana; Zatkova, Marta; Kasalova, Petra; Kamaradova, Dana

    2017-08-05

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a disabling psychiatric condition with a chronic and challenging course. BPD is reflected as a disorder of self-regulation" and is associated with both psychological vulnerabilities and social relations that fail to support basic emotional needs. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BPD patients and their families. A computerized search of the literature printed between January 1990 and May 2017 was conducted in PubMed, and additional papers were extracted using keywords "borderline personality disorder,"needs," "pharmacotherapy," "psychotherapy," "CBT," and "family" in various combinations. According to the eligibility criteria, 57 articles were chosen. Secondary articles from the reference lists of primarily identified papers have been selected for the eligibility and added to the first list (N=151). The results were divided into three categories: the needs connected with (1) the symptom control; (2) the treatment; (3) the quality of life. The needs connected with symptoms were described issues such as emotional needs, social interactions, self-harm, parasuicide, suicidality, comorbidity, mentalization, identity disturbance, moreover, barriers to treatment. The needs connected with the treatment described are focused on needs for early diagnosis, early intervention, holding environment, therapeutic relation, assertive community treatment, destigmatization, hospitalization, and primary care. The needs connected with the quality of life involve family needs, physical health, spiritual needs, advocacy needs, and needs for the separation-individuation. The part focused on implications for the treatment presented several treatment approaches, focusing mostly on the their basics and efficacy. Observing the patients' needs may be essential to the treatment of the individuals suffering from BPD. However, many needs remain unmet in the areas linked to medical, personal, and social

  7. Relationship between cumulative BMI and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenburg, Frances R; Zanarini, Mary C

    2011-08-01

    We examined the relationship between cumulative body mass index (BMI) and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two hundred female borderline patients were weighed and measured during their index admission. They were subsequently interviewed at six-, eight-, and 10-year intervals. Over 10 years of prospective follow-up, increases in cumulative BMI were significantly associated with self-mutilation and dissociation (but not suicide attempts). Increases in cumulative BMI were also significantly associated with having no life partner, a poor work or school history, being on disability, being rated with a GAF score in the fair or poor range, and having a low income. In addition, increases in BMI were related to having two or more other medical conditions and using costly forms of health care. Increases in cumulative BMI may be a marker for adverse symptomatic, functional, and medical outcomes in patients with BPD.

  8. A manual-based psychodynamic therapy for treatment-resistant borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robert J; Remen, Anna L

    2008-03-01

    The authors introduce a manual-based treatment, labeled dynamic deconstructive psychotherapy, developed for those patients with borderline personality disorder who are most difficult to engage in therapy, such as those having co-occurring substance use disorders. This treatment model is based on the hypothesis that borderline pathology and related behaviors reflect impairment in specific neurocognitive functions, including association, attribution, and alterity that form the basis for a coherent and differentiated self. Dynamic deconstructive psychotherapy aims to activate and remediate neurocognitive self-capacities by facilitating elaboration of affect-laden interpersonal experiences and integration of attributions, as well as providing novel experiences in the patient-therapist relationship that promote self-other differentiation. Treatment involves weekly individual sessions for a predetermined period of time and follows sequential stages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  10. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  11. Four factors of impulsivity differentiate antisocial and borderline personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShong, Hilary L; Kurtz, John E

    2013-04-01

    Impulsivity is a shared criterion for the diagnosis of antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and this link may account for the high comorbidity rates between the two disorders. The current study aimed to differentiate between borderline and antisocial personality disorders using the four factors of impulsivity identified by Whiteside and Lynam (2001). Five hundred thirty-six undergraduate participants completed the personality assessment inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to assess borderline and antisocial personality features and the NEO personality inventory, third edition (NEO-PI-3; McCrae & Costa, 2010) to assess the four factors of impulsivity. Results indicate that negative urgency and lack of perseverance were significantly and uniquely related to borderline features, while sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were significantly and uniquely related to antisocial features. The implications of these results for improved differential diagnosis are discussed.

  12. Incompressible Boussinesq equations and spaces of borderline Besov type

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn-Levin, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    We prove local-in-time existence and uniqueness of an inviscid Boussinesq-type system. We assume the density equation contains nonzero diffusion and that our initial vorticity and density belong to a space of borderline Besov type.

  13. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...

  14. Sampling Hurdles: “Borderline Illegitimate” to Legitimate Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Garg MSc, DIA, PhD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses how sampling access and recruitment problems encountered in an in-depth interview study heightened her sensitivity to “borderline illegitimate” data. The term illegitimate data usually refers to the data collected during a covert study, whereas “legitimate” data are collected during an overt study. Hence, data collected during any nonconsented period(s of an overt study lie on the borderline of illegitimacy and legitimacy, and constitute what the author calls borderline illegitimate data. Such data need legitimization before use. The borderline illegitimate data were collected during the pre- and postinterview stages of her study as they explained how medical and ethnic cultures and sensitivity to racism as a topic combined to create sample recruitment difficulties of the study. The author later legitimized them by sharing them with the participants, guaranteeing anonymity, and asking their permission to use them.

  15. Sex Bias in Classifying Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braamhorst, Wouter; Lobbestael, Jill; Emons, Wilco H M; Arntz, Arnoud; Witteman, Cilia L M; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex stereotyping or to base rate variation, we used different case histories, respectively: (1) non-ambiguous case histories with enough criteria of either borderline or narcissistic personality disorder to meet the threshold for classification, and (2) an ambiguous case with subthreshold features of both borderline and narcissistic personality disorder. Results showed significant differences due to sex of the patient in the ambiguous condition. Thus, when the diagnosis is not straightforward, as in the case of mixed subthreshold features, sex bias is present and is influenced by base-rate variation. These findings emphasize the need for caution in classifying personality disorders, especially borderline or narcissistic traits.

  16. Dysfunctional Affect Regulation : in borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijke, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to provide a systematic exploration of the nature and distribution of dysfunctional affect regulation, its associated phenomena, and retrospectively reported potentially traumatizing events in 475 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD),

  17. Clinical and pathological studies of borderline gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yuan; TAN Yun-shan; ZHU Xiong-zeng; HOU Ying-yong; LU Shao-hua; ZHOU Yang; XU Jian-fang; JI Yuan; HOU Jun; XU Chen; LIU Ya-lan

    2010-01-01

    Background Borderline gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are intermediate tumors between benign and malignant variants; however, the clinical and pathological features of borderline GISTs remain poorly defined. This study aimed to characterize GISTs and to identify a set of borderline criteria for practical use.Methods Medical records and specimens of 840 patients from 12 hospitals were retrospectively examined. Totally 485 and 76 patients with any of the parameters predictive of either malignant or benign tumors were excluded. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate disease-free survival and overall survival rates.Results Among the remaining 279 borderline GIST patients, 223 were followed up for 1 to 31.48 years. Two patients developed local recurrence, and both were cured by subsequent operations alone. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 99% and 100%, respectively. Morphologically, borderline GISTs typically exhibited moderate cellularity, and subsets of them also showed moderate atypia, low mitotic activities, or large tumor size. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria, the risk levels of the 279 GISTs were classified to be very low to high. However, the disease-free survival rates were not significantly different among these risk groups (P=0.681).Conclusions The proposed borderline GIST criteria in the current study may complement the existing NIH criteria,based primarily on tumor size and mitotic count, in the evaluation of the biological behaviors of GISTs. Since a subset of borderline GISTs with high risk level showed favorable outcome, the introduction of the borderline GIST system may avoid overdiagnosis and over therapy.

  18. Disability and borderline personality disorder in chronic pain patients

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined the relationship between disability and borderline personality symptomatology, and, among those that have, findings have been inconsistent. In the present study, the relationship between medical disability and borderline personality symptomatology was examined in a sample of chronic pain patients.METHODS: In a consecutive insured sample of male and female chronic pain patients (n=117), who were being initially evaluated by an outpatient pain...

  19. Relationships between Depression and High Intellectual Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Weismann-Arcache

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to analyse the relationships between depression and high intellectual potential through a multidisciplinary and original approach. Based on their respective experience in psychology and child psychiatry, the authors will focus their analysis on creative potential. First, relationships between creativity (literary, artistic, or scientific creativity and melancholy (“melancholy” comes from the Greek words for “black” (“melas” and “bile” (“khole” will be examined from antiquity to modern times. Aristotle introduced a quantitative factor, asserting that levels of melancholy and black bile are positively correlated; however, under a given threshold of black bile, it can give rise to an exceptional being. Second, the case study of Blaise Pascal (scientific and philosophical creativity associated with major depressive episodes from childhood will be presented and discussed. This case study sheds light on the paradoxical role of depression in the overinvestment in intellectual and creative spheres as well as on the impact of traumatic events on high intellectual potential. Third, observations will be reported based on a study conducted on 100 children with high intellectual potential (6–12 years old. Finally, based on these different levels of analysis, it appears that heterogeneity of mental functioning in children with high intellectual potential is at the center of the creative process and it has related psychological vulnerability.

  20. Distinguishing subtypes of extrinsic motivation among people with mild to borderline intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    Background According to self-determination theory, motivation is ordered in types, including amotivation, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Self-determination theory defines four subtypes of extrinsic motivation: external motivation, introjected motivation, identified motivation and

  1. [Clinical diagnosis and standardized evaluation of borderline personality: preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, F; Guelfi, J D; Monier, C; Brun, A; Seunevel, F

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 36 patients considered by French clinicians as suffering from a borderline personality disorder was evaluated using the International Personality Disorder Examination, the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline-Revised, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. First, global descriptive analysis of the sample elicited the socio-demographic and standard clinical characteristics of the borderline individuals. After diagnostic evaluation, the sample appeared to be quite homogeneous with 25 of the 36 patients evaluated (69.5%) being defined as borderline by two of the three diagnostic systems: ICD 10, DSM III-R and Gunderson (15/36 = 41.5% of patients were defined as borderline by all three systems). It is the types of BL personality co-diagnoses which differentiated the BL subjects in the sample from those classically described in the international literature, since the most frequent personalities were the Dependent and Avoiding ones, not the Antisocial, Histrionic, Narcissistic or Schizotypic personalities of the DSM III-R. ICD 10 elicited the same significant prevalence of Anxious and Dependent personalities. Lastly, the patients diagnosed as borderline both by clinicians and by all diagnostic systems (forming the sample "core") were compared with the rest of the sample with regard to socio-demographic, clinical and diagnostic characteristics. A few hypotheses are proposed on the type of variables that may permit to discriminate between these two types of patients.

  2. Susceptibility to distraction by social cues in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Elzinga, Bernet M; Oei, Nicole Y L; Spinhoven, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly sensitive to social rejection and show alterations in social perception. Increased susceptibility to social cues in patients with BPD might interfere with executive functions that play an important role in goal-directed behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of task-irrelevant (neutral vs. negatively arousing) social cues on working memory performance in BPD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). 28 unmedicated female BPD patients and 28 female HC (matched for age and education) performed a Sternberg item recognition task, while being distracted by neutral versus negatively arousing pictures from the International Affective Picture System (interpersonal scenes) and the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces Set (faces). Additionally, self-ratings of aversive inner tension were assessed and correlated with task performance. Compared to HC, BPD patients showed significantly impaired accuracy after distraction by negatively arousing stimuli (both scenes and faces) and neutral faces (but not neutral scenes). Significant negative correlations between overall accuracy and self-reported aversive inner tension were observed in BPD patients. Findings of the present study suggest increased susceptibility to distracting (negatively arousing) social cues in individuals with BPD, which might interfere with cognitive functioning. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Intellectual Video Filming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    communication as project oriented group work. We also welcome international students for this unique learning experience combining traditional intellectual virtues with experimental aesthetics and modern media. The paper will present the aims, methods and results of this teaching and discuss lines of future...... in favour of worthy causes. However, it is also very rewarding to draw on the creativity, enthusiasm and rapidly improving technical skills of young students, and to guide them to use video equipment themselves for documentary, for philosophical film essays and intellectual debate. In the digital era...... it seems vital that students, scholars and intellectuals begin to utilize the enormous potentials of communication and reflection inherent in the production of moving images and sound. At Roskilde University in Denmark we have a remarkable tradition of teaching documentary, video essays and video...

  4. A systematic review of economic evaluations of treatments for borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Brettschneider

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The borderline personality disorder is a common mental disorder. It is frequently associated with various mental co-morbidities and a fundamental loss of functioning. The borderline personality disorder causes high costs to society. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of existing economic evaluations of treatments for borderline personality disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and NHSEED for partial and full economic evaluations regarding borderline personality disorder. Reported cost data were inflated to the year 2012 and converted into US-$ using purchasing power parities to allow for comparability. Quality assessment of the studies was performed by means of the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria checklist, a checklist developed by a Delphi method in cooperation with 23 international experts. RESULTS: We identified 6 partial and 9 full economic evaluations. The methodical quality was moderate (fulfilled quality criteria: 79.2% [SD: 15.4%] in partial economic evaluations, 77.3% [SD: 8.5%] in full economic evaluations. Most evaluations analysed psychotherapeutic interventions. Although ambiguous, most evidence exists on dialectical-behavioural therapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused therapy are cost-saving. Evidence on other interventions is scarce. CONCLUSION: The economic evidence is not sufficient to draw robust conclusions for all treatments. It is possible that some treatments are cost-effective. Most evidence exists on dialectical-behavioural therapy. Yet, it is ambiguous. Further research concerning the cost-effectiveness of treatments is necessary as well as the identification of relevant cost categories and the validation of effect measures.

  5. Nietzsche: An intellectual Nebuchadnezzar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R M

    1987-09-01

    The essay introduces and defines the concept of "an intellectual Nebuchadnezzar"-one who, despite his hostility to religion, serves God's purposes by the depth of his ideas. In terms of this notion, some of Friedrich Nietzsche's views are explored. Specifically, Nietzsche's perspective on artistic creativity is analyzed and applied to the notion of creativity in human relationships. In addition to concluding that Nietzsche is himself an "intellectual Nebuchadnezzar," the broader point is made that truth and insight should be welcomed by the religious community even if the source of that truth is one ostensibly hostile to religion.

  6. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  7. Intellectual Freedom: 2000 and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…

  8. EXPERIMENTAL APPROBATION OF INTELLECTUAL SYSTEM FOR MACHINING ACCURACY CONTROL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. N. Mironova

    2017-01-01

    ... for technological process while using methods of artificial intelligence. To ensure the machining accuracy by point tools, an intellectual system has been developed and it is based on technologies of functional semantic networks...

  9. Social feedback processing in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, C W; La Rosée, L; Heekeren, H R; Roepke, S

    2016-02-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show negative and unstable self- and other-evaluations compared to healthy individuals. It is unclear, however, how they process self- and other-relevant social feedback. We have previously demonstrated a positive updating bias in healthy individuals: When receiving social feedback on character traits, healthy individuals integrate desirable more than undesirable feedback. Here, our aim was to test whether BPD patients exhibit a more negative pattern of social feedback processing. We employed a character trait task in which BPD patients interacted with four healthy participants in a real-life social interaction. Afterwards, all participants rated themselves and one other participant on 80 character traits before and after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. We compared how participants updated their ratings after receiving desirable and undesirable feedback. Our analyses included 22 BPD patients and 81 healthy controls. Healthy controls showed a positivity bias for self- and other-relevant feedback as previously demonstrated. Importantly, this pattern was altered in BPD patients: They integrated undesirable feedback for themselves to a greater degree than healthy controls did. Other-relevant feedback processing was unaltered in BPD patients. Our study demonstrates an alteration in self-relevant feedback processing in BPD patients that might contribute to unstable and negative self-evaluations.

  10. Social cognition in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eRoepke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent, the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010. A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions, the deficits in attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention.

  11. Social judgement in borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Nicol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a common and serious mental illness, associated with a high risk of suicide and self harm. Those with a diagnosis of BPD often display difficulties with social interaction and struggle to form and maintain interpersonal relationships. Here we investigated the ability of participants with BPD to make social inferences from faces. METHOD: 20 participants with BPD and 21 healthy controls were shown a series of faces and asked to judge these according to one of six characteristics (age, distinctiveness, attractiveness, intelligence, approachability, trustworthiness. The number and direction of errors made (compared to population norms were recorded for analysis. RESULTS: Participants with a diagnosis of BPD displayed significant impairments in making judgements from faces. In particular, the BPD Group judged faces as less approachable and less trustworthy than controls. Furthermore, within the BPD Group there was a correlation between scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ and bias towards judging faces as unapproachable. CONCLUSION: Individuals with a diagnosis of BPD have difficulty making appropriate social judgements about others from their faces. Judging more faces as unapproachable and untrustworthy indicates that this group may have a heightened sensitivity to perceiving potential threat, and this should be considered in clinical management and treatment.

  12. [Borderline personality disorders: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allilaire, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Borderline personality disorders are complex clinical states with highly polymorphic symptoms and signs, leading to delays in their diagnosis and treatment. All international classifications emphasize certain clinical criteria such as unstable identity and interpersonal relationships, feelings of emptiness or boredom, and pathological impulsiveness. The prevalence is about 2%, with a female-male sex ratio of 2 or 3 to 1. Both adolescents and adults may be affected There is a high risk of suicide, addictive behaviors, eating disorders, and criminality. These individuals frequently have a history of trauma in early childhood, such as separation, loss, physical or sexual abuse, or affective privation. Subjective signs and symptoms are particularly important in the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation, and this requires an empathic and subtle approach. Standardized and semi-structured interviews may help to identify comorbidities such as thymic disorders, anxiety, addiction, eating disorders, and, in some cases, psychotic symptoms. The psychiatric bio-psycho-social model takes into account multiple pathogenic factors, such as trauma during early development, temperamental instability and other emotional disorders, as well as psychosocial, neurobiological (5HT etc.) and genetic vulnerabilities. Treatment requires optimal integration of psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic approaches. Emergency intervention must be available in case of delirious or suicidal behavior The clinical course is often lengthy and complex, but outcome may be favorable, provided the principal risk--suicide--is correctly managed,

  13. Interpersonal evaluation bias in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Stopsack, Malte; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Meinke, Claudia; Spitzer, Carsten; Kronmüller, Klaus; Sieswerda, Simkje

    2009-05-01

    The cognitive theory of personality disorders hypothesizes that the emotional dysregulation and interpersonal problems in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are, at least partially, caused by dysfunctional cognitive schemas. These schemas lead to biased evaluation of environmental and interpersonal stimuli. This study examined the interpersonal evaluations of individuals with BPD, depressive and healthy control participants with the thin-slice judgments paradigm. Participants were asked to evaluate six persons in six film clips, which showed these persons for 10s, during which these persons entered a room and took a seat. Interpersonal style of the BPD group was investigated with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-C) questionnaire. Individuals with BPD judged the persons as being more negative and aggressive and less positive than the healthy participants, and more aggressive than the depressive individuals. In addition, individuals with BPD reported more extreme interpersonal behavior relative to the controls. The findings indicate an aggressivistic evaluation bias and elevated levels of interpersonal problems in individuals with BPD as suggested in the cognitive theory.

  14. Collegiality and Intellectual Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The author expresses concern that love of knowledge, which he views as the most valuable resource in universities, is not taken seriously by the academic press. This article considers what is to be done about it; and discusses how collegiality, based upon a celebration of intellectual love, might restore, or create, integrity within the academic…

  15. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  16. Intellectual Property in Ethnomathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Aldo Ivan Parra

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from the reflections about a methodology used in a research project with an indigenous Colombian community, this paper outlines some possibilities for ethnomathematical research. Issues like intellectual property and social relevance are discussed in order to propose a broader concept...

  17. Statement on Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The management of university-generated intellectual property is complex and carries significant consequences for those involved in direct negotiations (faculty inventors, companies, university administrators, attorneys, and invention-management agents) as well as those who may be affected (competing companies, the public, patients, and the wider…

  18. Heterogeneity of Intellectual Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus; Valentin, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with methodological issues of assessing the composition and level ofheterogeneity of firms' intellectual assets. It develops an original metric - referred to asthe H-index - for measuring heterogeneity using data extracted from patent documents.The main purpose is to improve...

  19. Intellectual Property in Ethnomathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Aldo Ivan Parra

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from the reflections about a methodology used in a research project with an indigenous Colombian community, this paper outlines some possibilities for ethnomathematical research. Issues like intellectual property and social relevance are discussed in order to propose a broader concept...

  20. Perspectives: Intellectual Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same…

  1. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  2. Perspectives: Intellectual Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same…

  3. Intellectual Access to Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Liang; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1999-01-01

    The increased availability of digital images is accompanied by a need for solutions to the problems inherent in indexing them for retrieval. Problems in image description and access are discussed, with a perspective on traditional and new solutions. Recent developments in intellectual access to images are surveyed and contrasted with…

  4. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  5. Surgical treatment of type I neuritis in a teenage boy with borderline tuberculoid leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Salgado Sette

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbation of the immune response against Mycobacterium leprae can lead to neuritis, which is commonly treated via immunosuppression with corticosteroids. Early neurolysis may be performed concurrently, especially in young patients with a risk of functional sequelae. We report the case of a young patient experienced intense pain in the left elbow one year after the treatment of tuberculoid-tuberculoid leprosy. The pain was associated with paresthesias in the ulnar edge and left ulnar claw. After evaluation, the diagnosis was changed to borderline tuberculoid leprosy accompanied with neuritis of the left ulnar nerve. Early neurolysis resulted in rapid reduction of the pain and recovery of motor function.

  6. Intact implicit statistical learning in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt; Vizin, Gabriella; Bjelik, Anna; Radics, Dóra; Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina

    2017-09-01

    Wide-spread neuropsychological deficits have been identified in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Previous research found impairments in decision making, declarative memory, working memory and executive functions; however, no studies have focused on implicit learning in BPD yet. The aim of our study was to investigate implicit statistical learning by comparing learning performance of 19 BPD patients and 19 healthy, age-, education- and gender-matched controls on a probabilistic sequence learning task. Moreover, we also tested whether participants retain the acquired knowledge after a delay period. To this end, participants were retested on a shorter version of the same task 24h after the learning phase. We found intact implicit statistical learning as well as retention of the acquired knowledge in this personality disorder. BPD patients seem to be able to extract and represent regularities implicitly, which is in line with the notion that implicit learning is less susceptible to illness compared to the more explicit processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxytocin can hinder trust and cooperation in borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Daphne; Hamilton, Holly; Kim, Suah; Crystal, Sarah; Braun, Ashley; Vicens, Victor; Hollander, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin (OXT) on trust and cooperation in borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder marked by interpersonal instability and difficulties with cooperation. Although studies in healthy adults show that intranasal OXT increases trust, individuals with BPD may show an altered response to exogenous OXT because the effects of OXT on trust and pro-social behavior may vary depending on the relationship representations and expectations people possess and/or altered OXT system functioning in BPD. BPD and control participants received intranasal OXT and played a social dilemma game with a partner. Results showed that OXT produced divergent effects in BPD participants, decreasing trust and the likelihood of cooperative responses. Additional analyses focusing on individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance across BPD and control participants indicate that these divergent effects were driven by the anxiously attached, rejection-sensitive participants. These data suggest that OXT does not uniformly facilitate trust and pro-social behavior in humans; indeed, OXT may impede trust and pro-social behavior depending on chronic interpersonal insecurities, and/or possible neurochemical differences in the OXT system. Although popularly dubbed the ‘hormone of love’, these data suggest a more circumspect answer to the question of who will benefit from OXT. PMID:21115541

  8. Oxytocin can hinder trust and cooperation in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Jennifer; Simeon, Daphne; Hamilton, Holly; Kim, Suah; Crystal, Sarah; Braun, Ashley; Vicens, Victor; Hollander, Eric

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin (OXT) on trust and cooperation in borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder marked by interpersonal instability and difficulties with cooperation. Although studies in healthy adults show that intranasal OXT increases trust, individuals with BPD may show an altered response to exogenous OXT because the effects of OXT on trust and pro-social behavior may vary depending on the relationship representations and expectations people possess and/or altered OXT system functioning in BPD. BPD and control participants received intranasal OXT and played a social dilemma game with a partner. Results showed that OXT produced divergent effects in BPD participants, decreasing trust and the likelihood of cooperative responses. Additional analyses focusing on individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance across BPD and control participants indicate that these divergent effects were driven by the anxiously attached, rejection-sensitive participants. These data suggest that OXT does not uniformly facilitate trust and pro-social behavior in humans; indeed, OXT may impede trust and pro-social behavior depending on chronic interpersonal insecurities, and/or possible neurochemical differences in the OXT system. Although popularly dubbed the 'hormone of love', these data suggest a more circumspect answer to the question of who will benefit from OXT.

  9. Fatal attraction syndrome: stalking behavior and borderline personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2010-05-01

    Stalking, which consists of chronic nuisance behaviors by an offender that result in deleterious emotional and/or physical effects on a victim, is experienced by a significant minority of individuals in the community. According to the United States Department of Justice, eight percent of women and two percent of men have been victimized at some time in their lives by stalkers. Stalking could be viewed as an illogical or irrational preoccupation with another individual. Because of the unusual and intense attachment dynamics in borderline personality disorder, this diagnosis is particularly suggestive among stalkers. In this edition of The Interface, we examine the possible association between stalking behavior and borderline personality disorder. Five studies report prevalence rates of borderline personality disorder among stalkers, with four reporting rates between 4 and 15 percent (i.e., a small minority). However, three of these studies represent forensic populations and one consists of patients who stalked their psychiatrists. In contrast, in the remaining sample of stalkers, where being charged with a crime was not an inclusion criterion, the prevalence of borderline personality disorder was considerably higher at 45 percent. These data suggest that in less forensically focused samples of stalkers, rates of borderline personality are likely to be substantially higher, but confirmatory data is lacking.

  10. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  11. NATURE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RELATIONS AND ITS ROLE IN A PUBLIC REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Virchenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to theoretical analysis of nature and structure of intellectual property relations. Types of intellectual property relations and its role in public reproduction are investigated. Peculiarities of intellectual property relations are considered. Two groups of approaches to classification of intellectual property objects are analysed: classification of objects depending on its characteristics which is based on the analysis of their most essential features, specificity of their protection, features of realisation of the property and non-property rights; classification on the basis of various minor criterions which do not reveal nature and character of objects but at the same time allow to divide them into groups according to concrete tasks of research. Necessity of defining of incorporeal objects of intellectual property which cannot be labelled as objects of copyright, industrial property or branding tools is proved. Criteria of classification of party’s to intellectual property relations are investigated. The subject structure of intellectual property relations according to the legislation of Ukraine is defined. New approaches to classification of party’s to intellectual property relations depending on their role in relations of intellectual property and their economic functions are offered, which allow to embrace as much as possible all participants of intellectual property relations, consider their role in the process of commercialisation, and draw attention to subjects which carry out regulating and mediatorial functions on the intellectual property market.

  12. Borderline personality disorder and aesthetic plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Daichi; Ohkubo, Fumio

    2014-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common axis II disorder associated with a high risk of impulsivity and self-injury. Several authors have suggested that individuals with BPD are poor candidates for plastic surgery. Recent changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for BPD may be confusing to surgeons. This article reviews the literature on BPD and discusses how important it is to recognize this condition and how difficult it is to treat patients, highlighting features and signs of this condition in plastic surgery settings. Illustrative case examples from our experience are also described. Our careful search of the literature revealed that individuals with BPD may seek treatment from plastic surgeons in two different patterns: as treatment for self-injury or as insatiable requests for aesthetic procedures. Individuals with BPD tend to request corrections of multiple body parts to avoid abandonment by the surgeon or due to their impulsivity, but such preoccupation with appearance is less profound and shifts from one body part to another over time. While flexible and individualized psychological approaches are required to minimize the patient's impulsivity and abandonment fears, surgeons should be inflexible to any unrealistic requests. It is best to avoid surgery on patients with BPD. Surgeons should be aware of the nuances of this condition so as not to miss the proper timing for a psychiatric referral. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  13. ADHD in adolescents with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortese Samuele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of a comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD diagnosis in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, and its impact on the clinical presentation of BPD in adolescents, and to determine which type of impulsivity specifically characterizes adolescents with BPD-ADHD. Methods ADHD diagnoses were sought in a sample of 85 DSM-IV BPD adolescents drawn from the EURNET BPD. Axis-I and -II disorders were determined with the K-SADS-PL and the SIDP-IV, respectively. Impulsivity was assessed with the BIS-11. Results 11% (N = 9 of BPD participants had a current ADHD diagnosis. BPD-ADHD adolescents showed higher prevalence of Disruptive disorders (Chi2 = 9.09, p = 0.01 and a non-significant trend for a higher prevalence of other cluster B personality disorders (Chi2 = 2.70, p = 0.08. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between Attentional/Cognitive impulsivity scores and ADHD (Wald Z = 6.69; p = 0.01; Exp(B = 2.02, CI 95% 1.19-3.45. Conclusions Comorbid ADHD influences the clinical presentation of adolescents with BPD and is associated with higher rates of disruptive disorders, with a trend towards a greater likelihood of cluster B personality disorders and with higher levels of impulsivity, especially of the attentional/cognitive type. A subgroup of BPD patients may exhibit developmentally driven impairments of the inhibitory system persisting since childhood. Specific interventions should be recommended for this subsample of BPD adolescents.

  14. Management Dilemmas in Borderline Ovarian Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Haritwal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Borderline ovarian tumors (BOT constitute 15% of all epithelial ovarian cancers. The aim of this study is to analyze and discuss the management dilemmas associated with BOT. The purpose of this article was to collect and review the data on management dilemmas of BOT from numerous articles published since 1995. Additionally, the data of four patients with BOT, who were treated in our Institute, are presented and analyzed. Materials and Methods: For literature review we performed a literature search of relevant articles that were based on management dilemmas. Additionally, the data of 4 patients with BOT, who were treated in our Institute, are reported and reviewed by medical data information and patient interview, to establishing a database for a better understanding of the management dilemmas of BOT. Results: All the four cases were of reproductive age group. In three cases conservative fertility sparing surgery was done and in one patient radical surgery was done. All the four cases did not require adjuvant therapy. BOTs did not affect the outcome of pregnancy. Follow up of all the four cases is uneventful with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: Surgical management to excise all visible tumor tissue remains the keystone of therapy. Fertility being an important issue; conservative laparoscopic surgery is also a viable treatment option. Progression free survival is not influenced by the type of surgical approach (laparoscopic v/s laparotomy. Overall survival does not depend on the type of surgery (fertility sparing v/s non-sparing surgery. Even in advanced disease there is no proven benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

  15. DNA Cytometry and Nuclear Morphometry in Ovarian Benign, Borderline and Malignant Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina A. Gamal el Din

    2015-10-01

    CONCLUSION: We suggest that DNA ploidy and nuclear area combined, may be adjuncts to histopathology; in ovarian serous and mucinous benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms; identifying the aggressive borderline tumours.

  16. Referral compliance, outcome and predictors of CIN after repeated borderline cervical smears in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Borderline cytological abnormalities are diagnosed very frequently but have limited predictive value for high-grade cervical lesions, resulting in high costs, patient anxiety and over treatment. A conservative management strategy for the Dutch diagnostic equivalent of borderline nuclear

  17. Risk for borderline ovarian tumours after exposure to fertility drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Sarah Marie; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    followed for first occurrence of a borderline ovarian tumour from the initial date of infertility evaluation until a date of migration, date of death or 31 December 2006, whichever occurred first. The median length of follow-up was 11.3 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Included......) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for borderline ovarian tumours, overall and according to histological subtype, associated with the use of any fertility drug or five specific groups of fertility drugs: clomiphene citrate, gonadotrophins (human menopausal gonadotrophins and follicle......-stimulating hormone), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues, human chorionic gonadotrophins and progesterone. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Analyses within the cohort showed that the overall risk for borderline ovarian tumours was not associated with the use of any fertility drug (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0...

  18. [Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer - a definition and effective treatment strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Gen; Takahashi, Yuh; Kokuryo, Toshio; Tsunoda, Nobuyuki; Fukaya, Masahide; Uehara, Keisuke; Itatsu, Keita; Yoshioka, Yuichiro; Nagino, Masato

    2012-03-01

    The survival benefit of extended surgery for advanced pancreatic cancer has been denied by four randomized controlled trials. However, there still is confusion and conflict over the definition and effective treatment strategy for so-called locally advanced or borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. Although there are a number of reports that showed outcomes of preoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for this disease, the definitions and treatment regimens described in these studies vary. Moreover, all of the studies were Phase I / II trials or retrospective analysis, and there is no Phase III trial currently focused on this issue. It is urgently necessary to establish an international consensus on the definition of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. The usefulness of neoadjuvant treatment for this disease should also be elucidated in future clinical trials. In this review article, we discuss the current understanding and definition of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer, and the value of neoadjuvant treatment strategy for treating it.

  19. Intellectual Video Filming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    Like everyone else university students of the humanities are quite used to watching Hollywood productions and professional TV. It requires some didactic effort to redirect their eyes and ears away from the conventional mainstream style and on to new and challenging ways of using the film media...... it seems vital that students, scholars and intellectuals begin to utilize the enormous potentials of communication and reflection inherent in the production of moving images and sound. At Roskilde University in Denmark we have a remarkable tradition of teaching documentary, video essays and video...... communication as project oriented group work. We also welcome international students for this unique learning experience combining traditional intellectual virtues with experimental aesthetics and modern media. The paper will present the aims, methods and results of this teaching and discuss lines of future...

  20. 益智训练对老年痴呆患者认知功能改善的效果观察%Effect observation of intellectual training on cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海丹; 黄春燕; 郑越瑜

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨益智训练对提高早中期老年性痴呆(AD)患者认知功能、生活自理能力和生活质量的效果.方法 应用临床痴呆评定量表(CDR)测评出轻、中度AD患者38例,对其进行益智训练1年,期问,家属参与及饮食指导.采用简明精神量表(MMSE),常识、记忆、注意测量量表(IMCT)、日常生活能力量表(ADL)做训练前及训练后效果评价.结果 患者的缺陷程度在训练前和训练后1~3个月比较筹异尢统计学意义(P>0.05),训练6个月后缺陷程度显著改善(P<0.05),1年后改善程度更为显著(P<0.01).结论 有效的益智训练可提高老年痴呆患者认知能力,改善其症状,延缓痴呆的进程,提高生存和生命质量.%Objective To discuss effect of intellectual training on cognitive function, daily life ac-tivity and life quality of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Methods We used clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale to selecf 38 patients with mild to median degree of Alzheimer's disease.Intellectual training was carried out for 1 year and at the same time their family members took part in it and dietary instruction was given. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), information-memory-concentration test (IMCT) and activity of daily living scale (ADL) were used as evaluation tools before and after training. Results The patients' degree of defect before training was not different from that of within the first three months after training (P>0.05),but greatly alleviated 6 months and one year later (P< 0.05,P< 0.01 ). Conclusions Beneficial intellectual training could improve the cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer's disease.It alleviated their symptom,prolonged the process of dementia and increase the living and life quality of them.

  1. Feasibility and outcomes of the Berg Balance Scale in older adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2013-09-01

    High incidence of falls and increased risk of fall-related injuries are seen in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) is a reliable instrument for balance assessment in the population of (older) adults with ID. The aims of this study were to assess the balance capacities of a large group of older adults with ID with the BBS and look for gender and age effects, as well as reasons for drop-out on separate items, and to identify feasible subtests for subgroups in which the complete BBS is not feasible. The balance capacities of 1050 older clients with borderline to profound ID of three Dutch care-provider services (mean age 61.6 [sd=8.0]) were assessed with the BBS. The participants who completed all items of the BBS (n=508) were the functionally more able part of the study sample. Results showed that even this functionally more able part had poor balance capacities, with a mean BBS score of 47.2, 95% CI [46.3, 48.0], similar to adults in the general population aged around 20 years older. Balance capacities decreased with increasing age and females had poorer balance capacities than males. Difficulties understanding the task and physical limitations were most often the reasons for drop-out. Feasible subtests were identified for the subgroups with very low cognitive levels and wheelchair users. Low balance capacities of older adults with ID show the need for regular screening and the urge for fall prevention programs for individuals with ID.

  2. Predicting domains and rates of change in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzenweger, Mark F; Clarkin, John F; Levy, Kenneth N; Yeomans, Frank E; Kernberg, Otto F

    2012-04-01

    What changes and how quickly these changes occur as a result of therapy in borderline personality disorder (BPD) is an important ongoing question. The features of BPD patients that are most predictive of rates of change in such patients remain largely unknown. Using the Cornell Personality Disorders Institute (CPDI) randomized controlled trial data, we sought to determine (a) the number and nature of broad domains underlying a large number of rate of change (slope) measures across many psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial indexes, and (b) which baseline individual difference psychological features of the BPD patients correlated with these rate of change domains. We examined the latent structure of slope (rate of change) measures gleaned from individual growth curves for each subject, studied in multiwave perspective, on separate measures of anger, aggression, impulsivity, depression, global functioning, and social adjustment. Three broad domains of change rate could be discerned. These domains were reflected in factors that are described as (a) anger/aggression change ("aggressive dyscontrol"), (b) global functioning/social adjustment change ("social adjustment/self-acceptance"), and (c) anxiety/depression/impulsivity change ("conflict tolerance/behavioral control"). Factor scores were computed for each change domain and baseline measures of personality and psychodynamic features, selected a priori, were correlated with these factor scores. Multiple regression analyses revealed (a) baseline negative affectivity and aggression predicted the aggressive dyscontrol change domain, (b) baseline identity diffusion predicted the social adjustment/self-acceptance change domain, and (c) baseline social potency predicted the conflict tolerance/behavioral control change domain. These baseline predictors suggest potential research foci for understanding those aspects of BPD that change at comparable rates over time.

  3. Risk of Local Recurrence of Benign and Borderline Phyllodes Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borhani-Khomani, Kaveh; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Kroman, Niels

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the recurrence rate of benign and borderline phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast, the association between the size of resection margin and risk of recurrence and the risk of progression of histological grading at recurrence. METHODS: Nationwide retrospective study on Danish...... in histological grading was found. The results do not justify wide excision margins of nonmalignant phyllodes tumors of the breast....... women aged 18 years or older, operated from 1999 to 2014, with resected benign or borderline PTs. Information on age, size of primary tumor and recurrence, histological grade, surgical treatment, margin size, and local recurrence were collected from the national Danish Pathology Register. RESULTS...

  4. Borderline personality disorder features predict negative outcomes 2 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Courtney; Nickell, Angela; Stepp, Stephanie; Durrett, Christine; Jackson, Kristina; Trull, Timothy J

    2004-05-01

    In a sample of 351 young adults, the authors assessed whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) features prospectively predicted negative outcomes (poorer academic achievement and social maladjustment) over the subsequent 2 years, over and above gender and both Axis I and Axis II psychopathology. Borderline traits were significantly related to these outcomes, with impulsivity and affective instability the most highly associated. The present findings suggest that the impulsivity and affective instability associated with BPD leads to impairment in relating well with others, in meeting social role obligations, and in academic or occupational achievement. Therefore, these may be especially important features to target in interventions for BPD.

  5. Coprophagia in a patient with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human coprophagia is a rare phenomenon with severe medical and social consequences. So far, coprophagia has mainly been associated with severe mental retardation, schizophrenia, dementia, and depression. We report a case of coprophagia in a 30-year-old woman with Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV. This case report illustrates the severity of symptoms and maladaptive social consequences of severe personality disorders, comparable to those of patients with schizophrenia. Pharmacological interventions and, particularly intensive psychotherapy might be effective for patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder displaying severe behavior disorders. The treatment of choice for coprophagia is aversive behavioral intervention.

  6. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  7. Art Therapy for Individuals with Borderline Personality: Using a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drass, Jessica Masino

    2015-01-01

    Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…

  8. Art Therapy for Individuals with Borderline Personality: Using a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drass, Jessica Masino

    2015-01-01

    Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…

  9. Increased Lead and Cadmium Burdens among Mentally Retarded Children and Children with Borderline Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between subtoxic metal levels and mild mental retardation and borderline intelligence was investigated through comparison of hair metal concentrations in 135 secondary students with mild retardation or borderline intelligence. Children in the retarded/borderline group had significantly higher lead and cadmium concentrations.…

  10. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  11. Borderline gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of borderline gestational diabetes mellitus (BGDM, defined as a positive oral glucose challenge test (OGCT and normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, on maternal and infant health is unclear. We assessed maternal and infant health outcomes in women with BGDM and compared these to women who had a normal OGCT screen for gestational diabetes. Methods We compared demographic, obstetric and neonatal outcomes between women participating in the Australian Collaborative Trial of Supplements with antioxidants Vitamin C and Vitamin E to pregnant women for the prevention of pre-eclampsia (ACTS who had BGDM and who screened negative on OGCT. Results Women who had BGDM were older (mean difference 1.3 years, [95% confidence interval (CI 0.3, 2.2], p = 0.01 and more likely to be obese (27.1% vs 14.1%, relative risk (RR 1.92, [95% CI 1.41, 2.62], p Infants born to BGDM mothers were more likely to be born preterm (10.7% vs 6.4%, RR 1.68, [95% CI 1.00, 2.80], p = 0.05, have macrosomia (birthweight ≥4.5 kg (4.3% vs 1.7%, RR 2.53, [95% CI 1.06, 6.03], p = 0.04, be admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU (6.5% vs 3.0%, RR 2.18, [95% CI 1.09, 4.36], p = 0.03 or the neonatal nursery (40.3% vs 28.4%, RR 1.42, [95% CI 1.14, 1.76], p = 0.002, and have a longer hospital stay (p = 0.001. More infants in the BGDM group had Sarnat stage 2 or 3 neonatal encephalopathy (12.9% vs 7.8%, RR 1.65, [95% CI 1.04, 2.63], p = 0.03. Conclusion Women with BGDM and their infants had an increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with women with a negative OGCT. Intervention strategies to reduce the risks for these women and their infants need evaluation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN00416244

  12. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIZAYEV NURBEK KADIROVICH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual Property (IP is a set of exclusive rights to both personal and material nature on the intellectual and creative activity. Using the income method value of intellectual property is defined as its ability to bring a buyer or investor to profit in the future and is equal to the current value of net income, which can be obtained from the use of IP for the estimated economically sound life. Analysis and discussion is presented herein.

  13. Loss of function mutation in LARP7, chaperone of 7SK ncRNA, causes a syndrome of facial dysmorphism, intellectual disability, and primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazami, Anas M; Al-Owain, Mohammad; Alzahrani, Fatema; Shuaib, Taghreed; Al-Shamrani, Hussain; Al-Falki, Yahya H; Al-Qahtani, Saleh M; Alsheddi, Tarfa; Colak, Dilek; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2012-10-01

    Primordial dwarfism (PD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition. Various molecular mechanisms are known to underlie the disease including impaired mitotic mechanics, abnormal IGF2 expression, perturbed DNA damage response, defective spliceosomal machinery, and abnormal replication licensing. Here, we describe a syndromic form of PD associated with severe intellectual disability and distinct facial features in a large multiplex Saudi family. Analysis reveals a novel underlying mechanism for PD involving depletion of 7SK, an abundant cellular noncoding RNA (ncRNA), due to mutation of its chaperone LARP7. We show that 7SK levels are tightly linked to LARP7 expression across cell lines, and that this chaperone is ubiquitously expressed in the mouse embryo. The 7SK is known to influence the expression of a wide array of genes through its inhibitory effect on the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) as well as its competing role in HMGA1-mediated transcriptional regulation. This study documents a critical role played by ncRNA in human development and adds to the growing list of molecular mechanisms that, when perturbed, converge on the PD phenotype. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neural Response during the Activation of the Attachment System in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Buchheim, Anna; Erk, Susanne; George, Carol; Kächele, Horst; Martius, Philipp; Pokorny, Dan; Spitzer, Manfred; Walter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by emotional instability, impaired emotion regulation and unresolved attachment patterns associated with abusive childhood experiences. We investigated the neural response during the activation of the attachment system in BPD patients compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven female patients with BPD without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 healthy female controls ...

  15. The 'Self' and Borderline Personality Disorder: Conceptual and Clinical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ian B; Finlayson-Short, Laura; McCutcheon, Louise K; Beard, Hilary; Chanen, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Some concept of self has been used by many, although not all, researchers and clinicians as an 'organising construct' for borderline personality disorder (BPD). There is considerable variation in this usage and how clearly researchers have defined the self. Given this diversity, and that 'self' is often used interchangeably with parallel concepts (e.g., psyche, brain-mind, 'person') or with features of self (e.g., self-awareness, identity), unqualified use of the term is problematic. This is further complicated by the heterogeneity and 'comorbidity' of BPD and the limitations of syndromally based psychiatric nosology. Still, BPD remains in current classification systems and can be reliably diagnosed. A considerable body of research on self and BPD has accrued, including a recent profusion and confluence of neuroscientific and sociopsychological findings. These have generated supporting evidence for a supra-ordinate, functionally constituted entity of the self ranging over multiple, interacting levels from an unconscious, 'core' self, through to a reflective, phenotypic, 'idiographic' and relational self constituted by interpersonal and sociocultural experience. Important insights have been generated regarding emotional and social-cognitive dysregulation, disorder of self-awareness, relationality, identity, and coherence and continuity of the self. Many of these are shared by various trauma-related, dissociative disorders. A construct of the self could be useful as an explanatory principle in BPD, which could be construed as a 'self-state' (and relational) disorder, as opposed to a less severe disorder of aspects of the self (e.g., mood or memory). We offer a tentative description of 'Self' in this context, noting that any such construct will require a clear definition and to be evaluable. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Is Anakin Skywalker suffering from borderline personality disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Chabrol, Henri; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent

    2011-01-30

    Anakin Skywalker, one of the main characters in the "Star Wars" films, meets the criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). This finding is interesting for it may partly explain the commercial success of these movies among adolescents and be useful in educating the general public and medical students about BPD symptoms.

  17. Borderline-lepromatous leprosy manifesting as granulomatous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhi, Deepika; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal; Dhawan, Amit Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Leprosy is characterised by a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the skin and peripheral nerves. Dissemination of the lepra bacilli may cause involvement of other tissues as well. We describe an unusual case of the granulomatous involvement of the nipple-areola complex in a 35-year-old male consequent to borderline-lepromatous leprosy.

  18. The Objective Borderline Method: A Probabilistic Method for Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Poole, Phillippa; Jones, Philip; Wilkinson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    A new probability-based standard setting technique, the Objective Borderline Method (OBM), was introduced recently. This was based on a mathematical model of how test scores relate to student ability. The present study refined the model and tested it using 2500 simulated data-sets. The OBM was feasible to use. On average, the OBM performed well…

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder: A Dysregulation of the Endogenous Opioid System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: A Dysregulation of the Endogenous Opioid System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…

  1. Interpersonal Precipitants and Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Time for Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses among women illustrates problems and limitations of the medical model system. Article explores overlapping relationship between BPD and PTSD and critiques how both are viewed within the mental health community. Previous research is…

  3. Autonomic Impairment in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David; Hajcak, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotional dysfunction in psychiatric disorders can be reflected in autonomic abnormalities. The present study examines sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system activity in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) before, during, and following a social stressor task. Data were obtained…

  4. Sex bias in classifying borderline and narcissistic personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braamhorst, W.; Lobbestael, J.; Emons, W.H.M.; Arntz, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex s

  5. Sex bias in classifying borderline and narcissistic personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braamhorst, W.; Lobbestael, J.; Emons, W.H.M.; Arntz, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex s

  6. Sex bias in classifying borderline and narcissistic personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braamhorst, W.; Lobbestael, J.; Emons, Wilco; Arntz, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex

  7. Development and Validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Although large epidemiological data sets can inform research on the etiology and development of borderline personality disorder (BPD), they rarely include BPD measures. In some cases, however, proxy measures can be constructed using instruments already in these data sets. In this study, the authors developed and validated a self-report measure of…

  8. Pharmacological interventions for borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffers, Jutta; Völlm, Birgit A; Rücker, Gerta; Timmer, Antje; Huband, Nick; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Drugs are widely used in borderline personality disorder (BPD) treatment, chosen because of properties known from other psychiatric disorders (“off-label use”), mostly targeting affective or impulsive symptom clusters. Objectives To assess the effects of drug treatment in BPD patients. Search methods We searched bibliographic databases according to the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group strategy up to September 2009, reference lists of articles, and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria Randomised studies comparing drug versus placebo, or drug versus drug(s) in BPD patients. Outcomes included total BPD severity, distinct BPD symptom facets according to DSM-IV criteria, associated psychopathology not specific to BPD, attrition and adverse effects. Data collection and analysis Two authors selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data, independently. Main results Twenty-eight trials involving a total of 1742 trial participants were included. First-generation antipsychotics (flupenthixol decanoate, haloperidol, thiothixene); second-generation antipsychotics (aripirazole, olanzapine, ziprasidone), mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, valproate semisodium, lamotrigine, topiramate), antidepressants (amitriptyline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, phenelzine sulfate, mianserin), and dietary supplementation (omega-3 fatty acid) were tested. First-generation antipsychotics were subject to older trials, whereas recent studies focussed on second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Data were sparse for individual comparisons, indicating marginal effects for first-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants. The findings were suggestive in supporting the use of second-generation antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and omega-3 fatty acids, but require replication, since most effect estimates were based on single studies. The long-term use of these drugs has not been assessed. Adverse event data were scarce

  9. KNOWLEDGE INTEGRITY IN METHODOLOGY OF INTELLECTUAL SCIENTIFIC-RESEARCH SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Koleshko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a category of knowledge integrity in philosophical and methodological conception of the intellectual technology. Relationship of knowledge integrity and its uncertainty in the methodology of intellectual scientific research is considered in the paper. The paper  reveals a role of purpose uncertainty of intellectual research process in formation of knowledge integrity properties. An analysis of integrity notion functioning has been executed while considering a problem on relationship of general and partial components. The paper shows changes in the given relationship while making transition from value-orientated research process to purpose-orientated scientific investigation. Determination of diffusion, differentiated and integrated knowledge integrity is shown at various stages of intellectual scientific research.

  10. [Tattoos and piercings: motives for body modification in women suffering from borderline symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhner, Gesche; Teismann, Tobias; Willutzki, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Do women suffering from borderline symptomatology differ from women without these symptoms regarding their motives for body modifications?A sample of 289 women with body modifications were questioned about their tattoos, piercings and motives for body modifications as well as about symptoms of borderline personality disorder. Women with borderline symptomatology were compared to women without borderline symptomatology concerning the extent of and motives for body modification.The 2 groups showed no differences in regard to amount and extent of body modifications. The "borderline"-group considered individuality, coping and management of negative life-events to be more crucial reasons for body modification than the non-borderline females.The degree of a person's body modification is not a feasible indicator for psychopathological strain. Though, for people with borderline tendency body modification may serve as a coping strategy similar to self-injury.

  11. Heterogeneity of Intellectual Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus; Valentin, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with methodological issues of assessing the composition and level ofheterogeneity of firms' intellectual assets. It develops an original metric - referred to asthe H-index - for measuring heterogeneity using data extracted from patent documents.The main purpose is to improve...... the characterisation of research activities within firmsin the biotechnology sector. Although the H-index grew out of research on biotechfirms, the metric carries broader relevance for all patent-intensive industries. Themeasurement and calculation of the H-index is illustrated using some empiricalexamples from our...

  12. Familial and Clinical Correlates in Depressed Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marc Guile

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chart review is a low-cost, but highly informative, method to describe symptoms, treatment and risk factors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD and to adapt screening and intervention to clinical reality. Previous chart review studies report more aggressiveness/anger and psychotic features in youths with BPD. They show that adverse family environment and parental psychopathology constitute important factors for BPD pathology. Objectives: To examine clinical characteristics of depressed BPD adolescents (12-17 years old outpatients according to gender and to explore variables which are associated with BPD traits. Methods: A retrospective chart review using the Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Instrument for Borderlines was conducted on 30 depressed BPD adolescents with BPD traits and 28 non-BPD depressed patients without BPD traits. Participants who reached the C-DIB threshold for BPD were included in the BPD traits group. The Child and Adolescent Version of the Retrospective Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines was used to determine the presence of BPD. Comparisons analyses were performed using Pearson’s Chi-square test. Associated factors were determined using regression analyses. Results: BPD traits participants outpatients were characterised by higher family problems (parental psychopathology, parent disagreement/argument, parent-child relational problem, more aggressive symptoms, and higher rates of family intervention and hospitalisation. A number of familial factors (parental history of delinquency, substance use, or personality disorders, having siblings, parental disagreement/argument in boys were associated with BPD symptomatologytraits. Attention seeking and problematic functioning (does not adapt well to group activities were also associated with BPD traits. Discussion: Our study stresses the need to assess BPD traits in adolescent psychiatric evaluation, especially in

  13. THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL OF UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratianu Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present some of our research results concerning the intellectual capital of universities. This is an important topic of the intellectual research area since universities are knowledge intensive organizations. They contain b

  14. Business model and Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    When practicing business model (BM) innovation releasing intellectual capital (IC) strategically from SME´s BMs through the innovation process can be extremely difficult and complex to carry out especially to small and medium size enterprises (SME). There are so many opportunities and resources...... in SME´s Intellectual Capital – but how to release them?...

  15. The Performance of Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    interviews. This allows the development of a nuanced account of the performance of intellectual capital. This account questions the universality of the linear model typically found in statistical studies. The model makes it possible to show how items of intellectual capital not only interact but also compete...

  16. Borderline Personality Traits and Disorder: Predicting Prospective Patient Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Decisions about the composition of personality assessment in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.; DSM-V) will be heavily influenced by the clinical utility of candidate constructs. In this study, we addressed 1 aspect of clinical utility by testing the incremental validity of 5-factor model (FFM)…

  17. A comparison of two assessments of levels of functioning in clients with intellectual disability between occupational therapists and nursing staff within a long-term mental healthcare facility in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine van der Linde

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The implementation of the South African Mental Health Care Act, which regulates care for clients with intellectual disabilities, impacted on the healthcare services provided to this population. Changes in the Act necessitated planning of new care packages, which resulted in the investigation of the current hospital client profile, as well as assessment data on patient abilities according to the occupational therapist and nursing staff as primary caregivers.Methods: A retrospective, descriptive correlation study design was used as information was analysed from an existing database. Descriptive analysis of clients’ demographic data, occupational performance and adaptive functioning were done, as well as a Spearman’s rank correlation test and cluster analysis to describe the association between the levels of functioning as measured by the different professions.Results: The results indicated low levels of abilities, as well as a good to excellent correlation between results of the Fairview self-help scale and Creative Participation Assessment.Conclusion: This study provided preliminary evidence that these two tools are valuable instruments for measuring occupational performance and adaptive functioning in institutions that provide care for this vulnerable and under-researched population.

  18. Serotonergic blunting to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) highly correlates with sustained childhood abuse in impulsive and autoaggressive female borderline patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, T; Westenberg, HGM; den Boer, JA

    2000-01-01

    Background: Disturbances of affect, impulse regulation and autoaggressive behavior which are all said to be related to an altered function of the central serotonergic (5-HT) system, are prominent features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high coincidence of childhood physical and sexual a

  19. Generic skills in students with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović-Dobrota Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generic skills include transferable skills which contribute to general work skills of an individual and can be used in different jobs and work organizations. Situational assessment is considered to be the best approach in gathering information on generic skills and adaptive behavior in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID, since it enables systematic observation of work related behavior. The aim of this paper is to determine the relation of the degree of generic skills acquisition with regard to the level of intellectual functioning of students with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample consists of 120 examinees undergoing professional training, of both genders, with IQ between 51 and 70. The sample is divided in two groups: the group with higher level of intellectual functioning (IQ 61-70 which includes 75 examinees (62.5%, and the group lower level of intellectual functioning (IQ 51-60 which includes 45 (37.5% examinees. The results of the adapted Situational assessment form test (Cline et al., 2005 indicate the statistically significant difference between the examinees with different levels of intellectual functioning. The examinees with higher level of intellectual functioning show greater interest in work, they perform the assigned tasks for a longer period of time, they adapt to changes while working more easily, and use the acquired work skills appropriately. They are more independent and mobile during training, they initiate a greater number of social interactions, behave more appropriately in work environment, and manage to control fatigue and stress while working. Information on generic skills can be used for developing individual plan of employment of persons with MID and/or for determining the model of employment, adaptation of work place and temporary placement.

  20. Economic justification of the role of intellectual capital in the sphere of innovative economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Y. Shkola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the role of the intellectual capital in formation of innovative economical system. The authors of the article has specified and extended meaning, functions and structure of the intellectual capital, researched and improved theoretic-methodological approaches to its estimation, devised and proved scientifically the model of national innovative economical system with a glance of intellectual capitals significance.

  1. [Robots and intellectual property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  2. The cross-informant concordance and concurrent validity of the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children in a community sample of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Mosko, Orion; Chang, Bonny; Ha, Carolyn

    2011-07-01

    The Borderline Personality Disorder Features Scale for Children (BPFSC) is currently the only dimensional measure specifically developed to assess borderline features in children and adolescents. Few studies have investigated this measure for its concurrent validity and concordance between youth self-report and parent-report versions. To this end, the current study had two aims: (1) to investigate the cross-informant concordance (youth self-report vs. parent-report) of the BPFSC; and (2) to examine the concurrent validity of the BPFSC by showing that youth scoring high on the BPFSC also show poor clinical and psychosocial functioning, as measured by a standard Axis I scale. A community sample (N = 171) of boys between the ages of 8 and 18 completed the BPFSC and a self-report measure of Axis I psychopathology. Parents completed a newly developed parent-report version of the BPFSC (BPFSP) and a standard measure of Axis I psychopathology to index clinical and psychosocial functioning. Findings confirmed expectations. Modest concordance between parent- and self-report ratings were found. In addition, youth with borderline features showed poorer clinical and psychosocial functioning in all domains, especially where externalizing problems were concerned. Concurrent validity and modest parent-child concordance were demonstrated for the BPFSC. The BPFSC and BPFSP show promise as dimensional measures to assess borderline features in boys. However, a criterion validity study is needed before the measure can be used.

  3. 2D stationary resistive MHD flows: borderline to magnetic reconnection solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Nickeler, D H; Nickeler, Dieter H.; Fahr, Hans-Joerg

    2005-01-01

    We present the basic equations for stationary, incompressible resistive MHD flows in two dimensions. This leads to a system of differential equations for two flux functions, one elliptic partial differential equation (Grad-Shafranov-like) for the magnetic flux function and one for the stream function of the flow. In these equations two potentials appear: one potential is a generalized pressure. The second potential couples the magnetic and the flow shear components of the system. With the restriction to flux or at least line conserving flows one has to solve a modified Ohm's law. For the two dimensional case these are two coupled differential equations, which represent the borderline between the resistive but flux conserving (or line conserving) case, and that of reconnective solutions. We discuss some simplified solutions of these equations.

  4. The Practical Impact of Intellectual Assessment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Jeffery P.

    1997-01-01

    School psychologists spend more time on assessment than in other activities. Attempts to establish three links between issues and practice for intellectual assessment: technologies for intellectual assessment, methods of intellectual assessment, and theories of intellectual assessment. Argues that practitioners should heed research showing strong…

  5. 14 CFR 1274.208 - Intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intellectual property. 1274.208 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.208 Intellectual property. (a) Intellectual property rights. A cooperative agreement covers the disposition of rights to intellectual property...

  6. Pragmatic skills of children and youth with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brojčin Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatic competence means the use of language in social context. Persons with intellectual disability experience numerous problems in this aspect of communication, but they are relatively pragmatically skilled in well-known situations, in which they are not subjected to significant cognitive and social requirements. The aim of this paper is to determine the level of pragmatic abilities of children and youth with mild intellectual disability and to perceive its relation to chronological age, speech comprehension, speech production, the level of intellectual functioning, gender and bilingualism of the participants. The level of pragmatic competence was tested in the sample of 120 children with mild intellectual disability, aged between 8 and 16, by using the Test of pragmatic language competence. The Clinical scales of Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological battery for children were also used. The results obtained in this research suggest that general level of achievement of children with mild intellectual disability in this domain of development is far below the expectations based on their chronological age. Significant progress appears between 12 and 14 years of age, but there are also two critical periods in their development. Important relations of pragmatic skills with speech comprehension, speech production, chronological age and intellectual level were established.

  7. The five-factor model of personality and borderline personality disorder: a genetic analysis of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Marijn A; Trull, Timothy J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M; Derom, Catherine A; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2009-12-15

    Recently, the nature of personality disorders and their relationship with normal personality traits has received extensive attention. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality, consisting of the personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, is one of the proposed models to conceptualize personality disorders as maladaptive variants of continuously distributed personality traits. The present study examined the phenotypic and genetic association between borderline personality and FFM personality traits. Data were available for 4403 monozygotic twins, 4425 dizygotic twins, and 1661 siblings from 6140 Dutch, Belgian, and Australian families. Broad-sense heritability estimates for neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, openness to experience, and borderline personality were 43%, 36%, 43%, 47%, 54%, and 45%, respectively. Phenotypic correlations between borderline personality and the FFM personality traits ranged from .06 for openness to experience to .68 for neuroticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that a combination of high neuroticism and low agreeableness best predicted borderline personality. Multivariate genetic analyses showed the genetic factors that influence individual differences in neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion account for all genetic liability to borderline personality. Unique environmental effects on borderline personality, however, were not completely shared with those for the FFM traits (33% is unique to borderline personality). Borderline personality shares all genetic variation with neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion. The unique environmental influences specific to borderline personality may cause individuals with a specific pattern of personality traits to cross a threshold and develop borderline personality.

  8. Borderline Personality Symptoms and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk in Alcohol and Other Drug Abusing Adolescent Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy G. Dévieux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Incarcerated youth with borderline symptomatology represent a particularly at risk-population due to their enggement in risky behaviors. Five hundred twenty two adolescents were assessed for borderline symptomatology (MACI, engagement in risky behaviors and attitudes/knowledge. Approach:Adolescents were divided into two groups: low borderline (below the 60 scale score cutoff and high borderline (subclinical and clinical range. Multivariate analyses were used to test for group differences. Results: The high borderline group had higher perceived susceptibility, greater knowledge, less favorable sexual and condom attitudes and less favorable behavioral intentions. There were no significant differences by group on sexual risk or substance use behaviors. A subset (n = 156 participating in a risk reduction experimental trial were followed three months post-intervention for differences in sexual risk and substance use. The high borderline experimental participants reported significantly more anal sex than the low borderline adolescents at 3 month follow-up. High borderline adolescents in the control group reported greater cocaine use than low borderline controls at 3 months, including trends suggesting more marijuana and alcohol use. At 3 month follow-up, no differences in cocaine, alcohol or marijuana use were detected between high and low borderline adolescents in the experimental group. Adolescents with higher borderline tendencies appear to realistically assess that they are at high risk of contracting HIV but may have less confidence in their ability to adopt HIV preventive behaviors. The results indicate that borderline personality symptoms may represent an important indicator of attitudes conducive to HIV transmission. Conclusion:Three-month follow-up data indicate the importance of examining borderline characteristics more microanalytically within research studies, including

  9. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey,…

  10. Mangled extremity--case report, literature review and borderline cases guidelines proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakota, Bore; Kopljar, Mario; Jurjević, Zoran; Staresinić, Mario; Cvjetko, Ivan; Dobrić, Ivan; De Faoite, Diarmuid

    2012-12-01

    Treatment of a mangled lower extremity represents a major challenge. The decision whether to amputate or attempt reconstruction is currently based upon surgical evaluation. The aim of this paper is to propose a new approach to surgical evaluation based on scoring systems, local clinical status of the patient as well as comorbidities, mechanism of trauma and hospital resources. Available literature regarding this topic was evaluated and a case of patient with mangled extremity is presented. Based on current literature guidelines and evidence-based medicine, management for borderline cases is proposed to aid clinical decision making in these situations. We describe a 44-year old male patient who presented with mangled lower left leg. Despite a borderline Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS), due to the overall health status of the patient and local clinical status with preserved plantar sensitivity and satisfactory capillary perfusion, reconstruction was attempted. After 6 months of treatment, all wounds healed completely with no pain, and satisfactory motor and sensory function was achieved. In conclusion, the treatment of mangled extremity treatment should be based on evidence based literature along with a clinical evaluation of every individual patient. Scores are helpful, but should not be taken as the sole indication for amputation.

  11. Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2014-06-30

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Medical intellectuals: resisting medical orientalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Felice; Lewis, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose analogies between medical discourse and Edward Said's "Orientalism." Medical discourse, like Orientalism, tends to favor institutional interests and can be similarly dehumanizing in its reductionism, textual representations, and construction of its subjects. To resist Orientalism, Said recommends that critics--"intellectuals"--adopt the perspective of exile. We apply Said's paradigm of intellectual-as-exile to better understand the work of key physician-authors who cross personal and professional boundaries, who engage with patients in mutually therapeutic relationships, and who take on the public responsibility of representation and advocacy. We call these physician-authors "medical intellectuals" and encourage others to follow in their path.

  13. Changing the intellectual climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castree, Noel; Adams, William M.; Barry, John; Brockington, Daniel; Büscher, Bram; Corbera, Esteve; Demeritt, David; Duffy, Rosaleen; Felt, Ulrike; Neves, Katja; Newell, Peter; Pellizzoni, Luigi; Rigby, Kate; Robbins, Paul; Robin, Libby; Rose, Deborah Bird; Ross, Andrew; Schlosberg, David; Sörlin, Sverker; West, Paige; Whitehead, Mark; Wynne, Brian

    2014-09-01

    Calls for more broad-based, integrated, useful knowledge now abound in the world of global environmental change science. They evidence many scientists' desire to help humanity confront the momentous biophysical implications of its own actions. But they also reveal a limited conception of social science and virtually ignore the humanities. They thereby endorse a stunted conception of 'human dimensions' at a time when the challenges posed by global environmental change are increasing in magnitude, scale and scope. Here, we make the case for a richer conception predicated on broader intellectual engagement and identify some preconditions for its practical fulfilment. Interdisciplinary dialogue, we suggest, should engender plural representations of Earth's present and future that are reflective of divergent human values and aspirations. In turn, this might insure publics and decision-makers against overly narrow conceptions of what is possible and desirable as they consider the profound questions raised by global environmental change.

  14. Intellectual Disability and Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.

  15. [An ovarian mucinous borderline tumour with mixed mural nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhouibi, A; Denoux, Y; Touil, N; Devouassoux Shisheboran, M; Carbonnel, M; Baglin, A C

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of mural nodules in serous or mucinous ovarian tumours is not frequent. Mural nodule can be developed in benign, borderline or malignant tumours. They can be benign, malignant or mixed type. Thus the prognosis of the ovarian tumour can be dramatically modified by the presence if these nodules. Eighty-two cases of mural nodules were reported in the literature, among which we account four cases of mixed nodules type. We report an additional case of mixed type mural nodules of anaplastic carcinoma and sarcoma-like developed in an ovarian mucinous borderline tumour at a 60-year-old woman.We give details about the classification, the differential diagnosis and prognosis of theses nodules.

  16. A pulmonary mucinous cystic tumour of borderline malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, D; Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Smati, B; Kilani, T; El Mezni, F

    2008-06-01

    We report a well-documented case of pulmonary mucinous cystic tumour of borderline malignancy involving the left lower lobe. The lesion was found incidentally by chest radiograph and CT scan with a provisional diagnosis of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The tumour was 4 cm in its greatest dimension, cystic and filled with gelatinous mucus. Microscopically, the neoplastic mucinous epithelium was composed of cuboidal cells with focally nuclear stratification and mild to moderate nuclear atypia. The patient has remained free from recurrence or metastases for 6 years. Pulmonary mucinous cystic tumour of borderline malignancy is a rare, recently described neoplasm, which spans a spectrum of tumours with malignant potential. The recent World Health Organization classification of lung tumours does not recognize this entity, which has a very good prognosis, and as such should be distinguished from classic pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Histological diagnosis can be difficult to distinguish from cystic bronchioloalveolar carcinoma or metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma.

  17. A Quantum Probability Explanation in Fock Space for Borderline Contradictions

    CERN Document Server

    Sozzo, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    The construction of a consistent theory for structuring and representing how concepts combine and interact is one of the main challenges for the scholars involved in cognitive studies. All traditional approaches are still facing serious hindrances when dealing with combinations of concepts and concept vagueness. One of the main consequences of these difficulties is the existence of borderline cases which is hardly explainable from the point of view of classical (fuzzy set) logic and probability theory. Resting on a quantum-theoretic approach which successfully models conjunctions and disjuncions of two concepts, we propound a quantum probability model in Fock space which faithfully reproduces the experimental data collected by Alxatib and Pelletier (2011) on borderline contradictions. Our model allows one to explain the occurrence of the latter contradictions in terms of genuine quantum effects, such as contextuality, superposition, interference and emergence. In particular, we claim that it is the specific m...

  18. Estudos sobre transtornos de personalidade Antissocial e Borderline Estudios sobre trastornos de personalidad Anti-social y Borderline Studies of personality disorders Antisocial and Borderline

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Hirata Soares

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou revisar, na literatura, os critérios diagnósticos e as intervenções nos transtornos de personalidade do tipo Antissocial e Borderline. MÉTODOS: Uma pesquisa manual foi realizada no acervo bibliográfico particular do autor, selecionando-se 12 referências; outra pesquisa sistematizada foi desenvolvida no período de 1990 a 2008, no mês de janeiro de 2009, na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, selecionando-se 23 artigos. RESULTADOS: Os achados indicaram duas abordagens -...

  19. A retrospective chart review: adolescents with borderline personality disorder, borderline personality traits, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopling, Ellen N; Khalid-Khan, Sarosh; Chandrakumar, Shivani F; Segal, Shira C

    2016-07-21

    With an estimated lifetime prevalence as high as 5.9% in the general population, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by marked impulsivity as well as difficulties in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects. The burden on the health care system is immense with BPD patients accounting for 10%-20% of the patients in mental health outpatient facilities and 15%-40% in mental health inpatient facilities. Further, while 75%-80% of BPD patients attempt to commit suicide, 10% succeed; this mortality rate exceeds even that of anorexia nervosa which, with a weighted mortality rate of 5.1%, has often been considered to have the highest mortality rate of any mental disorder. In order to provide treatment and to implement preventative measures, a risk profile as well as clinical features must be identified within the adolescent population. This is presently crucial, as the current criteria for BPD are not developmentally focused, and as a result, criteria initially developed for the adult population are being applied in diagnoses of adolescents. A population of adolescents (n=80) between 16 and 19 years of age meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) criteria either for BPD traits (n=46) or for BPD (n=36) were included in a retrospective chart review; a control group consisting of n=30 mood and anxiety control subjects were included to allow for further comparisons. Complex significant differences were discovered between the three groups in the following areas: history of sexual abuse, suicidal ideation, internalizing/externalizing symptoms, interpersonal difficulties, impulsivity, pre-perinatal stress, bullying, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, disruptive disorders, and finally, learning disorders.

  20. Impaired executive function, weak motor skills, and a rare form of epilepsy in an intellectually disabled girl with a 8q12.3q13.2 microdeletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Feenstra, I.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Leeuw, N. de

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Whole genome microarray techniques are the primary tool for the etiological assessment in intellectually disabled patients and have led to the discovery of several causative novel microdeletions. Participants and Methods: Extensive neuropsychological, neurological, psychiatric and genetic

  1. Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol before sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Eaton, Nicholas R; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-07-01

    Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in unprotected intercourse, having multiple sexual partners and becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by pervasive instability in emotional regulation, self-image, interpersonal relationships and impulse control, is associated with substance use disorders and sexual risk behaviours. However, no study has examined the relationship between BPD and drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. This study examined the association between BPD and regularly drinking before sex in a nationally representative adult sample. Participants were 17 491 sexually active drinkers from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression models estimated effects of BPD diagnosis, specific borderline diagnostic criteria and BPD criterion count on the likelihood of regularly (mostly or always) drinking alcohol before sex, adjusted for controls. Borderline personality disorder diagnosis doubled the odds of regularly drinking before sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.26; confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 3.14]. Of nine diagnostic criteria, impulsivity in areas that are self-damaging remained a significant predictor of regularly drinking before sex (AOR = 1.82; CI = 1.42, 2.35). The odds of regularly drinking before sex increased by 20% for each endorsed criterion (AOR = 1.20; CI = 1.14, 1.27) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the relationship between BPD and regularly drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. Substance misuse treatment should assess regularly drinking before sex, particularly among patients with BPD, and BPD treatment should assess risk at the intersection of impulsivity, sexual behaviour and substance use. [Thompson Jr RG, Eaton NR, Hu M-C, Hasin DS Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol

  2. Implicit self-esteem in borderline personality and depersonalization disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measure...

  3. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  4. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH IN A CASE STUDY OF PERSONALITY BORDERLINE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Mónica Raquel Saraiva; Mota,Catarina Pinheiro; Milheiro,Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This case study refers to the borderline personality theme shown through the life experience of a young adult woman who demonstrates inner instability and the passage to action through self-mutilation. The evaluation reveals self-fragmentation and inefficiency in the use of defense mechanisms, shown by a fragile and immature personality with low impulse control. This study was developed within the psychology consultations in the Psychology Department of Hospital Magalhães Lemos. Psy...

  5. Borderline Personality: From Self Limits to Body Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Guerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  In  a  psychodynamic  pers-pective, one of the essential aspects of borderline  personality  is  the  insufficient  self integration, which  often  results  in  a  poor relation  with  the  body  and  self-destructive behaviours.Aims: We intend to approach self development in borderline personality, understand the  importance  of  the  body  in  its development, as well as the role of self-mutilating behaviour  in  the relationship  between  self and body.Methods:  Non  systematic literature  review based on Otto Kernberg and Didier Anzieu theories.Results  and  Conclusions:  On  the  one hand, we find that in borderline personality splitting remains the predominant defence mechanism, preventing  proper  differentia-tion between self and object, as well as the integration of good and bad aspects of self and object. Moreover, the concept of “skin-ego”, defined by Didier Anzieu, says that the tactile sensibility is an Ego and thought or-ganizing model and, in borderline personality, the development of this body envelope is severely compromised. Self-mutilation is, simultaneously, an attempt to re-establish the boundaries  of  self  and  a  communication type open to intersubjectivity that, although contains  a  destructive  aspect,  enables self repair.

  6. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH IN A CASE STUDY OF PERSONALITY BORDERLINE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Mónica Raquel Saraiva; Mota,Catarina Pinheiro; Milheiro,Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This case study refers to the borderline personality theme shown through the life experience of a young adult woman who demonstrates inner instability and the passage to action through self-mutilation. The evaluation reveals self-fragmentation and inefficiency in the use of defense mechanisms, shown by a fragile and immature personality with low impulse control. This study was developed within the psychology consultations in the Psychology Department of Hospital Magalhães Lemos. Psy...

  7. Long-Term Course of Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Information concerning the longitudinal course of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) derives mainly from (a) long-term (10 to 25 year) retrospective follow-up studies, primarily those conducted during the 1980s/1990s, (b) brief (1 to 3 year) follow-up studies of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of several different treatment approaches, and (c) prospective follow-up studies. The patients contacted in the retrospective studies had been treated mostly by psychoanalytically informed approaches or supportive. Though there was a significant suicide rate of 3 to 9%, about two-thirds of the BPD patients eventually achieved a global assessment score in the 60s or beyond. BPD represents a heterogeneous group of patients, whose outcome is a function of many variables, including personality traits (paranoid and narcissistic conducing to less favorable outcomes), cultural differences, socio-economic level, intelligence level, gender, and age of onset. The RCT studies focused on amelioration of the symptom components of BPD, especially tendencies to self-injury and suicide. The currently favored treatment methods showed in a large percentage of patients, a lessening of these self-destructive behaviors after a year or two of treatment. The time spans were too brief to allow assessment of improvement in key life areas (attainment of self-sufficiency in work, widening of the circle of friends, and success in forming satisfactory intimate partnerships). The prospective studies are based on reassessments at regular intervals of BPD patients and a control group with other personality disorders. Over the past 16 years the BPD patients, compared with controls, were slower to achieve remission, and more apt to show cognitive peculiarities initially-though they showed appreciable improvement over time. The "recovered" BPD patients, compared with the non-recovered patients, showed twice the likelihood of achieving a successful intimate relationship. At 16 years the Mc

  8. [Epistemic and historical elucidation of the borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño Paredes, Diego Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The particularities of those that have been considered "hard cases" in the clinical field, and their relationship with personality disorders, are discussed together with their quintessential conceptual and diagnostic model: the borderline personalities. The aim of the study is to historically and epistemologically rebuild their origins within psychiatry and psychoanalysis. From a classical epistemological and historical study, a brief tour is made through the nineteenth century alienism and the postulate of "partial insanity". Next, a passage is spawned through the concepts that emerged from this postulate: "monomania" and "moral insanity", up to mid-century Kraepelin and the "fundamental states" of manic-depressive insanity as pathological constitutional forms or characters, and reaching the twentieth century with characterology and psychopathic personalities. Finally, psychoanalysis is analyzed as the main source of borderline personality disorders arising from the problems encountered in analytical treatments and the development of the notion of "character neurosis". Borderline personality disorders are the result of the conjunction of a number of factors, heirs of the notion of "partial insanity", of the fundamental states of manic-depression insanity, of characterology, of the idea of constitutions and pathological personalities, together with the emerging concerns of psychoanalysis in the early twentieth century. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Intellectual Property Gets a Boost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China turns IPR protection into a national strategy for economic growth china’s intellectual property rights (IPR) protection authorities signaled they were prepared to shoulder heavier responsibilities in fighting piracy as they processed 828,000 patent

  10. Children with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed only on the basis of below-normal intelligence (IQ), and that persons with intellectual disabilities are ... For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, ...

  11. Corporate governance and intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.

  12. Agreement in Quality of Life Assessment between Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Spela; Skrbic, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects different aspects of functioning and quality of life, as well as the ability to independently assess the quality of life itself. The paper examines the agreement in the quality of life assessments made by adolescents with intellectual disability and their parents compared with assessments made by adolescents without…

  13. The Relationship between the Severity of Eating Problems and Intellectual Developmental Deficit Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Eynat; Hardal-Nasser, Reem; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition, essential in the daily living functions promoting life quality of persons with intellectual developmental deficits (IDD), is adversely affected by the highly prevalent eating problems in these persons. The current study explores the characteristics of eating problems in population of children with intellectual developmental disorders.…

  14. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been use...

  15. On the role of oxytocin in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Interpersonal dysfunction is central to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent research has focused on the role of oxytocin (OT) in BPD, particularly regarding associations of OT activity with symptoms, genetic polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor coding gene (OXTR) in BPD, and experimental modification of interpersonal core problems of patients with BPD such as hypervigilance towards threat detection, mistrust, and non-verbal behaviour during social interaction by intranasal application of OT. A literature ('medline') review was performed using the keywords 'oxytocin' and 'borderline personality disorder'. Secondary literature on trauma and attachment in relation to OT was also considered relevant. Together, findings suggest that in BPD OT is associated with enhanced defensive mechanisms and avoidance behaviour. Moreover, gene-environment interaction concerning polymorphic variations of the OXTR gene and childhood adversity in BPD suggests that these genes convey developmental flexibility or 'differential susceptibility' to environmental contingencies, whereby BPD resides at the poor outcome end of the spectrum. In view of the conflicting literature, it needs to be studied carefully whether OT can serve as a therapeutic agent given adjunct to psychotherapy in BPD. More research about the role of OT is also required with regard to the prevention of the non-genetic intergenerational transmission of BPD. Clarifying the role of OT in BPD may also benefit from research in non-human animals targeting the interaction between early adversity and OT availability more directly. The study of oxytocin can contribute to the understanding of the neurobiology of borderline personality disorder. Oxytocin is critically involved in attachment security, and methylation of the oxytocin receptor may play a role in the epigenetic modulation of early adversity. The intranasal application of oxytocin may be a useful therapeutic adjunct to psychotherapy. Insecure attachment and

  16. The role of childhood traumatization in the development of borderline personality disorder in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Merza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the role of childhood abuse in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Studies found that complex traumatization related to BPD include emotional/physical/sexual abuse and neglect. This study examines self-reported experiences of childhood traumatization in Hungarian inpatients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and reveal which etiological factors are most strongly associated with the development of BPD. Methods: Traumatic childhood experiences of 80 borderline inpatients, 73 depressed inpatients and 51 healthy controls were assessed with the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Sexual Abuse Scale of Early Trauma Inventory. Results: Adverse childhood experiences (neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, witnessing trauma were more prevalent among borderline patients than among depressed and healthy controls. Borderline patients reported severe sexual abuse, characterized by incest, penetration and repetitive abuse. Sexually abused borderline patients experienced more physical and emotional abuse than borderlines who were not sexually abused. The strongest predictors of borderline diagnosis were sexual abuse, intrafamilial physical abuse and neglect by the caretakers. Conclusions: Overall, our results suggest that a reported childhood history of abuse and neglect are both common and highly discriminating for borderline patients in Hungary as well.

  17. [Historical background to the development of the concept of the borderline personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-11-01

    The history of the development of the concept of borderline personality disorder dates back to the late nineteenth century when in 1884 described the first cases of patients with a clinical picture similar to today's concept of borderline personality disorder, using the first time the concept of borderline. On the current understanding of the borderline personality disorder had a significant impact available and valid diagnostic criteria included in the classifications ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR and psychological theories such as psychoanalytic theory of "object relations" and cognitive behavioral approaches.

  18. Poverty and people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a significant association between poverty and the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The available evidence suggests that this association reflects two distinct processes. First, poverty causes intellectual disabilities, an effect mediated through the association between poverty and exposure to a range of environmental and psychosocial hazards. Second, families supporting a child with intellectual disabilities and adults with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of experiencing poverty due to the financial and social impact of caring and the exclusion of people with intellectual disabilities from the workforce. It is likely that the association between poverty and intellectual disabilities accounts in part for the health and social inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disabilities and their families. Implications for policy and practice are discussed in relation to the funding of services for people with intellectual disabilities and preventative approaches to addressing the health and social inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disabilities and their families.

  19. Knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasielska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability. The premises relating to mental functioning of these children suggest that this knowledge is poorer and less complex than the knowledge of their peers in the intellectual norm. The study used the authoring tool to measure children’s knowledge of emotions including the joy. This tool takes into account the cognitive representation of the basic emotions available in three codes: image, verbal, semantic and interconnection between the codes - perception, symbolization and conceptualization which perform the functions of perception, expression and understanding. The study included children with the intellectual norm (N = 30 and children with mild intellectual disability (N = 30. The obtained results mainly indicate the differences in how the happiness is understood by particular groups, to the detriment of children with disability. The character of the results is largely determined by the level of organization of knowledge about the joy and accompanying mental operations. The results will be discussed, among others, in the context of the adjustment of the programs of lasting increase of happiness for people with intellectual disability.

  20. GATAD2B loss-of-function mutations cause a recognisable syndrome with intellectual disability and are associated with learning deficits and synaptic undergrowth in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.H.; Nijhof, B.; Fenckova, M.; Nillesen, W.M.; Bongers, E.M.H.F.; Castells-Nobau, A.; Asztalos, L.; Viragh, E.; Bon, B.W.M. van; Tezel, E.; Veltman, J.A.; Brunner, H.G.; Vries, B.B. de; Ligt, J. de; Yntema, H.G.; Bokhoven, H. van; Isidor, B.; Caignec, C. Le; Lorino, E.; Asztalos, Z.; Koolen, D.A.; Vissers, L.E.L.M.; Schenck, A.; Kleefstra, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GATA zinc finger domain containing 2B (GATAD2B) encodes a subunit of the MeCP1-Mi-2/nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase complex involved in chromatin modification and regulation of transcription. We recently identified two de novo loss-of-function mutations in GATAD2B by whole exome s

  1. [Comparative assessment of cognitive styles forming personal behavior in health and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, N P

    2006-01-01

    The author suggests a cognitive-analytical concept of personality focusing on cognitively mediated processes of cyclic interaction of different levels of consciousness and subconsciousness represented in the form of emotional-behavioral potential and functional-dynamic system. A cognitive type (cognitype)--a type of personality-centered cognitive operations that determines the pattern of behavioral cycle and distinctive features of social adaptation--is singled out as an integrative basic individual and psychological component of personality. Presented is classification of personality cognitypes, their adaptive and maladaptive variants, correlations between cognitypes and anomalies of personality. The principles of psychotherapy of maladaptive behavior, borderline and addictive disorders (positive reintegration of personality) are substantiated.

  2. Differential-diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnhuber, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are clinically unspecific and can be found in numerous disorders. Within the framework of psychotherapeutically treatable illnesses, the classical obsessive-compulsive neurosis can be distinguished from early anancastia in the case of borderline personality disorder. The text refers to some aspects of the obsessive-compulsive disorder within these earlier disorders. At least five characteristics can be discussed: In the course of this, the varying functions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms for the inner-psychological organization become clear and specifically show that on a low structural level, symptoms do not appear to be primarily pathological but are a part of a "quasi-physiological" and ego-sustaining mechanism. What remains open to discussion in the end is, whether there may be an important substratum for the basis of a historiographical biology as called repeatedly for from psychosomatic theory repeatedly. In addition to this, the awareness of both forms is an important requirement for treatment.

  3. Difficulties with emotion regulation mediate the relationship between borderline personality disorder symptom severity and interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Nathaniel R; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Geiger, Paul J; Erikson, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Problems with interpersonal functioning and difficulties with emotion regulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Little is known, however, about the interrelationship between these areas of dysfunction in accounting for BPD symptom severity. The present study examines a model of the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and interpersonal dysfunction in a community sample of adults (n = 124) with the full range of BPD symptoms. Results showed that difficulties with emotion regulation fully mediated the relationship between BPD symptom severity and interpersonal dysfunction. An alternative model indicated that interpersonal problems partially mediated the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and BPD symptom severity. These findings support existing theories of BPD, which propose that difficulties with emotion regulation may account for the types of interpersonal problems experienced by individuals with BPD and suggest further examination of the possibility that interpersonal dysfunction may worsen these individuals' difficulties with emotion regulation.

  4. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder: Associations With Childhood Trauma and Dimensions of Personality Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-09-12

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.

  5. Debates on Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAŞCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper supports the understanding of the definition of intellectual property rights and strong connection with intangible assets and, on the other hand, provides a brief presentation of the organizations supporting the protection of such rights. The essential aim of this article is represented by the detailed information obtained as a result of research carried out in order to define, identify and study the application of IPR in general and especially in our country. At the end of the paper I mentioned what involves protecting intellectual property rights and brought little concerned how our country is perceived to protect such rights. Most often, intellectual property is defined as a formal document of title, like a lease, which means that the property is a legal concept distinct from real property that are actually good without concrete material form. Constitute a special category of assets being perceived as an original creation, derived from creative ideas; has or may have a commercial value due to its contribution to earnings for its owner. The need for protection of intellectual property rights has emerged because of the changes in the contemporary society. The aim and purpose of which is to protect human intelligence product and, at the same time, ensuring that consumers benefit from the use of the attributes of this product. Always remember that the violation of intellectual property rights, causes injury to major economic, signifying a strong threat to the consumers health and safety.

  6. Health and problem behavior among people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-01-01

    Good health significantly improves a person's quality of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities disproportionately have more health problems than the general population. Further complicating the matter is that people with more severe disabilities often cannot verbalize health complications they are experiencing, which leads to health problems being undiagnosed and untreated. It is plausible these conditions can interact with reinforcement contingencies to maintain problem behavior because of the increased incidence of health problems among people with intellectual disabilities. This paper reviews common health problems influencing problem behavior and reinforcement processes. A clear implication of this review is the need for comprehensive functional assessments of problem behavior involving behavior analysts and health professionals.

  7. Intellectual Property Law as an Internal Limit on Intellectual Property Rights and Autonomous Source of Liability for Intellectual Property Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Elizabeth F.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between intellectual property rights and classic property rights raised by Hoffman v. Monsanto (2005) and advances the idea that intellectual property law can serve as an autonomous source of liability for intellectual property owners. The article develops the conceptual advantages of demarcating physical and…

  8. Gruppemusikterapi med patienter med borderline-personlighedsforstyrrelse i dagbehandlingsregi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Denne artikel er første redegørelse for de erfaringer, som er gjort med gruppemusikterapi (GMT) for patienter med borderline-personlighedsforstyrrelse (BPF) i dagbehandlingsregi på Aalborg Psykiatriske Sygehus. Artiklen indeholder både konkrete anvisninger til aktiviteter og interventioner, ligesom...... den i et teoretisk perspektiv redegør for forskellige processer og reaktioner, der kan iagttages i behandlingen. Artiklen konkluderer, at GMT i sin nuværende form kan bidrage til udvikling af BPF-patienters evne til mentalisering og affektregulering, til opbygning af en gruppefølelse og fremme af...

  9. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntshingila

    2016-12-01

    From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with the self. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early onset of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different trigger factors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.

  10. MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Stanescu Aurelia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to provide the succinct description of the current status of theory and practice in the valuation of intellectual (intangible) capital, including the professional valuation of intellectual property and intangible assets.

  11. Intellectual Capital Management in Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Znakovaitė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian

  12. Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Programs & Activities > Administration on Disabilities > AIDD Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AIDD) Realizing the ... AIDD has a new address and phone number: Administration for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Administration for Community ...

  13. Mapping Knowledge and Intellectual Capital in Academic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Tomas; Husted, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    ,the university has so far not been directly considered for this type of management. The paper initiallyreviews the functions and techniques of knowledge mapping and assesses these in the light of academicdemands. Secondly, the result of a focus group study is presented, where academic leaders were askedto......This paper argues that knowledge mapping may provide a fruitful avenue for intellectual capitalmanagement in academic environments such as university departments. However, while some researchhas been conducted on knowledge mapping and intellectual capital management in the public sector...... reflect of the uses of knowledge mapping at their departments and institutes. Finally a number ofsuggestions are made as to the rationale and conduct of knowledge mapping in academe.Keywords: Knowledge mapping, academic, intellectual capital management, focus group, researchmanagement...

  14. Stimulus Over-Selectivity and Extinction-Induced Recovery of Performance as a Product of Intellectual Impairment and Autism Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle P.; Leader, Geraldine; Reed, Phil

    2015-01-01

    The current experiment investigated the extent to which three variables (autism severity, nonverbal intellectual functioning, and verbal intellectual functioning) are associated with over-selective responding in a group of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This paper also analyzed the association of these three variables with the recovery of…

  15. Genomic structural variants are linked with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulayeva, Kazima; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Bulayev, Oleg; Walsh, Christopher; Glatt, Stephen; Gurgenova, Farida; Omarova, Jamilja; Berdichevets, Irina; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in more than 500 genes have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and related disorders of cognitive function, such as autism and schizophrenia. Here we aimed to unravel the molecular epidemiology of non-specific ID in a genetic isolate using a combination of population and mol

  16. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in…

  17. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  18. Definition of Intellectual Disability in Criminal Court Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and associated descriptions of the condition now commonly known as "intellectual disability" serve many functions. The "Atkins v. Virginia" U.S. Supreme Court decision (2002) has called attention to the importance of clear, objective, and measureable wording of the definition. This article discusses the potential for misunderstanding…

  19. Innovation and the Exploitation of Intellectual Property Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    . Examples of the strategic abuse of the patent institutional machinery are given, including: the lobbying efforts to change the law to favour private control over the public interest function of intellectual propery law; the suggestion that corporations may attempt to register patents that they know...

  20. A Brief History of Anti-Intellectualism in American Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Dane S.

    2011-01-01

    Standard media coverage of higher education hasn't changed that much since the 1940s, and it doesn't serve the core functions of higher education well. US news media could not maintain their anti-intellectualism without widespread public acceptance, but schools of journalism must accept their share of the blame. US journalists historically came…

  1. R&D Collaboration with Uncertain Intellectual Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    - uncertain intellectual property rights (IPR) lead to reduced collaboration between firms and may hinder the production of knowledge. This has implications for technology policy as R&D collaborations are exempt from anti-trust legislation in order to increase R&D in the economy. We argue that a functional...... IPR system is needed for successful utilization of this policy....

  2. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  3. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  4. Simply Analyzing the Functions and the Implementing Proposals of the GameTeaching for the Pupil with Intellectual Disability%游戏教学对智障小学生的作用及实施建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽艳; 袁茵; 高尚

    2016-01-01

    文章主要采用文献研究法,搜集、整理了大部分有关智力障碍儿童的游戏教学方面的文献,分析、总结并归纳出在我国智力障碍小学生的教育中,游戏教学所发挥的作用及给特殊教育教师的一些实施建议。以期激发智障小学生的好奇心和学习兴趣,提高其教育训练效果。%In recent years, the game teaching is recognized by more and more special education teachers as an important means of teaching and it plays a significant role in our country’s elementary education practice of mental retardation. But a lot of special education teachers don't understand how to effectively implement it. Because these above, the author adopted literature research, collected and sorted out the most relevant mental retardation children' game teaching, then not only analyzed and summarized the functions of the game teaching in our country’s education of the pupil with intellectual disability, but also put forward some implementing proposals of the game?teaching to the special education teachers. In order to stimulate the curiosity and learning interest of students with mental retardation, improve the effect of education and training.

  5. Extremely rare borderline phyllodes tumor in the male breast: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Gyu; Kim, Shin Young; Jung, Hae Yoen; Lee, Deuk Young; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the male breast is an extremely rare disease, and far fewer cases of borderline phyllodes tumors than benign or malignant tumors in the male breast have been reported. We report a case of borderline phyllodes tumor in the male breast with imaging findings of the tumor and pathologic correlation.

  6. Emotion Regulation Training for Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder Traits : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Bloo, Josephine; van Gemert, Tonny G.; Wiersema, Herman M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training (ERT), a 17-session weekly group training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method: One hundred nine adolescents with borderline traits (73% meeting the full criteria for BPD) were randomized t

  7. Trends in incidence of borderline ovarian tumors in Denmark 1978-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Huusom, Lene Drasbek; Kjaerbye-Thygesen, Anette

    2011-01-01

    To examine period-, age- and histology-specific trends in the incidence rate of borderline ovarian tumors in Denmark in 1978-2006.......To examine period-, age- and histology-specific trends in the incidence rate of borderline ovarian tumors in Denmark in 1978-2006....

  8. Recurrent suicide attempts in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders: The role of borderline personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Barbara; Meijel, Berno van; Eikelenboom, M.; Koekkoek, B.; Licht, C.; Kerkhof, A.J.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts. Method

  9. Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of invasive ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors.......The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors....

  10. Recurrent suicide attempts in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders : The role of borderline personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Koekkoek, Bauke; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts.

  11. Recurrent suicide attempts in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders : The role of borderline personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Koekkoek, Bauke; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts. Method

  12. Attention and impulse control in children with borderline intelligence with or without conduct disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; van der Meer, Dirk-Jan; Borger, Norbert; Pirila, Silja

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate attention and impulse control in 21 boys with dual diagnoses of conduct disorder and borderline intelligence and in 19 boys with borderline intelligence only. Using the Continuous Performance Test A-not-X, it appeared that children with the dual diagnosis made

  13. Attention and impulse control in children with borderline intelligence with or without conduct disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; van der Meer, Dirk-Jan; Borger, Norbert; Pirila, Silja

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate attention and impulse control in 21 boys with dual diagnoses of conduct disorder and borderline intelligence and in 19 boys with borderline intelligence only. Using the Continuous Performance Test A-not-X, it appeared that children with the dual diagnosis made

  14. Recurrent suicide attempts in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders : The role of borderline personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Koekkoek, Bauke; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of a comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with an increase of suicidal behaviors in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the role of borderline personality traits on recurrent suicide attempts. Method

  15. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF CORPORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of using nonmaterial, intellectual resources including knowledge and experience of application of intellectual products, innovative capacities of the countries. It is proved that intellectual property is a powerful financial instrument. Forms of protection of scientific and technical achievements are analyzed. The main approaches to activization of protection of intellectual property in innovative activity are considered. This provides minimization of risks in the knowledge-intensive technological productions containing a trade secret

  16. Intellectual Property: The Law and Economics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    With the rise of the law and economics movement, the focus of economic analysis of intellectual property has begun to shift to more concrete and manageable issues concerning the structure and texture of the complicated pattern of common law and statutory doctrines, legal institutions and business practices relating to intellectual property. Among the issues discussed in this paper are the length of protection for intellectual property, the rules that allow considerable copying of intellectual...

  17. E-LEARNING SYSTEMS USING INTELLECTUAL TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy M. Trembatch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers key stages of e-learning systems development. We try and describe reasons for introduction of intellectual education systems, content of modern intellectual techniques. We also present perspectives for development of intellectual education systems using repeatedly employed components (the typical technical solutions. We present the design of an intellectual education system. Demo-examples are offered as well. 

  18. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Suicidal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  19. Borderline personality features in childhood: the role of subtype, developmental timing, and chronicity of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Kathryn F; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Child maltreatment has been established as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few studies consider how maltreatment influences the development of BPD features through childhood and adolescence. Subtype, developmental timing, and chronicity of child maltreatment were examined as factors in the development of borderline personality features in childhood. Children (M age = 11.30, SD = 0.94), including 314 maltreated and 285 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided self-reports of developmentally salient borderline personality traits. Maltreated children had higher overall borderline feature scores, had higher scores on each individual subscale, and were more likely to be identified as at high risk for development of BPD through raised scores on all four subscales. Chronicity of maltreatment predicted higher overall borderline feature scores, and patterns of onset and recency of maltreatment significantly predicted whether a participant would meet criteria for the high-risk group. Implications of findings and recommendations for intervention are discussed.

  20. The influence of borderline personality features on inpatient adolescent suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Fehon, Dwain C; Grilo, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents and suicidal behavior is one of the primary risk factors for youth psychiatric hospitalizations. A number of studies indicate that depression and substance abuse are associated with suicide risk in this population, but less is known about the role of borderline personality features or their incremental influence over other known risk factors in indicating suicidal behavior among adolescents. This study examined whether borderline features were associated with suicide risk when controlling for symptoms of depression and substance abuse in a sample of adolescents hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric facility. Self-report data from 477 adolescent psychiatric inpatients were used to test hypotheses about the association of borderline features with suicide risk after controlling for other common risk factors. Borderline features were significantly related to suicide risk even after accounting for symptoms of depression and substance abuse. These findings underscore the clinical value of routinely assessing borderline features among adolescents.