WorldWideScience

Sample records for border soviet production

  1. A large industrial pollution problem on the Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan border: Soviet production of mercury and stibium for the Soviet military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soviet industry of mercury and stibium was located in South-East Fergana in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan boarder. Khaidarken combine produced high pure mercury (99.9997 percent) since 1940, it was the second source in the World (after Almadena, Spain). Maximal production was 790 t in 1990, after Transitional Shock about 300 tons a year. Tail was established in 1967. There is special tube 5500 m transporting pulp to tail. The pulp contains about 0,003 mg/liter mercury, 0,005 mg/liter arsenic, 21 mg/liter stibium, etc. Pulp is cleaned by aluminum sulfuric and mortar. After drying and compressing by itself the concentrations rises: mercury 90-250 mg/kg, arsenic 190-400, stibium 800-1700 mg/kg. Environment pollution problem contains three kinds: ground water infiltration; old tube corroding some places (leaking from chink of tube) - both mentioned lead to vegetables cumulating; combine work spreading mercury by air to settlement Khaidarken. Kadamjay enterprise for stibium (mines, combine, purify plant, tails) began work in 1936. Most part of production used in soviet military. Maximal production was 17.000 t clearing ore in 1990, after USSR collapse 1-6 t/year. Tremendous tails and dams (total 150 mln t) remains non re-cultivated until now. The tails contain electrolysis wastage: sodium-sulfides, sulfites, sulfates; stibium; arsenic; cadmium; stibium; etc. Seven deposits (tail-damp really) established 1976, total square 76.1 thousands sq m, total volume 250 thousand cub m. The deposits over-filled, contents filtrating - little saline or lakes generated (one situated 50m near Uzbekistan boarder). River Shakhimardan flow to Uzbekistan (settlement Vuadil, Ferghana town). There are health damage indices in the areas.(author)

  2. Cross border environmental issues arising from the former Soviet Union nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination from sites in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) threaten bordering states via transport through marine environments. Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Finland share waterways or border common bodies of water with the FSU. Cross-border contamination resulting from past and in some cases current radioactive waste practices FSU nuclear wastes could under the right circumstances destabilize military, economic, or other relationships between the FSU and these border nations. The United States has an ongoing obligation to assist many of these border nations in times of need. This analysis was sponsored by the Office of Policy and International Affairs, Office of Materials-Asset Management and National Security Policy Analysis. The Center for Environmental Security was tasked to identify cross-border and other policy issues from an extensive body of technical materials dealing with nuclear materials management in the Former Soviet Union compiled over time by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analysis focused on cross-border impacts but also provides insights into policy analysis based on this existing technical work. The efficiencies and results realized by this study indicate that this analytical methodology has merit for additional policy studies. There are three elements comprising the problem of understanding cross border transport. The amount of FSU nuclear waste that has been disposed of in ways that did not, or probably will not contain the waste is the first element. The past and probable future entry of these wastes into groundwater and surface waters, thence to seas is the second. Finally, adverse effects on human health and welfare from ingesting contaminated sea products, and from damaged fisheries and food production activities is the third

  3. THE CONFLICTS ON THE ROMANIAN-UKRAINIAN BORDER, A STRUGGLE FOR THE DANUBE MOUTHS OR AN INHERITANCE FROM THE SOVIET PERIOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSABA M. KOVÁCS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Conflicts on the Romanian-Ukrainian Border, a Struggle for the Danube Mouths or an Inheritance from the Soviet Period ? The dispute between Romania and Ukraine has a complex nature and goes back to the history preceding the existence of both national states. The territory belonging today to Romania, Ukraine and Moldova used to be a buffer zone between the Ottoman, Russian and Habsburg Empires, and the frontier line changed very often even in modern times. However, the present border disputes between Romania and Ukraine were inherited from the communist period (1948-1989, as the bilateral agreements did not follow exactly the terms of the Paris Treaty of 1947. The consequences emerged after 1997 when, in spite of a new official border treaty with Ukraine, Romania had to address the ICJ from the Hague on the matter of the Black Sea shelf.

  4. LABOR PRODUCTIVITY CONVERGENCE OR DIVERGENCE IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES BEFORE AND AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF SOVIET UNION

    OpenAIRE

    HUYUGÜZEL KIŞLA, Şerife Gül; DELİKTAŞ, Ertuğrul

    2015-01-01

    This study examines labor productivity convergence in the Former Soviet Union Countries. It is known that labor productivity is a key of measure of economic growth and national competitiveness. The study includes two periods: first period covers the 1970-1989 years, and second period includes the 1991-2010 years called as the transition period. The findings of study indicate that during the Soviet Union, the speed of labor productivity convergence for fifteen countries is almost zero. On the ...

  5. «SOVIET PRODUCTION FILM» AS GENRE PHENOMENON OF THE SOVIET CINEMA OF THE 1970S: CINEMATOGRAPHY SPECIFICS AND FORMAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. HRYUKIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available «Soviet production film» - a unique genre phenomenon of the Soviet cinema of the 1970th years which emergence has been caused by the cinema tradition of reflection of "a labor subject" originating in the 1920th years on the Soviet screen, and also socio-cultural realities of the time: the declared "era of scientific and technical revolution", blossoming of production dramatic art, strengthening of ideological control over cinema. Relying on ideas of the Russian formal school in the film theory (Yu. Tynyanov, V. Shklovsky, B. Eykhenbaum, the film genres which have designated fundamental problems of studying, and also on provisions of the genre film study which has developed ideas of the Russian formalists, article pursues attempt to designate structural-semantic features of "soviet production film". Existence of steady ways of cinematography decisions, an setting, an iconography, musical and sound design, significant types of characters and actor's roles, models of plots and the general ideological and thematic context connected with the social and economic and industrial sphere of life of the Soviet society allows to tell about actually cinema specifics of a «soviet production film» as film genre.

  6. Soviet energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it moves from a centrally planned economy toward a market-based system, the Soviet Union will need to produce and export large quantities of oil to help finance industrial development and to purchase consumer goods from the West. Since 1988, however, Soviet oil production has fallen by about 8.8 percent. Oil exports also have declined, falling by about 15 percent from 1988 to 1990. The main reasons for the production decline are the lack of enough capital for exploration and production and the use of outdated and inefficient production practices. While U.S.-Soviet joint ventures could potentially help reverse this situation, both the United States and the Soviet Union maintain policies and practices that hinder U.S. trade and investment in Soviet oil exploration and production. Despite such difficulties, several U.S. multinational oil companies are proceeding with joint venture agreements, and progress is being made on overcoming some of the obstacles. For example, training programs in western business practices are being offered b the U.S. government, private companies, and universities. In addition, the U.S. and Soviet governments are now negotiating a tax treaty. GAO summarized this report in testimony before Congress

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF AUSTRALIAN MEAT MERINO AND STAVROPOL RAMS ON WOOL PRODUCTIVITY OF SOVIET MERINO SHEEP BREEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Kolosov Y. A.; Belik N. I.; Krivko A. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the article we have studied the influence of breeding Stavropol Rams breed and Australian meat merino for increase a wool productivity at offspring received from crossing with Soviet merino females

  8. Soviet woes, Middle East crisis cut first half world crude oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Persian Gulf crisis and the faltering Soviet oil industry spawned a 2.8% dive in world oil production during first half 1991 compared with the same period a year ago. Total world flow averaged 59.781 million b/d, down 1.728 million b/d from first half 1990. First half Soviet production fell 1.13 million b/d from a year ago to 10.6 million b/d. Production among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries in the first half averaged 22.927 million b/d, down 1.099 million b/d. Non-OPEC production averaged 36.854 million b/d, down from the 1990 first half average of 37.483 million b/d. OPEC's share of total world production fell to 38.4% for first half 1991 from 39.1% for first half last year. In 1979 OPEC production was 49.1% of total world production. OPEC's share dropped to 29.9% of the world total in 1985 and had been moving back up since then. OPEC set new production quotas totaling 22.31 million b/d, reflecting the curtailment of production from Kuwait and Iraq. Production in the first half of 1991 was 2.8% above quota

  9. SOVIET RUSSIA AND THE FORMATION OF BORDERS BETWEEN THE CAUCASIAN STATES(BASED ON A CASE STUDY OF AZERBAIJAN AND ARMENIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafaeva, Sitara

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at issues associated with the establishment of the Azerbaijan-Armenia border in 1920-1922. Based on extensive facts, it tries to shed light on the reasons for the territorial disputes between Azerbaijan and Armenia.

  10. INTERCEPTION OF ANIMAL-ORIGIN PRODUCTS AT LAND BORDERS IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Janice Eidt; Marcos Eielson Pinheiro de Sá; Concepta Margareth McManus; Cristiano Barros de Melo

    2015-01-01

    Infectious agents and veterinary diseases can be disseminated across borders and contribute to change the country sanitary status. The aim of this study was to identify the main animal products intercepted and seized by the agricultural surveillance units. This paper studied three Agricultural Surveillance Units located at land borders in the North region of Brazil: Assis Brasil and Epitaciolândia (Acre State) and Pacaraima (Roraima State), respectively borders with Peru, Bolivia and Venezuel...

  11. Institutional and Organizational Features of the Cross-Border Freight Traffic in the Conditions of Integration Among Former Soviet States. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolevich Tsvetkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the technical, technological, institutional and organizational barriers of cross-border transportation of goods. The study uses an institutional approach as a methodological alternative to other approaches. The institutional and organizational problems of border crossing points arrangement, the consequences of the application of unified transport documents, the introduction of electronic communication forms are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of demonstration actions, the daily practice of reducing the time of customs procedures and reducing the transaction costs of cross-border freight traffic. At the same time, it is specified that the way of effectiveness increase of cross-border transportation of goods is a simultaneous implementation of technical and institutional innovations. Emphasis is placed on identifying the institutional and organizational features of the international transportation of goods by road, in particular, the problems of the evolution of the customs duties guaranteed payment institute, the permission system in the implementation of cross-border goods traffic. It is especially specified that the state support of national businessmen demands the development of a mechanism providing a parity of the Russian and foreign carriers, at least in the field of freight hauling for the state needs with attraction of credit resources of banks with the state participation. It is emphasized that elimination of all informal (shadow relations in this sphere has to become the first step on the way of improvement of the institutional environment of the international road haulage. The institutional characteristics of transportation of goods in certain areas, in particular, road haulage to China through Kazakhstan, and the challenges and prospects for the use and development of the Kaliningrad region transit potential are allocated. The institutional and organizational characteristics of multimodal

  12. Institutional and Organizational Features of the Cross-Border Freight Traffic in the Conditions of Integration among Former Soviet States. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolevich Tsvetkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the technical, technological, institutional and organizational barriers of cross-border transportation of goods. The study uses an institutional approach as a methodological alternative to other approaches. The institutional and organizational problems of border crossing points arrangement, the consequences of the application of unified transport documents, the introduction of electronic communication forms are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of demonstration actions, the daily practice of reducing the time of customs procedures and reducing the transaction costs of crossborder freight traffic. At the same time, it is specified that the way of effectiveness increase of cross-border transportation of goods is a simultaneous implementation of technical and institutional innovations. Emphasis is placed on identifying the institutional and organizational features of the international transportation of goods by road, in particular, the problems of the evolution of the customs duties guaranteed payment institute, the permission system in the implementation of cross-border goods traffic. It is especially specified that the state support of national businessmen demands the development of a mechanism providing a parity of the Russian and foreign carriers, at least in the field of freight hauling for the state needs with attraction of credit resources of banks with the state participation. It is emphasized that elimination of all informal (shadow relations in this sphere has to become the first step on the way of improvement of the institutional environment of the international road haulage. The institutional characteristics of transportation of goods in certain areas, in particular, road haulage to China through Kazakhstan, and the challenges and prospects for the use and development of the Kaliningrad region transit potential are allocated. The institutional and organizational characteristics of multimodal

  13. Soviet naval operational art.

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, David Jeffery

    1988-01-01

    The Soviet theory of naval operational art is a body of knowledge which focuses the tactical capabilities of the Soviet Navy on achieving the strategic missions assigned them by the leadership of the Soviet Union. This body of knowledge guides the creation and execution of Soviet naval operations. Soviet military science establishes the theoretical foundation for the conduct of independent naval operations. Soviet troop control creates the planning processes by which Soviet naval commanders p...

  14. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while......The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... favoring regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high...

  15. 77 FR 36292 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Border Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ..., engineering and production of border security-related systems; and (iii) to insert these technologies into... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Border... the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the...

  16. Cross-Border Flows of People, Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck

    A number of empirical studies have investigated the hypothesis that cross-border flows of goods (international trade) and capital (FDI) lead to international technology diffusion. The contribution of the present paper consists in examining an as yet neglected vehicle for technology diffusion: cross-border...... flows of people. We find that increasing the intensity of international travel, for the purpose of business and otherwise, by 1% increases the level of aggregate total factor productivity and GDP per worker by roughly 0.2%....

  17. Soviet and Post-Soviet Area Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnell, Victoria E.; George W. Breslauer

    1998-01-01

    The essay traces the origins and development of Soviet area studies from their inception in the early 1940s to the present. The first part examines the institutional framework and the funding sources for Soviet and post-Soviet area studies. The second part concentrates on the connection between area studies and the disciplines. Next, the authors consider intellectual trends and map the major changes that have taken place in the conceptualization of Soviet area studies from the Second World Wa...

  18. Organizing the production of the first soviet hydraulic shock-absorbers for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and problems of serial production of hydraulic shock-absorbers designed for limitation of displacement of equipment and pipelines in the primary and secondary coolant circuits of NPPs with WWER reactors under seismic and accidental dynamic loads are considered. Mastering the production of hydraulic shock-absorbers required production of special, principally new, radiation and heat resistant building-up products such as bearings, transducers and materials as well as sealing details enduring maximum pressure up to 85 MPa

  19. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Aija Lulle

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through a...

  20. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 107 TBq (6.4 x 108 m3) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of nuclear weapon

  1. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  2. Switching to carbon-free production processes: Implications for carbon leakage and border carbon adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate policy under partial global compliance raises concerns regarding carbon leakage. While border carbon adjustment (BCA) measures are a potential remedy, they have also been criticised on various grounds. This paper therefore investigates whether a policy fostering the switch to carbon-free technologies can substitute for BCAs. A reason for the effectiveness of a targeted technology policy is that major leakage prone sectors (such as iron and steel), have two main sources of carbon emissions, combustion of fossil fuels and industrial processes. While combustion emissions can be reduced relatively easy by increasing energy efficiency, reducing process emissions requires a switch to low-carbon production processes, e.g. in steel production by deploying electrolysis based on large-scale solar electricity. We show by means of a multi-regional computable general equilibrium analysis that such a switch in steel production technology can eliminate a significant fraction of carbon leakage and also increase sectoral output and welfare. Since the necessary technologies are not available at large scale yet (however, are likely to be by 2020), a transitional BCA scheme may be a crucial supportive instrument to foster such technology switches. Yet, in the long run BCA should be phased out to preserve the incentive for carbon-free innovation. - Highlights: • A carbon-free technology switch in iron production considerably reduces total leakage. • Border carbon adjustment (BCA) may impede domestic industrial decarbonisation. • A targeted technology policy is superior to BCA in fostering low-carbon investments. • But implemented as a transitory instrument, BCA reinforces technology policy

  3. THE EFFECTS OF CROSS-BORDER BANK MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea N. POPOVICI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current research is to study bank mergers and acquisitions (M-A and to see whether they have implications on the productivity of the target banks, and also for the bidder bank. The aim of this paper is to see if, during 2002-2008 period, three banks from the European banking system, Banca Comerciala Romana from Romania, Slovenskásporiteľňa from Slovakia and Erste Bank Group from Austria improved their productivity due to the fact that all of them were involved in a process of cross-border merger or acquisitions, even if the bank is the purchaser or the target. To reach our goal, we used DEA method, by estimating the productivity achieved by these three banks during the period pre-M-A, post M-A, but we also estimated the productivity for entire period of seven years. Using Malquist DEA method, we show that, on average, the merger or acquisition in which a bank was involved improved the Total Factor Productivity of all analyzed banks.

  4. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  5. Soviet Children's Flags

    OpenAIRE

    Platoff, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    In the Soviet Union (1922-1991) small flags designed for and used by children were more than just toys. Deep scholarship and extensive illustrations of flags from the author’s collection show how such flags played a significant role in the socialization of Soviet children.

  6. Soviet submarine accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Soviet Union has more submarines than the NATO navies combined, and the technological superiority of western submarines is diminishing, there is evidence that there are more accidents with Soviet submarines than with western submarine fleets. Whether this is due to inadequate crews or lower standards of maintenance and overhaul procedures is discussed. In particular, it is suggested that since the introduction of nuclear powered submarines, the Soviet submarine safety record has deteriorated. Information on Soviet submarine accidents is difficult to come by, but a list of some 23 accidents, mostly in nuclear submarines, between 1966 and 1986, has been compiled. The approximate date, class or type of submarine, the nature and location of the accident, the casualties and damage and the source of information are tabulated. (U.K.)

  7. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-08-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade.

  8. New directions in soviet energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C. (Institut d' economie et de politique de l' energie, 38 - Grenoble (FR))

    The Soviet energy industry, with its extensive approach to energy management, now finds itself facing increasing difficulties in the exploitation of its resources. The issues raised by these internal constraints go beyond the Soviet Union's domestic situation. Energy policy is clearly at the heart of Soviet export strategy, having become an essential means of earning foreign currency. The fragile equilibrium established during the seventies would appear to be threatened. The maintenance of such an equilibrium requires a new approach to the management of the various internal and external constraints involved. In the immediate short-term, energy export requirements (mainly hydrocarbons) will have to be met. This constraint will perhaps be reinforced by Mikhail Gorbatchev's perestroika movements. Does this mean that the Soviet Union will necessarily have to continue a policy of maximising production, at least in the very short-term. And would such a policy be compatible with the modernization of the Soviet economy. Or are there grounds for the suggestion that a real energy demand management policy is already possible and that such a policy could constitute a lasting solution to existing problems. Future choices will be underpinned by questions such as these and Soviet leaders will have to define new directions in both supply and demand. With the help of the glasnot movement, the development of these new orientations is clearly taking place in a new context.

  9. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade

  10. "Over the River": Border Childhoods and Border Crossings at Niagara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleiner, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with Canadian borderlanders, this article examines childhood experiences with the Canada--US border in the mid-1980s to early 1990s. The retrospective accounts of childhood border experiences demonstrate how childhood was produced and experienced in border crossings and how the production of childhood intersected with a…

  11. Laboratizing the border: The production, translation and anticipation of security technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, Mike; Johnson, Heather; Lisle, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    This paper critically interrogates how borders are produced by scientists, engineers and security experts in advance of the actual deployment of technical devices they develop. This paper explores the prior stages of translation and decision-making as a socio-technical device is conceived and developed. Drawing on in-depth interviews, observations and ethnographic research of the EU-funded Handhold project (consisting of nine teams in five countries), it explores how assumptions about the way...

  12. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  13. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  14. Soviets seek scientific exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    GEOS-A, associated with the Soviet Union's Institute of Earth Physics, is seeking to promote exchange between Soviet and Western geophysicists. GEOS-A is a nonprofit, private organization formed by specialists from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists.GEOS-A aims to promote the transfer of academic research results to industry and education. It also seeks to stimulate international scientific exchange and to support independent nongovernmental programs and expertise in geophysics and ecology. The organization would like to cooperate with Western universities in exchanging students and young scientists and in building scientific relationships between the two countries. This would include inviting students and young specialists for collaborative scientific research, consultations, language practice, and graduate study in any institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Participants would live in rented private apartments in downtown Moscow for approximately one week to several months. All living expenses would be covered at a rate higher than the academy's standard one (unfortunately travel to and from the Soviet Union cannot be covered).

  15. Contrasting groundwater quality in areas with and without gas production by hydraulic fracturing near the PA/NY border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, M.; Yan, B.; Ross, J. M.; Chillrud, S. N.; Saberi, P.; Panettieri, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Shale gas development, including drilling and hydraulic fracturing, is rapidly increasing throughout the United States and, indeed, the rest of the world. Systematic surveys of water quality both pre- and post drilling/production are sparse. To examine the impacts of shale gas production on water quality, pilot studies are being conducted in adjacent counties of western NY (Chemung, Tioga, Broome, and Delaware) and northern PA (Bradford, Susquehanna, and Tioga). These 7 counties along the border of NY and PA share similar geology and demographic compositions and have been identified as a key area to develop shale gas with the key difference that active fracking is occurring in PA but there is no fracking yet in NY due to the current moratorium in that state. Measurements include a suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), major and trace elements, methane and its stable isotopes, noble gases and tritium for dating purposes, and the primary radioactive elements of potential concern, radon and radium. We found elevated methane levels on both sides of the border, and some wells show elemental fingerprints characteristic for shale fluids. Field observations at several wells near drill sites in PA suggested elevated levels of organics, possibly from hydraulic fracturing activities. The full suite of lab analyses is currently ongoing and can be used to further characterize sources of these organics.

  16. Big business and quality of institutions in the post-Soviet space: Spatial aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Libman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The spatial aspect of political-economic transformation in the former Soviet Union - including the relations between new independent states and the center-region relations within national borders - has a heavy impact on the quality of institutions comprising the economic order. The paper discusses how the interaction between the development of large business groups and changes in the spatial organization of power within the framework of the Russian federalism and the post-Soviet integration i...

  17. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  18. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  19. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Science Across Borders: 5th Annual Natural Health Product Research Conference—March 26–29, 2008, Toronto, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada is experiencing a growing interest in the use of alternative therapies and products particularly natural health products (NHP. In 1997, Canadians spent around C$ 2 billion on NHP. In an attempt to catch with this popularity of NHP use, Canadian researchers and administrators from academia, industry and government jointly established the Natural Health Product Research Society of Canada (NHPRS. Since its formation, NHPRS has been organizing an annual meeting which brings together world renowned researchers and experts in the area of NHP research. For 2008, the annual NHPRS meeting took place in Toronto from the 26th to 29th of March with a focus on ‘Science Across Borders: Global Natural Health Products Research’. The scientific program was spread into three days of plenary lectures and oral presentations. The different sessions containing these talks were on: ethnobotany around the world; chemical analysis of NHP; product standards and quality control; ethnomedicine; novel analytical approaches; systemic research, nutrisciences and molecular medicine; and drug development from NHP. The meeting proved to be a great success in terms of the speakers that were invited and based on the data that was presented which highlighted recent research taking place in the field of NHP not only in Canada but from many parts of the world.

  2. A Soviet view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past several years, the international situation has changed greatly. Efforts to maintain strategic stability have replaced the desire for strategic superiority. Equally important, new thinking in the Soviet Union has greatly accelerated the political warming between the superpowers. As a result of thee developments, the Soviet Union and the United States have come to the conclusion that a nuclear war cannot be won and should never be fought. These events have drastically reduced the probability of the deliberate use of nuclear or conventional weapons. However, the risk of a military crisis and its consequences still exist. Indeed, the risk of a nuclear exchange is still possible. What has changed, however, is that in the current international climate, a crisis or war may result unintentionally because of misperceptions, misunderstanding, accident, or technical fault. While the probability of this is admittedly small, it remains far greater than that of deliberate conflict. The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is twofold. First, it identifies potential sources of unintended crises and conflicts and recommends appropriate confidence-building measures. Second, it addresses CBMs and their potential roles in nuclear crisis de-escalation

  3. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  4. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  5. SOVIET STATE TERRORISM IN AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailov, Eldar

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the Soviet policy of state terror pursued in 1937 and its specifics and consequences in Azerbaijan. He points out that in a relatively short period the Soviet totalitarian system reached the absolute limit in terms of human rights violations and personal insecurity of its citizens.

  6. Re: Soviet river diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jas O.

    The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

  7. The Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William T. R. Fox's pre-nuclear age analysis provides an excellent starting point for the authors' discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in Soviet security policy. By pointing to some of the non-nuclear, more properly geopolitical sources of peace in East-West relations, Fox's forceful analysis serves as a reminder to approach the authors' study with caution. Too often, there has been a tendency to reduce the etiology of war and peace in East-West relations to its nuclear aspect without proper regard for other, primarily geopolitical, components which provide the all-important context in which nuclear weapons work their indisputable deterrent effect. Two geopolitical sources for the relative peace in post-war East-West relations have been the inability of either the Soviet Union or the United states to employ direct military force in politically significant terms against the vital interests of the other; and an abiding preference, on the part of both, for a divided Germany within a divided Europe. Any other plausible alternative, of course, would almost certainly have involved a united Germany and the related likelihood that it would either gravitate to one or the other alliance or, itself, would constitute the third leg of an intrinsically unstable tri-polar relationship. This paper reports that the prevailing inclination to analyze East-West security as a direct function of nuclear deterrence (witness the Western consternation about INF and denuclearization, and the proliferation of think-tank study groups on post-nuclear security) begs the probability that there are in fact a variety of deeply rooted structures of stability in East-West relations and so exaggerates the delicacy of the existing security order in Europe. to an extent, this follows form the general acceptance of deterrence theory in the West, especially in the United States, and the undoubtedly singular character and role of nuclear weapons in that order

  8. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective. PMID:12339937

  9. Border Battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2015-11-01

    The Texas Medical Association, the Texas Alliance for Patient Access, and other organizations ask for reversal of a court ruling that allows a Texas negligence case to proceed in New Mexico. The case is sounding alarms all over Texas' medical community, conjuring fears that if the Supreme Court upholds the application of New Mexico law, it could have a significant impact on Texas doctors who operate near the state's vast borders and treat out-of-state patients. PMID:26536518

  10. Soviet health care and perestroika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

    1990-02-01

    Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

  11. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.       Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  12. Soviet oil industry woes may extend crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-03

    Overall, the Soviet Union apparently has more BTU of principal fuels - oil, gas, and coal - than any other nation in the world. The West has expressed willingness, even eagerness, to help the U.S.S.R. develop its abundant energy resources. However, Moscow has demonstrated that it can be a difficult partner. What could change the entire scenario of Soviet/western cooperation in achieving a Russian petroleum industry rebound is the possibility that the U.S.S.R. will slip from deep crisis into complete political, economic, and ethnic chaos. This could lead to a breakup of the union, would likely stifle perestroika's reforms, might cause rejection of Western assistance (or increased reluctance by the West to provide it). The Soviet Union's petroleum industry has been battered during the past 3 years by the most severe and broad based setbacks ever suffered by a nation not involved in a major war or crippled by deliberate government decisions to limit oil flow. If early 1991 results are a reliable indicator, the U.S.S.R.'s recovery from its present oil crisis will take considerable time. But there is general agreement among western geologists and economists that the Soviet Union can, by adopting a rational energy policy and attracting substantial Western financial and technological assistance, halt the drop in crude/condensate production by the mid-1990s. Some observers believe that the most frequently cited estimates of current U.S.S.R. explored (proved plus probable) oil reserves are low and that the nation's ultimate crude/condensate reserves are enormous.

  13. Outer Borders, Inner Boundaries in Finland. The Reconstructed Russian Border and the Changing Geography of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Parot, Jocelyn

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, Finland has been involved in a geopolitical transition from the Soviet sphere of influence towards the core of the European integration process. The Finnish-Russian border has consequently transformed: primarily a segment of the Iron Curtain, it has thereafter turned into an external border, a frontier, of the European Union. As a result, a whole set of EU policies have been implemented, with the aim of converting this line of exclusion into an area of cross ...

  14. Training course for border guards organized by the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danger of illegal trade in radioactive and fissile material has recently increased due to disintegration of the former Soviet Union. A substantial part of these materials is suspected to be smuggled through Poland to Western Europe. Proper countermeasures like establishing radiation detecting gates at border crossings and specific training programs for border guards have been set up by Polish authorities. On request of Polish Border Guard Command the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) has prepared a series of training courses for border guard officers. The courses covered both theoretical and practical subjects concerned with radiation safety and were focused on detection and safeguarding of radioactive or fissile material at border crossings. (author)

  15. Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P

    1983-06-01

    child can make substitutions between having more children and raising the quality of children already born. The question is what does the model predict will happen to fertility with economic development. The positive income effect will be limited as increased income is channelled into child quality and other superior goods rather than child quantity. The Urlanis-Strumilin model of labor supply assumes that the household allocates its time among market employment, household production. The model shows that the effect of children on female labor supply is not ambiguous. The presence of young children raises the value of home services and lowers long run market wages, thereby reducing female market labor supply. According to the model, the socialist state can manipulate labor supplies through several channels. It can reduce the value of home services by providing market substitutes. Soviet writers recognize the linkages between labor supply and fertility without formalizing the simultaneous relationship. The comparative statics of the Soviet model are essentially the same as those of the neoclassical model: an increase in "costs" of children will have, at best, a small positive impact on fertility. PMID:12265719

  16. Use of Non Wood Forest Products by local people bordering the "Parc National Kaboré Tambi", Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belem, Bassirou; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Gbangou, Roland;

    2007-01-01

    In the French-speaking countries of Africa, strategies of conservation, inherited from thecolonial time, exclude the bordering people in the management of the national parks plant resources. Today, policies and legislation try to reconcile forest conservation and development by associating local...... this process will depend on all actors including policy makers, technicians, local people, researchers and funding agencies....

  17. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  18. The phenomenon of Soviet science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    The grand "Soviet experiment" constituted an attempt to greatly accelerate and even shortcut the gradual course of historical development on the assumption of presumed knowledge of the general laws of history. This paper discusses the parts of that experiment that directly concerned scientific research and, in fact, anticipated or helped define important global changes in the functioning of science as a profession and an institution during the twentieth century. The phenomenon of Soviet, or socialist, science is analyzed here from the comparative international perspective, with attention to similarities and reciprocal influences, rather than to the contrasts and dichotomies that have traditionally interested cold war-type historiography. The problem is considered at several levels: philosophical (Soviet thought on the relationship between science and society and the social construction of scientific knowledge); institutional (the state recognition of research as a separate profession, the rise of big science and scientific research institutes); demographic (science becoming a mass profession, with ethnic and gender diversity among scientists); and political (Soviet-inspired influences on the practice of science in Europe and the United States through the social relations of science movement of the 1930s and the Sputnik shock of the 1950s). PMID:18831319

  19. Borders, barriers and grievable lives : the discursive production of self and other in film and other audio-visual media

    OpenAIRE

    Pötzsch, Holger

    2011-01-01

    On the background of a close reading of Ridley Scott’s war film Black Hawk Down (USA 2001; BHD), this paper investigates the formal properties through which a certain strain of war and action movies discursively constitutes the other – the enemy - as less than human. I develop the argument that the emergent relation between friend and foe in these films can be read through the concept of the border as an epistemological barrier that keeps the other incomprehensible, inaccessible, and ultimat...

  20. The Truth About Soviet Whaling

    OpenAIRE

    Berzin, Alfred A.

    2008-01-01

    I have always condemned (and to do anything more was not within our power or abilities) the illegal and sometimes destructive whaling by the Soviet Union. This opinion was expressed in numerous documents, including reports and records of presentations at scientific and other meetings; these documents are the witnesses to this condemnation. However, none of these documents ever saw the light of day: all of them were marked with the sinister stamp “secret.” When necessary in this memoir, my ...

  1. Egg Production and Donation: A New Frontier in the Global Landscape of Cross-Border Reproductive Care: Ethical Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Margherita; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Pascale, Natasha; Riezzo, Irene; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is a multifaceted phenomenon. It may involve both the movement of patients to undertake assisted reproductive treatment through technologies otherwise denied and the movement of assisted reproduction professionals, egg and sperm donors and surrogates, as well as the importing and exporting of gametes. The reasons for CBRC vary between countries. In this global landscape, the search for donor oocytes is one of the main reasons for patients seeking cross-border reproductive care. The egg market has led to ethical and political concerns about the means of procuring donor oocytes, the possibility of exploiting economically underprivileged women mainly in poor countries, and the issue of the responsibility and accountability of medical doctors and fertility clinics. Ethical concerns relating to international egg donation are discussed with special focus on the issues of compensation/ reimbursement, the health and welfare of women donating eggs, informed consent to donation, the possible conflict of interest for physicians involved in egg donation programmes, and equity in the distribution of economic resources from CBRC. Finally, the need for global solutions to this global issue is underlined. PMID:26775650

  2. Improving safety practices in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl highlighted deficiencies in the Soviet regulatory system, but fortunately, the new spirit of perestroika has made it easier to implement the necessary improvements. Soviet delegates at a recent IAEA conference described what is being done. The Soviet State Committee on the Supervision of Nuclear Power Safety (Gosatomenergonadzor) is responsible for the organisation of safety work carried out at nuclear plants, and is also responsible for the control of safety research programmes being developed. (U.K.)

  3. Improving safety practices in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-03-01

    Chernobyl highlighted deficiencies in the Soviet regulatory system, but fortunately, the new spirit of perestroika has made it easier to implement the necessary improvements. Soviet delegates at a recent IAEA conference described what is being done. The Soviet State Committee on the Supervision of Nuclear Power Safety (Gosatomenergonadzor) is responsible for the organisation of safety work carried out at nuclear plants, and is also responsible for the control of safety research programmes being developed. (U.K.).

  4. Soviet business chaos seen lasting 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that companies seeking work in the collapsing Soviet Union can expect political uncertainty for another 5 years. PW discussed changes in the Soviet Union and offered advice on dealing with officials of the central government and Soviet republics at a recent meeting in Houston with executives of oil field service companies. That meeting preceded reports of the Russian federation, Ukraine, and Byelorussia agreeing to form a Slavic commonwealth

  5. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs

  6. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-03-19

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.

  7. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical...... level. It provides border scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  8. Breaking Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, the Sunday night dramas of the public service broadcaster DR are somewhat of a national ritual. Until recently, Danes thought these series to be only for the Danes, but since 2002 they have also found international acclaim and distribution. The Killing and Borgen are the most recent...... examples of this success. Based on theories of media creativity, genre and globalization, this chapter addresses how to understand the international interest in series from a small national television culture. We analyse the production framework of DR’s in-house drama unit, which has concepts such as ‘one...

  9. Aluminum-induced cell death of barley-root border cells is correlated with peroxidase- and oxalate oxidase-mediated hydrogen peroxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, L; Budíková, S; Huttová, J; Mistrík, I; Simonovicová, M; Siroká, B

    2005-06-01

    The function of root border cells (RBC) during aluminum (Al) stress and the involvement of oxalate oxidase, peroxidase and H(2)O(2) generation in Al toxicity were studied in barley roots. Our results suggest that RBC effectively protect the barley root tip from Al relative to the situation in roots cultivated in hydroponics where RBC are not sustained in the area surrounding the root tip. The removal of RBC from Al-treated roots increased root growth inhibition, Al and Evans blue uptake, inhibition of RBC production, the level of dead RBC, peroxidase and oxalate oxidase activity and the production of H(2)O(2). Our results suggest that even though RBC actively produce active oxygen species during Al stress, their role in the protection of root tips against Al toxicity is to chelate Al in their dead cell body. PMID:15759117

  10. Beyond borders: Reconsidering regional trade in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Grafe; Martin Raiser; Toshiaki Sakatsume

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the barriers to trade in Central Asia. While much of the existing literature on international integration of former Soviet Union countries has focussed on the quantities traded, this paper uses relative prices to shed some light on impediments to trade. It finds that the impact of borders on price variations across different locations in Central Asia is much smaller than conventionally thought. While prices vary significantly across the region, variations within one co...

  11. Review of the Soviet gas industry in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soviet production of natural gas increased by only 18.6 billion cubic meters (2.3%) in 1990, from 796.1 billion cubic meters (BCM) to 814.7 BCM. This was the smallest annual increment and the lowest rate of growth in more than two decades. During the 1980s, annual growth typically had been in the 6-8% range, with yearly increments of 40-50 BCM. Of the national total in 1990, enterprises of the Gazprom Concern (formerly the Ministry of the Gas Industry) produced 748.0 BCM, while the Ministry of Oil and Gas produced 66.7 BCM; the latter would be mostly associated gas. Given the USSR's ample resource base, it appears that the Soviet economy is experiencing increasing problems absorbing natural gas, particularly as Soviet aggregate economic output falls along with total energy consumption. During the 1980s, when the gas industry was growing so rapidly, the Soviets absorbed the massive increments in gas supply by directing most of it to a few very large consumers - electric power stations, iron and steel plants, and nitrogenous fertilizer centers. Currently, 54.3% of gas is used for electric power generation; 32.6% in industry; and only 13.1% by the housing and municipal sector. Although the share of housing units using either natural gas or LPG (liquefied petroleum gas-butane and propane) is fairly high in the Soviet Union - 84.8% - this is mostly for cooking rather than heating, so gas use per unit is relatively small. Another problem is that the availability of gas among households is very uneven across the republics and between rural and urban areas. A table gives statistics on gas production in various regions from 1970-1990

  12. The Impact of "Perestroika" on Soviet Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodinsky, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Proponents of Perestroika" and "glasnost" are tirelessly seeking to remold Soviet teaching and learning. Innovations and "corrections" are being fed by numerous articles in professional journals and by pedagogical leaders in academies and universities. Teaching in Soviet classrooms remains a teacher-centered, one-way process. Curriculum revision…

  13. Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

  14. SOVIET POSTERS IN PROMOTING AGRONOMIC KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to combine professional agronomic knowledge with familiarity with graphic art presented in the form of a poster in the paper. The term "poster" is considered a large loose-leaf edition, combines visual and typographic elements and execute graphic communications. The main idea of the poster is to convey the information to the reader quickly and accurately. In the study of the material we have formed complex scientific and educational resources on the history of agricultural science, including the history of the popularization of agronomic knowledge. In our work, the poster is treated as an object of analysis, as the material of social and cultural analysis and as a tool to gather information on the development of agronomic knowledge through their visualization. In the course "History and methodology of scientific agronomy" one of the competencies of students is familiarity with the methodology popularization of agronomic knowledge, understanding of what is happening. In this regard, an attempt was made to consider the Soviet poster as a source of information on the development of scientific agriculture in the period from 1917 to 1980. The aim was to analyze the main events of this period, elements of the technology of agricultural production, species and varietal diversity of crops, as well as various events in the agricultural sector. The article considers four basic types of posters: promotional, political, instructional, scientific and educational. Each of these types of posters performs its function. The poster covered all stages of agrarian sector of the country, was a historical reflection of the Soviet period and always remained mobile, online and popular art form. Today, his role is small, because it has changed the ways of presenting information. However, its historical role unchanged, he has served as the Foundation of the modern advertising industry, including agronomic knowledge

  15. Military-Economic Role of "Lend-Lease" for the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Grigory G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the empirical analysis of the military-economic significance of Allied supplies to the Soviet Union through the "lend-lease". The author gives the description associated with the process of the formation of "lend-lease" for Soviet-American relations. The article describes the technical implementation of the program "lend-lease" at the initial stage of the great Patriotic war. For the first time in the domestic economic historiography author carries out the brief analysis of the scope of supplies of American products to the Soviet Union outside the program "lend-lease". For the first time also author analyzes the value of deliveries of military goods from the Western countries to the USSR on the base of valuation of Soviet military production in 1941 and 1942 on the basis of the actual exchange rate of Ruble to Dollar.

  16. The lasting Soviet nuclear menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the unsafe conditions of the nuclear power industry in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Because of lack of efficient power generation, the old first generation Chernobyl-type reactors are being upgraded or new ones are being constructed. The operators themselves are also unsafe, with lack of training and poor working conditions. Improving energy efficiency would be more cost effective than constructing new nuclear plants. This could be achieved by such measures as installing boiler controls, thermostats, and meters; by retrofitting factories; by raising the price of electricity to encourage conservation; by repairing leaking natural gas pipelines; and by building gas-fired power plants. These changes are not likely to come about soon however

  17. Prospects for Soviet energy export after the perestroika. Utsikter for Sovjetunionens energiexport efter perestrojkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetski, M. (SNS Energy (SE))

    1991-01-01

    The prospects for the Soviet energy sector are analyzed and the following questions discussed: How will the continued reformation of the society affect the energy sector, how will production and consumption change, will the exportable surplus increase and what will the consequences be for the world energy markets. The author foresees a very large increase in Soviet energy export after the reform period, wih largest growth of natural gas export and smallest of coal exports. (L.E.) (8 tbls., 21 refs.).

  18. Science Across Borders: 5th Annual Natural Health Product Research Conference—March 26–29, 2008, Toronto, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur

    2008-01-01

    Canada is experiencing a growing interest in the use of alternative therapies and products particularly natural health products (NHP). In 1997, Canadians spent around C$ 2 billion on NHP. In an attempt to catch with this popularity of NHP use, Canadian researchers and administrators from academia, industry and government jointly established the Natural Health Product Research Society of Canada (NHPRS). Since its formation, NHPRS has been organizing an annual meeting which brings together worl...

  19. Entrepreneurship, ties and relational networks: the case of a public-private cross-border tourism product

    OpenAIRE

    Solé Pla, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The thesis aims to understand the processes of entrepreneurship that try to create businesses or products with a high degree of complexity. This complexity comes from the fact that these products or initiatives can only be viable with the concurrence of a large number of heterogeneous actors (public, private, from different regions, etc..) which interact in a relational context. A case with these characteristics is the Camí dels Bons Homes. The thesis analyzes the evolution of the relational ...

  20. Feedback, Surveys, and Soviet Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Reports on how traditional feedback channels in the Soviet Union work and how public opinion surveys have caused Communist party leaders to assess and expand their feedback channels, particularly in the area of letters from private citizens. (PD)

  1. Business Education in Post Soviet Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Doghonadze, Natela

    2009-01-01

    The presented article discusses the history of business education development in post Soviet countries. It is shown that, though much has been done in these countries to bring business education to international standards, still much has to be done

  2. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  3. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...

  5. The Border Pedagogy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Border pedagogy is a multicultural educational approach utilized in multicultural settings to help students understand their histories and experiences and how it affects their identities and cultures. The approach seeks to produce intellectuals that transcend physical and metaphysical boundaries. The goal of border pedagogy is to remove cultural…

  6. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical......Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that...... origin of the traders engaged in cross-border activities. In those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots....

  7. Polish Eastern Border as an External European Union Border

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurek, Tomasz; Barwiński, Marek

    2009-01-01

    1. Apart from Finnish-Russian border, Polish eastern border is one of the longest external European Union and Schengen Agreement land borders under the control of a single country. 2. For the last few years, Polish Government has significantly improved the infrastructure of Border Guard at the eastern border in order to prevent “flooding” of Europe by illegal immigrants and smuggled goods. 3. Despite this fact, Polish eastern border does not have sufficient infrastructure, especially wh...

  8. Meeting on the Elbe (Vstrecha na EI'be) : A visual representation of the incipient Cold War from a Soviet perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Keghel, Isabelle de

    2009-01-01

    The article explores the most important Soviet film covering the incipient Cold War, Meeting on the Elbe. The production involved prominent Soviet filmmakers and actors. By juxtaposing the occupation policies of both superpowers in post-war Germany, the film makes crucial assumptions concerning the Soviet self and the US-American other. It attributes the full responsibility for the outbreak of the Cold War to the US-American political and military elites and argues the USSR has won the trust ...

  9. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  10. Migrants and Borders - Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Quiminal, Catherine; Blum Le Coat, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This text is based on the researches on the migrants' representations of Europe and how their representations evolve during migrants' itineraries realised for the program Eurobroadmap. These researches have followed three major migratory 'routes' to the European Union: the Southern route that crosses the Mediterranean Sea (Mali, Senegal, Morocco, and Malta), the Eastern route through the former Soviet countries (Romania) and Central Asia (India), and finally Latin America (Argentina). Focusin...

  11. Evolution of Soviet Theater Nuclear Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soviet theater nuclear forces were a major pillar of Soviet superpower strength, rising sharply under Krushchev in the latter 1950s to their zenith under Brezhnev twenty years later. Most recently they have begun their decline under Gorbachev, and while not yet facing extinction, may be headed for a much reduced role under the new thinking in the USSR. This paper deals with the Soviet TNF in six periods of their life: The Post-war Stalin Period (1945-1953), the Post-Stalin Period (1953-1955), The Transition Period (1955-1959), The Period of Nuclear Revolution (1960-1964), The Period of Modern TNF Planning (1965-1980), and The Period of Non-nuclear Planning (1980-1987)

  12. Chernobyl and consequences for the Soviet agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region within a radius of 30 km around the Chernobyl reactor was declared a safety zone, from where people and livestock were evacuated. In this zone agricultural activities were stopped temporarily. The losses to Soviet agriculture are surprinsingly low, the reason being that in the Soviet Union radioactivity hazards are rated differently than in western countries. The Soviet radiation protection standards for man are accordingly. They allow a total body burden of 500 mrem a year, and a thyroid burden for children of 30 mrem. It is obvious that the authorities keep the quantitative losses for agriculture down. Of greater consequence could be the qualitative losses in so far as the soil of a large area will be contaminated on a long-term basis, radioactive contaminated crops have been and will continue to be harvested and fed, and contaminated food is and will be eaten. (orig./HSCH)

  13. Toric Border Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Mourrain, Bernard; Trebuchet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    International audience We extend the theory and the algorithms of Border Bases to systems of Laurent polynomial equations, defining ''toric'' roots. Instead of introducing new variables and new relations to saturate by the variable inverses, we propose a more efficient approach which works directly with the variables and their inverse. We show that the commutation relations and the inversion relations characterize toric border bases. We explicitly describe the first syzygy module associate...

  14. The power industry in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of years, the Electric Power Research Institute has been studying unique aspects of the Soviet Power Industry, second in size only to that in the United States. Recent first hand reviews by EPRI personnel confirmed the growth of a power industry which, perhaps because of its almost total isolation from Western ideas for more than 50 years, has evolved some fundamentally different concepts in designs, equipment manufacturing, and power distribution. Selected topics of interest to U.S. utilities are discussed in this paper, as extracted from an in-depth visit to the Soviet power industry by the authors

  15. Prevalence and Characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Strains Isolated from Stray Dog and Coyote Feces in a Major Leafy Greens Production Region at the United States-Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Michele T. Jay-Russell; Hake, Alexis F.; Yingjia Bengson; Anyarat Thiptara; Tran Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stra...

  16. The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarino Honoria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease

  17. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  18. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  19. Postcolonial studies and post-Soviet societies: The possibilities and the limitations of their intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a short review of the postcolonial studies’ origins, this paper considers the question of their application in the study of history and contemporary state of the post-Soviet societies. Aspirations of the leading theorists of postcolonial studies not to restrict their field of research on the relation of imperial metropoles (First World and its (postcolonial periphery (Third World have not met with the acceptance in post-Soviet societies’ academia. With the exception of the famous debates on „the Balkans“ that are not the subject of this paper, the paradigm of post-colonialism is rarely used in the interpretation of past and present of the former socialist states (Second World. Rejecting the thesis of their own (postcolonial status in most of Eastern European countries is usually based on a rejection of the assumption of the Soviet-style communism’s „civilizing mission“. From the same perspective, the Soviet Union is not considered a colonial metropole, but an occupying force, and the epoch of socialism is interpreted as externally imposed breach of the historical developments based on the European model. On the other hand, the concept of these countries’ transition opens up the issue of their (postcolonial status in relation to „Europe“ as the center of economic, political and cultural power. Therefore, the postcolonial critique of post-Soviet societies is more often focused on the thematisation of neo-imperial domination and neo-colonial dependency phenomena, than on the explanation of their socialist past. The author’s opinion is that it doesn’t mean that a number of concepts of postcolonial theory - such as „internal colonialism“ - cannot be productively used to a fuller understanding of the Soviet past, nor that in the interpretation of post-Soviet realities’ „hybrid forms“ the postcolonial studies cannot be of use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 149026

  20. First Soviet Sea-Launched Ballistic Rockets

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2013-01-01

    In the article it is told about the creation of the first generation of Soviet ballistic missiles for the armament of submarines. The basic stages of their development, tests and adoption for the armament are described. Are cited the data about the people, is most which actively participated in these processes.

  1. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics

  2. Soviet seaports - the impact of perestroika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peckham, R.

    1990-09-01

    Reviews seaports in the USSR. The main dry bulk installations, cargo volumes, handling facilities and development plans are identified. Current major issues facing the Soviet ports industry are examined. These include funding and administration, development of new business opportunities, greater efficiency and specialisation in cargo handling, improvement in operational control systems, and growing environmental pressures. 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Perestroika: The Prospects for Soviet Economic Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Alastair

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Soviet economy during the period of perestroika. Includes the level of output, rate of inflation, privatization, and proposals for economic reform. Assesses the stabilization program and possibilities of restructuring. Concludes that neither Mikhail Gorbachev nor perestroika are likely to survive the trials of inflation,…

  4. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  5. The Soviet School System under Perestroika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, Anna

    1990-01-01

    Describes changes at the three levels of the Soviet educational system (primary, basic, and secondary) brought about by Perestroika. The basic level offers a compulsive general studies program while a differentiated secondary curriculum offers more electives. Discusses the teacher's role and the establishment of public governing councils. (SLM)

  6. "Krokodil"--Satire for the Soviets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehowski, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Describes features of the successful Soviet humor magazine "Krokodil" and concludes that the secret of its success is that it has evolved a strong, recognizable, appealing character over the years, maintaining its familiar identity while also being innovative and fresh. (GT)

  7. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE's cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union

  8. First Soviet Sea-Launched Ballistic Rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is told about the creation of the first generation of Soviet ballistic missiles for the armament of submarines. The basic stages of their development, tests and adoption for the armament are described. Are cited the data about the people, is most which actively participated in these processes.

  9. Current Priorities of Soviet School Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Six articles discuss top priorities of Soviet education policy. Topics discussed include labor training, revision of the curriculum for the 10-year general education program, quantitative v qualitative demands on the educational system, and extended-day programs for the children of working mothers. (DB)

  10. Use of Non Wood Forest Products by local people bordering the “Parc National Kaboré Tambi”, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gausset, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    In the French-speaking countries of Africa, strategies of conservation, inherited from the colonial time, exclude the bordering people in the management of the national parks plant resources. Today, policies and legislation try to reconcile forest conservation and development by associating local...... success of this process will depend on all actors including policy makers, technicians, local people, researchers and funding agencies....

  11. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology. PMID:24548071

  12. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show how a formal approach to networks can make a significant contribution to the study of cross-border trade in West Africa. Building on the formal tools and theories developed by Social Network Analysis, we examine the network organization of 136 large traders in...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the...... region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots. Combining formal network analysis and ethnographic studies, we argue, can make a significant contribution to the current revival of interest in cross-border trade in the policy field....

  13. THREE INTELLIGENCE METHODOLOGIES FOR BORDER DEFENCE AND BORDER SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Segell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main security problem that any state faces today is protecting itscitizens in countering organised crime and terrorism. Wars between states are lessfrequent than in previous eras. Border defence and border security are distinctmissions requiring different forces with different training and different equipment.Border defence is predominately against the armed forces of other states requiringtanks, aircraft and ships. Traditionally, border security includes the mission roles ofimmigration, crime, agriculture, finance, disease control and terrorism. Intelligencegathering and analysis using three methodologies - trends and patterns, frequency,and probability – provides a solution to the large and expensive armed forces forterritorial border defence and defines the ability to succeed in border security.

  14. Europe's New Border Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Verwaal, Ernst; Cnossen, Sijbren

    2003-01-01

    textabstractInstead of abolishing internal border controls in 1992, the European Union (EU) replaced them with VAT and statistical requirements that appear to be just as onerous and costly. This paper shows that the compliance costs of the new requirements are on average 5 percent of the value of intra-EU trade of Dutch businesses. Clearly, the costs constitute a (differentiated) border tax that impedes intra-EU trade and violates the Treaty of Rome. The paper analyses the magnitude and deter...

  15. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...... of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...

  16. Soviet oil developments in the 1990s: international implications of domestic market changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khartukov, E.M.; Surovtsev, D.A. (GAPMER, Moscow (SU). Econometrics Div., World Energy Analysis and Forecasting Group)

    1991-01-01

    During the 90s oil developments in the USSR are sure to be palpably influenced by the market orientated reforms that have been started which could add to the dwindling exportable supplies of Soviet crude and its products - more than 3 mmbd in 1995 and up to 6 mmbd in 2000. in its turn, by the end of the century, the estimated difference in world oil price which may be caused even by a half of the perestroika-induced changes in Soviet oil exports could amount to $14/b (in constant 1990 dollars). (author).

  17. Developing Effective Border Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great progress that has been made in nuclear security measures for counter-proliferation capacity building for effective border controls. However, there is evidence that illicit transfers of military and dual-use items as well as the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials persist. Consequently, there remains an urgent need for continuing and enhancing effective border controls responsive to this threat. Developing and sustaining effective border controls for global defence to combat nuclear security threats is a complex challenge. Following a defence-in-depth approach, border control measures at official ports of entry and green and blue borders form one layer of a national nuclear detection architecture. It is important that the border control measures are both fully integrated into a comprehensive national strategy with achievable nuclear security program objectives and fully sustainable within the national infrastructure. The operations, maintenance and management of effective border control measures rely on a cyclic process of establishing objectives, design, implementation, training and evaluation. All relevant authorities and competencies engage in the process. The design is based on a full assessment of the nuclear security capabilities and associated infrastructure within the context of specific objectives within the national nuclear security strategy. A poor design or badly executed implementation can prevent the effective operation of the system in the short and long run. International cooperation and assistance play an important role in all aspects of developing effective border controls. Donor-recipient relations provide not only the requisite funds, but also the experience and technical expertise that promote effective and sustainable border controls. As the global detection architecture matures, many international organizations, such as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), DOE, European Commission- Joint Research Centre

  18. CARBON SOURCES AND SINKS IN THE FOREST BIOMES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes hall been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. owever, an equilibrium analysis does no...

  19. Soviet Education Policy 1917-1935: From Ideology to Bureaucratic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauglo, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examining early Soviet educational policy, Lauglo analyzes the initial expression of Marxist humanist values, popular participation, and the value of productive work for general education. Discusses the routinization into a Stalinist pattern of bureaucratically controlled utilitarianism and comments briefly on recent indications of change in…

  20. The political economy of oil in post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Saule Tarikhovna

    This dissertation examines the way in which the Kazakhstani state redefined its role in managing oil and gas resources between 1992 and 1998. The governments of hydrocarbon-rich post-Soviet republics such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan faced the common challenge of restructuring their petroleum industries to boost the export of oil and gas. This study argues that by 1998 three patterns have emerged, ranging from a more radical state retrenchment in Russia, to reinforced state monopoly in Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, to a "mixed" pattern of state participation in Kazakhstan, consisting of both large-scale privatization of oil assets and the formation of a fully state-owned national oil company, Kazakhoil. This dissertation analyzes the process of restructuring Kazakhstan's oil sector through comparison with the Russian petroleum industry. In Russia, several private, vertically integrated oil companies (VICs) were formed on the basis of existing oil-producing units and soon emerged as essential players in the Russian oil sector. By contrast, Kazakhstan's marginalized status within the Soviet system of oil production resulted in the absence of organizationally strong sectoral interests capable of claiming control over the industry after the independence. Privatization of Kazakhstan's oil enterprises, conducted by the government in spite of the resistance from local oil managers, transferred controlling stakes to foreign investors and further weakened domestic oil interests. Unencumbered state autonomy allowed the increasingly authoritarian Kazakhstani government to adopt relatively modern and investor-friendly petroleum legislation by decree. In Russia, the government's efforts to reform oil-related legislation were blocked by the leftist-dominated Duma, the democratically elected lower chamber of the Russian parliament. On the basis of these findings, this dissertation concludes that the dynamics of state withdrawal from the oil sector in post-Soviet

  1. The long shadow of borders : the cases of Kashubian and Silesian in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kamusella, Tomasz Dominik; Nomachi, Motoki

    2014-01-01

    Poland was established as a nation-state in 1918. The state’s administration embarked on the policy of ethnolinguistic homogenization in the interwar period, because one-third of the population was seen as ethnolinguistically non-Polish. The Polish borders and territory were dramatically altered as a result of World War II, and the country became a member of the Soviet bloc. The concomitant genocide and ethnic cleansing yielded an almost ethnolinguistically homogenous Poland. After the end of...

  2. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper address indirect global interactions that involve collaboration across continents involving different cultures, languages, technologies and nations. Specifically, we are concerned with analyzing international trade of avocados from trees in Africa to grocery store shelves in the European....... Further, the description format developed for this case can be useful for visualizing and analyzing other supply chains involving collaborations across borders....

  3. Borders of Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Janni Berthou

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration func...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...

  4. THEATER THAT TRANSCENDS BORDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Students from China’s Central Academy of Drama stage a performance in New Delhi on February 2 during the17th Bharat Rang Mahotsav.The annual international theater festival,hosted by the National School of Drama in India,is being held from February 1 to 18 with the theme of Breaking Borders.

  5. Effect of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli monoassociation on small intestinal brush-border glycoconjugate moieties and cytokine production after colonization in ex-germ-free rats and pigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolínská, Jiřina; Zákostelecká, Marie; Schwarzer, Martin; Štěpánková, Renata; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Kozáková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (2010), s. 73-84. ISSN 1179-139X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10017 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500200710; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/0449 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nonpathogenic E. coli * glycoconjugates * brush-border vesicles Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  6. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation

  7. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  8. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  9. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  10. The Postwar Soviet-American Relations. Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Sandache

    2014-01-01

    The postwar Soviet-American relations, circumscribed to the so-called period of the Cold War, represent one of the most interesting and complex chapters of the contemporary universal history. This study aims at capturing some significant snapshots that marked the two world superpowers manner of reporting to the military and diplomatic challenges of the 1945-1960 interval, characterized by an unusual density of political events.

  11. Red suns. The Soviet nuclear ambition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the soviet nuclear electric power came from the armed forces. The privileged channels were the RKMK type reactors in place of fast reactors. After 1971 two channels are developed the PWR type reactors and the RBMK type reactors. Until the eighties years, the nuclear programme had to resolve the question of energy development; The lack of means and the Chernobyl accident made this question still to be solved. (N.C.)

  12. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    2000-07-26

    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  13. Domestic and international border effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; 早川, 和伸

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies in the border-effect literature surprisingly found that domestic border effects are larger than international border effects (e.g., in the United States or Brazil). One interpretation of this result is that these estimates include the effects of producer agglomeration. Therefore, in this study, we estimate those border effects exclusively for transactions for final consumption, in which such agglomeration forces will be weak, in China and Japan. As a result, we found larger i...

  14. Nuclear safety cooperation for Soviet designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 first alerted the West to the significant safety risks of Soviet designed reactors. Five years later, this concern was reaffirmed when the IAEA, as a result of a review by an international team of nuclear safety experts, announced that it did not believe the Kozloduy nuclear power plants in Bulgaria could be operated safely. To address these safety concerns, the G-7 summit in Munich in July 1992 outlined a five point program to address the safety problems of Soviet Designed Reactors: operational safety improvement; near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessment; enhancing regulatory regimes; examination of the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy; and upgrading of the plants of more recent design. As of early 1994, over 20 countries and international organizations have pledged hundreds of millions of dollars in financial assistance to improve safety. This paper summarizes these assistance efforts for Soviet designed reactors, draws lessons learned from these activities, and offers some options for better addressing these concerns

  15. Border beam against nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present man can cross the borders with nuclear materials in a luggage without problems. A supervision system could be installed at the border as a measuring help to control the possible illicit traffic. Therefore, a pilot study was performed to compile its technical requirements and to assessing its feasibilities. The main finding was that a control system at the border is feasible. (nevyjel)

  16. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in...

  17. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Robinson International (USA) Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products for customs purposes,...

  18. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  19. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...

  20. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  1. Building Peaceful Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's efforts to build a harmonious world begin with establishing peaceful borders with its neighbors China's recent contribution to the world of international relations is the promotion of "building a harmonious world together," put forward by President Hu Jintao at the 60th anniversary of the UN in September 2005. As the core of the country's peaceful foreign policy in the new era, this approach has been well received and widely discussed in the international community. Meanwhile, Chinese foreign pol...

  2. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  3. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield? An unanswerable first strike? When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means

  4. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  5. SOVIET POSTERS IN LITHUANIA IN 1940–1953

    OpenAIRE

    Bajoraite, Alma

    2006-01-01

    The Soviet occupation and their ideology brought to Lithuania a new poster quality. The paper analyzes the problem of posters propaganda and manipulation, the inheritance of the not traditional documents and their inventory. The goal of this paper is to analyze the soviet posters in Lithuania in 1940–1953.The principal problems of this paper are to research the formation and the domination of the posters in Lithuania: which role they had in the politics. The paper also analyzes the soviet pos...

  6. Soviet experience with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet Union is pursuing an active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). They have reported 16 explosions, with applications ranging from putting out oil-well fires and stimulating oil recovery to creating instant dams and canals. The data reported generally agree with U.S. experience. Seismic data collected by western sources on explosions outside the known Soviet test sites indicate that the Soviet program is at least twice as large as they have reported. The accelerated pace of these events suggests that in some applications the Soviet PNE program is approaching routine industrial technology

  7. The politics of Soviet strategic defense: Political strategies, organization politics, and Soviet strategic thought. (Volumes I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model can explain these facts, as well as some organizational pathologies shown by the Soviet National Air Defense Forces. The findings suggest that military services, even when ostensibly closely directed by civilian and military superiors, often manage to pursue their own interests rather than the requirements of higher policy. Soviet civilian leaders generally had limited control over the formulation of military doctrine or over the force posture of Soviet military services, but arms control (especially the ABM Treaty) offered a policy handle which helped them to affect doctrine and force posture to a substantial degree

  8. The Soviet-American gallium experiment (SAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. It's purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for intentional collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy flux. There are several international physics collaborations involving US and Soviet scientists at the large accelerator installations throughout the world. As the scale of research gets ever larger, requiring ever more resources and then larger collaborations. Much physics research lies solely in the realm of basic research so that governments feel easier about collaborations. Contacts between the US and USSR scientists interested in nuclear and particle physics goes back to the nineteen fifties and have continued with only minor interruptions since then. Over the past two decades the principal oversight of these activities has been through the Joint Coordinating Committee on the Fundamental Properties of Matter, supported by the DOE in the US and the State Committee for Atomic Energy in the USSR. The Academies of Science of both countries have been very helpful and supportive. Each venture has some distinguishing features; in the case of SAGE, the unique aspects are the collaboration between Soviet scientists and scientists at a DOE weapons laboratory and the fact that the experiment is carried out in a remote region of the USSR. The particular problems caused are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs

  9. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  10. UNESCO Without Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in 1945 with twin aims: to rebuild various institutions of the world destroyed by war, and to promote international understanding and peaceful cooperation among nations. Based on empirical and historical...... research and with a particular focus on history teaching, international understanding and peace, UNESCO Without Borders offers a new research trajectory for understanding the roles played by UNESCO and other international organizations, as well as the effects of globalization on education. With fifteen...

  11. Cardiology without borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Wolk

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cardiovascular disease takes place in a border-free world. The challenge at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and anywhere else in the world is to hold patient care above the artificial barriers raised by geopolitical issues. Fundamentally, the goal of ACC members or of any cardiology societies in the world is to provide excellent patient care. Cardiovascular disease is essentially the same throughout the world. Where there are minor variations among individuals, as clinicians we find priceless opportunity to learn. Expanding- rather contracting -our experience base helps us as individuals to realize our best potential as practitioners.

  12. Distant neighbours. Economic adjustment processes at the Finnish-Russian border

    OpenAIRE

    Eskelinen, Heikki; Niiranen, Kimmo

    2002-01-01

    For decades, the closed East/West border was an effective barrier for cross-border interaction at a local and regional level. It was reflected, among other things, in production structures and settlement patterns in the border regions. Since around 1990, economic and other forms of cross-border linkages have been possible, and they have raised the issue about adjustment processes, that is, whether regional and local economic actors are able to utilise existing complementarities and create new...

  13. Renewal and dead souls: the changing Soviet Central Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Mawdsley, E.; White, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    For a Soviet General Secretary presumably committed to the collectivist principles of Marxism-Leninism, Mikhail Gorbachev has been peculiarly insistent upon the decisive importance of individual leadership. In speech after speech it was not only the socioeconomic order that Gorbachev held to be the source of the Soviet Union's problems: the quality and style of its political leadership were also crucial factors.

  14. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  15. Understanding the Special Needs of Former Soviet Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, James L.; Bonkareva, Ella

    1992-01-01

    Describes characteristics of immigrant children from the former Soviet Union and implications of these characteristics for U.S. teachers. Considers differences between U.S. and Soviet schools in scheduling practices, bathroom routines, racial composition, meals, languages, clothing, naps, and parent/school relationships. (LB)

  16. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  17. “RUSSIAN THREAT” TO THE POST-SOVIET SPACE: MYTH OR REALITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. GARBUZAROVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of "Russian threat" to the post-soviet space has been analyzed in the article. Due to significant geopolitical success of Russia in the post-soviet space and in particular in Central Asia there were frequent charges against her related to the alleged aggressive intentions. In western expert associations a myth about "the Russian threat" that appeared in the sixteenth century and therefore rightly can be considered archaic is actively promoting. For example, the objective analysis of the causes of the war in South Ossetia and transformational events in Ukraine contradict the claims about Russia's aggression in these areas. The war in South Ossetia of 2008 has presented completely where the Georgian aggression is clearly seen. A gradual war preparation, having been carried out by the Georgian political leadership since 2004 with the help of external support, proves it. Moreover, there is substantial growth of activity of NATO near the Russian borders, giving Russia the right to protect site stability and security which is directly related to its national security. The author comes to the conclusion that in such matters as the war in South Ossetia, the joining of Crimea to Russia, Russia's actions deliberately exaggerated by geopolitical opponents and distorted information is used in order to undermine the image of Russia and its friendly relations with post-soviet states. Inflating the Russian threat to the Central Asian states, for example Kazakhstan is baseless, as Russian-Central Asian relations are tested for durability time and are strategic in nature.

  18. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity

  19. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ∼273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus–Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and

  20. Drawing the Caspian Sea: The defining of its legal status in the uncertain post-soviet scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Oscar Álvarez Calzada

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the disappearance of the USSR, the Caspian Sea ceased to be an inland sea controlled by the USSR and Iran, to become the object of desire of the new states bordering on it which see in it, and concretely in its extraordinary natural resources, the great hope ofeconomic salvation for their uncertatin future. If we add to this the interests of the great regional actors, Russia and Iran, and those of the United States and the large multinational energy corporations, we get one of the post-Soviet scenarios that arouses the most interestin international public opinion. In this context, the article analyses the unstable situation created in the area in the face of the impossibility of the states bordering on this sea to arrive at a unanimous agreement on the method to follow for dividing up its waters and, therefore, to settle the question of access to the vast natural resources that lie beneath its floor.

  1. The evolution of Soviet forces, strategy, and command

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the evolution of Soviet forces, strategy and command. Soviet leaders have repeatedly emphasized that it would be tantamount to suicide to start a nuclear war. Mutual deterrence, however, does not make nuclear was impossible. The danger remains that a large-scale nuclear was could start inadvertently in an intense crisis, or by escalation out of a conventional war, or as an unforeseen combination of these. For these reasons crisis management has become a central issue in the United States, but the standard Soviet response to this Western interest has been to say that what is needed is crisis avoidance, not recipes for brinkmanship masquerading under another name. There is much sense in this view. Nevertheless, this demeanor does not mean that the Soviet Union has given no thought to the danger that a crisis might lead to nuclear war, only that Soviet categories for thinking about such matters differ from those employed in the United States

  2. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. The Open Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yago Mellado López

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to consider the volition of boundary as an opening in otherness, establishing a dialogue with Giorgio Agamben’s work La Comunidad que viene [The community to come]. Beyond the conception of borders as demarcation, this article approaches the boundary as a construction through contact, and which produces the articulation of us/them and of the Other, and not the other way round. In this way, the volition of boundaries appears, without any desire to escape towards a common abstract space or toward an elimination of categorisation, but simply as the registering of an opening in the never-ending fabric of our identities.

  4. Crossing borders for science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Schultheiss

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exchanging ideas with like-minded, enthusiastic people interested in the same topic is crucial for the advancement of a scientist's career. Several Regional Student Groups (RSGs of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB Student Council have cooperated in the last six years to organize scientific workshops and conferences. With motivated students, it is possible to create a memorable event for fellow scientists; in doing so, the organizers gain valuable experiences. While collaborating across borders and time zones can be difficult, feedback from event organizers was always positive. When limited resources are juxtaposed with great ideas and a network of contacts, the outcome is always an amazing experience, despite organizers being separated geographically across different countries.

  5. Crossing borders for science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Sebastian J; Yang, Joshua SungWoo; Iwasaki, Wataru; Lin, Shu-Hsi; Jean, Angela; Michaut, Magali

    2014-03-01

    Exchanging ideas with like-minded, enthusiastic people interested in the same topic is crucial for the advancement of a scientist's career. Several Regional Student Groups (RSGs) of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) Student Council have cooperated in the last six years to organize scientific workshops and conferences. With motivated students, it is possible to create a memorable event for fellow scientists; in doing so, the organizers gain valuable experiences. While collaborating across borders and time zones can be difficult, feedback from event organizers was always positive. When limited resources are juxtaposed with great ideas and a network of contacts, the outcome is always an amazing experience, despite organizers being separated geographically across different countries. PMID:24675824

  6. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing: The case of Southern Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...... and tourism firms. Based on the empirical evidence it seems that the positive impact that cross-border shopping can have on attracting large numbers of tourists into the region can outweigh the negative impact of tourists preferring border shops to local products and services: cross-border shopping...

  7. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  8. Radon therapy in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Soviet Union approximately one million courses of radon treatment each lasting three weeks are prescribed every year. The curative application of radon used for cardiovascular diseases, including aftercare in cases of cardiac infarction, disorders of the locomotor system and joints and muscles, the male and female sexual system, diseases of the nervous system, endocrinology and metabolic diseases. Contraindication practice is similar to that in Central Europe. Radon is given to skin stimulation by wet and above all dry baths. The radiation exposure of patients from these three-week radon treatments is relatively low. The radon effect is interpreted as 'radiation flash' stimulating the nervous system. The skin plays a particular role in this process, acting as the stimulus acceptor. (orig./MG)

  9. Tokamak research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important milestones on the way to the tokamak fusion reactor are recapitulated. Soviet tokamak research concentrated at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute in Moscow, the A.F. Ioffe Institute in Leningrad and the Physical-Technical Institute in Sukhumi successfully provides necessary scientific and technological data for reactor design. Achievments include, the successful operation of the first tokamak with superconducting windings (T-7) and the gyrotron set for microwave plasma heating in the T-10 tokamak. The following problems have intensively been studied: Various methods of additional plasma heating, heat and particle transport, and impurity control. The efficiency of electron-cyclotron resonance heating was demonstrated. In the Joule heating regime, both the heat conduction and diffusion rates are anomalously high, but the electron heat conduction rate decreases with increasing plasma density. Progress in impurity control makes it possible to obtain a plasma with effective charge approaching unity. (J.U.)

  10. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." PMID:12281908

  11. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  12. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    OpenAIRE

    Q. L. Bie; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C S

    2013-01-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border ...

  13. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent

  14. Ex-Soviet Union: oil exporter or importer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khartukov, E.M. (World Energy Analysis and Forecasting Group, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    Perestroika of the Soviet economy and the political disintegration of the USSR have raised questions about the international ramifications of the ongoing economic and political developments in the world's largest oil-producing country. First of all, it relates to their impact on the quantity and quality of oil exports from the former Soviet Union (FSU). On the other hand, the opening of the national oil industry to foreign investors focuses their ever growing attention on the complicated internal, inter-republic oil issues which emerged after the sudden fragmentation of the Soviet oil empire into a dozen of sovereign but still interdependent parts. 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Ex-Soviet Union: oil exporter or importer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perestroika of the Soviet economy and the political disintegration of the USSR have raised questions about the international ramifications of the ongoing economic and political developments in the world's largest oil-producing country. First of all, it relates to their impact on the quantity and quality of oil exports from the former Soviet Union (FSU). On the other hand, the opening of the national oil industry to foreign investors focuses their ever growing attention on the complicated internal, inter-republic oil issues which emerged after the sudden fragmentation of the Soviet oil empire into a dozen of sovereign but still interdependent parts. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  16. Eroticism in the manege of the Soviet Circus

    OpenAIRE

    Burenina, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the author continues a number of her studies into the semiotics of the circus in culture. The circus of the Soviet epoch is in the focus of attention of the article. The circus in the Soviet period, as the author shows, was an anarchist space, paradoxically free from control of the official ideology and the state. Besides, as a place free from conventional norms and restrictions, the circus art was kind of the only erotic theatre of the Soviet period, some striptease-show...

  17. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  18. Structure of the human vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human...

  19. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Reproduces chapter 1 ("The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy") from Ele Isaench Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Traces early history of Soviet Union. Reviews foundations of Soviet educational system, highlighting influences of Vladimir…

  20. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  1. Energy implications of the move from a command to a market-based economy: Soviet oil export case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of oil exports and macroeconomic efficiency in the Soviet economy is reviewed. Food imports, losses of agricultural production, prospective reduction in oil exports, and imports of machinery are discussed, and supporting statistics for years 1986 - 1989 are given. (UK)

  2. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public......The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...

  3. Dance Drama The Border Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    THE large-scale dance drama The Border Town performed by the Hunan Provincial Troupe attracted a large audience with its natural human touch, strong local flavour and elegant literature, provoking reverie from the people. The Border Town dance drama was adapted from the novel of the same name by Shen Congwen, an influential writer on Chinese modern literature. The Border Town, written in 1934, was his masterpiece, which gives a delicate account of the young love between the orphan girl Cuicui (who was a...

  4. Border effects and border regions: Lessons from the German unification

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines data on trade flows between West German Bundesländer (federal states) and East Germany to explore the effect of national borders on trade. Although the data cover only a small fraction of intra-German trade flows, I find a home bias of about factor 2.2; West German shipments to East Germany are about 120% larger than deliveries to an otherwise similar foreign country. Based on this result, possible implications for border regions are discussed

  5. Ideological Factors in Soviet Educational Policy Toward Jews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Erwin H.

    1978-01-01

    This paper examines Soviet policy toward Jews, especially in regard to education, to determine whether it is based on pervasive anti-Semitism, as the critics often claim or is rooted fundamentally in Marxist-Leninist ideology. (Author/AM)

  6. Generalized Geology of the Former Soviet Union (geo1ec)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set outlines and describes the general geologic age and type of bedrock of the Former Soviet Union and selected adjacent areas. It also includes shoreline...

  7. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  8. ChE at the Erevan Polytechnic Institute Soviet Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanesian, Deran

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on Soviet Armenia and the Erevan Polytechnic Institute (EPI) located in this republic of the USSR. Also provides a description of chemical engineering programs and courses and faculty at the EPI. (JN)

  9. The polish-soviet disputes arising from the Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author takes the accident at Chernobyl as the basis for a hypothetical dispute between Poland and the Soviet Union. The legal analysis examines the private international law rules of both countries and how they would apply in that context

  10. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Analysis Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (Water-cooled, Water-moderated Energy Reactor). The principle objective of this undertaking is to provide a basis to better understand the safety related features of the Soviet designed VVERs to be better prepared to respond domestically in the event of an accident at such a unit. The USDOE Team's analyses are presented together with supporting and background information. The report is structured to allow the reader to develop an understanding of safety related features of Soviet designed VVERs (as well as the probable behavior of these units under a variety of off normal conditions), to understand the USDOE Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs, and to formulate informed opinions.

  11. Forms of integration cooperation of the post-soviet states

    OpenAIRE

    Korotkova Kira Evgenevna

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the integration which is taking place on the post-Soviet space and it marks some factors which promote integration course. There are some forms of integration interaction of the countries of the post-Soviet space. The article designates and analyzes them. They are: the Union State of Russia and Belarus, Free trade zone of the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. The prevalence of political nature of in...

  12. Explaining Civil Society Core Activism in Post-Soviet Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Tove

    2008-01-01

    Civil society activism in traditional non-governmental organizations (NGOs) is seen as one of the cornerstones of a vibrant participatory liberal democracy in most Western democratic states. Whereas this issue has been explored from a variety of perspectives in a Western context, only limited research has been carried out in a post-Soviet context. This study presents unique survey data on civil society core activism in post-Soviet Latvia addressing the following two main questions: What are t...

  13. Text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the joint U.S.-Soviet summit statement issued on 10 December 1987 at the conclusion of the meeting between the President of the United States and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Washington, December 7-10, 1987). It refers to the arms control (including nuclear weapons), human rights and humanitarian concerns, regional issues, bilateral affairs and further meetings

  14. Is Soviet society fit for the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author argues that the Kremlin's handling of the Chernobyl crisis is a far greater indictment of Soviet ethos, society and ideology than their technology. The Soviet nuclear plan is seen to be to press on regardless of safety standards. Australia's government and society, through poor education, foreign disinformation and media orchestration, are unable to participate effectively in the responsibilities of a global nuclear society

  15. Recent Trends in Border Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Fullerton Jr

    2004-01-01

    Greater cross-border economic integration in many regions has caused the field of border economics to expand rapidly. It has also occurred as a growing recognition of the necessity to examine economic phenomena within the unique contexts imposed by geo-political market segmentation. Some of the areas in which substantial research efforts are being directed include population, business cycle transmission, exchange rates, industrial development, labor markets, environment, and natural resources.

  16. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  17. SOVIET POSTERS IN LITHUANIA IN 1940–1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajoraite, Alma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soviet occupation and their ideology brought to Lithuania a new poster quality. The paper analyzes the problem of posters propaganda and manipulation, the inheritance of the not traditional documents and their inventory. The goal of this paper is to analyze the soviet posters in Lithuania in 1940–1953.The principal problems of this paper are to research the formation and the domination of the posters in Lithuania: which role they had in the politics. The paper also analyzes the soviet posters impact on farming and their influence to the society.To sum up, the new trend of art appeared in 1940 in Lithuania, which had the principal goal to propagate the soviet ideology in all the political and social spheres. The goal of the soviet posters as the media of information was to provide the distorted view of the reality. The soviet posters had dominated in Lithuania in 1940–1953. This period had left a very interesting and rich heritage. It is the importatant part of the cultural and historical heritage.

  18. DOSTOEVSKY'S RELIGIOSITY AS A METHODOLOGICAL PROBEM OF SOVIET LITERARY CRITICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shaulov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soviet literary criticism, especially in the first decades after the 1917 Revolution, was quite biased in its treatment of Dostoevsky and his works. The reasons for this bias lie both inside and outside the sphere of political ideology. We suggest that there exists a genetic link between some Soviet readings of Dostoevsky and a number of interpretations made in the author's lifetime. Also analysed are the attempts to 'domesticate' Dostoevsky and adapt his works to drastically different cultural conditions and political norms. It is indicative that this adaptation has always passed the stage of mythologizing the writer and his works. This mythologization paradoxically became a convergence point for Soviet (Lunacharsky, anti-Soviet (Berdyayev and purely philosophical (Bakhtin readings of Dostoevsky. Ultimately, the central Dostoevsky myth in post-revolutionary Russia was a version of Romantic mythology often directly expressed in comparing Dostoevsky with Prometheus. We also look at the negative readings of Dostoevsky, which construed the author as a certain mythological antagonist of the proletariat as the collective messiah. Such readings (exemplified in our article by Pereverzev's and Livshits' point at the ultimate limit of ethical assessment of Dostoevsky from the standpoint of rational secular humanism and the Soviet humanitarian thought as its version. Dostoevsky's artistic practice incorporates this tradition within the intranovel dialogue as just one of the voices and demonstrates its ethical insufficiency, which in its turn provokes the mixed reaction of 'appropriation' and 'rejection' from both Soviet thinkers and their contemporary heirs.

  19. Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Z. Ts.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    In the winter of 1983/1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project ``Winter in Northern Europe'' of the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP/WINE). Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron density in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratospheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during stratospheric warmings the westerly wind in wintertime becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron density and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  20. Thermoluminescence dating in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of deposits is performed in the Soviet Union in three laboratories using widely differing techniques. 1. In the Institute of Geology of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR the investigators work with a polymineral fraction of 10-100 μm. In estimating age they make several methodical mistakes. The dating interval covered is 2x104-106 years. 2. In Moscow State University the scientists use the quartz fraction up to 250 μm without etching by HF. Using a complicated mathematical treatment of graphical results of dating, the authors come to the conclusion that their technique enables them to date deposits in the time interval 4x103-9.5x106 years. 3. In the Institute of Geology of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR, the quartz and feldspar inclusion technique is used. It is shown that quartz enables the dating of deposits to be made up to 105 years in age, and preliminary results indicate that with feldspars the age limit is 7x105 years. (author)

  1. Border cracks: approaching border security from a complexity theory and systems perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Schwan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Presently, U.S. border security endeavors are compartmentalized, fragmented, and poorly coordinated. Moreover, international collaborations are extremely limited; success hinges on effective international cooperation. This thesis addresses U.S. border security management using complexity theory and a systems approach, incorporating both borders and all associated border security institutions simultaneously. Border security research ha...

  2. Impact of Wind Power Generation on European Cross-Border Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    A statistical analysis is performed in order to investigate the relationship between wind power production and cross-border power transmission in Europe. A dataset including physical hourly cross-border power exchanges between European countries as dependent variables is used. Principal component...... wind power production and spot price in Germany have substantial nonlinear effects on power transmission on a European scale....

  3. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  4. The 'border within': inhabiting the border in Trieste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.; Minca, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we look to the Italian border city of Trieste-at various points in its past, a cosmopolitan port, Austria's urbs europeissima, but also a battleground for competing understandings of territoriality, identity, and belonging and a paragon of the violent application of an ethnoterritorial

  5. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  6. One Life and Two Perspectives Separated by the Border. The case of Taisto Huuskonen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulikki Kurki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Finnish writer Taisto Huuskonen who defected to the Soviet Union in 1949. It examines his biographical and testimonial novel, The Child of Finland (Laps’ Suomen, which describes Huuskonen’s defection and life in the Soviet Union. The focus of the article is to show how Huuskonen constructs ‘I’, ‘we’, and ‘other’ in the novel and how these constructions often produce a complex dilemma of positionality. In the novel, various topographical, symbolical and metaphorical borders are central, and they affect the way that Huuskonen defines his position and agency in relation to ‘I’, ‘we’, and ‘other’. The article argues that the significance of Huuskonen’s novel is that it represents the lives and destinies of thousands of Finns. At the same time the novel serves as a medium by which to process the painful experiences he recounts and the miracle of survival. At the time of its publishing in 1979, the novel The Child of Finland was interpreted in the context of the Cold War. Although Huuskonen’s purpose was to write a survival story, his story was extensively seen to pronounce the juxtaposition between East and West, which gave it the appearance of a scandal novel vilifying the Soviet Union.

  7. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as the 7th Division of Soviet army. In the propaganda work among German POWs, the priority was given on shaping the ideological and political views of former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. As the result of the analysis of sources the author comes to conclusion that POWs of the Second World War period became the object of testing means and methods of ideological struggle of warring nations.

  8. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  9. Reflections through a Soviet Window. Rural Governance and Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dekel-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper probes the crossroads between the realities of life and the ambitions of the early Soviet regime in one corner of its vast countryside. As a test case, I explore the meeting of organized agrarianization of Jews from the former Pale of Settlement with the mechanisms of Soviet power in the geographical and national peripheries of what was seen until recently as a monolithic, centralized state. Barring the last four years before Operation Barbarossa, a non-governmental, non-denominational American-Jewish philanthropy (the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee [Joint or Agro-Joint] funded and administered much of this resettlement project in southern Ukraine and Crimea. As shall be seen, the arrival of an effective foreign organization not only shaped the lives of its client-colonists, but the very character of Soviet rural authority through the emergence of hybrid models of governance in the countryside.

  10. Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet theoretical physics in the thirties

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelik, Gennady E

    1994-01-01

    Gennady E. Gorelik and Victor Ya. Frenkel Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet Theoretical Physics in the Thirties Translated by Valentina M. Levina The short life and tragic death of Matvei Petrovich Bronstein (1906-1938) may be seen as a symbol of the man's time and his country. One of the most remarkable features of Soviet history was the impressive advance of its physical sciences against the brutal and violent background of totalitarianism. Soviet advances in nuclear and space technology form an important part of world history. These achievements had their roots in the 1930s, when Bronstein's generation entered science. Among his friends were the famous physicists Lev Landau and George Gamow. Bronstein worked in the vast field of theoretical physics, ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics and from relativistic quantum theory to cosmology. His pioneering work on quantizing gravitation goes beyond the history of physics, because today the quantum theory of gravitation occupies a special place in fun...

  11. Proposed Chevron Tengiz venture stalls amid Soviet political squabble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the status of foreign investment in Soviet oil and gas joint ventures which has reached a critical juncture. Just as the U.S. is considering granting most favored nation trade status to the U.S.S.R., the joint venture petroleum deal seen as the litmus test for such deals-Chevron Corp.'s proposed addition of supergiant Tengiz oil field to its Caspian Sea joint venture-has stalled amid controversy. Unconfirmed reports from Soviet officials and other foreign joint venture participants in the U.S.S.R. have Chevron pulling out of the long negotiated, multibillion dollar project after the Soviets rejected the company's terms. Chevron, however, insists the project is still alive

  12. On Borders: From Ancient to Postmodern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellezza, G.

    2013-11-01

    The article deals with the evolution of the concept of borders between human groups and with its slow evolution from the initial no men's land zones to the ideal single-dimension linear borders. In ancient times the first borders were natural, such as mountain ranges or large rivers until, with the development of Geodesy, astronomical borders based on meridians and parallels became a favourite natural base. Actually, Modern States adopted these to fix limits in unknown conquered territories. The postmodern thought led give more importance to cultural borders until, in the most recent times, is becoming rather impossible to fix borders in the virtual cyberspace.

  13. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  14. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments: January - February 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for January and February 1988, and is No. 93 in a continuing series on Soviet Laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  15. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 65, May - June 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for May-June 1983, and is No. 65 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashot pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy, beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  16. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 64, March -April 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March-April 1983, and is No. 64 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  17. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 83, May - June 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for May-June 1986, and is No. 83 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  18. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 87, January - February 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    This Soviet Laser Bibliography is no. 87 in a continuing series on Soviet Laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  19. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 88, March - April 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March-April 1987, and is No. 88 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical laser components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  20. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, no. 62, November - December 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for November-December 1982, and is No. 62 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurements of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  1. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, September-October 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for September to October 1987, and is No. 91 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  2. The Soviet Union prepares to roll up its sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first conference of the Soviet Nuclear Society (NESU-90) was held, from 26 to 29 June in Obninsk at the Moscow Region Scientific Centre, where the first nuclear power plant was commissioned. Around 600 specialists including several dozen distinguished foreigners were assembled there. The title of the conference - Nuclear energy in the USSR: problems and prospects (ecology, economics and law) - underlined its intention: to promote a dialogue with society on the broad question of satisfying the demand for energy. The 55 papers read and discussed at the conference, were largely concerned with the problems confronting nuclear power, and attention was directed to the surrounding social environment in the Soviet Union. (author)

  3. The Last Workshop on Theoretical Physics in the Soviet Union

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Twenty years ago, in October 1990, I found myself attending a workshop on Theoretical Physics in Alushta (Ukraine) intended only for Soviet physicists. That trip to the USSR/CCCP as well as the preceding months at CERN were highly surrealistic with plenty of adventures, crucial events and anecdotes, the most amazing one involving Niels Bohr. A few months later the Soviet Union collapsed. In this article I make a personal account on the happenings of 1990, with emphasis on my incursions into the European communist world during, and also before, that year.

  4. World Opinion and the Soviet Satellite: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-01-01

    Less than two weeks after the launch of Sputnik I, the United States Information Agency conducted an informal analysis of public opinion on this subject. The analysis yielded four clear conclusions: (1) Soviet claims of scientific and technological superiority were widely accepted in the United States; (2) U.S. allies were concerned about a shift in the balance of military power; (3) the overall credibility of Soviet propaganda was greatly strengthened; and (4) American prestige was dealt a severe blow. The report also concluded that the near-hysteria in the United States in turn increased the level of concern in countries friendly to the United States. An evaluation is presented.

  5. US Interests in the Post – Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana CEBOTARI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of the USSR and the emergence of newly independent states in the post-Soviet space brought about new geopolitical metamorphoses, which due to their dimensions cannot avoid researchers’ attention.Today the United States remains to be one of the most powerful states in the world. As a rule, it is defined as a superpower, whose foreign policy and more exactly geopolitical and geostrategic interests are present almost everywhere on the globe and have great influence. The post-Soviet space does not make an exception. That’s why the analysis of US interests in this zone seems to be worthwhile and arousing great curiosity.

  6. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  7. Evolution of EVA capabilities for space station construction and maintenance: Soviet and American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Cathy D.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of both Soviet and American Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is discussed. A qualitative review evaluates each EVA with respect to risk, criticality, complexity, and duration. Graphics summarizing increase and rate of increase in productivity emphasize related advancements in the space suits, EVA tools, and equipment technology. Specifics that demonstrated ingenuity in accomplishing unplanned activities which required man's direct manipulation of large payloads and structures are presented. Accumulated EVA successes allow an effective, flexible, recommended approach for construction and maintenance of Space Station to be given in conclusion.

  8. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  9. Mexican migrants stay in border comfort zone

    OpenAIRE

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Madeline Zavodny

    2008-01-01

    Limited access to migrant networks and strong geographic preferences may underlie border migrants' willingness to settle for lower wages on the border rather than seek higher wages by venturing into the U.S. interior.

  10. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  11. Science, technology, and industrial policy in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The conference was intended to give members of the American government and business communities a better understanding of the changes taking place in science, technology and industry in the Former Soviet Union. Science and technology issues were accorded a prominent place in the program of perestroika. In the six turbulent years of perestroika great strides were made in identifying problems, shortcomings and difficult relationships. But implementation of solutions to the problems has been far more modest. The science and technology community has been affected by the turmoil in the country, and continues to search for a viable and productive future. The objective of the conference was to examine the current state of science, technology and industry in Russia and the other states of the Commonwealth, and consider its possible future development. The specific topics and questions conference speakers were asked to address included: Analyze current science, technology and industrial policy. What is the new legal framework for science, technology and industry How are property rights and intellectual property rights being handled What has been done to insure individual rights and freedoms What are the organizational and management structures at the national level and at lower levels What impact is decentralization having on priorities and funding What industries are being de-nationalized What will be the relationship between private and government sponsored research To what extent will reductions in the budget for military R D affect non-defense S T funding How will reductions in military R D affect the long-term outlook for research How serious has the brain-drain become in the military R D sector. What has been the effect of glasnost on the R D community. How might improved international contacts affect S T What economic forecasting, if any, is feasible

  12. Science, technology, and industrial policy in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The conference was intended to give members of the American government and business communities a better understanding of the changes taking place in science, technology and industry in the Former Soviet Union. Science and technology issues were accorded a prominent place in the program of perestroika. In the six turbulent years of perestroika great strides were made in identifying problems, shortcomings and difficult relationships. But implementation of solutions to the problems has been far more modest. The science and technology community has been affected by the turmoil in the country, and continues to search for a viable and productive future. The objective of the conference was to examine the current state of science, technology and industry in Russia and the other states of the Commonwealth, and consider its possible future development. The specific topics and questions conference speakers were asked to address included: Analyze current science, technology and industrial policy. What is the new legal framework for science, technology and industry? How are property rights and intellectual property rights being handled? What has been done to insure individual rights and freedoms? What are the organizational and management structures at the national level and at lower levels? What impact is decentralization having on priorities and funding? What industries are being de-nationalized? What will be the relationship between private and government sponsored research? To what extent will reductions in the budget for military R&D affect non-defense S&T funding? How will reductions in military R&D affect the long-term outlook for research? How serious has the brain-drain become in the military R&D sector. What has been the effect of glasnost on the R&D community. How might improved international contacts affect S&T? What economic forecasting, if any, is feasible?

  13. "A Sacred Space Is Never Empty": Soviet Atheism, 1954-1971

    OpenAIRE

    Smolkin-Rothrock, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of Soviet atheist education and socialist life-cycle rituals in the postwar period. The narrative follows two distinct, yet overlapping, life-cycles: that of Marxist-Leninist scientific atheism, as it attempted to transform religiosity and fill the space that had been occupied by religion with a distinctly Soviet spiritual content, and that of Soviet citizens, whose lives were ordered and made meaningful by Soviet beliefs and rituals. By analyzing the efforts of t...

  14. The missile design bureaux and Soviet manned space policy, 1953-1970

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, William P. (William Patrick)

    1996-01-01

    The Soviet manned space programme is one of the most impressive and mysterious legacies of the Soviet Union. Evidence that has come to light since 1989 throws considerable doubt on earlier Western understanding of the Soviet space effort. One of the more puzzling aspects of the new data is the claim that the Chief Designers of several missile design bureaux played a pivotal role in the making of Soviet manned space policy. This claim contradicts much of what was thought to be k...

  15. FREUDIAN COMPLEXES OF SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PHILOLOGY IN STUDYING THE GOSPEL TEXT IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2012-01-01

    The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s). The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet powe...

  16. Borders and the Constraints on Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Fratianni

    2004-01-01

    National borders are a big hurdle to the expansion of the open economy. Integration today remains imperfect because national borders translate into trading costs, including differences in monetary regimes. Political borders shelter many goods and services from external competition and, consequently, represent a critical exogenous force in the integration process. Borders are thicker for the small countries than the large countries. Regional trade arrangements have softened or, in some cases, ...

  17. Borders and the Constraints of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Michele FRATIANNI

    2007-01-01

    National borders are a big hurdle to the expansion of the open economy. Integration today remains imperfect because national borders translate into trading costs, including differences in monetary regimes. Political borders shelter many goods and services from external competition and, consequently, represent a critical exogenous force in the integration process. Borders are thicker for the small countries than the large countries. Regional trade arrangements have softened or, in some cases, ...

  18. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  19. The Soviet Banya and the Mass Production of Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Vujosevic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Around 1930, during the era of the First Five-Year Plan, the Russian urban bathhouse, or 'banya', was collectivized and placed under state care. How did changes in the architecture of the model 'banyas' of Moscow and Leningrad articulate the changing role of the 'banya' as a site of pleasure, cure, and socialization? How do the aesthetics, ethics, and choreography of bathing in this period illustrate the relationship between the state and the urban proletariat as mediated by modern technology? How did they reflect the vision of the Communist society as a mechanized universe?

  20. Soviet Higher Education: An Alternative Construct to the Western University Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraev, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the university was an alien establishment for Russia, reflecting the political ambition of its leadership, not the organic impetus of Russian society. In Soviet academia, the notion of university education was replaced by the concept of vocational-technical training. As a creation of the Soviet government, Soviet higher education…

  1. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  2. Border Effects in Passenger Air Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    2003-01-01

    National borders substantially matter in passenger air traffic. Empirical estimates based upon a new data set on domestic and international departures from German airports indicate that the German border reduces air traffic activity by a factor of four to five. This result adds a further piece of evidence to the significance of border effects in various kinds of economic activity.

  3. Border Crossing Monitoring along the Northern Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzmaurice, Mike; Hartmann, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Border-crossing times in East Africa have been identified as a major constraint for smooth trade flows, both for regional trade and for international transit. Delays at borders disrupt efficient trade logistics, impacting on the transport costs and prices, and ultimately on trade competitiveness. In order to improve the efficiency of border crossings in East Africa, the East Africa Communi...

  4. Cross-border merger and domestic welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Arijit Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    We consider the welfare effect of cross-border merger in presence of international R&D competition. Cross-border merger increases domestic welfare if the bargaining power of the foreign firm and the slope of the marginal cost of R&D are sufficiently low. Otherwise, domestic welfare is lower under cross-border merger.

  5. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  6. A survey on illegal wildlife and products trade in Yunan Province and neighboring border area%云南及边境地区野生动物及其制品非法贸易调查∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹峰; 梦梦; 敬凯; 徐玲; 刘定震

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a covert survey on illegal trade of wildlife and products in 3 major cites,7 class-one border ports in Yunnan Province,China,and 2 neighboring border cities in Burma and 1 in Vietnam.We recorded a total of 46 species of animals.Nearly half(47.8%)of these species were mammals,and 41.3% were reptiles.Among those species,24 species,which accounted for 52.2% of the total species,were listed under the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Speices (CITES),and 1 9 species,which accounted for 41.3% of the total species,were listed as state key protected wild animals.The products of pangolins (Manis pentadactyla),Asian elephants (Elephas maximus ),tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.)and bears (Ursus spp.) were recorded in both domestic and foreign markets with a higher encounter frequency in foreign border cities than in Yunnan Province.In addition to animal products,trade on live animals,such as the pangolin,common water monitor (Varanus salvator )and freshwater turtles and tortoises,was also recorded.Trade on pangolins had the highest encounter frequency in the whole survey.We also found an increasing trend of trade on species of animals not included in the state key protected list.Base on the current survey,we strongly suggest the following:improve law enforcement effectiveness,strengthen capacity building,establish the market and trade monitoring system,strengthen international cooperation and increase public awareness of wildlife conservation. Once implemented these measures will help to completely stop the illegal trade of endangered species,and lead to sustainable utilization of non-protected species in Yunnan Province.%对云南省的3个主要城市、7个边境一级口岸和2个缅甸边境城市及1个越南边境城市野生动物及其制品贸易开展了实地调查.调查记录到的贸易涉及野生动物物种共46种,从种类多到少排序依次分别是兽类22种,占47.8%;爬行类19种,占41.3%;鸟类3种,占6.5%

  7. So many regions, so many borders. A behavioural approach in the analysis of border effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, B.M.R. van der

    1997-01-01

    Regions and borders are inseparably joined. Although quite some time is devoted to the discussion about the nature of borders, in essence borders are marking the ultimate extent of regions. The character of borders of course may differ, from for instance dividing elements between regions to more or

  8. Securitization and Risk at the EU Border:The Origins of FRONTEX

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Documenting the origins, remit and practices of the European external borders agency FRONTEX, this article argues that FRONTEX is not the product of ‘securitizing’ links between terrorism, security, migration and borders made by EU institutions in response to 9/11, but rather of their failure. In so doing, the article critiques securization theory in comparison to the alternative modality of risk.

  9. The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

    Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

  10. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known

  11. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  12. Soviet Pedagogical Innovations, 1960s through 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gireva, L. D.

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes the period in Soviet Russia from the late 1950s to the early 1990s as one marked by socioeconomic change and Communist Party restructuring. Discusses the effect this turmoil had on the educational system. Reforms instituted during this time formed the basis for many of the changes implemented with perestroika. (MJP)

  13. Education in the Soviet Union: Has "Perestroika" Met Its Match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Gerald Howard

    1989-01-01

    In late 1988, the Soviet Union's "perestroika" entered a new stage aimed at developing human resources and fostering democratic processes. Educators' and parents' discontent with the centralized bureaucracy and rigid educational administrative structure will press officials to formulate a comprehensive new education theory to achieve 19 future…

  14. Reactivity events in Soviet-designed pressurized water reactors (VVERs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses have been done on the response of Soviet-designed pressurized water reactors (VVERs) to various reactivity-induced events. VVERs are pressurized water reactors (PWRs), but they are different from US PWRs in many important ways. Significant differences exist in the design of the reactor protection system. Unlike US systems in which most off-normal conditions lead to a reactor scram, the Soviet system allows for four stages of response: full scram, fast insertion, slow insertion, and rod stop. For example, in a Soviet plant, the trip of a single reactor pump would not lead to a plant scram, but to the lowering of the reactor power to an appropriate level using the fast insertion response. The design of the Soviet system leads to additional failure modes not present in US plants. Reactivity transients in VVERs have been simulated using two different approaches: a simplified point kinetics model and the RETRAN-02 code. A total of 24 events were simulated for both VVER-440s and VVER-1000s. Several of these events, including deboration accidents at start-up and overcooling events without scram were found to lead to possible fuel damage

  15. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  16. SOVIET POLITICAL SCHOOLS, THE COMMUNIST PARTY ADULT INSTRUCTION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICKIEWICZ, ELLEN PROPPER

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF SOVIET ADULT POLITICAL EDUCATION MAINLY AS IT APPLIES TO RUSSIAN URBAN AREAS, WHERE THE SYSTEM IS MOST HIGHLY DEVELOPED. THIS SYSTEM, AN AGENCY FOR TRANSMITTING POLITICAL DOCTRINE, FORMS A PART OF THE VAST NETWORK OF FORMAL POLITICAL COMMUNICATION, WHICH INCLUDES THE MASS MEDIA, AGITATION, AND COMMUNIST PARTY LEADERSHIP…

  17. Repressive Policy of the Soviet Government During World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin N. Maksimov; Irina V. Lidzhieva

    2014-01-01

    The article features wide range of sources dealing with deportation of a number of Nations in the years of the great Patriotic war. The authors note that the repressive policy of the Soviet state, as well as the reason for the deportation of the peoples in the first half of XX century are rooted in the nature of the totalitarian mode.

  18. Gas in the former Soviet Union. A special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special report includes 13 papers on various aspects of the natural gas industry and its development in the republics of the former Soviet Union and a full listing of all the Russian oil and gas fields. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 papers. (UK)

  19. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  20. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  1. Drawing of American ASTP crewmen searching for Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The American Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen search the skies for the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in this humorous artwork by Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov. Astronauts Vance D. Brand, Donald K. Slayton and Thomas P. Stafford (left to right) sit astride the Apollo spacecraft and Docking Module ready to lasso Soyuz. Leonov, an accomplished artist, specializes in painting on space subjects.

  2. Public Education in Soviet Azerbaijan: Appraisal of an Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avakov, R., Ed.; Atakishiev, A., Ed.

    A comprehensive review of the public education system in Soviet Azerbaijan, this book traces the system's development since its establishment in 1920; it examines the system's context, goals, and organization, and analyzes its achievements and their economic effects. Two sections (four chapters each) cover the periods before and since the…

  3. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...... of choosing a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results do however not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....

  4. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.6 User fees for inspection of live...

  5. Strengthening border control and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world has experienced monumental changes in recent years. Globalization has brought many benefits. Business and commerce have increased and, as a result, brought us cheaper, more accessible goods from all regions of the world. We have access to relatively cheap and certainly much easier travel. We now live in a world of instant communications with mobile phones, laptops and 'BlackBerries'. However, there is a downside to globalization - transnationally organized crime and the reality of terrorism have grown. As more people cross borders, it is harder to detect criminals and terrorists. In the European Union, the internal borders of the now 27 member States have been dismantled. Effective international measures to counter organized crime and terrorist groups are of crucial importance. It is important to think globally and to act locally. The paper looks at some of the crime challenges and provides insight into the role and work of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in drugs and crime control. It focuses on border control initiatives conducted by the UNODC. (author)

  6. Developed Foresight for Borders Model Predicts the Amount of Borders Traffic in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Tarkkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the factors which have an influence on travelling and presents the forecast model to Finnish-Russian land border. The number of border traffic between Finland and the Russian Federation’s border stations has been an upward trend through the 2000s. A significant part of growth is due to increased travelling of the Russian Federation’s citizens to the European Union. Forecasting of cross-border traffic and tourism in Finnish-Russian land border h...

  7. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against the...... background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  8. Individuals, Institutions and Discourses: Knowledge and Power in Russia's Iranian Studies of the Late Imperial, Soviet and Post-Soviet Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Denis V. Volkov

    2015-01-01

    The scholarship on late Imperial Russia’s Oriental studies is divided by a disagreement over the applicability of Edward Said’s ‘Orientalism’ to the Russian case. Moreover, in a broader sense, since the mid 1990s, Western scholarship has not been unanimous on the applicability of the underlying Foucauldian notions to late Imperial and Soviet Russia. While presenting a systematic study of Soviet and post-Soviet scholarship (mostly unfamiliar to Western readership), this article offers an asses...

  9. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    special interest as a case that can shed light on how SNF handling evolved in a militaristic and totalitarian political setting. The emergence of 'glasnost' and 'perestroika' in the late 1980s and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, moreover, provides us with a unique opportunity to study the effects of revolutionary political changes on SNF decisionmaking. Conceptually, it is important to point out that managing SNF is not the same as managing radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is a broader concept than SNF, as it includes a variety of waste that does not stem from nuclear fuel. Conversely, not all SNF is regarded as a form of radioactive waste. On the contrary, SNF has often been regarded as a valuable resource, forming the basis for the production of new nuclear fuel, nuclear weapons and other civil and military products. Looking at the SNF discourse in history, there is a remarkable interpretative flexibility when it comes to defining SNF as a 'useful resource' or a form of 'waste'

  10. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per (History of Science and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail: perho@kth.se

    2010-09-15

    of special interest as a case that can shed light on how SNF handling evolved in a militaristic and totalitarian political setting. The emergence of 'glasnost' and 'perestroika' in the late 1980s and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, moreover, provides us with a unique opportunity to study the effects of revolutionary political changes on SNF decisionmaking. Conceptually, it is important to point out that managing SNF is not the same as managing radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is a broader concept than SNF, as it includes a variety of waste that does not stem from nuclear fuel. Conversely, not all SNF is regarded as a form of radioactive waste. On the contrary, SNF has often been regarded as a valuable resource, forming the basis for the production of new nuclear fuel, nuclear weapons and other civil and military products. Looking at the SNF discourse in history, there is a remarkable interpretative flexibility when it comes to defining SNF as a 'useful resource' or a form of 'waste'

  11. Forms of integration cooperation of the post-soviet states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkova Kira Evgenevna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the integration which is taking place on the post-Soviet space and it marks some factors which promote integration course. There are some forms of integration interaction of the countries of the post-Soviet space. The article designates and analyzes them. They are: the Union State of Russia and Belarus, Free trade zone of the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. The prevalence of political nature of integration processes on the post-Soviet space and aspiration to the development of economic integration unites them. Examined integration associations are various in their format. The Union State includes in an orbit of own interests the integration of different spheres of life of participating countries and as it is supposed to be a confederation of two states. The Customs Union represents the Customs Union of three countries which have expressed desire to go on the way of association of the customs territories and unification of the customs duties concerning the third countries. Free trade zone of the CIS means cancellation of the customs duties in trade between the participating countries. Each association has common interests of the states in various spheres directed on mutual cooperation and assumes various ways of consolidation. The detected forms of integration interaction carry out certain interpenetration among themselves. The existence of the states consisting in some of the considered organizations on the post-Soviet space promotes it. The considered organizations represent forms of integration interaction. The absence of continuity and gradual evolutionary transition from one form of integration to another obviously doesn’t promote acceleration and deepening of unifying processes on post-Soviet space. In spite of it the priority of the interstate relations is the orientation of the countries on development of economic interaction. It is

  12. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF SOVIET FISHING INDUSTRY IN THE AZOV-KUBAN REGION IN THE 20-IES YEARS OF XX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia S. DEMCHENKO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the establishment of Soviet fishing industry in the Azov-Kuban region in the 20-ies years of XX century has been studied. The difficulties and contradictions that are typical for the fishing industry of that period have been determined. The impact of the state management methods of fisheries has been discovered. It is shown on the basis of archival documents that the same economic processes that occurred in the economic sectors of Soviet Russia of that period are typical for the fishing industry of the Azov-Kuban region. Methods of «war communism» had a negative impact on the fishing production activities. The situation was partly corrected by the introduction of the New Economic Policy (NEP, however, it was soon brought to a close, being replaced by collectivization came in the fishing industry of the Azov-Kuban region that had its positive and negative consequences. 

  13. "Krokodil" Magazine: Laughter in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehowski, Marian

    A 16-page, four-color-on-newsprint magazine, "Krokodil" is among the world's most popular magazines of humor and satire. As a product of the Pravda Publishing House, it is produced by a branch of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, yet there are no official taboos or guidelines. Connections, popularity, and profits give "Krokodil" clout.…

  14. Frontiers, territoriality and tensions in bordering spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal

  15. Modeling the Impact of Border Crossing Bottlenecks on Supply Chain Disruption Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Sardar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to remain competitive, companies outsource the manufacturing process to global markets. Globalization requires shipping of goods across borders. Cross border movement of goods faces diverse difficulties and creates bottlenecks in the supply chain. Complex products involve numerous parts and complications in the assembly process, resulting in multiple border-crossings with varying level of complexity across multiple countries before reaching to the customers. This activity contributes to the supply chain disruption risk. Border crossing is unavoidable in global supply chains, and how to integrate border crossing complexity in supply chain models is an unresolved issue. This paper suggests an approach to quantify the border crossing complexity and its impact on the supply chain disruption risk in the global outsourcing environment. Results show that key factors which contribute to border crossing complexity include product complexity, trade procedures, and various bottlenecks at each bordercrossing. Based on results drawn from the quantitative analysis, we propose several strategies to manage the impact of border crossing bottlenecks. The focus of this research is the manufacturing companies which are involved in managing the global supply chains.

  16. Labour-market in a border-area; searching for jobs and the influence of borders

    OpenAIRE

    B. Martin R. van der Velde

    1998-01-01

    At the moment borders, border-related problems, and the process of tearing down borders are very much in the centre of interest. Especially in Europe a lot of scientific work is done with regard to borders of countries, to determine their role in the ongoing integration process. In this respect border-regions are considered to be able to play a catalytic role. The borderland economies on both sides of a national border in this view have to be changed into one transborder economy. Initiatives ...

  17. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  18. FUNCTIONING OF THE SOVIET IDEOLOGEME IN THE EMIGRANT LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Игоревна Шкредова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyzes the features of functioning of the Soviet ideologeme in the literature of emigrants in details. Much attention is given to the term "ideologeme", its characteristics and features. Criteria of differentiation of the terms "Sovietism" and "ideologeme" are considered. There is the analysis of changes in perception of ideological expressions into space and time by examples of passages from the literature of the emigrant writers.The received results of research will spark the interest of the authors of dictionaries and teachers in development of programs for studying lexicon, stylistics and the culture of speech.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-40

  19. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. PMID:26796744

  20. Legal transformations of business disputes in post-soviet Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kyselova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores mobilisation of law by Ukrainian business people at the pre-litigation stage of disputes, when litigation has not as yet been commenced but a legal claim has been formalised through the pretenziya - a formal letter to the delinquent party written to a special template. In Soviet times the pretenziya was by law an obligatory prerequisite before filing a claim in a commercial court (arbitrazh, but nowadays it is optional. Having analysed the spectrum of legal and extra-legal functions of pretenziya, this paper concludes that due to its adaptability, pretenziya proved capable of operating both as a token of the public order – the ‘shadow of the law’ - and as part of a private contract enforcement. Pretenziya in a voluntary form has not only survived in market-oriented economy but even opened up new avenues for the creative use of legal forms in post-Soviet business.

  1. New Soviet concepts in military doctrine, strategy, and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbachev offered a new Soviet view of nuclear war, and national security. The core of the new thinking is as follows: human interests take precedence over the interests of any particular class; the world is becoming increasingly interdependent; there can be no victors in a nuclear war; security has to be based increasingly on political, rather than military, instruments; and security has to be mutual. This paper discusses what brought this new thinking about and how this thinking might impact policy decisions

  2. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. PMID:25969502

  3. Legal transformations of business disputes in post-soviet Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Kyselova

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores mobilisation of law by Ukrainian business people at the pre-litigation stage of disputes, when litigation has not as yet been commenced but a legal claim has been formalised through the pretenziya - a formal letter to the delinquent party written to a special template. In Soviet times the pretenziya was by law an obligatory prerequisite before filing a claim in a commercial court (arbitrazh), but nowadays it is optional. Having analysed the spectrum of legal and extra-lega...

  4. Moscow State University physics alumni and the Soviet Atomic Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, two closely related themes are addressed: (1) the role that M V Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU) played in training specialists in physics for the Soviet Atomic Project, and (2) what its alumni contributed to the development of thermonuclear weapons. In its earlier stages, the Soviet Atomic Project was in acute need of qualified personnel, without whom building nuclear and thermonuclear weapons would be an impossible task, and MSU became a key higher educational institution grappled with the training problem. The first part of the paper discusses the efforts of the leading Soviet scientists and leaders of FMD (First Main Directorate) to organize the training of specialists in nuclear physics at the MSU Physics Department and, on the other hand, to create a new Physics and Technology Department at the university. As a result, a number of Soviet Government's resolutions were prepared and issued, part of which are presented in the paper and give an idea of the large-scale challenges this sphere of education was facing at the time. Information is presented for the first time on the early MSU Physics Department graduates in the structure of matter, being employed in the FMD organizations and enterprises from 1948 to 1951. The second part discusses the contribution to the development of thermonuclear weapons by the teams of scientists led by Academicians I E Tamm, A N Tikhonov, and I M Frank, and including MSU physics alumni. The paper will be useful to anyone interested in the history of Russian physics. (from the history of physics)

  5. Chemical Education in Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2000-07-01

    The chemical education system of the former Soviet Union (FSU) is analyzed in all three components: high school, undergraduate, and graduate education. A rigorous preparation in mathematics, physics, and chemistry in both high school and college provides students with a broad basis for understanding chemistry. It results in offsetting some downsides of the FSU education system, such as old-fashioned approaches in teaching inorganic and physical chemistry, shortage of sophisticated equipment, and the lack of competition in graduate studies.

  6. Nõukogude garaažikultuur. Soviet Garage Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Tauri Tuvikene

    2012-01-01

    Apart from its manifestation in the form of political ideology, the arts and the economic system, socialism also manifested itself in space. The socialist space did not only take shape ideologically, but was also influenced by societal limitations and possibilities. Because of this, it is important to shed light on everyday life in the Soviet Union, which did not necessarily consist of big slogans or open opposition, and which neither expressed loud support nor aversion in relation to the Sov...

  7. Post-Soviet Belarus: The Transformation of National Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Л. Г. ТИТАРЕНКО

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the formation of a new national identity in Belarus under conditions of post-Soviet transformation. Under the term of “national identity” the author means the identity of the population of the Republic of Belarus that will be adequate to its status of a newly independent state acquired after 1991. Special attention is paid to the existing major research approaches to the problem of constructing this national identity. According to the author’s view, both...

  8. US-Soviet Global Rivalry: Norms of Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander L. George

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines alternative approaches for developing norms of competition that might help to avoid war-threatening confrontations between the superpowers. Analysis of the abortive Nixon-Brezh nev experiment with 'general principles' and of subsequent efforts to devise general 'codes of conduct' to regulate the US-Soviet global competition suggests that such approaches are not workable. The paper argues that more attention should be given by the superpowers to a 'case-by-case' approach th...

  9. CULTURE SOVIET TRADE IN THE COLLECTIVE FARMS IN THE POSTWAR DECADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasyanov O. R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the periodic analysis of the materials of the Soviet post-war decades, this article attempts to analyze the activities of commercial enterprises to meet the consumer demand of the rural population. According to the author, the abolition of the card system in the Soviet Union in 1947 did not reach the stated goals: increasing demand of the population was unable to meet the deficit and preserve consumer goods led to the emergence of new social relations and relations between individuals included in the power hierarchy and employees trade institutions, and the bulk of the rural population is supplied with goods on leftovers. Many shopping facilities in collective farms did not have time to prepare for work in a trade without a card and as a result, the first days of the reform were not working. In rural areas, acute shortage of food and industrial products: matches, kerosene, clothing, etc. Villagers not infrequently encountered rude attitude on the part of those engaged in trade and unsanitary conditions reigning in retail establishments. In many settlements, timetable of stores sellers was not respected and it gave yet another disadvantage to the rural population

  10. GLORIFICATION OF RUSSIAN CONSPIRATORS IN RUSSIAN AND EARLY SOVIET CINEMATOGRAPHY: THE IMAGE OF S. G. NECHAEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Dogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In her Paper, Dunja Dogo aims to show how one specific historical character as well as radical revolu­tionist, S. G. Nechaev, was treated in «Дворец кре­пость» («The Palace and the Fortress», 1924—the first Soviet full-length fictional films on Russian Populists and directed by A. V. Ivanovsky for the Leningrad State cinematographic production «Sevzapkino». The screenplay of this film was written by the prominent historian and man of letters P. E. Shchiogolev, who made use of newly available archival material for the purpose of featuring history for the masses.One key question shall guide Dogo's Paper: in this cinematic text, through which narrative devices were the stories of the recent revolutionary past re­organised and reinterpreted in relation to the projects predominating in the Soviet post-re­v­o­lu­ti­o­nary present?

  11. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  12. THE PHENOMENON OF POLITICIZATION OF CHESS IN THE SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Alekseevich Levin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article tells about the phenomenon of politicization of chess in the Soviet Union. It is analyzed about key moments and periods of chess history of the Soviet Union, with participation of country’s political government.The main purposes of this article, are tracing of the main stages in the development of chess in the USSR, also to determine the degree of intervention of political power in chess sport, and the role of sport as a resource for managing the external and internal political processes. This parts of political and historical science are poorly known nowadays. The article tells about a number of same example. It is attentively analyzed about the period of Cold War Particularly given the impact of chess-political confrontation between the USSR and the West during the Cold War. As one of the main conclusions, it is denoted about negative sides of the politicization of chess in the Soviet Union and also positive sides.

  13. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  14. Seeing Cellular Debris, Remembering a Soviet Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ann H.

    2016-01-01

    A 1962 photomicrograph of a mosquito taken in what was then a Tanganyikan mountain laboratory offers a prompt to consider the social salience and affective power of scientific images. Drawing inspiration from anthropological work on photographic practices, this article excavates the diverse geopolitical and domestic contexts of the image's production, consumption and circulation, so as to grasp the relationship between scientific labors and lives. As much souvenir as “epistemic thing,” the photomicrograph provides new directions in thinking about the materiality of memory in tropical medicine. PMID:27152063

  15. Network communities within and across borders

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Cerina; Alessandro Chessa; Fabio Pammolli; Massimo Riccaboni

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by t...

  16. The cross-border cooperation agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to achieve a short analysis of cross-border cooperation agreements between territorial-administrative units in the border areas of Romania and similar structures in neighboring states. The article investigates the form they takes these agreements – contract or treaty –, the role of multinational enterprises and the law applicable to transnational contracts, the cross-border cooperation agreement governed by Law no. 215/2001 on local public administration and its legal nature. ...

  17. Competitiveness of the Economies of Border Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhenov Yu.; Nikulkhenkov K.

    2009-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problem of competitiveness of border regions as subjects of the Russian Federation having specific characteristics. The authors focus on the stages, during which border regions build their competitiveness, as well as analyse certain indices characterizing it. They examine the role of these regions in the development of international trade and economic relations, cross-border cooperation and international integration, taking the North-west federal district and t...

  18. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  19. The Notions of "A Border", "A Foreign Country (Abroad" and "A Foreigner": In the Relations between the USSR (Russia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A border and related concepts of “abroad” and “a foreigner” are analyzed from the linguistic, semiotic and socio-cultural points of view with regard to the USSR (Russia –Bulgaria relations. In spite of being very close to, even regarded as the 16th republic of the USSR and imitating many Soviet ideas, Bulgaria was a foreign country. The reasons for that on the lingua-cultural data partly of biographical character are discussed in the paper. The border can be a synonym to the language barrier, which exists or does not exist between native speakers of Bulgarian and Russian. The new developments of mutual Russian-Bulgarian language communication on the Bulgaria seashore provide us new data of the symbolism of temporal and spatial borders.

  20. 论现代产品艺术形态跨界合作创新设计%Discussion on the Creative Design of Cross-border Cooperation of Modern Product Artistic Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任立昭; 尹翠君; 李兆军

    2012-01-01

    It analyzed that the creative design need multi-sphere cross-border cooperation under the globalization background,rapidly produce good idea,increase well-known brand and achieve great competitive superiority.It brought forward a new conception of the cross-border cooperation creative design.It discussed the advantages of the cross-border cooperation creative design.It is worth popularizing because it can promote the transform of the working mould of the enterprise and the economic development of our country.%分析了在全球化的背景下,设计需要多领域的跨界合作创新,快速产生优秀的创新设计方案,以提升品牌知名度来获得国际竞争优势。提出了跨界合作创新设计的新概念,论述了跨界合作创新设计的新方法,进而分析了跨界合作创新设计的优势,对我国企业的转型和经济的发展有直接促进作用,值得推广。

  1. A mutation in canine CLN5 causes neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Scott A; Wilson, Carmen L; Chiang, Chiu S; Studdert, Virginia P; Lingaas, Frode; Wilton, Alan N

    2005-09-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a neurodegenerative disease found in Border collie dogs, humans, and other animals. Disease gene studies in humans and animals provided candidates for the NCL gene in Border collies. A combination of linkage analysis and comparative genomics localized the gene to CFA22 in an area syntenic to HSA13q that contains the CLN5 gene responsible for the Finnish variant of human late infantile NCL. Sequencing of CLN5 revealed a nonsense mutation (Q206X) within exon 4 that correlated with NCL in Border collies. This truncation mutation should result in a protein product of a size similar to that of some mutations identified in human CLN5 and therefore the Border collie may make a good model for human NCL. A simple test was developed to enable screening of the Border collie population for carriers so the disease can be eliminated as a problem in the breed. PMID:16033706

  2. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.

  3. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria: A methodological note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... large traders, and considered as re-export products: building materials, cereals and flour, textile, used clothing, used vehicles, cigarettes and oil....

  4. Economic Miracle of Post-Soviet Space: Why Uzbekistan Managed to Achieve What No Other Post-Soviet State Achieved

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Uzbekistan is not usually considered an economic success story, but in fact it is: its GDP increased since 1989 more than in any other post-communist country, except for China, Vietnam and Turkmenistan. The success of Uzbekistan is very much similar to the Chinese – gradual economic reforms with the preservation of the capacity of state institutions, good macroeconomic policy and export oriented industrial policy. What makes Uzbekistan unique is that no other former Soviet republic managed to...

  5. FREUDIAN COMPLEXES OF SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PHILOLOGY IN STUDYING THE GOSPEL TEXT IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s. The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet power and humanitarian studies lay in their striving towards a complete restructuring of Russian culture, state and man itself. Russian literature is interpreted on the basis of anti-Christian tenets and a set of criteria absolutely alien to Russian literature. We show that this mental attitude has not been overcome by post-Soviet literary criticism. Our article is a call on scholars of Russian literature to get rid of their Freudian complexes in the treatment of Russian culture.

  6. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  7. Nõukogude garaažikultuur. Soviet Garage Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauri Tuvikene

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its manifestation in the form of political ideology, the arts and the economic system, socialism also manifested itself in space. The socialist space did not only take shape ideologically, but was also influenced by societal limitations and possibilities. Because of this, it is important to shed light on everyday life in the Soviet Union, which did not necessarily consist of big slogans or open opposition, and which neither expressed loud support nor aversion in relation to the Soviet system. In this article I take a look at the garage areas (which were usually built in clusters as spatial elements, and the garage culture associated with them. I describe how the garage was a necessary part of the car culture in Soviet society, a part which at times comprised objects, practices and meanings of its own: in other words, a garage culture. Cars have had a major impact on cityscapes in the West, where the number of cars per capita was many times larger than in the Soviet Union, but car usage has left its mark in socialist cities as well. Getting around in a car inevitably means aneed to park it somewhere; this basic fact applied to both sides of the Iron Curtain. However, garage areas have carried more importance in socialist societies – there is more of them, and they feature a large amount of parking spaces (hundreds if not thousands. The reason for this popularity was societal limitations and possibilities: on the one hand there was an opportunity for extensive land use brought about by the state ownership of land untouched by free-market search for profitability, but on the other hand there were also obstacles, created by a deficit. By enabling the car owner to keep his vehicle going, the garage had a concrete role to play in the Soviet economic system. The garage was a place where you could repair your car, store spare parts and protect it from potential theft. The role of the garage in Soviet car culture as described in this article

  8. Is the international border effect larger than the domestic border effect? Evidence from US trade

    OpenAIRE

    Cletus C. Coughlin; Novy, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have found that international borders represent large barriers to trade. But how do international borders compare to domestic border barriers? We investigate international and domestic border barriers in a unified framework. We consider a data set of exports from individual U.S. states to foreign countries and combine it with trade flows between and within U.S. states. After controlling for distance and country size, we estimate that relative to state-to-state trade, crossing an ...

  9. The development of cross-border economic relationships between firms in border regions

    OpenAIRE

    Houtum, Henk van

    1998-01-01

    Central question of this paper is what effects a state border has on the development of cross-border economic relationships in border regions. First the geographical spread of these relationships is analysed. Next a theoretical model is proposed to explain the pattern and the decision-process of bilateral international economic relationships. The model is mainly based on four theories: 1. the transaction costs approach on cross border economic relations under the condition of uncertainty. 2. ...

  10. Interoperability at the Border: Coordinated Border Management Best Practices & Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2010-01-01

    Interoperability among government agencies at national borders, also known as coordinated border management (CBM), is a fundamental component of a nation's modernized customs and border control strategy. It comprises the streamlining of parallel processes and technologies enabling different government agencies to effectively work together on border issues. By 4 implementing CBM strategies at both the domestic and international levels, countries can reduce internal costs and inefficiencies, im...

  11. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu); Nicolae-Eugen Munteanu

    2012-01-01

    To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external b...

  12. The Armchair at the Borders: The "Messy" Ideas of Borders and Border Epistemologies within Multicultural Science Education Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to further articulate multicultural science education scholarship. In particular, it explores the notions of borders and border epistemologies as intellectual resources to think again about the challenges of science education in the global world that demand more sophisticated concepts to unravel some of its complexities. It…

  13. POSTMODERN EDUCATION: CRITICAL AND BORDER PEDAGOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of postmodernism on education and investigates the main effects ofpostmodern philosophy on social sciences. It is clearly stated in the article that the effects of postmodernism cannotonly be limited to art and logically it should have an effect on education as well. This effect, described as thepostmodern educational approach, emphasizes that the rudiments of popular culture should also be incorporated toeducation and therefore to curricula. Postmodern educational approach also accentuates the significance of allowing‘others’ who have never possessed the opportunity to articulate their standpoints and desires to have a say in their owneducation. The concrete reflections of postmodern educational approach can be perceived in Critical and BorderPedagogies theorized by Henry A. Giroux. Critical pedagogy aspires to educate individuals who do not acceptoccurrences as they are and are critical of the knowledge they construct all through their education. Only by this waythese individuals will be able to discover their own voices, improve their civilian consciousness by taking risks, andacquire the ability of staying alive and functioning within social relations, traditions and experiences. Border pedagogyis as well a product of postmodern philosophy. It defends counter-text as opposed to the official ones offered, presentedand imposed to learners. Counter-consciousness represents the critical analysis of how the present reads the past andhow the past informs the present. This practice of course results in the re-evaluation of memories and traditions.Memories are the stories which were forgotten or ignored with the support of preserved traditions. It is thereforeconcluded in the article that postmodern educational approach is the critical examination towards dismissing the mainnarratives and discourses which manipulate and configure the curriculum of schools. It is the struggle exercisedtowards the recognition

  14. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification cards; combined border crossing identification cards and B-1/B-2 visitor visas. 41.32 Section 41... crossing identification cards; combined border crossing identification cards and B-1/B-2 visitor visas. (a) Combined B-1/B-2 visitor visa and border crossing identification card (B-1/B-2 Visa/BCC)—(1)...

  15. Border adjustment for European emissions trading: Competitiveness and carbon leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unilateral or sub-global policies to combat climate change are potentially sensitive to free-riding and carbon leakage. One way of dealing with carbon leakage and competitiveness is the imposition of border adjustment measures for competing imports, for example in the form of the obligation to importers of goods to purchase and surrender emissions allowances to the authorities when importing. In this paper, we explore some implications of border adjustment measures in the EU ETS, for sectors that might be subject to carbon leakage. We examine the implications of two variants of these measures on the competitiveness of these sectors and on the global environment with the help of a multi-sector, multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the global economy. Our calculations suggest that border adjustment might reduce the sectoral rate of leakage of the iron and steel industry rather forcefully, but that the reduction would be less for the mineral products sector, including cement. The reduction of the overall or macro rate of leakage would be modest. So, from an environmental point of view border tax adjustments would not be a very effective policy measure, but might mainly be justified by considerations of sectoral competitiveness.

  16. Border adjustment for European emissions trading: Competitiveness and carbon leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuik, Onno, E-mail: onno.kuik@ivm.vu.n [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hofkes, Marjan [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Unilateral or sub-global policies to combat climate change are potentially sensitive to free-riding and carbon leakage. One way of dealing with carbon leakage and competitiveness is the imposition of border adjustment measures for competing imports, for example in the form of the obligation to importers of goods to purchase and surrender emissions allowances to the authorities when importing. In this paper, we explore some implications of border adjustment measures in the EU ETS, for sectors that might be subject to carbon leakage. We examine the implications of two variants of these measures on the competitiveness of these sectors and on the global environment with the help of a multi-sector, multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the global economy. Our calculations suggest that border adjustment might reduce the sectoral rate of leakage of the iron and steel industry rather forcefully, but that the reduction would be less for the mineral products sector, including cement. The reduction of the overall or macro rate of leakage would be modest. So, from an environmental point of view border tax adjustments would not be a very effective policy measure, but might mainly be justified by considerations of sectoral competitiveness.

  17. Border adjustment for European emissions trading. Competitiveness and carbon leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unilateral or sub-global policies to combat climate change are potentially sensitive to free-riding and carbon leakage. One way of dealing with carbon leakage and competitiveness is the imposition of border adjustment measures for competing imports, for example in the form of the obligation to importers of goods to purchase and surrender emissions allowances to the authorities when importing. In this paper, we explore some implications of border adjustment measures in the EU ETS, for sectors that might be subject to carbon leakage. We examine the implications of two variants of these measures on the competitiveness of these sectors and on the global environment with the help of a multi-sector, multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the global economy. Our calculations suggest that border adjustment might reduce the sectoral rate of leakage of the iron and steel industry rather forcefully, but that the reduction would be less for the mineral products sector, including cement. The reduction of the overall or macro rate of leakage would be modest. So, from an environmental point of view border tax adjustments would not be a very effective policy measure, but might mainly be justified by considerations of sectoral competitiveness. (author)

  18. Storming Fortresses: A Political History Of Chess In The Soviet Union, 1917-1948

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    From the end of the Second World War through the demise of USSR, Soviet chess players dominated world chess. Not only did they control the world champion title after 1948 (except for the Fischer interlude), they also monopolized all other areas of international chess competition. When the Soviets captured the world title in 1948, this was the culmination of a long, carefully cultivated program to foster a chess community in the Soviet Union. The rationale for this initiative, which engaged th...

  19. Use of Domesticated and Foreignized Methods in the Soviet School of Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Natalija Vid

    2007-01-01

    The article focuses on prevailing translation methods used in the Soviet translation school. The main aim of the research is to analyze translation strategies; principles and methods used by Soviet translators who were forced to work in a cultural vacuum under strong ideological influence. The absolute priority of domesticated translation in the Soviet translation school is compared with strongly criticized foreignized translation. The primary use of the domesticated method of translation dep...

  20. Ideas from the Women's Liberation Movement during the Period of the Central Soviet Area

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shanjiu; Liang, Junsi

    2013-01-01

    During the period of the Central Soviet Area, the women's liberation movement flourished, greatly improving the living environment and space for women in the Soviet Area, and providing important implication for resolving issues concerning the development of women left behind in the current rural areas. Based on the useful exploration in the women's liberation movement during the period of the Central Soviet Area, and the field research data concerning the Gannan area, we conduct research on t...

  1. China and the Soviet Union: Some Aspects of Comparative Analysis of Their Political Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Vladimirovich Lukin

    2015-01-01

    The article describes historical peculiarities of the research of political systems and political processes in the Soviet Union and China. The author reveals the problems of Soviet sinology, including its politicized character, the advantages and disadvantages of the Soviet school, the similarities and differences of the both political systems, as well as differences in their academic approaches. The author also uses a civilizational approach to explain the uniqueness of the Chinese civilizat...

  2. A Necessary Evil? : Continuity and Change in Russian and Soviet Abortion Discourse, 1910-1930

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The widespread reliance on abortion in the Soviet Union, occasionally even referred to as an “abortion culture”, has been documented in a number of studies. However, the notoriously high abortion rates are not the only reason why the Soviet case stands out in the global history of abortion. Having decriminalised abortion by decree in 1920, Soviet Russia became the first country in the world where the termination of pregnancy was discussed as a legalised phenomenon. Russian discussions on ...

  3. Narratives of Return: Babii Iar and Holocaust Literature in the Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Lekht, Naya

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines Soviet literary texts devoted primarily to Babii Iar and other ravines where thousands of Soviet Jews and non-Jews were murdered by fascist occupiers during the Second World War. The centrality of Babii Iar as a symbol of the Holocaust for Soviet Jews and non-Jews is the point of departure for this dissertation, which redefines the contours of Holocaust literature. The purpose of the dissertation is to identify and analyze the following key problems: the divide betw...

  4. Britain's exploitation of Occupied Germany for scientific and technical intelligence on the Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maddrell, John Paul

    1999-01-01

    At the beginning of the Cold War, the gathering of intelligence on the Soviet Union's current and future military capability seemed a near-impossibility. Soviet high-level communications were secure against decryption. Agent networks in the USSR were very difficult to establish and of uncertain reliability. Aerial reconnaissance of warrelated targets in the Soviet Union was risky and could only be occasional. But valuable intelligence was gathered in the years 1945-55 on the US...

  5. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which to build…

  6. BorderScapes: Redesigning the Borderland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, H.J. van; Eker, M.

    2015-01-01

    The internal borders in the European Union were opened more than twenty years ago. However, a comprehensive and coordinated spatial vision for the border landscape is yet to be composed. Bureaucratic cooperation procedures in combination with new nationalistic sentiments in the EU only seem to block

  7. Cross-border mobility of Iraqi refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Chatelard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Far more attention needs to be paid to the circulation of Iraqirefugees across the borders between Iraq and Syria or Jordan. Lackof analysis of this cross-border mobility will be to the detriment ofpolicy planning and the search for durable solutions.

  8. Cross-border mobility of Iraqi refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Géraldine Chatelard

    2010-01-01

    Far more attention needs to be paid to the circulation of Iraqirefugees across the borders between Iraq and Syria or Jordan. Lackof analysis of this cross-border mobility will be to the detriment ofpolicy planning and the search for durable solutions.

  9. Providing training and technical assistance to customs officers and border guards: An effective mechanism to improve export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the disintegration of the Soviet Union, an increasing international concern requiring attention is illegal trafficking in nuclear and nuclear-related dual-use commodities. For the past few years, the US government, including the Department of Energy (DOE), has assisted the former Soviet Union in establishing and enhancing national export control systems. Although US assistance has been targeted to help control approved transfers, part of the focus has shifted to prevent the illegal exit of special nuclear material, dual-use items, and other nuclear-related materials. As part of a State Department initiative, a Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund (NDF) was established to address various nonproliferation concerns. One project, funded by NDF, US Customs Service (Customs), and the DOE, focuses on assisting transit countries to prevent illegal trafficking. DOE is providing technical expertise to seven countries in the Baltics and Central Europe to help identify materials, equipment, and technology that might transit their borders. Although there are many mechanisms to prevent illegal trafficking, this paper will discuss the importance of providing international customs officials and border guards with training and technical assistance on nuclear materials and nuclear-related dual-use items. More specifically, detail of the DOE training plan will be discussed

  10. Border Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Jennifer Andrea

    2011-01-01

    AbstractBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico BorderbyJennifer Andrea ReimerDoctor of Philosophy in Ethnic StudiesUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor José David Saldívar, Co-ChairProfessor Laura E. Pérez, Co-ChairBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border is a transnational, interdisciplinary cultural study of the contemporary U.S.-Mexico border that argues for the critical role of the international border in the racial past, p...

  11. METROBORDER. Cross-border Polycentric Metropolitan Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Metropolitan regions are generally seen as drivers for territorial development in the national context, as well as drivers for economic, social and cultural development on a European and global scale. Many border regions dispose of specific potentials but also specific barriers for a cross-border...... polycentric metropolitan region. However, cross-border areas appear to be systematically underestimated in their development opportunities so that awareness about specific advantages needs to be improved. This is why this project addresses cross-border metropolitan regions in Europe in relation to the policy...... aim of polycentric development. It aims at identifying criteria, potentials and governance practices based on available ESPON evidence for polycentric cross-border metropolitan regions in Europe and proposing options for development strategies towards a multilevel approach for two case study regions...

  12. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  13. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  14. Uzbekistan: Radiation monitoring on the borders, experience and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The measures and actions on prevention, detection and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving radioactive materials in Uzbekistan are presented. The geographical location of Uzbekistan is convenient for illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials. The history of technical equipping of Customs checkpoints on Uzbekistan borders with radiation detectors is presented. To solve the problem of radiation monitoring at Uzbekistan borders was possible by installing stationary radiation portal monitors (RPM) at main customs border crossings or entry points. In our case radiation portal monitors 'Yantar' produced by Russian company 'Aspect' were used. These commercial RPMs were adjusted for use in sharply continental climate of Uzbekistan by sun-protection system. Up to date in Uzbekistan 31 checkpoints were equipped with such RPMs, total amount of monitors being 200. The experience of operation of radiation monitors has shown that the majority of alarms were innocent ones caused by NORM radionuclides, mainly K-40, Th-232, U-238 in various industrial products such as building materials, ceramics, mineral fertilizers etc. Several cases of radioactivity detection in trucks, railway cars and pedestrians are analyzed. The analysis of failures occurred in RPMs and its constituents during several years of their operation is presented. The activities for further development of radiation control on the borders are presented. The experience of Uzbekistan in establishing radiation monitoring systems on its borders, their operation and technical maintenance will be useful for other countries of the region in their efforts to strengthen measures to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials. (author)

  15. The conversion of military science and technology: Former Soviet Union case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the Cold War which has brought deep changes in the very concept of defence, requires fundamental changes in the defence strategies of all nations, the new international situation is encouraging the conversion of the military sector for the benefit of the civilian economy. This process involves many companies that have previously worked mostly or exclusively on the basis of military orders. In particular, from the nuclear non-proliferation point of view and environmental safety standpoint, some urgent problems arise: civilian management of military nuclear technologies, management and storage of weapon-grade materials, namely plutonium and highly enriched uranium from dismantled nuclear warheads, cleaning and reusing large areas which have been taken up for the production of weapon-grade plutonium and uranium enrichment (in Soviet Union so called 'atomic sites'), retraining scientific personnel and engineers in the nuclear military industry

  16. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations. PMID:21485454

  17. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, March-April 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March to April 1988. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear; optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography, laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  18. FSU: Overview of energy laws in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the laws currently in effect in the former Soviet Union which govern foreign investment in the oil and gas sector, with special reference to countries with export potential. Countries such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan between them produce generous supplies of oil and natural gas, and future deposit finds are anticipated. However these resources are currently under-utilized, partly due to the old central planning system. Indeed, there are unpredictable political, economic and social forces at work which may lead to frequent and unpredictable change, as the transition to a market economy takes place. (UK)

  19. First results from the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, A.I.; Abdurashitov, D.N.; Anosov, O.L.; Eroshkina, L.A.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mezentseva, S.A.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.I.; Petukhov, V.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Revzin, N.Ye.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhandarov, V.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij); Bowles, T.J.; Cleveland, B.T.; Elliott, S.R.; O' Brien, H.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia (USA)); Cherry, M.L. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA)); Kouzes, R.T. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment is the first experiment able to measure the dominant flux of low energy p-p solar neutrinos. Four extractions made during January to May 1950 from 30 tons of gallium have been counted and indicate that the flux is consistent with 0 SNU and is less than 72 SNU (68% GL) and less than 138 SNU (95% CL). This is to be compared wit h the flux of 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model. (orig.).

  20. POST-SOVIET ASIA: NEW GEOPOLITICAL TRENDS AND RUSSIA'S INTERESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Grozin, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    Until the late 1999, post-Soviet Central Asia as a whole, with the exception of Tajikistan, was seen as a stable region not prone to conflicts. There was still no talk of another round of the Big Game that brought the leading world centers into the continent's "heartland." This talk began later, at the end of 2001. Today, we all know that the external stability of the 1990s was nothing but a shell filled with vast destructive potential. So far, the Central Asian republics have not yet identif...

  1. Dutch Disease in Former Soviet Union: Witch-Hunting

    OpenAIRE

    Égert, Balázs

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the extent to which countries of the former Soviet Union are “infected” by the Dutch Disease. We take a detailed look at the functioning of the trans-mission mechanism of the Dutch Disease, i.e. the chains that run from commodity prices to real output in manufacturing. We complement this with two econometric exercises. First, we estimate nominal and real exchange rate models to see whether commodity prices are correlated with the exchange rate. Second, we run gro...

  2. Louis Aragon: (Re writing the Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela KIMYONGÜR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available At the time of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939, Louis Aragon was a member of the French Communist Party (PCF, a well known novelist and poet and a journalist. Whilst his writing career had undergone several notable transformations, not least that from surrealist to socialist realist, his political commitment to the left and, from 1927 to the PCF, remained steadfast for much of his life. Indeed, unlike the PCF’s interpretation of the Second World War, which underwent a number of s...

  3. Cross-border collaboration in the field of highly contagious livestock diseases: A general framework for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-borde

  4. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  5. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  6. Spatial integration in European cross-border metropolitan regions: A comparative approach

    OpenAIRE

    DECOVILLE Antoine; Durand, Frédéric; Sohn, Christophe; Walther, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the process of spatial integration in ten European cross-border metropolitan regions. On the basis of three indicators, relating to flows of cross-border commuters, gross domestic product and the housing market, it suggests that spatial integration can be viewed as a process of convergence between distinct territories, resulting from the intensification of interaction between social, political and economic actors. Our results allow, firstly, confirmation of the hypothesi...

  7. Regional selfmanagement in integrated energy market of the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanimaegi, K. (System Research Department, Institute of Thermophysics and Electrophysics, Estonian Academy of Sciences (SU)); Motus, M. (Oil Shale Department, Institute of Thermophysics and Electrophysics, Estonian Academy of Sciences (SU)); Barabaner, H. (Institute of Thermophysics and Electrophysics, Estonian Academy of Sciences (SU))

    1990-01-01

    The subject is local energy management planning in the Soviet Union where data from Estonia are used to illustrate a case in point. It is recommended that more control is exercised with regard to energy accounting, and that greater attention should be given to energy conservation policies. Altogether energy planning needs to be better coordinated between the various regions, in fact it is suggested that the whole system of energy management can very seldom be completely limited within the boundaries of individual regions. At the Institute for Thermophysics and Electrophysics, however, a concept of regional economical energy self management, (REES) for the Soviet Union as a whole, and for different republics, was worked out. This gives more freedom for individual planning within the republics. The REES concept, which is based on market theories of prices and taxes with regard to power resources, optimum consumption, environmental protection and excessiveness, is described and discussed. it is pointed out that adoption of the REES concept would involve heavy administratonal procedures. (AB).

  8. Analysis of the 1957-58 Soviet nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of a Soviet accident in the winter of 1957-58, involving the atmospheric release of reprocessed fission wastes (cooling time approximately 1-2 yrs.), appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the USSR radioecology literature. Due to the high population density in the affected region (Cheliabinsk Province in the highly industrialized Urals Region) and the reported level of 90Sr contamination, the event probably resulted in the evacuation and/or resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100-1000 km2). The resulting contamination zone is estimated to have contained approximately 106 Ci of 90Sr (reference radionuclide); a relatively small fraction of the total may have been dispersed as an aerosol. Although a plausible explanation for the incident exists (i.e., use of now-obsolete waste storage-137Cs isotope separation techniques), it is not yet possible, based on the limited information presently available, to completely dismiss this phenomenon as a purely historical event. It seems imperative that we have a complete explanation of the causes and consequences of this incident. Soviet experience gained in application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the rest of the world nuclear community

  9. Limited attacks on the United States and the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is focused on calculations carried out at Princeton University of the consequences of so-called ''limited'' nuclear attacks by the USA and the USSR on one another - primarily because such scenarios seem to be motivating the acquisition of new nuclear weapons. The conclusions were: The use of only a fraction of the destructive capacity in USA and Soviet nuclear arsenals could have catastrophic consequences to human kind. Although the primary justification of the tens of thousands of nuclear warheads in USA and Soviet arsenals is their potential use against military targets, the most commonly discussed potential large-scale military uses of these weapons - in attacks against the nuclear weapons of the other side - would result in tens of millions of civilian casualties. Certainly, if a first strike resulted in such a huge civilian toll, there could be little assurance of restraint in the response of the country that was attacked. The use of even 1% of the strategic arsenals of the USSR or the USA against the population, military industry or strategic-nuclear targets of the other nation could result in tens of millions of casualties. 17 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users in...... activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that ccTLDs are not...

  11. Getting Acquainted: Thinking about the Soviet Union. Elementary Teaching Activities: Days of Dialogue, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Charlotte; And Others

    This guide is designed to replace the ignorance, misinformation, and negative stereotypes that many students hold about the Soviet Union and its peoples with a reasoned and rational outlook based on critical thinking and class activities. The introduction to these activities provides background and a rationale for teaching about the Soviet Union.…

  12. Saving consumer loyalty to the soviet brands in terms of their extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Tarasova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problems of companies using modern Soviet brands in terms of marketing. It investigates the specificity of brand management in relation to the Soviet brand, determines the pros and cons of a recognizable corporate identity, and analyzes the strategy of brand extension, while maintaining the loyalty of regular customers.

  13. “Creative Industries” Strategies in Soviet Lithuania: Packages of Mass Consumption Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Jaškūnienė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the Soviet mechanism of including the creative potentials into formation of economical and ideological policy strategies. Research aims to examine, how mass media and culture theories of Walter Benjamin, Frankfurt school and British Culture studies reflect the situation of mass culture in Soviet system. Case study is based on Lithuanian package design of 1960–1970s.

  14. Updating Teaching Lessons on the Soviet Union: Entering the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Explains how social studies teachers can help students understand perestroika, glasnost, and other current events in the Soviet Union. Describes strategies that teach how to analyze periodical and newspaper articles dealing with the Soviet Union. Lists resource materials for updating information on the USSR. Outlines a sample lesson on the 1989…

  15. Policy and Model Analysis: The Case of Soviet Immigrant Teacher Re-Training in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva-May, Iris

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates the largely successful retraining program for immigrant science teachers from the former Soviet Union to Israel in 1990-91 following the mass Soviet immigration. A list of policy recommendations is offered. The retraining considerations and models from this study might be applied in other countries experiencing major social changes. (SLD)

  16. Soviet Applications of Microcomputers in Education: Developments in Research and Practice during the Gorbachev Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Stephen T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the current plan to introduce computer literacy into Soviet schools; examines the resources needed (hardware, software, personnel) to carry out the plan; examines the directions Soviet research on educational applications of computers is likely to take; and looks at factors that may influence the success of the program. (EM)

  17. On the Disintegration of the Soviet Union - From the Perspective of Soft Power in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Yuzhi Zhang; Fengwei Xue

    2010-01-01

    The disintegration of the Soviet Union is widely discussed in academic circles. From the perspective of soft power in culture, stating the gradual loss of soft power in the publican and political culture, at last led to the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

  18. ‘Air-mindedness’ and Air Parades: images of flight and aviation and their relation to Soviet identity in Soviet film 1926-1945

    OpenAIRE

    Veal, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Taking Soviet films from 1926 to 1945 as its frame of reference, this thesis seeks to answer the question: is autonomous voicing possible in film during a period defined by Stalin’s concentration of power and his authoritarian influence on the arts? Aviation and flight imaging in these films shares characteristics of language, and the examination of the use of aviation and flight as an expressive means reveals nuances in messaging which go beyond the official demand of Soviet Socialist Realis...

  19. Hostage to revolution: Gorbachev and Soviet Security Policy 1985-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacker, C.D.

    1993-12-31

    The authors analysis is based on three major propositions: (1) that the urgent need to revitalize the Soviet economy led Gorbachev to reappraise Soviet security requirements and to seek far-reaching reforms in both military doctrine and the armed forces; (2) that the scope of and nature of the domestic change proposed by Gorbachev could only be undertaken without endangering Soviet security by containing the political and military rivalry with the West: and (3) that Gorbachev and his reforms fell victim to the failure of perestroika to spark an economic recovery and to the increasing radicalization of the soviet domestic political scene. The forces of reform that Gorbachev unleased failed to spark the Soviet Unions` economic recovery but did insure its collapse.

  20. CROSS-BORDER PROJECTS – MEANS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ALONG THE ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Maria BÂTEA (BOTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the linkage between establishing crossborder relations and tourism development by focusing on ten tourism projects implemented under Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Programme (2007-2013. The study area comprises the two neighbouring counties of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, the border connecting two areas characterised by social and economic similarities. Building on a solid foundation, as the first Hungarian-Romanian cross-border initiatives were launched nearly two decades ago, the two counties work together towards the shared aim of developing business infrastructure, cross-border trade, culture and tourism. The present study examines the relevance of cross-border projects viewed from the perspective of sustainable tourism development in two peripheral counties featuring similar resources. Moreover, the investigation is based on consultation of project documents, reports and promotional materials, against the theoretical framework of cross-border cooperation and regional development.

  1. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  2. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates in...... seeking children in Denmark is assessed as a form of liberal nationalism. Several problematic features with this system are discussed, such as the lacking Danish implementation of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, and the use of cultural generalizations in case evaluations. Chapter four conducts...... in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry and the...

  3. Networks communities within and across borders

    CERN Document Server

    Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...

  4. Book review: Beyond walls and borders: prisons, borders, and global crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Tabarez, Ulises

    2013-01-01

    "Beyond Walls and Borders." Jenna M. Lold, Matt Mitchelson and Andrew Burridge (eds.). University of Georgia Press. December 2012. --- The crisis of borders and prisons can be seen starkly in statistics. In 2011 some 1,500 migrants died trying to enter Europe, and the United States deported nearly 400,000 and imprisoned some 2.3 million people—more than at any other time in history. International borders are increasingly militarized places embedded within domestic policing and imprisonment an...

  5. Radiation safety without borders initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Safety Without Borders (RSWB) initiative provides peer support to radiation safety professionals in developing countries, which bolsters the country's infrastructure and may lead the way for IRPA Associate membership. The Health Physics Society (HPS) recognizes that many nations do not possess the infrastructure to adequately control and beneficially use ionizing radiation. In a substantial number of countries, organized radiation protection programs are minimal. The RSWB initiative relies on HPS volunteers to assist their counterparts in developing countries with emerging health physics and radiation safety programs, but whose resources are limited, to provide tools that promote and support infrastructure and help these professionals help themselves. RSWB experience to date has shown that by providing refurbished instruments, promoting visits to a HPS venue, or visiting a country just to look provide valuable technical and social infrastructure experiences often missing in the developing nation's cadre of radiation safety professionals. HPS/RSWB with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) pairs chapters with a country, with the expectation that the country's professional radiation safety personnel will form a foreign HPS chapter, and the country eventually will become an IRPA Associate. Although still in its formative stage, RSWB nonetheless has gotten valuable information in spite of the small number of missions. The RSWB initiative continues to have significant beneficial impacts, including: Improving the radiation safety infrastructure of the countries that participate; Assisting those countries without professional radiation safety societies to form one; Strengthening the humanitarian efforts of the United States; Enhancing Homeland Security efforts through improved control of radioactive material internationally. Developing countries, including those in Latin America, underwritten by IAEA, may take advantage of resources

  6. The development of cross-border economic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the influence of a state border on the development of cross-border economic relations in the European Union. The focus is on the frequency, number, and success of cross-border relations between firms in the border regions of the Netherlands and Belgium. The study fills

  7. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  8. Joint Czechoslovak-Soviet workshop on current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Joint Czechoslovak-Soviet Workshop on Current Drive in Tokamaks, five papers dealing with issues of general interest were presented. In a theoretical paper by Klima and Pavlo a one-dimensional model of the lower-hybrid current drive is described and the results of its analysis are used in a numerical simulation using T-7 tokamak parameters. In the second theoretical paper by Vojtsekhovich, Parail and Pereverzev the influence of the LH wave spectrum on the efficiency of the current drive is studied. Two papers deal with a new microwave system designed for experiments on LHCD in the T-7 tokamak. In particular, the power spectra of new four-waveguide grills are computed. In the last paper the non-inductive start-up of the discharge in the T-7 tokamak by means of electron cyclotron waves is investigated. (J.U.)

  9. Radonclose - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations based on Soviet design concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of several missile concepts are examined. The configurations, which are based on some typical Soviet design concepts, include fixed-wing missiles with either forward- or aft-tail controls, and wing-control missiles with fixed aft stabilizing surfaces. The conceptual missions include air-to-air, surface-to-air, air-to-surface, and surface-to-surface. Analytical and experimental results indicate that through the proper shaping and location of components, and through the exploitation of local flow fields, the concepts provide generally good stability characteristics, high control effectiveness, and low control hinge moments. In addition, in the case of some cruise-type missions, there are indications of the application of area ruling as a means of improving the aerodynamic efficiency. In general, a point-design philosophy is indicated whereby a particular configuration is developed for performing a particular mission.

  11. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  12. From Alaska to the Soviet Union through the Verkhoyansk ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Salva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the great Patriotic war on the territory of the Soviet Union in Eastern Siberia took place air route Alaska – Siberia (ALSIB which was distilled combat and transport aircraft, which were imported from the United States of America under lend-lease (from the English words "lend" to lend, to borrow and "lease" – lease. This article tells about those who were pushing, where distilled, as well as many pilots were killed on this track. In the work of the drawing shows the monument of the first cosmonaut of the world Yuri Gagarin, in whose honor was named Avenue in the city of Yakutsk, a memorial complex dedicated ferry route Alaska – Siberia and the American military aircraft Airacobra designed modern Yakut engineers and technicians for aviation and technical base of the air company "Sakha Avia".

  13. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people 'to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.' As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world's first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits

  14. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  15. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  16. Radiation monitoring at the borders - Important part of nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Three factors place Central Asia and Uzbekistan as its part in a key global non-proliferation position: the proximity of nuclear neighbours, the proximity of states and other groups seeking nuclear/radioactive material and know-how, and indigenous sources of nuclear/radioactive material. The nuclear threat is of special concern because of the proximity of major nuclear states such as Russia and China, states with nuclear ambitions such as Iran, and non-state actors potentially seeking nuclear and/or radioactive materials. In addition, Central Asia possesses currently functioning nuclear facilities widely using powerful radioactive sources from Soviet times and active uranium mines. The geographical location of Uzbekistan is convenient for illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. In conditions of increasing threat of nuclear terrorism, when extremist organizations arc threatening to mankind with terrorist attacks including the use of nuclear devices or radiological dispersal and exposure devices ('dirty' bomb), the problem to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials is becoming the world one. In the frame of the Second Line of Defence (SLD) Core Program which is part of the Office of the Second Line of Defence, in the Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation of the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Uzbekistan borders were equipped with radiation control devices. The mission of the Core Program is to rapidly reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation and illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radiological materials by cooperating with host countries to improve their detection and interdiction capabilities at strategic international border crossings, mid-sized seaports, and airports. To solve the problem of radiation monitoring in Uzbekistan was possible by installing stationary portal radiation monitors at main customs border crossings or entry points. Their high sensitivity

  17. Omaeluloolisus nullindatel / Estonian Life Writing of the 2000s as a Continuity Over the Post-Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2013-06-01

    writing also emerged in the second half of the 1990s and early 2000s and is not immediately related to the “life writing boom” of the second half of the 2000s.Although the distinctive features of post-Soviet Estonian life writing did not emerge in the 2000s, the considerable increase in the publication of life writing works during that period has given rise to critical debates on its role and implications in (literary culture, as the borders and limits of literature where life writing has had an influence cannot be strictly defined.  The mapping and positioning processes of new emergent forms and practices of life writing and life writing as a realm with a strong affiliation not only with literature but also with history and cultural history is an on-going process where only the first markers have been delineated.

  18. Imagining and Imaging Borders: Understanding Borderlands for Global Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    V. Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, sel...

  19. The humanitarian politics of European border policing: Frontex and border police in Evros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Pallister-Wilkins

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores humanitarianism in the practice of Frontex-assisted Greek border police in Evros and of Frontex at their headquarters in Warsaw. Building on the increase in humanitarian justifications for border policing practices as well as the charges of a lack of humanity, the paper analyzes

  20. Dissolution of the Soviet Union: ramifications for oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of future oil developments in the former Soviet Union are assessed in terms of four possible medium-term scenarios. The first, the pessimistic scenario, is considered as one of two virtually improbable limiting extremes. Under this 'business as usual scenario' the political and economic changes of 1990-1 are regarded as temporary deviations from past trends; it points to a continuing rapid decline in indigenous oil production, coupled with wasteful consumption leading to a drying up of oil exports by 1995. The second improbable scenario, the optimistic, assumes rapid decentralisation and demonopolisation of the market with widespread privatisation. In this case a fairly quick recovery in national crude and condensate production would result followed by slow growth and accompanied by a reduction in domestic consumption due to price increases. The need to curtail superfluous production would arise by 2000 as the level of exports reached its limit. The impact of the scenarios in the world oil market is shown to be comparable with the effect of differences in OECD economic growth rates. Gas developments are shown to be less sensitive to the pace of market transformation. (UK)

  1. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  2. Network communities within and across borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index. PMID:24686380

  3. SOVIET PRISONERS OF WAR IN NORWAY 1941-1945 - DESTINY, TREATMENT AND FORGOTTEN MEMORIES

    OpenAIRE

    SOLEIM M.N.

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the history of the Soviet POWs, who were transported to the German concentration camps in Norway in 1941-1945. The author points to about 100 000 people, sent by the German authorities in the Norwegian camps, of which about 90 000 were prisoners of war, and the rest the civilian population, which had been taken out by the Nazis from occupied Soviet territories. Soviet prisoners of war were forced to work in the construction of various facilities, including the railway in ...

  4. China and the Soviet Union: Some Aspects of Comparative Analysis of Their Political Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladimirovich Lukin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes historical peculiarities of the research of political systems and political processes in the Soviet Union and China. The author reveals the problems of Soviet sinology, including its politicized character, the advantages and disadvantages of the Soviet school, the similarities and differences of the both political systems, as well as differences in their academic approaches. The author also uses a civilizational approach to explain the uniqueness of the Chinese civilization. According to the author, nowadays it is essential to avoid politicization in academic research in order to improve the objectivity of comparative international studies.

  5. The U.S.-Mexico Border and Children’s Social Imaginary: An Analysis of Wacha el Border and Beyond the Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Iglesias-Prieto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Norma Iglesias-Prieto’s article is based on the films Wacha el border, created by twelve children from Tijuana, and Beyond the Border, created by ten children from San Diego. It aims at understanding the extent to which the U.S.-Mexico border is significant in children’s social representations of themselves and others. Focusing on the Tijuana/San Diego transboundary urbanized region, Iglesias-Prieto questions traditional representations and perceptions of the border.

  6. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...

  7. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  8. Soviet Integration into the World Economy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Since coming to power, Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has undertaken an ambitious program to reform the Soviet economy. Perestroika touches every aspect of Soviet economic life, including relations with the international economy. Soviet specialists and international economists must find common ground so that they can successfully…

  9. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Kawa; Wojciech Zdrenka

    2016-01-01

    Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce...

  10. Movement of goods through the customs border of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Шульга, М. Г.

    2016-01-01

    Problem setting. The order of cross-border goods and vehicles for commercial use is the basis of the state customs. As a result of the movement of goods in foreign economic entities is subject to certain subjective rights and legal responsibilities. A person who carries out the movement, to pay taxes and fees, return the product for a certain period unchanged (the temporary removal) to keep the goods in a particular state (customs warehouse regime) to carry the goods on certain route (transit...

  11. Crude oil and natural gas from the East. The radical change in the former Soviet republics and its effects on the world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their intention to improve energy security by diversifying their supply, the industrial countries in the last years looked increasingly to the former socialist countries in Eastern Europe. In the long run, due to the large energy resources in the former Soviet Union, chances are given that improved economic and social conditions will lead to an acceleration in the production of energy and, thereby, to a diversification of supplies on the world market which will improve energy security. This holds for natural gas - with the former Soviet Union's share in proved world reserves amounting to 40 p.c. - as well as for crude oil, even though its oil resources play a minor role from a worldwide perspective. A rapid exploitation could postpone - similar to the case of North Sea oil - the moment when the overwhelming reserve position of OPEC will become the dominant condition of world energy markets. (orig.)

  12. Cross-border Innovation Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    Introduction Increase in innovation cooperation of firms is related to; faster product life cycles, complexity of technology and sharing of risk Choice between different partners is based on significance of the knowledge they offer and cost savings (Balderboes et al. 2004). Choosing a foreign par...

  13. Research Outline of Post-Soviet Russian Literature%后苏联俄罗斯文学研究论纲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林精华

    2015-01-01

    苏联解体后,俄罗斯文学生产力得到空前释放。正是在市场经济的中介性作用下,当代俄罗斯文学的产量和丰富程度,均远胜于苏联时代。如何评估这样的文学现象及其发展历程,实际上涉及我们作为观察者的文学观念更新和方法论变革之类的重大问题。若是固守苏联时代的文学认知,一定会认为俄联邦进程是以牺牲文学为代价的。%The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in unprecedented production of Russian literature. In the free market economy, productivity and diversity of contemporary Russian literature greatly outperformed that of the Soviet era. How to evaluate such a literary phenomenon and its progress actually involves major issues including the renewal of literary conceptions and reform of methodologies for observers. Those who cling to the literary cognition of the Soviet era would believe that the progress of the Russian Federation has been at the cost of literature.

  14. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  15. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied......The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...

  16. EU BORDER MANAGEMENT AFTER THE LISBON TREATY

    OpenAIRE

    Rijpma, Jorrit Jelle

    2009-01-01

    Summary: This article looks at how the Lisbon Treaty will affect the management of the EU’s external borders. It examines the current treaty framework and the way in which the Community has made use of its powers in this policy field. It discusses the changes the Lisbon Treaty is likely to bring about and gives a short overview of how the future management of the external borders is taking shape in the absence of ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. The underlying theme of this contribution i...

  17. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.

    2012-01-01

    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  18. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature-space into...

  19. Border installations: the experience of Wackersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the decision of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany to construct a fuel reprocessing plant (in the wider context of organising radioactive waste disposal) at Wackersdorf, 130 km from the Austrian border, actions were brought against the German constructor before Austrian and German courts. The author describes the mechanisms governing administrative procedures in both countries and their connection with public international law. He analyses the legal argumentations developed before the different courts as well as the debate on the concept of territoriality and border installations (NEA)

  20. Monitoring on influence of Soviet chernobyl accident on environment of some regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the monitoring results of some environmental samples from Gansu provinces and Qinshan aera of Zhejiang Province and the cities of Beijing, Shenyang and Baotou after the Soviet Chernobyl reactor accident. The samples collected included air, fallout, rain water, reservoir water, plants and soil and the wipping samples of international and domestic airlines were also measured. Analyese were made by using low background Ge(Li) γ spectrometer with anti-coincident shield and by radiochemical methods for 89Sr, 90Sr and Pu contents in some samples. The results indicate that the radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl accident arrived to Beijing area on May 2, 1986. Generally speaking, the concentration of radioactive cloud in north China was greater than that in south China. Fission products were found in wipping samples taken from airplanes flying over Europe and Asia. The radioactivity level of the samples taken from European air-line was considerably higher than that from Asian airline. The main fission products found in different samples were as follows: 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, 103Ru and 132Te, 132I. The ratio of 137Cs to 134Cs was about 2. The partial effective dose equivalent commitment of preliminary estimation to the public in Beijing area from the accident was 11.3 μSv. The contribution of the external exposure was 7.9 μSv. The contribution of the internal exposure was 3.4 μSv

  1. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health." PMID:26075195

  2. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geological Provinces of the Former Soviet Union

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, center points of oil and gas fields, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in the Former Soviet Union. This compilation is...

  3. Concessions or Conviction? Czechoslovakia's Road to the Cold War and the Soviet Bloc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smetana, Vít

    Lahnam: Lexington Books, 2014 - (Kramer, M.; Smetana, V.), s. 55-85. (The Harvard Cold War studies book series). ISBN 978-0-7391-8185-0 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Czechoslovakia * Cold War * Soviet Bloc Subject RIV: AB - History

  4. Alsace knocks down energetic borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes an overview of the energy production, consumption and policy in Alsace. The most part (95 per cent) of the production comes from nuclear and hydraulic power stations. He indicates the quantities of oil, gas and electricity consumed by this region, the share of housing, industry, transports and agriculture in energy consumption. He outlines the close international relationships with Germany and Switzerland, in the middle of electricity or gas networks. On the side of renewable energies, the author comments the high potential of wood. He evokes the development of heat networks and the commitment of the region for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, for the development of the use of biomass and solar energy, and for the development of low energy consumption buildings

  5. (In)security in Post-Soviet Eurasia: Contributions from Critical Security Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Simão, Licínia

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, (in)security in post-Soviet Eurasia has been conceptualized by International Relations scholars as being mainly connected to the permanence of regional violent conflicts and the challenges of fragile sovereignty. After 9/11, terrorism as a broad category has also been added to the lexicon. These views place state security at the centre of analysis, and focus mainly on military aspects of security. This article addresses the limitations of analyses of post-Soviet Eurasian secu...

  6. Mobility where mobility is illegal: Internal migration and city growth in the Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; Robert C. Stuart

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines an important anomaly in the internal migration history of the former Soviet Union (FSU). While many cities were closed in the sense of explicitly limiting growth of city population from migration, it was difficult to assess the effectiveness of these controls. We analyze a sample of 308 Soviet cities to isolate the impact of closure regulations controlling for city size. We find that while there are pervasive patterns of city growth, the rate increasing through the 1960s a...

  7. POST-SOVIET SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP: THE POLITICAL AND CIVILIARCHIC DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexanyan, Ashot

    2010-01-01

    The emergence and functioning of social partnership and a comparative analysis of the political and civiliarchic mechanisms of a constructive dialog can be described as indispensable for post-Soviet social life. In the sociocratic context, the post-Soviet communities have reached the stage of internal and external systemic differentiation, which adds particular value to the democratization processes, the state's wider social functions, the development of corresponding institutions, and the pr...

  8. Russia's geopolitical orientation towards the former Soviet states: was Russia able to discard its imperial legacy?

    OpenAIRE

    Sagramoso, D.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis analyses Russia's military, economic and diplomatic policies towards the newly independent states, particularly towards the members of the CIS, during Boris Yeltsin's first term as President of an independent Russia (December 1991 to July 1996). The objective is to determine whether after the collapse of the Soviet Union the new Russian state tried to restore a sphere of influence or informal empire over the former Soviet republics - as the French did in sub-Saharan...

  9. Gavin Slade, Reorganizing crime: Mafia and anti-Mafia in post-Soviet Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Why do some campaigns against the mafia succeed, whereas others fail? What makes it possible to defeat a mafia? Governments all over the world, from the United States to Latin America to Italy, have been wrestling with these questions for years. Now Gavin Slade has addressed them in an elegant case study of post-Soviet Georgia. Integrating both state policies and mafia characteristics into a coherent theory of mafia survival and collapse, Reorganizing Crime should engage both post-Soviet rese...

  10. Glasnost in Soviet literary criticism: current debates on the Russian national character (1988-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mondry

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Re-evaluation of the cultural heritage of the past has been an integral part of Soviet literary criticism. From 1987 up to the present, literary criticism has played a leading role in the promotion of the economic, social and political reforms of perestroika. Literary critics use the methodology of social deconstruction in the interpretation of the literary texts of the past, actualising the problematics of the texts in accordance with their relevance to contemporary Soviet issues.

  11. Post-Soviet Economic Integration : The European Union and Russia in the South Caucasus

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of various projects for post-Soviet economic integration: the European Union (EU) has developed its Eastern Partnership, while Russia has put forward the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). Post-Soviet states and, most notably, the countries of the 'shared neighbourhood' between Russia and the EU find themselves in a delicate position, as they are influenced and pressured by both of these actors for closer cooperation. The events in Ukraine have made clear tha...

  12. „Lenin’s Ghost!” History of Soviet Comics Characters in American Pop Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Przemysław Dudziński; Dawid Głownia; Radosław Pisula; Michał Wolski

    2014-01-01

    The tension between Soviet Union and United States thatdefined the global political landscape of the second half of the twentiethcentury, had its clear impact on perceptions and creation of Soviet heroes in the context of American culture. The first and primary goal of our article is to investigate and describe the functioning of a particular theme – Russian characters, especially Russian meta-humans in the area of American popular culture, especially mainstream comics. This inquiry is intend...

  13. Economics of One-Party State: Promotion Incentives and Support for the Soviet Regime1

    OpenAIRE

    Valery Lazarev

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between the dynamics of political support for the Soviet regime, as revealed in party membership, and economic policy. The Soviet regime is considered as the rule of bureaucracy that captures rents through collective control over state property and job assignment. Activists support the regime in exchange for deferred promotion into rent-paying positions. Analysis of the implicit contract between the party bureaucracy and activists (party candidates) shows...

  14. What Did the Study of the Soviet Economy Contribute to Mainstream Economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Ellman

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the contributions made by economic Sovietology to mainstream economics. The long debate about the universal applicability of mainstream economics is reconsidered in the light of Soviet experience. Information is provided on the contribution of the study of the Soviet economy to the fields as diverse as the measurement of economic growth, institutional economics, economic administration, the economics of property rights, the economics of the informal sector, the ec...

  15. Comparison of seismic and hydrodynamic yield determinations for the Soviet joint verification experiment of 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, Lynn R.; Ekström, Göran

    1989-01-01

    Seismic magnitudes determined from surface and body waves for the Soviet underground nuclear explosion of September 14, 1988, are used to calculate the yield of that event from previously derived calibration curves. The yield obtained by combining the two seismic estimates is 113 kilotons, which is very close to those obtained by hydrodynamic measurements made on-site. This comparison substantiates previous conclusions about the sizes of past Soviet weapons tests and compliance with the Thres...

  16. The linguistic and economic adjustment of Soviet Jewish immigrants in the United States, 1980 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Chiswick, Barry R; Wenz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the English-language proficiency and labor market earnings of adult male Soviet Jewish immigrants to the United States from 1965 to 2000, using the 2000 Census of Population. Comparisons are made to similar analyses using the 1980 and 1990 Censuses. A consistent finding is that recently arrived Soviet Jewish immigrants have lower levels of English proficiency and earnings than other immigrants, other variables being the same. However, they have a steeper improveme...

  17. Locust Control in Transition: The Loss and Reinvention of Collective Action in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold van Huis; Kees Jansen; Kazbek Toleubayev

    2007-01-01

    The inability to organize collective action for pest control can lead to severe problems. This paper focuses on the locust management system in Kazakhstan since the formation of the Soviet State. During the Transition Period after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Plant Protection Service disintegrated. The principles of central planning were replaced with individualistic approaches with little state involvement in pest control activities or pesticide regulation. The financial and ideolog...

  18. Accumulating Transnational Social Capital among the Greeks from the former Soviet Union: Education, Ethnicity, Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Sideri, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The fall of the Soviet Union and the political and economic problems that followed the emergence of the post-Soviet republics forced many women to migration in a period of feminisation of migration due to global economic and social shifts. Following the biography of two ethnic Greek women from Georgia and Russia, the paper traces the transformations of their social and cultural capital based on ethnicity, gender and education into transnational social capital. The paper uses the idea of trans...

  19. Socialist Realist Science: Constructing Knowledge about Rural Life in the Soviet Union, 1943-1958

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture was one of the most vexing problems confronting the Soviet state at the end of the war. In 1943, as the Red Army began liberating Nazi occupied territories, and the state had to collectivize the local population anew, social scientists were called upon to study and address the economic and social problems plaguing the collective farm system. After a decade of dormancy, soviet economists, ethnographers, and statisticians regained their legitimacy by reconstructing their disciplines...

  20. The final frontier? Border effects and German regional wages

    OpenAIRE

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; Schramm, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies of border effects have focused on the intra-country and inter-country comparison of trade flows. It is found that borders have a negative impact on the size of cross-border trade. In order to estimate border effects on a regional level one needs not only data on inter-country but also on intra-country trade. For many countries (regional) data on intra-country trade are simply lacking, which makes an analysis of border effects and border regions cumbersome. In this paper we take...

  1. Smart border: ad-hoc wireless sensor networks for border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2011-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been proposed as promising candidates to provide automated monitoring, target tracking, and intrusion detection for border surveillance. In this paper, we demonstrate an ad-hoc wireless sensor network system for border surveillance. The network consists of heterogeneously autonomous sensor nodes that distributively cooperate with each other to enable a smart border in remote areas. This paper also presents energy-aware and sleeping algorithms designed to maximize the operating lifetime of the deployed sensor network. Lessons learned in building the network and important findings from field experiments are shared in the paper.

  2. Appendix 1: Border-Crossing Infrastructure: The Case of the Russian Mongolian Border

    OpenAIRE

    Batomunkuev, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    The importance of cross-border cooperation between countries is a topical issue at a time when the increase of cross-border contacts plays an important part in international affairs and economic relations; Russia and its neighbouring countries in East and Southeast Asia are no exception. Yet the development of such cooperation is possible only if the border is seen not as a barrier but as a point of contact between countries. Such an active role, however, is made possible by a degree of borde...

  3. The historical borders and the cross-border connections' effect on Debrecen's spirituality and cultural economy

    OpenAIRE

    Süli-Zakar, István; Kecskés, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    In the current paper we wanted to investigate the historical process which resulted in Debrecen’s contemporary (cultural) traditions and formed the city’s self-image. In the course of the research which was after the city’s historic past we investigated the role of the changing borders and the possibilities of the cross-border Euroregional cooperation as well. The nearby border has effect on the city’s economic and tourist life. In the last years (during the urban regeneration), many projects...

  4. The development of mobile melt-dilute technology for the treatment of former Soviet Union research reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States Government funded national security nuclear non-proliferation projects have historically focused on power reactor spent fuel assemblies that contain weapons usable materials. More recently concern and emphasis have been focused on the spent fuel located at the many research reactor facilities spread throughout the Former Soviet Union. The need exists for a mobile system that can be deployed at these research reactors for the purpose of ensuring that the nuclear materials cannot be used for weapons development. On-site application of the Mobile Melt-Dilute (MMD) process offers an economical method for converting weapons usable Former Soviet Union high enriched uranium research reactor fuel to a safe and secure low enriched uranium ingot. The process will generate little waste and will be performed in a sealed canister that will contain all off-gas products generated during the melting process, eliminating the need for an off-gas treatment system. The process is modular, reusable, and readily portable to a desired reactor site or storage location. The storage canisters containing the melted ingot can be configured for compatibility with the fuel storage technologies currently available or returned to Russia for reprocessing under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program. The objective of the MMD Project is to develop the mobile melt and dilute technology in preparation for active deployment at Russian built and fueled research reactors. The project has just completed conceptual design and is beginning proof of principle experiments and integrated prototype design of the furnace and canister. (authors)

  5. Socio-economic impact of Trans-Siberian railway after the collapse of Soviet Union by integrated spatial data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seina; Takeuchi, Wataru; Hatoyama, Kiichiro; Mazurov, Yuri

    2016-06-01

    How Russian cities have stood up again after the collapse of Soviet Union will be discussed in this paper. In order to know how the cities has managed the difficult period after the change of social system, transition of urban area, population, and nighttime light is searched. Although Far East will not stop as one of the most important area with abundant resources, overpopulation in towns and depopulation in countryside is going on. By searching the present situation, this research also aims to predict the future of Far East and Russia. First of all, Landsat data from 1987 to 2015 is collected over Moscow, Vladivostok, Novosibirsk, Tynda, and Blagoveshchensk and urban area is calculated by land cover classification. Secondly, population and retail turnover data are collected from year books in Russia. Thirdly, gross regional product (GRP) is estimated by nighttime light images from DMSP-OLS and VIIRS DNB dataset. In addition, these data are compared and difference of development stage after the collapse of Soviet Union between the unstable era (1990s-2000) and development era (2000-) will be discussed. It is expected that these analysis will give us useful information about Russian strategy for the future.

  6. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  7. The sinking of the Soviet Mike class nuclear powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to assess the quantities of the longer-lived or persistent radioactive materials, or source terms, that have been lost at sea with the sinking of the Soviet MIKE class submarine off Bear Island on 7 April 1989. The report arrives at an assessment of the amount of radioactivity and compares this to the quantities of radioactive materials dumped by the UK from 1953 to 1982 at which time sea dumping of radioactive wastes was suspended by international resolve. This comparison can be used to assess the relative significance of the sinking of this submarine. The study does not extrapolate the estimated radioactive source terms to an environmental or radiological significance of the sinking, although it is concluded that unless the submarine is recovered intact from the ocean floor, the by far greater part of the radioactive materials on board will disperse to the marine environment at some future time, if they are not doing so already. (author)

  8. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  9. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwick, Peter J. [History Department, University of Southern California, Los Angles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  10. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

  11. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  12. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  13. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermo

  14. Transcending Cultural Borders: Implications for Science Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Aikenhead, Glen S.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews collateral learning theory as a cognitive explanation for how pupils cope with disparate worldviews mediated by transcending cultural borders between their everyday culture and the culture of science. Proposes a new pedagogy in which teachers assume the role of culture broker in the classroom to achieve culturally sensitive curriculum and…

  15. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating the...

  16. Lesson plan. Crossing borders: the globalization debate

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2008-01-01

    Students will consider both sides of the globalization debate—the benefits and the costs—by reading and discussing the article "Crossing Borders: The Globalization Debate" from the Spring 2008 issue of Inside the Vault. Working in groups, students will analyze statements regarding the benefits and costs of globalization, categorize the statements and discuss them.

  17. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate the...

  18. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected. PMID:15971901

  19. A NEW APPROACH FOR BORDER EXTRACTION USING MORPHOLOGICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rama Bai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of border detection is to mark the points in a digital image at which the luminous intensity changes sharply. Acute changes in image features usually reflect important events and changes inproperties of the world. These include (a discontinuities in depth (b discontinuities in surface orientation (c changes in material properties and (d variations in scene illumination. A novel algorithm based on multi-scale morphological method for the purpose of border detection is introduced. Standard morphological border detection methods use single and symmetrical structure elements which are used exhaustively in image processing. They could detect the alterations of gray level, but are difficult to detect complex border feature because they are only sensitive to image border which has the same direction of structure elements. A new border detection method based on multi-structure element morphology of eight different directions is proposed. The ability of the proposed detection method is that we get eight different border detection results by using morphological gradient algorithm respectively and final border result is obtained by using synthetic weighted method. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm obtains clear and exact borders of the image by retaining the image details and it out performs the conventional morphological border detection algorithms and differential border detection operators. This technique shows the worth of border detection and the ability of detecting sharp complex borders.

  20. [Seventy years of the Great October Socialist Revolution and the development of Soviet pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol'iannikov, A V; Shtern, R D; Khmel'nitskiĭ, O K; Paukov, V S; Perov, Iu L

    1987-01-01

    In reviewing briefly the changes that have taken place during the past decade (1977-86) in the theory and practice of pathology and, in the theory and practice of pathology and, more particularly, in the Pathology Service within the overall Soviet Health care system, it should be noted first of all that this period has been productive with regard to both the practical work of the pathology departments in hospitals and the research activities of scientific institutions. Pathology is gaining importance as a basic biomedical discipline. Considerable successes have been scored in fundamental research not only by the central scientific institutions but also by laboratories for morphologic research and departments of pathology at educational establishments in most of the Union Republics. Many of such laboratories and departments are well equipped and conduct work at a high technological and methodological level in areas of high priority. The number of interdisciplinary research projects has increased. A series of monographs has been published, devoted to various aspects of methodology on medicine, to the relationship between form and function, or to a critique of erroneous theories. Scientific cooperation with pathologists of other Socialist countries has been expanding, as has the participation of Soviet pathologists at international congresses, symposia, and other meetings. An important achievement has been the establishment of a network of pathology departments of hospitals and of pathologic service bureaus. There is little doubt that these bureaus which have so far been set up on a pilot basis, will become an important component of the Pathology Service on which this will rely for research progress and for keeping abreast of technological developments. They are also called upon to promote better services in rural areas. The construction of new buildings for hospital pathology departments has been expanded, but the rate and magnitude of this activity cannot yet be

  1. The impact of land border security on terrorism financing: Turkey's Southeast land border and the PKK

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Terrorism has become the one of the major threats facing many states. Understanding the potential sources of and preventing the financial support of terrorist organizations takes an important place in countering terrorism. This thesis focuses on the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) financing activities through the land border of Turkey. In doing so, this study mainly examines how the Turkish border security system can stop the trans-bord...

  2. European instruments of cross-border cooperation. Case study: the Romanian-Ukrainian border

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of common policies established by the constitutive agreements of the Euroregions, and operational development of cross-border cooperation have led to the increase of contacts between Romanian and Ukrainian institutions. The European territorial cooperation at the European Union’s outer borders has two major components: Cohesion Policy and European Neighborhood Policy. Europe’s diversity is considered a valuable characteristic which should be exploited and promoted. This d...

  3. Report on the visit of a U.S. Nuclear Safety Delegation to the Soviet Union, August 19-31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During August 1988 a US delegation of nuclear reactor safety specialists, led by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Lando W. Zech, Jr., visited the Soviet Union to initiate cooperative activities in civilian nuclear reactor safety between the two countries under their April 1988 Memorandum of Cooperation. Areas of future cooperation and a schedule of working group meetings to explore these areas were defined in a protocol signed during this visit. The delegation met with Soviet representatives in Moscow as the Joint coordinating Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety. Additionally, while in Moscow, Chairman Zech held discussions with leaders and other senior officials of Soviet organizations with responsibility for nuclear power safety. Nuclear facilities were also visited, including the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy (Moscow), the Novovoronezh Atomic Power Station, the Novovoronezh Training and Commissioning Center, the Izhora Heavy Equipment Production Plant (Kolpino), the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Gatchina), the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, the All-Union Center for Radiation Medicine (Kiev), and the Rovno Atomic Power Station. 35 figs

  4. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  5. United states-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance

  6. Estimated inventory of radionuclides in Former Soviet Union Naval Reactors dumped in the Kara Sea and their associated health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide inventories have bin estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 17 to 66 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 1695 to 4782 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 6 to 24 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 492 to 540 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two

  7. Food security in a world without borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    is through community nutrition programmes that encourage the full participation and co-operation of the entire community, maximise the utilisation of local resources, grasp the benefits of new technologies for productivity gains, involve multiple sectors and engage strong political commitment. The international community will be judged by its treatment of its most vulnerable members. The international community has repeatedly declared that it is dedicated to the eradication of poverty. Eliminating hunger and malnutrition is a vital first step. The political will to fight hunger and a firm commitment to invest in agriculture' and rural development are critical elements in any effort to achieve sustainable alleviation of hunger and poverty. This meeting and the WFS:FYL provide the additional impetus to meet the challenge of achieving food and nutritional security in a world without borders and free from hunger and malnutrition. PMID:15806943

  8. River Restoration for a Socially and Ecologically Devastated Border City

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Noah

    2008-01-01

    The Tijuana River Watershed is one of eight watersheds that encompass the urbanized area of San Diego and Tijuana. The San Diego - Tijuana cross border corridor lies along the 1,951 mile long international border dividing the United States and Mexico, known as the U.S. Mexican Border Region (San Diego Association of Governments). It is currently the fastest growing region in North America (US / Mexico Border Counties Coalition) and accounts for roughly a third of total population growth in th...

  9. BorderTourism--- IntheCaseofShaTauKokTourismexploitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fangzhou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity is the foundation of tourism.Border regions witness the change of the history, and retain valuable heritages and unique vil ages. Because of the common border protection regulations, natural beauties and cultural landscapes can be also wel preserved, leaving abundant and precious tourism resources for younger generations.Combining with the sha tau kok border region and the surrounding site,analysis of the feasibility of border tourism and chal enges.

  10. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  11. Distance and Political Boundaries: Estimating Border Effects under Inequality Constraints.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Borraz; Alberto Cavallo; Roberto Rigobon; Leandro Zipitría

    2012-01-01

    The "border effect" literature finds that political borders have a very large impact on relative prices, implicitly adding several thousands of miles to trade. In this paper we show that the standard empirical specification suffers from selection bias, and propose a new methodology based on quantile regressions. Using a novel data set from Uruguay, we apply our procedure to measure the segmentation introduced by city borders. City borders should matter little for trade. We find that when the ...

  12. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  13. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  14. DECLINE OF CENSORSHIP IN SOVIET LATVIA 1985–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strale, Aina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The liberalisation of censorship started in the middle of 1980s with the transparency (“glasnost”policy announced by the secretary general of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Michail Gorbachev At that time the control of the literature mailed by the emigrants residing abroad was one of the main tasks of Glavlit. In 1985 the total amount of this literature was 1205 printed items. All the literature received from the foreign countries was heldin the special collections of LSSR. In 1986 Glavlit continued to execute regular control over public libraries named at that time mass libraries. The documents of this control reflect the books byrefugee authors (the people who had migrated from the USSR that have not been sent to the special collection in due time. Though by the end of 1986 “perestroika” and “glasnost” was felt also in the work of Glavlit. On September 4 the Glavlit of the USSR passed the order obliging the censors to concentrate their attention only on the questions concerned with the protection of publishing the state and military secrets in press. The situation of the special collections changed essentially. Under the influence of the transparency (“glasnost” public attention was focused on these collections. On September 10, 1987 the commission was established with the aim to reexamine the literature of the special collections. Till January 10, 1998 the commission had reexamined 703 books and recommended 131 of them to be placed in the open stock. The listing containing 117 titles was compiled and signed by the commission and the members of the working group. Glavlit passed the order about the legality of this listing. The books and periodical press publications mailed by refugees was still under severe control. In 1988 the readers regained gradually the literature hidden in the special collections for decades and finally got a free access to the exile literature. Although the re

  15. Imagining and Imaging Borders: Understanding Borderlands for Global Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, V.

    2013-11-01

    Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, self determination and regionalization around the world. We need to know more about how: self determination fuels secessions and new borders; borders result from complex rather than simple policy and governance issues; borders depend on the political clout of borderland communities; market and migration flows impact borders; and borders are always in motion. The paper shows how these organizing principles underlie the basic themes of border governance, flows, culture, history, security and sustainability. Finally, the paper offers two brief illustrations of border imaging to link this presentation to the following discussion of the workshop.

  16. Cross-border Tertiary Education : A Way towards Capacity Development

    OpenAIRE

    OECD; World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report emphasizes that cross-border tertiary education refers to the movement of people, programs, providers, curricula, projects, research and services in tertiary (or higher) education across national jurisdictional borders. Cross-border education is a subset of educational internationalization and can be part of development cooperation projects, academic exchange programs and comme...

  17. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  18. 75 FR 60643 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Parts 831, 841, and 842 RIN 3206-AL69 Customs and Border Protection... available to customs and border protection officers under the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the... Act provides early retirement and enhanced annuity benefits for customs and border protection...

  19. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  20. Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a goal shared by both Russia and the United States: to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This will be accomplished by strengthening the MPC ampersand A systems in both, countries. This new program (US Department of Energy Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC ampersand A program) is designed to complement Government-to-Government programs sponsored by US Senators Nunn and Lugar. US and Russian representatives exchange visits and discuss physical protection philosophies. Russian representatives have received formal training in the US process of system design and analysis to include the design of an effective physical protection system, determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, evaluation of the design, and often redesign or refinement of the existing system. Some Russian organizations have philosophies similar to those of the United States, but when they differ, the US and Russian representatives must negotiate. Other Russian organizations, because of heavy reliance on guard forces, have not developed a systematic design process. Cooperative work between US national laboratories and Russian counterparts has resulted in major physical protection enhancements at a Russian demonstration site and other advancements for Laboratory-to-Laboratory projects

  1. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. PMID:24128434

  2. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  3. Determinants of residence and migration in the Soviet Union after World War 2: the immigrant population in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hill Kulu

    2004-01-01

    Soviet migration literature stresses the importance both of the interests of people and of state policy in shaping the migration process in the Soviet Union. However, most empirical studies are descriptive and rely on bivariate analysis; multivariate analysis is scarcely used. Conventional Western research, in turn, mostly stresses the importance of structural factors in explaining migration in the Soviet Union. The author aims to look at the extent to which structural factors and personal ch...

  4. ATHEISM IN THEORY AND PRACTISE IN THE SOVIET SCHOOL BETWEEN 1950–1960: THE EXAMPLE OF GORKY REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Sazhin

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with one of the most important themes of the history of the Soviet school — atheism in theory and practise in general education. This article examines the problem from the perspective of atheism as one of the fundamental and indispensable requirements of the Soviet school system and views Soviet atheistic formation as a sum total of several practical activities which were intended to lead to the formation of the new man, especially during the period from 1950-1960. Various ...

  5. “120 priests per 20 workers”: non-proletarian population in the elections of 1920s soviet Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Salamatova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The author studies the participation of the non-proletarian urban population in elections during the New Economic Policy in Soviet Russia. The analysis of the urban population’s participation in election campaigns is made referring to a wide range of sources, materials of official statistics, Soviet press, unpublished archival documents kept in Russia’s central and regional archives. An analysis of typical documents of the highest and central Soviet and party bodies (order documents, protocol...

  6. Modeling the U.S. border patrol Tucson sector for the deployment and operations of border security forces

    OpenAIRE

    Ordonez, Karina J.

    2006-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Illegal cross-border activity is a severe homeland defense and security problem along the international Southwest border. The issue of illegal human smuggling is not new to the United States-Mexico border or to law enforcement agencies; however, the phenomenon is rising and human smugglers are adjusting to law enforcement tactics. This thesis has three objectives. First, it describes and identifies the fundamental dimensions of U.S. Border Patrol operations in the busiest,...

  7. Women's Work along the Southwest Border: A Significant Aspect of Labor History. Working Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joan M.

    Historically women have engaged in three types of work: non-wage (work in the household for family use), market work in the home (e.g., home sewing and the selling of home-processed and -cooked foods), and wage work. As the border states industrialized and developed economically, non-wage labor intensified, production at home for the market…

  8. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces TILEC DP 2010-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other, d

  9. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces CentER DP 2010-096)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other, d

  10. PNMBG: Point Neighborhood Merging with Border Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxia Wan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The special clustering algorithm is attractive for the task of grouping arbitrary shaped database into several proper classes. Up to now, a wide variety of clustering algorithms designed for this task have been proposed, the majority of these algorithms is density-based. But the effectivity and efficiency still is the great challenges for these algorithms as far as the clustering quality of such task is concerned. In this paper, we propose an arbitrary shaped clustering method with border grids (PNMBG, PNMBG is a crisp partition method. It groups objects to point neighborhoods firstly, and then iteratively merges these point neighborhoods into clusters via grids, only bordering grids are considered during the merging stage. Experiments show that PNMBG has a good efficiency especially on the database with high dimension. In general, PNMBG outperforms DBSCAN in the term of efficiency and has an almost same effectivity with the later.

  11. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  12. Land border monitoring with remote sensing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Radoslaw

    2010-09-01

    The remote sensing technology has many practical applications in different fields of science and industry. There is also a need to examine its usefulness for the purpose of land border surveillance. This research started with analysis of potential direct use of Earth Observation technology for monitoring migrations of people and preventing smuggling. The research, however, proved that there are still many fields within which the EO technology needs to be improved. From that point the analysis focused on improving Border Permeability Index which utilizes EO techniques as a source of information. The result of BPI analysis with use of high resolution data provides new kind of information which can support and make more effective work of authorities from security domain.

  13. Centronuclear myopathy in a Border collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D

    2012-10-01

    A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie. PMID:23013377

  14. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  15. The resurgence of cultural borders in international finance during the financial crisis: Evidence from Eurozone cross-border depositing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleimeier, S.; Sander, H.; Heuchemer, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that cultural borders in international finance resurge during financial crises. To investigate the role of cultural borders during both tranquil and crisis periods, we employ a unique data set that focuses on Eurozone cross-border depositing in a gravity-model framework

  16. Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1988-01-01

    Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some visceral cells. At ultrastructural examination inclusions of variable morphology were observed. PMID:3376765

  17. Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color infrared view of the Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border (17.0N, 92.0W) illustrates the usefulness of this type of film in determining vegetated vs non vegetated areas. As can be seen, most of this part of Guatemala remains in closed canopy woodland (dark red), while most of the Mexican land to the north has been cleared for pasture and farmland (pink). The pale green areas north of the river are bare soil or fallow fields.

  18. Culture as a Moving Symbolic Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Lívia Mathias

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the notion of culture as a symbolic moving border. Departing from both, Boesch's (1991) concept of culture as a symbolic field of action, and Herbst's (1995) co-genetic logic, I will discuss the dynamics of self-other relationships in terms of their potentiality as sources of movement in culture. A brief analysis of an empirical material is given in illustrative character of the ideas here exposed. PMID:26245862

  19. Bordering practices in the UK welfare system

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, S.; Lukes, S; Stanton, R; Vollmer, BA; Wilding, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers how chauvinistic welfare policies operate as a bordering practice. Taking the UK as an example, it examines a process in which welfare provisions have increasingly been withdrawn from a group of people designated as undeserving. It points out a close link between chauvinism based on ethnicity and based on class. This relation is explored in detail for the case of social housing culminating in today’s “social housing for local people” approach. A second case, access t...

  20. Cross border M and A environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the Canada-U.S. cross-border merger and acquisition environment and exchangeable share structure within the petroleum industry is provided. Recent U.S. acquisitions in Canada, Canadian investment conditions, indexed price analysis from January 1, 1997 to October 16, 1998, and a variety of other share price/cash flow statistics relevant to mergers and acquisitions are examined. tabs., figs

  1. Vocal and Tangible Interaction Crossing Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Anders-Petter; Cappelen , Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Our voice and body are important parts of our self-expression and self-experience for all of us. They are also essential for our way to communicate and build relations cross borders like abilities, ages, locations and backgrounds. Voice, body and tangibility gradually become more important for ICT, due to increased development of tangible interaction and mobile communication. The voice and tangible interaction therefore also become more important for the Universal Design field. In this paper ...

  2. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermore, such taxation is almost fully passed on into higher interest margins charged abroad. These results imply that international double taxation distorts the activities of international ban...

  3. International Entrepreneurship: Value Creation Across National Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Hessels, Jolanda

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis book investigates antecedents and outcomes of international entrepreneurship. International entrepreneurship as a field of research involves both research into entrepreneurship in multiple countries (cross-country comparisons of the nature and extent of entrepreneurial activity) and research into cross-border entrepreneurship (international activity of small and medium-sized enterprises and new ventures). Entrepreneurship is considered to be an important mechanism for nationa...

  4. REGIONALISM OF BORDER DISPUTES AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mahalinga K; Chikkanna

    2015-01-01

    It is generally said – we can change history, not geography. Nevertheless, there are many instances when geography has been changed – some times by political decisions, sometimes by wars, at other times by some great engineering feat. Since the last 100 years human activities responsible to border disputes, and the ecological collapse it invited have changed geography. In this situation in which the teeming millions languish under the crushing burden of poverty, only about twenty per cent of ...

  5. Cultural Borders in an Autobiographical Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Jaago

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the life story of a woman born in a village in southern Estonia in 1918. It is based on two life stories told in Estonian and one told in Russian, as well as a story about her home. The stories were written at the initiative of the researcher between 1996 and 2004 and are stored in public archives. These texts have been chosen in that they are characteristic of the multifaceted phenomenon of inter-cultural contact: the narrator is of Estonian descent; she was imprisoned during the German occupation and taken to Germany, where she lived among local Germans and Red Army soldiers after the war; she married a man of Russian descent who served in the Red Army; from 1948, she and her family lived in a culturally diverse environment in Kohtla-Järve. The focus of this research is on the manifestation of cultural borders at the levels of life history, self-description and cultural context. The narrator presents herself as a person who is not constrained by cultural borders. The relative importance of various cultures in her life and her self-perception is dependent on the general historical and political context and the context of everyday life at the stage of her life that is being described. This aspect emphasises the flexible and volatile nature of cultural borders; however, the analysis of the text reveals the permanence of cultural borders – the narrator cannot step out of her cultural background when describing a culture that she sees as ‘other’.

  6. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-01-01

    The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees), the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers i...

  7. Itaalia konstrueerimine nõukogude reisikirjas. The Construction of Italy in Soviet Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is Aimée Beekman’s travelogue Plastmassist südamega madonna (Madonna With a Plastic Heart, 1963. It also covers Juhan Kahk’s travelogue Alpide taga on moonpunane Itaalia (Behind the Alps Lies Poppy-Red Italy, 1967, Artur Vader’s Itaalia päikese all (Under Italy’s Sun, 1973, the chapters on Italy in Voldemar Panso’s travel novel Laevaga Leningradist Odessasse ehk Miks otse minna, kui ringi saab (From Leningrad to Odessa by Boat or: Why Go Straight When You Can Go Around, 1957, Max Laosson’s Nato-blokk turisti bloknoodis (Notebook of a Tourist in the Nato Bloc, 1962 and Debora Vaarandi’s Välja õuest ja väravast (From the Yard and the Gate, 1970. My aim is to analyse Soviet Estonian authors’ image of Italy in order to see what characterises the Soviet travelogue. The theoretical background of the article is the research field of imagology within literary studies. Imagology and image studies deal with the depiction of countries and peoples. With the basic concepts of imagology as a starting point, the typical topic developments of the Soviet travelogue are covered, such as the thematic features of the worker, Western society and its mechanics and idiosyncracies, faith and the church, the question of the so-called ’real Italy’ and the characteristic perspicacity of writers of Soviet travelogues. When it comes to Estonian travelogues, one can talk about a Tuglasesque travelogue tradition; Friedebert Tuglas is considered one of the pioneers behind the Estonian travelogue with his works Teekond Hispaania (A Journey to Spain, 1918 and Teekond Põhja-Aafrika (A Journey to North Africa, I–III, 1928–1930. In the Tuglasesque travelogue, books of history and art, fiction and personal impressions are intertwined. The travelogue is educational and makes for good reading. The Soviet travelogue spans certain topics from a Soviet point of view and uses Soviet rhetorics and logics. The authors usually don

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  9. Forging a Socialist Homeland from Multiple Worlds: North American Finns in Soviet Karelia 1921-1938

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    Kitty Lam

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1930s, the Soviet Union recruited an estimated 6,000 Finns from North America to augment the number of skilled workers in the recently established Karelian Autonomous Republic. Using migrants' letters and memoirs held at the Immigration History Research Center, this essay examines how these North American Finns adapted and responded to fluctuating policies in the Soviet Union that originally flaunted the foreign workers as leaders in the Soviet modernization drive and as the vanguard for exporting revolution, but eventually condemned them as an enemy nation to be expunged. It also analyzes the extent to which these immigrants internalized 'building socialism' as part of their encounter with Soviet Karelia. Such an exploration requires assessing how these settlers’ ideological adaptation affected their experiences. This paper argues that by placing the North American Finns’ experience in the wider context of Soviet state building policies, these migrants’ identity formation involved participation in, avoidance of, and opposition to the terms of daily life that emerged within the purview of building socialism.

  10. The Soviet health care system: Glasnost, Perestroika, and health problems of the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, L E

    1992-03-01

    Worsening economic conditions and political turmoil in the Soviet Union have led to significant health care problems in the 90s. The Soviet people are calling for reforms of education and the health care system that extend beyond the unsuccessful program of glasnost and perestroika. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the health care system in the Soviet Union, (b) highlight health issues and concerns of the Soviet people, (c) describe the education of physicians and nurses, and (d) compare and contrast common and unique factors about Soviet health care with health care in the West. The data base for the article was collected from observational site visits, on-site focused interviews with key informants in Kiev and Moscow, and extensive computerized and manual literature searches. Data were also gathered from questionnaires distributed to a convenience sample of 17 nurses in Moscow. Study results include demographic information and the state of nursing education and research, including availability and access to resources to conduct nursing research in Moscow. PMID:1293203

  11. Ethos without nomos: the Russian–Georgian War and the post-Soviet state of exception

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    Sergei Prozorov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the 2008 Russian–Georgian conflict in the context of the post-Soviet spatial order, approached in terms of Carl Schmitt's theory of nomos and Giorgio Agamben's theory of the state of exception. The ‘five-day war’ was the first instance of the violation by Russia of the integrity of the post-Soviet spatial order established in the Belovezha treaties of December 1991. While from the beginning of the postcommunist period Russia functioned as the restraining force in the post-Soviet realm, the 2008 war has made further recourse to this function impossible, plunging the post-Soviet space into the condition of anomie, or the state of exception. This paper interprets this disruptive policy in the post-Soviet space as the continuation of the domestic political process of the ‘management of anomie,’ which has characterized the entire postcommunist period. In the conclusion, we address the implications of the transformation of the international order into the ethos of anomie for rethinking the ethical dimension of global politics.

  12. Reproducing Identity through Remembering: Cultural Texts on the Late Soviet Period

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    Kirsti Jõesalu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the ways in which memories of the Sovietpast shape the identities and creative work of six Estonian intellectuals born in the 1970s. Based on analysis of the four cultural texts they have produced (an exhibition, a feature film, a novel and a documentary and biographical interviews with them, it is argued that the authors’ birth frame has had an impact on howthey interpret the late Soviet period. They share discursive practices about this period: mutual interpretative principles, which validate their common experience in discourses. Their experience of living in the Soviet system is limited to their childhood years only.Sharing a kind of reflexive nostalgia about the era, they depict the late Soviet period somewhat ironically, with a touch of cynicism (in their cultural texts as well as in the interviews. Even though they do not oppose the official public discourse of the rupture of Soviet Estonia, they tend to accentuate and value everyday experience, thus contributing to ‘normalisation’ discourse of the Soviet period in Estonian memory landscapes. Childhood experiences of the late Sovietperiod constitute an integral part of these intellectuals’ identities. By reproducing their identity in their cultural texts, they have a potential to deepen the memory templates already existing in public memory discourse, and also to contribute to the addition of new discourses and influencing the identity of others in society.

  13. German contribution to the assessment of doses and health risks from nuclear catastrophes in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the large scale contaminations from the reactor accident of Tschernobyl-4, the successor states of the Soviet Union are also exposed to considerable environmental contaminations from the nuclear weapon program. Particularly in the region between Cheliabinsk, and Ekatarinenburg in the South Ural, the beginning of the bomb production caused heavy occupational exposures of up to 1 Gy per year in the reprocessing of plutonium and discharges of significant activities of fissile material (1017 Bq (3 MCi)) into the Techa River and the lakes in the catchment basin. Communities situated downriver, which were supplied with drinking water from the Techa in the beginning of the 50s, received doses to the bone marrow of up to 3 Gy, due to 90S ingestion. Significantly increased risks are found for leukemia and solid tumors in the South Ural region whereas childhood thyroid carcinomas are reported around Chernobyl. The body burden for 90Sr and 137Cs was determined

  14. The structure of borders in a small world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Christian; Theis, Fabian; Grady, Daniel; Brune, Rafael; Brockmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, it is unclear if existing administrative subdivisions that typically evolved decades ago still reflect the most plausible organizational structure of today. The complexity of modern human communication, the ease of long-distance movement, and increased interaction across political borders complicate the operational definition and assessment of geographic borders that optimally reflect the multi-scale nature of today's human connectivity patterns. What border structures emerge directly from the interplay of scales in human interactions is an open question. Based on a massive proxy dataset, we analyze a multi-scale human mobility network and compute effective geographic borders inherent to human mobility patterns in the United States. We propose two computational techniques for extracting these borders and for quantifying their strength. We find that effective borders only partially overlap with existing administrative borders, and show that some of the strongest mobility borders exist in unexpected regions. We show that the observed structures cannot be generated by gravity models for human traffic. Finally, we introduce the concept of link significance that clarifies the observed structure of effective borders. Our approach represents a novel type of quantitative, comparative analysis framework for spatially embedded multi-scale interaction networks in general and may yield important insight into a multitude of spatiotemporal phenomena generated by human activity. PMID:21124970

  15. The structure of borders in a small world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Thiemann

    Full Text Available Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, it is unclear if existing administrative subdivisions that typically evolved decades ago still reflect the most plausible organizational structure of today. The complexity of modern human communication, the ease of long-distance movement, and increased interaction across political borders complicate the operational definition and assessment of geographic borders that optimally reflect the multi-scale nature of today's human connectivity patterns. What border structures emerge directly from the interplay of scales in human interactions is an open question. Based on a massive proxy dataset, we analyze a multi-scale human mobility network and compute effective geographic borders inherent to human mobility patterns in the United States. We propose two computational techniques for extracting these borders and for quantifying their strength. We find that effective borders only partially overlap with existing administrative borders, and show that some of the strongest mobility borders exist in unexpected regions. We show that the observed structures cannot be generated by gravity models for human traffic. Finally, we introduce the concept of link significance that clarifies the observed structure of effective borders. Our approach represents a novel type of quantitative, comparative analysis framework for spatially embedded multi-scale interaction networks in general and may yield important insight into a multitude of spatiotemporal phenomena generated by human activity.

  16. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  17. Left ventricular border recognition using a dynamic search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial results obtained with a simple, fully automated algorithm for detection of left ventricular boundaries are presented. The strength of this approach is the use of dynamic programming search techniques, which allow determination of local border points to be influenced by the entire global border location. The relative contributions of mask mode subtraction and the dynamic search technique are evaluated with respect to accurate border definition. These computer-determined ventricular borders are compared with hand-traced borders on subtracted and unsubtracted images. The modular dynamic search algorithm is shown to perform better than previously described algorithms, which generally require operator interaction. It is also shown that for both manual and automated techniques, ventricular borders derived from subtracted images may be significantly different from borders derived from nonsubtracted images

  18. The Viability of the Oil and Gas Industry within the Former Soviet Union, excluding Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former Soviet Union (FSU) has huge potential in the future of the world's oil and gas industry. The FSU includes some of the biggest producers and consumers of oil and gas in the world, and many of these countries include areas that lie untouched or explored. FSU territory also surrounds the Caspian Sea, which is itself a hotbed of activity in the oil and gas industry. The Caspian alone is important to world energy markets because of its own potential for oil and gas production and export, and this adds to the overall potential of the FSU. The FSU has been moving towards a free market economy since the fall of communism in the early 90's, and as such, is becoming a much more attractive area for foreign companies to operate. The FSU countries still requires foreign investment for their respective industries, and some of them have even put into place legislation to provide benefits to foreign investors. There are many types of foreign investment required in the FSU. Much of the infrastructure already in place is old and dilapidated, and requires maintenance and improvement. As well, new equipment and technologies for exploration and production are required to tap the oil and gas resources that lie in inconvenient locations. Finally, transportation of the oil and gas is a major issue here, as many of the fields are in hard to reach areas, and thus pipeline projects are increasing. Since the fall of communism, the FSU has been opening its doors more and more to foreign investors eager to bite into the huge market, and many of the largest oil and gas companies in the world are already operating there. The industries are still young to foreign investment, however, and those companies who get their foot in the door early, will be able to reap the benefits for years to come

  19. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  20. Environmental remediation of the former Soviet military uranium milling site at Sillamae, Estonia: Features of approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick launch of the nuclear program was a high priority for the Soviet military, as a uranium production plant installation was started at Sillamae, Estonia, in 1946. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0.03% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. Altogether more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany) were processed at Sillamae. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards from the past; however, remain: Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; and uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental project is now complete, the completion of practical remedial works by the end of 2005 will render Sillamae project a pioneer among Central and East European restoration projects of this character. This paper presents characteristic features of Sillamae remediation project, planning the use of best technical solutions, especially considering the vulnerability of geotechnical stability. (author)