Sample records for border soviet production

  1. The borders between Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia: Soviet heritage


    Arkhipova, Ekaterina


    The administrative-territorial reforms carried out under Soviet power in the Caucasus to delimitate Russia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia have always been and remain a bone of contention. So far their governments have not yet come to terms on several problems on certain border stretches. For fourteen years now, delimitation has been going on with varying intensity. Russia and Azerbaijan have come the closest to settling these disputes with respect to the Daghestanian stretch of their common border....

  2. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II. (United States)

    Grant, Susan


    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available «Soviet production film» - a unique genre phenomenon of the Soviet cinema of the 1970th years which emergence has been caused by the cinema tradition of reflection of "a labor subject" originating in the 1920th years on the Soviet screen, and also socio-cultural realities of the time: the declared "era of scientific and technical revolution", blossoming of production dramatic art, strengthening of ideological control over cinema. Relying on ideas of the Russian formal school in the film theory (Yu. Tynyanov, V. Shklovsky, B. Eykhenbaum, the film genres which have designated fundamental problems of studying, and also on provisions of the genre film study which has developed ideas of the Russian formalists, article pursues attempt to designate structural-semantic features of "soviet production film". Existence of steady ways of cinematography decisions, an setting, an iconography, musical and sound design, significant types of characters and actor's roles, models of plots and the general ideological and thematic context connected with the social and economic and industrial sphere of life of the Soviet society allows to tell about actually cinema specifics of a «soviet production film» as film genre.

  4. Preemptive War and the Chinese Just War Tradition: The 1969 Sino-Soviet Border Conflicts on Zhenbao Island (United States)


    the pacifist tendencies, as others were viewed as somewhat less than Chinese. On the opposite side China has an incredibly long border, which...will be around for a long time, and solutions to problems will come, even if they do not come quickly. While not specifically creating a pacifist ...philosophy, deferring issues until a better time can make China appear pacifist to outside observers with a different time orientation. This

  5. Former Soviet Union oil production and GDP decline: Granger causality and the multi-cycle Hubbert curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Douglas B. [Oil and Energy Economics, School of Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks (United States); Kolodziej, Marek [Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Boston University (United States)


    This paper discusses the transition of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) within the context of a 1987-1996 Soviet and FSU oil production decline. The conventional explanation of the break-up is that economic inefficiencies and the Cold War defense build-up caused it. Another possible explanation, one that is examined at length here, is that declining oil production was a contributing factor. The econometric analysis suggests that the fall in Soviet and former Soviet GDP in the 1980s and 1990s did not Granger cause the decline in oil production, but the decline in oil production did Granger cause the fall in GDP. Coal and natural gas to GDP relationships show alternative Granger causalities that we would expect to see with oil, but do not. A multi-cycle Hubbert trend that may be used to forecast future FSU oil production is also shown. (author)

  6. Stimulation of border cell production in response to increased carbon dioxide levels. (United States)

    Zhao, X; Misaghi, I J; Hawes, M C


    Field soil atmospheres have higher CO(2) and lower O(2) concentrations compared with ambient atmosphere, but little is known about the impact of such conditions on root exudation patterns. We used altered levels of CO(2) and O(2) relative to ambient conditions to examine the influence of the atmosphere on the production of root border cells by pea (Pisum sativum) root tips. During germination, atmospheres with high CO(2) and low O(2) inhibited root development and border cell separation in pea seedlings. Later in development, the same atmospheric composition stimulated border cell separation without significantly influencing root growth. Increased CO(2), not low O(2), was responsible for the observed stimulation of border cell number. High CO(2) apparently can override endogenous signals that regulate the number of border cells released from pea roots into the rhizosphere. The same conditions that stimulated border cell production in pea had no such effect in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

  7. Fundamental Soviet Labor Legislation (United States)

    Brown, Emily Clark


    The crucial assumption underlying new Soviet legislation is the existence of common interest of workers and management in production; stressing cooperation, consultation, and creative participation and an increase in the role of trade unions in decision making. (Editor)

  8. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier


    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  9. Institutional and Organizational Features of the Cross-Border Freight Traffic in the Conditions of Integration Among Former Soviet States. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolevich Tsvetkov


    Full Text Available The article considers the technical, technological, institutional and organizational barriers of cross-border transportation of goods. The study uses an institutional approach as a methodological alternative to other approaches. The institutional and organizational problems of border crossing points arrangement, the consequences of the application of unified transport documents, the introduction of electronic communication forms are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of demonstration actions, the daily practice of reducing the time of customs procedures and reducing the transaction costs of cross-border freight traffic. At the same time, it is specified that the way of effectiveness increase of cross-border transportation of goods is a simultaneous implementation of technical and institutional innovations. Emphasis is placed on identifying the institutional and organizational features of the international transportation of goods by road, in particular, the problems of the evolution of the customs duties guaranteed payment institute, the permission system in the implementation of cross-border goods traffic. It is especially specified that the state support of national businessmen demands the development of a mechanism providing a parity of the Russian and foreign carriers, at least in the field of freight hauling for the state needs with attraction of credit resources of banks with the state participation. It is emphasized that elimination of all informal (shadow relations in this sphere has to become the first step on the way of improvement of the institutional environment of the international road haulage. The institutional characteristics of transportation of goods in certain areas, in particular, road haulage to China through Kazakhstan, and the challenges and prospects for the use and development of the Kaliningrad region transit potential are allocated. The institutional and organizational characteristics of multimodal

  10. Cross-Border Flows of People, Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck

    A number of empirical studies have investigated the hypothesis that cross-border flows of goods (international trade) and capital (FDI) lead to international technology diffusion. The contribution of the present paper consists in examining an as yet neglected vehicle for technology diffusion: cro......-border flows of people. We find that increasing the intensity of international travel, for the purpose of business and otherwise, by 1% increases the level of aggregate total factor productivity and GDP per worker by roughly 0.2%....

  11. Calanus finmarchicus egg production at its northern border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva Friis; Bohr, Magnus; Kjellerup, Sanne;


    How the distribution of Calanus finmarchicus and its potential northward expansion will be affected by climate changes depends on the mechanisms and processes constraining their reproduction, recruitment and survival. Here we present measurements of C. finmarchicus egg production rates during...... the spring bloom in 2008, 2010 and 2011 in Disko Bay, West Greenland and validate four independently derived metabolic models to predict egg production rates. The spring bloom in 2008 was short and intense and supported lower cumulated specific egg production of C. finmarchicus than the longer blooms...... rates during the spring in Disko Bay, while the low temperature in the Bay explained why the egg production rate here is much lower than at more southerly localities despite high food concentrations. This study suggests that an increase in magnitude of the Arctic phytoplankton spring bloom...

  12. Institutional and Organizational Features of the Cross-Border Freight Traffic in the Conditions of Integration among Former Soviet States. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Anatolevich Tsvetkov


    Full Text Available The article considers the technical, technological, institutional and organizational barriers of cross-border transportation of goods. The study uses an institutional approach as a methodological alternative to other approaches. The institutional and organizational problems of border crossing points arrangement, the consequences of the application of unified transport documents, the introduction of electronic communication forms are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of demonstration actions, the daily practice of reducing the time of customs procedures and reducing the transaction costs of crossborder freight traffic. At the same time, it is specified that the way of effectiveness increase of cross-border transportation of goods is a simultaneous implementation of technical and institutional innovations. Emphasis is placed on identifying the institutional and organizational features of the international transportation of goods by road, in particular, the problems of the evolution of the customs duties guaranteed payment institute, the permission system in the implementation of cross-border goods traffic. It is especially specified that the state support of national businessmen demands the development of a mechanism providing a parity of the Russian and foreign carriers, at least in the field of freight hauling for the state needs with attraction of credit resources of banks with the state participation. It is emphasized that elimination of all informal (shadow relations in this sphere has to become the first step on the way of improvement of the institutional environment of the international road haulage. The institutional characteristics of transportation of goods in certain areas, in particular, road haulage to China through Kazakhstan, and the challenges and prospects for the use and development of the Kaliningrad region transit potential are allocated. The institutional and organizational characteristics of multimodal

  13. Soviet Counterinsurgency (United States)


    not result in the development of a comprehensive Marxist-Leninist military doctrine. As D.F. White notes, it was left to Trotsky , Frunze, Tukhachevsky...significantly alter the basic structure and interrelationships of d Meade Earle, "Lenin, Trotsky , Stalin: Soviet Concepts of War," in: Makers of Modern...Sokolovskii, ed., Soviet Military Strategv, trans. Herbert S. Dinerstein, Leon Goure, and Thomas Wolfe (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1963): 48-49. 22Joseph

  14. Calling the Sino-Soviet Split (United States)


    also had then looted Manchuria and heightened the USSR�s covert influence in China�s northwestern province of Sinkiang .44 Chinese anger on these scores...p., 155. Beijing later pub licly accused the Soviet Union of fomenting large-scale subversion and sabotage in Sinkiang , and warned the Soviets not May 1969, along the Manchuria-Siberia and Sinkiang -Kazakhstan borders. 62. Whiting, to author, 19 October 1996. 63. Hilsmari, To Move a Nation: The

  15. 苏侨与苏联对新疆的影响(1949-1965)%Soviet Nationals and the Soviet Influence in Xinjiang (1949-1965)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Xinjiang, China's westernmost province, shared more than 3,000 kilometres of border with the former Soviet Union, but is far from China's political and economic centre. Its special geographical position,coupled with ethnical, kin, religious and cultural relations, put Xinjiang under Soviet influence and control for many years. The underpinning of the everlasting Soviet influence lay in the extensive and profound social base built up by Soviet nationals living there.

  16. Marshall Plan productivity assistance: A unique program of mass technology transfer and a precedent for the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberman, J.M.; Weiss, C. Jr. [Global Technology Management, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States); Dutz, M.


    The Productivity Program of the Marshall Plan made a major contribution to the increase in Western European productivity in the 1950s, well before there was significant policy liberalization, competition, or foreign investment in these countries. Prior to the program, European manufacturing and management practice was a generation behind the US, and productivity was one-third of US levels. The cost of this program over ten years was $300 million, or only 1.5% of Marshall Plan capital assistance. Its 1500 study tours brought tens of thousands of people from European and Asian countries to the United States to observe management and production. On returning home, tour members vigorously spread new ideas throughout their countries, which also received a wide variety of follow-up technical services. Europe`s leaders supported national productivity drives out of fear of communism and social unrest, not in response to competitive market forces. The drives helped firms achieve almost immediate productivity gains with little new investment. This relatively inexpensive idea could increase incomes and improve the supply and variety of consumer goods in present-day Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle


    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea N. POPOVICI


    Full Text Available The purpose of the current research is to study bank mergers and acquisitions (M-A and to see whether they have implications on the productivity of the target banks, and also for the bidder bank. The aim of this paper is to see if, during 2002-2008 period, three banks from the European banking system, Banca Comerciala Romana from Romania, Slovenskásporiteľňa from Slovakia and Erste Bank Group from Austria improved their productivity due to the fact that all of them were involved in a process of cross-border merger or acquisitions, even if the bank is the purchaser or the target. To reach our goal, we used DEA method, by estimating the productivity achieved by these three banks during the period pre-M-A, post M-A, but we also estimated the productivity for entire period of seven years. Using Malquist DEA method, we show that, on average, the merger or acquisition in which a bank was involved improved the Total Factor Productivity of all analyzed banks.

  19. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B


    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the

  20. Primary production in the tropical continental shelf seas bordering northern Australia (United States)

    Furnas, Miles J.; Carpenter, Edward J.


    Pelagic primary production (14C uptake) was measured 81 times between 1990 and 2013 at sites spanning the broad, shallow Northern Australian Shelf (NAS; 120-145°E) which borders the Australian continent. The mean of all areal production measurements was 1048±109 mg C m-2 d-1 (mean±95% CI). Estimates of areal primary production were correlated with integral upper-euphotic zone chlorophyll stocks (above the 50% and 20% light penetration depths) accessible to ocean color remote sensing and total water column chlorophyll standing crop, but not surface (0-2 m) chlorophyll concentrations. While the NAS is subject to a well characterized monsoonal climate regime (austral summer-NW monsoon -wet: austral winter- SE monsoon -dry), most seasonal differences in means of regional-scale chlorophyll standing crop (11-33 mg Chl m-2 for 12 of 15 season-region combinations) and areal primary production (700-1850 mg C m- day-1 for 12 of 15 season-region combinations) fell within a 3-fold range. Apart from the shallow waters of the Torres Strait and northern Great Barrier Reef, picoplankton (80%. While the range of our post-1990 areal production estimates overlaps the range of production estimates made in NAS waters during 1960-62, the mean of post-1990 estimates is over 2-fold greater. We regard the difference to be due to improvements in production measurement techniques, particularly regarding the reduction of potential metal toxicity and incubations in more realistic light regimes.

  1. Soil carbon sequestration or biofuel production: new land-use opportunities for mitigating climate over abandoned Soviet farmlands. (United States)

    Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Wolf, Adam


    Although the CO(2) mitigation potential of biofuels has been studied by extrapolation of small-scale studies, few estimates exist of the net regional-scale carbon balance implications of biofuel cultivations programs, either growing conventional biofuel crops or applying new advanced technologies. Here we used a spatially distributed process-driven model over the 20 Mha of recently abandoned agricultural lands of the Former Soviet Union to quantify the GHG mitigation by biofuel production from Low Input/High Diversity (LIHD) grass-legume prairies and to compare this GHG mitigation with the one of soil C sequestration as it currently occurs. LIHD has recently received a lot of attention as an emerging opportunity to produce biofuels over marginal lands leading to a good energy efficiency with minimal adverse consequences on food security and ecosystem services. We found that, depending on the time horizon over which one seeks to maximize the GHG benefit, the optimal time for implementing biofuel production shifts from "never" (short-term horizon) to "as soon as possible" (longer-term horizon). These results highlight the importance of reaching agreement a priori on the target time interval during which biofuels are expected to play a role within the global energy system, to avoid deploying biofuel technology over a time interval for which it has a detrimental impact on the GHG mitigation objective. The window of opportunity for growing LIHD also stresses the need to reduce uncertainties in soil C inputs, turnover, and soil organic matter stability under current and future climate and management practices.

  2. The Threat of the Premium Tank: The Product and Process of the Soviet Experience (United States)


    he’p drive the U.S. Army’s current push for new and more effective antiarmor weapon systems. CONCLUSION The historic appearance of the Russian T-34...Army 100 post-war generation of tank development. The PT-5 will go into limited production in 1993, with the push to full scale production between 1994...Anti-armor. Orlando, FL: Tecnology Training Corporation, 1989. 122 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 1. LTC John K. Boles III USACAC Threats Directorate Ft

  3. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production No. 4, April 1987 (United States)


    300,000 people who died from cancer in 1982. Each year the world produces about 500 new products and preparations whose biological activity is...when entering the vocational and technical schools, the tekhnikums, and the VUZes the students would be less infantile in their economic preparation

  4. Soviet Union. EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production. No 8, August 1987 (United States)


    34 [Production and Circulation of Consumer Goods: The Economic Mechanism of Management], 15 printer’s sheets. Proskuryakov , V. M. and Samuylyavichus, R. I...tion], 5 printer’s sheets. Sarkisyan, G. S., "Narodnoye blagosostoyaniye v SSSR " [Public Welfare in the USSR], 20 printer’s sheets. Sdobnov, S. I

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No. 9, September 1987. (United States)


    introduction of our method of applying metal to circuit boards. I would not like to tire EKO readers with technical details, but still I shall relate...subsequent five-year plans, the more so since the proportion of petroleum as a source of pyrolysis raw material will decrease. In Western Siberia, with... pyrolysis production, in spite of a certain reduction in its volumes because of market considerations. In recent years, after several mistakes and

  6. Use of Non Wood Forest Products by local people bordering the "Parc National Kaboré Tambi", Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belem, Bassirou; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Gbangou, Roland


    In the French-speaking countries of Africa, strategies of conservation, inherited from thecolonial time, exclude the bordering people in the management of the national parks plant resources. Today, policies and legislation try to reconcile forest conservation and development by associating local...... this issue in the case of the "Parc National Kaboré Tambi" in Burkina Faso, byproposing a combination of ethno-botanical surveys and botanical inventories. The article analyses the importance of the park plant species, identify the constraints faced by local people to harvest the park plant products, analyse...... the park vegetation structure and assess the degree of regeneration of the main useful species. The surveys reveal that bordering people consider the park as their granary, their pharmacy, their pasture, their place of religious worship, and the source of the strength of their territory. They harvest...

  7. The Effect of Borders on the Linguistic Production and Perception of Regional Identity in Louisville, Kentucky (United States)

    Cramer, Jennifer Suzanne


    A great deal of scholarly research has addressed the issue of dialect mapping in the United States. These studies, usually based on phonetic or lexical items, aim to present an overall picture of the dialect landscape. But what is often missing in these types of projects is an attention to the borders of a dialect region and to what kinds of…

  8. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HSDSD product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the former Soviet Union. The area covered...

  9. The Soviet economic decline : historical and republican data


    Easterly, William; Fischer, Stanley; DEC


    Soviet growth for 1960-89 was the worst in the world, after controlling for investment and human capital. And relative performance worsens over time. The authors explain the declining Soviet growth rate from 1950 to 1987 by the declining marginal product of capital. The rate of total factor productivity growth is roughly constant over that period. Although the Soviet slowdown has conventionally been attributed to extensive growth (rising capital-to-output ratios), extensive growth is also a f...

  10. A study of the border between the domains of production and acquisition of knowledge in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik


    This paper focuses on a common feature of most undergraduate studies in science - the pronounced border between the domains of production and acquisition of knowledge. Under¬graduate students' learning activities and settings are characterized by little inter¬action with the community of practicing...... scientists. Based on ongoing ethnographic field work, certain aspects of this division between the two domains are discussed from an educational point of view. A case study is presented and leads to considerations about undergraduate students' access to the culture of practicing physicists....

  11. The Soviet Economic Decline: Historical and Republican Data


    William Easterly; Stanley Fischer


    Soviet growth over 1960-89 was the worst in the world after we control for investment and human capital; the relative performance worsens over time. The declining Soviet growth rate over 1950-87 is explained by the declining marginal product of capital; the rate of TFP growth is roughly constant over that period. While the Soviet slowdown has conventionally been attributed to extensive growth (rising capital to output ratios), extensive growth is also a feature of market-oriented economies li...

  12. Soviet Military Power (United States)


    vaned uber -as copoiteprpelans, lsofo imroingth.e.e.i.ees of dis.*~’ - "- .. ’ Soviet industrial modernization programs quire computer technology...Greenland C 1 NORTH , S ATLANTIC OCEAN Mexicos oU.. 3 OOCEAN Gas NOITMLTRPRONLARA * Lt~ Aeula InludngCua).......................A Svit nn Trantr 117I...are larger than those of Canada, island neighbors have little or no armed Brazil or Mexico . With Soviet assistance forces of their own. Cuban military

  13. Soviet space flight: the human element. (United States)

    Garshnek, V


    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  14. Reviewing the Spanish-Portuguese border: conflict, interaction and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Calderón Vázquez


    Full Text Available European borders, or borders between European Union member states, are historical products that embody the ebbs and flows of European borderlands. These areas are evolving from past struggles and confrontations between European kingdoms toward a future of progressive European integration. Such processes are highly complex, as they involve border deactivation. In this work, we examine the evolution of the Spanish- Portuguese border from the perspective of cross-border interaction.

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs. (United States)


    scientific and methodologi- cal production of different associates is quite different. The leaders in science and pedagogy hold new forms of...Soviet government and the people of Azerbaijan. At the congress the following dialog took place between M. J. Baghyrov and S. M. Afandiyev. M. J

  16. Border poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Lundberg


    Full Text Available The language of poetry is a language of inquiry, not the language of a genre. Poetry has the capacity of entering those zones known as borderlands, where you meet strange things and foreign people. In this poetic world view, the border is not an edge along the fringe of lands, societies and experiences, but rather their very middle – and their in-between. The structures of language are social structures in which meanings and intentions are already in place, always fighting for power and dominance, with rhetorical figures and more violent weapons.

  17. Soviet Naval Infantry (United States)


    many ways was a self-made hero. He took the title of Generalissimo, a rank one step above IPrit urd, op. cit., p. 256. 2Msam ezw (Red Stir), 24 July...respective fleet headquarters. 3 Ibid. 4Kenneth R. hliting, Develog1 ent of the Soviet Armed Forces. 1917- SAir University Study No. AU-201-72- 1D , Mxwell

  18. Use of Non Wood Forest Products by local people bordering the “Parc National Kaboré Tambi”, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gausset, Quentin


    In the French-speaking countries of Africa, strategies of conservation, inherited from the colonial time, exclude the bordering people in the management of the national parks plant resources. Today, policies and legislation try to reconcile forest conservation and development by associating local...... this issue in the case of the “Parc National Kaboré Tambi” in Burkina Faso, by proposing a combination of ethno-botanical surveys and botanical inventories. The article analyses the importance of the park plant species, identify the constraints faced by local people to harvest the park plant products......, analyse the park vegetation structure and assess the degree of regeneration of the main useful species. The surveys reveal that bordering people consider the park as their granary, their pharmacy, their pasture, their place of religious worship, and the source of the strength of their territory...

  19. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.


    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia


    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  1. Soviet Union, Military Affairs (United States)


    duels was his only because he operated boldly and not according to stereotype. It is true that he was not always immediately able to prove the...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 6 May 87 P 3 [Article by Col G. Gladkov: "Laser Duels : People and Trainers"] [Text] The "direct confrontation...34 And this inculcation of revanchist and anti-Soviet spirit is started at childhood . The section of the book that is dedicated to Tokyo’s block

  2. Soviet Military Power (United States)


    boats, anyd numperous armored personnfel carriers. Costas Rica ( Panama K.\\~if" :r:’’rI ; %’’ Th Ii* Z t~ 1."I ) Some of the $600 million in Soviet...additional 4.000 trainers or* available. *US Estimate of 1I66 NATO dafta Excludes minesweesping boats and drones 92 NATO-WARSAW PACT Comparison’ 230 7

  3. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith


    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  4. Women's Contribution to Agricultural Production in the Central Soviet Base Areas%论中央苏区妇女对农业生产的贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文对中央苏区妇女参加农业生产的动因、政策与措施以及作用进行了历史考察,认为苏区妇女参加农业生产是妇女自我解放后觉悟的充分表达,而苏区政府的广泛宣传、发布法令、建立妇女组织为妇女参加农业生产提供了政策和制度保障,最终实现了妇女解放与革命的互动。%This paper examines the background for,and policies and strategies that were adopted for promoting women's participation in agricultural production in the Central Soviet Base Areas and argues that women's consciousness risen through self liberation was fully expressed through such participation.Policies adopted by the Central Soviet government to advocate widely and set up women's organizations to promote women's participation in agricultural production had ensured institutional security for realizing women's liberation together with the progress of the revolution.

  5. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition (United States)

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.


    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  6. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics. (United States)

    Brandist, Craig


    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  7. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony


    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  8. Soviet Marxism and population policy. (United States)

    Vonfrank, A


    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  9. Aluminum-induced cell death of barley-root border cells is correlated with peroxidase- and oxalate oxidase-mediated hydrogen peroxide production. (United States)

    Tamás, L; Budíková, S; Huttová, J; Mistrík, I; Simonovicová, M; Siroká, B


    The function of root border cells (RBC) during aluminum (Al) stress and the involvement of oxalate oxidase, peroxidase and H(2)O(2) generation in Al toxicity were studied in barley roots. Our results suggest that RBC effectively protect the barley root tip from Al relative to the situation in roots cultivated in hydroponics where RBC are not sustained in the area surrounding the root tip. The removal of RBC from Al-treated roots increased root growth inhibition, Al and Evans blue uptake, inhibition of RBC production, the level of dead RBC, peroxidase and oxalate oxidase activity and the production of H(2)O(2). Our results suggest that even though RBC actively produce active oxygen species during Al stress, their role in the protection of root tips against Al toxicity is to chelate Al in their dead cell body.

  10. Breaking Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup


    examples of this success. Based on theories of media creativity, genre and globalization, this chapter addresses how to understand the international interest in series from a small national television culture. We analyse the production framework of DR’s in-house drama unit, which has concepts such as ‘one...... vision’ and ‘double storytelling’ as guidelines for creating quality drama. Moreover, the chapter focuses on audience patterns for the series and aspects of their international distribution and reception....

  11. Border Crossings (National) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing Ports (NTAD 2015) are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states...

  12. Breaking Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup


    examples of this success. Based on theories of media creativity, genre and globalization, this chapter addresses how to understand the international interest in series from a small national television culture. We analyse the production framework of DR’s in-house drama unit, which has concepts such as ‘one......In Denmark, the Sunday night dramas of the public service broadcaster DR are somewhat of a national ritual. Until recently, Danes thought these series to be only for the Danes, but since 2002 they have also found international acclaim and distribution. The Killing and Borgen are the most recent...... vision’ and ‘double storytelling’ as guidelines for creating quality drama. Moreover, the chapter focuses on audience patterns for the series and aspects of their international distribution and reception....

  13. The Soviet Crisis Relocation Program. (United States)


    1978, p. 22; Marshal of the Soviet Union I.Kh. Bagramyan, editor, Istoriya Voyn i Voyennogo Iskusstva (History of Wars and of Military Art ), (Moscow...Strekozov, Oboronnaya Rabota Mestnykh Sovetov (Defense Work of Local Soviets), (Moscow: Yuridicheskaya Literatura , 1981), p. 50. 2. Strekozov, op. cit...requirements of proximity to main routes of transportation. Of course, conditions in the exurban zones and in potential "dispersal" hosting art as will

  14. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen


    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  15. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy. (United States)

    Di Maio, A J


    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  16. Collectivity and Individuality in Soviet Educational Theory. (United States)

    Lawler, James


    Urie Bronfenbrenner has characterized Soviet education as collective, and Amerian education as individualistic. Bronfenbrenner's suggestion, made 10 years ago, that the United States should adopt some of the Soviet methods, is still valid today. (GDC)

  17. The Analysis of Soviet Military Manpower (United States)


    A.A.Grechko Churchill called the Soviet Union ’an enigma wrapped inside a riddle’. The end of the cold war, detente, and growth of east west contacts...The average rifleman was able to hold out for days without hot food , prepared rations, bread or tobacco. At such times, he subsisted on wild berries or...impacts on the readiness of Soviet soldier. A. RESERVE DUTY AND MOBILIZATION When Hitler attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Soviet leadership

  18. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen. (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  19. Soviet Hadron Collider (United States)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri


    Rapid growth of the high energy physics program in the USSR during 1960s-1970s culminated with a decision to build the Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) to carry out fixed target and colliding beam experiments. The UNK was to have three rings. One ring was to be built with conventional magnets to accelerate protons up to the energy of 600 GeV. The other two rings were to be made from superconducting magnets, each ring was supposed to accelerate protons up to the energy of 3 TeV. The accelerating rings were to be placed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of 21 km. As a 3 x 3 TeV collider, the UNK would make proton-proton collisions with a luminosity of 4 x 1034 cm-1s-1. Institute for High Energy Physics in Protvino was a project leading institution and a site of the UNK. Accelerator and detector research and development studies were commenced in the second half of 1970s. State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy of the USSR approved the project in 1980, and the construction of the UNK started in 1983. Political turmoil in the Soviet Union during late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in disintegration of the USSR and subsequent collapse of the Russian economy. As a result of drastic reduction of funding for the UNK, in 1993 the project was restructured to be a 600 GeV fixed target accelerator only. While the ring tunnel and proton injection line were completed by 1995, and 70% of all magnets and associated accelerator equipment were fabricated, lack of Russian federal funding for high energy physics halted the project at the end of 1990s.

  20. August Storm: Soviet Tactical and Operational Combat in Manchuria, 1945 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 8) (United States)


    Manchuria was through the eastern Manchurian hills from Harbin in the central valley through Mutanchiang, across the Soviet Far Eastern border at...Tsitsihar and Harbin in central Manchuria . The only major road in the region paralleled the rail line. The few major towns in the region were also located...ntral Manchuria was up the Sungari River to Chiamussu and through the 150-kilometer gap that the Sungari River cut through the mountains to Harbin

  1. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  2. Improving the Tanzanian-Mombasa cross-border tomato product chain: a study of Mombasa tomato market : draft report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onduru, D.; Wiersinga, R.C.; Jager, de A.


    The study of Mombasa tomato market is part of the project “Development of Commercial Field Vegetable Production, Distribution and Marketing for the East African Market”. The project is implementing a pilot activity on improving crossborder tomato chains from Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania, to Mombasa, Kenya

  3. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles (United States)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  4. Determinants of Soviet emigration policies. (United States)

    Friedgut, T H


    "The object of this paper is the presentation and analysis of the political values that are expressed in Soviet emigration policy. Underlying this is an attempt to discern points of change in these values, in particular through the post-World War II history of the USSR. Our concluding point will be the new law on entry and exit from the USSR, pending before the Supreme Soviet [in 1991] with its passage promised in the nearest future." The study covers the period from the 1920s to the present.

  5. Exploration of Compound Talents Cultivation Paths of Medical Beauty Products Cross-border Electronic Commerce Platform%医疗美容产品跨境电商平台复合型人才培养路径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文以我国跨境电商平台发展为背景,简要介绍了医疗美容行业跨境电子商务发展现状,分析了医疗美容产品跨境电商平台人才需求,以市场需求、社会需求为导向,分析了我国医疗美容产品跨境电商平台人才培养困境,并从人才培养模式、人才培养机制、人才培养具体措施三个路径进行探索,提出医疗美容产品跨境电商平台复合型人才培养建议。%This paper is based on the development of China's cross-border electric business platform as the background, bri-efly describes the status of cross-border electronic commerce development of the medical beauty industry, analyzes the talent needs of medical beauty products cross-border electronic business platform, and analyzes the talents plight, then explores the paths from talent cultivation mode, system and measures, then proposes compound talent cultivation recommendations for cross-border electronic commerce products business platform.

  6. Trends in Soviet Military Policy, (United States)


    Herbert S. Dinerstein, Leon Goure, and Thomas W. Wolfe (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1963). 15. Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testamenc...34Lenin, Trotsky , Stalin: Soviet Concepts of War," in Earle, ed., Makers of Modern Strategy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1944), p. 323. For

  7. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that dec......Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find...... developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical...

  8. Improving Nigerian Border Security -- A Comprehensive Approach (United States)


    threats, overlapping jurisdictions between different agencies, presence of private sector businesses, and partnerships with neighboring states produce us increase trade amongst West African states. Increased trade means that more goods and services will be produced , increased production means...Border Security, Cooperation and Integration, 69. 22. Adeola and Fayomi, Implications of Cross Border Migration, 6-7. 23. Ibid., 7. 24. Aluko Ola

  9. Military-Economic Role of "Lend-Lease" for the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Grigory G.


    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the empirical analysis of the military-economic significance of Allied supplies to the Soviet Union through the "lend-lease". The author gives the description associated with the process of the formation of "lend-lease" for Soviet-American relations. The article describes the technical implementation of the program "lend-lease" at the initial stage of the great Patriotic war. For the first time in the domestic economic historiography author carries out the brief analysis of the scope of supplies of American products to the Soviet Union outside the program "lend-lease". For the first time also author analyzes the value of deliveries of military goods from the Western countries to the USSR on the base of valuation of Soviet military production in 1941 and 1942 on the basis of the actual exchange rate of Ruble to Dollar.

  10. The German Reunification Issue: A Soviet Perspective. (United States)


    Soviet Union is economic. The psychological reason -- West Germany does a special human trade in trying to save fellow Germans from isola- tion Poland not only compromised Comunism , it also caused ominous cracks in the Soviet bloc. Though Russia has managed to retain the strongest position...forced to make concessions has a fatal psychological flaw. It is true that nations sometimea sacrifice some prestige to avoid war. The Soviets did exactly

  11. The Validity of Soviet Military Power (United States)


    produced widely divergent viewpoints. The Library Journal endorsed the volume: "Gervasi provides evidence that President Reagan’s claims have no...10Finnegan, Richard B. "A Review of The Myth of Soviet Military Supremacy" Library Journal , June 1, 1986, p. 114. l"Jones, David R. "A Review of The Myth of...Soviet Military Supremacy," Library Journal , June 1, 1986, p. 114. Friedman, Norman "The Soviet Fleet in Transition" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings

  12. Border cells versus border-like cells: are they alike? (United States)

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Cannesan, Marc-Antoine; Percoco, Giuseppe; Vicré-Gibouin, Maité


    Roots of many plants are known to produce large numbers of 'border' cells that play a central role in root protection and the interaction of the root with the rhizosphere. Unlike border cells, border-like cells were described only recently in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species and very little is known about the functional properties of border-like cells as compared with 'classical' border cells. To stimulate discussion and future research on this topic, the function of border cells and the way border-like cells are organized, maintained, and possibly involved in plant protection is discussed here.

  13. Soviet Dissent and the American National Interest. (United States)


    traditional Muslim culture of the region r emains. The Centr -al Asian nationalities continue to resist industrialization and urbanization, 4 0 the former...8217Growing Soviet Dissidence’, p. 97. 2, obert Sharlet, "Growing Soviet Dissidence " , p. 97’, 07 potential of acting as a catalyst to unify the...34Dissent in the Soviet Union", p. 3. R obert Sharlet, "Dissent and Repression in the Soviet Union’, p, 1 16. 1 16 I ’ ’. substitute has been invented

  14. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mtingwa, S.K.


    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union KOMMUNIST No 16, November 1987. (United States)


    freedoms of citizens: to this effect , "public defenders" and special commissions for the protection of civil rights are functioning in a number of...objectively, its special study. Like Soviet cinematography as a whole, historical-revo- lutionary films were given an incentive for renovation only after...only approach which allows us to consider economic processes and production relations as they actually exist in the society. In promoting special

  16. Soviet Military Decisionmaking: A Framework for Analysis. (United States)


    and Asa P. Smith (eds.), Image and Reality in World Politics, Columbia University Press, New York, 1967. Festinger , Leon , A Theo of Cognitive...University, 1956. Trotsky, Leon , "The Revolution Betrayed," in Samuel Hendel (ed.), The Soviet Crucible: The Soviet Government in Theory and Practice, D. Van

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs (United States)


    22 Jul88] 26 EAST EUROPE Ukrainian Contribution to Soviet-Polish Collaboration [A. Golovin , K. Chavaga, Z. Zhizhara; PRAVDA UKRAINY, 12 Jul 88...Jul 88 p 3 [Article by RATAU correspondents A. Golovin , K. Cha- vaga, Z. Zhizhara: "The UkSSR: A Growing Contribu- tion to Soviet-Polish Cooperation

  18. War, Militarism and the Soviet State. (United States)

    Holloway, David

    This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

  19. American and Soviet Relations Since Detente (United States)


    basketball, the Soviets send their athletcs to participate in other sports events: A Nice Place to Visit ... 163 acrobatics gymnastics boxing judo canoeing...and Soviets would try to outlast each other in the high heat and humidity of a saut.a, brought to the Middle East by Swedish troops. The So- viets and

  20. Soviet Strategic Airlift and Power Projection (United States)


    Doder and Jay Ross, "Soviets, Cuba Double Ethiopia Force," Washington Post, 17 December 1977, p. Al; "Soviet Arms Airlift to Ethio- pia Violates Air...Bernard. Kissinger. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., Inc., 1974. Kirchner, Walther. History of Russia. New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1963. 84 Lee, Asher

  1. The Soviet Soldier - Premilitary and Political Training. (United States)


    FORCES, TAE AN OATH AND SOLEMNLY SWEAR M0 BE AN UPRIGHT, BRADE , DISCIPLINED, VIGILANT SOLDIER, M0 STRICTLY PRESERVE MILITARY AND GOVERNMET SECETS...Scituate, Mass.: 1973 Ivanov, Yu., Col., "Servicemen’s Code of Life", Soviet Military Review, February, 1982 Jones, David R., Soviet Arned Forces Review

  2. Borders, Risks, Exclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Muller


    Full Text Available In this paper the border is evaluated as a fold of power relations in which sovereign capacity and competence is marshaled in the furtherance of illiberal practices. Drawing from interview data of officials in various agencies engaged in the US-Canada and particularly the Windsor-Detroit corridor, the argument is made that the border is a site for both negative and positive power, for insertion and subtraction, and that surveillance and compliance regimes are ‘run’ not so much in the furtherance of a precautionary or preemptive end-state, but as intermediate values that are sufficiently malleable by an invigorated sovereign, expressed in the residue of discretion in and between the many border agencies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.


    Full Text Available We attempt to combine professional agronomic knowledge with familiarity with graphic art presented in the form of a poster in the paper. The term "poster" is considered a large loose-leaf edition, combines visual and typographic elements and execute graphic communications. The main idea of the poster is to convey the information to the reader quickly and accurately. In the study of the material we have formed complex scientific and educational resources on the history of agricultural science, including the history of the popularization of agronomic knowledge. In our work, the poster is treated as an object of analysis, as the material of social and cultural analysis and as a tool to gather information on the development of agronomic knowledge through their visualization. In the course "History and methodology of scientific agronomy" one of the competencies of students is familiarity with the methodology popularization of agronomic knowledge, understanding of what is happening. In this regard, an attempt was made to consider the Soviet poster as a source of information on the development of scientific agriculture in the period from 1917 to 1980. The aim was to analyze the main events of this period, elements of the technology of agricultural production, species and varietal diversity of crops, as well as various events in the agricultural sector. The article considers four basic types of posters: promotional, political, instructional, scientific and educational. Each of these types of posters performs its function. The poster covered all stages of agrarian sector of the country, was a historical reflection of the Soviet period and always remained mobile, online and popular art form. Today, his role is small, because it has changed the ways of presenting information. However, its historical role unchanged, he has served as the Foundation of the modern advertising industry, including agronomic knowledge

  4. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan


    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  5. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel


    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  6. Borders of Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Janni Berthou


    This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...

  7. Biometric Borders and Counterterrorism (United States)


    34Transforming Travel and Border Controls: Checkpoints in the Open Society," Government Information Quarterly 22, no. 4 (01 October 2005), 594-625, http...the Open Society." Government Information Quarterly 22, no. 4 (1 October 2005): 594– 625. Hsu, Spencer S. "U.S. Preparing to Drop Tracking of

  8. Crossing the Borders: An Eco-cinecritical Analysis of Plant Wars and Bird Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ching Li


    Full Text Available This essay reads two Asian nature-oriented films from the perspective of ecocinecriticism,an ecologically minded film criticism. Plant Wars, produced by PTSTaiwan, questions the demarcation between native plants and exotic plants as well asbetween plants and human beings so as to remap the in-between border area. Thestorytelling method it applies is to feature 14 currently native plants as the maincharacters, and illustrates their relationship to aboriginal people, farmers, beekeepersand to other insect species. Bird Without Borders, also produced by PTS, tells the storyof the migration journey of a group of black-faced spoonbills flying 16,000 kilometersall the way from Tainan, Taiwan, to Japan, along the border of South and North Korea,to a remote island of China to look for feeding places and then back to Taiwan to spendthe winter. Different layers of border-crossing are shown in Bird. One similarity ofthese two PTS productions is the search for border-crossing so as to redefine or revisewhat the border means. Plant questions the biological categorization of the native plantsand the exotic plants; Bird illustrates how the crew physically follows the route of thebirds’ flight which crosses the national borders to provide a vision of remapping thenatural territory through challenging the idea of a fixed “place.” Both are seeking forways to trespass the man-made borders: Plant via environmental imagination; Bird viasome physical movement. While the title of Plant Wars seemingly expresses its positionmore strongly through “wars,” Bird Without Borders explicitly asserts a dream of noborders.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin MEGHEŞAN


    Full Text Available Soviet foreign policy is a field where theories abund. Most of these theories contend that one or more factors are extremely important determinant factors for Soviet behaviour in all or most situations. Soviet foreign policy has usually been analysed in terms of the leader’s objectives, their perceptions and iniatives in the outer environment of the world politics, and their response to development abroad. The main purpose of this article is to briefly examine the internal and external factors that shape Soviet foreign policy and behavior, and to analyse the forces that shape Soviet international behaviour, focusing on the national interest issue. Why Soviet foreign policy? Because we consider that even a brief look into the Soviet foreign policy may represent the key to understanding Russias current behaviour on the world stage. The first step in constructing viable security strategies is to understand the surrounding political world, as well as what Russia was, is and could be.

  10. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  11. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in...

  12. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Robinson International (USA) Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products for customs purposes,...

  13. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.


    Barr, D A


    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of ...

  14. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael


    of confrontation between divergent political ideologies. In the majority of the Southeast Asian borderlands, this implied violent disruption in the lives of local borderlanders that came to affect their relationship to their nation-state. A case in point is the ethnic Iban population living along the international...... border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...... militarized international disputes with neighbouring Malaysia in the early 1960s, and in subsequent military co-operative ‘anti-communist’ ‘counter-insurgency’ efforts by the two states in the late 1960–1970s. This paper brings together facets of national belonging and citizenship within a borderland context...

  15. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander


    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  16. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  17. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann


    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  18. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.


    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs (United States)


    Or the adaptation by Albert Camus ’ of Dostoyevskiy’s novel, "The Possessed," in the Theater imeni A.S. Pushkin? Or the fact the Soviet Army... Albert Vlasov, chairman of the Board of the Novosti Press Agency (APN), at the Moscow forum of six Euro- pean periodicals, which MN has already...Soviet people. He referred to humanists like Albert Schweitzer and Linus Pauling. Here arc his initial ideas: the first—"the disunity of humanity

  20. In vitro test on the ability of a yeast cell wall based product to inhibit the Escherichia coli F4ac adhesion on the brush border of porcine intestinal villi. (United States)

    Trevisi, P; Priori, D; Gandolfi, G; Colombo, M; Coloretti, F; Goossens, T; Bosi, P


    The ability of a yeast cell wall (YCW)-based product (SENTIGUARD C; Nutriad) to inhibit the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ac (ETEC) adhesion on the brush border of porcine intestinal villi was tested. The ETEC suspensions were preincubated with 2 batches of the product (A and B) at different concentrations (10, 5, and 0.5%, wt/vol) or with their filtrates (AF and BF) and then with intestinal villi susceptible to ETEC adhesion. In all the trials, ETEC suspensions were also preincubated with egg yolk (E) immunized against ETEC to assess the maximum inhibition of the adhesiveness or directly with the villi [control group (Con)] to verify the maximum adhesiveness of the pathogen. For each treatment, 20 different villi were observed, brush border measured, and the adherent pathogens counted. A scanning electron microscope analysis was used to confirm the ability of ETEC to adhere on the YCW. The E treatment significantly reduced the pathogen adhesion on the villi compared with the C group in all the trials (P intestinal infection from ETEC in young pigs with the affinity of ETEC to YCW.

  1. Postcolonial studies and post-Soviet societies: The possibilities and the limitations of their intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan


    Full Text Available Starting with a short review of the postcolonial studies’ origins, this paper considers the question of their application in the study of history and contemporary state of the post-Soviet societies. Aspirations of the leading theorists of postcolonial studies not to restrict their field of research on the relation of imperial metropoles (First World and its (postcolonial periphery (Third World have not met with the acceptance in post-Soviet societies’ academia. With the exception of the famous debates on „the Balkans“ that are not the subject of this paper, the paradigm of post-colonialism is rarely used in the interpretation of past and present of the former socialist states (Second World. Rejecting the thesis of their own (postcolonial status in most of Eastern European countries is usually based on a rejection of the assumption of the Soviet-style communism’s „civilizing mission“. From the same perspective, the Soviet Union is not considered a colonial metropole, but an occupying force, and the epoch of socialism is interpreted as externally imposed breach of the historical developments based on the European model. On the other hand, the concept of these countries’ transition opens up the issue of their (postcolonial status in relation to „Europe“ as the center of economic, political and cultural power. Therefore, the postcolonial critique of post-Soviet societies is more often focused on the thematisation of neo-imperial domination and neo-colonial dependency phenomena, than on the explanation of their socialist past. The author’s opinion is that it doesn’t mean that a number of concepts of postcolonial theory - such as „internal colonialism“ - cannot be productively used to a fuller understanding of the Soviet past, nor that in the interpretation of post-Soviet realities’ „hybrid forms“ the postcolonial studies cannot be of use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 149026

  2. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984 (United States)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  3. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania (United States)

    Balockaite, Rasa


    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  4. Atmospheric Science Without Borders (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan


    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  5. Cardiology without borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Wolk


    @@ Cardiovascular disease takes place in a border-free world. The challenge at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and anywhere else in the world is to hold patient care above the artificial barriers raised by geopolitical issues. Fundamentally, the goal of ACC members or of any cardiology societies in the world is to provide excellent patient care. Cardiovascular disease is essentially the same throughout the world. Where there are minor variations among individuals, as clinicians we find priceless opportunity to learn. Expanding- rather contracting -our experience base helps us as individuals to realize our best potential as practitioners.

  6. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata


    -being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well...

  7. Collaborating Across Borders (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  8. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier


    in two border regions between Niger, Nigeria, and Benin. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  9. Jokes as the Truth about Soviet Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Davies


    Full Text Available The political jokes told in Estonia and other parts of the SovietEmpire were very important to those who told them. They were tiny areas of freedom, a brief escape from socialist hegemony. Those scholars such as Alexander Shtromas who took the jokes seriously were alone in predicting the rapid collapse and demise of the Soviet Union. Shtromas’ thesis was rooted in a hardheaded analysis of power and politics but he knew that the jokes were a good indication of the failure of socialism and of the alienation from the entire systemof both the broad masses and the intellectuals. Most Western Sovietologists’, some of them malign sympathisers with the socialist ethos, were foolish enough to think that the Soviet socialist order was a legitimate and enduring type of society. A knowledge of the jokes of socialism was a better guide to Soviet reality than the official Soviet versions and data or the theories of those Western scholars, particularly the revisionists, who tried to be ‘fair’ to the Soviet Union; fairness to evil is the father of lies. Jokes are not serious statements but when viewed within a comparative framework they can reveal a great deal about what a particular society is like. Jokes have no consequences whatsoever but they are a good indicator of where the tensions in a society lie. The political jokes of the Soviet Union and its empire revealed that social order to be riddledwith contradictions and ripe for collapse as soon as those controlling the means of force began to falter. Force alone had kept the system in being.

  10. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  11. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border (United States)


    Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, and the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge can all be found adjacent to the border. The southwest border...Refuge, Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, and Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge (all in Arizona) as components of the National Wilderness

  12. Soviet Education Policy 1917-1935: From Ideology to Bureaucratic Control. (United States)

    Lauglo, Jon


    Examining early Soviet educational policy, Lauglo analyzes the initial expression of Marxist humanist values, popular participation, and the value of productive work for general education. Discusses the routinization into a Stalinist pattern of bureaucratically controlled utilitarianism and comments briefly on recent indications of change in…

  13. Soviet Acquisition of Militarily Significant Western Technology: An Update (United States)


    report defines the scope of the without allowing the technological gap to widen. The Soviet effort. It outlines how the Soviets go about main reasons for...they acquired, more than the Soviets to narrow the microelectronics technological gap with 2,500 pieces of major Western controlled and uncontrolled

  14. Transformation of the concept of border in the transition from USSR to Russian Federation: Implications for State survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Añorve Añorve


    Full Text Available Russian foreign policy is judged by the Western world on the basis of a series of depreciatory adjectives. The aim of this paper is to effect an historical review of the Russian (and Soviet perception of their frontier. The Russian frontier is continually changing; and the country has been both invader as well as invaded. For historical reasons, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union kept both a close watch and a strong control over the Soviet frontier, to the point of rendering it almost impenetrable. During the early years of transition, border policies relaxed consederably, to the point of instability and placing the Russian Federation on the verge of balkanization. Both Putin and Medvedev put a stop to this process. Now, partially as a result of Western pressure and reluctance to cooperate, Russia has undertaken an aggressive border policy that threatens expansion. The enormous Russian diaspora has turned out to be a successful justification for the expansion of the Russian border.

  15. Borders in Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Toshmakova


    Full Text Available Libraries are fundamental institutions for the life under socialism in Bulgaria (1944-1989. They provide studies and readings for big part of society. This is time when television was very rare in Bulgarian homes and the newspapers were totally controlled by Communist party. This way a library served as the main source of information. Seemingly ordinary cultural centers, they become a powerful tool in the hands of the communist state. They are the ones who are actively worked to impose new socialist thinking trough setting limits on access to readers and therefore control the flow of information. The aim of this article is to trace the influence of restricted by communist censorship institution Glavlit literature. Or to put it another way – what was the role of censorship in the process of establishment of borders created by prohibited access to scientific information.

  16. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.


    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  17. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology. (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando L


    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology.

  18. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta


    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  19. Soviet Air Power, 1917-1976. (United States)


    Except for 80 British Sunbeam engines and 250 British aircraft, the imports all 18 came from France. General Golovin points out that in September 1916...Petrograd Soviet of Worker’s and Soldier’s Deputies 19 N. N. Golovin , The Russian Army in World War I, Archan Books, 1969, pp. 150-151. Lest the...aircraft industry during 9The Soviet Aircraft Industry, pp. 13-14. 51 the First and Second Five-Year Plans. By 1940 the industry was turn- ing out

  20. The political economy of oil in post-Soviet Kazakhstan (United States)

    Omarova, Saule Tarikhovna

    This dissertation examines the way in which the Kazakhstani state redefined its role in managing oil and gas resources between 1992 and 1998. The governments of hydrocarbon-rich post-Soviet republics such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan faced the common challenge of restructuring their petroleum industries to boost the export of oil and gas. This study argues that by 1998 three patterns have emerged, ranging from a more radical state retrenchment in Russia, to reinforced state monopoly in Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, to a "mixed" pattern of state participation in Kazakhstan, consisting of both large-scale privatization of oil assets and the formation of a fully state-owned national oil company, Kazakhoil. This dissertation analyzes the process of restructuring Kazakhstan's oil sector through comparison with the Russian petroleum industry. In Russia, several private, vertically integrated oil companies (VICs) were formed on the basis of existing oil-producing units and soon emerged as essential players in the Russian oil sector. By contrast, Kazakhstan's marginalized status within the Soviet system of oil production resulted in the absence of organizationally strong sectoral interests capable of claiming control over the industry after the independence. Privatization of Kazakhstan's oil enterprises, conducted by the government in spite of the resistance from local oil managers, transferred controlling stakes to foreign investors and further weakened domestic oil interests. Unencumbered state autonomy allowed the increasingly authoritarian Kazakhstani government to adopt relatively modern and investor-friendly petroleum legislation by decree. In Russia, the government's efforts to reform oil-related legislation were blocked by the leftist-dominated Duma, the democratically elected lower chamber of the Russian parliament. On the basis of these findings, this dissertation concludes that the dynamics of state withdrawal from the oil sector in post-Soviet

  1. First Soviet Sea-Launched Ballistic Rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin


    Full Text Available In the article it is told about the creation of the first generation of Soviet ballistic missiles for the armament of submarines. The basic stages of their development, tests and adoption for the armament are described. Are cited the data about the people, is most which actively participated in these processes.

  2. Suggestopedia and Soviet Sleep-Learning. (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper examines the parallels between suggestopedia and Soviet sleep-learning for learning foreign languages. Both systems are based on the idea that the acquisition of information can occur in states below the optimal level of consciousness. Hypnopedia makes use of the period of paradoxical or light sleep that usually occurs just as one is…

  3. Landmarks in the Literature: Super Soviet Pedagogue. (United States)

    Alston, Patrick L.


    Anton Makarenko became a national hero for effecting education for communism in the 1920s. His book, "The Road to Life," is an artistic achievement and the most widely read and influential work on education in the Soviet Union. But Makarenko's legacy is more myth than model in present-day Russia. (Author/SJL)

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs (United States)


    made use of precisely this fairy tale by forming aggressive military blocs all over the world: NATO, SEATO, CENTO, ANZUS and others. The tales about "the Soviet threat." The fact that the FRG and Japan are playing one of the main roles in these plans is also significant. And both

  5. Transforming Clients into Surrogates: The Soviet Experience. (United States)


    principle in remarks at a luncheon meeting of the Washington, D.C., -. Chapter of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , November 30...American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , November 30, 1983. ., . -31- the Soviets been willing to become major suppliers of

  6. Current Priorities of Soviet School Development. (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981


    Six articles discuss top priorities of Soviet education policy. Topics discussed include labor training, revision of the curriculum for the 10-year general education program, quantitative v qualitative demands on the educational system, and extended-day programs for the children of working mothers. (DB)

  7. Soviet Tactical Doctrine for Urban Warfare (United States)


    in the Transcarpa- thian Military District, an article in a Soviet military journal states: A model of a populated point of a city type with a center...guns designated for firing by direct lay and also firn of motorized rifle pndraelLaniy*E lay passages in enemy obstacles. (s p. 43) Thi attached

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs. (United States)


    direction of the European theatre , which means that SB will be maintained. This is a difficult theoretical problem which can only be resolved by...aura of romanticism surrounding service in the fleet. How is today’s generation of Soviet seamen coping with the ocean vigil? [Makarov] I for one

  9. Soviet Railroad Troops: An Updated Review. (United States)


    Lecture presented at the United States Army Russian Institute, 6 December 1979. 39S. Troyan , "Baikal-Amur Railroad, A Road of Courage", Soviet Military...34. (Bridges On The BAM) Tyl i Snabzheniye, No. 9, 1979, pp.27-28. "Transport zimoy". (Transport In Winter) Pravda, 24 January 1978, p.1 . Troyan , S

  10. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional. (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.


    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  11. Distance, Borders, and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    This paper explores the spatial and temporal diffusion of political violence in North and West Africa. It does so by endeavoring to represent the mental landscape that lives in the back of a group leader’s mind as he contemplates strategic targeting. We assume that this representation is a combin......This paper explores the spatial and temporal diffusion of political violence in North and West Africa. It does so by endeavoring to represent the mental landscape that lives in the back of a group leader’s mind as he contemplates strategic targeting. We assume that this representation...... constrains a group leader to attack at a location other than the one that would seem to yield the greatest overt payoff. By its very nature, the research problem defies the collection of a full set of structural data. Instead, we leverage functional data from the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data......” of North and West Africa that depicts the permeability to violence. A better understanding of how location, time, and borders condition attacks enables planning, prepositioning, and response....

  12. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia


    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  13. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...... influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public...

  14. Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere of the former Soviet Union in 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryaboshapko, A.G.; Brukhanov, P.A.; Gromov, S.A.; Proshina, Yu.V; Afinogenova, O.G. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen over the former Soviet Union for 1985 and 1990 were calculated on the basis of a combination of `bottom-up` and `top-down` approaches. Sulfur dioxide emissions from combustion of hard coal, brown coal, oil products, natural gas, shale oil, peat, wood as well as from metallurgy, sulfuric acid production, and cement production were estimated. Nitrogen oxides emissions were considered separately for large power plants, small power plants, industrial boilers, residential combustion units, and for transport. The sulfur and nitrogen emissions were spatially distributed over the former Soviet Union with 1 x 1 degree resolution. Data on 721 point sources of sulfur dioxide emissions and on the 242 largest power stations as nitrogen oxides sources were used. The area sources of both sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were distributed according to the population density separately for about 150 administrative units of the former Soviet Union. 63 refs., 19 tabs.

  15. Bacteriophages as Therapeutic and Prophylactic Means: Summary of the Soviet and Post Soviet Experiences. (United States)

    Chanishvili, Nina


    Bacteriophage (from 'bacteria' and Greek φαγεῖν phagein "to devour" or bacterial eaters) are bacterial viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Bacteriophages (shortly "phages") are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. The estimated number of phages on earth is about 1032. Bacteriophages are often isolated from environmental sources, such as water samples, etc. Felix d'Herelle, one of the discoverers of bacteriophages, was the one who suggested them for therapy of human and animal bacterial infections. This idea was very popular in the world until the advent of antibiotics commercial after which production of therapeutic phages ceased in most of the Western countries, but not in the former Soviet Union. The application of antibiotics in the clinical practice, besides the well-known side effects, entails, in addition, the appearance of the forms of bacteria, resistant to newly synthesized preparations. It was concluded that a European and global strategy to address this gap is urgently needed. Now, faced with the alarming growth of a variety of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, Western researchers and governments are giving phages a serious look. The phages nowadays are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The therapeutic action of bacteriophages significantly differs from antibiotics, which makes them still active against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages have a number of other advantages in comparison with antibiotics. First of all, they are efficient against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the past and current experiences in the field of phage therapy in the countries where it has been traditionally applied in the clinical practice. Although the style and quality of old Soviet scientific publications dedicated to phage therapy are not challenging the international standards, there is still valuable information which

  16. Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report. (United States)

    Friedberg, Maurice

    Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

  17. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.


    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  18. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell


    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  19. Conceptualism as Poetics of Soviet Postmodernist Literature%观念主义:苏联后现代主义文学的诗学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is well recognized in the international academia that there exists a Russian-Soviet variation of postmodernism. Conceptualism has achieved recognition mainly because it has become a feature of the literary texts of many Soviet postmodern writers. Soviet coneeptualism is different from Western postmodernism, which deconstrncts rationalism and popularizes cultural production and consumption. In fact, Soviet conceptualism deconstructs the Soviet ideology and its powerful social functions. Writers borrow it from Soviet official discourses, concepts and narrations. Soviet eonceptualism is a special variation of postmodernist poetics distinguished from Western literature and art.%后现代主义的苏俄变体形式越来越获得国际学界承认。它被认可,不单是因为出现了大量的后现代主义作家作品,更重要的是,这些作品形成了自己的诗学特征,即观念主义:一种有别于西方解构理性主义、把现代主义美学生活化、文化生产和消费成为大众生活的后现代主义叙事。它借用苏俄官方话语、概念和表述方式,实际上是要消解官方强大的意识形态功能。

  20. 冲突法视角下的跨境产品责任侵权%Cross-border product liability torts under perspective of conflict law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Among the connecting factors of foreign product liability conflict laws, the international treaties and international private law legislation in China are both showing significant new development. On aspects of the proactive protection of interests of the weak, the reconciliation between autonomy of will and principle of the most closely linked, the position choice of Lex personalis of parties, and the priority application of mandatory provisions, the legal lifeblood of Rome Ⅱand Hague Convention on Law Applicable to Product Liability are fully referenced in China. Under the precondition of applicable rules to products liability law already decided in the Applicable Law of Foreign-related Civil Relations in China nowadays, the issue of product liability torts under perspective of international private law in China should be reflected based on specific cases.%在涉外产品责任冲突规范的连接因素上,国际条约与我国国际私法立法都出现了引人瞩目的新发展. 在对弱者利益的倾斜保护、意思自治与最密切联系原则的调和、当事人属人法的立场抉择、强制性规定的优先适用等方面,我国充分借鉴欧盟《罗马条例Ⅱ》及海牙《产品责任法律适用公约》的法理命脉. 在当下我国《涉外民事关系法律适用法》已设定产品责任准据法的前提下,须在具体个案基础上反思中国国际私法视角下的产品责任侵权问题.

  1. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T


    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  2. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile. (United States)


    document dated June 30, 1973, instructing all Communist Party members in Santiago to secure arms and to evacuate the upper class barrio alto in case (Other reports indicated a figure of $100 million.) It was also announced in Santiago that the Soviet Union had granted $108 million for long-term...Chile at Rojo, Santiago : Universidad Tecnica del Estado, 1971. See also Luis Corvalan, El Camino de Victoria, Santiago : Impresova Horizonte, 1971, pp

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs. (United States)


    legal nationality relations. In this case, desire to find scape- codes of the Union and union republics must fully reflect goats elsewhere and put the...Orda, Ural oblasts. The republic is credited with almost 50 percent and Chimkent oblasts suffer anemia. More than 35,000 of all cases of brucellosis ...infectious Soviet in February 1990, and deputies by the deadline diseases, especially tuberculosis and brucellosis , and established by law, on

  4. JPRS Report: Soviet Union, International Affairs. (United States)


    III. DIKHLOFOS FOR PANI KOVALSKA appeared from the stores, and already costs R25 at the local market -Dikhlofos [insecticide], perfume , make-up...15 WEST EUROPE Industrial Company ’Elkem’ Moves Into Soviet Market [Oslo AFTENPOSTEN, 16 Sep 91] ................. 16 EAST...secrets behind the functioning of a market find a common language, cannot we do the same? economy and the system of social guarantees and struc- tures

  5. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs (United States)


    competitions among Air Defense missile units under the general heading: "Combat Training: Quality and Efficiency; 180 Seconds of Dueling Decided Who Would be...mission. It is well-known that in the duel with the airborne "enemy" the skill of highly trained professionals effect- ing the launch—i.e...hundreds of them), were done by Soviet designers—a group led by S. Turkov, a childhood friend of Peregudov who volun- teered for the navy along with

  7. Inside the Soviet Army in Afghanistan (United States)


    tality against the civilian population in contravention to inter- nationally accepted norms of warfare conduct are common. " Freelance " looting and...publications in Lithuania and Ukraine. Four Estonian draft- age youth who defected to Sweden cited their desire to avoid service in Afghanistan as the...punished severely, if pursued in an unau- thorized, " freelance " manner. We were given countless examples of every aspect of Soviet misconduct. Most of the

  8. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs (United States)


    didactic command style has started to dominate with respect to the Komsomol, and together with orga- nizational independence the organization has lost its...and the liquidation of literacy were conducive to the creation of the Kurdish newspaper RYYA TAZA (NOVYY PUT) in the repub- lic. Its first issue came...of Soviet power. But the main thing, perhaps, besides complete literacy , one should consider the fact that the Kurds have fully gone over to a

  9. The Process of Soviet Weapons Design (United States)


    system on the BMP from an early 1940s German design. But the validity and usefulness of a theory, especially one that makes predictions about the future...when the 1940 publication of a highly significant Soviet discovery of spontaneous fission resulted in a complete lack of an American response, the...taken from I. N. Golovin , I. V. Khurchatov, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1973, and from Herbert York, The Advisors. Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb, W. H

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs. (United States)


    American officer: "Let’s go in there, Comrade Major." Worth’s brows rose . Viktor also realized his inadvert- ence. What could he do? He was accustomed...It can be straightened out only by applying social and governmental solutions. What are the current provisions pertaining to housing for... Nikola - yevich Tukhachevskiy and an entire galaxy of Soviet military leaders who had been tempered in the crucibles of military ordeals of World War

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs (United States)


    intention of quitting the United States for some reason or other, but one could not suppose that it would do so to align itself with Mexico . On the...In 1951 a regional congress in New York revived this organization within the World War II emigre community. Former Bandera followers exerted... Bandera "folklore"—were instilling nationalistic ideology and hostility toward Soviet rule in the minds of adolescents and even children? One can

  12. Background Information on the Soviet Union (United States)


    ministries) in 1965." In this childish disregard for truth lies a pride in Soviet 1969 there were 220.t)0) scientists with doctor’s or achievement and a...novel pharisees drown everything," he was unduly Cancer Ward, published abroad in 1969, depicts the pessimistic. On the tenth anniversary of his death, in...1974. Whitney, Parts III and IV. New York; Harper& Row. 1975. Solzhenitsyn, A. Cancer Ward. Translated by Bethell & Burg. Terz. A. (Sinyavsky). On

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs (United States)


    we had encountered a kind of mythological octopus with its single center, which for a long time had carefully prepared to overthrow the Soviet...34habitual criminals [vory v zakone]." We perceived as juridically incorrect his assertion that "the informals are camouflaged criminals.", there is another statistic we’d like to know: are there now fewer ’habitual criminals’ at large, or ’ camouflaged ’ informals (who in fact are not

  14. Analysis of the Soviet Crisis Management Experience (United States)


    between Congo (Zaire) and Portugual ; Congo charges that Tshombe opposition forces are . operating out of Portuguese Cabinda; Portugal charges that Congo has...regime (for example, South Vietnam, Rhodesia, Portuguese colonies in Africa), or denial of military access (that is, Western and Chinese). * The USSR was...172 601118 French paratroops intervene to aid pro-French regime in Gabon. *• 173 610315- The Soviet Union opposes continued Portuguese colonial

  15. Evolution of Scales and Levels of Islam and Politics Analysis in Post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzakhanov Dzhabrail Gasanovich


    Full Text Available The article studies the basic and complicated evolution of different approaches for investigating Russian post-Soviet Islamic transformation. The authors describe the logic and dynamic of scrutinizing such kind of problems as Islamic consciousness and Muslim institutes, relationships between Islam and ethnic political develoments, forms and manifestations of Islamic fundamentalism. In an effort to identify and assess the signs of post-Soviet Islamic revival, the Russian academic community has obviously been driven to despair. Especially since the tragedy of 9/11/2001 as a source of studying Islam as an evasive object. The main goal of this paper is the methodological innovation which consists in multilayered approach. The authors argue that changes of parameters and structure of post-Soviet policy is reflected in the change of format and unities of analysis. The paper examines the character of academic discussion about different understanding of such political phenomena as politization of Islam as well as bordering Islam in terms of multi-level methodology. This methodology could be able to clarify very complicated Islamic features: socio-territorial organization, communication, and the reproduction channels. It alone will help us explain changing Islam as a social and political enigma. In this paper the authors have correctly identified the phenomenon of Muslim regionalization as a situation under which the Islamic leaders concentrate on religious development at the local level. It is not the authors’ aim to discuss the forms of Islamic existence and its religious-teaching component. The authors favor the wider approach typical of political science in which there is a component of Islamic studies. This analysis has demonstrated that the multi-layered approach to Islam, which identifies its viable segments, has a considerable heuristic potential. This approach helps to understand the inner dynamics of the Islamic development as a complex

  16. JPRS Report: Soviet Union, Military Affairs. (United States)


    34 ocean by observing it in an aquarium . During 1982- 1983, reconnaissance and combat planes from U.S. I was working at the command post of this border...borders of the republic, exists. Party organs, as before, conduct quick trials of which is now already occurring in Moldova, Georgia , the those who...April 1991 Society for Cooperation with Army Replaces interests of Georgia ," this did not produce a very deep Georgian DOSAAF impression. In fact the

  17. The Soviet Union: population trends and dilemmas. (United States)

    Feshbach, M


    Focus in this discussion of population trends and dilemmas in the Soviet Union is on demographic problems, data limitations, early population growth, geography and resources, the 15 republics of the Soviet Union and nationalities, agriculture and the economy, population growth over the 1950-1980 period (national trend, regional differences); age and sex composition of the population, fertility trends, nationality differentials in fertility, the reasons for fertility differentials (child care, divorce, abortion and contraception, illegitimacy), labor shortages and military personnel, mortality (mortality trends, life expectancy), reasons for mortality increases, urbanization and emigration, and future population prospects and projections. For mid-1982 the population of the Soviet Union was estimated at 270 million. The country's current rate of natural increase (births minus deaths) is about 0.8% a year, higher than current rates of natural increase in the U.S. (0.7%) and in developed countries as a whole (0.6%). Net immigration plays no part in Soviet population growth, but emigration was noticeable in some years during the 1970s, while remaining insignificant relative to total population size. National population growth has dropped by more than half in the last 2 decades, from 1.8% a year in the 1950s to 0.8% in 1980-1981, due mostly to declining fertility. The national fertility decline masks sharp differences among the 15 republics and even more so among the some 125 nationalities. In 1980, the Russian Republic had an estimated fertility rate of 1.9 births/woman, and the rate was just 2.0 in the other 2 Slavic republics, the Ukraine and Belorussia. In the Central Asian republics the rates ranged up to 5.8. Although the Russians will no doubt continue to be the dominant nationality, low fertility and a relatively higher death rate will reduce their share of the total population by less than half by the end of the century. Soviet leaders have launched a

  18. Nonstate Actors and the Open Border Policy: The Border Security Case Study of Nepal and India (United States)


    addressing political and social issues.10 Due to the current environment and the ability to move freely along the Nepalese- Indian border, the Nepalese...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited NONSTATE ACTORS...border, 15. NUMBER OF resti-icted border, border patJ·ol, ct-ime, economy, U.S.-Mexican border relations, border secm-ity force, PAGES Nepalese- Indian

  19. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  20. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border (United States)


    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL33659 Border Security...Presidencia,” May 12, 2005. Translation by CRS. Available at [ pagina =31]. Last

  1. The role of root border cells in plant defense. (United States)

    Hawes, M C; Gunawardena, U; Miyasaka, S; Zhao, X


    The survival of a plant depends upon the capacity of root tips to sense and move towards water and other nutrients in the soil. Perhaps because of the root tip's vital role in plant health, it is ensheathed by large populations of detached somatic cells - root 'border' cells - which have the ability to engineer the chemical and physical properties of the external environment. Of particular significance, is the production by border cells of specific chemicals that can dramatically alter the behavior of populations of soilborne microflora. Molecular approaches are being used to identify and manipulate the expression of plant genes that control the production and the specialized properties of border cells in transgenic plants. Such plants can be used to test the hypothesis that these unusual cells act as a phalanx of biological 'goalies', which neutralize dangers to newly generated root tissue as the root tip makes its way through soil.

  2. National Security Policy Issues in U.S.-Soviet Technology Transfer (United States)


    HI-20I6-RR k-\\2 minorities available In small cities , could have a significant Impact on Soviet industrial productivity. Without a Germany 2.81 Mineral water bottline lines Toro Food Al fa-Laval Carle e Montanari SpA Sei tz- Asbest -Werke MINERAL FUELS t RELATED...the Infrastructure of roads, railroads, new cities etc. Thus, the question becomes--ls It In our best national interest to tie up our capital

  3. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl


    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taki...... of choosing a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results do however not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  4. Inspiration vs. perspiration in economic development of the Former Soviet Union and China (ca. 1920–2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, B.; Foldvari, P.; Didenko, D.


    Here, we discuss the role of both perspiration factors (physical and human capital) and inspiration factors (Total Factor Productivity) in the economic development of the Former Soviet Union area (FSU) and China, ca. 1920–2010. Using a newly created dataset, we find that during the Socialist central

  5. Does knowledge have borders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Hanne

    International education is often promoted through discourses of openness, cross-cultural relationship-building and global understanding. But how inclusive is the kind of knowledge offered in the so-called “global” learning environments? The paper explores possible limits to knowledge production...... system embedded in a specific national and institutional environment, and from this research follows that certain frames of reference, or contexts, are taken for granted by local staff and students. With internationalization, however, comes a change in the make-up of the student cohort, including...

  6. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim


    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  7. 'A people forgotten by history': Soviet Studies of the Kurds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.


    The Russian/Soviet experience raises complex general questions concerning orientalism, conceptual hegemony, and the politics of (post-)colonial knowledge. Russia was not an empire in Said's sense, and drew much of its orientalist categories from non-imperialist German sources; the Soviet Union was e

  8. The Role of Women in the Soviet Armed Forces (United States)


    Soldier," in The Soviet Military: Political Education , Training & Morale, by E. S. Williams, p. 124. 71. Olimpiyev and Gusev. 72. Saywell, p. 131. 73...67-68. Williams, E. S. The Soviet Military: Political , Education , Training & Morale. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986. pp. 103-125. Women’s

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 1, January 1987. (United States)


    million. An even greater effect is expected from the Mir station’s on-board gear. Using satellites of the Kosmos and Meteor-Priroda series along with...Soviet spacecraft and orbital stations, and using Soviet booster rockets to launch foreign satel- lites. It is common knowledge that the Kosmos

  10. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice


    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  11. Striving to Sell SALT Two: Seven Years of Soviet Arguments. (United States)


    provide the Soviets with a "breathing spell" in the arms competition which could be of benefit in overcoming the technological gap between the USSR and...the creation of an opportunity to help reduce the technological gap may have been an additional factor in Soviet interest in SALT. 5 The principal

  12. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education (United States)

    Terzian, Shelley


    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  13. Security Assistance Rationales: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. (United States)


    function to defray the cost of Soviet arms development. 96 The linkage of arms sales and comercial sales is not a factor in Soviet arms transfer to Eastern...of plant, R&D institution representatives, and politica .’wer over the GOSPLAN mechanism, does have a feedback loop. _.Ae defense ministries must be

  14. Border governance in Mozambique : The intersection of international border controls, regional integration and cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.M. Seda (Fulgêncio)


    markdownabstractA tension exists between the interests of states in protecting national security through border controls and those of communities in cross-border regions, to whom frequent border crossing is part of daily life – a necessary part of achieving their own wellbeing. The interplay between

  15. Inhibition of growth and development of root border cells in wheat by Al. (United States)

    Zhu, Mu-Yuan; Ahn, Sung-Ju; Matsumoto, Hideaki


    The production and development of border cells vary with genotype, and they are released in wheat at an earlier stage of root development than other species studied so far. No significant difference was observed in the maximum number of border cells between Al-tolerant (Atlas 66) and Al-sensitive (Scout 66) cultivars in the absence of Al treatment. Al seriously inhibited the production and release of border cells, resulting in clumping of border cells in Scout 66, but less clustering in Atlas 66. The number of border cells released from roots treated with Al is significantly less than that from roots grown without Al treatment. Al treatment induced the death of detached border cells in vitro and they were killed by a 20-h treatment with 25 micro m Al. No significant difference in survival percentage of detached border cells was observed between Atlas 66 and Scout 66, regardless of the presence or absence of Al. The removal of border cells from root tips of both Atlas 66 and Scout 66 enhanced the Al-induced inhibition of root elongation concomitant with increased Al accumulation in the root. These results suggest that border cells adhered to the root tips play a potential role in the protection of root from Al injury in wheat.

  16. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.


    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Can We Talk About Post-Soviet Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel


    Full Text Available The authors of this essay have the background of a Soviet education. Aimar Ventsel began his studies during the Soviet era, at what was then Tartu State University. Natalia Struchkova graduated from Yakutsk State University, defended her thesis in Ulan-Ude, and continued to work and teach according to Soviet era programmes and methodology. Therefore, both authors have extensively read academic works from the Soviet period during their student years and after. The academic writing that is widespread in Russian and in many post-Soviet countries where the academic language is still Russian, differs substantially from the so-called Western writing. These differences cause misunderstandings between colleagues, but more importantly form a bottleneck affecting the publication and circulation of academic texts.

  18. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  19. Inverting the Telescope on Borders that Matter: Conversations in Café Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic; Kramsch, Olivier Thomas; Sandberg, Marie


    for their continuous re-envisioning through extra-territorial and post-colonial enframings of Europe, the standard horizontal gaze of border studies, it is argued, is dislocated. 'Inverting the telescope' on border studies thus enables a productive space of tension – named Café Europa – in which the negotiations...

  20. Soviet Style in War. Revised Edition (United States)


    our] dominant position over the Donbas ... cutting off all the enemy’s escape routes out of the Donbas ." For the "vic- torious reports that had been...retreat and an attempt to 172 Soviet Style in War avoid battle in the Donbas and reach the western bank of the Dnepr as soon as possible. ... Vatutin...Avtobiograficheskii ocherk. Donets: Izdatel’stvo Donbas , 1971. Erickson, J., The Road to Stalingrad, Stalin’s War with Germany. Vol. 1, New York: Harper and Row, 1975

  1. The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union (United States)


    PAGE READ) iNSTRULCTIONS I BEFORE COMPLETING F’ORM~I 11P40T ’mUMSER 2. G~OVT ACCESSION NO. 3. ACCIFtEN1VS CATAI- OG mUMe(R N-2771-AF . TI I- E n d S u...a general theory of military science, military art, military history, military pedagogy , military administration, military geography, military...foreign policy activity, the Soviet state actively and purposefully opposes the export of counterrevolution and the policy of oppression , supports the

  2. Transformation in Russian and Soviet Military History, (United States)


    NJ: Princeton University Pi-ess, 1985. (on order) Golovin , Nikolai N. The Russian army in the World War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1931...S45 1973) Shaskol’skii, Igor P. Bor’ba russkogo naroda za nevskie berega. Moskva: Gos. voen. izd-vo, 1940 . (DK 51.7 S53) Smith, Clarence J. The...perspective. Newport, bI: Naval War 2ol~e re, 1973. (AD-A044 938/9) 9 II. The Development of Soviet Military Doctrine (1918- 1940 ) Based upon her rich

  3. Soviet Perceptions of War and Peace, (United States)


    holding such views" to be B. Russell, C. Lamont, D. Fleming, L. Pauling , and J.P. Sartre . Zemskov then stated that if a nuclear war does begin, "it...Portugal, 153 Detente. 182 - - U -. ’*1 Index Potsdam Conference, 44 Sartre , Jean P., 103 Power centers, See Multipolarity; Savkin. Y. E., 19-23...London. Routledge and Kegan Paul . 1977). p 3 Chapter Three Origins of the Cold War The Soviet View Dallas C. Brown, Jr. The Cold War, a presumably mortal

  4. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.


    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  5. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen


    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  6. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance (United States)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.


    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former

  7. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig


    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  8. Languaging the Borders of Europe


    Olivier Kramsch; Kolar Aparna; Huda Degu


    Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multipl...

  9. Cross-border reprogenetic services. (United States)

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C


    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings.

  10. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation (United States)

    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh


    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs (United States)


    borders with unpol- scripts, the unprofessionalism of the officer corps, the ished stone after unpolished stone, care about? haughtiness of the...mountains. "My the role of the infamous gem among stones would be regiment’s primary airfield was here at Bani-Suwayf and prepared for the Admiral

  12. Transformation of the Soviet space program after the cold war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasenko, M.V.


    Changes in the management of the space program and the operational status of various systems in the former Soviet Union are examined with particular emphasis on defense-related space systems. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia assumed general responsibility for the entire scope of Soviet space activity. Space program management was re-organized to separate military and civilian activities. Russia is committed to maintaining military space capabilities, however, its top priority is now the conversion of military space technology for civilian uses, including global environmental problems.

  13. Soviet Gothic-fantastic: a study of Gothic and supernatural themes in early Soviet literature


    Maguire, Muireann


    Related publication: Stalin's Ghosts This thesis analyses the persistence of Gothic-fantastic themes and motifs in the literature of Soviet Russia between 1920 and 1940. Nineteenth-century Russian literature was characterized by the almost universal assimilation of Gothic-fantastic themes and motifs, adapted from the fiction of Western writers such as E.T.A. Hoffmann, Ann Radcliffe and Edgar Allen Poe. Writers from Pushkin to Dostoevskii, including the major Sy...

  14. Frontiers, territoriality and tensions in bordering spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci


    Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal

  15. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa


    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  16. The Notions of "A Border", "A Foreign Country (Abroad" and "A Foreigner": In the Relations between the USSR (Russia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedakova


    Full Text Available A border and related concepts of “abroad” and “a foreigner” are analyzed from the linguistic, semiotic and socio-cultural points of view with regard to the USSR (Russia –Bulgaria relations. In spite of being very close to, even regarded as the 16th republic of the USSR and imitating many Soviet ideas, Bulgaria was a foreign country. The reasons for that on the lingua-cultural data partly of biographical character are discussed in the paper. The border can be a synonym to the language barrier, which exists or does not exist between native speakers of Bulgarian and Russian. The new developments of mutual Russian-Bulgarian language communication on the Bulgaria seashore provide us new data of the symbolism of temporal and spatial borders.

  17. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria: A methodological note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large......The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... traders, and considered as re-export products: building materials, cereals and flour, textile, used clothing, used vehicles, cigarettes and oil....

  18. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Implementation: The Future of Commercial Trucking Across the Mexican Border (United States)


    Fruits, vegetables, beverages, confectionary and other products requiring either refrigeration or temperature protection account for over a quarter...Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, TransBorder Freight Data, as of March 2007. Prepared by BTS

  19. Soviet Doctrine of Legal Education in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis G. Korovyakovskiy


    Full Text Available Soviet era of higher legal education in Russia began in 1917 and lasted until 1991 Despite the importance of scientific papers on the previous stage of development of Soviet higher legal education periods, for an understanding of general historical processes in higher legal education. They can not serve as a comprehensive framework for understanding the Soviet - very specific - stage in the development of higher legal education. In relation to recent work in this direction the author makes the following conclusions: First, they are very few in number; Secondly, quite fragmentary and relate only to certain aspects of this complex problem; Third, analysis of the issues of higher legal education in the Soviet period of the Russian state are often exhausted and emotional evaluation study contains historical predetermination and certain patterns of development of the Russian higher education as part of the legal world and national systems of higher education.

  20. Generalized Geology of the Former Soviet Union (geo1ec) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set outlines and describes the general geologic age and type of bedrock of the Former Soviet Union and selected adjacent areas. It also includes shoreline...

  1. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P


    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: International Affairs. (United States)


    V.N. Andreyev (Leningrad). Seeking an Original Path (100th anniversary of the birth of Costa Rican writer Carmen Lira) 61 Arts and Literature New...Journalism Joan Didion (United States). Salvador (Conclusion). 85 From Our Foreign Correspondents VI. Reznichenko, P.P. Yakovlev. The Workdays and... Costa Rican border. The principal efforts of domestic reaction are aimed at discrediting the current NDF command and splitting the armed forces. The

  3. Perceptions Management: Soviet Deception and Its Implications for National Security (United States)


    is emphasized because of the central position it occupies as an example of the longevity and viability of the democratic system of government...nature of the democratic system , Soviet ability to exploit weaknesses in democratic government, and differences in the way Americans and Soviets view the...people, with all segments of society taking an active part in developing and implementing the improvements. Because the democratic system gives rise to

  4. The Soviet Response to Korean Air Lines Flight 007. (United States)


    34 Defense & Foreign 22 . .. .*..- Affairs, November 1983, pp. 3 5-3 8 . 17 Steven J. Cimbala, "Why Did the Soviets Attack the Korean Airliner...135 returning to Alaska while the Korean flight continued on towards Petropavlovsk. Ogarkov commented, "It was natural that the Soviet Air Defense ...unable to do so.S4 When Western newspapers began reporting the Korean Air Lines disaster, several interviews were made with US dignitaries and defense

  5. Soviet Military Power: An Assessment of the Threat (United States)


    the US or its allies with a nuclear attack on the leadership. training, and morale, factor into the analysis . Soviet Union, As the 1950s ended, however...Defense Coun- parative analysis of US and Soviet military capabilities cil and the Warsaw Pact are, of course, shrouded in across the spectrum of conflict... FOFA ) as part of an overall defensive naval operations against NATO’s Central Region. As strategy which recognizes the importance of second with all

  6. Digitization of Nuclear Explosion Seismograms from the Former Soviet Union (United States)


    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0089 TR-2015-0089 DIGITIZATION OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSION SEISMOGRAMS FROM THE FORMER SOVIET UNION Paul G. Richards...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Digitization of Nuclear Explosion Seismograms from the Former Soviet Union 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-12-C-0206 5b...These signals, including thousands recorded at regional distances from nuclear explosions in Eurasia, have been scanned, digitized , and

  7. The Tenth Period of Soviet Third World Policy (United States)


    Mexican foreign minister, Bernardo Sepulveda Amor, received a lavish reception in Moscow in early May 1987 and was received personally by Gorbachev, at...consular delegation arrived in Jerusalem in July.23 20See interview with Sepulveda , Izvestiya, March 22, 1987. 21William R. Long, "Shevardnadze to Begin...fuller account of Soviet-Argentine trade, see Aldo Cesar Vacs, "Soviet Policy Toward Argentina and the Southern Cone," The Annals of the American Academy


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko


    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of historical retrospective of integrationprocesses in former Soviet Union, ways and opportunities for furtherdevelopment thereof.The authors make a study of the problems of development and functioningof Eurasian cooperation, the effectiveness of interaction with certain states,analyze the reasons of failures, emphasize the achievements results ofcooperation, point out the opportunities for integration processes betweendifferent CIS and provide practical recommendations for effectiveness thereof in former Soviet Union.

  9. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates in pol...... in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shaulov


    Full Text Available Soviet literary criticism, especially in the first decades after the 1917 Revolution, was quite biased in its treatment of Dostoevsky and his works. The reasons for this bias lie both inside and outside the sphere of political ideology. We suggest that there exists a genetic link between some Soviet readings of Dostoevsky and a number of interpretations made in the author's lifetime. Also analysed are the attempts to 'domesticate' Dostoevsky and adapt his works to drastically different cultural conditions and political norms. It is indicative that this adaptation has always passed the stage of mythologizing the writer and his works. This mythologization paradoxically became a convergence point for Soviet (Lunacharsky, anti-Soviet (Berdyayev and purely philosophical (Bakhtin readings of Dostoevsky. Ultimately, the central Dostoevsky myth in post-revolutionary Russia was a version of Romantic mythology often directly expressed in comparing Dostoevsky with Prometheus. We also look at the negative readings of Dostoevsky, which construed the author as a certain mythological antagonist of the proletariat as the collective messiah. Such readings (exemplified in our article by Pereverzev's and Livshits' point at the ultimate limit of ethical assessment of Dostoevsky from the standpoint of rational secular humanism and the Soviet humanitarian thought as its version. Dostoevsky's artistic practice incorporates this tradition within the intranovel dialogue as just one of the voices and demonstrates its ethical insufficiency, which in its turn provokes the mixed reaction of 'appropriation' and 'rejection' from both Soviet thinkers and their contemporary heirs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajoraite, Alma


    Full Text Available The Soviet occupation and their ideology brought to Lithuania a new poster quality. The paper analyzes the problem of posters propaganda and manipulation, the inheritance of the not traditional documents and their inventory. The goal of this paper is to analyze the soviet posters in Lithuania in 1940–1953.The principal problems of this paper are to research the formation and the domination of the posters in Lithuania: which role they had in the politics. The paper also analyzes the soviet posters impact on farming and their influence to the society.To sum up, the new trend of art appeared in 1940 in Lithuania, which had the principal goal to propagate the soviet ideology in all the political and social spheres. The goal of the soviet posters as the media of information was to provide the distorted view of the reality. The soviet posters had dominated in Lithuania in 1940–1953. This period had left a very interesting and rich heritage. It is the importatant part of the cultural and historical heritage.

  12. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann


    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  13. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  14. Phenotypic covariance at species’ borders (United States)


    Background Understanding the evolution of species limits is important in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite its likely importance in the evolution of these limits, little is known about phenotypic covariance in geographically marginal populations, and the degree to which it constrains, or facilitates, responses to selection. We investigated phenotypic covariance in morphological traits at species’ borders by comparing phenotypic covariance matrices (P), including the degree of shared structure, the distribution of strengths of pair-wise correlations between traits, the degree of morphological integration of traits, and the ranks of matricies, between central and marginal populations of three species-pairs of coral reef fishes. Results Greater structural differences in P were observed between populations close to range margins and conspecific populations toward range centres, than between pairs of conspecific populations that were both more centrally located within their ranges. Approximately 80% of all pair-wise trait correlations within populations were greater in the north, but these differences were unrelated to the position of the sampled population with respect to the geographic range of the species. Conclusions Neither the degree of morphological integration, nor ranks of P, indicated greater evolutionary constraint at range edges. Characteristics of P observed here provide no support for constraint contributing to the formation of these species’ borders, but may instead reflect structural change in P caused by selection or drift, and their potential to evolve in the future. PMID:23714580

  15. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov


    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurt


    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of postmodernism on education and investigates the main effects ofpostmodern philosophy on social sciences. It is clearly stated in the article that the effects of postmodernism cannotonly be limited to art and logically it should have an effect on education as well. This effect, described as thepostmodern educational approach, emphasizes that the rudiments of popular culture should also be incorporated toeducation and therefore to curricula. Postmodern educational approach also accentuates the significance of allowing‘others’ who have never possessed the opportunity to articulate their standpoints and desires to have a say in their owneducation. The concrete reflections of postmodern educational approach can be perceived in Critical and BorderPedagogies theorized by Henry A. Giroux. Critical pedagogy aspires to educate individuals who do not acceptoccurrences as they are and are critical of the knowledge they construct all through their education. Only by this waythese individuals will be able to discover their own voices, improve their civilian consciousness by taking risks, andacquire the ability of staying alive and functioning within social relations, traditions and experiences. Border pedagogyis as well a product of postmodern philosophy. It defends counter-text as opposed to the official ones offered, presentedand imposed to learners. Counter-consciousness represents the critical analysis of how the present reads the past andhow the past informs the present. This practice of course results in the re-evaluation of memories and traditions.Memories are the stories which were forgotten or ignored with the support of preserved traditions. It is thereforeconcluded in the article that postmodern educational approach is the critical examination towards dismissing the mainnarratives and discourses which manipulate and configure the curriculum of schools. It is the struggle exercisedtowards the recognition

  17. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara


    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  18. Bauhäusler on the Franco-Spanish Border


    Laura Martínez de Guereñu


    This article focuses on the travels of Bauhaus masters and instructors and on the transport of Bauhaus products to Spain in 1929, when the Franco-Spanish border was still culturally permeable. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer introduced their tubular-steel furniture in the Spanish market. Mies and Lilly Reich designed the interiors of all German industrial sections at the Barcelona International Exposition, where the Bauhaus sent objects from its carpentry, metal, and weaving worksh...

  19. A polyhedral approach to computing border bases

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Gábor


    Border bases can be considered to be the natural extension of Gr\\"obner bases that have several advantages. Unfortunately, to date the classical border basis algorithm relies on (degree-compatible) term orderings and implicitly on reduced Gr\\"obner bases. We adapt the classical border basis algorithm to allow for calculating border bases for arbitrary degree-compatible order ideals, which is \\emph{independent} from term orderings. Moreover, the algorithm also supports calculating degree-compatible order ideals with \\emph{preference} on contained elements, even though finding a preferred order ideal is NP-hard. Effectively we retain degree-compatibility only to successively extend our computation degree-by-degree. The adaptation is based on our polyhedral characterization: order ideals that support a border basis correspond one-to-one to integral points of the order ideal polytope. This establishes a crucial connection between the ideal and the combinatorial structure of the associated factor spaces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu


    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  1. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.


    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  2. Friends to the End: "The New York Times" and the Soviet Union, 1943-1945. (United States)

    Dewey, Donald O.

    From 1939 to 1943 the United States went from a period of total opposition to the Soviets to a gradual acceptance of its new ally. The "New York Times" editorial page shared in this trend: moving cautiously from complete rejection of the Soviets to acceptance of the Russian people, next the Red Army, and finally the Soviet government. The "Times"…

  3. Changing Conceptions of Development Assistance to Education in the International Discourse on Post-Soviet Countries (United States)

    Takala, Tuomas; Piattoeva, Nelli


    The fall of the socialist system, and of the Soviet Union as a political entity, created a situation where external assistance to the transformation of the ex-Soviet countries into market economies and multi-party democracies became a domain of "development assistance". While the attractiveness of the ex-Soviet countries to the providers of…

  4. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos (United States)

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.


    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  5. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva


    Full Text Available The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as the 7th Division of Soviet army. In the propaganda work among German POWs, the priority was given on shaping the ideological and political views of former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. As the result of the analysis of sources the author comes to conclusion that POWs of the Second World War period became the object of testing means and methods of ideological struggle of warring nations.

  6. Reflections through a Soviet Window. Rural Governance and Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dekel-Chen


    Full Text Available This paper probes the crossroads between the realities of life and the ambitions of the early Soviet regime in one corner of its vast countryside. As a test case, I explore the meeting of organized agrarianization of Jews from the former Pale of Settlement with the mechanisms of Soviet power in the geographical and national peripheries of what was seen until recently as a monolithic, centralized state. Barring the last four years before Operation Barbarossa, a non-governmental, non-denominational American-Jewish philanthropy (the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee [Joint or Agro-Joint] funded and administered much of this resettlement project in southern Ukraine and Crimea. As shall be seen, the arrival of an effective foreign organization not only shaped the lives of its client-colonists, but the very character of Soviet rural authority through the emergence of hybrid models of governance in the countryside.

  7. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs (United States)

    Ahmed, Selina


    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  8. Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet theoretical physics in the thirties

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelik, Gennady E


    Gennady E. Gorelik and Victor Ya. Frenkel Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet Theoretical Physics in the Thirties Translated by Valentina M. Levina The short life and tragic death of Matvei Petrovich Bronstein (1906-1938) may be seen as a symbol of the man's time and his country. One of the most remarkable features of Soviet history was the impressive advance of its physical sciences against the brutal and violent background of totalitarianism. Soviet advances in nuclear and space technology form an important part of world history. These achievements had their roots in the 1930s, when Bronstein's generation entered science. Among his friends were the famous physicists Lev Landau and George Gamow. Bronstein worked in the vast field of theoretical physics, ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics and from relativistic quantum theory to cosmology. His pioneering work on quantizing gravitation goes beyond the history of physics, because today the quantum theory of gravitation occupies a special place in fun...

  9. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch


    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  10. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding. (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia


    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  11. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli


    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  12. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov


    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  13. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per (History of Science and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail:


    of special interest as a case that can shed light on how SNF handling evolved in a militaristic and totalitarian political setting. The emergence of 'glasnost' and 'perestroika' in the late 1980s and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, moreover, provides us with a unique opportunity to study the effects of revolutionary political changes on SNF decisionmaking. Conceptually, it is important to point out that managing SNF is not the same as managing radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is a broader concept than SNF, as it includes a variety of waste that does not stem from nuclear fuel. Conversely, not all SNF is regarded as a form of radioactive waste. On the contrary, SNF has often been regarded as a valuable resource, forming the basis for the production of new nuclear fuel, nuclear weapons and other civil and military products. Looking at the SNF discourse in history, there is a remarkable interpretative flexibility when it comes to defining SNF as a 'useful resource' or a form of 'waste'

  14. The Last Workshop on Theoretical Physics in the Soviet Union

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz


    Twenty years ago, in October 1990, I found myself attending a workshop on Theoretical Physics in Alushta (Ukraine) intended only for Soviet physicists. That trip to the USSR/CCCP as well as the preceding months at CERN were highly surrealistic with plenty of adventures, crucial events and anecdotes, the most amazing one involving Niels Bohr. A few months later the Soviet Union collapsed. In this article I make a personal account on the happenings of 1990, with emphasis on my incursions into the European communist world during, and also before, that year.

  15. Soviet Theater Nuclear Capabilities: The European Nuclear Balance in Transition, (United States)


    womernn~laryI -Ir ofOnSovie1 Union ; NATO sms ame all system amlgiied to So Europea theater. Fiendh in lS. w*4ii not a part of NATO, have bean...confidence, and an increase in NATO’s vulnerabilities. In response, the author contends that if the Soviet Union is unwilling to negotiate a serious...senior researcher at the Strategic Studies Institute. SUMMARY Over the last decade and a half, the Soviet Union has been methodically improving the

  16. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols


    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  17. The Unlikely Success of the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front During World War II (United States)


    The Evacuation of Soviet Industry in the Wake of ‘Barbarossa’: A Key to Soviet Victory. The Journal for Slavic Studies , 8, No. 2 (June1995): 388. 3...of ‘Barbarossa’: A Key to Soviet Victory. The Journal for Slavic Studies , 8, No. 2 (June1995): 389-90. 8 A. Piloakov, Eshelony idut na vostok: iz...Wake of ‘Barbarossa’: A Key to Soviet Victory. The Journal for Slavic Studies , 8, No. 2 (June1995): 390-1. 9 F. Kagan, “The Evacuation of Soviet

  18. Organizing for Coalition Warfare: The Role of East European Warsaw Pact Forces in Soviet Military Planning (United States)


    Central Army Group (NATO) CFM Committee of Foreign Ministers (WTO) C-in-C Commander-in-Chief CP Communist Party CPSU Communist Party of the Soviet Union CWC...8217 4,100 832 2 Navies Major and minor warships 300W Few’ < 1 SOURCES: D. . Ustinov, Marshal of the Soviet Union , Chairman of the Main Editorial Commission...of Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG) disions with Northern Tier East Europea divisions Soviet armored division, Category 1 1.00 Soviet MD

  19. Elastic and hegemonic borders and discourse theory: Mexico’s southern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marengo Camacho


    Full Text Available Discourse theory is useful for understanding the creation of borders, whether material or imaginary. This paper addresses three situations on Mexico’s southern border between 2000 and 2015 in which elements of discourse theory may be applied. The outcomes were the following: 1 correlations may be made between the elements of the discourse moving from the northern to the southern border, but not in the opposite direction; 2 the process of securitising the discourse about migrants is continuous, and new securitising elements are regularly added; 3 an “elastic borders” phenomenon exists, where borders extend or retract, thereby creating new border regions; and 4 discourses around the southern border are constructed with more pejorative elements than the northern, despite the fact that crime rates are higher in the north.

  20. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin


    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  1. Possible role of root border cells in detection and avoidance of aluminum toxicity. (United States)

    Miyasaka, S C; Hawes, M C


    Root border cells are living cells that surround root apices of most plant species and are involved in production of root exudates. We tested predictions of the hypothesis that they participate in detection and avoidance of aluminum (Al) toxicity by comparing responses of two snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars (cv Dade and cv Romano) known to differ in Al resistance at the whole-root level. Root border cells of these cultivars were killed by excess Al in agarose gels or in simple salt solutions. Percent viability of Al-sensitive cv Romano border cells exposed in situ for 96 h to 200 microM total Al in an agarose gel was significantly less than that of cv Dade border cells; similarly, relative viability of harvested cv Romano border cells was significantly less than that of cv Dade cells after 24 h in 25 microM total Al in a simple salt solution. These results indicate that Al-resistance mechanisms that operate at the level of whole roots also operate at the cellular level in border cells. Al induced a thicker mucilage layer around detached border cells of both cultivars. Cultivar Dade border cells produced a thicker mucilage layer in response to 25 microM Al compared with that of cv Romano cells after 8 h of treatment and this phenomenon preceded that of observed cultivar differences in relative cell viability. Release of an Al-binding mucilage by border cells could play a role in protecting root tips from Al-induced cellular damage.

  2. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns (United States)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei


    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  3. Corruption, Insecurity and Border control in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    In Niger, building more border offices has proven insufficient to tackle the spread of smuggling, drug trade and circulation of jihadists in the Sahel. Instead, everyday petty corruption makes border control ineffective and, while apparently benign, this has severe consequences in contexts...... of volatile security. In this policy brief, Eric Hahonou argues that without complementary activities, the multiplication of border offices could even expand opportunities for corruption. Instead, security policy should focus on creating a culture of effectiveness including systematic and regular staff...... meetings, reporting, law implementation and sanctions as well as new modalities to reward border guards and other state agents. Because corruption is, to a large extent, embedded in the social norms of the users of public service in Niger, sensitisation among transporters, passengers and traders is crucial....

  4. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David


    The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users in Kazakhs......The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users...... in Kazakhstan shows that the naming of a state-controlled space on the Internet, through the use of country code top-level domain names (ccTLDs), does in fact matter to the average user. People are aware of national boundary traversals as they navigate the Internet. Respondents in our study identified...

  5. Integrated care across borders: possibilities and complexities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Evers


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this practice paper is to describe and analyse the possibilities and complexities of integrated health care across borders. First, we portray an ideal scenario for this type of care with a case of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and living in the Dutch-Belgian frontier area. It shows how cross border care enhances continuity of care/tailor-made care and the other way around. Secondly, based on different literature sources, we describe actual regulations on health care across borders. We show that these regulations can be a major hindrance to integrated care. This raises questions on the scope and content of policies directed at both cross border and integrated care.

  6. Networks communities within and across borders

    CERN Document Server

    Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo


    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...

  7. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen


    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  8. A puzzle concerning borders and identities: towards a typology of attitudes to the Irish border


    Todd, Jennifer


    State borders are typically held to shape categories of national identification. This paper explores this interrelationship in the light of empirical evidence drawn from research in the Irish border area. It begins by outlining a schema, drawn from the literature, which posits a movement from contestation of borders, to institutionalisation, to transgression. It then proceeds to show how this is reflected in scholarly and political interpretations of attitudes towards the Irish borde...



    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov


    The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s). The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet powe...

  10. Function of root border cells in plant health: pioneers in the rhizosphere. (United States)

    Hawes, M C; Brigham, L A; Wen, F; Woo, H H; Zhu, Y


    Plants dedicate a large amount of energy to the regulated production of living cells programmed to separate from roots into the external environment. This unusual process may be worth the cost because it enables the plant to dictate which species will share its ecological niche. For example, border cells can rapidly attract and stimulate growth in some microorganisms and repel and inhibit the growth of others. Such specificity may provide a way to control the dynamics of adjacent microbial populations in the soil to foster beneficial associations and inhibit pathogenic invasion. Plant genes controlling the delivery of border cells and the expression of their unique properties provide tools to genetically engineer plants with altered border cell quality and quantity. Such variants are being used to test the hypothesis that the function of border cells is to protect plant health by controlling the ecology of the root system.

  11. The Soviet Banya and the Mass Production of Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Vujosevic


    Full Text Available Around 1930, during the era of the First Five-Year Plan, the Russian urban bathhouse, or 'banya', was collectivized and placed under state care. How did changes in the architecture of the model 'banyas' of Moscow and Leningrad articulate the changing role of the 'banya' as a site of pleasure, cure, and socialization? How do the aesthetics, ethics, and choreography of bathing in this period illustrate the relationship between the state and the urban proletariat as mediated by modern technology? How did they reflect the vision of the Communist society as a mechanized universe?

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production. (United States)


    necessary to raise the court cost for the plaintiff and establish a large amount of monetary compensation for the accused for emotional damage that is...are not subject to emotions and have no interests. Incidentally, the quality of the work, the quality of the output, and the success of state...listened to them without interrupting the other person and then with sarcasm and brilliance he would tear apart all the arguments. He was an inveterate

  13. Impact of Wind Power Generation on European Cross-Border Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik


    analysis is employed in order to reduce the problem dimension. Then, nonlinear relationships between forecast wind power production as well as spot price in Germany, by far the largest wind power producer in Europe, and power flows are modeled using local polynomial regression. We find that both forecast......A statistical analysis is performed in order to investigate the relationship between wind power production and cross-border power transmission in Europe. A dataset including physical hourly cross-border power exchanges between European countries as dependent variables is used. Principal component...... wind power production and spot price in Germany have substantial nonlinear effects on power transmission on a European scale....

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 14, September 1987. (United States)


    34several cartfuls of sticks on his back." Landowners "looked at their peas- ants as strictly their private property" and, considering serfdom sacred...Dokumenty i Materialy" [Visit to the Soviet Union by Prime Minis- ter of the Republic of India Radjiv Gandhi , 2-4 July 1987. Documents and Materials

  15. A New Look at an Old Foe - The Soviet Officer. (United States)


    graduation.4 3 in addition to the professional schools, all officers are required to continue their political education . This aspect of an officer’s...Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1985), p. 85. 2. Ibid. 3. Brenda Atkinson, Political Education in the Army of the Soviet Union (Fort Belvoir, Va.: United

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 12, December 1987 (United States)


    tissue. The results of experiments on animals carried out during flights of Kosmos series biosatellites made it possible to efficiently schedule...ration are a good means of protecting against accelera- tions after weightlessness. Soviet biosatellites of the Kosmos series are making a noticeable...tal research aboard Kosmos biosatellites, Interkosmos satellites and manned orbiting stations. Working together with specialists of the GDR

  17. Soviet Operational Intelligence in the Kursk Operation (July 1943) (United States)


    inaccurate information -6- from abroad, produced yet another operational disaster in the Donbas and around Khar’kov.3 This experience left a legacy of...operations, - 33 - which had been interrupted by German counterattacks in February and March 1943 in the Donbas region. The Soviet solution to this

  18. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander


    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  19. Acculturation and Communicative Mobility Among Former Soviet Nationalities. (United States)

    Haarmann, Harald; Holman, Eugene


    Discusses the strategies that the former Soviet states are evolving to balance the interests of dominant ethnic groups with those of linguistic minorities while constructing a national identity, highlighting language policy in action and focusing on acculturation processes and geographic mobility among groups. A case study of Estonia is also…

  20. Education in the Soviet Union: Has "Perestroika" Met Its Match? (United States)

    Read, Gerald Howard


    In late 1988, the Soviet Union's "perestroika" entered a new stage aimed at developing human resources and fostering democratic processes. Educators' and parents' discontent with the centralized bureaucracy and rigid educational administrative structure will press officials to formulate a comprehensive new education theory to achieve 19…




  2. Soviet Reactions to Follow-On-To-Lance (FOTL) (United States)


    Edward Snow, Jr., "Soviet Propaganda and the Neutron Bomb Decision," Political Communication and Persuasion, 1 (No. 3, 1981), 257-68 an---.e i...the Neutron Bomb Decision." Political Communication and Persuasion No. 3 1981. Talbot, Strobe. "Buildup and Breakdown." Foreign Affairs, America and

  3. Perceptual and Cognitive Development of Preschoolers in Soviet Psychology. (United States)

    Pick, Herbert L., Jr.


    Experiments on the cognitive and perceptual development of three- to seven-year-old Soviet children are described, especially the work of L. A. Venger, N. N. Poddyakov, and D. B. El'Konin. Visual-action and visual-image thinking are illustrated. (GDC)

  4. Educational Revolution from Above: Thatcher's Britain and Gorbachev's Soviet Union. (United States)

    McLean, Martin; Voskresenskaya, Natalia


    Educational revolutions in Great Britain and the former Soviet Union were initiated by charismatic national leaders, looked back to more "authentic" conditions where teachers and students dominated formal education, encouraged parent participation, and sought to destroy bureaucratic intermediary agencies in the educational decision-making process.…

  5. Managing U.S.-Soviet Relations in the 1990s (United States)


    1970s and 1980s. Near or actual stagnation also meant widening of the technological gap with the West, continued inability to diversify Soviet exports...reaction, if only because the economics of reaction would be unlikely to yield a substantial narrowing of the technological gap with the West. As in

  6. Economic Leverage on the Soviet Union in the 1980s. (United States)


    administration’s position is certainly not mercantilist in the sense of striving for a larger U.S. esport surplus; the concern is with the efect of Soviet...and the value of hard currency esports that would have to be forgone to the @I*" wsrere I dIne ’away from export sectors. (An Padma Duda pointed

  7. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.


    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  8. Soviet Computers and Cybernetics: Shortcomings and Military Applications. (United States)


    Soviet Military Decision Making, Thesis (Delivered to the Ninth National Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , October...Thesis. Ninth NatLonal Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies , October 1978. Myagi, A. "Problemi khozrascheta VTs

  9. Themes for Teaching the Geography of the Soviet Union. (United States)

    Hausladen, Gary


    Provides a framework for introducing students to the geography of the Soviet Union. Identifies basic themes for a geographical approach, including (1) advantages and disadvantages of size and location; (2) spatial impact of political economy; (3) paradox of economic development; (4) challenges of governing a multinational state; (5) integration…

  10. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past? (United States)

    Sidorovitch, Anna


    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  11. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees (United States)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.


    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  12. Three Historical Subcultures in Post-Soviet Russia (United States)

    Sogrin, V. V.


    The teaching and public dissemination of Russian history in post-Soviet historiography has been shaped by a variety of approaches, including state-sponsored interpretations, views expressed in mass culture, and the work of academic historians. In this article, the author employs a specific method of differentiation to distinguish his present…

  13. The 1947 Soviet famine and the entitlement approach to famines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.J.


    This paper presents an analysis of the economics of the 1947 Soviet famine, using data from recently declassified archives. It is argued that the best estimate that can currently be given of the number of excess deaths in the range 1.0-1.5 million. The demographic loss was greater. During the famine

  14. Planning by Decree: The Soviet Language Policy in Central Asia. (United States)

    Shorish, M. Mobin


    Identifies some ideological and political forces contributing to the Soviet dilemma caused by requiring a standardized proletarian culture (and language) amidst a multilingual and multicultural socialist society. Also focuses on linguistic planning, language change, and language development in the Central Asian part of the USSR. (SL)

  15. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation]. (United States)

    Ham Chande, R


    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  16. Is the shaman indeed risen in post-Soviet Siberia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Sundström


    Full Text Available In his exhaustive study of ‘shamanism’ among the Altaic peoples in Southern Siberia, the renowned Soviet ethnographer Leonid P. Potapov contends that ‘under the present conditions there are no remnants or survivals of Shamanism as such left in Altai’. What remains are legends and reminiscences, but these can no longer be told by people with personal experiences of Altaic ‘shamans’ and their rituals. According to Potapov, modern socialist culture has changed the minds of the Altaic peoples to the degree that they are now a materialistically thinking people, and ‘shamanism’ has completely disappeared. In addition, he contends that there are no prospects of its return after the deathblow dealt by Soviet anti-religious repression in the 1930s ‘shamanic’ rituals were forbidden and ritual paraphernalia such as drums and costumes were expropriated by the authorities. Considering that Potapov in his study follows Altaic ‘shamanism’ through 1500 years, depicting it as a ‘religion’ and ‘theology’ which stayed more or less intact over the centuries, his statement seems more like a pious hope based on the Soviet vision of a society liberated from superstition, religion, and spiritual exploitation. Potapov himself delineates Altaic ‘shamanism’s’ development from a ‘state religion’to a ‘folk religion’. From this perspective it might seem remarkable that ‘shamanism’ should not have survived 70 years of atheist repression, missionary work and the Soviet transformation of society. Already by the time Potapov’s book was published, during the very last months of the existence of the Soviet Union, there had, in fact, appeared a number of persons claiming to be ‘shamans’, with an ancestry dating from the time of ‘shamans’ of the first half of the twentieth century. These individuals were also part of organisations and movements promoting the revival of ‘shamanism’ in the autonomous Altai Republic. In

  17. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III


    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  18. The Integration of Science, Higher Education and Economy as a Factor of Recovery and Modernization of Soviet National Economy During the First Post-WWII Decades (Case Study of the Activity of the Siberian Physical-Technical Institute (1945-1954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Sorokin


    Full Text Available The article traces the development of the research activity of the largest scientific institute of the Eastern part of Russia – Siberian Physical-Technical Institute in the period between 1945 and 1954. The author analyzes the main currents of integration of science, education and production, characterize SPhTI’s area of researches. Particular importance is given to the meaning of the integration of science, education and industry as a factor of recovery and modernization of Soviet national economy. This article is meant for all interested in history of Soviet higher education and on the whole in the Soviet period of Russian history.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Dogo


    Full Text Available In her Paper, Dunja Dogo aims to show how one specific historical character as well as radical revolu­tionist, S. G. Nechaev, was treated in «Дворец кре­пость» («The Palace and the Fortress», 1924—the first Soviet full-length fictional films on Russian Populists and directed by A. V. Ivanovsky for the Leningrad State cinematographic production «Sevzapkino». The screenplay of this film was written by the prominent historian and man of letters P. E. Shchiogolev, who made use of newly available archival material for the purpose of featuring history for the masses.One key question shall guide Dogo's Paper: in this cinematic text, through which narrative devices were the stories of the recent revolutionary past re­organised and reinterpreted in relation to the projects predominating in the Soviet post-re­v­o­lu­ti­o­nary present?

  20. Regional connectivity and coastal expansion: differentiating pre-border and post-border vectors for the invasive tunicate Styela clava. (United States)

    Goldstien, S J; Schiel, D R; Gemmell, N J


    The dramatic increase in marine bio-invasions, particularly of non-indigenous ascidians, has highlighted the vulnerability of marine ecosystems and the productive sectors that rely on them. A critical issue in managing invasive species is determining the relative roles of ongoing introductions, versus the local movement of propagules from established source populations. Styela clava (Herdman, 1882), the Asian clubbed tunicate, once restricted to the Pacific shores of Asia and Russia, is now abundant throughout the northern and southern hemispheres and has had significant economic impact in at least one site of incursion. In 2005 S. clava was identified in New Zealand. The recent introduction of this species, coupled with its restricted distribution, provided an ideal model to compare and contrast the introduction and expansion process. In this study, the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) gene and 11 microsatellite markers were used to test the regional genetic structure and diversity of 318 S. clava individuals from 10 populations within New Zealand. Both markers showed significant differentiation between the northern and southern populations, indicative of minimal pre- or post-border connectivity. Additional statistics further support pre- and post-border differentiation among Port and Harbour populations (i.e. marinas and aquaculture farms). We conclude that New Zealand receives multiple introductions, and that the primary vector for pre-border incursions and post-border spread is most likely the extensive influx of recreational vessels that enter northern marinas independent of the Port. This is a timely reminder of the potential for hull-fouling organisms to expand their range as climates change and open new pathways.

  1. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd


    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation to coopera...

  2. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control (United States)


    Police xii SBI Secure Border Initiative SES Senior Executive Service SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica TSA Transportation Security...also been involvement from the Mexican law enforcement agency, Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) on the southwest border (CBP, 2009; ICE, 2009, p. 5

  3. 合作运动中的苏维埃政府和民众的选择-以中央苏区消费合作为例%Cooperative Movement in the Soviet Government and the Public Choice --the Example of the Central Soviet Consumption Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Working together to solve social problems is an important goal of the Chinese Communist Party in the Soviet period. Central Soviet Area in the development of cooperative movement in the process established consumer, food, production, credit, using other forms of cooperation. In many types of cooperation, the Soviet government preferred consumer cooperations, and as the main body of the cooperative movement. However, despite the Soviet consumer cooperations are the people most in need, but they are in the de- velopment of consumer cooperations. At first it was not positive. With the Soviet government strong promotion and consumer cooperations bringing tangible benefits to the people, their attitude gradually became active with the formation of consumer cooperations in the Central Soviet Area climax. It showed the Central Soviet of the cooperative movement is not spontaneous movement of people, but the production of Soviet government as the leadershio.%利用合作解决社会问题是中国共产党在苏区时期的重要目标。中央苏区在发展合作运动的过程中,建立了消费、粮食、生产、信用、利用等多种形式的合作社,在诸多类型的合作社中,苏区政府优先选择了消费合作社,并作为合作运动的主体。尽管消费合作社是苏区民众最需要的,在发展消费合作社时,民众起初并不积极;随着苏区政府强力推进和消费合作社给民众带来了实实在在的利益,民众的态度逐渐变得积极,形成了中央苏区消费合作社发展的高潮。中央苏区的合作运动不是民众的自发运动,而是苏区政府主导下的产物。

  4. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce


    Arkadiusz Kawa; Wojciech Zdrenka


    Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce...

  5. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.


    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  6. Formation and separation of root border cells. (United States)

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté


    Plant roots release a large number of border cells into the rhizosphere, which are believed to play a key role in root development and health. The formation and loss of these cells from the root cap region is a developmentally regulated process that is also controlled by phytohormones and environmental factors. The separation of border cells involves the complete dissociation of individual cells from each other and from root tissue. This process requires the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes that solubilize the cell wall connections between cells. We present and discuss the solubilization process with an emphasis on pectin-degrading enzymes as well as the recently discovered root border-like cells of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002


    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...

  8. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan


    elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration........ This paper discusses the reasons behind this mismatch which means that the concept still rests upon and draws policy suggestions based on a thin evidence base. Directions for further research are pointed out by underlining the need for holistic empirical validations of the concept together with the need...

  9. Food Safety Hazards and Microbiological Zoonoses in European Meat Imports Detected in Border Inspection in the Period 2008-2013. (United States)

    Jansen, W; Grabowski, N; Gerulat, B; Klein, G


    Microbiological contaminations and other food safety hazards are omnipresent within the European Union (EU) and a considerable risk for consumers, particularly in imported meat and meat products. The number of rejections at external EU borders has been increasing in recent years. Official authorities in each member state are therefore obliged to notify border rejections of food and animal feed due to a direct or indirect risk to human or animal health. This study explored the trends and temporal and spatial distribution of notifications on food safety hazards between January 2008 and December 2013 with a special emphasis on microbiological zoonoses in meat and meat products including poultry at border checks resulting from the rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF). Results indicated that border rejection notifications are increasing exponentially, frequently due to Salmonella in poultry and shiga-toxin-producing E. coli in meat and meat products.

  10. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.


    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  11. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten


    In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature......-space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion...

  12. A CART extension using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten


    In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature......-space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion...

  13. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet


    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  14. Cross-border Innovation Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    Introduction Increase in innovation cooperation of firms is related to; faster product life cycles, complexity of technology and sharing of risk Choice between different partners is based on significance of the knowledge they offer and cost savings (Balderboes et al. 2004). Choosing a foreign...... partner can give access to knowledge not available in the region but comes with a cost (Boschma, 2005). Choice of partner is influenced by firm characteristics, industry and location of the firm...

  15. Alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas. (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Rodriguez, Lori A


    This paper examines alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and in non-border areas. Interviews were conducted among Mexican Americans in the border regions of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N=1307). Non-border respondents were interviewed primarily in Houston and Los Angeles (N=1288) as part of the Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Both the border and HABLAS surveys employed multistage cluster sample designs (response rates were 67% and 76%, respectively). In the bivariate analysis, there were no significant differences between border and non-border areas in the proportion of those with one or more social problem. In non-border areas, the prevalence of alcohol problems did not differ significantly by age. However, along the border the prevalence of alcohol problems was significantly different across age groups, with 18 to 29year old men and women having the highest prevalence. The final models showed no residence effect on problem likelihood. Drinking was strongly associated with problems. Although young border residents had higher problem prevalence rates than older residents, the logistic regression models showed no effect of border residence on the likelihood of problems, indicating that problems are due to alcohol consumption, not the border environment. The border, however, did appear to influence more drinking among young people. Regardless of residence, alcohol treatment and preventive interventions tailored to Mexican Americans are essential and special attention should be focused on younger individuals near the border.

  16. Information Transfer in Soviet Science and Engineering: A Study of Documentary Channels (United States)


    Advancement of Slavic Studies , Columbus, Ohio, 1976, and Yakov M. Rabkin, ’"Naukovedeniye’: The Study of Scientific Research in the Soviet Union...tekhnicheskaya informatsiya, Series 1, No. 10, 1977. Lubrano, Linda L., Soviet Sociology of Science, American Association for the Advancement of Slavic ... Studies , Columbus, Ohio, 1976. Lubrano, Linda L., and Susan Gross Solomon (eds.), The Social Context of Soviet Science, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo

  17. Legal transformations of business disputes in post-soviet Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kyselova


    Full Text Available This paper explores mobilisation of law by Ukrainian business people at the pre-litigation stage of disputes, when litigation has not as yet been commenced but a legal claim has been formalised through the pretenziya - a formal letter to the delinquent party written to a special template. In Soviet times the pretenziya was by law an obligatory prerequisite before filing a claim in a commercial court (arbitrazh, but nowadays it is optional. Having analysed the spectrum of legal and extra-legal functions of pretenziya, this paper concludes that due to its adaptability, pretenziya proved capable of operating both as a token of the public order – the ‘shadow of the law’ - and as part of a private contract enforcement. Pretenziya in a voluntary form has not only survived in market-oriented economy but even opened up new avenues for the creative use of legal forms in post-Soviet business.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Игоревна Шкредова


    Full Text Available In this article the author analyzes the features of functioning of the Soviet ideologeme in the literature of emigrants in details. Much attention is given to the term "ideologeme", its characteristics and features. Criteria of differentiation of the terms "Sovietism" and "ideologeme" are considered. There is the analysis of changes in perception of ideological expressions into space and time by examples of passages from the literature of the emigrant writers.The received results of research will spark the interest of the authors of dictionaries and teachers in development of programs for studying lexicon, stylistics and the culture of speech.DOI:

  19. The Attentive Public for Soviet Science and Technology (United States)


    CiAUNiz PLh A A LU 2o iSis, o. 2- - Gerald Holton , Daniel Yankelovich and others dispute the validity of the concept of attentiveness which, they argue... James R. Millar, Principal Investigator. The analysis and interpretations In this study are those of the author, not necessarily of the sponsors...National Council of Soviet and East European Research to the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaiqn, James R. Millar, Principal Investiqator. The analysis

  20. The Social Representations of Soviet period in Latvian biographical discourse


    Mārtiņš Kaprāns


    The PhD thesis demonstrates how the Latvian public biographical discourse has framed and transformed the understanding of Soviet period over the last 20 years and how these processes were influenced by autobiographers’ collective identities. The conceptual framework of the study is derived from the social representations theory that was founded at the beginning of the 1960s by French social psychologist Serge Moscovici. The empirical part of the thesis is based on three dataset...

  1. The Soviet Withdrawal from Eastern Europe: A Move in Crisis (United States)


    was forced to pay an injured private RlO,000 to compensate for such bullying . His story is probably typical: a sergeant beat the young serviceman... suicides ! 3 3 This remarkable number surely indicates Just how difficult conditions of service are for the Soviet citizen performing conscripted duty in the... teenagers of draft and predraft age last year. Some 44,000 of this grouo will join the army in 1990.46 The recruits of 1990 are said to be less

  2. Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation (United States)


    Background and Area of Origin of Refugees 226 InlemationaJ Relief Cart in Pakistan and Iran 226 Some Local Tensions 229 Conclusion...American, in the reference library of the Cur- riculum and Textbook Office of the Education Ministry also were carted away and presumably destroyed.51...interpretation of history also was unique. India’s Prime Minister Indira Gandhi expressed it as follows: Whtn the Soviet troops came they were weaomed

  3. The Officer’s Handbook; A Soviet View (United States)


    the frontier between the USSR and Norway. 25 October—Liberation of the Norwegian town of Kirkenes by Soviet Forces. 29 October 1944-13 February 1945...maintaining order and discipline, strictly observe the rules of military etiquette and saluting, and always be properly, cleanly, and neatly dressed. The...Military Etiquette and Conduct of Servicemen 40. All servicemen in addressing one another are obliged to be courteous and restrained. On service

  4. The ASPERA experiment on the Soviet Phobos spacecraft. (United States)

    Lundin, R.; Hultqvist, B.; Olsen, S.; Pellinen, R.; Liede, I.; Zakharov, A.; Dubinin, E.; Pissarenko, N.

    ASPERA (Automatic Space Plasma Experiment with a Rotating Analyzer) is a three-dimensional plasma composition experiment for the Soviet mission to Mars and its moon Phobos in 1988 - 1989. Two spacecraft are targeted for a close flyby over the Phobos surface. ASPERA measures the composition of ions with energies 0.5 eV/e - 25 keV/e and electrons with energies 1 eV - 50 keV. The properties of the experiment are described in detail.

  5. Area Handbook Series: Soviet Union: A Country Study (United States)


    the Soviet Union. London: Allen and Unwin, 1980. Bronfenbrenner , Urie . Two Worlds of Childhood: U.S. and U.S.S.R. New York: Russell Sage Foundation...Foreign Policy. Moscow: Progress, 1975. Ra’anan, Uri , and Charles M. Perry (eds.). The USSR Today and Tomorrow. Lexington, Massachusetts: Heath, 1987...Ra’anan, Uri , Francis Fukuyama, Mark Falcoff, Sam C. Sarke- sian, and Richard H. Shultz, Jr. Third World Marxist-Leninist Re- gimes: Strengths

  6. Soviet Counterinsurgency Operations in Afghanistan (1979-1988) (United States)


    be maximized and if the enemy refuses to fight, target the economic lifelines of the society. Resistance must be crushed quickly, since long...mujahidin and the Afghan people. However, the Russians failed to recognize that technology is no substitute for strategy and will. In fact, maximizing ...cultural exchanges, summer camps in the U.S.S.R. for Afghan youth, and prizes to Afghans for art, literature, and poetry .41 The Soviets encountered

  7. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl (United States)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior

  8. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles (United States)

    Spearman, M. Leroy


    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  9. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan


    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  10. The border population effects of EU integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; Oumer, Abdella


    Border cities or regions are in theory more affected by the EU integration process than more central locations as it more drastically influences their transaction costs and market potential. We find a positive empirical effect of EU enlargement as measured by the growth in population share along the

  11. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.


    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermo

  12. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.


    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  13. Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border (United States)


    Source of Narco Syndicates Rising Firepower,” Narcosphere, March 29, 2009. Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border Congressional Research...50 years old, of museum interest, or derive a substantial amount of their value from the fact that they are novel , rare, bizarre, or because they

  14. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto


    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax ev...

  15. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent, a...

  16. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  17. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna


    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  18. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas (United States)


    arbitration . This means that states do not necessarily view their borders as matters of existential import, but at most as subjects that may be... ethical , political, civil rights, privacy, and legal implications, the technology is rapidly becoming available to digitally tag, biometrically identify

  19. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo;


    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate the...

  20. Partnership and Cooperation Models in Cross-Border Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Slusarciuc


    Full Text Available The paper aims at exploring the partnership and cooperation issues in cross-border areas in European Union. The theoretical part of the papers is defining the role of the borders in the framework of the European Union enlarged and it includes a review of forms of cooperation and principles applicable in cross-border cooperation considered by the Council of Europe and the European Union or the Association of European Border Regions. Further there are identified in the specific literature important challenges and key points that are marking the cross-border partnerships. The last part of the paper is focusing on some examples of cross-border cooperation, making distinction between two main situations: the border between Member States and the borders between EU and neighbouring countries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov


    Full Text Available The article looks at a number of marginal concepts of Freudian theory and at his articles on Dostoevsky that revealed the 'cultural unconscious' of the founder of psychoanalysis. We point at the similarities between Freud's cultural unconscious – with its negativity against of the “Christian God”, historical Russia and Russian people – and the Soviet type of culture, especially in its early period (1920s – early 1930s. The ardor of Freudo-Marxism typical for the highest levels of Soviet power and humanitarian studies lay in their striving towards a complete restructuring of Russian culture, state and man itself. Russian literature is interpreted on the basis of anti-Christian tenets and a set of criteria absolutely alien to Russian literature. We show that this mental attitude has not been overcome by post-Soviet literary criticism. Our article is a call on scholars of Russian literature to get rid of their Freudian complexes in the treatment of Russian culture.

  2. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha


    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  3. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  4. BorderTourism--- IntheCaseofShaTauKokTourismexploitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fangzhou


    The diversity is the foundation of tourism.Border regions witness the change of the history, and retain valuable heritages and unique vil ages. Because of the common border protection regulations, natural beauties and cultural landscapes can be also wel preserved, leaving abundant and precious tourism resources for younger generations.Combining with the sha tau kok border region and the surrounding site,analysis of the feasibility of border tourism and chal enges.

  5. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta


    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  6. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina


    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  7. 75 FR 60643 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement (United States)


    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Parts 831, 841, and 842 RIN 3206-AL69 Customs and Border Protection... available to customs and border protection officers under the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the... Act provides early retirement and enhanced annuity benefits for customs and border protection...

  8. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland...

  9. 75 FR 266 - Customs and Border Protection's Bond Program (United States)


    ...] [FR Doc No: E9-30920] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Parts 101, 113, and 133 [Docket No. USCBP-2006-0013] RIN 1505-AB54 Customs and Border Protection's Bond Program AGENCIES: Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  10. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  11. The Dutch-French Language Border in Belgium. (United States)

    Willemyns, Roland


    Describes language border fluctuations in Belgium as far as its Dutch-French portion is concerned. Examines the status and function of the language border in Belgium and of actual border fluctuations. Discusses two problem areas in detail: the "Voerstreek, and the Brussels suburban region. Language shift and language change through erosion in…

  12. Imagining and Imaging Borders: Understanding Borderlands for Global Sustainability (United States)

    Konrad, V.


    Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, self determination and regionalization around the world. We need to know more about how: self determination fuels secessions and new borders; borders result from complex rather than simple policy and governance issues; borders depend on the political clout of borderland communities; market and migration flows impact borders; and borders are always in motion. The paper shows how these organizing principles underlie the basic themes of border governance, flows, culture, history, security and sustainability. Finally, the paper offers two brief illustrations of border imaging to link this presentation to the following discussion of the workshop.

  13. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013 (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  14. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Economic Affairs (United States)


    is completely inadequate for carrying out commodity production operations and par- ticularly so if they intend to cultivate grain or breed dairy...2.8; onions—5; garlic—20; cabbage—6; dill—10; pickles— 10; fresh tomatoes—9; carrots—4; apples—13-15; pears—12; tangerines —20. SMOLENSK. Beef—20

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs (United States)


    spearean sonnet . A page of a technical text translated into Russian from a European language is valued at 8 to 10 rubles. In Western countries...October 1988 73 EAST EUROPE It is this system, it seems to us, which is the model of the developed commodity production socialist economy. The

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs (United States)


    Cooperation is not trading in natural milk purchased from the rural population at contractual prices, curds, sour cream, or other dairy products. But...ioned and homemade soup, for the second course—fish baked in dough , Belorussian-style liver, breadsticks, rolls and dumplings with aromatic herbs

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs. (United States)


    10 percent. Quitting the villages in search of work and a piece of bread , the peasants, along with ruined craftsmen and small tradesmen, are settling...more effectively than the modernist parties and the ulem parties" (p 83). This conclusion seems quite productive. Such a point of view in conducting

  18. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces CentER DP 2010-096)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.


    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other, d

  19. Cross-Border Mergers and Market Segmentation (Replaces TILEC DP 2010-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.


    This paper shows that cross-border mergers are more likely to occur in industries which serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. The product price rises in the market where an acquisition is made but falls in the other, d

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Military Affairs. (United States)


    34Follow-on Forces Attack" ( FOFA ) in the West and "Operational Manoeuvre Groups" (OMG) in the East. These are destabilizing if, as must be assumed, their...subunits, improvement of the living conditions of mili- tary personnel and members of their families, and in the final analysis , the further increase in... analysis of production, and timely supply of construction projects with necessary materials. Under today’s conditions it is senseless to create a

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs. (United States)


    Language Law Prompts Arabic, Persian , Tajik Textbooks [KOMMUNIST TADZHIKISTANA, 8 Aug 89] 58 Young Lithuanians Judge Komsomol [R. Alishauskene...34Corvus Corone [The Carrion Crow]" by Nikolay Vereshagin, in which, in satiric form, with fantasy interspersions, the author investigates con... satiric novel "The Dismantling," and the jour- nal’s eighth issue is already in production with V. Kaverin’s "memoir novel," "Epilogue," presented

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs. (United States)


    century": the and that it is growing at the rate of 50,000 hectares aCentral year, and so on and so forth, until even a pill will not help Asia, the...contrast, production of chemical The Universal Cooperative is undertaking to supply its pills is rising. We are very much behind in the use of foreign...ate devices against conception- contraceptives . And this but an illustration of cultural backwardness in demo- will require the training of the

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs (United States)


    production. At the canning factory here 500 tons of fruit, 400 of vegetables and 300 of brown mushroom juice are processed each year. Each day the meat...and nuts... Yet the owners of the personal subsidiary farms sell potatoes, fresh, pickled and fermented vegeta- bles and fruits practically year...more fermented cabbage with fillers, soaked and frozen apples, pickled cucumbers and tomatoes. We must pro- cure more wild berries, mushrooms and

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs. (United States)


    Shchekin, a pensioner from.Lyskovo City, asks: Why is Article 12 of the International Pact of Civil and Political Rights and Article 13 of the General...go, but they could cut my pension , and quite considerably. And so he came here much later. There you have so to speak if you please a specific...scientific production association, Sistema . Specialists and managers of metrology services and scientists coordinated their actions in the creation and

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs (United States)


    remaining meat products are sold at coopera- tive prices. The shelves are not empty and there is a selection. They are happy about the abundance at... furiously in order to sell the tiles for more. A paradox? So to speak. These "surpluses" for one building alone grew into 800,000 rubles. Here you have... happy one. The car turnover is being accelerated extremely slowly. On the Transcaucasus (railroad chief Com. Blazhevskiy), the Kemerovo (Com. Valkov

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs. (United States)


    Transport Head on Organizational Needs [A. Gorskiy; NEFTYANIK No 5, May 88] 36 ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION VVER -440 Works Under Varying Pressures in the...raw material zones is anticipated. Special attention is being devoted to the establishment of small plants and shops directly in the kolkhozes and...processing work, with all of their products being shipped to processing enterprises as raw materials . And indeed even Marx wrote about the

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs (United States)


    republic is 24 percent below the average Union level. The consumption of whole milk products is 2-fold below the established nutritional requirement. At...tuberculosis, economic rheumatism , political shortsightedness, ideological fever and cadre illness but much more severe and hard to cure was the cancer...this chronic disease . When will order be instilled in the work of the bases and where are the shortcomings actually inadmissible? For over 3 months we

  8. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič


    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  9. Illicit economies and social order: the border area of Peru, Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam López


    Full Text Available In recent years, the border shared by Peru, Colombia and Brazil has become an enclave of drug production and trafficking for the international markets. It is a territory whose control is disputed by non-state actors and where state security forces suffer from severe material and transport limitations. This paper takes an ethnographic approach to explain the limitations of border security and the institutional challenges of controlling drug and wood trafficking in this context. It places the ideas of reproduction and social change at the centre of the discussion on drugs and borders, as key ways of thinking about the dynamics of growing and processing coca-derived drugs in the global South.

  10. Off-shoring and out-sourcing the borders of EUrope: Libya and EU border work in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.


    The article examines some of the novel ways in which the European Union carries out its ‘border-work’- border-work that stretches far beyond the external borders of the current Union. It highlights, in particular, the role of EUrope's neighbours in new strategies of securitisation, drawing attention

  11. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz


    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  12. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968 (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.


    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  13. Centronuclear myopathy in a Border collie dog. (United States)

    Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D


    A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie.

  14. “Creative Industries” Strategies in Soviet Lithuania: Packages of Mass Consumption Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Jaškūnienė


    Full Text Available The article explores the Soviet mechanism of including the creative potentials into formation of economical and ideological policy strategies. Research aims to examine, how mass media and culture theories of Walter Benjamin, Frankfurt school and British Culture studies reflect the situation of mass culture in Soviet system. Case study is based on Lithuanian package design of 1960–1970s.

  15. American and Soviet Adolescent Archetypal Heroes of the Cold War. Professional Paper. (United States)

    Herman, William E.

    This study explores the value-oriented behaviors associated with membership in prominent youth organizations in the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the Cold War. The archetypal heroic ideals and values of the Soviet Octoberists and Pioneers and the U.S. Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations were examined. Key political,…

  16. Education for Social Transformation: Soviet University Education Aid in the Cold War Capitalist World-System (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Charon Cardona, Euridice


    International education is seen as an effective form of soft power. This article reviews one of history's largest and most ambitious attempts to achieve global influence through university education, and to reshape the world--the Soviet university aid program, 1956-91. Drawing on existing research and Soviet archival materials, we lay out and…

  17. Hello, Lenin? Nostalgia On Post-Soviet Television In Russia And Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khinkulova, Kateryna


    abstractAfter the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Soviet television looked old-fashioned and seemed redundant, with the emerging post-Soviet televisual cultures turning their gazes to global sources of inspiration. The next decade affected Russia and Ukraine in very different ways. In Russia brief exp

  18. Soviet-Afghan War (December 1979 to September 1989): Success Leads to Failure (United States)


    cultivation.5 What the Soviet Union faced in Mghanistan follows Clausewitz’s theory almost verbatim . Soviet leadership did play directly into Clausewitz’s...enemy’s vulnerabilities-even with insurgents in distant theatres . However, skilful counterinsurgents can adapt at least as fast as insurgents

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 11, November 1987 (United States)


    militarism grew and developed in China. They firmly believed that Japan’s move toward Manchuria would lead sooner or later to a Japanese- Soviet war...plan.ŗ This decision was a harbin - ger of the economic blockade of the Soviet republic. The Entente countries followed the U.S. example by prohib

  20. Making a New and Pliable Professor: American and Soviet Transformations in German Universities, 1945-1990 (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia


    This article discusses the history of American and Soviet transformations in German universities during the period of the Cold War, 1945-1990. Both American and Soviet policies were resisted by the university community, particularly by the conservative German professoriate, in both parts of the divided Germany. The article shows how and why both…

  1. What did the study of the Soviet economy contribute to mainstream economics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ellman


    This paper is an overview of the contributions made by economic Sovietology to mainstream economics. The long debate about the universal applicability of mainstream economics is reconsidered in the light of Soviet experience. Information is provided on the contribution of the study of the Soviet eco

  2. Bauhäusler on the Franco-Spanish Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martínez de Guereñu


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the travels of Bauhaus masters and instructors and on the transport of Bauhaus products to Spain in 1929, when the Franco-Spanish border was still culturally permeable. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer introduced their tubular-steel furniture in the Spanish market. Mies and Lilly Reich designed the interiors of all German industrial sections at the Barcelona International Exposition, where the Bauhaus sent objects from its carpentry, metal, and weaving workshops. Josef and Anni Albers traveled to see the exhibition and then went to meet Vassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee, who spent over a month on holiday in the Côte Basque. Albers captured their trip in photo collages, Kandinsky registered his impressions in snapshots, while Klee wrote abundant correspondence and produced drawings. Focusing on the itineraries the Bauhäusler followed, along with the means by which they expressed their travel impressions, this article reveals the effect of travel in their later design attitudes and work. Significant cultural transfers between Germany and Spain took place in a critical moment of European history, suggesting that further developments of these learning experiences might have materialized later on both sides of the border, possibly even reaching across the Atlantic.

  3. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation


    Mourrain, B.; J. B. Lasserre; Laurent, Monique; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, Philippe


    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming. While the border basis algorithms of [17] are ecient and numerically stable for computing complex roots, algorithms based on moment matrices [12] allow the incorporation of additional polynomials, ...

  4. Effective Border Tax Adjustments for Export Promotion


    Glenn P. Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo


    In this paper, we address the administration issues associated with the most important border tax adjustments for export expansion. These relate to the refund of input tax credits under the VAT and the relief from customs duties on imported inputs used to produce exports. Such refunds in many developing countries are either not paid in a timely fashion or have been fraudulently overstated in the claims made by exporters. These become impediments that have frequently discouraged foreign invest...

  5. Deciphering the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to pathogen-derived elicitors. (United States)

    Plancot, Barbara; Santaella, Catherine; Jaber, Rim; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie Christine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Leprince, Jérôme; Gattin, Isabelle; Souc, Céline; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté


    Plant pathogens including fungi and bacteria cause many of the most serious crop diseases. The plant innate immune response is triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. To date, very little is known of MAMP-mediated responses in roots. Root border cells are cells that originate from root caps and are released individually into the rhizosphere. Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as "border-like cells." Whereas root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum) are clearly involved in defense against fungal pathogens, the function of border-like cells remains to be established. In this study, we have investigated the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. We found that both MAMPs triggered a rapid oxidative burst in root border-like cells of both species. The production of reactive oxygen species was accompanied by modifications in the cell wall distribution of extensin epitopes. Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that can be cross linked by hydrogen peroxide to enhance the mechanical strength of the cell wall. In addition, both MAMPs also caused deposition of callose, a well-known marker of MAMP-elicited defense. Furthermore, flagellin22 induced the overexpression of genes involved in the plant immune response in root border-like cells of Arabidopsis. Our findings demonstrate that root border-like cells of flax and Arabidopsis are able to perceive an elicitation and activate defense responses. We also show that cell wall extensin is involved in the innate immunity response of root border-like cells.

  6. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles


    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  7. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata


    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  8. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context. (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea


    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  9. Strength and weakness of the totalitarianism in Wartime Soviet Union


    Suprun, Mikhail


    Unlike all other countries of the Barents Area, Russia found itself in a very specific situation. At the beginning of the war it entered into the alliance with the Axis, while from 1941 it continued the war in the Anti-Hitler coalition. But the main distinctive feature of the wartime Russia was the transformation of its policy. Not a single state in the world history had reached such a degree of centralization as the Soviet Union did during the Second World War. Along with an extremely high d...

  10. Bibliographic Index of Soviet Military Books, 1960-1969. (United States)


    S1306. Golovin ,N.’. (Ir’ CIr. (Slava Soldiatskaya) Cavaliers lot) 2b(1): ARMED FORCES USSR: In the Great Patriotic War - 1969 of the Order of Glory...7000 82k. 66-04793 S1622. Questions of Strategy & Operational Art in Soviet Military Works 1917- 1940 . (Voprosy Strategii i Operativnogo Iskusstva v...Sovetskikh Voyennykh Trudakh 1917- 1940 ) Ed: M.V.Zakharov. Moscow, Voyenizdat, 1965. 768p. 6500 2r64k. 65-04869 S1623. Savkin,V.Ye. Tempo of Attack

  11. Bibliographic Index of Soviet Military Books, 1970-1974. (United States)


    70-05658AI C0141. Questions of Tactics in Soviet Military Works 1917- 1940 .(Vo- prosy Taktiki v Sovetskikh Voyennykh Trudakh 1917-40)Moscow,Voyenizdat...Yoshkar-Ola, Marknigoizdat,1971. 104+p. 5,000 13k. 71-06952 C0860. Grinchenko,I.T., Golovin ,N.M. Feat.(Podvig)Essays on Heroes of the Soy Union. Khar’kov...Moscow,Znaniye,1973. 95p. 65,000 35k. 73-06801 C1029. Grichenko,I.T., Golovin ,N.M. Feat, (Podvig)Essays on Heroes of the Soy Union. 2nd ed. Khar’kov

  12. Estimates of Peacetime Soviet Naval Intentions: An Assessment of Methods (United States)


    Moscow had embarked on a new naval policy "aimed at building up capabilities not only rfor nuclear (world) wars, but also for conventional (local) wars and... up to the present. In addition to this supposition that tv, Soviets have intentionally designed their fcrcen for traditionol diploqiatil power...given 4or SoVitte arshp v111ii .. a& 06tt" call Is ptoably -ie todat . tot Call priedits ago bettet thaae rei ctst In adition tb nob~re eaptft i t

  13. Initiative in Soviet Air Force Tactics and Decision Making. (United States)


    to operate with the GCI operators. The Jay Bird radar in 1970 gave Fishbed S""pilots a better picture of the fight. In 1971 the MiG-23 entered service...N.Y., Leites Nathan, edited by Derek Leebeart, edie bty. 9. Asher Lee,The Sovie Air Force, Gerald Duckworth and Co. , London, 1950. 10. Chernitskiy...Barbarossa to Stalingrad," in Lee, Asher , L Soviet AI_ and Rocket Forces, Praeger, NY, 1959. 53. Werth Alexander, R at War, 1941-1945, Berrie and

  14. Louis Aragon: (Re writing the Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela KIMYONGÜR


    Full Text Available At the time of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939, Louis Aragon was a member of the French Communist Party (PCF, a well known novelist and poet and a journalist. Whilst his writing career had undergone several notable transformations, not least that from surrealist to socialist realist, his political commitment to the left and, from 1927 to the PCF, remained steadfast for much of his life. Indeed, unlike the PCF’s interpretation of the Second World War, which underwent a number of s...

  15. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte


    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish...... of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life......-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts...

  16. Soviet Integration into the World Economy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988). (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Since coming to power, Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has undertaken an ambitious program to reform the Soviet economy. Perestroika touches every aspect of Soviet economic life, including relations with the international economy. Soviet specialists and international economists must find common ground so that they can successfully…

  17. Omaeluloolisus nullindatel / Estonian Life Writing of the 2000s as a Continuity Over the Post-Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus


    writing also emerged in the second half of the 1990s and early 2000s and is not immediately related to the “life writing boom” of the second half of the 2000s.Although the distinctive features of post-Soviet Estonian life writing did not emerge in the 2000s, the considerable increase in the publication of life writing works during that period has given rise to critical debates on its role and implications in (literary culture, as the borders and limits of literature where life writing has had an influence cannot be strictly defined.  The mapping and positioning processes of new emergent forms and practices of life writing and life writing as a realm with a strong affiliation not only with literature but also with history and cultural history is an on-going process where only the first markers have been delineated.

  18. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana


    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  19. Isolation of pure enantiomers of Toxaphene congeners via hydrochlorination and chlorination of Pinene and composition of Soviet polychloropinene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, V.; Trukhin, A.; Kruchkov, F.; Kiprianova, A.; Miltsov, S. [Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Kallenborn, R. [NILU, Kjeller (Norway)


    Toxaphene is an insecticidal mixture, produced by the controlled photochlorination of camphene1. In the USSR similar insecticide - Polychloropinene was produced by chlorination of {alpha}-pinene with AIBN (azobisisobutyronitrile) as initiator. Natural camphene occurs in different essential oils in (+)-form as well as (-)-form. Production of artificial camphene starts from natural {alpha}-pinene, which is also chiral. All noted types of camphene are used for toxaphene synthesis by different manufacturers. Some congeners in selected samples of technical Toxaphene were shown to have small deviations from racemic distribution. Nevertheless, there is no information about any enantiomerically pure congeners of toxaphene. The amount of Polychloropinene produced in the USSR is estimated to be 160 thousand tons, which is a significant contribution into the total global production. Unfortunately, there is no traceable sample of Soviet Polychloropinene available. In the present work we report on the preparation of artificial model Polychloropinene mixtures with different content of chlorine in an attempt to find the difference between Toxaphene and Soviet Polychloropinene. Another goal of our research project is to prepare pure enantiomers of important Toxaphene congeners, to establish their configuration and thus to provide more opportunities to enantiomerspecific environmental analysis of Toxaphene residues.

  20. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)


    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  1. Bordering Binarities and Cognitive Cartography: What on Earth Does Literature Have to do with Border Transactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Moi


    Full Text Available Although literature and poetry have numerous borders of their own,these are rarely assumed to have any significance for the world out-side the text itself. A number of reasons for this distinctive division certainly stem from the literary field itself. This paper intends to indicate the exclusivist stance of some theories of literature, and the inclucivist of others, before exploring the possibilities of bridging between borders in text and territory by reference to the life and literature of Oscar Wilde and a performative and imaginative analysis of Paul Muldoon's epigrammatic poem The Plot.

  2. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    as it constitute a rendezvous of traditional market-based efficiency logics and concerns over sovereignty. Moreover, the defence industry has been an institutional island still exhibiting all the national protectionist mechanisms that European integration mostly has done away with in other sectors. The paper...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...... foreign policy establishment and industrial-military complexes reluctant to cede control over a vital technology and production base - particular to neighbouring countries which in a not to distant past were rivals rather then partners. The latter will be linked to recent work on the nature and impacts...

  3. Analysis of the 1957-58 Soviet nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabalka, J.R.; Eyman, L.D.; Auerbach, S.I.


    The occurrence of a Soviet accident in the winter of 1957-58, involving the atmospheric release of reprocessed fission wastes (cooling time approximately 1-2 yrs.), appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the USSR radioecology literature. Due to the high population density in the affected region (Cheliabinsk Province in the highly industrialized Urals Region) and the reported level of /sup 90/Sr contamination , the event probably resulted in the evacuation and/or resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100-1000 km/sup 2/). The resulting contamination zone is estimated to have contained approximately 10/sup 6/ Ci of /sup 90/Sr (reference radionuclide); a relatively small fraction of the total may have been dispersed as an aerosol. Although a plausible explanation for the incident exists (i.e., use of now-obsolete waste storage-/sup 137/Cs isotope separation techniques), it is not yet possible, based on the limited information presently available, to completely dismiss this phenomenon as a purely historical event. It seems imperative that we have a complete explanation of the causes and consequences of this incident. Soviet experience gained in application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the rest of the world nuclear community.

  4. Soviet declaratory policy regarding the controllability of escalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prewitt, J.L.


    Three variables were examined for their affect on Soviet views regarding the controllability of escalation. The first was bureaucratic affiliation. It was hypothesized that individuals affiliated with groups which directly controlled weapons would be more likely to support the controllability of escalation than those who were members of groups which did not control weapons. This hypothesis could not be rejected. The second variable was a commentator's rank. It was hypothesized that rank would act in two ways: (1) ideas regarding controlled escalation would appear at lower ranks first; and (2) unique views would be produced by specialized ranks within groups. The rank hypothesis could not be rejected. Certain escalation themes appeared to be presented first by military and civilian writers before being presented by the political leadership. The third variable, image of the West, did not appear to function as theorized. It was hypothesized that hard images of the West would be associated with the rejection of controlled escalation, whereas soft images would be associated with positions suggesting that escalation was controlled through joint US-Soviet cooperation.

  5. A Summary History of Reusable Spaceplane Development in the Soviet Union (United States)

    Siddiqi, A. A.


    Beginning the early years of space advocacy in the 1920s, the Soviets proposed a large number of winged space vehicle concepts as part of broader work on space transportation systems. These designs left an important legacy that has remained unexamined. In the 1920s, theorists and publicists such as Konstantin Tsiolkovskiy and Fridrikh Tsander were the earliest proponents of spaceplane designs. These were followed in the 1930s by the first concrete projects for rocket-propelled aircraft designed by the young Sergey Korolev. During World War II, the Soviets experimented with a number of rocket-planes, not for spaceflight, but for battle purposes. Subsequently, in the postwar years, the Soviet government for the first time funded a research project into a hypersonic winged vehicle for delivery of nuclear weapons. In later years, in the 1960s, with the growth of the Soviet space program, Soviet designers fielded a multitude of spaceplane programs that all culminated in the development of the famous Buran space shuttle. In this article, I will summarize all known hypersonic and spaceplane proposals during the Soviet era. Despite considerable funding, none of the spaceplane designs ever reached operational status. My goal is to highlight the technological lineage of Soviet and Russian reusable spaceplane concepts in the hope of illuminating design approaches that have continued to influence approaches to developing space transportation systems.

  6. The new borders of Saint Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Delsahut


    Full Text Available In 1904 the Olympic and Anthropologic Games in Saint Louis, Missouri, were lost in the chaos of the Louisiana Purchase (Universal Exposition. Although the expected universal spirit, for a long time Saint Louis expressed racial prejudices of its personal. This paper shows up how Sport Sciences and growing up Anthropology acted together in sense of serving questioned causes like racial ranking and colonization right. They were important in improving a feeling of nation in North American that took in grant sport as part of its constitution. The Universal Exposition and Market of Saint Louis offered new possibilities in definition of technological, racial, geographic and corporal borders.

  7. Early seismicity of the Scottish Borders Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson


    Full Text Available This paper considers the seismicity of Southern Scotland and Northern England up to the year 1750. This area was formerly a border area between two states that eventually became politically united. Much of the area is uplands, and the seismicity is moderate to low. This makes for some problems in studying historical seismicity, yet the area provides a number of case studies of general interest in the field of historical seismology, including a rare case of being able to track down a «missing» earthquake.

  8. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance (United States)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis


    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  9. Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period (United States)

    Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.


    Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

  10. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifan, D.D.


    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  11. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.


    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  12. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena


    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  13. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu


    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... a tourist attraction in itself, which benefits the local economies on both sides of the border. However, this potential is not taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. The article, thus, concludes with suggestions for the tourism industry to develop its image and brand by integrating cross...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  14. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach. (United States)

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie


    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems.

  15. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia


    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  16. Electricity without borders - The need for cross-border transmission investment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martínez-Anido, C.


    An increase in cross-border electricity flows is foreseen in Europe in the coming decades due to large-scale penetration of renewable energy, the electrical integration of the Euro-Mediterranean region, the electrification of transport, and possible shifts in electricity generation dispatc

  17. Border Cracks: Approaching Border Security From a Complexity Theory and Systems Perspective (United States)


    33 o. Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) ..................................34 viii p. Federal Police (PF...SIU Sensitive Information Unit SOD Special Operations Division SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica SWB Southwest Border Initiative 34 o. Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) SSP is part of the Federal Civil Service whose aim is

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Political Affairs Soviet Commentary on the 19th Party Conference. (United States)


    tific-Production Association " Venta " I. Tumas, painter at the Vilnius City Construction Repair Trust; and V. Zhu- kovskiy, milling machine...general director of the Scientific- Production Association " Venta ," began his statement by replying to a question from the audience about the harm

  19. [Diet for the first expedition of Soviet climbers to Mount Everest]. (United States)

    Belakovskiĭ, M S; Voskoboĭnikov, V A; Guliaev, V N; Zakharenko, T S; Senkevich, Iu A


    Biomedical requirements for the diets to be used by the Soviet mountaineers during their Everest expedition have been determined, employing the experience of Soviet mountaineers who have ascended the highest summits in this country, dietary data accumulated by the mountaineers who have conquered the Himalaya Mountains and the Karakoram Range, as well as current concepts of human physiology and biochemistry in highlands. This paper presents the major nutritional parameters of the diets and the arrangement of meals. The Soviet mountaineers were on the whole happy with the diets and showed no disorders in the health state, gastrointestinal system or digestive function that can be of nutritional origin.

  20. First Philosophy in the Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Rossvaer


    Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.

  1. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico (United States)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.


    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  2. Multi-TSO cross border balancing mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, Maria Luisa; Moreno, Laura; Fuente, Jose Ignacio de la; Junco, Paula; Arenillas, Jorge [Red Electrica de Espana (REE) S.A.U., Madrid (Spain). Operation Markets Dept.; Pereira, Pedro [REN - Servicos, S.A., Lisbon (Portugal). Gabinete Mercado e Liquidacoes; Chabanne, Colas [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Markets Dept.; Apoyan, Lalake; Barbieri, Galileo [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Cross-Border Market Design


    The balancing market integration has been highlighted as a necessary step to reach the European Union goal for the development of an effective, competitive single market for electricity across Europe. In this paper it is described the work done by RTE, REE and REN regarding the design of a non-discriminatory, efficient and reliable multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism at regional level, extendible to other control areas. The implementation of this multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism will aim at increasing the operational security, enhancing the Liquidity and Competition of balancing markets, facilitating the integration of energy produced by Renewable Energy Sources while optimizing the use of Interconnection capacities. With this mechanism, the three TSOs will be able to exchange to each other balancing energy through the available interconnection capacities after the last intraday market sessions. This mechanism will be based on a common IT platform where TSOs will share their available surplus of reserves and communicate their balancing needs. The available interconnection capacities will be taken into account in an automatic and centralized way. Two main options are investigated regarding the allocation method: on the one hand, the first come first served approach (FCFS), on the other hand, the ''social welfare'' optimization approach. (orig.)

  3. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-


    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  4. The Assessment Of Geographical Borders In Economic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowska Małgorzata


    Full Text Available The length of common border between two geographical units is frequently used as a basic weight in spatial analysis. The newest methodological propositions such as tests for hierarchical relations (Markowska et. al. 2014; Sokołowski et. al. 2013, regional spatial moving average and new spatial correlation coefficient (Markowska et. al. 2015 are using border lengths. In cited references new methods have been illustrated by analyses for EU NUTS2 regions. It is obvious that borders between regions belonging to different countries have different socio-economic impact than borders between regions lying in the same country. A new simple method for assesment the importance of borders is proposed in the paper. It is based on a chosen macroeconomic variable available at NUTS 2 level (e.g. GDP, infant mortality, Human Development Index. For neighboring regions bigger value is divided by smaller value giving the local importance of the given border. These measures of local border importance can be than average for borders within the same country and for borders for each pair of neighboring countries.

  5. Socio-economic impact of Trans-Siberian railway after the collapse of Soviet Union by integrated spatial data analysis (United States)

    Uchida, Seina; Takeuchi, Wataru; Hatoyama, Kiichiro; Mazurov, Yuri


    How Russian cities have stood up again after the collapse of Soviet Union will be discussed in this paper. In order to know how the cities has managed the difficult period after the change of social system, transition of urban area, population, and nighttime light is searched. Although Far East will not stop as one of the most important area with abundant resources, overpopulation in towns and depopulation in countryside is going on. By searching the present situation, this research also aims to predict the future of Far East and Russia. First of all, Landsat data from 1987 to 2015 is collected over Moscow, Vladivostok, Novosibirsk, Tynda, and Blagoveshchensk and urban area is calculated by land cover classification. Secondly, population and retail turnover data are collected from year books in Russia. Thirdly, gross regional product (GRP) is estimated by nighttime light images from DMSP-OLS and VIIRS DNB dataset. In addition, these data are compared and difference of development stage after the collapse of Soviet Union between the unstable era (1990s-2000) and development era (2000-) will be discussed. It is expected that these analysis will give us useful information about Russian strategy for the future.

  6. Tissue specific localization of root infection by fungal pathogens: role of root border cells. (United States)

    Gunawardena, Uvini; Hawes, Martha C


    When roots of pea seedlings were inoculated uniformly with spores of Nectria haematocca or other pea pathogenic fungi, more than 90% developed lesions in the region of elongation within 3 days. More mature regions of most roots as well as the tip showed no visible signs of infection. Yet, microscopic observation revealed that 'mantles,' comprised of fungal hyphae intermeshed with populations of border cells, covered the tips of most roots. After physical detachment of the mantle, the underlying tip of most roots was found to be free of infection. Mantle-covered root tips did not respond to invasion of their border cells by activation of known defense genes unless there was invasion of the tip itself, as revealed by the presence of a lesion. Concomitant with the activation of defense genes was the induction of a cell-wall degrading enzyme whose expression is a marker for renewed production of border cells. Mantle formation did not occur in response to nonpathogens. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that border cells serve as a host-specific 'decoy' that protects root meristems by inhibiting fungal infection of the root tip.

  7. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj


    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  8. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam


    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  9. Virtual Prototyping: Concept to Production (United States)


    Current congressional budget debates global environment. The following quotation vividly reflect the demise of the Soviet threat from the Secretary exists during the engineering design phase. clave used by United. Boeing modified the Accordingly, it is implementing a Production Examples of

  10. From Alaska to the Soviet Union through the Verkhoyansk ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Salva


    Full Text Available During the great Patriotic war on the territory of the Soviet Union in Eastern Siberia took place air route Alaska – Siberia (ALSIB which was distilled combat and transport aircraft, which were imported from the United States of America under lend-lease (from the English words "lend" to lend, to borrow and "lease" – lease. This article tells about those who were pushing, where distilled, as well as many pilots were killed on this track. In the work of the drawing shows the monument of the first cosmonaut of the world Yuri Gagarin, in whose honor was named Avenue in the city of Yakutsk, a memorial complex dedicated ferry route Alaska – Siberia and the American military aircraft Airacobra designed modern Yakut engineers and technicians for aviation and technical base of the air company "Sakha Avia".

  11. Bosnian and Soviet refugees' experiences with health care. (United States)

    Lipson, Juliene G; Weinstein, Harvey M; Gladstone, Eleanor A; Sarnoff, Rhonda H


    Studies of refugees in the United States rarely address health the first few years following resettlement in part because the refugees become subsumed under the foreign-born or immigrant category. A national study reaffirmed the so-called healthy immigrant effect, but fewer sick days and less physician use may actually reflect access problems, economic concerns, and health beliefs or practices that clash with American health care. Because statistics may mask differences in health and why people seek professional care, it is important to combine qualitative and quantitative approaches. This study examined health, illness, and health care use patterns of refugees in Northern California using a database analysis, a medical record review, and an ethnographic study of the Bosnian and former Soviet Union refugee communities. This article describes some ethnographic findings from participant observation, semistructured interviews, and focus groups, with an emphasis on people's experiences with health care, health risk behaviors, and self-care.

  12. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887 (United States)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)


    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  13. A Comparison of the Polish and Soviet Armaments Decisionmaking Systems. (United States)


    ii1i ist I-\\ at Ie t I kse, I) A. BeI-t Weeti Oti t’l abe 19)70 indl laIt t I ilSo t IeI i Idits t. r i a I Inili ii’s S Itid t 1In’ itI i tar tlepa...Defense), Konmnist vooruzhennykh sit, 1971, No. 4, p. 43. 39. Stankiewicz, Planowanie obronne, pp. 148ff, 172. In his memoirs , a high-ranking Soviet... memoirs in Voprosy istorii, 1968, No. 10, p. 114, as well as the memoirs themselves, pp. 116-123; and Voprosy istorii, 1969, No. 1, pp. 122-135; Sitek

  14. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN


    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  15. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.


    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  16. Theosophy and Revolution: Huntly Carter and the "New Spirit" in Early Soviet Theater (United States)

    Williams, Robert C.


    Examines the published works and private correspondence of the English drama critic Huntly Carter and concludes that his religious enthusiasm for early Soviet theatre was more a part of London theosophy in 1914 than the Moscow stage of 1923. (MH)

  17. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geological Provinces of the Former Soviet Union (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, center points of oil and gas fields, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in the Former Soviet Union. This compilation is...

  18. Arctic narrative semantics in Soviet History, Fiction and Art of the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Penskaja


    Full Text Available The paper traces the very different contours of Soviet discourses of Arctic in the Stalinists 1930s with their narrative transformation of Arctic space into integral part of national Soviet space. The goal is to see how the Arctic narrative developed and evolved throughout the last 30/40 years of the Soviet era. The research is based on analysis of 3000 literary texts, articles, memoirs and letters, published and archived. The results confirm the presence of ‘Arctic discourse’ in the Soviet society and is supported by various sources. The Arctic issue became permanent in cultural and political practices of the time in the late 1920s and had a series of climaxes in the 1930s–1940s. Its popularity peaked in the mid-1950s and then dropped dramatically. The cultural and literary background of such change is explored through the narrative definitions.

  19. Soviet Pedagogical Research: Classroom Studies: 1. Cognitive Theories of Development and Instruction. (United States)

    Gibson, Janice T.


    Soviet teaching experiments, based on the research of P. Ia. Galperin and of V. V. Davydov, are described, in which children are taught abstract concepts before they are provided with concrete examples. (GDC)

  20. The Role Of Ethics In Legal Education Of Post-Soviet Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Christopher R.


    Full Text Available The neglect of lawyer ethics in legal education, including in continuing legal education for lawyers and judges, is an enduring Soviet legacy in post-Soviet countries. Partially because of this neglect, many people in post-soviet countries do not trust lawyers. Their mistrust often is for good reason—too many lawyers are unethical. Yet, unethical lawyers do more than alienate others and cast the legal profession in disrepute. Unethical lawyers waste resources by unnecessarily prolonging disputes and inflaming antagonisms by provoking unjustifiable confrontations. Worse, they corrupt the legal system by bribing judges, suborning perjury, and using other illegal means to achieve their ends. Thus, they contribute to an all-too-common failure in post-Soviet countries—the failure to achieve the rule of law.

  1. Korsun-Shevchenkivs’ka Offensive of Soviet Troops (January — February 1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ramazanov


    Full Text Available The author considers one of the many battles of the Second World War, which had a direct bearing on the liberation of Ukraine from German invaders. Analyzes the planning and preparation by the Soviet command Korsun-Shevchenkivs’ka Operation Ukeraine on the Right Bank. Events this operation unfolded mainly in the region of the Dnieper near Kaniv. Consider in detail the conduct of the Soviet offensive and the counterattack of the German command, which sought to rescue the encircled troops. The data of the Soviet and German historians regarding the loss of the German forces during the military operation. The author concludes that, due to implementation of Korsun-Shevchenkivs’ka operations for the Soviet army has opened up new opportunities to further advance and the final liberation of Ukraine from Nazi invaders.

  2. Big Sochi in soviet historiography of the stagnation period (1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Kulikov


    Full Text Available The article examines native historiographical heritage of the Stagnation Period (1970-s, in which have found their reflection the changes, occurred in Sochi, shown as the unique soviet resort.

  3. Particular Qualities of Soviet Information Policy according Chornobyl Accident: Source Study Aspects of the Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Makhno


    Full Text Available The article identifies the main groups of historical sources for a comprehensive study of Soviet information policy with respect to the Chernobyl accident. Determine their informational potential, deals with the methods of source analysis.

  4. Mutations in Soviet public health science: post-Lysenko medical genetics, 1969-1991. (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne


    This paper traces the integration of human genetics with Soviet public health science after the Lysenko era. For nearly three decades, USSR biology pursued its own version of anti-bourgeois, Soviet 'creative Darwinism', departing from western, post-WWII scientific developments. After Lysenko was suspended, research niches of immunology, biophysics and mutation research formed the basis of new departments at the Institute of Medical Genetics, which was founded in 1969 as part of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Focussing on early research activities and collaborations at the institute, I show how the concept of mutagenesis, a pivotal issue during the Cold War, became mobilized from Drosophila genetics to human heredity and to society as a whole. This mode of scaling up and down through population studies shaped not only Soviet human biology and genetics; it also brought about changes in clinical practice and public health as well as in the monitoring and regulation of mutagenic agents in the environment.

  5. Soviet-U.S. Summit: Science Accords Open the Way to Joint Projects (United States)

    Holden, Constance


    Summarizes the agreements between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on cooperation in a number of scientific and technical fields signed during the 1972 Moscow summit meetings. (AL)





    It stands to reason that at the early stage of independence the five republics in the Central Asian region-Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan-previously closely linked to the Soviet economic and political systems, faced a number of challenges, most of which were inherited from the Czarist-Soviet regimes. Coping with the challenges posed by the transition period required foreign support, and all the republics, except Turkmenistan, have been engaged in active coope...

  7. Soviet Readiness for War: Assessing one of the Major Sources of East-West Instability (United States)


    Douglas MacEachin, Director of Soviet Analysis , Central Intelli- gence Agency; Mr. John J. Bird, Chief of Regional Issues Group, Central...wartime readiness. They also lead directly to development of strategies such as Follow-On Forces Attack ( FOFA ), which is directed at disrupting...activities that are essential before they can consider conducting their "counter offensive." Mr. MacEachin, Di- rector of Soviet Analysis , Central

  8. Land grabbing in Eastern Europe: global food security and land governance in post - Soviet Eurasia


    Visser, Oane; Spoor, Max


    While ‘land grabbing’ in Africa by China, and other populous, high-income Asian countries such as South Korea got quite some attention, land grabbing in post-Soviet Eurasia has gone largely unnoticed. However, as this paper shows, recently also in the latter region foreign state and private companies are accumulating vast expanses of farm land. The paper discusses the factors which make post-Soviet Eurasia such an attractive area for international investment, with arguably much more potential...

  9. Magazine “Studenchesky Meridian”: transformation of publishing type in Soviet period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumova Julia Alexandrovna


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the transformation of the type of publication of one of the oldest national federal student magazines in the Soviet period. The problem of finding the editorship of “Studenchesky Meridian” of optimal typological model, the evolution of its topical complex in the difficult conditions of functioning of the Soviet journalism, forms and methods of interaction with the young audience are the main aspects covered in this material.

  10. The Bear and the Foxes Understanding Soviet Policy in the Warsaw Pact. (United States)


    regards to the Warsaw Pact is thus defined in terms of a socialist utopia which, though not fully operational, will nevertheless be realized. This in...blackmail" or to raise the spectre of "mass destruction" when the Soviet Union had attained a somewhat more substantial nuclear capability. 9 Only in the...ideology. If the Soviets tend to think in terms of a Socialist utopia based on dialectic principles without regard for the stark, often harsh reality of


    Physical Review Letters in October 1964, was preceded in the Soviet literature by the works of G. A. Askar’yan of the Lebedev Institute and V. I. Talanov of the Scientific-Research Radiophysics Institute at Gor’kiy State University, which were published in June 1962 and 1964, respectively. Since that time Soviet researchers have contributed some 15 papers on various aspects of the self-focusing of optical beams. Significant research on the self-trapping of optical

  12. The Evolution of Soviet State and Religion Interrelation (1920s – Early 1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Zhanbosinova


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the relationship between cults and the Soviet system. The author touches upon the complex and often tragic period of total escalation of forced pressure on members of religious cults. The author focuses on the legal foundations of the Soviet anti-religious policy, and highlights the issues of anti-religious state structures, revealing its repressive aim to abolish religion.

  13. Everyday Nation-Building In The Post-Soviet Space. Methodological Reflections.



    This article presents a methodological approach to the study of nation-building in everyday life in the post-Soviet region. Although bottom-up and informal mechanisms of creating identity have been acknowledged in the literature and methodology of nationalism studies, they have seldom been applied to studies in the post-Soviet countries. This article discusses the strengths and limitations of such an approach, using the example of two studies – on consumption and national identity in Ukraine ...

  14. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 2, February 1987. (United States)


    Hungary, the GDR, Poland, the USSR and the CSSR took part in the symposium. Opening the symposium, Prof N. Gritsenko , doctor of economic sciences...UNION/POLITICAL AFFAIRS (UPA). The following Soviet journals will be added to those which are,already issued in separate series: EKO: ECONOMICS S...copyright owner. SOVIET UNION WORLD ECONOMY & INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS No 2, FEBRUARY 1987 [Except where indicated otherwise in the table of

  15. U.S. Leadership Perceptions of the Soviet Problem Since 1945. (United States)


    the Soviets of America’s peaceful intentions. At the Bretton Woods Conference of that same year, Morgenthau and Hull worked to secure Soviet adherence...sufficiently subtle, sufficiently pliable , to adjust them- selves to constant change in the interests and power of the various countries involved.5 While most...of the regime’s ability to insulate Russia from external influences. In addition, he believed that even if it proved easier to foster change in the

  16. The coordination of care across borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    -savings, improved quality of care, avoidance of unnecessary tests, improved work efficiency, reduced waiting times and improvement in the overall efficiency of the healthcare system. Although benefits exists, healthcare organizations have experienced difficulties attaining them and overall adoption of e...... with implementing a new system, and uncertainty that the technology may actually reduce overall costs. The coordination of care across boundaries presents a plethora of issues that need to be tackled from a policy, legal, practical research perspective. This thesis attempts to address pressing issues...... with a particular focus on the implications health information exchange for the purposes of coordinating care will have on both the patient and healthcare professionals on three levels: international, national and institutional level. The findings of this thesis imply that in order for cross-border health...

  17. Obtaining the borders of urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura


    The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders. The method is based on the density of street crossings around a single seed point associated to the urban area of interest. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.

  18. [Crossing borders. The motivation of extreme sportsmen]. (United States)

    Opaschowski, H W


    In his article "Crossing borders -- the motivation of extreme sportsmen" the author gets systematically to the bottom of the question of why extreme sportsmen voluntarily take risks and endanger themselves. Within the scope of a representative sampling 217 extreme sportsmen -- from the fields of mountain biking, trekking and free climbing, canoyning, river rafting and deep sea diving, paragliding, parachuting, bungee jumping and survival training -- give information about their personal motives. What fascinates them? The attraction of risk? The search for sensation? Or the drop out of everyday life? And what comes afterwards? Does in the end the whole life become an extreme sport? Fact is: they live extremely, because they want to move beyond well-trodden paths. To escape the boredom of everyday life they are searching for the kick, the thrill, the no-limit experience. It's about calculated risk between altitude flight and deep sea adventure.

  19. Usability in Public Services and Border Control (United States)

    Pirelli, Giuliano

    The paper starts with a brief overview of the scale of disability and associated challenges and puts them in the context of the public policy on disability. It then analyses the usability challenges in public services and border control, including the issues of accessibility, safety and communication. These need to be addressed in future policy proposals, to provide the best assistance by new technologies to elderly people and people with disabilities, avoiding creating new barriers due to incorrect or incomplete initial conception. With increasing flux of novel security technology in mass transportation systems, and particularly the use of biometric identification in airports, the challenge of usability is recognized. This paper analyses these issues in the context of users with disability in an idealized process of Simplifying Passenger Travel (SPT).

  20. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster


    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  1. Editorial: Human rights at the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Molland


    Full Text Available It is with great honour that I introduce the second issue of the Anti-Trafficking Review (ATR. The first issue received an overwhelming response and has placed the journal at the forefront of rigorous analysis and debate relating to human trafficking and human rights. It raised the topic of accountability in anti-trafficking. This issue hopes to further strengthen the ATR’s position as a global, reputable journal on human trafficking. Strengthening the quality of research, analysis, and reflexivity in the trafficking sector is much needed, and I echo Anne Gallagher’s observation as guest editor of the first issue that standards in anti-trafficking research tend to be less rigorous than in other fields of study. My aim as a guest editor is to contribute to addressing this shortfall by bringing together a set of diverse and insightful articles focussing on the nexus of borders and human rights. It is also my hope that this issue will work towards narrowing the divide between practitioners and academics in anti-trafficking. This is reflected in the varied range of contributors. The last few years have witnessed a significant increase in publishing relating to human trafficking worldwide. However, there is limited measured debate and appraisal of this literature within the anti-trafficking sector. For this reason we have decided to include a book review as a way of highlighting recent major publications. The question of borders, migration control, trafficking and human rights raise contested and controversial questions. The editorial team has attempted to include different perspectives, reflected in the debate section in particular. Needless to say, all papers have been subject to double blind peer review.

  2. Cross-border firing and injury patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nital Gupta


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cross-border firing are increasingly being common in the modern era. The injuries resulting from these low intensity conflicts are a source of anxiety among treating physicians and their respective governments. The provisions are required to minimise the suffering of the victims viz. Mode of injuries, mortality patterns, adequacy of treatment at pre-hospital and tertiary care hospital and provisions to decrease morbidity and mortality for the people living in these areas. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in GMCH, Jammu who suffered injuries due to cross border firing in the month of October, 2014. 68 patients were reported in the causality wing. All the patients were referred from level 2 trauma centre. There were 51 males and 17 females out of which 5 were children. The cause of injury, involvement of organ system, cause of mortality and morbidity and loopholes in prehospital management were identified. Results: Sharpnel were the most common cause of injury followed by indirect trauma. The common cause of mortality was abdominal and thoracic injuries. There were 4 deaths at hospital 2 of which were brought dead and 2 died during the course of treatment. There were twenty patients with extremity injuries, fourteen with chest trauma, eleven with abdomen including parineal injuries, three with head injuries, eight with ENT injuries, three with eye injuries and nine with splinters in the back out of which two were in the spinal canal. Conclusion: Prehospital stabilisation, early transport, in-transit resuscitation, immediate surgery if required and implementation of triage model and ATLS protocol has been the key to reduce mortality and morbidity.

  3. Cross-border mobility, unfamiliarity and development policy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, B.; Velde, M. van der


    In this special issue, we seek to explore experiences, performances and effects of both “unfamiliarity” and “familiarity” across a diversity of inner and outer borders of the European Union. In EU integration discourse, cross-border unfamiliarity is usually considered to obstruct international mobil

  4. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: General notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 641 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, (19 U.S.C. 1641) and the U.S. Customs...

  5. 76 FR 50883 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 159 RIN 1515-AD67 (formerly RIN 1505-AC21) Courtesy Notice of Liquidation AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... of the Code of Federal Regulations (``CFR'') pertaining to the method by which U.S. Customs...

  6. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR...

  7. 77 FR 59206 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Foreign Assembler's Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-day... November 26, 2012, to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to U.S....

  8. The Maritime and Border Regions of Western Europe. (United States)

    Corner, Trevor


    Discusses the diversity of languages in Western Europe and the peripheralization of maritime and border languages through isolation, domination by other languages, and fragmentation of the culture. Discusses minority rights issues, suggesting rise in bilingual education implies border-language revival. 5 tables, 27 references. (TES)

  9. On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak M. V.


    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess the potential of cross-border region development on the basis of theoretical and methodological materials. The study examines the Kaliningrad region and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article is focused on the modelling of interindustry balance and export/import functions of border territories.

  10. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P


    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  11. Cross-border cooperation in the Fehmarn Belt Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document......Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document...

  12. 76 FR 41993 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement (United States)


    ... elements of those structures include: (1) A maximum entry age (to maintain a young and vigorous workforce... reference to a Federal occupational series--the Customs and Border Protection job series (GS- 1895). Two... border protection officer will be determined by looking back at the individual's employment history...

  13. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm


    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  14. Cross-border innovation cooperation: Partner selection, national borders and knowledge bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl


    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  15. The Western World in the Soviet cinema during the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov


    Full Text Available Cinema (thanks TV, video, DVD and internet technologies is an effective means of influence (including political, ideological to the audience. Therefore, the study of the transformation of the image of the Western world on the Soviet screen today is still important. Among the objectives of this study — the definition of the place and role of the theme of transformation of the image of the West in the feature Soviet cinema since 1946 (the start of the post-war ideological confrontation to 1991 (fall of the Soviet Union year; the study of political, ideological, social, and cultural context, the main stages of development, goals, objectives, concepts of this topic in the Soviet films; classification and comparative analysis of ideology, content models, modifications genres stereotypes of Soviet cinema, associated with the image of the Western world. The research methodology is based on key philosophical positions of the theory of dialogue between cultures (M. Bakhtin – V. Bibler. The study is based on substantial research approach (identifying the content of the process under study, taking into account the totality of its elements, the interaction between them, of their nature, refer to the facts, analysis and synthesis of theoretical opinions, etc., the historical approach — consideration of the particular historical development of the Western world topic Soviet cinema. An analysis of this kind of media texts is particularly important for media literacy education of future historians, culture and film art historians, sociologists, linguists, psychologists and educators.

  16. European Socio-cultural Change and Generational Diversity in the Post-Soviet Workforce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara APSALONE


    Full Text Available In times of increased retirement age and senior employees staying in workforce longer, successfully managing generational differences in the workforce forms an increasingly important challenge for modern day management. In many ways, generations may vary in attitudes and approaches, reflecting deeper differences in their core values. This might be particularly true for the Post-Soviet countries, where earlier generations were educated and started their careers within a completely different socio-economic system. In this study we explore differences in approaches towards values and attitudes amongst four generations of retail sector employees – starting from those, who were still to great extent exposed to pre-Soviet values, continuing with employees, who started their careers during the Soviet times, and ending with those, who were educated and entered the workforce after the collapse of the Soviet Union. 208 Latvian service employees were surveyed to assess their personal values and likelihood of dishonest and unethical behavior from four generations currently active in the workforce - Post-War generation, Early Gen X, Transition generation and Millennials. We confirmed that despite dual morality and ambiguous ethics in the Soviet Union, older generations reported higher likelihood of honest behavior than younger generations. And Post-War and Early Generation X also rated honesty and responsibility higher as their personal values. We also found significant differences between Early Generation X and the Transition generation in a post-Soviet context.

  17. Border Security Agency Structure: A Hindrance to Demonstrating Border Security Success (United States)


    placed on immigration expertise and the inequity in promotion opportunities” (Martin, 2003, p. 17). These observations have led to CBP employees...unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Long-awaited immigration reform may become a reality in 2013, as Congress...debates the merits of a comprehensive overhaul. The primary criteria for triggering reforms in the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration

  18. Border Jumping: Strategic and Operational Considerations in Planning Cross-Border Raids Against Insurgent Sanctuaries (United States)


    military and cultural influence. Within month, the agreements rang hollow, as both nations lent support to the FLN.107 The French capture of Ben...Africa in Namibia, 56. 142 Truth and Reconciliation Commission, South Africa Report, 45. Kelly Bell, “Operation Savannah: Task Force Zulu and the...focused cross-border raids. Indigenous intelligence networks can also help preserve tactical forces by sharing cultural information that can affect the

  19. Borders, Corridors, and Economics: The Keys to Stopping Cross Border Violence (United States)


    aspect of their organization. According to the book La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S. Mexican Security, La Familia came onto the scene in...La Familia recruits out of over a dozen rehabilitation clinics they operate. Once a potential recruit is clean they begin their training. The...Rep. Connie. Enhanced Border Security Act. Washington D.C., 2011. Grayson, George W. La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications For U.S.-Mexican Security

  20. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail:; Tufaile, A.P.B.


    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  1. Rethinking Borders in Japan: Internal, Cultural, and Geopolitical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyu Oh


    Full Text Available Christopher Bondy. Voice, Silence, and Self: Negotiations of Buraku Identity in Contemporary Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 184 pp. $40 (cloth. Koichi Iwabuchi. Resilient Borders and Cultural Diversity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015. 137 pp. $75 (cloth/e-book. Akihiro Iwashita. Japan’s Border Issues: Pitfalls and Prospects. New York: Routledge, 2016. 144 pp. $160 (cloth. The books reviewed here address three different borders in present-day Japanese society: internal, cultural, and geopolitical. It is rare for three different authors to concurrently publish monographs on Japanese borders from three different angles. This may be a sign of increasing consciousness within Japan on the issues of diversity, multiethnicity, old and new forms of discrimination, and continuing border conflicts with neighboring countries...

  2. The Arctic zone of the Russian Federation: The development of legislation in the Soviet period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemchenko S. B.


    Full Text Available The paper contains the detailed analysis of thirty-three legal acts of the Soviet period specifically addressing the Arctic zone, namely the instruments of the international law, bases of public administration, environmental law and safety. The conclusion has been made that the development of the regulatory framework contributed to the Soviet Union geo-economic objectives in the Arctic and lawmaking in the 1980s was the most complete and effective in ensuring the safety of flights over the Arctic and navigation in ice. It has been shown that the rulemaking of the Soviet period in determining state borders of the USSR and the Arctic zone laid the foundations of the sectorial principle of demarcation used in international politics to date. Приведен подробный анализ тридцати трех нормативно-правовых актов советского периода, непосредственно касающихся Арктической зоны, среди которых – документы в области международного права, основ государственного управления, экологического права и обеспечения безопасности. Сделан вывод, что разработка нормативно-правовой базы способствовала достижению геоэкономических целей СССР в Арктике, а наиболее полным и эффективным было нормотворчество 1980-х гг. в области обеспечения безопасности полетов над Арктикой и мореплавания во льдах. Показано, что нормотворчество советского периода в области определения государственных границ СССР и Арктической зоны в

  3. Killing King Kong: the camera at the borders of the tropical island, 1767-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riquet


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of the border of the island as a complex aesthetic zone in the journals of early European and American navigators in the South Seas (such as George Robertson, James Cook, Benjamin Morrell and Charles Wilkes and in 1920s/1930s American films set on tropical islands. The fascination of the early explorers’ descriptions of islands as viewed from the water, across a distance that is physical as much as cultural, resides in the entanglement of perception, expectation and imagination that marks these journeys as both intense and profoundly uncertain visual experiences. In the 1920s, US-American representations of tropical islands gained new currency as American tourists trooped to the South Seas. As I argue, the strong visuality of the early accounts is one of the reasons why cinema could so readily pick up on them. In films like White Shadows in the South Seas (1929 and The Hurricane (1937, the imaginative transformation in the gaze from the water is associated with the camera as it explores the island in lateral tracking shots. These films cast a critical look on contemporary Western enthusiasm for ‘exotic’ cultures and locations in which they nevertheless participate. Resonating with contemporary anthropological and documentary film practices, emphasizing authentic representation of native cultures (Malinowski and Flaherty, respectively, they nevertheless point to the camera’s own crossing of the island’s border as an act of appropriation. This appropriation becomes explicit in King Kong (1933 as, armed with cameras and guns, the diegetic film crew violently crosses the borders of/on the island. Significantly, it is only after Kong’s death at the highest point of another island (Manhattan and at another border, now between land and sky, that he fascinates the masses as an aesthetic spectacle. The film, then, meditates on the relations between border crossing, death and the production of aesthetics.

  4. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael


    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  5. The Humanitarian Drone and the Borders: Unveiling the Rationales Underlying the Deployment of Drones in Border Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa; Custers, Bart


    In these days economic and political pressures push for the deployment of drones’ technology in civil and commercial domains. This chapter focuses in particular on the deployment of drones in the context of border surveillance. Border surveillance is a shared competence between the European Union, t

  6. Library of monoclonal antibodies against brush border membrane epithelial antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behar, M.; Katz, A.; Silverman, M.


    A purified fraction of proximal tubule brush border membranes (BBM) was prepared from dog kidney and used to immunize mice. The standard technique of hybridoma production was followed as described by Kohler and Milstein. Production of antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence on dog kidney slices and by immunodot against the purified fraction on nitrocellulose. Five hybrids exhibited anti BBM activity. These were cloned twice and yielded stable cell lines producing IgG type monoclonal antibodies against BBM. They were designated A/sub 1/, C/sub 7/, D/sub 3/, D/sub 7/ and H/sub 4/. As a family these five monoclonals have broad tissue specificity, i.e. positive staining of the surface mucosa of intestinal kidney proximal tubules. D/sub 3/ exhibits even broader specificity for epithelium reacting with bile canaliculi and choroid plexus. The authors have verified that at least 4/5 antibodies are directed against BBM protein as revealed by immunoprecipitation of solubilized BBM and detected by Coomassie blue staining or autoradiography of lactoperoxidase labelled BBM. Most interestingly all antibodies bind to the surface of LL CPK/sub 1/ cells, a continuous pig kidney cell line of undefined origin but exhibiting many characteristics of proximal tubule cells. The library of monoclonal antibodies obtained provide important probes with which to study membrane biogenesis and polarization in epithelial cells.

  7. 75 FR 43225 - Finding of No Significant Impact: San Diego-Tijuana Airport Cross Border Facility (United States)


    ... congestion at the border indicates, existing infrastructure was not designed to handle current traffic... population, economic growth, and security inspections expand. Worsening traffic congestion along the border... and national economic losses associated with border congestion. The sponsor's proposed...

  8. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon


    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  9. Inverting the Telescope on Borders that Matter: Conversations in Café Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic; Kramsch, Olivier Thomas; Sandberg, Marie


    of geopolitical as well as everyday life border practices find expression and take place. Inside this tension of multiple realities and politics, border theory is challenged and charged. It is the aim of the article to invite a furthering of ontological border politics in and across such conversations on borders...... that matter. Keywords: border studies, border theory, new comparativism, ontological politics, multiplicity, extra-territoriality/deterritorialisation...

  10. Rates and predictors of DUI among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans. (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Mills, Britain A


    This paper examines driving under the influence (DUI) arrests and other related factors among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas. Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1307) were interviewed between March 2009 and July 2010 and constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Border or non-border residential location was not associated with self-reported DUI, 12 month DUI arrest, or lifetime DUI arrest. An increase in consumption of 5 drinks per week was associated with an 18% increase in the chance of self-reporting DUI and an 18% increase in the probability of a lifetime DUI arrest. Binge drinkers were more likely to self-report a DUI event (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.61-5.03; pDUI arrest (OR=2.81; 95% CI=1.43-5.53, pDUI as a major problem affecting Hispanics. However, while most correctly identified the legal blood alcohol content to drive in their state as .08 g/dl or lower, approximately one third of individuals were unaware of the legal limit. Compared to their non-border counterparts, border men were more likely to identify a bar/tavern/club and border women were more likely to identify a friend or relative's home as the places of last drink before the most recent DUI trip originated. In conclusion, border and non-border Mexican Americans are not different regarding DUI rates. These rates are high in both groups, especially among men. Intervention strategies to decrease DUI should be implemented not only in drinking establishments but also with families.

  11. Soviet Strategic Air Defense: The Struggle for Competence (United States)


    interview of Colonel General of Aviation I.M. Maltsev , then (and still) the Chief of Main Staff of the Air Defense Forces, "Sentries of the Air Borders...force). Nevertheless, the general tone is dedication to the mission of the Air Defense Forces. Maltsev points out that "quantitative changes...August 1988, pp. 19-23. 6Ibid., p. 19. 71nterview with Colonel General of Aviation I.M. Maltsev , Chief of the Main Staff of the Air Defense Forces

  12. Woolfian border poetics and contemporary circadian novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Ryall


    Full Text Available Virginia Woolf’s circadian novel Mrs Dalloway (1925 has inspired many successors, some of them important works in their own right. Although few of these novels are as explicitly linked to Mrs Dalloway as Michael Cunningham’s The Hours (1998, more recent novels such as Ian McEwan’s Saturday (2005 and Gail Jones’ Five Bells (2011 clearly pay homage to Woolf’s use of the one-day format to reveal whole lives and show how those individual private lives are entangled in history. The essay highlights one particular aspect of these three works, their imaginative and often transformative reworking of elements of Woolfian border poetics, particularly the predominance in Mrs Dalloway of boundary tropes – windows, doors, thresholds – that create a sense of synchronicity between present and past. Adapting Woolf’s boundary tropes to representations of contemporary realities, all three novels in different ways suggest how the present is deepened ”when backed by the past”, as Woolf puts it her memoirs; that is, when the present is not only informed by a remembered past but experienced in terms of both re-enactment and renewal, continuity and change.

  13. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca


    . For contemporary states the planes have become increasingly disaggregated, in the sense that they do not fall into place at one and the same border. Thus, states have to pick and choose different articulations (often inconsistently) on different planes. We illustrate these ideas with instances, present......-day and historical, of bordering. A corollary of there being more need to pick and choose is that articulations of sovereignty change. So, sovereignty is increasingly the material of ‘sovereignty games’, where sovereignty is used as a political instrument. In sum, our theory directs attention to state bordering...

  14. Red-Hot Sino-Russian Border Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IN the late 1990s, the Sino-Russian border in northeastern China which had been so silent for many years got busy in a hurry. In the border city of Suifenhe, with a population of only 40,000, and in Dongning County, with its population of 220,000, trains and vehicles drive by on the rails and the road day and night. The annual volume of goods crossing the border amounts to more than 6.5 million tons and the annual number of passengers passing through exceeds 2 million persons. Suifenhe and Dongning now rank first

  15. Cutting edges: deconstructive inquiry and the mission of the border ethnographer. (United States)

    Walker, K


    Research is an activity nursing 'cannot not want'. Such an imperative compels me to sketch out some theoretical borders of a hybrid postmodern methodological framework that I have called 'border' ethnography. It is a methodology suspended between a still authoritative modernity and an as yet only partially legitimate postmodernity. At one level this position is somewhat uncomfortably in a post-methodological terrain. The text that issues from such a tension-laden research space is, I argue, intensely autobiographical, inescapably ethnographic and inherently deconstructive. Ethno(autobio) graphy is a method 'on the run'; it destabilizes while it authorizes, it represents while it misrepresents, and it threatens to disintegrate as it comes into view. But, most importantly, it is the creature of a praxis-oriented endeavour not only to better understand a culture, but to actively intervene in its (re) production.

  16. Petrology of the Upper Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion (United States)

    Salmonsen, L.; Tegner, C.; Jakobsen, J. K.


    The Upper Border Series crystallized downwards from the roof of the Skaergaard magma chamber. It met with the Layered Series that crystallized upwards from the floor in the Sandwich Horizon that contains the last and most evolved rocks of the intrusion. Previous investigations of the Upper Border Series (Naslund, 1984) have shown that the compositional trends of plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene largely mirror those of the Layered Series. At the same time it was argued that the crystallization sequence in Upper Border Series differed from the Layered Series in that apatite precipitated before magnetite that, in turn, appeared before Ca-rich pyroxene. From the existing data the magma from which the Upper Border Series crystallized was inferred to be enriched in SiO2, K2O, P2O5 and H2O relative to the magma in the lower parts of the intrusion. This has lead to the conception that the Upper Border Series crystallized from a chemically different magma. Here we present new petrography, mineralogy and bulk compositions for samples collected in three profiles through the Upper Border Series (Kilen, Hammerpas and Brødretoppen transects). Although euhedral apatite is present throughout most of the Upper Border Series, we interpret a marked increase in modal apatite late in the crystallization sequence as marking its first appearance on the liquidus at the crystallization front. The plagioclase An% at this level in the Upper Border Series is ˜40 and is identical with plagioclase An% at the level of apatite-in in the Layered Series. Similarly, we find that the plagioclase An% at the onset of FeTi-oxide and sulphide precipitation in the Upper Border Series (52 and 47, respectively) and Layered Series are alike. Finally, we interpret abundant augite in Upper Border Series rocks before magnetite-in as a cumulus phase. We therefore conclude that the crystallization sequences of the two series are identical. The new bulk rock data reveal that the Upper Border Series and the

  17. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667 (United States)

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)


    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.


    Full Text Available The article considers questions connected with the history of popularization of agricultural knowledge through the agitation textiles. Agitation textiles are similar in content to the propaganda posters, as well as propaganda porcelain. The issues of emergence of the given kind of art are examined in the work. Agitation textile or agit-textile appeared in Soviet Russia in the 1920s. Its authors were members of the textile section. Agit-textile has several titles: themed fabric or agitation tissue, but the essence remains the same - it is a bright, imaginative reflection of the era of great transformations expressed in electrification, industrialization, changes in the military and sports, collectivization. In contrast to the construction of industrialization, the theme of agriculture required an entirely different approach. Even common problems for the country in the village are of particular color. Here it was necessary to not just agitate for something new: it was required to patiently explain why the new better than the old, to prove that it is necessary, inevitable. It is better to see once than to hear many times. The article has shown the history of the agitation textiles, goals and objectives, an illustrative range of tissue samples, as well as an analysis of the agitation textile appearance in 1970 on the example of solving a specific problem

  19. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars (United States)

    Westwick, Peter J.


    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of "space-strike weapons" - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: "I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery." "I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics," said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  20. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwick, Peter J. [History Department, University of Southern California, Los Angles, California (United States)


    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhno Nadezda Konstantinovna


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a revelation of characteristic features of sociological discourse concerning regions in the conditions of soviet society. Empirical base of the work consists of results of author's research of scientific sociological sources, dedicated to a study of regions and published in a period from 1950 to 1991. Results of conducted research show that the nature of scientific theorizing in the USSR determines to a considerable degree not with internal scientific processes, but with peculiarities of socio-historical context of society’s existence, in particular, the influence of active ideological factor. The study of regions was under the great control by power-holding structures because of its specific location in spatial and territorial society’s structuring. Economic centric approach is dominated in the researches of regions and the main attention is paid to regions in the context of social and economic planning. Sociocultural components of regional distinctions are under strictly censorial control. Application of results of current research is possible in the process of further study of regions as components of spatial and territorial state division.

  2. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing: The case of Southern Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu


    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  3. Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program. (United States)

    West, J B


    Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology.

  4. Ethos without nomos: the Russian–Georgian War and the post-Soviet state of exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Prozorov


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the 2008 Russian–Georgian conflict in the context of the post-Soviet spatial order, approached in terms of Carl Schmitt's theory of nomos and Giorgio Agamben's theory of the state of exception. The ‘five-day war’ was the first instance of the violation by Russia of the integrity of the post-Soviet spatial order established in the Belovezha treaties of December 1991. While from the beginning of the postcommunist period Russia functioned as the restraining force in the post-Soviet realm, the 2008 war has made further recourse to this function impossible, plunging the post-Soviet space into the condition of anomie, or the state of exception. This paper interprets this disruptive policy in the post-Soviet space as the continuation of the domestic political process of the ‘management of anomie,’ which has characterized the entire postcommunist period. In the conclusion, we address the implications of the transformation of the international order into the ethos of anomie for rethinking the ethical dimension of global politics.

  5. Hello, Lenin? Nostalgia On Post-Soviet Television In Russia And Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Khinkulova


    Full Text Available After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Soviet television looked old-fashioned and seemed redundant, with the emerging post-Soviet televisual cultures turning their gazes to global sources of inspiration. The next decade affected Russia and Ukraine in very different ways. In Russia brief exposure to what was seen as “cheap mass-culture” left TV viewers and producers disillusioned. With the change of attitude towards Western TV, the ideas about Soviet TV changed, too. From a grey and unexciting model Soviet TV had become a shining example of “high quality” and nostalgia-driven content set in for the next few years. In Ukraine, where no domestic TV had existed as such prior to 1991 and where Soviet TV was rapidly fading into the past (and some-one else’s past, too, a decade of experimenting with programming had left the TV producers much more open to global television formats and Western ideas, developing programmes very different than the Russian ones.

  6. Reproducing Identity through Remembering: Cultural Texts on the Late Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Jõesalu


    Full Text Available This article explores some of the ways in which memories of the Sovietpast shape the identities and creative work of six Estonian intellectuals born in the 1970s. Based on analysis of the four cultural texts they have produced (an exhibition, a feature film, a novel and a documentary and biographical interviews with them, it is argued that the authors’ birth frame has had an impact on howthey interpret the late Soviet period. They share discursive practices about this period: mutual interpretative principles, which validate their common experience in discourses. Their experience of living in the Soviet system is limited to their childhood years only.Sharing a kind of reflexive nostalgia about the era, they depict the late Soviet period somewhat ironically, with a touch of cynicism (in their cultural texts as well as in the interviews. Even though they do not oppose the official public discourse of the rupture of Soviet Estonia, they tend to accentuate and value everyday experience, thus contributing to ‘normalisation’ discourse of the Soviet period in Estonian memory landscapes. Childhood experiences of the late Sovietperiod constitute an integral part of these intellectuals’ identities. By reproducing their identity in their cultural texts, they have a potential to deepen the memory templates already existing in public memory discourse, and also to contribute to the addition of new discourses and influencing the identity of others in society.

  7. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states. (United States)

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela


    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics.

  8. Signaling pathways and tissue interactions in neural plate border formation. (United States)

    Schille, Carolin; Schambony, Alexandra


    The neural crest is a transient cell population that gives rise to various cell types of multiple tissues and organs in the vertebrate embryo. Neural crest cells arise from the neural plate border, a region localized at the lateral borders of the prospective neural plate. Temporally and spatially coordinated interaction with the adjacent tissues, the non-neural ectoderm, the neural plate and the prospective dorsolateral mesoderm, is required for neural plate border specification. Signaling molecules, namely BMP, Wnt and FGF ligands and corresponding antagonists are derived from these tissues and interact to induce the expression of neural plate border specific genes. The present mini-review focuses on the current understanding of how the NPB territory is formed and accentuates the need for coordinated interaction of BMP and Wnt signaling pathways and precise tissue communication that are required for the definition of the prospective NC in the competent ectoderm.

  9. Borders in Education and Living- a Case of Trench Warfare. (United States)

    Hviid, Pernille


    In this paper the notion of border will be examined in a cultural life course perspective. I will investigate borders as psycho-cultural constructions created to enable and control meaning-making in the intersection between subjects engagements and concerns and collectively constructed and guiding meanings. An empirical analysis of one boy's life course in and between home, school and a Leisure Time Activity Center in the years 1st to 3rd grade demonstrates a systemic construction of borders involving him, his teachers and his parents and renders the boy to choose between becoming an engaged pupil or a dedicated son. As such, the analysis can illuminate processes of school - home interactions that work opposite of what is intended and become detrimental to children's life. In a cultural life course perspective borders show how life is maintained as meaningful and not only guide the present living but also serve as directional guides into the future.

  10. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu


    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...... a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced...... to strengthen the Oresund integration index. This was compiled from patent, publication and collaborative R&D project data. The findings show that this index performs reasonably well in depicting STI integration, while at the same time remaining simple and straightforward enough to be adopted in other cross...

  11. Definig the US-Mexico border as hyperreality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Duarte-Herrera


    Full Text Available The US-Mexico border has been defined as a periphery, as a transborder social system, and more currently, as a station in transnational circuits. The two first definitions presuppose the strongly criticized concepts of region and cultural area. The third definition shares, along with the other two definitions, the positivist epistemological supposition that the border is a specific entity that can be known and experienced as such by any observer, no matter their social site. This paper is to support the definition of the border as a hyperreality constituted by speeches, practices, and experiences of the different social actors. From this posture, the image of the border as a formal geopolitical division is interpreted as a sustained image and reproduced by government agencies. Likewise, this writing is to support the documentation and promotion of alternative images constructed and reproduced by social actors from different power sites.

  12. Border Detection of Common Carotid Artery Using Hough Transform (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Nagahara, Yoshihiro

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. The arteriosclerosis of the common carotid artery is diagnosed using Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) which is obtained from echocardiogram. In order to measure IMT from echocardiogram, it is required to detect a border which is a boundary between vessel tissue layers. The method of border detection requires reproducibility and high accuracy. The conventional methods to detect the border curve depend on differential value of brightness on the common carotid artery. Therefore, we can't extract a good candidate point by influence of a noise. In this paper, we propose the high-accuracy detection method by Hough Transform. About high-accuracy, it realized by attaching importance to high reliable candidate point of border.

  13. The structure of borders in a small world

    CERN Document Server

    Thiemann, C; Grady, D; Brune, R; Brockmann, D


    Geographic borders are not only essential for the effective functioning of government, the distribution of administrative responsibilities and the allocation of public resources, they also influence the interregional flow of information, cross-border trade operations, the diffusion of innovation and technology, and the spatial spread of infectious diseases. However, as growing interactions and mobility across long distances, cultural, and political borders continue to amplify the small world effect and effectively decrease the relative importance of local interactions, it is difficult to assess the location and structure of effective borders that may play the most significant role in mobility-driven processes. The paradigm of spatially coherent communities may no longer be a plausible one, and it is unclear what structures emerge from the interplay of interactions and activities across spatial scales. Here we analyse a multi-scale proxy network for human mobility that incorporates travel across a few to a few...

  14. The European Electricity Market and Cross-Border Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamec


    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic characteristics and features of trading in electricity, especially in cross-border trading. First, the most important features of electricity as a commodity are explained, with the consequences for electricity trading. Then characteristics and changes in the electricity market after liberalization are discussed. This liberalization has taken place throughout Europe, and the consequences of this revolutionary change are still visible. The main features of electricity trading are mentioned in general. Then cross-border trade in Europe is discussed in greater detail. In this context the basic principles of the allocation of cross-border transmission capacities are explained.The next part of the paper considers the characteristics of the European electricity market from the trader’s point of view. Liquidity as a very important index is introduced here.Finally the most visible trends in cross-border trade and the most probable future development in this area are presented. 

  15. Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carrillo Garcia


    Full Text Available This special issue of Portal brings together papers examining the intersection of health and borders. In this analysis health is understood not only as the absence of illness, but also as knowledge, as a right, and as the pursuit of identity and self-transformation. Similarly, borders here are used as both physical and mental constructs. The special issue represent a multidisciplinary effort that looks at health from a social science perspective through historical, socio-economic, and cultural approaches. It is also concerned with the health inequities across and within national borders, due to economic imperatives, changing technologies and environments. The articles in this special issue explore lessons learned and new ways of understanding health across time and borders, with specific reference to the cases of India, Australia, Hong Kong and China, Pakistan, and Thailand.

  16. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B


    Detergent-insoluble complexes prepared from pig small intestine are highly enriched in several transmembrane brush border enzymes including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, indicating that they reside in a glycolipid-rich environment in vivo. In the present work galectin-4, an animal lectin...... lacking a N-terminal signal peptide for membrane translocation, was discovered in these complexes as well, and in gradient centrifugation brush border enzymes and galectin-4 formed distinct soluble high molecular weight clusters. Immunoperoxidase cytochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy showed...... by a nonclassical pathway, and the brush border enzymes represent a novel class of natural ligands for a member of the galectin family. Newly synthesized galectin-4 is rapidly "trapped" by association with intracellular structures prior to its apical secretion, but once externalized, association with brush border...

  17. The Sino-Indian Border: Is Conflict Inevitable? (United States)


    99 viii ACRONYMS ADBI Asian Development Bank Initiative BD Border Defense BRICS Brazil Russia... BRICS ) which is emerging as a strong organization (one of the largest organizations in terms of population, area and trade). China has granted a

  18. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care


    Jennifer Miller-Thayer


    Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attracti...

  19. Mexican Cartels: The Threat Along Our Southern Border (United States)


    the drug smuggling on the Southwest Border its leader, Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzmán, made Forbes’ list of the world’s richest individuals in 2009. 4...resources. 46 UCs are decision-making organizations that develop and seek to implement consensual solutions to defeat narco -terrorism at the border as...Benson, R. G. (2011). Is Merida Antiquated? Part Two: Updating US Policy to Counter Threats of Insurgency and Narco -Terrorism. Washington D.C

  20. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.