WorldWideScience

Sample records for border irrigation

  1. 不同畦长灌溉对小麦耗水特性及产量的影响%Effects of field border length for irrigation on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马尚宇; 于振文; 王东; 张永丽; 石玉

    2012-01-01

    In the wheat growth seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, six border lengths of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 m were installed in a wheat field to study the effects of different border lengths for irrigation on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of wheat. The results showed that with the increasing border length from 10 to 80 m, the irrigation amount and the proportion of irrigation amount to total water consumption amount, the water content in 0 - 200 cm soil layers and the soil water supply capacity at anthesis stage, as well as the wheat grain yield and water use efficiency increased, while the soil water consumption amount and the water consumption amount of wheat from jointing to anthesis stages as well as the total water consumption amount decreased. At the border length of <80 m, the irrigation amount was smaller, and the water content in upper soil layers was lower, as compared with those at the border length of 80 m, which led to the wheat to absorb more water from deeper soil layers, and thus, the total water consumption increased. At the border length of 100 m, the irrigation amount, soil water consumption amount, and total water consumption amount all increased, and, due to the excessive irrigation amount and the uneven distribution of irrigation water when irrigated once, the 1000-grain mass, grain yield, and water use efficiency decreased significantly, which was not conductive to the water-saving and high-yield cultivation.%在2009-2010和2010-2011年小麦生长季,设置10、20、40、60、80和100m6个畦田长度,研究不同畦长对小麦耗水特性及产量的影响.结果表明:≤80 m畦长处理下,随畦长的增加,灌水量逐渐增加,灌水量占总耗水量的比例增加,土壤贮水消耗量减少,小麦拔节至开花期的耗水量和生长季总耗水量均减少,开花期0~200 cm各土层土壤含水量增加,土壤供水能力提高,籽粒产量和水分利用效率逐渐提高.与80 m畦长处理相比,<80

  2. Estimation of Infiltration Parameters and the Irrigation Coefficients with the Surface Irrigation Advance Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Beibei; Wang Quanjiu; Tan Shuai

    2014-01-01

    A theory based on Manning roughness equation, Philip equation and water balance equation was developed which only employed the advance distance in the calculation of the infiltration parameters and irrigation coefficients in both the border irrigation and the surge irrigation. The improved procedure was validated with both the border irrigation and surge irrigation experiments. The main results are shown as follows. Infiltration parameters of the Philip equation could be calculated accurately...

  3. 咸水畦灌棉花耐盐性鉴定指标与耐盐特征值研究%Cotton salt tolerance appraisal indices and eigenvalue under border irrigation with saline water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯棣; 张俊鹏; 孙景生; 郑春莲; 曹彩云; 李科江; 刘祖贵

    2012-01-01

    In order to use the mineralized shallow groundwater to relieve the crisis of freshwater resources shortage,the 5 years field experiment under border irrigation with mineralized water before sowing was conducted. The response relations among different salt stress levels and cotton growth index and seed cotton yield were analyzed in this study,and the cotton salt tolerance appraisal indices and eigenvalue under border irrigation with different saline water before sowing were put forward. The results showed that the relative emergency rate,relative plant height,relative leaf area,relative above-ground dry matter mass,relative fruit branch number,relative boll number and relative maximum of buds,flowers and bolls all could be used as salt tolerance appraisal indices of cotton. The relative height was recommended as the most practical salt tolerance appraisal index among them because it was easy to observation and sensitive to salt stress. The salinity of irrigation water should be below 5.48 g/L when the yield of seed cotton in saline water treatment was consistent with the fresh water irrigation treatment after a 5- year continuous irrigation.%为了充分利用浅层地下咸水,通过5a的咸水畦灌播前造墒大田试验,分析了不同程度盐分胁迫(1(对照)、2、4、6、8、10 g/L)与棉花生长指标和籽棉产量的响应关系,得出不同矿化度咸水播前造墒条件下棉花的耐盐性鉴定指标及耐盐特征值.结果显示,相对出苗率、相对株高、相对叶面积、相对地上部干物质质量、相对果枝数、相对成铃数和相对蕾花铃最大值均可以作为棉花的耐盐性鉴定指标,其中相对株高易于观测,盐害指示效果好,因此作为推荐使用耐盐性鉴定指标.同时,灌溉水矿化度控制在5.48 g/L以下时,咸水造墒连续灌溉5a后,在产量与对照相比不减产.

  4. Comparison of Manual and Automatic Irrigation of Pot Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Vagner

    1975-01-01

    An air-lift principle for transport of water was adapted for automatic irrigation of experimental pots originally constructed for manual irrigation by the weighing method. The two irrigation techniques were compared in an experiment with increasing amounts of nitrogen fertilizer to spring barley...... plants and border plants independent of irrigation principle. The increase in yield per pot with increasing N fertilization was at the highest N level caused only by an increase in yield of the border plants....

  5. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while......The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... favoring regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high...

  6. The Price of Irrigation Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    User-pays as a principle for charging for the supply of regulated irrigation water is gaining acceptability by water authorities. This paper is concerned with the level of water charges, in particular, the capacity of farmers to pay increased prices for irrigation water. The main objective is to provide empirical estimates of water demand and supply, and to note the differences between statutory charges and market price, under different weather conditions in the Border Rivers Region of Queens...

  7. 畦灌配施保水剂改善杨树林下土壤物理性状提高微生物活性%Border irrigation co-applied with super absorbent polymers improving soil physical characteristics and increasing microbial activity in poplar forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井大炜; 邢尚军; 刘方春; 马海林; 杜振宇; 于学斗; 朱亚萍

    2015-01-01

    for farmland, seedling protection and crop yield improvement. A large number of studies have showed that super absorbent polymer has the properties of water saving and drought resistance. But the application amount of super absorbent polymer is an important parameter to evaluate. Applying with the improper amount can result in bad effects, either no effect, or soil permeability compromised if excess super absorbent polymer is used. This can cause plant roots to have difficulty in breathing or to get rotten. In the meantime, border irrigation is also an efficient measure which has the advantages of low cost, simple operation and easy popularization. Similarly, the irrigation quantity is a vital factor. Because excess irrigation not only causes the waste of water resource, but also poses a threat to the groundwater. While insufficient irrigation may have no effect. Therefore, it is speculated that super absorbent polymer co-applied with border irrigation should be an interesting thing, and investigating their appropriate proportion has important theoretic value and practical significance. However, there is little information on the effect of border irrigation measure co-applied with super absorbent polymer on the forest-tree plantation. With the purpose of promoting water-saving irrigation and poplar yield, a field experiment of 5 treatments, i.e. CK (conventional border irrigation), I60 (60% conventional border irrigation quantity), I30 (30% conventional border irrigation quantity), I60S (60% border irrigation quantity co-applied with super absorbent polymers) and I30S (30% border irrigation quantity co-applied with super absorbent polymers) was designed and performed. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of different treatments on bulk density, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial activity in the forest soil as well as the growth of poplar. Results showed that in comparison to CK treatment, I60S treatment

  8. Border Battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2015-11-01

    The Texas Medical Association, the Texas Alliance for Patient Access, and other organizations ask for reversal of a court ruling that allows a Texas negligence case to proceed in New Mexico. The case is sounding alarms all over Texas' medical community, conjuring fears that if the Supreme Court upholds the application of New Mexico law, it could have a significant impact on Texas doctors who operate near the state's vast borders and treat out-of-state patients. PMID:26536518

  9. Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  10. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical...... level. It provides border scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  11. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...

  12. The Border Pedagogy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Border pedagogy is a multicultural educational approach utilized in multicultural settings to help students understand their histories and experiences and how it affects their identities and cultures. The approach seeks to produce intellectuals that transcend physical and metaphysical boundaries. The goal of border pedagogy is to remove cultural…

  13. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical......Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that...... origin of the traders engaged in cross-border activities. In those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots....

  14. Polish Eastern Border as an External European Union Border

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurek, Tomasz; Barwiński, Marek

    2009-01-01

    1. Apart from Finnish-Russian border, Polish eastern border is one of the longest external European Union and Schengen Agreement land borders under the control of a single country. 2. For the last few years, Polish Government has significantly improved the infrastructure of Border Guard at the eastern border in order to prevent “flooding” of Europe by illegal immigrants and smuggled goods. 3. Despite this fact, Polish eastern border does not have sufficient infrastructure, especially wh...

  15. Toric Border Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Mourrain, Bernard; Trebuchet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    International audience We extend the theory and the algorithms of Border Bases to systems of Laurent polynomial equations, defining ''toric'' roots. Instead of introducing new variables and new relations to saturate by the variable inverses, we propose a more efficient approach which works directly with the variables and their inverse. We show that the commutation relations and the inversion relations characterize toric border bases. We explicitly describe the first syzygy module associate...

  16. Irrigation and Autocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanet Sinding Bentzen; Nicolai Kaarsen; Asger Moll Wingender

    2012-01-01

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields. Irrigation potential is derived from a range of exogenous geographic factors, and reverse causality is therefore ruled out. Our results hold both at the cross-country level, and at the subnational level in premode...

  17. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  18. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  19. ESTIMATING IRRIGATION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having accurate estimates of the cost of irrigation is important when making irrigation decisions. Estimates of fixed costs are critical for investment decisions. Operating cost estimates can assist in decisions regarding additional irrigations. This fact sheet examines the costs associated with ...

  20. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show how a formal approach to networks can make a significant contribution to the study of cross-border trade in West Africa. Building on the formal tools and theories developed by Social Network Analysis, we examine the network organization of 136 large traders in...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the...... region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots. Combining formal network analysis and ethnographic studies, we argue, can make a significant contribution to the current revival of interest in cross-border trade in the policy field....

  1. THREE INTELLIGENCE METHODOLOGIES FOR BORDER DEFENCE AND BORDER SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Segell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main security problem that any state faces today is protecting itscitizens in countering organised crime and terrorism. Wars between states are lessfrequent than in previous eras. Border defence and border security are distinctmissions requiring different forces with different training and different equipment.Border defence is predominately against the armed forces of other states requiringtanks, aircraft and ships. Traditionally, border security includes the mission roles ofimmigration, crime, agriculture, finance, disease control and terrorism. Intelligencegathering and analysis using three methodologies - trends and patterns, frequency,and probability – provides a solution to the large and expensive armed forces forterritorial border defence and defines the ability to succeed in border security.

  2. Europe's New Border Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Verwaal, Ernst; Cnossen, Sijbren

    2003-01-01

    textabstractInstead of abolishing internal border controls in 1992, the European Union (EU) replaced them with VAT and statistical requirements that appear to be just as onerous and costly. This paper shows that the compliance costs of the new requirements are on average 5 percent of the value of intra-EU trade of Dutch businesses. Clearly, the costs constitute a (differentiated) border tax that impedes intra-EU trade and violates the Treaty of Rome. The paper analyses the magnitude and deter...

  3. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...... of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...

  4. Developing Effective Border Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great progress that has been made in nuclear security measures for counter-proliferation capacity building for effective border controls. However, there is evidence that illicit transfers of military and dual-use items as well as the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials persist. Consequently, there remains an urgent need for continuing and enhancing effective border controls responsive to this threat. Developing and sustaining effective border controls for global defence to combat nuclear security threats is a complex challenge. Following a defence-in-depth approach, border control measures at official ports of entry and green and blue borders form one layer of a national nuclear detection architecture. It is important that the border control measures are both fully integrated into a comprehensive national strategy with achievable nuclear security program objectives and fully sustainable within the national infrastructure. The operations, maintenance and management of effective border control measures rely on a cyclic process of establishing objectives, design, implementation, training and evaluation. All relevant authorities and competencies engage in the process. The design is based on a full assessment of the nuclear security capabilities and associated infrastructure within the context of specific objectives within the national nuclear security strategy. A poor design or badly executed implementation can prevent the effective operation of the system in the short and long run. International cooperation and assistance play an important role in all aspects of developing effective border controls. Donor-recipient relations provide not only the requisite funds, but also the experience and technical expertise that promote effective and sustainable border controls. As the global detection architecture matures, many international organizations, such as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), DOE, European Commission- Joint Research Centre

  5. Crops Demand-Side Irrigation Principle and Practice-The Innovation Irrigation Method to Save World's Water Supply in 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Y.

    2001-12-01

    More than 75% of the world's water suypply is used for irrigation. Currently the world's irrigation water use efficiency is less than 40%. If irrigation water use efficiency can be improved to 60% and higher, large quantity of water supply would be saved. In order to attend a higher irrigation water use efficiency in 21st century, an exammination of current irrigation principle and practice is needed. The current irrigation practice is based on the public water supply principle which uses the supply-side principle. Irrigation systems are designed by engineers, who design the irrigation systems to supply water to irrigation the farmlands at a scheduled frequency to support plant growth, they disregard the demand of water or not by the crops. This is the short-coming of the supply-side irrigation principle. Because it often over-irrigate the farmlands and frequently causes water logging and groundwater contammination. The principle of the demand-side crop irrigation is to satify the water demand of the crops when they need it and turn-off the water when their demand have been satisfied automatically. The advances in computer technology have given us the needed tools to fully accommodate the innovation and automation of the demand-side irrigation systems. The author expect to see a large amount of new hardwares on the market in 21st century. For example, the drip irrigation systems are in a position for changing into the demand-side irrigation systems readily. The emitters of the drip irrigation systems can be modified into the non-plugging and soil-misture tension sensing outlets to suit the demand-side irrigation principle to satisfy crops water demand and turn-off when the demand had been satified. Other innovative invention patents may be developed for sub-irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, border strip irrigation and furrow irrigation to solve the world's water supply shortage problems by means of the innovations in crop demand-side irrigation principle and

  6. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper address indirect global interactions that involve collaboration across continents involving different cultures, languages, technologies and nations. Specifically, we are concerned with analyzing international trade of avocados from trees in Africa to grocery store shelves in the European....... Further, the description format developed for this case can be useful for visualizing and analyzing other supply chains involving collaborations across borders....

  7. Borders of Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Janni Berthou

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration func...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...

  8. THEATER THAT TRANSCENDS BORDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Students from China’s Central Academy of Drama stage a performance in New Delhi on February 2 during the17th Bharat Rang Mahotsav.The annual international theater festival,hosted by the National School of Drama in India,is being held from February 1 to 18 with the theme of Breaking Borders.

  9. "Over the River": Border Childhoods and Border Crossings at Niagara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleiner, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with Canadian borderlanders, this article examines childhood experiences with the Canada--US border in the mid-1980s to early 1990s. The retrospective accounts of childhood border experiences demonstrate how childhood was produced and experienced in border crossings and how the production of childhood intersected with a…

  10. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  11. Domestic and international border effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; 早川, 和伸

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies in the border-effect literature surprisingly found that domestic border effects are larger than international border effects (e.g., in the United States or Brazil). One interpretation of this result is that these estimates include the effects of producer agglomeration. Therefore, in this study, we estimate those border effects exclusively for transactions for final consumption, in which such agglomeration forces will be weak, in China and Japan. As a result, we found larger i...

  12. Border beam against nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present man can cross the borders with nuclear materials in a luggage without problems. A supervision system could be installed at the border as a measuring help to control the possible illicit traffic. Therefore, a pilot study was performed to compile its technical requirements and to assessing its feasibilities. The main finding was that a control system at the border is feasible. (nevyjel)

  13. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...

  14. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  15. Building Peaceful Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's efforts to build a harmonious world begin with establishing peaceful borders with its neighbors China's recent contribution to the world of international relations is the promotion of "building a harmonious world together," put forward by President Hu Jintao at the 60th anniversary of the UN in September 2005. As the core of the country's peaceful foreign policy in the new era, this approach has been well received and widely discussed in the international community. Meanwhile, Chinese foreign pol...

  16. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  17. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  18. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  19. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  20. Root canal irrigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ′root canal irrigants′ and ′endodontic irrigants.′ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  1. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  2. UNESCO Without Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in 1945 with twin aims: to rebuild various institutions of the world destroyed by war, and to promote international understanding and peaceful cooperation among nations. Based on empirical and historical...... research and with a particular focus on history teaching, international understanding and peace, UNESCO Without Borders offers a new research trajectory for understanding the roles played by UNESCO and other international organizations, as well as the effects of globalization on education. With fifteen...

  3. Cardiology without borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Wolk

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cardiovascular disease takes place in a border-free world. The challenge at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and anywhere else in the world is to hold patient care above the artificial barriers raised by geopolitical issues. Fundamentally, the goal of ACC members or of any cardiology societies in the world is to provide excellent patient care. Cardiovascular disease is essentially the same throughout the world. Where there are minor variations among individuals, as clinicians we find priceless opportunity to learn. Expanding- rather contracting -our experience base helps us as individuals to realize our best potential as practitioners.

  4. Vision of irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Braz-Tangerino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation not only has been a key factor for the development and maintenance of human societies but it still plays this role now and it is foreseen that in the future as well. Its evolution has been constrained to the advance in knowledge on matters regarding Agronomy and Water Engineering and in technology however, many challenges deserve further research. It is worth to note that Brazil has strongly promoted irrigation in the last decade. Within the limited extension of this article, some current topics in irrigation, some of them are innovative such us the research line studying water flow in soil-plant in Mediterranean plants and its consequences on water use,. and future challenges are presented with the purpose of stimulate publication of Irrigation papers in the journal “Ingeniería del Agua” among Portuguese and Spanish language communities.

  5. The Open Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yago Mellado López

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to consider the volition of boundary as an opening in otherness, establishing a dialogue with Giorgio Agamben’s work La Comunidad que viene [The community to come]. Beyond the conception of borders as demarcation, this article approaches the boundary as a construction through contact, and which produces the articulation of us/them and of the Other, and not the other way round. In this way, the volition of boundaries appears, without any desire to escape towards a common abstract space or toward an elimination of categorisation, but simply as the registering of an opening in the never-ending fabric of our identities.

  6. Crossing borders for science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Schultheiss

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exchanging ideas with like-minded, enthusiastic people interested in the same topic is crucial for the advancement of a scientist's career. Several Regional Student Groups (RSGs of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB Student Council have cooperated in the last six years to organize scientific workshops and conferences. With motivated students, it is possible to create a memorable event for fellow scientists; in doing so, the organizers gain valuable experiences. While collaborating across borders and time zones can be difficult, feedback from event organizers was always positive. When limited resources are juxtaposed with great ideas and a network of contacts, the outcome is always an amazing experience, despite organizers being separated geographically across different countries.

  7. Crossing borders for science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Sebastian J; Yang, Joshua SungWoo; Iwasaki, Wataru; Lin, Shu-Hsi; Jean, Angela; Michaut, Magali

    2014-03-01

    Exchanging ideas with like-minded, enthusiastic people interested in the same topic is crucial for the advancement of a scientist's career. Several Regional Student Groups (RSGs) of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) Student Council have cooperated in the last six years to organize scientific workshops and conferences. With motivated students, it is possible to create a memorable event for fellow scientists; in doing so, the organizers gain valuable experiences. While collaborating across borders and time zones can be difficult, feedback from event organizers was always positive. When limited resources are juxtaposed with great ideas and a network of contacts, the outcome is always an amazing experience, despite organizers being separated geographically across different countries. PMID:24675824

  8. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  9. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  10. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    OpenAIRE

    Q. L. Bie; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C S

    2013-01-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border ...

  11. Evaluation of Monensin Transport to Shallow Groundwater after Irrigation with Dairy Lagoon Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C; Harter, Thomas; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2016-03-01

    Animal waste products from concentrated animal feeding operations are a significant source of antibiotics to the environment. Monensin, an ionophore antibiotic commonly used to increase feed efficiency in livestock, is known to have varied toxicological effects on nontarget species. The current study builds on prior studies evaluating the impact of dairy management on groundwater quality by examining the transport of monensin in an agricultural field with coarse-textured soils during irrigation with lagoon wastewater. The dairy is located in California's San Joaquin Valley, where groundwater can be encountered irrigated fields before and after an irrigation event, which allowed for measurement of monensin potentially reaching the shallow groundwater as a direct result of irrigation with lagoon water. Monensin was extracted from water samples via hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction and quantified with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Irrigation water was found to contain up to 1.6 μg L monensin, but monensin was only detected in monitoring wells surrounding the waste storage lagoon. Water chemistry changes in the wells bordering the irrigated field suggest that up to 7% of irrigation water reached groundwater within days of irrigation. The study suggests that contamination of groundwater with monensin can occur primarily by compromised waste storage systems and that rapid transport of monensin to groundwater is not likely to occur from a single irrigation event. PMID:27065394

  12. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniketh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and contents be eliminated as sources of infection. As the Enterococcus faecalis is a lso found to be the most important cause for endodontic failures, the action and efficacy of fewer irrigants against E. faecalis should also be given prime importance as of others. Therefore, the introduction of an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant during root canal therapy should be given priority in the hierarchy of root canal treatment. The purpose of this article is to analyse root canal irrigants, irrigation techniques and irrigation protocol.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ECONOMICAL AND SUSTAINABLE IRRIGATION RAM PUMP FOR COMMUNITY GARDENING IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Johns Hopkins Chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB-JHU) is working with local partners in KZN to improve and promote a locally designed (“Alcock”) ram pump as an appropriate and sustainable solution to problems of irrigation in much needed community vegeta...

  14. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  15. Structure of the human vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human...

  16. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public......The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...

  17. Dance Drama The Border Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    THE large-scale dance drama The Border Town performed by the Hunan Provincial Troupe attracted a large audience with its natural human touch, strong local flavour and elegant literature, provoking reverie from the people. The Border Town dance drama was adapted from the novel of the same name by Shen Congwen, an influential writer on Chinese modern literature. The Border Town, written in 1934, was his masterpiece, which gives a delicate account of the young love between the orphan girl Cuicui (who was a...

  18. Border effects and border regions: Lessons from the German unification

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines data on trade flows between West German Bundesländer (federal states) and East Germany to explore the effect of national borders on trade. Although the data cover only a small fraction of intra-German trade flows, I find a home bias of about factor 2.2; West German shipments to East Germany are about 120% larger than deliveries to an otherwise similar foreign country. Based on this result, possible implications for border regions are discussed

  19. Simulated optimization of crop yield through irrigation system design and operation based on the spatial variability of soil hydrodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial autocorrelation and kriging techniques were applied to soil infiltrability data from a 20 hectare field, to separate homogeneous irrigation units. Border irrigation systems were designed for each unit and combinations of units by using DESIGN, a computer model based on soil infiltrability and hydraulics of surface water flow, which enables optimal irrigation systems to be designed. Water depths effectively infiltrated at different points along the irrigation run were determined, and the agronomic irrigation efficiency of the unit evaluated. A modification of Hanks' evapotranspiration model, PLANTGRO, was used to evaluate plant growth, relative crop yield and soil-water economy throughout the growing season, at several points along each irrigation unit. The effect of different irrigation designs on total field yield and total water used for irrigation was evaluated by integrating yield values corresponding to each point, volume and inflow time during each irrigation. For relevant data from winter wheat grown in the central area of Chile during 1981, simulation by an interactive and sequentially recurrent use of DESIGN and PLANTGRO models, was carried out. The results obtained indicate that, when a field is separated into homogeneous irrigation units on the basis of the spatial variability of soil infiltrability and the border irrigation systems are designed according to soil characteristics, both a significant yield increase and less water use can be obtained by comparison with other criteria of field zonification for irrigation management. The use of neutrometric determinations to assess soil-water content during the growing season, as a validation of the results obtained in this work, is discussed. (author)

  20. Measuring irrigation performance in Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Mark; Ewing, Mandy; Msangi, Siwa

    2009-01-01

    "The paper develops indicators to look at the performance of the irrigation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, where demand for food is high and irrigation has a proven potential to boost levels of agricultural productivity. By looking at six indicator categories—institutional framework, water resource use, irrigation area, irrigation technology, agricultural productivity, and poverty and food security—we assess the potential for improving performance in the agricultural food security sector throu...

  1. Irrigation of wetlands in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Masija, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Over 1,164,000 ha of wetland areas are listed as suitable for irrigation, mainly for cropproduction and livestock grazing. Existing and planned irrigation schemes are described forthe ,main river basins where large areas are devoted to rice and sugar cane. Emphasis' isplaced on the value of small scale, farmer-managed irrigation schemes and the rehabilitation of traditional systems.

  2. Planning for an Irrigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. Howard; Anderson, Carl L.

    The publication, with the aid of tables and colored illustrations and diagrams, presents information to help the farmer who is considering the installation of an irrigation system determine whether or not to irrigate, the type of system to use, and the irrigation cost and return on investment. Information is presented on the increase in yield to…

  3. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidian, Shakib; Serralheiro, Ricardo; Teixeira, José Luís; Santos, Francisco; Oliveira, Mario do Rosário; Costa, José; Toureiro, Célia; Haie, Naim; Machado, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation is presently the main user of world´s fresh water. Most of it goes to irrigating small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. The dramatic development of Programmable Logic Controllers, PLCs, and their rather affordable price has made it possible to use them as stand-alone irrigation controllers. In this paper a PLC is used to adapt the daily irrigation amount to actual ETc, using a Hargreaves-Samani type equation. On...

  4. Recent Trends in Border Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Fullerton Jr

    2004-01-01

    Greater cross-border economic integration in many regions has caused the field of border economics to expand rapidly. It has also occurred as a growing recognition of the necessity to examine economic phenomena within the unique contexts imposed by geo-political market segmentation. Some of the areas in which substantial research efforts are being directed include population, business cycle transmission, exchange rates, industrial development, labor markets, environment, and natural resources.

  5. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  6. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  7. Investing in Smallholder Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Naugle, Jon; Sellen, Daniel; Darghouth, Salah; Dinar, Ariel

    2006-01-01

    Smallholder irrigated horticulture has proven to be a viable and attractive option for poor farmers in developing countries. This paper relates two important lessons learned: low-cost productive technologies must be available to smallholders in terms of both location and price and must correspond to their needs, and the importance of a market-led approach for financing technology acquisi...

  8. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fader; Shi, S; von Bloh, W.; A. Bondeau; Cramer, W.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080–2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming l...

  9. Evaluating the accuracy of soil water sensors for irrigation scheduling to conserve freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjegunte, Girisha K.; Sheng, Zhuping; Clark, John A.

    2012-06-01

    In the Trans-Pecos area, pecan [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] is a major irrigated cash crop. Pecan trees require large amounts of water for their growth and flood (border) irrigation is the most common method of irrigation. Pecan crop is often over irrigated using traditional method of irrigation scheduling by counting number of calendar days since the previous irrigation. Studies in other pecan growing areas have shown that the water use efficiency can be improved significantly and precious freshwater can be saved by scheduling irrigation based on soil moisture conditions. This study evaluated the accuracy of three recent low cost soil water sensors (ECH2O-5TE, Watermark 200SS and Tensiometer model R) to monitor volumetric soil water content (θv) to develop improved irrigation scheduling in a mature pecan orchard in El Paso, Texas. Results indicated that while all three sensors were successful in following the general trends of soil moisture conditions during the growing season, actual measurements differed significantly. Statistical analyses of results indicated that Tensiometer provided relatively accurate soil moisture data than ECH2O-5TE and Watermark without site-specific calibration. While ECH2O-5TE overestimated the soil water content, Watermark and Tensiometer underestimated. Results of this study suggested poor accuracy of all three sensors if factory calibration and reported soil water retention curve for study site soil texture were used. This indicated that sensors needed site-specific calibration to improve their accuracy in estimating soil water content data.

  10. Deficit irrigation practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrigated agriculture makes a major contribution to food security, producing nearly 40 percent of food and agricultural commodities on 17 percent of agricultural land. Irrigated areas have almost doubled in recent decades and contributed much to the growth in agricultural productivity over the last 50 years. Irrigated agriculture uses more than 70 percent of the water withdrawn from the earth's rivers; in developing countries the proportion exceeds 80 percent. The scope for further irrigation development to meet food requirements in the coming years is, however, severely constrained by decreasing water resources and growing competition for clean water. While on a global scale water resources are still ample, serious water shortages are developing in the arid and semi-arid regions as existing water resources reach full exploitation. The situation is exacerbated by the declining quality of water and soil resources. The dependency on water has become a critical constraint on further progress and threatens to slow down development, endangering food supplies and aggravating rural poverty. The great challenge for the coming decades will therefore be the task of increasing food production with less water, particularly in countries with limited water and land resources. Water productivity for food production was a major issue at the Second World Water Forum convened in March 2000 by the World Water Council in The Hague, the Netherlands, where a vision of progress towards water security was presented and an action framework for achieving this was developed. One of its main targets was defined as the need to increase water productivity for food production from rainfed and irrigated agriculture by 30 percent by 2015. Water stress affects crop growth and productivity in many ways. Most of the responses have a negative effect on production but crops have different and often complex mechanisms to react to shortages of water. Several crops and genotypes have developed different

  11. Border cracks: approaching border security from a complexity theory and systems perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Schwan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Presently, U.S. border security endeavors are compartmentalized, fragmented, and poorly coordinated. Moreover, international collaborations are extremely limited; success hinges on effective international cooperation. This thesis addresses U.S. border security management using complexity theory and a systems approach, incorporating both borders and all associated border security institutions simultaneously. Border security research ha...

  12. Asian irrigation, African rain: Remote impacts of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan; Claussen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation is not only vital for global food security but also constitutes an anthropogenic land use change, known to have strong effects on local hydrological and energy cycles. Using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model, we show that related impacts are not confined regionally but that possibly as much as 40% of the present-day precipitation in some of the arid regions in Eastern Africa are related to irrigation-based agriculture in Asia. Irrigation in South Asia also substantially influences the climate throughout Southeast Asia and China via the advection of water vapor and by altering the Asian monsoon. The simulated impact of irrigation on remote regions is sensitive to the magnitude of the irrigation-induced moisture flux. Therefore, it is likely that a future extension or decline of irrigated areas due to increasing food demand or declining fresh water resources will also affect precipitation and temperatures in remote regions.

  13. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J.D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  14. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  15. The 'border within': inhabiting the border in Trieste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.; Minca, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we look to the Italian border city of Trieste-at various points in its past, a cosmopolitan port, Austria's urbs europeissima, but also a battleground for competing understandings of territoriality, identity, and belonging and a paragon of the violent application of an ethnoterritorial

  16. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions.

  17. Automatic Irrigation System using WSNs

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder Singh Dhanoa1; Ravinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    During the entire, I went through various electronics equipment for the project. I learned about Controller 8051, Contact type sensors, Comparator and a little about other electrical equipments. Irrigation systems are as old as man itself since agriculture is the foremost occupation of civilized humanity. To irrigate large areas of plants is an onerous job. In order to overcome this problem many irrigation scheduling techniques have been developed which are mainly based on mon...

  18. Irrigated Acreage Projections in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ruohong; Mullen, Jeffrey D.; Bergstrom, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Irrigated acreage is an important indicator for agricultural water demand which is a major category of water use. Three methodologies were applied in this study to project irrigated acreage of major crops in Georgia from 2010 to 2050. These three methodologies show consistent results. Total irrigated acreage of major crops in Georgia is projected to increase for the next 40 years. The acreage projection results provide useful information for Georgia agricultural policy makers and farmers. How...

  19. Irrigation performance assessment tool (IPAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Roerink, G.J.; Noordman, E.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, the use of remote sensing data in irrigation water management is very limited, due to its low user-friendliness and the limited acquaintance of irrigation engineers with the remote sensing possibilities. To overcome these problems an easy to use GIS/Remote Sensing user interface is developed (by Alterra and WaterWatch), called Irrigation Performance Assessment Tool (IPAT), in consultation with the end users. IPAT is successfully tested and demonstrated for three pilot areas in Arge...

  20. Sediment transport in irrigation canals

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez V., N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The world population is rapidly increasing and is expected to double to about 10 billion by the year 2050. To support an increasing population in terms of food sufficiency, more and more water will be required. Irrigation is the most critical component of the modern package of inputs to effect high crop production. Irrigation has been the largest recipient of public agricultural investment in the developing world. Hence, continued investment in irrigation along with reforms in institutional a...

  1. On Borders: From Ancient to Postmodern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellezza, G.

    2013-11-01

    The article deals with the evolution of the concept of borders between human groups and with its slow evolution from the initial no men's land zones to the ideal single-dimension linear borders. In ancient times the first borders were natural, such as mountain ranges or large rivers until, with the development of Geodesy, astronomical borders based on meridians and parallels became a favourite natural base. Actually, Modern States adopted these to fix limits in unknown conquered territories. The postmodern thought led give more importance to cultural borders until, in the most recent times, is becoming rather impossible to fix borders in the virtual cyberspace.

  2. Integrated water resource management under water supply and irrigation development uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, E.; Elshorbagy, A. A.; Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.; Gober, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada, supports various water demands including municipal, industrial, irrigated agriculture, hydropower and environmental sectors. Proposals for future development include significantly increased irrigation. However, proposing an appropriate level of irrigation development requires incorporation of water supply uncertainties in the water resources management analysis, including effects of climate variability and change. To evaluate potential climate change effects, a feasible range of shifts in annual volume and peak timing of headwater flows are considered to stochastically generate flows at the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. This envelope of flows, 30,800 realizations, is further combined with various irrigation expansion areas to form various future scenarios. Using an integrated water resources model developed for Saskatchewan, the impact of irrigation development on the system is assessed under the changing water supply conditions. The results of this study show that level of irrigation development as well as variation in volume and peak timing of flows can all contribute to change the water availability, vulnerability and economic productivity of the water resources system in Saskatchewan. In particular, the combined effect of large irrigation expansion, reduction in the volume of flows and earlier timing of the annual peak can exacerbate water resources system vulnerability, produce unstable net revenues, and decrease flood frequency in the Saskatchewan River Delta.

  3. Irrigation trends in Kansas, 1991–2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet examines trends in total reported irrigation water use and acres irrigated as well as irrigation water use by crop type and system type in Kansas...

  4. Soil Water Distribution and Irrigation Uniformity Under Alternative Furrow Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ying-hua; KANG Shao-zhong; DU Tai-sheng; YANG Xiu-ying

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to investigate the spatial-temporal distribution and the uni-formity of soil water under alternative furrow irrigation in spring maize field in Gansu Province. Resultsshowed that during the crop growing season, alternative drying and wetting furrows could incur crops to en-dure a water stress, thus the adsorptive ability of root system could be enhanced. As there was no zero fluxplane between irrigated furrows and non-irrigated furrows under alternative furrow irrigation, lateral infiltra-tion of water was obviously increased, thus decreasing the deep percolation. Compared with the conventionalirrigation, although the water consumption in alternative furrow irrigation was reduced, the uniformity of soilwater was not obviously affected.

  5. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  6. Mexican migrants stay in border comfort zone

    OpenAIRE

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Madeline Zavodny

    2008-01-01

    Limited access to migrant networks and strong geographic preferences may underlie border migrants' willingness to settle for lower wages on the border rather than seek higher wages by venturing into the U.S. interior.

  7. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  8. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Calvo, Raúl; Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Juana Sirgado, Luis; Laguna Peñuelas, Francisco; Castañon Lion, Guillermo; Gil Rodríguez, María; Benitez Buelga, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure –sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are co...

  9. Borders and the Constraints on Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Fratianni

    2004-01-01

    National borders are a big hurdle to the expansion of the open economy. Integration today remains imperfect because national borders translate into trading costs, including differences in monetary regimes. Political borders shelter many goods and services from external competition and, consequently, represent a critical exogenous force in the integration process. Borders are thicker for the small countries than the large countries. Regional trade arrangements have softened or, in some cases, ...

  10. Borders and the Constraints of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Michele FRATIANNI

    2007-01-01

    National borders are a big hurdle to the expansion of the open economy. Integration today remains imperfect because national borders translate into trading costs, including differences in monetary regimes. Political borders shelter many goods and services from external competition and, consequently, represent a critical exogenous force in the integration process. Borders are thicker for the small countries than the large countries. Regional trade arrangements have softened or, in some cases, ...

  11. Energy and irrigation in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst C

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper, cost benefit analysis of energy sources for groundwater irrigation in India - considers petroleum and biomass engines, electric motors and rural area electrification, animal traction, handpumps, etc.; considers irrigation potential and its impact on agricultural production; assesses the economic implications of energy policy, and the impact of farm size. Graphs, map, references, statistical tables.

  12. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  13. Evapotranspiration of deficit irrigated sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deficit irrigation is used commonly in regions with reduced or limited irrigation capacity to increase water use efficiency (WUE). This research measured sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) water use (ET) and yield so WUE could be determined. Two precision weighing lysimeters were used to accurate...

  14. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  15. Border Effects in Passenger Air Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    2003-01-01

    National borders substantially matter in passenger air traffic. Empirical estimates based upon a new data set on domestic and international departures from German airports indicate that the German border reduces air traffic activity by a factor of four to five. This result adds a further piece of evidence to the significance of border effects in various kinds of economic activity.

  16. Border Crossing Monitoring along the Northern Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzmaurice, Mike; Hartmann, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Border-crossing times in East Africa have been identified as a major constraint for smooth trade flows, both for regional trade and for international transit. Delays at borders disrupt efficient trade logistics, impacting on the transport costs and prices, and ultimately on trade competitiveness. In order to improve the efficiency of border crossings in East Africa, the East Africa Communi...

  17. Cross-border merger and domestic welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Arijit Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    We consider the welfare effect of cross-border merger in presence of international R&D competition. Cross-border merger increases domestic welfare if the bargaining power of the foreign firm and the slope of the marginal cost of R&D are sufficiently low. Otherwise, domestic welfare is lower under cross-border merger.

  18. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  19. So many regions, so many borders. A behavioural approach in the analysis of border effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, B.M.R. van der

    1997-01-01

    Regions and borders are inseparably joined. Although quite some time is devoted to the discussion about the nature of borders, in essence borders are marking the ultimate extent of regions. The character of borders of course may differ, from for instance dividing elements between regions to more or

  20. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...... of choosing a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results do however not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....

  1. Strengthening border control and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world has experienced monumental changes in recent years. Globalization has brought many benefits. Business and commerce have increased and, as a result, brought us cheaper, more accessible goods from all regions of the world. We have access to relatively cheap and certainly much easier travel. We now live in a world of instant communications with mobile phones, laptops and 'BlackBerries'. However, there is a downside to globalization - transnationally organized crime and the reality of terrorism have grown. As more people cross borders, it is harder to detect criminals and terrorists. In the European Union, the internal borders of the now 27 member States have been dismantled. Effective international measures to counter organized crime and terrorist groups are of crucial importance. It is important to think globally and to act locally. The paper looks at some of the crime challenges and provides insight into the role and work of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in drugs and crime control. It focuses on border control initiatives conducted by the UNODC. (author)

  2. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Aija Lulle

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through a...

  3. Developed Foresight for Borders Model Predicts the Amount of Borders Traffic in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Tarkkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the factors which have an influence on travelling and presents the forecast model to Finnish-Russian land border. The number of border traffic between Finland and the Russian Federation’s border stations has been an upward trend through the 2000s. A significant part of growth is due to increased travelling of the Russian Federation’s citizens to the European Union. Forecasting of cross-border traffic and tourism in Finnish-Russian land border h...

  4. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against the...... background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  5. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  6. Effects of different irrigation methods on micro-environments and root distribution in winter wheat ifelds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L Guo-hua; SONG Ji-qing; BAI Wen-bo; WU Yong-feng; LIU Yuan; KANG Yao-hu

    2015-01-01

    The irrigation method used in winter wheat ifelds affects micro-environment factors, such as relative humidity (RH) within canopy, soil temperature, topsoil bulk density, soil matric potential, and soil nutrients, and these changes may affect plant root growth. An experiment was carried out to explore the effects of irrigation method on micro-environments and root distribution in a winter wheat ifeld in the 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 growing seasons. The results showed that border irrigation (BI), sprinkler irrigation (SI), and surface drip irrigation (SDI) had no signiifcant effects on soil temperature. Topsoil bulk density, RH within the canopy, soil available N distribution, and soil matric potential were signiifcantly affected by the three treatments. The change in soil matric potential was the key reason for the altered root proifle distribution patterns. Additional y, more ifne roots were produced in the BI treatment when soil water content was low and topsoil bulk density was high. Root growth was most stimulated in the top soil layers and inhibited in the deep layers in the SDI treatment, fol owed by SI and BI, which was due to the different water application frequencies. As a result, the root proifle distribution differed, depending on the irrigation method used. The root distribution pattern changes could be described by the power level variation in the exponential function. A good knowledge of root distribution patterns is important when attempting to model water and nutrient movements and when studying soil-plant interactions.

  7. Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

  8. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  9. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering c...

  10. Benefits of increased irrigation efficiency in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Adrian; Hafi, Ahmed

    2001-01-01

    Limited water availability in the face of increasing competing demands for water; including water for environmental purposes, has highlighted the need to make the most efficient use of the available water in the Murray Darling Basin. This study forces on the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (MIA) and considers the benefits of increasing irrigation efficiency. A model of the MIA which incorporates both on and off farm components is used to evaluate the benefits of adopting two on-farm options-twin...

  11. Performance indices for pumping stations in irrigated rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marini Köpp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Performance indices can be used as indices of energy use in irrigation systems. Pumping stations (PSs are elements that require energy for irrigation of rice fields by conventional flood irrigation. Interplay of physical, hydraulic, and electrical parameters generates indices that determine the performance in the diagnosis of PSs, operation, and projects for new sets. In this study, it was proposed and classified performance indices for PSs in rice fields, focusing on the efficient use of energy. The study was carried out through an investigation of 160 PSs in operation, located at the western border of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, which constituted an actual field situation. Next, PSs were optimized in relation to the selection of a piping system, using the lowest total cost, the choice of pump, and motors with better performance for the necessary situation as criteria. Results provided nine indices that classified the performance as "excellent", "very good", "good", "poor", and "very poor", which allowed the assessment of projects and the diagnosis of PSs.

  12. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  13. Constraints, Opportunities and Options in Irrigation Development

    OpenAIRE

    David, Wilfredo P.

    2000-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on the extent of irrigation development in the country. As a result, there has been a great deal of confusion over the statistics on the state of irrigation development. The NIA defines an irrigation service area as an area with irrigation facilities. In reality, the actual area served is much less than the service area. The disturbing implication is that we are very inefficient in the planning and implementation of irrigation projects. This very low actual ov...

  14. A MICROCOMPUTER MODEL FOR IRRIGATION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Buller, Orlan H.; Dvorak, Gary J.; Manges, Harry L.

    1988-01-01

    ICEASE (Irrigation Cost Estimator and System Evaluator) is a microcomputer model designed and developed to meet the need for conducting economic evaluation of adjustments to irrigation systems and management techniques to improve the use of irrigated water. ICEASE can calculate the annual operating costs for irrigation systems and has five options that can be used to economically evaluate improvements in the pumping plant or the way the irrigation system is used for crop production.

  15. Electric power tariffs for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tariff system compatible with the supply and demand evolution characteristics of electric power in Brazil based in economic costs is presented. The main purposes of the tariff politic is consolidated with the National Program of Irrigation. (author)

  16. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fader

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080–2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively. Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to

  17. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  18. Labour-market in a border-area; searching for jobs and the influence of borders

    OpenAIRE

    B. Martin R. van der Velde

    1998-01-01

    At the moment borders, border-related problems, and the process of tearing down borders are very much in the centre of interest. Especially in Europe a lot of scientific work is done with regard to borders of countries, to determine their role in the ongoing integration process. In this respect border-regions are considered to be able to play a catalytic role. The borderland economies on both sides of a national border in this view have to be changed into one transborder economy. Initiatives ...

  19. Swing Set Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambe Verma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT India is a vast country based on agriculture and irrigation is the most important factor for agriculture. In India there are many sources provide for irrigation. Every day new technologies are emerged in the world which brings a revolutionary change in the nature of this world. day by day the energy resources used by the large population of this world are coming on the last stage This project give the idea that how the other different form of energy can be used and implemented efficiently to overcome from this problem The aim of this project is to achieve the objective of energy lasting problem which is likely to be faced over in coming decades. Energy lasting is a big problem in India. This is faced by every people who live in the country. Swing energy is the form of energy. In this paper we have represented the methodology of swing energy using for rural area of application. This paper is all about Swing Set Water Pump in which the water pump will execute with the help of a swing set of canopy type. As we need a motor to operate the water pump but in this project we use the swing in the place of motor and we use oscillatory motion of swing in the place of rotating motion of a motor. Everybody has needed the energy at an increasing rate ever since he came on the Earth. Because of this lot of energy has been exhausted and wasted. All the member are dedicated the amount of their important time to participate in multiple meetings read and research for making the content to the report. We would especially like to thanks for the efficient condition of the entire Advisory member and their experiences. This study was initial and performed within the BUDDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GIDA Gorakhpur the final report represents the labour and interest of the entire member working for this project. Finally we would like to thanks to all the member of our college workshop who helped us in manufacturing of this project model.

  20. Network communities within and across borders

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Cerina; Alessandro Chessa; Fabio Pammolli; Massimo Riccaboni

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by t...

  1. The cross-border cooperation agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to achieve a short analysis of cross-border cooperation agreements between territorial-administrative units in the border areas of Romania and similar structures in neighboring states. The article investigates the form they takes these agreements – contract or treaty –, the role of multinational enterprises and the law applicable to transnational contracts, the cross-border cooperation agreement governed by Law no. 215/2001 on local public administration and its legal nature. ...

  2. Competitiveness of the Economies of Border Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhenov Yu.; Nikulkhenkov K.

    2009-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problem of competitiveness of border regions as subjects of the Russian Federation having specific characteristics. The authors focus on the stages, during which border regions build their competitiveness, as well as analyse certain indices characterizing it. They examine the role of these regions in the development of international trade and economic relations, cross-border cooperation and international integration, taking the North-west federal district and t...

  3. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  4. A new irrigation priority index based on remote sensing data for assessing the networks irrigation scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Belaqziz, S.; Khabba, S.; Er-Raki, S.; Jarlan, Lionel; Le Page, M.; Kharrou, M.H.; El Adnani, M.; Chehbouni, Abdelghani

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation scheduling has become an important tool that significantly influences growth, development and production of crops, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the South Mediterranean. In these regions, most of the irrigation scheduling of the gravity irrigation networks are not optimized in terms of timing and water quantity. In this paper, we present a way of characterizing the irrigation distribution by the extensively used irrigation systems through a new irrigation index: the "...

  5. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.

  6. Is the international border effect larger than the domestic border effect? Evidence from US trade

    OpenAIRE

    Cletus C. Coughlin; Novy, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have found that international borders represent large barriers to trade. But how do international borders compare to domestic border barriers? We investigate international and domestic border barriers in a unified framework. We consider a data set of exports from individual U.S. states to foreign countries and combine it with trade flows between and within U.S. states. After controlling for distance and country size, we estimate that relative to state-to-state trade, crossing an ...

  7. The development of cross-border economic relationships between firms in border regions

    OpenAIRE

    Houtum, Henk van

    1998-01-01

    Central question of this paper is what effects a state border has on the development of cross-border economic relationships in border regions. First the geographical spread of these relationships is analysed. Next a theoretical model is proposed to explain the pattern and the decision-process of bilateral international economic relationships. The model is mainly based on four theories: 1. the transaction costs approach on cross border economic relations under the condition of uncertainty. 2. ...

  8. Interoperability at the Border: Coordinated Border Management Best Practices & Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2010-01-01

    Interoperability among government agencies at national borders, also known as coordinated border management (CBM), is a fundamental component of a nation's modernized customs and border control strategy. It comprises the streamlining of parallel processes and technologies enabling different government agencies to effectively work together on border issues. By 4 implementing CBM strategies at both the domestic and international levels, countries can reduce internal costs and inefficiencies, im...

  9. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu); Nicolae-Eugen Munteanu

    2012-01-01

    To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external b...

  10. The Armchair at the Borders: The "Messy" Ideas of Borders and Border Epistemologies within Multicultural Science Education Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to further articulate multicultural science education scholarship. In particular, it explores the notions of borders and border epistemologies as intellectual resources to think again about the challenges of science education in the global world that demand more sophisticated concepts to unravel some of its complexities. It…

  11. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification cards; combined border crossing identification cards and B-1/B-2 visitor visas. 41.32 Section 41... crossing identification cards; combined border crossing identification cards and B-1/B-2 visitor visas. (a) Combined B-1/B-2 visitor visa and border crossing identification card (B-1/B-2 Visa/BCC)—(1)...

  12. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  13. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  14. Radiological Evaluation of Penetration of the Irrigant according to Three Endodontic Irrigation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkiran, Imane; El Ouazzani, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This experimental study is to compare radiographs based on the penetration depth of the irrigant following three final irrigation techniques. Material and Method. A sample of sixty teeth with single roots were prepared with stainless steel K files followed by mechanized Ni-Ti files iRace® under irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Radiopaque solution was utilized to measure the penetration depth of the irrigant. Three irrigation techniques were performed during this study: (i) passive irrigation, (ii) manually activated irrigation, and (iii) passive irrigation with an endodontic needle CANAL CLEAN®. Radiographs were performed to measure the length of irrigant penetration in each technique. Results. In comparison, passive irrigation with a conventional syringe showed infiltration of the irrigant by an average of 0.682 ± 0.105, whereas the manually activated irrigation technique indicated an average of 0.876 ± 0.066 infiltration. Irrigation with an endodontic syringe showed an average infiltration of 0.910 ± 0.043. The results revealed highly significant difference between the three irrigation techniques (α = 5%). Conclusion. Adding manual activation to the irrigant improved the result by 20%. This study indicates that passive irrigation with an endodontic needle has proved to be the most effective irrigation technique of the canal system. PMID:27433162

  15. Irrigation management with remote sensing. [Navajo Indian Irrigation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, C.; Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D.; Myers, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Two visible/near IR hand held radiometers and a hand held thermoradiometer were used along with soil moisture and lysimetric measurements in a study of soil moisture distribution in afalfa fields on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project near farmington, New Mexico. Radiances from irrigated plots were measured and converted to reflectances. Surface soil water contents (o cm to 4 cm) were determined gravimetrically on samples collected at the same time as the spectral measurements. The relationship between the spectral measurements and the crop coefficient were evaluated to demonstrate potential for using spectral measurement to estimate crop coefficient.

  16. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which to build…

  17. BorderScapes: Redesigning the Borderland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, H.J. van; Eker, M.

    2015-01-01

    The internal borders in the European Union were opened more than twenty years ago. However, a comprehensive and coordinated spatial vision for the border landscape is yet to be composed. Bureaucratic cooperation procedures in combination with new nationalistic sentiments in the EU only seem to block

  18. Cross-border mobility of Iraqi refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Chatelard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Far more attention needs to be paid to the circulation of Iraqirefugees across the borders between Iraq and Syria or Jordan. Lackof analysis of this cross-border mobility will be to the detriment ofpolicy planning and the search for durable solutions.

  19. Cross-border mobility of Iraqi refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Géraldine Chatelard

    2010-01-01

    Far more attention needs to be paid to the circulation of Iraqirefugees across the borders between Iraq and Syria or Jordan. Lackof analysis of this cross-border mobility will be to the detriment ofpolicy planning and the search for durable solutions.

  20. Border Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Jennifer Andrea

    2011-01-01

    AbstractBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico BorderbyJennifer Andrea ReimerDoctor of Philosophy in Ethnic StudiesUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor José David Saldívar, Co-ChairProfessor Laura E. Pérez, Co-ChairBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border is a transnational, interdisciplinary cultural study of the contemporary U.S.-Mexico border that argues for the critical role of the international border in the racial past, p...

  1. METROBORDER. Cross-border Polycentric Metropolitan Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Metropolitan regions are generally seen as drivers for territorial development in the national context, as well as drivers for economic, social and cultural development on a European and global scale. Many border regions dispose of specific potentials but also specific barriers for a cross-border...... polycentric metropolitan region. However, cross-border areas appear to be systematically underestimated in their development opportunities so that awareness about specific advantages needs to be improved. This is why this project addresses cross-border metropolitan regions in Europe in relation to the policy...... aim of polycentric development. It aims at identifying criteria, potentials and governance practices based on available ESPON evidence for polycentric cross-border metropolitan regions in Europe and proposing options for development strategies towards a multilevel approach for two case study regions...

  2. Irrigation and groundwater in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Iftikhar Kazmi, Syed

    2010-05-01

    Introduction of large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in late nineteenth century without a drainage system resulted in water table rise consequently giving rise to water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem government initiated salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in 1960. Initially 10,000 tube wells were installed in different areas, which not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the full irrigation motivated framers to install private tube wells. Present estimate of private tube wells in Punjab alone is around 0.6 million and 48 billion cubic meter of groundwater is used for irrigation, contributing is 1.3 billion to the economy. The Punjab meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tubewells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. As the importance of groundwater in sustaining human life and ecology is evident so are the threats to its sustainability due to overexploitation, but sufficient information for its sustainable management especially in developing countries is still required. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. Groundwater recharge is broadly defined as water that reaches the aquifer from any direction (Lerner 1997). Sustainability and proper management of groundwater resource requires reliable quantification of the resource. In order to protect the resource from contamination and over exploitation, identification of recharge sources and their contribution to resource is a basic requirement. Physiochemical properties of some pesticides and their behavior in soil and water can make them potential tracers of subsurface moisture movement. Pesticides are intensively used in the area to

  3. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  4. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  5. Ghana - Ghana Compact I Irrigation Schemes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga...

  6. AGROCLIMATIC DETERMINANTS OF IRRIGATION NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Łabędzki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the so far used in Poland methods and criteria for assessing the needs of irrigation for planning purposes, the assessment because of the agroclimatic conditions and taking into account the soil water retention. Irrigation needs of the most are determined taking into account crop water deficits. This is the factor that is characterized by a shortage of precipitation in relation to the water requirements of crops. Some methods use only the meteorological parameters that determine the state of the atmosphere-soil-plant system, and some also take into account soil water retention and its availability for plants.

  7. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured performan

  8. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrutia Cobo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands locat

  9. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  10. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Aureo S. de Oliveira; Ricardo Trezza; Eduardo Holzapfel; Ignacio Lorite; Vital Pedro S Paz

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found...

  11. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant P. Jaju; Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  12. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  13. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  14. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  15. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users in...... activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that ccTLDs are not...

  16. CROSS-BORDER PROJECTS – MEANS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ALONG THE ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Maria BÂTEA (BOTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the linkage between establishing crossborder relations and tourism development by focusing on ten tourism projects implemented under Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Programme (2007-2013. The study area comprises the two neighbouring counties of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, the border connecting two areas characterised by social and economic similarities. Building on a solid foundation, as the first Hungarian-Romanian cross-border initiatives were launched nearly two decades ago, the two counties work together towards the shared aim of developing business infrastructure, cross-border trade, culture and tourism. The present study examines the relevance of cross-border projects viewed from the perspective of sustainable tourism development in two peripheral counties featuring similar resources. Moreover, the investigation is based on consultation of project documents, reports and promotional materials, against the theoretical framework of cross-border cooperation and regional development.

  17. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  18. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates in...... seeking children in Denmark is assessed as a form of liberal nationalism. Several problematic features with this system are discussed, such as the lacking Danish implementation of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, and the use of cultural generalizations in case evaluations. Chapter four conducts...... in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry and the...

  19. Networks communities within and across borders

    CERN Document Server

    Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...

  20. Book review: Beyond walls and borders: prisons, borders, and global crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Tabarez, Ulises

    2013-01-01

    "Beyond Walls and Borders." Jenna M. Lold, Matt Mitchelson and Andrew Burridge (eds.). University of Georgia Press. December 2012. --- The crisis of borders and prisons can be seen starkly in statistics. In 2011 some 1,500 migrants died trying to enter Europe, and the United States deported nearly 400,000 and imprisoned some 2.3 million people—more than at any other time in history. International borders are increasingly militarized places embedded within domestic policing and imprisonment an...

  1. A DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF WATER SAVINGS FROM ADVANCED IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hornbaker, Robert H.; Mapp, Harry P., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A computerized grain sorghum plant growth model is combined with recursive programming to analyze the potential irrigation water savings from adopting irrigation scheduling and low pressure center pivot irrigation technology. Results indicate that irrigation pumping can be reduced with increased yields and net returns by adopting low energy precision application (LEPA) irrigation systems. Variations in input and output prices affect optimal irrigation quantities for low pressure irrigation sy...

  2. IRRIGATION PRODUCTION FUNCTIONS WITH WATER-CAPITAL SUBSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Shani, Uri; Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos; Zilberman, David

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of biomass growth implies that the yield of irrigated crops depends, in addition to the total amount of water applied, on irrigation scheduling during the growing period. Advanced irrigation technologies relax constraints on irrigation rates and timing, allowing to better adjust irrigation scheduling to the varying needs of the plants along the growing period. Irrigation production functions, then, should include capital (or expenditures on irrigation equipment) in addition to ag...

  3. Radiation safety without borders initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Safety Without Borders (RSWB) initiative provides peer support to radiation safety professionals in developing countries, which bolsters the country's infrastructure and may lead the way for IRPA Associate membership. The Health Physics Society (HPS) recognizes that many nations do not possess the infrastructure to adequately control and beneficially use ionizing radiation. In a substantial number of countries, organized radiation protection programs are minimal. The RSWB initiative relies on HPS volunteers to assist their counterparts in developing countries with emerging health physics and radiation safety programs, but whose resources are limited, to provide tools that promote and support infrastructure and help these professionals help themselves. RSWB experience to date has shown that by providing refurbished instruments, promoting visits to a HPS venue, or visiting a country just to look provide valuable technical and social infrastructure experiences often missing in the developing nation's cadre of radiation safety professionals. HPS/RSWB with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) pairs chapters with a country, with the expectation that the country's professional radiation safety personnel will form a foreign HPS chapter, and the country eventually will become an IRPA Associate. Although still in its formative stage, RSWB nonetheless has gotten valuable information in spite of the small number of missions. The RSWB initiative continues to have significant beneficial impacts, including: Improving the radiation safety infrastructure of the countries that participate; Assisting those countries without professional radiation safety societies to form one; Strengthening the humanitarian efforts of the United States; Enhancing Homeland Security efforts through improved control of radioactive material internationally. Developing countries, including those in Latin America, underwritten by IAEA, may take advantage of resources

  4. The development of cross-border economic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the influence of a state border on the development of cross-border economic relations in the European Union. The focus is on the frequency, number, and success of cross-border relations between firms in the border regions of the Netherlands and Belgium. The study fills

  5. Precision Irrigation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, H.J.; Nell, Wilhelm T.

    2002-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa covers an area of 122 million hectare of which 18 million hectare is potential land for cultivation. Eight percent of the potential arable land are under irrigation, which accounts for nearly half of the water requirement in South Africa. With a population of 42 million and an estimated annual population growth of 1,7%, urbanisation and industrialisation will increase the pressure on the availability of water resources and the allocation thereof in South Africa. T...

  6. Irrigation externalities: pricing and charges

    OpenAIRE

    Gavan Dwyer; Robert Douglas; Deb Peterson; Jo Chong; Kate Maddern

    2006-01-01

    The Productivity Commission Staff Working Paper ‘Irrigation externalities: pricing and charges. by Gavan Dwyer, Robert Douglas, Deb Peterson, Jo Chong and Kate Maddern was released on 14 March 2006. The paper discusses the nature and causes of environmental change related to rural water use, and provides a taxonomy of the many diverse types. It also examines the issues surrounding possible charges on water use for water related externalities. There have been few attempts by water utilities to...

  7. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan Aravind

    2009-01-01

    The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS), incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vect...

  8. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  9. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fader; Shi, S; Bloh, W.; A. Bondeau; Cramer, W.

    2016-01-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080–2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of...

  10. Joint irrigation districts hydropower assessment study. Final feasibility assessment report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In August 1978, the United States Department of Energy and the Turlock Irrigation District entered into a cooperative agreement for a Joint District's Low-Head Hydropower Assessment Study. The purpose of the agreement was to carry out a study of the hydropower potential at sites within the borders of the Turlock, Merced, South San Joaquin, and Oakdale Irrigation Districts in California. The required data were gathered and analyzed. The results of this study indicate the total potential small hydropower capacity with the Joint Districts is 19,560 kW installed with an annual energy generation of 68,561,800 kWh. This is equivalent to oil-savings of 118,616 barrels per y.

  11. Imagining and Imaging Borders: Understanding Borderlands for Global Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    V. Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, sel...

  12. Productivity of Onions Using Subsurface Drip Irrigation versus Furrow Irrigation Systems with an Internet Based Irrigation Scheduling Program

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Enciso; John Jifon; Juan Anciso; Luis Ribera

    2015-01-01

    Selection of the proper irrigation method will be advantageous to manage limited water supplies and increase crop profitability. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) and furrow irrigation on onion yield and irrigation use efficiency. This study was conducted in two locations, a commercial field and a field located at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center in Weslaco, TX. This study was conducted as a split-plot design for both site...

  13. The humanitarian politics of European border policing: Frontex and border police in Evros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Pallister-Wilkins

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores humanitarianism in the practice of Frontex-assisted Greek border police in Evros and of Frontex at their headquarters in Warsaw. Building on the increase in humanitarian justifications for border policing practices as well as the charges of a lack of humanity, the paper analyzes

  14. Effects of Irrigation in India on the Atmospheric Water Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Stacke, T.; Wiltshire, A.; Lucas-Picher, P.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of large-scale irrigation in India on the moisture budget of the atmosphere was investigated using three regional climate models and one global climate model, all of which performed an irrigated run and a natural run without irrigation. Using a common irrigation map, year-round irrigation

  15. Network communities within and across borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index. PMID:24686380

  16. Irrigation Management and Water Pricing in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Cakmak, Erol H.

    2010-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Turkey currently consumes 75 percent of the total water consumption, which corresponds to about 30 percent of the renewable water supply. Unfavorable future global climate and economic conditions will increase the stress in the water sector. The operation and maintenance (O&M) of almost all large surface irrigation schemes developed by the state has been transferred to irrigation associations governed by the farmers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview...

  17. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  18. Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereres, Elias; Soriano, María Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    At present and more so in the future, irrigated agriculture will take place under water scarcity. Insufficient water supply for irrigation will be the norm rather than the exception, and irrigation management will shift from emphasizing production per unit area towards maximizing the production per unit of water consumed, the water productivity. To cope with scarce supplies, deficit irrigation, defined as the application of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is an important tool to achieve the goal of reducing irrigation water use. While deficit irrigation is widely practised over millions of hectares for a number of reasons - from inadequate network design to excessive irrigation expansion relative to catchment supplies - it has not received sufficient attention in research. Its use in reducing water consumption for biomass production, and for irrigation of annual and perennial crops is reviewed here. There is potential for improving water productivity in many field crops and there is sufficient information for defining the best deficit irrigation strategy for many situations. One conclusion is that the level of irrigation supply under deficit irrigation should be relatively high in most cases, one that permits achieving 60-100% of full evapotranspiration. Several cases on the successful use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in fruit trees and vines are reviewed, showing that RDI not only increases water productivity, but also farmers' profits. Research linking the physiological basis of these responses to the design of RDI strategies is likely to have a significant impact in increasing its adoption in water-limited areas. PMID:17088360

  19. Design of Solar Steam Irrigation Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Kumar Dhimmar, Jay Prajapti, Mital Patel, Dhruv Patel, Banti Mistry, Jignesh Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Solar irrigation pump is this type of device which uses solar energy for water pumping. Water pumping is an energy intensive activity and consumes a large amount man power, diesel and electricity. Smallholder farmers in low income countries can benefit from affordable irrigation pump systems as they enable cultivation of high value crops during dry season. Currently the majority of small irrigation pumps are manually operated which is time consuming and require...

  20. The Temporal Variation of Leaf Water Potential in Pistachio under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Yusuf; KANBER, Rıza; ÜNLÜ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the experimental field of Pistachio Research Institute on pistachio trees which has uzun variety that was 30 years old. The aim of this research was to determine the Leaf Water Potential (LWP) of Pistacia vera L. under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. In the study, the leaf water potential of pistachio was investigated under fully irrigated and non irrigated conditions. The leaf water potential values were measured one day before and after irrigatio...

  1. The U.S.-Mexico Border and Children’s Social Imaginary: An Analysis of Wacha el Border and Beyond the Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Iglesias-Prieto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Norma Iglesias-Prieto’s article is based on the films Wacha el border, created by twelve children from Tijuana, and Beyond the Border, created by ten children from San Diego. It aims at understanding the extent to which the U.S.-Mexico border is significant in children’s social representations of themselves and others. Focusing on the Tijuana/San Diego transboundary urbanized region, Iglesias-Prieto questions traditional representations and perceptions of the border.

  2. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since Ken

  3. Effect of biofilm in irrigation pipes on the microbial quality of irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that microbial quality of irrigation water can be substantially altered by the association of E. coli with pipe lining in irrigation systems. Methods and Results: The sprinkler irrigation system was outfitted with coupons that were extracted before four 2-hour long irri...

  4. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...

  5. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  6. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  7. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied......The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...

  8. EU BORDER MANAGEMENT AFTER THE LISBON TREATY

    OpenAIRE

    Rijpma, Jorrit Jelle

    2009-01-01

    Summary: This article looks at how the Lisbon Treaty will affect the management of the EU’s external borders. It examines the current treaty framework and the way in which the Community has made use of its powers in this policy field. It discusses the changes the Lisbon Treaty is likely to bring about and gives a short overview of how the future management of the external borders is taking shape in the absence of ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. The underlying theme of this contribution i...

  9. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.

    2012-01-01

    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  10. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature-space into...

  11. Border installations: the experience of Wackersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the decision of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany to construct a fuel reprocessing plant (in the wider context of organising radioactive waste disposal) at Wackersdorf, 130 km from the Austrian border, actions were brought against the German constructor before Austrian and German courts. The author describes the mechanisms governing administrative procedures in both countries and their connection with public international law. He analyses the legal argumentations developed before the different courts as well as the debate on the concept of territoriality and border installations (NEA)

  12. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health." PMID:26075195

  13. Irrigation as an historical climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2015-03-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  14. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  15. The Impact of Changing Snowmelt Timing on Non-Irrigated Crop Yield in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, E. M.; Cobourn, K.; Flores, A. N.; Pierce, J. L.; Kunkel, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on water resources have implications for both agricultural production and grower welfare. Many mountainous regions in the western U.S. rely on snowmelt as the dominant surface water source, and in Idaho, reconstructions of spring snowmelt timing have demonstrated a trend toward earlier, more variable snowmelt dates within the past 20 years. This earlier date and increased variability in snowmelt timing have serious implications for agriculture, but there is considerable uncertainty about how agricultural impacts vary by region, crop-type, and practices like irrigation vs. dryland farming. Establishing the relationship between snowmelt timing and agricultural yield is important for understanding how changes in large-scale climatic indices (like snowmelt date) may be associated with changes in agricultural yield. This is particularly important where local practitioner behavior is influenced by historically observed relationships between these climate indices and yield. In addition, a better understanding of the influence of changes in snowmelt on non-irrigated crop yield may be extrapolated to better understand how climate change may alter biomass production in non-managed ecosystems. To investigate the impact of snowmelt date on non-irrigated crop yield, we developed a multiple linear regression model to predict historical wheat and barley yield in several Idaho counties as a function of snowmelt date, climate variables (precipitation and growing degree-days), and spatial differences between counties. The relationship between snowmelt timing and non-irrigated crop yield at the county level is strong in many of the models, but differs in magnitude and direction for the two different crops. Results show interesting spatial patterns of variability in the correlation between snowmelt timing and crop yield. In four southern counties that border the Snake River Plain and one county bordering Oregon, non-irrigated wheat and/or barley yield are

  16. Determination of Water Use Effectiveness in Hayrabolu Irrigation Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Yuksel; M.Sener

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of irrigation water use in HayraboluIrrigation Scheme, established in 1987 and transferred to irrigation cooperative. The study was completed intwo years in order to minimize the meteorological and environmental effects on evapotranspiration andirrigation water requirement. Irrigation application efficiency and sufficiency of farmer irrigation applicationwere investigated at 20 different farmers’ fields.Pressurized irrigation was prevail...

  17. Drip irrigation design for hopfield as a part of a large irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Bosnar, Blaž

    2016-01-01

    The hop industry was striving for stable long-time production in the eighties of the 20th century and began to emerge desire for irrigation hopfields and the construction of large irrigation systems in the Lower Savinja Valley. The former embodiment has been designed on the base of drum rolomats, which are known as large water users. Newer technology is drip irrigation, which ensures the rational use of water and its use is gaining over the years. Drip irrigation system for irrigation of hopf...

  18. The final frontier? Border effects and German regional wages

    OpenAIRE

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; Schramm, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies of border effects have focused on the intra-country and inter-country comparison of trade flows. It is found that borders have a negative impact on the size of cross-border trade. In order to estimate border effects on a regional level one needs not only data on inter-country but also on intra-country trade. For many countries (regional) data on intra-country trade are simply lacking, which makes an analysis of border effects and border regions cumbersome. In this paper we take...

  19. Smart border: ad-hoc wireless sensor networks for border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2011-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been proposed as promising candidates to provide automated monitoring, target tracking, and intrusion detection for border surveillance. In this paper, we demonstrate an ad-hoc wireless sensor network system for border surveillance. The network consists of heterogeneously autonomous sensor nodes that distributively cooperate with each other to enable a smart border in remote areas. This paper also presents energy-aware and sleeping algorithms designed to maximize the operating lifetime of the deployed sensor network. Lessons learned in building the network and important findings from field experiments are shared in the paper.

  20. Appendix 1: Border-Crossing Infrastructure: The Case of the Russian Mongolian Border

    OpenAIRE

    Batomunkuev, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    The importance of cross-border cooperation between countries is a topical issue at a time when the increase of cross-border contacts plays an important part in international affairs and economic relations; Russia and its neighbouring countries in East and Southeast Asia are no exception. Yet the development of such cooperation is possible only if the border is seen not as a barrier but as a point of contact between countries. Such an active role, however, is made possible by a degree of borde...

  1. The historical borders and the cross-border connections' effect on Debrecen's spirituality and cultural economy

    OpenAIRE

    Süli-Zakar, István; Kecskés, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    In the current paper we wanted to investigate the historical process which resulted in Debrecen’s contemporary (cultural) traditions and formed the city’s self-image. In the course of the research which was after the city’s historic past we investigated the role of the changing borders and the possibilities of the cross-border Euroregional cooperation as well. The nearby border has effect on the city’s economic and tourist life. In the last years (during the urban regeneration), many projects...

  2. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Chukalla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumptive water footprint (WF reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for fresh water. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET and yield (Y and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET/Y. The management practices are: four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD; four irrigation strategies (full (FI, deficit (DI, supplementary (SI and no irrigation; and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML and synthetic (SML mulching. Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types; and three crops. The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching. The average reduction in the consumptive WF is: 8–10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD; 13 % when changing to OML; 17–18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML; and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow is lower.

  3. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  4. 波涌流灌在山东引黄灌区冬小麦机井灌中的应用%Experimental Research on Surge Irrigation Applied to Well Irrigation of Winter Wheat in Yellow River Irrigation Area of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    This test used the original pumped well irrigation facilities to irrigate the border check of general specification (3 m × 95 m) with surge irrigation system in Yellow River irrigation area of Shandong Province .And we compared the surge irrigation water flow propulsion ,change of soil water content and water use efficiency of winter wheat with continuous irrigation .Under the test condi‐tion ,the results showed that the second period of surge irrigation which had two periods and whose water-saving rate was 10% was 1 .85~1 .88 times the average speed of continuous irrigation .And the second period's water propulsion length after watering was 1 .50~1 .71 times that of continuous irrigation .These proved that surge irrigation finished the irrigation task with high quality .At the same time ,the water use efficiency of winter wheat increased by 10 .41% .%试验利用山东引黄灌区内原有机井灌溉设施,在灌区生产较普遍规格(3m×95m)畦田内进行波涌流灌溉,并在水流推进、土壤含水率变化、冬小麦水分利用效率方面与连续灌溉进行了对比。试验条件下研究结果表明,周期数为2,节水率为10%的波涌流灌第二周期平均水流推进速度为连续灌溉的1.85~1.88倍,波涌流灌第二周期停水后的冲长为连续灌停水后的1.50~1.71倍,可以高质量完成灌溉任务,并且冬小麦水分利用效率提高10.41%。

  5. Tomato Root Response to Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUGE Yu-Ping; ZHANG Xu-Dong; ZHANG Yu-Long; LI Jun; YANG Li-Juan; HUANG Yi; LIU Ming-Da

    2004-01-01

    Four depth treatments of subsurface drip irrigation pipes were designated as 1) at 20,2) 30 and 3) 40 cm depths all with a drip-proof flumes underneath,and 4) at 30 cm without a drip-proof flume to investigate the responses of a tomato root system to different technical parameters of subsurface drip irrigation in a glass greenhouse,to evaluate tomato growth as affected by subsurface drip irrigation,and to develop an integrated subsurface drip irrigation method for optimal tomato yield and water use in a glass greenhouse. Tomato seedlings were planted above the subsurface drip irrigation pipe. Most of the tomato roots in treatment 1 were found in the top 0-20 cm soil depth with weak root activity but with yield and water use efficiency (WUE) significantly less (P ---- 0.05) than treatment 2; root activity and tomato yield were significantly higher (P = 0.05) with treatment 3 compared to treatment 1; and with treatment 2 the tomato roots and shoots grew harmoniously with root activity,nutrient uptake,tomato yield and WUE significantly higher (P= 0.05) or as high as the other treatments. These findings suggested that subsurface drip irrigation with pipes at 30 cm depth with a drip-proof flume placed underneath was best for tomato production in greenhouses. In addition,the irrigation interval should be about 7-8 days and the irrigation rate should be set to 225 m3 ha-1 per event.

  6. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.;

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent of the...

  7. Dutch experience in irrigation water management modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The first workshop organized by the National Committee of the Netherlands of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) has brought many Dutch scientists together in the field of irrigation water management to exchange their experiences in modelling. The models range from rather

  8. Soil Enzyme Activities with Greenhouse Subsurface Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Long; WANG Yao-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Various environmental conditions determine soil enzyme activities, which are important indicators for changes of soil microbial activity, soil fertility, and land quality. The effect of subsurface irrigation scheduling on activities of three soil enzymes (phosphatase, urease, and catalase) was studied at five depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-60 cm) of a tomato greenhouse soil. Irrigation was scheduled when soil water condition reached the maximum allowable depletion(MAD) designed for different treatments (-10, -16, -25, -40, and -63 kPa). Results showed that soil enzyme activities had significant responses to the irrigation scheduling during the period of subsurface irrigation. The neutral phosphatase activity and the catalase activity were found to generally increase with more frequent irrigation (MAD of -10 and -16kPa). This suggested that a higher level of water content favored an increase in activity of these two enzymes. In contrast,the urease activity decreased under irrigation, with less effect for MAD of -40 and -63 kPa. This implied that relatively wet soil conditions were conducive to retention of urea N, but relatively dry soil conditions could result in increasing loss of urea N. Further, this study revealed that soil enzyme activities could be alternative natural bio-sensors for the effect of irrigation on soil biochemical reactions and could help optimize irrigation management of greenhouse crop production.

  9. Scheduling Irrigation on Non-Flooded Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    While continuous-flood irrigation, the most common method for US rice production, can have a fairly high application efficiency, factors such as soil variability and the size of most Mid-South farming operations combine to reduce the efficiency in many cases. Center pivot irrigation is one potential...

  10. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Boutsioukis; L.W.M. van der Sluis

    2015-01-01

    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  11. Men, Masculinities and Water Powers in Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to provide an informed plea for more explicitly identifying, naming and unravelling the linkages between water control and gender in irrigation. The fact that power, expertise and status in irrigation tend to have a strong masculine connotation is by now quite we

  12. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  13. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  14. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermo

  15. Transcending Cultural Borders: Implications for Science Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Aikenhead, Glen S.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews collateral learning theory as a cognitive explanation for how pupils cope with disparate worldviews mediated by transcending cultural borders between their everyday culture and the culture of science. Proposes a new pedagogy in which teachers assume the role of culture broker in the classroom to achieve culturally sensitive curriculum and…

  16. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating the...

  17. Lesson plan. Crossing borders: the globalization debate

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2008-01-01

    Students will consider both sides of the globalization debate—the benefits and the costs—by reading and discussing the article "Crossing Borders: The Globalization Debate" from the Spring 2008 issue of Inside the Vault. Working in groups, students will analyze statements regarding the benefits and costs of globalization, categorize the statements and discuss them.

  18. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate the...

  19. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected. PMID:15971901

  20. A NEW APPROACH FOR BORDER EXTRACTION USING MORPHOLOGICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rama Bai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of border detection is to mark the points in a digital image at which the luminous intensity changes sharply. Acute changes in image features usually reflect important events and changes inproperties of the world. These include (a discontinuities in depth (b discontinuities in surface orientation (c changes in material properties and (d variations in scene illumination. A novel algorithm based on multi-scale morphological method for the purpose of border detection is introduced. Standard morphological border detection methods use single and symmetrical structure elements which are used exhaustively in image processing. They could detect the alterations of gray level, but are difficult to detect complex border feature because they are only sensitive to image border which has the same direction of structure elements. A new border detection method based on multi-structure element morphology of eight different directions is proposed. The ability of the proposed detection method is that we get eight different border detection results by using morphological gradient algorithm respectively and final border result is obtained by using synthetic weighted method. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm obtains clear and exact borders of the image by retaining the image details and it out performs the conventional morphological border detection algorithms and differential border detection operators. This technique shows the worth of border detection and the ability of detecting sharp complex borders.

  1. Infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, William C.; Thiros, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of Panguitch Valley and adjacent areas, south-central Utah, was studied during 1988-90. One objective of the study was to measure ground-water recharge from infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level and soil-moisture data were used to estimate travel times for water moving down through the soil profile, and to compare quantities of water reaching the water table after application of flood and sprinkler irrigation. During this study, estimates of travel times from land surface to the water table ranged from 11 days in June 1989 to 2 days in September 1989. Estimates of irrigation water recharging the ground-water system ranged from 25 to 75 percent of the water applied to the flood-irrigated field. Virtually no recharge was apparent for the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  2. Deficit irrigation in semi-arid zone irrigation projects: Case studies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugarbeet with water stress imposed during ripening stage saved nearly 22% water, yet with not significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Trakya Region, the European part of Turkey, and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower (i.e. yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stages influences yield the least, and 40% savings of irrigation water supply compared with traditional practices in the region can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of corn had the most detrimental effect on yield. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A three year experiment on irrigation programmes of cotton was conducted to test if irrigation schedules could be modified (changed) to increase field water use efficiency and thereby increase effective use of restricted irrigation water supply during dry seasons. The results showed that a 20-day irrigation interval, resulting 3 to 4 irrigations, would give optimum cotton yield with approximately 26% savings in irrigation water, when compared with general practices commonly used in the area. Under severe shortage of water supply, the irrigation interval can even be extended to 30 days, which would result to 30 to 35% overall yield reduction but 50% savings in water use. A four year field experiment aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Historical influence of irrigation on climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    Land irrigation is an essential practice sustaining global food production and many regional economies. During the last decades, irrigation amounts have been growing rapidly. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that land irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. However, a thorough understanding of the impact of irrigation on extreme climatic conditions, such as heat waves, droughts or intense precipitation, is currently still lacking. In this context, we aim to assess the historical influence of irrigation on the occurrence of climate extremes. To this end, two simulations are conducted over the period 1910-2010 with a state-of-the-art global climate model (the Community Earth System Model, CESM): a control simulation including all major anthropogenic and natural external forcings except for irrigation and a second experiment with transient irrigation enabled. The two simulations are evaluated for their ability to represent (i) hot, dry and wet extremes using the HadEX2 and ERA-Interim datasets as a reference, and (ii) latent heat fluxes using LandFlux-EVAL. Assuming a linear combination of climatic responses to different forcings, the difference between both experiments approximates the influence of irrigation. We will analyse the impact of irrigation on a number of climate indices reflecting the intensity and duration of heat waves. Thereby, particular attention is given to the role of soil moisture changes in modulating climate extremes. Furthermore, the contribution of individual biogeophysical processes to the total impact of irrigation on hot extremes is quantified by application of a surface energy balance decomposition technique to the 90th and 99th percentile surface temperature changes.

  4. Determination of Water Use Effectiveness in Hayrabolu Irrigation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.Yuksel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of irrigation water use in HayraboluIrrigation Scheme, established in 1987 and transferred to irrigation cooperative. The study was completed intwo years in order to minimize the meteorological and environmental effects on evapotranspiration andirrigation water requirement. Irrigation application efficiency and sufficiency of farmer irrigation applicationwere investigated at 20 different farmers’ fields.Pressurized irrigation was prevailed (51 % and irrigation efficiency for sprinkler and surfaceirrigation methods were 61 and 62 %, respectively. Irrigation water losses on the scheme basis was 11,91 %.It was further determined that farmers irrigated their crops according to the phonological observation, did nottake the permissible consumption level of water content and applied insufficient water to satisfy the fieldcapacity. Among the predominantly grown crops, wheat and sunflower were not irrigated assuming that theprecipitation was sufficient to meet their demand while onion and corn were under-supplied. Generally, aneffective irrigation programme was not realised.

  5. The impact of land border security on terrorism financing: Turkey's Southeast land border and the PKK

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Terrorism has become the one of the major threats facing many states. Understanding the potential sources of and preventing the financial support of terrorist organizations takes an important place in countering terrorism. This thesis focuses on the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) financing activities through the land border of Turkey. In doing so, this study mainly examines how the Turkish border security system can stop the trans-bord...

  6. European instruments of cross-border cooperation. Case study: the Romanian-Ukrainian border

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of common policies established by the constitutive agreements of the Euroregions, and operational development of cross-border cooperation have led to the increase of contacts between Romanian and Ukrainian institutions. The European territorial cooperation at the European Union’s outer borders has two major components: Cohesion Policy and European Neighborhood Policy. Europe’s diversity is considered a valuable characteristic which should be exploited and promoted. This d...

  7. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  8. Optimization of modern irrigation for biosaline agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplementation water is a must to offset the water requirement to produce profitable crops in most arid and semiarid zones, where fresh water resources are insufficient to meet the pressure of irrigated agriculture. This necessitates the use of poor quality water resources. These waters if not properly managed and used can cause serious soil related problems (salinity, sodicity, destruction of soil structure) in addition to decline in crop yields. Biosaline agriculture (using saline water on saline soils to grow salt-tolerant crops) becomes the only option for the farmer when both soil and water resources are saline and the water resource is scarce. In this regards key design considerations must be taken into account when irrigating with salty waters to optimize water uses and to reduce subsequent soil salinity development. Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used in irrigation of large-scale irrigational production systems. However they tend to concentrate salts on the leaves of plants. For this reason discharge and degree of overlap between consecutive sprinkler heads, are key design parameters when applying salty waters. Trickle irrigation is the most efficient system and is gaining importance in the GCC countries in the agriculture and landscape irrigation. The objective of this study was to optimize modern irrigation systems through development of design standards for drip (emitters spacing) and sprinkler irrigation systems (single head jet and overlapping) by applying saline water. The effect of emitter spacing (drip) and overlapping (sprinkler) were tested for the formation of salt contours in soil. The leaching ratio (LR) is the overall soil sanity within rhizosphere divided by the average irrigation water salinity. In this study LR is used to evaluate the effectiveness of irrigation systems in developing soil sanity. From the present investigations it is concluded that when using saline water for irrigation, the soil sanity development can be

  9. River Restoration for a Socially and Ecologically Devastated Border City

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Noah

    2008-01-01

    The Tijuana River Watershed is one of eight watersheds that encompass the urbanized area of San Diego and Tijuana. The San Diego - Tijuana cross border corridor lies along the 1,951 mile long international border dividing the United States and Mexico, known as the U.S. Mexican Border Region (San Diego Association of Governments). It is currently the fastest growing region in North America (US / Mexico Border Counties Coalition) and accounts for roughly a third of total population growth in th...

  10. BorderTourism--- IntheCaseofShaTauKokTourismexploitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fangzhou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity is the foundation of tourism.Border regions witness the change of the history, and retain valuable heritages and unique vil ages. Because of the common border protection regulations, natural beauties and cultural landscapes can be also wel preserved, leaving abundant and precious tourism resources for younger generations.Combining with the sha tau kok border region and the surrounding site,analysis of the feasibility of border tourism and chal enges.

  11. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  12. Distance and Political Boundaries: Estimating Border Effects under Inequality Constraints.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Borraz; Alberto Cavallo; Roberto Rigobon; Leandro Zipitría

    2012-01-01

    The "border effect" literature finds that political borders have a very large impact on relative prices, implicitly adding several thousands of miles to trade. In this paper we show that the standard empirical specification suffers from selection bias, and propose a new methodology based on quantile regressions. Using a novel data set from Uruguay, we apply our procedure to measure the segmentation introduced by city borders. City borders should matter little for trade. We find that when the ...

  13. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  14. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) after an extensive development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries such as Syria, Egypt and Turkey have a higher savings potential than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume on average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitudes of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, the increases being most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole may face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (4 and 18 % with 2 °C global warming combined with the full CO2-fertilization effect and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the southern and eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have a large water saving potential, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to

  15. IRRIGATION WATER PRICING AND COST RECUPERATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY OF IRRIGATION PROJECTS IN NYANYADZI, ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Chifamba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Water pricing and recuperation of the costs of irrigation investment have been litigious issues for many decades in the dry area of Nyanyadzi because the community view irrigation as a development expenditure, financed by donors and the government for backward areas through lowering of food prices and reduction of tariffs. The soaring charges for irrigation water are questioned, as well as, the diminutive percentage of farmers who fundamentally recompense the charges. The failure to institute clear cost recuperation and water pricing methods has threatened the viability and sustainability of irrigation projects in the study area. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The study revealed that where the economy is usually subsidized, convalesce the cost of water delivery is much more complicated and difficult. In the case of establishing user fees, these should be estimated as a percentage of the "traditional user's capability for payment" derived from irrigation benefits (the net increase in farmers' income as a result of irrigation. Nyanyadzi has an opportunity in irrigation led development, if stakeholders address critical challenges in the planning, design, water delivery and maintenance of its irrigation systems. Since Nyanyadzi faces severe budgetary difficulties in financing irrigation projects, it is obligatory to consider the foundation on which irrigation projects operate and impose the principle of self sustaining. Sustainable methods of irrigation evaluation and collection of fees must be considered in light of Nyanyadzi's economic and technical environment. The research noted that water use efficiency is required in order to maximize the benefits farmers derive from the irrigation projects and extraordinarily high user fees should be avoided in the project development stages, where the payment capability is much less at the beginning than at the maturity stages of irrigation projects.

  16. Imagining and Imaging Borders: Understanding Borderlands for Global Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, V.

    2013-11-01

    Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, self determination and regionalization around the world. We need to know more about how: self determination fuels secessions and new borders; borders result from complex rather than simple policy and governance issues; borders depend on the political clout of borderland communities; market and migration flows impact borders; and borders are always in motion. The paper shows how these organizing principles underlie the basic themes of border governance, flows, culture, history, security and sustainability. Finally, the paper offers two brief illustrations of border imaging to link this presentation to the following discussion of the workshop.

  17. Cross-border Tertiary Education : A Way towards Capacity Development

    OpenAIRE

    OECD; World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report emphasizes that cross-border tertiary education refers to the movement of people, programs, providers, curricula, projects, research and services in tertiary (or higher) education across national jurisdictional borders. Cross-border education is a subset of educational internationalization and can be part of development cooperation projects, academic exchange programs and comme...

  18. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  19. 75 FR 60643 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Parts 831, 841, and 842 RIN 3206-AL69 Customs and Border Protection... available to customs and border protection officers under the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the... Act provides early retirement and enhanced annuity benefits for customs and border protection...

  20. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  1. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost.

  2. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  3. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Naydyonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the state of microbial cenosis of Ukraine’s chernozems under irrigation. Considerable part of Ukraine’s chernozems is located in the areas where humidification is insufficient and unstable. Irrigation is a soil-reclamation measure for chernozems of Ukrainian Forest-steppe and Steppe which enables getting the assured yield, especially vegetable and fodder crops. At the same time, irrigation is a powerful anthropogenic factor that affects the soil, causes a significant transformation of many of its properties and regimes including biological ones. Often these changes are negative. The purpose of our investigation was to identify changes in the state of microbial cenoses of chernozem soils under irrigation which depend on such factors as the quality of irrigation water, the duration and intensity of irrigation, the initial properties of soil, the structure of crop rotation, usage of fertilizing systems and agroameliorative techniques. We identified direction and evaluated a degree of changes in biological properties of chernozems under influence of irrigation in different agro-irrigational and soil-climatic conditions. In the long-term stationary field experiments we identified the following biological indices of irrigated soils and their non-irrigated analogues: a number of microorganisms which belong to main ecological-trophic groups, activity of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidase, soil phytotoxic activity, cellulose destroying capacity of soil, indices of oligotrophy and mineralization, summary biological index (SBI and index of biological degradation (BDI. Results of researches showed that irrigation unbalanced the soil ecosystem and stipulated the forming of microbial cenosis with new parameters. Long-term intensive irrigation of typical chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water under condition of 4-fields vegetable crop rotation led to the degradation changes of its microbial cenosis such as

  4. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  5. Modeling the U.S. border patrol Tucson sector for the deployment and operations of border security forces

    OpenAIRE

    Ordonez, Karina J.

    2006-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Illegal cross-border activity is a severe homeland defense and security problem along the international Southwest border. The issue of illegal human smuggling is not new to the United States-Mexico border or to law enforcement agencies; however, the phenomenon is rising and human smugglers are adjusting to law enforcement tactics. This thesis has three objectives. First, it describes and identifies the fundamental dimensions of U.S. Border Patrol operations in the busiest,...

  6. Ancestral irrigation method by kanis in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Cañas, José; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation in the Andean region is an ancient practice. For centuries, farmers were able to use the waters of rivers, lakes and springs to complement or supplement the scarce rainfall regime. The inter-Andean valleys of the Department of La Paz are the best areas for the study of traditional irrigation systems. This work has been carried out in the community of Jatichulaya located in te town of Charazani, 300 km from the city of La Paz, which lies 3250 meters above sea level. The annual rainfall ranges around 450 mm distributed mainly between the months of December to March. Therefore, water is needed to achieve adequate crop yields. The traditional irrigation system is done by the method of Kanis, consisting of a surface irrigation already developed by traditional Andean cultures of the country, in harmony with the ecological and productive characteristics of the area. Water enters the irrigation plot through a main channel (mama kani) from which the secondary channels (juchuy kanis) are derived. The fundamental characteristic of this irrigation is that these channels are open at the same time the water enters into the plot. The system works properly, adapting to the topography of the area. The irrigation method practiced in this community does not cause water erosion of soils because water management within the plot is based on the ancient knowledge of farmers following the contour lines. This practice allows good irrigation development and soil protection without causing any problems. However, it was evident a high use of labor in irrigation practice. Irrigation scheduling is done according to requests made by the irrigators in a given period. Delivering of water to the farmers is made by the so-called Water Agent (Agente de Aguas) or person in charge of the distribution of water. The Water Agent is elected annually and its functions include the maintenance and care of all system waterworks. The period between August and January is the highest water demand and

  7. Solar Energy Based Automated Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Lodhi A. K.; Mr. Honrao Sachin B.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important because the main reason is the lack of rains {&} scarcity of land reservoir water. The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to which a significant amount of water goes waste. For this purpose; we use this automatic plant irrigation sys...

  8. PNMBG: Point Neighborhood Merging with Border Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxia Wan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The special clustering algorithm is attractive for the task of grouping arbitrary shaped database into several proper classes. Up to now, a wide variety of clustering algorithms designed for this task have been proposed, the majority of these algorithms is density-based. But the effectivity and efficiency still is the great challenges for these algorithms as far as the clustering quality of such task is concerned. In this paper, we propose an arbitrary shaped clustering method with border grids (PNMBG, PNMBG is a crisp partition method. It groups objects to point neighborhoods firstly, and then iteratively merges these point neighborhoods into clusters via grids, only bordering grids are considered during the merging stage. Experiments show that PNMBG has a good efficiency especially on the database with high dimension. In general, PNMBG outperforms DBSCAN in the term of efficiency and has an almost same effectivity with the later.

  9. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  10. Land border monitoring with remote sensing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Radoslaw

    2010-09-01

    The remote sensing technology has many practical applications in different fields of science and industry. There is also a need to examine its usefulness for the purpose of land border surveillance. This research started with analysis of potential direct use of Earth Observation technology for monitoring migrations of people and preventing smuggling. The research, however, proved that there are still many fields within which the EO technology needs to be improved. From that point the analysis focused on improving Border Permeability Index which utilizes EO techniques as a source of information. The result of BPI analysis with use of high resolution data provides new kind of information which can support and make more effective work of authorities from security domain.

  11. Centronuclear myopathy in a Border collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D

    2012-10-01

    A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie. PMID:23013377

  12. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation. Thre

  13. Yield impact of irrigation management transfer : story from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Shyamsundar, Priya; Xei, Mei

    2007-01-01

    Irrigation management transfer is an important strategy among donors and governments to strengthen farmer control over water and irrigation infrastructure. This study seeks to understand whether irrigation management transfer is meeting the promise of its commitments. The authors use data from a survey of 68 irrigator associations and 1,020 farm households in the Philippines to estimate th...

  14. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  15. The resurgence of cultural borders in international finance during the financial crisis: Evidence from Eurozone cross-border depositing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleimeier, S.; Sander, H.; Heuchemer, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that cultural borders in international finance resurge during financial crises. To investigate the role of cultural borders during both tranquil and crisis periods, we employ a unique data set that focuses on Eurozone cross-border depositing in a gravity-model framework

  16. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  17. Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1988-01-01

    Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some visceral cells. At ultrastructural examination inclusions of variable morphology were observed. PMID:3376765

  18. Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color infrared view of the Chiapas Forest, Mexico and Guatemala border (17.0N, 92.0W) illustrates the usefulness of this type of film in determining vegetated vs non vegetated areas. As can be seen, most of this part of Guatemala remains in closed canopy woodland (dark red), while most of the Mexican land to the north has been cleared for pasture and farmland (pink). The pale green areas north of the river are bare soil or fallow fields.

  19. Culture as a Moving Symbolic Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Lívia Mathias

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the notion of culture as a symbolic moving border. Departing from both, Boesch's (1991) concept of culture as a symbolic field of action, and Herbst's (1995) co-genetic logic, I will discuss the dynamics of self-other relationships in terms of their potentiality as sources of movement in culture. A brief analysis of an empirical material is given in illustrative character of the ideas here exposed. PMID:26245862

  20. Bordering practices in the UK welfare system

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, S.; Lukes, S; Stanton, R; Vollmer, BA; Wilding, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers how chauvinistic welfare policies operate as a bordering practice. Taking the UK as an example, it examines a process in which welfare provisions have increasingly been withdrawn from a group of people designated as undeserving. It points out a close link between chauvinism based on ethnicity and based on class. This relation is explored in detail for the case of social housing culminating in today’s “social housing for local people” approach. A second case, access t...

  1. Cross border M and A environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the Canada-U.S. cross-border merger and acquisition environment and exchangeable share structure within the petroleum industry is provided. Recent U.S. acquisitions in Canada, Canadian investment conditions, indexed price analysis from January 1, 1997 to October 16, 1998, and a variety of other share price/cash flow statistics relevant to mergers and acquisitions are examined. tabs., figs

  2. Vocal and Tangible Interaction Crossing Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Anders-Petter; Cappelen , Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Our voice and body are important parts of our self-expression and self-experience for all of us. They are also essential for our way to communicate and build relations cross borders like abilities, ages, locations and backgrounds. Voice, body and tangibility gradually become more important for ICT, due to increased development of tangible interaction and mobile communication. The voice and tangible interaction therefore also become more important for the Universal Design field. In this paper ...

  3. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermore, such taxation is almost fully passed on into higher interest margins charged abroad. These results imply that international double taxation distorts the activities of international ban...

  4. International Entrepreneurship: Value Creation Across National Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Hessels, Jolanda

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis book investigates antecedents and outcomes of international entrepreneurship. International entrepreneurship as a field of research involves both research into entrepreneurship in multiple countries (cross-country comparisons of the nature and extent of entrepreneurial activity) and research into cross-border entrepreneurship (international activity of small and medium-sized enterprises and new ventures). Entrepreneurship is considered to be an important mechanism for nationa...

  5. REGIONALISM OF BORDER DISPUTES AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mahalinga K; Chikkanna

    2015-01-01

    It is generally said – we can change history, not geography. Nevertheless, there are many instances when geography has been changed – some times by political decisions, sometimes by wars, at other times by some great engineering feat. Since the last 100 years human activities responsible to border disputes, and the ecological collapse it invited have changed geography. In this situation in which the teeming millions languish under the crushing burden of poverty, only about twenty per cent of ...

  6. Cultural Borders in an Autobiographical Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Jaago

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the life story of a woman born in a village in southern Estonia in 1918. It is based on two life stories told in Estonian and one told in Russian, as well as a story about her home. The stories were written at the initiative of the researcher between 1996 and 2004 and are stored in public archives. These texts have been chosen in that they are characteristic of the multifaceted phenomenon of inter-cultural contact: the narrator is of Estonian descent; she was imprisoned during the German occupation and taken to Germany, where she lived among local Germans and Red Army soldiers after the war; she married a man of Russian descent who served in the Red Army; from 1948, she and her family lived in a culturally diverse environment in Kohtla-Järve. The focus of this research is on the manifestation of cultural borders at the levels of life history, self-description and cultural context. The narrator presents herself as a person who is not constrained by cultural borders. The relative importance of various cultures in her life and her self-perception is dependent on the general historical and political context and the context of everyday life at the stage of her life that is being described. This aspect emphasises the flexible and volatile nature of cultural borders; however, the analysis of the text reveals the permanence of cultural borders – the narrator cannot step out of her cultural background when describing a culture that she sees as ‘other’.

  7. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-01-01

    The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees), the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers i...

  8. Quantifying Irrigation Return Flows Using Stable Isotopes of Water along the South Platte River, Colorado USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, W. E.; Davila Olmo, K.; Stednick, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    As the South Platte River flows from Denver, CO to the Nebraska border it crosses urban and agricultural settings which affect water quality and quantity. This reach of the river is highly regulated, with numerous diversions, off-channel reservoirs, and flow-augmentation projects. Water in the river is used 7 different times between Denver and the state line. Much of the water diverted from the river is used for irrigation. A significant portion of this water returns to the river as groundwater flow, often during times of low stream flow. Groundwater return flows, coupled with wastewater treatment plant and reservoir storage, have turned the once ephemeral river into a perennial one. The goal of this research was to determine if the stable isotopes of water (δ 2H and δ18O) in the river can be used to identify and to help quantify groundwater return flows to the river. Water samples were collected and analyzed for their isotopic signature at 17 sites from Denver to Julesburg. Nine rounds of samples were collected from June 2009 to June 2010. Well defined linear patterns of isotope ratios are observed on individual sampling events indicating that the water in the river is becoming enriched as it moves downstream. The enrichment is caused by evaporation from irrigation waters and their discharge to the river as groundwater return flows. These promising results indicate that it may be possible to quantify irrigation return flow to the South Platte River using the stable isotopes of water.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  10. Irrigation Cost Estimation Procedures Used in the Irrigation Economics Evaluation System (lEES)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Llewelyn, Richard V.; DeLano, Dan; Thangavelu, Ilango

    1996-01-01

    Establishment of efficient farm irrigation practices is influenced by the knowledge the irrigator has concerning both the economic and technological aspects of irrigation. The eventual goal of water conservation research is to have water users establish conservation techniques as parts of their continuing operating procedures. However, this will happen only when economic incentives exist. The farm manager requires a basic understanding of the economics of water use in order to evaluate adjust...

  11. Irrigation Patterns and Scheduling of a Telecontrolled Irrigation District in Northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Stambouli, Talel; Zapata Ruiz, Nery; Faci González, José María

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, telecontrol systems have been incorporated into the majority of modern collective pressurized irrigation networks in Spain. This type of infrastructure provides many opportunities for irrigation management but actually, in Spain, is only used for standardized network operations. The Candasnos irrigation district (CID), located in northeastern Spain, is equipped with this system, and contains a variety of different pressurized systems. Telecontrol data and crop water re...

  12. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Irrigation Water: A Case of Tank Irrigation Systems in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran; Sureshkumar Devarajulu; Palanisami Kuppannan

    2009-01-01

    The economic value of tank irrigation water was determined through Contingency Valuation Method by analyzing farmers’ willingness to pay for irrigation water under improved water supply conditions during wet and dry seasons of paddy cultivation. Quadratic production function was also used to determine the value of irrigation water. The comparison of the economic value of water estimated using different methods strongly suggests that the present water use pattern will not lead to sustainable u...

  13. IRRIGATION WATER PRICING AND COST RECUPERATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY OF IRRIGATION PROJECTS IN NYANYADZI, ZIMBABWE

    OpenAIRE

    Ephraim Chifamba; Takupiwa Nyanga; Simbarashe Gukurume

    2013-01-01

    Water pricing and recuperation of the costs of irrigation investment have been litigious issues for many decades in the dry area of Nyanyadzi because the community view irrigation as a development expenditure, financed by donors and the government for backward areas through lowering of food prices and reduction of tariffs. The soaring charges for irrigation water are questioned, as well as, the diminutive percentage of farmers who fundamentally recompense the charges. The failure to institute...

  14. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since Kennedy published his channel-forming discharge theory in 1895. Subsequently different theories have been developed and are used around the world. All of them assume uniform and steady flow conditions ...

  15. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen; Forner, Leopoldo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the availabl...

  16. Effects of irrigation efficiency on chemical transport processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation practices greatly affect sustainable agriculture development. In this study, we investigated the effects of irrigation efficiency on water flow and chemical transport in soils, which had significant impact on the environment. Field dye staining experiments were conducted at different soils with various irrigation amount. Image analysis was conducted to study the heterogeneous flow patterns and their relationships with the irrigation efficiency. Irrigation efficiency and its environmental effects were evaluated using various indictors, including application efficiency, deep percolation ratio, storage efficiency, and uniformity. Under the same irrigation condition, soil chemical distributions were more heterogeneous than soil water distributions. The distributions were mainly affected by soil texture, initial soil water content, and irrigation amount. Storage efficiency, irrigation uniformity, and deep percolation ratio increased with irrigation amount. Since the chemical distribution uniformity was lower than the water uniformity, the amount of chemical leaching increased sharply with decrease of irrigation uniformity, which resulted in high environmental risks of groundwater pollution.

  17. Effect of irrigation amounts applied with subsurface drip irrigation on corn evapotranspiration, yield, water use efficiency, and dry matter production in a semiarid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying the local crop response to irrigation is important for establishing adequate irrigation management strategies. This study evaluated the effect of irrigation applied with subsurface drip irrigation on field corn (Zea mays L.) evapotranspiration (ETc), yield, water use efficiencies (WUE = ...

  18. The structure of borders in a small world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Christian; Theis, Fabian; Grady, Daniel; Brune, Rafael; Brockmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, it is unclear if existing administrative subdivisions that typically evolved decades ago still reflect the most plausible organizational structure of today. The complexity of modern human communication, the ease of long-distance movement, and increased interaction across political borders complicate the operational definition and assessment of geographic borders that optimally reflect the multi-scale nature of today's human connectivity patterns. What border structures emerge directly from the interplay of scales in human interactions is an open question. Based on a massive proxy dataset, we analyze a multi-scale human mobility network and compute effective geographic borders inherent to human mobility patterns in the United States. We propose two computational techniques for extracting these borders and for quantifying their strength. We find that effective borders only partially overlap with existing administrative borders, and show that some of the strongest mobility borders exist in unexpected regions. We show that the observed structures cannot be generated by gravity models for human traffic. Finally, we introduce the concept of link significance that clarifies the observed structure of effective borders. Our approach represents a novel type of quantitative, comparative analysis framework for spatially embedded multi-scale interaction networks in general and may yield important insight into a multitude of spatiotemporal phenomena generated by human activity. PMID:21124970

  19. The structure of borders in a small world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Thiemann

    Full Text Available Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, it is unclear if existing administrative subdivisions that typically evolved decades ago still reflect the most plausible organizational structure of today. The complexity of modern human communication, the ease of long-distance movement, and increased interaction across political borders complicate the operational definition and assessment of geographic borders that optimally reflect the multi-scale nature of today's human connectivity patterns. What border structures emerge directly from the interplay of scales in human interactions is an open question. Based on a massive proxy dataset, we analyze a multi-scale human mobility network and compute effective geographic borders inherent to human mobility patterns in the United States. We propose two computational techniques for extracting these borders and for quantifying their strength. We find that effective borders only partially overlap with existing administrative borders, and show that some of the strongest mobility borders exist in unexpected regions. We show that the observed structures cannot be generated by gravity models for human traffic. Finally, we introduce the concept of link significance that clarifies the observed structure of effective borders. Our approach represents a novel type of quantitative, comparative analysis framework for spatially embedded multi-scale interaction networks in general and may yield important insight into a multitude of spatiotemporal phenomena generated by human activity.

  20. Economic analysis of irrigation re-use systems in the Macalister Irrigation District of Eastern Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Ben D.; Tarrant, Katherine A.; Ho, Christie K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation re-use systems are a common way of improving water use efficiency on irrigated dairy farms in the Macalister Irrigation District. A partial budget analysis of installing a range of irrigation re-use systems on an existing dairy farm was conducted using a case study approach. Two re-use dam sizes were tested – 6 ML and 9 ML. The analysis quantified the benefits of installing a re-use system through growing and consuming additional grazed pasture. There are also potentially other b...

  1. Irrigation and fertigation scheduling under drip irrigation for maize crop in sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; El-Baroudy, Ahmed A.; Taha, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments was conducted to determine the best irrigation scheduling and the proper period for injecting fertilizers through drip irrigation water in a sandy soil to optimize maize yield and water productivity. Four irrigation levels (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2) of the crop evapotranspiration and two fertigation periods (applying the recommended fertilizer dose in 60 and 80% of the irrigation time) were applied in a split-plot design, in addition to a control treatment which represented conventional irrigation and fertilization of maize in the studied area. The results showed that increasing the irrigation water amount and the fertilizer application period increased vegetative growth and yield. The highest grain yield and the lowest one were obtained under the treatment at 1.2 and of 0.6 crop evapotranspiration, respectively. The treatment at 0.8 crop evapotranspiration with fertilizer application in 80% of the irrigation time gave the highest water productivity (1.631 kg m-3) and saved 27% of the irrigation water compared to the control treatment. Therefore, this treatment is recommended to irrigate maize crops because of the water scarcity conditions of the studied area.

  2. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  3. Left ventricular border recognition using a dynamic search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial results obtained with a simple, fully automated algorithm for detection of left ventricular boundaries are presented. The strength of this approach is the use of dynamic programming search techniques, which allow determination of local border points to be influenced by the entire global border location. The relative contributions of mask mode subtraction and the dynamic search technique are evaluated with respect to accurate border definition. These computer-determined ventricular borders are compared with hand-traced borders on subtracted and unsubtracted images. The modular dynamic search algorithm is shown to perform better than previously described algorithms, which generally require operator interaction. It is also shown that for both manual and automated techniques, ventricular borders derived from subtracted images may be significantly different from borders derived from nonsubtracted images

  4. Water and energy management in an automated irrigation district

    OpenAIRE

    Stambouli, Talel; Faci González, José María; Zapata Ruiz, Nery

    2014-01-01

    An important modernization process providing pressurized irrigation systems to the traditional surface irrigation districts has taken place in Spain over the last 20 years However, an adverse consequence of modernization is the important increase in the energy cost in the modernized irrigation districts, which is aggravated by the current high energy prices. The Almudévar irrigation district (AID), a traditional surface irrigation district, was transformed into a pressurized sprinkler irrigat...

  5. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  6. Transferring Irrigation Management to Farmer's Associations : Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Shyamsundar, P.; Xie, M.

    2010-01-01

    Irrigation management transfer (HAT) is an important strategy among donors and governments that aims to strengthen farmer control over water and irrigation infrastructure. In this study. we use data from a survey of 68 irrigator associations (IAs) and 1020 farm households in the Philippines to examine the impact of IMT on irrigation association performance and on rice yields We find that the presence of IMT is associated with an increase in maintenance activities undertaken by irrigation asso...

  7. Estimated Irrigated Agricultural Water Use In 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a 100-meter cell resolution raster dataset of estimated use of irrigated agricultural water use data for the southwestern U.S. The dataset was...

  8. Some Unsettled Problems of Irrigation (1911)

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine Coman

    2011-01-01

    A reprint of the lead article in the inaugural issue of the American Economic Review , "Some Unsettled Problems of Irrigation," by Katharine Coman, who examined the common property resource problem as applied to water in the Western United States.

  9. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  10. Wind pumps for irrigating greenhouse crops

    OpenAIRE

    Peillón Mesa, Manuel Esteban; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; J.L. Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is a major consumer of energy in many countries of the world. Only a few of these countries are self-sufficient in conventional energy sources, which are also exhaustible. Fortunately, there are other sources of energy, such as wind, which has experienced recent developments in the area of wind power generation. From irrigation projects to power supply in remote farms, wind power generation can play a vital role. A simple methodology for technical evaluation of windmills for irrig...

  11. SANITARY SEWAGE REUSE IN AGRICULTURAL CROP IRRIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lidiane Bittencourt Barroso; Delmira Beatriz Wolff

    2011-01-01

    The water availability was exceeded by demand, becoming a limiting factor in irrigated agriculture. This study aimed to provide a general theoretical framework on the issue of water reuse for agricultural purposes. This is due to the fact that we need a prior knowledge of the state of the art concerning the matter. To that end, we performed a review of irrigated agriculture, the effects on cultivated land and the development of agricultural crops as well as aspects of security to protect grou...

  12. Irrigation enhances precipitation at the mountains downwind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jódar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric circulation models predict an irrigation-rainfall feedback. However, actual field evidences are very weak. We present strong field evidence about an increase in rainfall at the mountains located downwind of irrigated zones. We chose two regions, located in semiarid southern Spain, where irrigation started at a well defined date, and we analyzed rainfall statistics before and after the beginning of irrigation. Analyzed statistics include the variation of (1 mean rainfall Δ P, (2 ratio of monthly precipitation to annual precipitation Δ r, and (3 number of months with minimum rainfall episodes Δ Pmin after a transition period from unirrigated to irrigated conditions. All of them show statistically significant increases. Δ P and Δ r show larger and more statistically significant variations in June and July. Their variation is proportional to the mean annual water volume applied in the neighboring upwind irrigation lands. Variations in Δ Pmin are statistically significant in the whole summer. That is, the number of months with some rain displays a relevant increase after irrigation. However, increase in rainfall while statistically significant is distributed over a broad region, so that it is of little relevance from a water resources perspective. The joint increment in Δ P and Δ Pmin after the irrigation transition period denotes a net increase in the number of months having a minimum cumulated precipitation in summer.

  13. What is the irrigation potential for Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    You, Liangzhi; RINGLER, Claudia; Nelson, Gerald; Wood-Sichra, Ulrike; Robertson, Richard; Wood, Stanley; Guo, Zhe; Zhu, Tingju; Sun, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Although irrigation in Africa has the potential to boost agricultural productivities by at least 50 percent, food production on the continent is almost entirely rainfed. The area equipped for irrigation, currently slightly more than 13 million hectares, makes up just 6 percent of the total cultivated area. Eighty-five percent of Africa’s poor live in rural areas and mostly depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. As a result, agricultural development is key to ending poverty on the contin...

  14. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  15. Impact of sprinkler irrigation management on the Del Reguero river (Spain). I: Water balance and irrigation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Skhiri, Ahmed; Dechmi, Farida

    2012-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture notably increases crop productivity, but the generated irrigation return flows may induce surface water pollution by nutrients if irrigation water and fertilization management are inadequate. In this study, the Del Reguero watershed (Huesca, Spain) was characterized, and irrigation performance was assessed to identify sprinkler irrigation water management impact on surface and subsurface water losses during the 2008 and 2009 hydrological years. Farmers were interviewed, ...

  16. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  17. A Real-time Irrigation Forecasting System in Jiefangzha Irrigation District, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the irrigation efficiency, we need to know when and how much to irrigate in real time. If we know the soil moisture content at this time, we can forecast the soil moisture content in the next days based on the rainfall forecasting and the crop evapotranspiration forecasting. Then the irrigation should be considered when the forecasting soil moisture content reaches to a threshold. Jiefangzha Irrigation District, a part of Hetao Irrigation District, is located in Inner Mongolia, China. The irrigated area of this irrigation district is about 140,000 ha mainly planting wheat, maize and sunflower. The annual precipitation is below 200mm, so the irrigation is necessary and the irrigation water comes from the Yellow river. We set up 10 sites with 4 TDR sensors at each site (20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 80cm depth) to monitor the soil moisture content. The weather forecasting data are downloaded from the website of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The reference evapotranspiration is estimated based on FAO-Blaney-Criddle equation with only the air temperature from ECMWF. Then the crop water requirement is forecasted by the crop coefficient multiplying the reference evapotranspiration. Finally, the soil moisture content is forecasted based on soil water balance with the initial condition is set as the monitoring soil moisture content. When the soil moisture content reaches to a threshold, the irrigation warning will be announced. The irrigation mount can be estimated through three ways: (1) making the soil moisture content be equal to the field capacity; (2) making the soil moisture saturated; or (3) according to the irrigation quota. The forecasting period is 10 days. The system is developed according to B2C model with Java language. All the databases and the data analysis are carried out in the server. The customers can log in the website with their own username and password then get the information about the irrigation forecasting

  18. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  19. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  20. Border Tax Adjustment without Borders: The EU Carousel of VAT Fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Fedeli; Francesco Forte

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the carousel of VAT fraud consisting in multiple undue VAT rebates for goods exported and re-exported between EU countries. This fraud has been developed as a form of border VAT adjustment since the abolition of the borders within the EU countries. The carousel is modelled as a Nash equilibrium chain-game beginning at the retail stage where fraudsters try to capture an unsatisfied demand for the traded goods by means of a reduction of its final price. This can occur be...

  1. Outer Borders, Inner Boundaries in Finland. The Reconstructed Russian Border and the Changing Geography of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Parot, Jocelyn

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, Finland has been involved in a geopolitical transition from the Soviet sphere of influence towards the core of the European integration process. The Finnish-Russian border has consequently transformed: primarily a segment of the Iron Curtain, it has thereafter turned into an external border, a frontier, of the European Union. As a result, a whole set of EU policies have been implemented, with the aim of converting this line of exclusion into an area of cross ...

  2. Perpetual borders : German-Polish cross-border contacts in the Szczecin area

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Péter

    2014-01-01

    Borderlands are often peripheral geographically, administratively, and economically. A particularly illustrative case is the Szczecin area at the border between Poland and Germany, where a large city on one side neighbours to a sparsely populated hinterland on the other. There is a number of similar cases throughout Europe, but studies on them point to a mixed level of linkages following the opening and removal of the physical border. At the project’s start there were few if any studies on th...

  3. Gender Dimensions of Informal Cross Border Trade in West-African Sub-Region (ECOWAS) Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Olabisi Yusuff

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the dynamics of women in cross border trade along ECOWAS sub region. West African region is noted significantly for high volume of trade that goes on within its borders on daily basis, and it involves formal and informal trade. However, informal trade is an integral, but unrecognized component of ECOWAS economic activities. Over, sixty percent of women are into informal trading across ECOWAS sub region, yet, there is gap in literature on the dynamics of the...

  4. The Value of Weather Forecast in Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Wang, D.

    2007-12-01

    This paper studies irrigation scheduling (when and how much water to apply during the crop growth season) in the Havana Lowlands region, Illinois, using meteorological, agronomic and agricultural production data from 2002. Irrigation scheduling determines the timing and amount of water applied to an irrigated cropland during the crop growing season. In this study a hydrologic-agronomic simulation is coupled with an optimization algorithm to search for the optimal irrigation schedule under various weather forecast horizons. The economic profit of irrigated corn from an optimized scheduling is compared to that from and the actual schedule, which is adopted from a pervious study. Extended and reliable climate prediction and weather forecast are found to be significantly valuable. If a weather forecast horizon is long enough to include the critical crop growth stage, in which crop yield bears the maximum loss over all stages, much economic loss can be avoided. Climate predictions of one to two months, which can cover the critical period, might be even more beneficial during a dry year. The other purpose of this paper is to analyze farmers' behavior in irrigation scheduling by comparing the "actual" schedule to the "optimized" ones. The ultimate goal of irrigation schedule optimization is to provide information to farmers so that they may modify their behavior. In practice, farmers' decision may not follow an optimal irrigation schedule due to the impact of various factors such as natural conditions, policies, farmers' habits and empirical knowledge, and the uncertain or inexact information that they receive. In this study farmers' behavior in irrigation decision making is analyzed by comparing the "actual" schedule to the "optimized" ones. This study finds that the identification of the crop growth stage with the most severe water stress is critical for irrigation scheduling. For the case study site in the year of 2002, framers' response to water stress was found to be

  5. Role of irrigation and irrigation automation in improving crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    In arid climates, irrigation is required for significant agricultural production. In subhumid and semiarid climates, supplemental irrigation is recognized as both economically necessary (prevention of crop losses in periodic droughts) and as a means to improve overall crop water use effi...

  6. Regulated deficit irrigation and partial rootzone drying as irrigation management techniques for grapevines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), an irrigation scheduling technique originally developed for pome and stone fruit orchards, has been adapted successfully for winegrape production. Water deficit is applied during the post-set period of berry development to reduce vegetative growth and, as necessary, berry size of red-winegrape varieties. However, water deficit is avoided during the berry-ripening period, and precise irrigation management is required to ensure minimal competition between ripening berries and vegetative growth. For the variety Shiraz, in particular, this irrigation practice has resulted in significant improvements in wine quality. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) is a new irrigation technique that improves the water use efficiency of winegrape production without significant crop reduction. The technique was developed on the basis of knowledge of the mechanisms controlling transpiration, and requires that approximately half of the root system be always in a dry or drying state while the remainder is irrigated. The wetted and dried sides of the root system are alternated on a 10- to 14-day cycle. PRD irrigation reduced significantly stomatal conductance of vines when compared with vines receiving water to the entire root system. Both systems require high management skills, and accurate monitoring of soil water content is recommended. Drip and other forms of micro-irrigation facilitate the application of RDI and PRD. (author)

  7. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Response to Glyphosate Applied in Irrigated and Non-irrigated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in Alabama during 1999 and 2000 to test the hypothesis that any glyphosate-induced yield suppression in glyphosate-tolerant cotton would be less with irrigation compared to without irrigation. This objective was best served by measuring for possible yield-compensati...

  8. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer: experiences in Colombia: the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobo, N.U.

    2006-01-01

    This book is focused in the formulation of a framework for the sustainable management of the irrigation systems transferred to the users organizations by the government. It describes the experience of the irrigation management transfer in Colombia, the impacts from a technical, social, environment a

  9. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMI

  10. Heritability of Morphological Traits in Bread Wheat Advanced Lines Under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research was conducted with aim to identify the characters of utmost importance in irrigated and non-irrigated conditions that may be used as selection criteria in a wheat breeding program. The experimental material consisted of 13 wheat genotypes including 11 bread wheat advanced lines from two different sources, 1 synthetic hexaploid and its durum parent. Stress was imposed by withholding irrigation at three different growth stages of plant i.e. tillering, anthesis and grain filling. Experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement. Water regimes (irrigated and non-irrigated were allocated to the main plots and genotypes to the sub-plots. Morphological traits were recorded including days to heading, flowering, anthesis, physiological maturity, grain-filling period, flag leaf area, plant height, biomass, number of spikes, number of spikelets per spike, spike length, number of grains, grain yield, harvest index and 1000-grain weight. According to obtained results heritability among the traits under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions was estimated. Spike length exhibited highest heritability value of 0.89, 0.84 and 0.87 under irrigated, tillering and grain filling stress whereas grain yield had highest heritability value of 0.76 under anthesis stress. These traits therefore deserve more attention in future breeding programs for evolving better wheat for stress environments.

  11. Identity Conflict with Cross-Border Spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi, Dripto; Dasgupta, Indraneel

    2016-01-01

    We model simultaneous inter and within identity-group conflict in two territories connected by cross-territorial spill-overs. Within each territory, two groups contest the division of a group-specific public good, and all members contest the division of group income. Each group has a cross-border affiliate. Greater success (share) of its affiliate 'spills over' into higher efficiency of a group in inter-group conflict. We find that inter-group and total conflict move together within a territo...

  12. Nuclear Security in Action at Malaysian Borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''For Malaysia, trade has to be a transparent'', explained Raja Adnan, the Director General of the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). ''Goods are imported and exported, not just between two countries, but are in transit between several countries. Nuclear security measures help to guarantee open trade and makes sure that everyone is trading responsibly,'' emphasized Adnan. Officials from AELB prepare for a joint Indonesian-Malaysian exercise in effective border control by reviewing their national standard operating procedures (SOPs) on nuclear security, which were developed in close coordination with the IAEA

  13. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effect of declining well capacities on the usefulness of cotton ET (ETc for irrigation. Thirty years (1975–2004 of daily ETc data were used to compare irrigation demand vs. irrigation responses at four locations, analyzed for multiple years and range of well capacities for three irrigation-intervals. Results indicated that when well capacities declined to the point that over-irrigation was not possible, the lower well capacities reduced the value of ETc in terms of the number of irrigations and total amount of water applied. At well capacities <1514 L·min−1 the fraction of irrigations for which ETc information was used to determine the irrigation amount was <35% across years and irrigation intervals. The value of an ETc-based irrigation may fall into disuse when irrigation-water supplies decline.

  14. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  15. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  16. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  17. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--QUESTIONNAIRES (ENGLISH AND SPANISH FORMAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The questionnaires used for the Arizona Border Study were prepared in English and Spanish formats. The Spanish format of the questionnaires was translated, back-translated, and tested on a group of local Spanish speakers with a goal of providing a translation in colloquial Spanis...

  18. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  19. Cross-Border Networks in Informal and Formal Cooperation in the Borders Regions of Andalusia-Algarve-Alentejo and South Finland-Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    González-Gómez, Teresa; Gualda, Estrella

    2013-01-01

    Fostering border relations among the people in border regions seems a precondition for the future envisagement and success of cross-border regions and European Integration. Related studies to border relations observe the weakness of these informal border contacts and relations. However, weak ties represent an opportunity for interaction, and little has been said about how they might play in the construction and performance of institutional cross-border cooperation (CBC). In thi...

  20. Are Cross-Border Urban Spaces European Integration Patterns at Local Level? Analysis of the Management of Urban Areas astride the "French Border"

    OpenAIRE

    Reitel, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    International audience The border as a significant line of distinction was an important instrument of the construction of the French territory. Despite this, several cross-border agglomerations have emerged on this border. These urban spaces crossed by a border are not true urban systems: although there is a morphological continuity through the border, functional links, identities and spatial practices are more organized by the border than by the processes of the agglomeration. In the fram...

  1. Response of Sugar Cane Varieties to Different Irrigation Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Bahadar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane yield and Recovery Percentage of sugar cane varieties were affected due to various irrigation frequencies. Variety COL-75 showed outstanding performance for cane yield under normal weekly irrigation in plant/ratoon stages, followed by Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 under same irrigation regime. The highest recovery percentage was noted for varieties Naurang-98 and Bannu-1 under weekly irrigation. Hence COL-75 was found with higher cane yield potential followed by Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 for cane yield and recovery percentage under normal weekly irrigation and different irrigation intervals in Bannu Division.

  2. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.

    2003-12-01

    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  3. The economic borders in the age of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Soproni, Luminita

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the economic borders of the nations is diminishing continuously, and this phenomenon is strongly linked to regionalization and globalization. We consider that the starting point of the idea that economic borders (represented by nations’ commercial policies) are irrelevant for the global economic activity is in fact Adam Smith’ theory about the liberty of choice and exchange in the international trade. In order to adapt to the new globalization context, the borders have acqui...

  4. Cross-Border Loss Offset Can Fuel Tax Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Haufler, Andreas; Mardan, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Following recent court rulings, cross-border loss compensation for multinational firms will likely be introduced, at least in Europe. This paper analyzes the effects of introducing a coordinated cross-border tax relief in a setting where multinational firms choose the size of a risky investment and host countries endogenously choose tax rates. We show that coordinated cross-border loss compensation is likely to intensify tax competition when, following current international practice, the pare...

  5. Developments in a Cross-Border Bank Exposure "Network"

    OpenAIRE

    Masazumi Hattori; Yuko Suda

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we explore the developments in the cross-border bank exposures using the BIS International Banking Statistics. To this end, we treat the web of the cross-border bank exposures as a "network" and investigate the characteristics of the network topology, and compute various statistical measures for the network topology. We find that the network of cross-border bank exposure has become more tightly connected over time. The network now has higher connectivity, a shorter average path ...

  6. DEMOGRAPHY AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN BORDER DISTRICTS ALONG NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Utpal Kumar De; Deepika Sankhyan

    2015-01-01

    India and Nepal shares an open border. The unrestricted movement of people across the border over the centuries has led to the development of well-entrenched socio-cultural linkages. These linkages have, in turn, facilitated greater economic interdependence and political ties. There is no denying the fact that an open border has been a great facilitator of strong and unique bilateral relations. At the same time, it has given rise to many irritants and problems that raise serious concerns, ...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF INFORMAL CROSSBORDER TRADERS ACROSS SELECTED BOTSWANA BORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Njoku O. Ama; Kagiso T. Mangadi; Helen A. Ama

    2014-01-01

    This study was cross-sectional and used the quantitative (survey methods) and qualitative methods (Focus Group Discussion and Key Informant Interviews) to characterize the informal cross-border traders drawn from four major activity border posts in the northern and southern parts of Botswana. The systematic random sampling and snow ball techniques were used in identifying the 520 informal cross-border traders who participated in the study. The study analysed the demographic characteristics of...

  8. Irrigation Water Quality Evaluation of Aldelam Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Alsheikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Good quality water helps to maintain agricultural productivity and sustain soil fertility. Agricultural activities in Saudi Arabia depend on surface water and groundwater as the main sources for irrigation. Groundwater is the main source used for irrigation purposes in this area. This study was done to evaluate the status of groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigated agriculture. To achieve this objective, water samples from fourteen wells were collected from different areas of Aldelam in May and July of 2011. The water quality of these wells in the study area was estimated from different water quality parameters such as chloride, bicarbonate, sodium, calcium, total dissolved solids (TDS, EC, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, and percentage of sodium. The results showed that the overall concentration of all the ions was very high, but the sodium hazard in the well water was moderate. About 78 percent of the wells had suitable water quality for boron, and they had a concentration below the permissible limit for crop irrigation. TDS in the groundwater ranged between 1114.88 to 2897.71 ppm during the investigation period. High EC and low SAR in all the wells showed that the water from these wells could be used for irrigation purposes with special management.

  9. How to perform irrigation of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-02-01

    rationale and key points: This article aims to help nurses to understand the importance of performing irrigation immediately following chemical injury to the eye, and outlines the most effective technique. It is essential that irrigation of the eye is understood and performed correctly. Chemical injury to the eye is an ophthalmic emergency. It presents a serious risk to the patient's vision and may cause blindness. The length of time the chemical remains in contact with the eye determines the severity of the injury. Immediate irrigation of the eye is essential to minimise preventable loss of vision. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you would ensure immediate irrigation following chemical injury to the eye in your clinical area. 2. How you know when you have irrigated the eye for long enough, if you have previously performed this procedure, and how reading this article might influence your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26838655

  10. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  11. Borderlands : Comparing Border Security in North America and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Brunet-Jailly, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Border security has been high on public-policy agendas in Europe and North America since the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York City and on the headquarters of the American military in Washington DC. Governments are now confronted with managing secure borders, a policy objective that in this era of increased free trade and globalization must compete with intense cross-border flows of people and goods. Border-security policies must enable security personnel to ide...

  12. Sticky Prices, a Volatile Exchange Rate and the Border

    OpenAIRE

    Mark David Witte

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a method that leads to more accurate estimates of the proportion of the border effect attributable to the nominal price/nominal exchange rate relationship. Employing this method on data from “How Wide is the Border?” (1996), this paper finds that the proportion of the border effect directly attributable to a volatile exchange rate and incomplete pass-through varies from good to good. Some goods have a small proportion of their border effect caused by the nominal price/no...

  13. The Border Effect in the Japanese Market: Gravity Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the border effect, which indicates how biased interregional trade is, compared with international trade, by means of the Gravity Model. The border effect reveals how open to the foreign countries the nation is. This research suggests that the border effect in Japan is much lower than that of the US and Canada, and has declined year by year. Furthermore, in 1990, the border effect faded out. These trends may be reflected by international incidents such as the surge of the f...

  14. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  15. Informal Cross-Border Trade Sarawak (Malaysia-Kalimantan (Indonesia: A Catalyst for Border Community’s Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Hair Awang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border entrepreneurship activity plays an important role in the community economic development programs. The emergence of business groups and trade activities will generate employment, create wealth, contribute to tax revenue and stimulate the construction of infrastructures such as transportation. Indirectly, this will improve the standard of living in the border communities. The cross-border trade activities between Sarawak (Malaysia-Kalimantan (Indonesia continued to grow significantly. Although there is no formal cross-border route and Checkpoint of Immigration and Quarantine (CIQ exists, Serikin as a small border town has developed as a Weekend Market focuses on informal trade. Indonesian traders and Malaysian consumers gathered on weekends to carry out transactions and this triggers local development. This article discusses the cross-border informal trade activities by focusing on the business participation factors and reasons for location selection, especially among Indonesian traders and spillover effects on the local communities.

  16. 77 FR 13585 - Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2012. d. Applicant: Three Sisters Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Three Sisters Irrigation District Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Three Sisters Irrigation District...

  17. Informal Cross-Border Trade Sarawak (Malaysia)-Kalimantan (Indonesia): A Catalyst for Border Community’s Development

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Hair Awang; Junaenah Sulehan; Noor Rahamah Abu Bakar; Mohd Yusof Abdullah; Ong Puay Liu

    2013-01-01

    Cross-border entrepreneurship activity plays an important role in the community economic development programs. The emergence of business groups and trade activities will generate employment, create wealth, contribute to tax revenue and stimulate the construction of infrastructures such as transportation. Indirectly, this will improve the standard of living in the border communities. The cross-border trade activities between Sarawak (Malaysia)-Kalimantan (Indonesia) continued to grow significa...

  18. Design of Solar Steam Irrigation Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kumar Dhimmar, Jay Prajapti, Mital Patel, Dhruv Patel, Banti Mistry, Jignesh Parmar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar irrigation pump is this type of device which uses solar energy for water pumping. Water pumping is an energy intensive activity and consumes a large amount man power, diesel and electricity. Smallholder farmers in low income countries can benefit from affordable irrigation pump systems as they enable cultivation of high value crops during dry season. Currently the majority of small irrigation pumps are manually operated which is time consuming and requires a high level of physical exertion. There is a potential market for a low cost solar thermal pump that produces a high volume of water as well as reducing the labour burden. This will allow more crops to be grown and free up time for other productive tasks. Compared to the existing manual systems, many hours could be saved each day through reduced labour input.

  19. Assessment of drainage water quality in pre- and post-irrigation seasons for supplemental irrigation use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitris; Gotsis, Dimitris; Giakoumakis, Spyros

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on hydrochemistry is very important to assess the quality of water for effective management of water resources or drainage water reuse. On this basis, an assessment of water quality was conducted in the Agoulinitsa district in Peloponnese (western Greece). Both drainage and irrigation channel water samples have been collected, treated, and subjected to chemical analysis. A characterization has been carried out using the Piper-trilinear diagram. Assessment of the water samples from the point of view of sodium adsorption ratio, Na(+)%, and residual sodium carbonate indicated that 60.0% and 83.3% of the drainage water samples during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples, are chemically suitable for irrigation use. Moreover, assessment of the water samples by comparing quality parameters with the Food and Agriculture Organization guidelines indicated that 20.0% and 44.4% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples could cause slight to moderate problems to the plants. On the other hand, 80.0% and 55.6% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, could cause immediate development of severe problems to the plants growth. PMID:21915601

  20. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  1. Irrigation Dynamics and Tactics - Developing a Sustainable and Profitable Irrigation Strategy for Agricultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Opstal, J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Lecina, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation management is a dynamic process that adapts according to weather conditions and water availability, as well as socio-economic influences. The goal of water users is to adapt their management to achieve maximum profits. However, these decisions should take into account the environmental impact on the surroundings. Agricultural irrigation systems need to be viewed as a system that is an integral part of a watershed. Therefore changes in the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigated area, has an impact on the water quantity and quality available for other water users. A strategy can be developed for decision-makers using an irrigation system modelling tool. Such a tool can simulate the impact of the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigation area on its hydrology and agricultural productivity. This combination of factors is successfully simulated with the Ador model, which is able to reproduce on-farm irrigation and water delivery by a canal system. Model simulations for this study are supported with spatial analysis tools using GIS and remote sensing. Continuous measurements of drainage water will be added to indicate the water quality aspects. The Bear River Canal Company located in Northern Utah (U.S.A.) is used as a case study for this research. The irrigation area encompasses 26,000 ha and grows mainly alfalfa, grains, corn and onions. The model allows the simulation of different strategies related to water delivery, on-farm water use, crop rotations, and reservoirs and networks capacities under different weather and water availability conditions. Such changes in the irrigation area will have consequences for farmers in the study area regarding crop production, and for downstream users concerning both the quantity and quality of outflows. The findings from this study give insight to decision-makers and water users for changing irrigation water delivery strategies to improve the sustainability and profitability of

  2. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water - deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through -water deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of refraining from supplying water during specific stages of the cycle so as to identy the period(s) during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early and during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. However, one water application during the tillering stage allowed the yield to be lower only to that of the treatement with three irrigations. Irrigation during the stage of grain filling caused the kernel weight to be as high as under three irrigations. The lowest value corresponded to the treatement with one irrigation during grain filling and that under rainfed conditions. For sugar beet, when water stress was was applied early in the crop cycle, its effect could be almost entirely recovered with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the opposite, good watering early in cycle, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. Water deficit during the maturity stage had also a limited effect on yield. The most crucial periods for adequate watering were which correspond to late filiar development and root growth which coincided with the highest water requirements period. For the same amount of water savings through deficit irrigation, it was better to partition the stress throughout the cycle than during the critical stages of the crop. However, at the national level, it would have been more important to practice deficit irrigation and the irrigated area. For both crops, high yields as high as water - use efficiency values could have been obtained. 8 tabs; 5 refs ( Author )

  3. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  4. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  5. Genotoxicity of vegetables irrigated by industrial wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nupur Mathur; Pradeep Bhatnagar; Hemraj Verma

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater effluents from textile dyeing and printing industries of Sanganer are discharged directly, without any treatment,into Amani Shah Nallah drainage. The drainage water takes the dissolved toxicants to flora and fauna, including crops and seasonal vegetables, being grown in the land adjoining the Nallah drainage. Thus mutagenic potential of vegetables irrigated by the water of Amani Shah Nallah drainage was investigated in the present study. The vegetables irrigated by ground water from Sanganer have also been analyzed to determine possible adverse effects of these wastewater effluents on aqua duct.

  6. Cytotoxic effect of endodontic irrigants in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Bajrami, Donika; Hoxha, Veton; Gorduysus, Omer; Muftuoglu, Sevda; Zeybek, Naciye Dilara; Küçükkaya, Selen

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytotoxicity of root canal irrigants is important due to their close contact with host tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxic effect of NaOCl 3%, Chx 2%, and MTAD on rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts, at 0.1 and 100 μl/mL, using WST-1 colorimetric method. Material/Method Rat ligamental fibroblasts were exposed to the irrigants and their viability was assessed after 1, 24, 48, and 72 h. The measurements were determined using WST-1 assay, using a micro ELISA re...

  7. Obtaining the borders of urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01

    The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders. The method is based on the density of street crossings around a single seed point associated to the urban area of interest. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.

  8. Nuclear power plant and state border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper constitutes the slightly revised version of a legal opinion given to those local authorities in Germany which are affected by the construction of the Cattenom powerplant centre in France near to her borders with Germany and Luxembourg. In this opinion, especially claims were examined which might be raised by local authorities according to public and private law, or by the inhabitants of frontier areas, constituting, among other things, claims to the information required, to necessary measures to be taken for the safety of the population and for environmental protection, and ways and means of enforcing them. In addition, the power plant owner's civil liability for the damaging effects of power plant operation are examined as well as the international liability of the state which builds power plants. (HSCH)

  9. Nuclear Plants in the Vicinity of Borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The siting of nuclear power plants in border areas is decided according to 'national criteria' which are governed by the cost/benefit principle, i.e. a comparison between investment and profit; human values are taken into consideration by transforming them into financial values according to the 'quantification' procedure. However ecology cannot be quantified as it is linked to the great complexity of the natural system. To harmonize technical criteria and ecological requirements, the jurist suggests a legal system of indemnity which takes into account both damage which has already occurred and the degree of probability of its occurrence. Thus a new criterion would be introduced in the decision-making process on plant siting: compensation costs for the national population and for the neighbouring countries would then be a factor in cost/benefit calculations. (NEA)

  10. Frontiers, territoriality and tensions in bordering spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal

  11. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  12. The coordination of care across borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    -savings, improved quality of care, avoidance of unnecessary tests, improved work efficiency, reduced waiting times and improvement in the overall efficiency of the healthcare system. Although benefits exists, healthcare organizations have experienced difficulties attaining them and overall adoption of e...... with implementing a new system, and uncertainty that the technology may actually reduce overall costs. The coordination of care across boundaries presents a plethora of issues that need to be tackled from a policy, legal, practical research perspective. This thesis attempts to address pressing issues...... with a particular focus on the implications health information exchange for the purposes of coordinating care will have on both the patient and healthcare professionals on three levels: international, national and institutional level. The findings of this thesis imply that in order for cross-border health...

  13. Usability in Public Services and Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirelli, Giuliano

    The paper starts with a brief overview of the scale of disability and associated challenges and puts them in the context of the public policy on disability. It then analyses the usability challenges in public services and border control, including the issues of accessibility, safety and communication. These need to be addressed in future policy proposals, to provide the best assistance by new technologies to elderly people and people with disabilities, avoiding creating new barriers due to incorrect or incomplete initial conception. With increasing flux of novel security technology in mass transportation systems, and particularly the use of biometric identification in airports, the challenge of usability is recognized. This paper analyses these issues in the context of users with disability in an idealized process of Simplifying Passenger Travel (SPT).

  14. Automatic programmers for solid set sprinkler irrigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata Ruiz, Nery; Salvador Esteban, Raquel; Cavero Campo, José; Lecina Brau, Sergio; Playán Jubillar, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The application of new technologies to the control and automation of irrigation processes is becoming very important in the last decade. Although automation of irrigation execution (irrigation programmers) is now widespread the automatic generation and execution of irrigation schedules is receiving growing attention due to the possibilities offered by the telemetry / remote control systems currently being installed in collective pressurized networks. In this paper, a protot...

  15. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Jochen Hemming; Paolo Marzialetti; Bernardo Rapi; Laura Bacci; Piero Battista; Fernando Malorgio; Giorgio Incrocci; Luca Incrocci; Alberto Pardossi; Jos Balendonck

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on th...

  16. A knowledge based system for irrigation planning in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dipmani

    1990-01-01

    Problems associated with irrigation in humid regions include uncertainty of whether irrigation will be necessary in a given year, and the question of whether crop response will be sufficient to make the required investment profitable in the long run. A prototype knowledge based system (KBS) has been developed to determine the economic feasibility of a range of irrigation systems for site specific conditions. The KBS uses information input by the user to determine possible irrig...

  17. Urban landscape irrigation requirements: the case study of Mirandela, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. RIBEIRO; Ferreiro, Gualter

    2013-01-01

    The technological development is leading to the emergence of modern equipment for the automation of irrigation systems, with especial relevance for landscape irrigation systems. Thus, the development of methodologies for irrigation requirements of landscape, that allowed an improvement of the utilization of those technologies and equipment, and consequently to an improvement in irrigation management, is very timely and opportune. In this study, water requirements for landscape irrigatio...

  18. Water-Energy balance in pressure irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis; Laguna, Francisco V.; Castañón, Guillermo; Gil, María; Benitez, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. Automation techniques become easier after modernization, and operation management plays an important role in energy efficiency issues. Modern systems use to include elevated water reservoirs with enough capacity to irrigate during peak water demand period about 16 to 48 h. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems according to their management possibilities. Also is an objective to estimate the fraction of the water reservoirs available along the irrigation campaign for storing the energy from renewable sources during their availability periods. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity and new opportunities in the renewable energy field.

  19. Soil and Water Management in Spate Irrigation Systems in Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfai, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive big floods. Annually, a tremendous amount of soil with nutrients is eroded from the adjacent highlands, transported by seasonal streams (wadis) and deposited on the lowlands in the irrigated fields. The dom...

  20. IRRIGATION, SOCIETY AND LANDSCAPE. TRIBUTE TO TOM F. GLICK

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchis Ibor, Carlos Abelardo; Palau Salvador, Guillermo; MANGUE ALFEREZ, IGNASI; MARTÍNEZ SANMARTÍN, LUIS PABLO

    2014-01-01

    The Conference Irrigation, Society and Landscape, celebrated in Valencia on September the 25th, 26th and 27th of 2014, brought together numerous researchers and professionals interested in traditional irrigation, in order to discuss and reflect on the past, present and future of these natural and cultural systems. The Conference analyzed the historical evolution of irrigation, considering technological, agronomic, social and institutional aspects. The present and potential values of irrig...

  1. A management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector.

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, Ch.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the performance of irrigation investments was far below its potential. The size of this underperformance is well represented by Seckler's alarming conclusion that the average irrigation investment costs twi...

  2. Response of Sugar Cane Varieties to Different Irrigation Intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Bahadar; Muhammad Jamal; Muhammad Safdar Baloch; Khalid Nawab

    2000-01-01

    Cane yield and Recovery Percentage of sugar cane varieties were affected due to various irrigation frequencies. Variety COL-75 showed outstanding performance for cane yield under normal weekly irrigation in plant/ratoon stages, followed by Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 under same irrigation regime. The highest recovery percentage was noted for varieties Naurang-98 and Bannu-1 under weekly irrigation. Hence COL-75 was found with higher cane yield potential followed by Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 for cane ...

  3. Transurethral resection of the prostate with and without continuous irrigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Notley, R G

    1982-01-01

    Four hundred patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate have been studied. An intermittent irrigation resectoscope was used in 200, and a continuous irrigation resectoscope in the remainder. The merits and demerits of continuous irrigation resection are discussed in the light of the results of these operations. The conclusion reached is that the continuous irrigation resectoscope has considerable advantages over the intermittent flow instrument. These advantages are most evid...

  4. Preventing pesticide contamination of groundwater while maximizing irrigated crop yield

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, R C; Hegazy, M. A.; Musharrafieh, G.

    1994-01-01

    A simulation/optimization model is developed for maximizing irrigated crop yield while avoiding unacceptable pesticide leaching. The optimization model is designed to help managers prevent non-point source contamination of shallow groundwater aquifers. It computes optimal irrigation amounts for given soil, crop, chemical, and weather data and irrigation frequencies. It directly computes the minimum irrigated crop yield reduction needed to prevent groundwater contamination. Constraint equation...

  5. POSTMODERN EDUCATION: CRITICAL AND BORDER PEDAGOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of postmodernism on education and investigates the main effects ofpostmodern philosophy on social sciences. It is clearly stated in the article that the effects of postmodernism cannotonly be limited to art and logically it should have an effect on education as well. This effect, described as thepostmodern educational approach, emphasizes that the rudiments of popular culture should also be incorporated toeducation and therefore to curricula. Postmodern educational approach also accentuates the significance of allowing‘others’ who have never possessed the opportunity to articulate their standpoints and desires to have a say in their owneducation. The concrete reflections of postmodern educational approach can be perceived in Critical and BorderPedagogies theorized by Henry A. Giroux. Critical pedagogy aspires to educate individuals who do not acceptoccurrences as they are and are critical of the knowledge they construct all through their education. Only by this waythese individuals will be able to discover their own voices, improve their civilian consciousness by taking risks, andacquire the ability of staying alive and functioning within social relations, traditions and experiences. Border pedagogyis as well a product of postmodern philosophy. It defends counter-text as opposed to the official ones offered, presentedand imposed to learners. Counter-consciousness represents the critical analysis of how the present reads the past andhow the past informs the present. This practice of course results in the re-evaluation of memories and traditions.Memories are the stories which were forgotten or ignored with the support of preserved traditions. It is thereforeconcluded in the article that postmodern educational approach is the critical examination towards dismissing the mainnarratives and discourses which manipulate and configure the curriculum of schools. It is the struggle exercisedtowards the recognition

  6. Editorial: Human rights at the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Molland

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available t is with great honour that I introduce the second issue of the Anti-Trafficking Review (ATR. The first issue received an overwhelming response and has placed the journal at the forefront of rigorous analysis and debate relating to human trafficking and human rights. It raised the topic of accountability in anti-trafficking. This issue hopes to further strengthen the ATR’s position as a global, reputable journal on human trafficking. Strengthening the quality of research, analysis, and reflexivity in the trafficking sector is much needed, and I echo Anne Gallagher’s observation as guest editor of the first issue that standards in anti-trafficking research tend to be less rigorous than in other fields of study. My aim as a guest editor is to contribute to addressing this shortfall by bringing together a set of diverse and insightful articles focussing on the nexus of borders and human rights. It is also my hope that this issue will work towards narrowing the divide between practitioners and academics in anti-trafficking. This is reflected in the varied range of contributors. The last few years have witnessed a significant increase in publishing relating to human trafficking worldwide. However, there is limited measured debate and appraisal of this literature within the anti-trafficking sector. For this reason we have decided to include a book review as a way of highlighting recent major publications. The question of borders, migration control, trafficking and human rights raise contested and controversial questions. The editorial team has attempted to include different perspectives, reflected in the debate section in particular. Needless to say, all papers have been subject to double blind peer review.

  7. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  8. Irrigated Lands and Features, Irrigated Areas in Arizona - 1960's, Published in unknown, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Irrigated Lands and Features dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Irrigated Areas in Arizona - 1960's'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  9. Optimization of the main parameters of the subsoil irrigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Akytneva; Askar Akhmedov

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the issues of optimization of the basic parameters of soil irrigation systems with application of the plan of Regardera second order. The obtained optimal parameters of soil irrigation systems that can be used for designing and construction of this method of irrigation.

  10. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation system. (a) Identification. A colonic irrigation system is a device intended to instill water into the...

  11. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Spate irrigation is a system used for wetting land prior to planting. Use is made of seasonal rivers (wadis) producing flash floods in the uplands, which are directed by structures to irrigate fields in the lowlands. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea was studied in th

  12. 21 CFR 886.4360 - Ocular surgery irrigation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over...

  13. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  14. 76 FR 58293 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... throughout the United States. We are required to establish irrigation assessment rates to recover the costs... irrigation projects or features to original operating condition or to the nearest state which can be achieved... storage of irrigation water that we own or have an interest in, including all appurtenant works. The...

  15. 75 FR 67095 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... throughout the United States. We are required to establish irrigation assessment rates to recover the ] costs... restore our irrigation projects or features to original operating condition or to the nearest state which..., and storage of irrigation water that we own or have an interest in, including all appurtenant...

  16. Irrigation system management assisted by thermal imagery and spatial statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal imaging has the potential to assist with many aspects of irrigation management including scheduling water application, detecting leaky irrigation canals, and gauging the overall effectiveness of water distribution networks used in furrow irrigation. Many challenges exist for the use of therm...

  17. Irrigation scheduling by ET and soil water sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation scheduling is the process of deciding when, where and how much to irrigate, usually with the goal of optimizing economic return on investment in land, equipment, inputs and personnel. This hour-long seminar presents methods of irrigation scheduling based, on the one hand on estimates of t...

  18. Allocation of Ground Water in Irrigated Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    Chanyalew, Demese; Featherstone, Allen M.; Buller, Orlan H.

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical programming model with estimated nonlinear water response functions is used to explore the allocation of limited ground water to flood irrigated corn, flood-irrigated grain sorghum, and dryland sorghum in western Kansas. Results suggest that as ground water availability decreases, more dryland sorghum and less irrigated corn should be produced.

  19. Permeability of Czech-Polish Border Using by Selected Criteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Zyszkowska, K.; Batelková, Kateřina; Ciok, S.; Dolzblasz, K.; Kirchner, Karel; Krejčí, Tomáš; Raczyk, A.; Spaller, W.; Zapletalová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 51-65. ISSN 1842-5135 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : natural barrier * cross border co-operation * population pressure * border segments * Poland and Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://technicalgeography.org/pdf/1_2015/06_kolejka.pdf

  20. Cross Border Business Cycle (Impacts on Commercial Electricity Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Fullerton Jr

    2004-01-01

    Border region electric utility service loads are impacted by national, regional, and international business cycles. To examine whether the cross-border components of these interactions can be reliably assessed, transfer ARIMA models are estimated for three business rate categories in El Paso, Texas. Chi-square goodness-of-fit results indicate tht exclusion of the international variables would worsen model performance.

  1. International Experience with Cross-border Power Trading

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The five main lessons for Southern Africa from our review of the experiencewith cross-border power trading in other regions of the work are that: Security of supply concerns need to be explicitly addressed and understood by the parties to proposed cross-border transactions. Regional entities need to be empowered to make decisions based on legally enforceable national government commitments...

  2. 77 FR 59206 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Foreign Assembler's Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-day... November 26, 2012, to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to U.S....

  3. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR 192... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  4. 75 FR 266 - Customs and Border Protection's Bond Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    .... Customs and Border Protection on March 31, 2007 (see 72 FR 20131, dated April 23, 2007). As a consequence... Treasury Department Order No. 165 Revised, as amended (T.D. 53654, 19 FR 7241, November 6, 1954), may by... SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Parts 101, 113, and...

  5. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in...

  6. 76 FR 41993 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... the Department of Homeland Security, OPM published (at 75 FR 60645) proposed regulations and requested... and 842 RIN 3206-AL69 Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement AGENCY: Office of Personnel..., to reflect changes in the retirement benefits available to customs and border protection...

  7. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (78 FR 19726) on April 2, 2013... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  8. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Robinson International (USA) Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products for customs purposes,...

  9. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: General notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 641 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, (19 U.S.C. 1641) and the U.S. Customs...

  10. Cross-Border Interactions and Health in the Brazil-Colombia-Peru Border Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis; Claudia Mercedes Mora Cárdenas; Ligia del Pilar Perez Reyes; Paulo Cesar Peiter

    2010-01-01

    The border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru has a population of over 100,000 people; at least a quarter are indigenous (mostly Tikuna), and the rest is composed of people from the Andean region and some itinerant groups (migrants, traders, etc.). The “twin cities”, Tabatinga (Brazil) and Leticia (Colombia), receive a significant flux of people from the adjacent regions of each country, each one having a referral hospital for attending cases of moderate complexity. This region has a hig...

  11. Simulation of soil wetting patterns in drip and sdi irrigation. Effects in design and irrigation management variables

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Gil Rodríguez, María; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl; Losada, Ana; Castañon Lion, Guillermo; Juana Sirgado, Luis; Laguna Peñuelas, Francisco; Benitez Buelga, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Conventional drip irrigation is considered one of the most efficient irrigation systems. Alternatively to traditional surface drip irrigation systems (DI), laterals are deployed underneath the soil surface, as in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), leading to a higher potential efficiency, which is of especial interest in places where water is a limited source. The design and management of DI and SDI systems involve selection of an appropriate combination of emitter discharge rate and spacing bet...

  12. Is ‘Social Cooperation’ for traditional irrigation, while ‘Technology’ is for motor pump irrigation?

    OpenAIRE

    Dessalegn, Mengistu; Merrey, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a case study in Ethiopia, this paper shows that while farmers understand the social nature of community-managed irrigation, they share a narrow understanding of pump irrigation with policymakers as being primarily ‘technical’. They perceive pumps as liberating them from the ‘social’ limitations of traditional communal irrigation. However, the rapid expansion of pump irrigation is leading to increasing competition and conflict over limited water resources. We analyze the wider implica...

  13. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  14. Identifying and locating land irrigated by center-pivot irrigation systems using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. O.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology for using Landsat imagery for the identification and location of land irrigated by center-pivot irrigation systems is presented. The procedure involves the use of sets of Landsat band 5 imagery taken separated in time by about three weeks during the irrigation season, a zoom transfer scope and mylar base maps to record the locations of center pivots. Further computer processing of the data has been used to obtain plots of center-pivot irrigation systems and tables indicating the distribution and growth of systems by county for the state of Nebraska, and has been found to be in 95% agreement with current high-altitude IR photography. The information obtainable can be used for models of ground-water aquifers or resource planning.

  15. SANITARY SEWAGE REUSE IN AGRICULTURAL CROP IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Bittencourt Barroso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The water availability was exceeded by demand, becoming a limiting factor in irrigated agriculture. This study aimed to provide a general theoretical framework on the issue of water reuse for agricultural purposes. This is due to the fact that we need a prior knowledge of the state of the art concerning the matter. To that end, we performed a review of irrigated agriculture, the effects on cultivated land and the development of agricultural crops as well as aspects of security to protect groups at risk. The amount of macro and micronutrients in the effluent may reduce or eliminate the use of commercial fertilizers. And this addition of organic matter acts as a soil conditioner, increasing its capacity to retain water. Depending on the characteristics of sewage, the practice of irrigation for long periods may lead to accumulation of toxic compounds and the significant increase of salinity. The inhibition of plant growth by salinity may be due to osmotic effect, causing drought and / or specific effects of ions, which can cause toxicity or nutritional imbalance. The minimization of human exposure to the practice of agricultural reuse is based on a set of mitigation measures that must be implemented by the authorities responsible for operating and monitoring systems for water recycling. It is concluded that the use of sewage depends on management of irrigation, monitoring of soil characteristics and culture.

  16. Using a System Model for Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Leonardo; de Miranda, Eu; Sánchez-Román, Rodrigo; Orellana-González, Alba

    2014-05-01

    When using Systems Thinking variables involved in any process have a dynamic behavior, according to nonstatic relationships with the environment. In this paper it is presented a system dynamics model developed to be used as an irrigation management tool. The model involves several parameters related to irrigation such as: soil characteristics, climate data and culture's physiological parameters. The water availability for plants in the soil is defined as a stock in the model, and this soil water content will define the right moment to irrigate and the water depth required to be applied. The crop water consumption will reduce soil water content; it is defined by the potential evapotranspiration (ET) that acts as an outflow from the stock (soil water content). ET can be estimated by three methods: a) FAO Penman-Monteith (ETPM), b) Hargreaves-Samani (ETHS) method, based on air temperature data and c) Class A pan (ETTCA) method. To validate the model were used data from the States of Ceará and Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the culture was bean. Keyword: System Dynamics, soil moisture content, agricultural water balance, irrigation scheduling.

  17. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  18. Strategies of Smallholder Irrigation Management in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzungu, E.

    1999-01-01

    The smallholder irrigation sub-sector in Zimbabwe, according to literature sources, is under threat due to what are called management problems. Poor water management and low crop yields have been cited, as has also been poor financial and economic viability, resulting in heavy government subsidies.

  19. Irrigation frequency and timing influence pepper yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on how fertilizer and irrigation affect production of vegetables can help growers improve resource use efficiency and profitability. Fertilizer was applied at the recommended rate and twice the recommended rate to bell and non-pungent jalapeno peppers, both Capsicum annuum L., in 2009 a...

  20. Irrigation timing and fertilizer rate in peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive rain fall might leach nutrients from the soil or cause producers to not supply irrigation to pepper (Capsicum sp.). Fertilizer at 150 or 300 lb/acre of triple 17 NPK, the lower rate is the recommended rate, was supplied to either bell, cv. Jupiter, or non-pungent jalapeno, cv. Pace 105, pe...

  1. Solar-thermal jet pumping for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L. D.; Dellenback, P. A.; Bell, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a novel concept in solar powered irrigation pumping, gives measured performance data for the pump unit, and projected system performance. The solar-thermal jet pumping concept is centered around a conventional jet eductor pump which is commercially available at low cost. The jet eductor pump is powered by moderate temperature, moderate pressure Refrigerant-113 vapor supplied by a concentrating solar collector field. The R-113 vapor is direct condensed by the produced water and the two fluids are separated at the surface. The water goes on to use and the R-113 is repressurized and returned to the solar field. The key issue in the solar-thermal jet eductor concept is the efficiency of pump operation. Performance data from a small scale experimental unit which utilizes an electrically heated boiler in place of the solar field is presented. The solar-thermal jet eductor concept is compared with other solar irrigation concepts and optimal application situations are identified. Though having lower efficiencies than existing Rankine cycle solar-thermal irrigation systems, the mechanical and operational simplicity of this concept make it competitive with other solar powered irrigation schemes.

  2. Malaria and Irrigated Crops, Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkenberg, Eveline; McCall, P. J.; Hastings, Ian M.; Wilson, Michael D.; Amerasinghe, Felix P.; Donnelly, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of malaria and associated risk factors in children living in urban Ghana. Malaria prevalence was associated with low hemoglobin concentration, low socioeconomic status, and higher age. Our findings indicate that African urban poor are seriously affected by malaria and that irrigated agriculture may increase this risk.

  3. Irrigation customer survey procedures and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Johnston, J.W.; Dase, J.E.; Hattrup, M.P.; Reed, G.

    1987-03-01

    This report describes the statistical procedures, administrative procedures, and results of a telephone survey designed to collect primary data from individuals in the Pacific Northwest region who use electricity in irrigating agricultural crops. The project was intended to collect data useful for a variety of purposes, including conservation planning, load forecasting, and rate design.

  4. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  5. Multicriteria analysis for irrigation sustainable development: design and selection of irrigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Darouich, Hanaa

    2014-01-01

    Doutoramento em Engenharia dos Biossistemas - Instituto Superior de Agronomia This study aimed to select the most sustainable irrigation methods able to obtain high water productivity considering economic aspects and water saving criteria for wheat and cotton in NE Syria. The models used are PROASPER for sprinkler, SADREG for surface and MIRRIG for drip irrigation. Multicriteria analysis (MCA) was used to rank a set of design alternatives considering water saving and economic priorities. F...

  6. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer: experiences in Colombia: the RUT irrigation district

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo, N.U.

    2006-01-01

    This book is focused in the formulation of a framework for the sustainable management of the irrigation systems transferred to the users organizations by the government. It describes the experience of the irrigation management transfer in Colombia, the impacts from a technical, social, environment and economic point of view, the current status of some transferred systems and proposes management alternatives in view of sustainability based on an integrated and participatory approach.

  7. Intervention Processes and Irrigation Institutions: Sustainability of Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management practices in irrigation systems in Nepal. In this respect, this study aimed to understand the social, administrative and political processes involved in the social and institutional changes brough...

  8. Irrigating lives : Development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project

    OpenAIRE

    Magadlela, D.

    2000-01-01

    This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with changes in their livelihoods which had been introduced from outside by development intervention. The study was sustained by the realisation that irrigation is not just a matter of technical artefacts, but has...

  9. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Arindam Dutta; Mala Kundabala

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups ...

  10. The Effect of Three Irrigants on the Coronal Leakage of the Root Canals System Irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Barekatain, Mehrdad; Ebrahimi, Maziar; Askari, Bahare

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The production of smear layer during canal instrumentation is thought to increase coronal microleakage even after canal obturation. Previous studies have shown that the type of irrigant does not necessarily affect the seal of the obturation. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of three irrigation solutions (MTAD, citric acid and EDTA/NaOCl) on the coronal microleakage of root canals. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty five intact single rooted teeth were instrumented and randomly div...

  11. Identifying the potential for irrigation development in Mozambique: Capitalizing on the drivers behind farmer-led irrigation expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, W.; Veldwisch, G. J.; Bolding, A.

    Smallholder irrigation in Central Mozambique predominantly takes place in an informal setting. This renders these smallholders and their activities invisible for policy purposes. Identification efforts of smallholder irrigation as well as the potential for new irrigation development are often the basis for policy setting. But the potential is often approached technocratically: the technical availability of water and land with the assumption that smallholder irrigation is not happening and should be developed. Although more and more effort is done to include social economical aspects into the identification as well, it remains a GIS exercise, based on incomplete data using large pixel sizes, analyzing countries or continents as a whole. This study describes and presents the methodology and the results of an irrigation potential identification exercise carried out in two studies in Central Mozambique. Apart from describing the identification methods used, this study highlights the extent of farmer-led irrigation development, its drivers and the potential for farmer-led smallholder irrigation development. This study demonstrates the prolific nature of smallholder irrigation, arguing for the recognition that smallholder farmers are already developing irrigation and that this should lead to changing the focus of identification efforts towards the drivers behind farmer-led irrigation development. Using these context-specific drivers to define the potential for new irrigation development should result in a better response in policy to both the technical and socio-economical potential of smallholder irrigation development.

  12. Identifying the potential for irrigation development in Mozambique: Capitalizing on the drivers behind farmer-led irrigation expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, P.W.; Veldwisch, G.J.A.; Bolding, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder irrigation in Central Mozambique predominantly takes place in an informal setting. This renders these smallholders and their activities invisible for policy purposes. Identification efforts of smallholder irrigation as well as the potential for new irrigation development are often the ba

  13. 不同灌溉方式下底墒水矿化度对棉花出苗率的影响%Effects of Water Salinity before Sowing on Cotton Emergence Rate under Different Irrigation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊鹏; 孙景生; 李科江; 冯棣; 郑春莲; 马俊永

    2011-01-01

    In field trial, the complete randomized experiment design of two factors was adopted to study the effects of irrigation methods and salinity of irrigation water before sowing on the salt tolerance eigenvalue of cotton. Results showed that cotton emergence was delayed with the increasing of water salinity before sowing under border irrigation and furrow irrigation. Cotton emergence rates had a linear negative correlation with soil salt content under two irrigation methods. There was no significant difference in cotton e-mergence rates among treatments irrigated with the salinity of water less than 4 g/L. The tolerance of soil salt content in 0 to 20 cm depth for cotton emergence under border irrigation and furrow irrigation was 0. 704% and 0. 749%, respectively. Seedling growth was gradually getting worse with increasing of water salinity. The critical salinity of irrigation water for cotton emergence under border and furrow irrigation was respectively 2 to 4 g/L and 6 to 8 g/L based on an analysis of single plant leaf area. Considering emergence rate and seedling growth, water salinity below 4 g/L was suitable for irrigation before cotton sowing, which was better to use border irrigation. Water salinity less than 8 g/L was of some value, while it was better to adopt furrow irrigation as water salinity above 6 g/L.%采用二因素随机试验设计,在田间进行了底墒水灌溉方式和矿化度对棉花耐盐特征值影响的试验研究。结果表明,畦灌和沟灌方式下,随着底墒水矿化度的增高,棉花出苗时间延迟;无论何种灌水方式,棉花的出苗率均与底墒水矿化度和土壤盐分含量呈线性负相关关系,采用矿化度小于4 g/L微咸水造墒,处理间出苗率差异未达极显著水平,畦灌和沟灌方式下棉花出苗时0~20 cm土壤盐分含量的极限值分别为0.704%和0.749%;随着灌溉水矿化度的增加,幼苗生长指标逐渐降低,仅从单株叶面积一个因素分析,畦灌方

  14. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  15. NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (NAFTA) BORDER PROJECT - A COMPARISON OF THE ARIZONA BORDER POPULATION WITH THE STATE POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a perception among the population of the border communities that they have increased exposure due to their proximity to pollution sources in Mexico. This study provides exposure data for the border population that will be compared with data from a probabilistic exposure...

  16. COLT: seasonal prediction of crop irrigation needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Giulia; Spisni, Andrea; Mariani, Maria Cristina; Pratizzoli, William; Pavan, Valentina; Tomei, Fausto; Botarelli, Lucio; Marletto, Vittorio

    2013-04-01

    COLT is an operational chain to predict summer (June, July, August) crop irrigation needs in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) at the regional and lower scales. Set up by ARPA-SIMC in 2010, it has been applied since with good results. COLT predicts summer irrigation needs in May, i.e. at the beginning of the irrigation season in Emilia-Romagna. COLT is based on the production of yearly updated land use maps, observed daily weather data, a regional soil map and ensemble probabilistic seasonal weather forecasts obtained from the EUROSIP multi-model operational system and a geographical soil water balance model (CRITERIA). The first step of the operational scheme is the supervised classification of crops through field surveys and a set of multitemporal satellite images acquired during the first months of the growing period. As the identification of all crop species during the satellite working windows is not feasible, they are grouped in six classes: summer field crops (including corn, sorghum, tomato, sugar beet, potato and others), winter crops (wheat, barley, oat, etc.), perennial grasses (alfa-alfa and meadows), rice, vineyards and orchards, on the whole regional plain, covering about 775000 ha. The second step involves the statistical downscaling of the EUROSIP ensemble predictions over Emilia-Romagna and the use of a weather generator to synthetically produce a number (usually 50) replicated meteorological summer daily data series, consistent with the predicted and downscaled summer anomalies of temperature, rainfall and other related indices. During the final step the CRITERIA model computes crop development and soil water balance on the crop classification map using observed meteorological daily data up to the end of May. Afterword forecasts are used up to the end of the summer irrigation season, i.e. August 31st. The statistical distribution projections of summer irrigation needs at the regional and reclamation consortia scale are then issued and disseminated

  17. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  18. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  19. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  20. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter the

  1. Simulated errors in deep drainage beneath irrigated settings: Partitioning vegetation, texture and irrigation effects using Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. P.; Gates, J. B.; Nasta, P.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater in irrigated regions is impacted by timing and rates of deep drainage. Because field monitoring of deep drainage is often cost prohibitive, numerical soil water models are frequently the main method of estimation. Unfortunately, few studies have quantified the relative importance of likely error sources. In this study, three potential error sources are considered within a Monte Carlo framework: water retention parameters, rooting depth, and irrigation practice. Error distributions for water retention parameters were determined by 1) laboratory hydraulic measurements and 2) pedotransfer functions. Error distributions for rooting depth were developed from literature values. Three irrigation scheduling regimes were considered: one representing pre-scheduled irrigation ignoring preceding rainfall, one representing pre-scheduled irrigation that was altered based on preceding rainfall, and one representing algorithmic irrigation scheduling informed by profile matric potential sensors. This approach was applied to an experimental site in Nebraska with silt loam soils and irrigated corn for 2002-2012. Results are based on Six Monte-Carlo simulations, each consisting of 1000 Hydrus 1D simulations at daily timesteps, facilitated by parallelization on a 12-node computing cluster. Results indicate greater sensitivity to irrigation regime than to hydraulic or vegetation parameters (median values for prescheduled irrigation, prescheduled irrigation altered by rainfall, and algorithmic irrigation were 310 ,100, and 110 mm/yr, respectively). Error ranges were up to 700% higher for pedotransfer functions than for laboratory-measured hydraulic functions. Deep drainage was negatively correlated with alpha and maximum root zone depth and, for some scenarios, positively correlated with n. The relative importance of error sources differed amongst the irrigation scenarios because of nonlinearities amongst parameter values, profile wetness, and deep drainage. Compared to pre

  2. Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Li, Guitong; Andersen, Mathias Neumann;

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is an amendment that can be used for enhancing soil water storage which may increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar on physiology, yield and quality of tomato under different irrigation regimes. From early flowering to fruit maturity...... stages, the plants were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying irrigation (PRD) and two levels of biochar (0% and 5% by weight). In FI, the plants were irrigated daily to pot water holding capacity while in DI and PRD, 70% of FI was irrigated on either the...... whole or one side of the pots, respectively. In PRD, irrigation was switched between sides when the soil water content of the dry side decreased to 15%. The results showed that addition of biochar increased the soil moisture contents in DI and PRD, which consequently improved physiology, yield, and...

  3. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  4. Two Challenges for U.S. Irrigation Due to Climate Change: Increasing Irrigated Area in Wet States and Increasing Irrigation Rates in Dry States

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Robert I.; Girvetz, Evan H.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation practices will likely be affected by climate change. In this paper, we use a statistical model relating observed water use by U.S. producers to the moisture deficit, and then use this statistical model to project climate changes impact on both the fraction of agricultural land irrigated and the irrigation rate (m3ha−1). Data on water withdrawals for US states (1985–2005) show that both quantities are highly positively correlated with moisture deficit (precipitation – P...

  5. Nuclear security projects related to border control in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the last two years, Lebanese customs have been under increasing national and international pressure to tighten control and security at its borders. In this context, attention was brought to the uncontrolled movement of radioactive material across the borders. In order to address this issue, and in close coordination with the Lebanese Customs, the Project Administration Office (PAO) at the Presidency of Council of Ministers initiated an EU-funded project entitled 'Strengthening National Infrastructure related to Lebanese Trade and Border Control'. This initiative led to the establishment of several other projects in 2008 between the Lebanese government and international and foreign organizations/agencies to address the related issue of control of radioactive material movement across the borders. These are more generally described as nuclear security projects that directly beneficiate Lebanese Customs and are listed as the following: the above listed EU-funded project, the IAEA-funded project for Masnaa border, the IAEA Coordinated Research Project and the US-DOE Megaport project. They are under current implementation and come as complementary to the Northern Border Pilot Project that promotes the integrated management of Lebanon's borders, led by Germany and with contributions by the EU Commission and various countries. This paper describes the various projects involved, their programmatic plans, and the coordination needed for reaching the common objectives. (author)

  6. The Cosmopolitanization of the EU’s Borders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Spruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries the political geography of Europe has been based around borders of its nation states. The ability of the nation state to control its territory has been essential to the practices of war and diplomacy, the legitimacy of governments, immigration policies and trade. But processes of globalization and EU integration have transformed the borders of the European nation state. While globalization theorists tend to posit an opening up of borders to global flows of capital, information and people, the changed nature of the border is itself often left unexamined and is assumed to have simply disappeared. But scholars and activists are now arguing that, rather than fading away, borders are proliferating in the globalized world and their functions spreading into many different areas of society. This article examines the transformation of the ‘classical’ border of the nation-state into its recent forms, using the work of theorists such as Balibar, Mezzadra, Rigo and Walters. It then examines how these theories have been applied in recent literature, and in particular Chris Rumford’s analysis of the European Neighbourhood policy and his argument that this represents a ‘cosmopolitanisation’ of European borders.

  7. Two challenges for U.S. irrigation due to climate change: increasing irrigated area in wet states and increasing irrigation rates in dry states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I; Girvetz, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation practices will likely be affected by climate change. In this paper, we use a statistical model relating observed water use by U.S. producers to the moisture deficit, and then use this statistical model to project climate changes impact on both the fraction of agricultural land irrigated and the irrigation rate (m³ ha⁻¹). Data on water withdrawals for US states (1985-2005) show that both quantities are highly positively correlated with moisture deficit (precipitation--PET). If current trends hold, climate change would increase agricultural demand for irrigation in 2090 by 4.5-21.9 million ha (B1 scenario demand: 4.5-8.7 million ha, A2 scenario demand: 9.1-21.9 million ha). Much of this new irrigated area would occur in states that currently have a wet climate and a small fraction of their agricultural land currently irrigated, posing a challenge to policymakers in states with less experience with strict regulation of agriculture water use. Moreover, most of this expansion will occur in states where current agricultural production has relatively low market value per hectare, which may make installation of irrigation uneconomical without significant changes in crops or practices by producers. Without significant increases in irrigation efficiency, climate change would also increase the average irrigation rate from 7,963 to 8,400-10,415 m³ ha⁻¹ (B1 rate: 8,400-9,145 m³ ha⁻¹, A2 rate: 9,380-10,415 m³ ha⁻¹). The irrigation rate will increase the most in states that already have dry climates and large irrigation rates, posing a challenge for water supply systems in these states. Accounting for both the increase in irrigated area and irrigation rate, total withdrawals might increase by 47.7-283.4 billion m³ (B1 withdrawal: 47.7-106.0 billion m³, A2 withdrawal: 117.4-283.4 billion m³). Increases in irrigation water-use efficiency, particularly by reducing the prevalence of surface irrigation, could eliminate the increase in total

  8. Groundwater use for irrigation – a global inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siebert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation is the most important water use sector accounting for about 70% of the global freshwater withdrawals and 90% of consumptive water uses. While the extent of irrigation and related water uses are reported in statistical databases or estimated by model simulations, information on the source of irrigation water is scarce and very scattered. Here we present a new global inventory on the extent of areas irrigated with groundwater, surface water or non-conventional sources, and we determine the related consumptive water uses. The inventory provides data for 15 038 national and sub-national administrative units. Irrigated area was provided by census-based statistics from international and national organizations. A global model was then applied to simulate consumptive water uses for irrigation by water source. Globally, area equipped for irrigation is currently about 301 million ha of which 38% are equipped for irrigation with groundwater. Total consumptive groundwater use for irrigation is estimated as 545 km3 yr−1, or 43% of the total consumptive irrigation water use of 1277 km3 yr−1. The countries with the largest extent of areas equipped for irrigation with groundwater, in absolute terms, are India (39 million ha, China (19 million ha and the USA (17 million ha. Groundwater use in irrigation is increasing both in absolute terms and in percentage of total irrigation, leading in places to concentrations of users exploiting groundwater storage at rates above groundwater recharge. Despite the uncertainties associated with statistical data available to track patterns and growth of groundwater use for irrigation, the inventory presented here is a major step towards a more informed assessment of agricultural water use and its consequences for the global water cycle.

  9. Improving irrigation management in L'Horta Nord (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, Jose Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    L'Horta Nord is an important irrigation district in Valencia (Spain), especially for vegetable crops. The traditional cropping pattern in the region consists of a rotation of chufa with crops such as potato, onion, lettuce, escarole and red cabbage, being all these crops furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of the water used is acceptable, water is not expensive and there are no limitations on supply. Consequently, growers are not aware of the volumes of water used, application efficiencies, nor water productivity for any of the crops cited. The European Framework Directive 2000/60, based on the precautionary principle, considers preventive action for measures to be taken; moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. Thus, water use is an issue to improve. In this sense, the current situation of the irrigation in the area is analysed using chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) as representative of the crops, since most of the crops in the area have shallow root systems, as chufa, which are irrigated in similar patterns. In order to analyse the irrigation performance of the traditional chufa crop as well as to achieve more sustainable results, different studies have been carried out, during the last decade. Efforts have been directed to increase water productivity, increasing yield and minimising the volumes of water applied. Different planting configurations and different irrigation thresholds, not only in furrow irrigation but also in drip irrigation, are examples of how the irrigation performance could be improved. Herein is presented a two-year study, comparing, in both furrow and drip irrigation, two irrigation schedules based on the volumetric soil water content, which was continuously monitored using capacitance sensors. Yield was significantly affected by the growing season, the irrigation system and by the irrigation schedule, and by the second order interactions of the

  10. Drip irrigation management in different chufa planting strategies: yield and irrigation water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, José Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2013-04-01

    In a study presented in the EGU assembly 2012, it was analysed how yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus), crop, were affected by planting strategy (ridges and flat raised beds, with two and three plant rows along them) and irrigation system [furrow (FI) and drip irrigation (DI)]. Each irrigation session started when the Volumetric Soil Water Content (VSWC) in ridges dropped to 80% of field capacity; beds were irrigated simultaneously with ridges and with the same irrigation duration. R produced lower yield than the two types of beds, and yields in DI were higher than those FI. Ridges led to the highest IWUE with DI, and to the lowest with FI. Then, it was decided to analyse, in DI, how yield and IWUE responded to start each irrigation session when the VSWC in the central point of different planting strategies [ridges (R), and flat raised beds with two (b) and three (B) plant rows along them] dropped to 80% of field capacity. In R and b, plants were irrigated by a single dripline per plant row, while in B two irrigation layouts were assayed: a single dripline per plant row (B3) and two driplines per bed (B2), placing each dripline between two planting rows. Irrigation session stop was also automated as a function of the VSWC. Results show that yield was affected (P˜0.01) by planting strategy; the greatest yield was obtained in b (2.4 kgm-2), differing (P˜0.05) from that obtained in R (2.1 kgm-2), with intermediate yields in B2 (2.3 kgm-2) and B3 (2.3 kgm-2). Yield was not affected (P˜0.05) by the utilisation of two or three driplines in B. Considerably less irrigation water was applied (IWA) in R (376 mm) than in B3 (465 mm), B2 (475 mm) and b (502 mm). This automatic irrigation management, as a function of the VSWC in each planting strategy, lead to adjust the IWA to the plant water requirements, which were similar in all three flat raised beds, since they correspond to the same planting density, that was

  11. Deficit subsurface drip irrigation of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment in arid west Texas, United States of America, grew cotton with subsurface drip irrigation providing four basic levels of water resource and three row widths (1.02 m, 0.76 m, and approximately 0.38 m). The former two row-width treatments contained three planting configurations (a full pattern and two skip patterns). In all, there were seven row-width-pattern configurations, each of which had four water levels, for a total of 28 treatments. Where farmers do not have enough water with which to irrigate their crops, they may choose: (1) to reduce their planted area and apply more water (up to the full water requirement) on this portion of their land; or (2) plant the entire area, whereby they apply a quantity of irrigation water that only partially meets consumptive use requirements. The purpose of this study was to develop mathematical characterizations for yield as a function of water resource for various popular row width/patterns, and then to use these equations in crop budget models to determine economically optimum scenarios for local cotton growers. The full cotton production budgets were based on a 405-ha farm. The assumed water resource varied from scarcely any to enough, with proper management, to supply the majority of crop water needs. In almost all scenarios, it was economically sound to stretch the water resource over the entire farm, rather than to try to maximize yield on portions of the farm. A break-even economic water resource between covering the entire farm irrigating only portions of it was about 2.0 mm/day. Ultra-narrow-row treatments significantly exceeded the treatments with traditional row widths at all four water levels. The highest yield of lint was 1 833 kg/ha. Applying large portions of the moisture requirement as pre-planting irrigation enabled yields of 600-900 kg/ha of lint for the full pattern width treatments on the smallest water treatment, which applied 36 mm of in-season irrigation. The skip-row patterns did not yield

  12. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  13. Diabetes Hospitalization at the U.S.–Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Juan R. Albertorio-Diaz, MA; Francis C. Notzon, PhD; Alfonso Rodriguez-Lainz, DVM, MPH

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The diabetes hospitalization rate for the region along the U.S. side of the U.S.–Mexico border is unknown, a situation that could limit the success of the Healthy Border 2010 program. To remedy this problem, we analyzed and compared hospital discharge data for Arizona, California, and Texas for the year 2000 and calculated the diabetes hospitalization rates. Methods We obtained hospital-discharge public-use data files from the health departments of three U.S. border states and lo...

  14. Social and cultural influences among Mexican border entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Bretones, Francisco; Cappello, Héctor M; Garcia, Pedro A

    2009-06-01

    Social and cultural conditions (including U.S. border and inland influence, role models within the family, and educational background) which affect locus of control and achievement motivation among Mexican entrepreneurs were explored among 64 selected entrepreneurs in two Mexican towns, one on the Mexico-U.S. border, the other located inland. Analyses showed that the border subsample scored higher on External locus of control; however, in both subsamples the father was an important element in the locus of control variable and the entrepreneur status. No statistically significant mean difference was noted for achievement motivation. Practical applications and limitations are discussed. PMID:19708411

  15. Social and Symbolic Capital in Border Region Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    specific industry sector. The actors have relationships characterised by interdependencies of different strength and quality that define the boundaries. Empirically this contribution is sticking to a firm cluster in the Danish - German border region in Southern Jutland/Danmark. We found global players with...... a high sensitivity regarding the importance of social capital in the process of value creation. Managers on the firm- as well as on the web-level are aware of the potential, but the border between the countries is by the same one border of the cluster as an value adding unit....

  16. The Borders of Engineers Without Borders: A Self-Assessment of Ingenieros Sin Fronteras Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Valderrama Pineda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article results from a process of self-assessment within Ingenieros Sin Fronteras Colombia (ISFC. The activities usually referred to as humanitarian engineering, assistive engineering, engineering for aid, and/or engineering for development are increasingly involving educational frameworks, activities, and institutions in service-learning schemes. In this article, we discuss the issues and challenges that arise from this combination of objectives, activities, and institutional settings, especially when these approaches are implemented in the Global South. To do so we reflect on the type of service learning we are conducting in Colombia. We develop a general service learning in engineering typology to situate our work. We find that our Local Learning in the South collaboration makes the work of ISFC both different than and similar to other service-learning engagements. It is different in the sense that local engagements do not experience the cultural and language barriers faced by cross-cultural projects. It is similar in the sense that, with the exception of the cross-cultural challenges, our projects run the same risks as any other service learning in engineering projects in the world. To reflect on these risks we propose a set of five questions to self-assess our work. Thinking about the choice of naming our work “ingeniería sin fronteras” (engineering without borders, we consider what kind of borders we are dealing with and propose five: financial, epistemic, engineering educational, knowledge, and reputation. We invite other organizations to question the kind of borders their work aims at eliminating but risks replicating.

  17. Cross-border innovation cooperation: Partner selection, national borders and knowledge bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2016-01-01

    by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... innovation partner is independent of the choice of selecting a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results, however, do not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....

  18. Border, Border, Wide and Far, How We Wonder What You Are

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Parsley; Shang-Jin Wei

    1999-01-01

    The authors exploit three-dimensional panel data on prices for twenty seven traded goods, over eighty eight quarters, across ninety six cities in Japan, and the United States, to answer several questions: 1) Does the average exchange rate between countries stray further from zero, than that between cities within a country? 2) Is there any tendency for the average exchange rate to move closer to zero over time? 3) Does the border narrow over time? 4) Is there evidence linking changes in the so...

  19. Development of Strategies for Sustainable Irrigation Water Management in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    During 1960 - 1990 years irrigated areas in Russia have increased rapidly, helping to boost agricultural output. Although the impressive achievements of irrigation in this period its large experience indicates problems and failures of irrigation water management. In addition to large water use and low irrigation water efficiency, environmental concerns (excessive water depletion, water quality reduction, water logging, soil degradation) are usually considered like the most significant problem of the irrigation sector. Despite of considerable shrinking of irrigated areas in Russia and decreasing of water withdrawal for irrigation purposes during two last decades a degradation of environment as well as degradation of soil and water resources in irrigated areas was prolonged and will probably continue if current irrigation practices are maintained. Nowadays, in different regions of Russia there are societal demand to restore agricultural irrigation in Russia as answer to challenges from climate pattern changes and degradation of land & water resources. In the respect of these demands there is a need to develop strategies for sustainability of agricultural irrigation in Russia that should be based on three main societal objectives: costeffective use of water in irrigated agriculture at farm level, and satisfactory preserving the natural environment. Therefore sustainable irrigation water management is not only an objective at farm level but also an overall goal at the local and regional as well. A way to achieve sustainability in irrigation water management is to solve the local conflicts arising from the interactions between water use at irrigation areas and surrounding environment. Thus should be based on the development of irrigation framework program including on the irrigation water management issues, policies & decisions making at federal and regional levels should be based on the indicators of environment & irrigation water efficiency monitoring promoting the

  20. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  1. EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY FOR IRRIGATION IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivelto Mercante

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the quest for sustainable development and rational use of resources natural, the implementation of irrigation systems becomes a necessity in regions of seasonal scarcity of water and great agricultural productivity, as in case of Paraná. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the parameters Physico-chemical water quality in the city of Salto do Lontra –Paraná. The Physical-chemical analysis included: pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Solids Soluble (STS, nitrate (N-NO3, RAS, Sodium (Na++, chlorine (Cl- and bicarbonate (HCO3, being held in 40 properties, according to APHA (1998. The analysis Statistical surveys were performed using the Minitab 15 software. The results in the study period, showed average values in the range limits recommended by FAO for the use ofirrigation water considering all parameters measured and there was no restrictions on water use in irrigation.

  2. WATER MANAGEMENT POLICIES TO IMPROVE SURFACE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An economic and environmental analysis of various policy measures is undertaken in this paper. A bio economic model of agricultural activities in the Bardenas irrigation area of the Ebro basin in Spain is constructed. The model includes production function of crops, estimated with EPIC crop growth package. The model results show the effects on crop yields, water and nitrogen demand, and on control nitrogen pollution when the different measures are considered. These measures are evaluated by their cost efficiency. A standard in water applied by 25 per cent is the best measure to abate nitrogen pollution, following by the quantitative limit on applied fertilizer and nitrogen price increases. The limit on water applied is an appropriate measure to avoid the overuse of water resources, and this option would require the establishment limits on concession to the irrigation district associations, measure the flow and control the water applied by farmers.

  3. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.;

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P < 0.05) seedling rate...... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by salinity where increasing salinity level led to decrease in dry biomass, root...... volume and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content...

  4. Effects of traditional flood irrigation on invertebrates in lowland meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schirmel

    Full Text Available Lowland meadow irrigation used to be widespread in Central Europe, but has largely been abandoned during the 20th century. As a result of agri-environment schemes and nature conservation efforts, meadow irrigation is now being re-established in some European regions. In the absence of natural flood events, irrigation is expected to favour fauna typical of lowland wet meadows. We analysed the effects of traditional flood irrigation on diversity, densities and species composition of three invertebrate indicator taxa in lowland meadows in Germany. Unexpectedly, alpha diversity (species richness and Simpson diversity and beta diversity (multivariate homogeneity of group dispersions of orthopterans, carabids, and spiders were not significantly different between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. However, spider densities were significantly higher in irrigated meadows. Furthermore, irrigation and elevated humidity affected species composition and shifted assemblages towards moisture-dependent species. The number of species of conservation concern, however, did not differ between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. More variable and intensive (higher duration and/or frequency flooding regimes might provide stronger conservation benefits, additional species and enhance habitat heterogeneity on a landscape scale.

  5. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  6. Effects of irrigation efficiency on chemical transport processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kang; ZHANG RenDuo; SHENG Feng

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation practices greatly affect sustainable agriculture development.In this study, we investigated the effects of irrigation efficiency on water flow and chemical transport in soils, which had significant impact on the environment.Field dye staining experiments were conducted at different soils with various irrigation amount.Image analysis was conducted to study the heterogeneous flow patterns and their relationships with the irrigation efficiency.Irrigation efficiency and its environmental effects were evaluated using various indictors, including application efficiency, deep percolation ratio, storage effi-ciency, and uniformity.Under the same irrigation condition, soil chemical distributions were more het-erogeneous than soil water distributions.The distributions were mainly affected by soil texture, initial soil water content, and irrigation amount.Storage efficiency, irrigation uniformity, and deep percolation ratio increased with irrigation amount.Since the chemical distribution uniformity was lower than the water uniformity, the amount of chemical leaching increased sharply with decrease of irrigation uni-formity, which resulted in high environmental risks of groundwater pollution.

  7. Climate Change Impacts of Irrigation on the Central High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterman, K. A.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1940s, the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) has been pivotal for irrigation over the Central High Plains (CHP), a region spanning parts of five states in the central U.S.. Today after decades of over-pumping, many areas of the CHP are no longer able to irrigate due to localized depletion of the HPA. With a range of global climate models predicting an increase in temperature and decrease in growing-season precipitation for the CHP, demand for irrigation is likely to increase and exacerbate drawdown and depletion of the aquifer. Here we apply the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) coupled with the crop simulation model SALUS to simulate irrigation water use in response to historical climate and land use. This model is validated using historical groundwater levels. We then simulate future climate scenarios to predict how irrigation demand and water availability will alter the hydrology of the CHP. This study provides a predictive relationship of future irrigation demand linked to both climate change and agricultural management, and presents a modeling approach to answer two questions: How will future climate change affect irrigation demand? How will climate change and irrigation demand affect groundwater availability for the future? Different climate scenarios based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are used to simulate the impact of different projected future climate conditions through the year 2100. By examining predicted groundwater levels along with saturated thickness we analyze where irrigation is likely to be viable in the future and compare this to current irrigation extent.

  8. EFFECT OF GROUNDWATER TABLE CONTROL ON WATER SAVING IRRIGATION STRATEGIES IN THE QINGTONGXIA IRRIGATION DISTRICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-gui; HOLLANDERS P. H. J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of the effects of groundwater table control under different irrigation water amounts on the water and salinity balance and on crop yield. Two experimental areas, the Pingluo and Huinong experimental sites, were selected to collect the required data.The agro-hydrological model Soil-Water Atmosphere-Plant(SWAP) was used to analyse the water flows and salt transport processes for different groundwater levels and irrigation scenarios. Six scenarios, which resulted from different groundwater table regimes combined with different irrigation amounts, were simulated. The results show that high groundwater tables due to the excessive irrigation are the main cause of the large amount of drainage water and low crop yield;reducing irrigation water without a lower groundwater table will not lead to a large reduction of the drainage water, and will reduce the crop yield even more; to lower the groundwater table is a good measure to control the drainage water and increase crop yield.

  9. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Results: Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Conclusion: Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use.

  10. Sensitivity of weather besed irrigation scheduling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the sensitivity of irrigation scheduling model (Mehran) carried out by changing input weather parameters (Temperatures, Wind velocity, Rainfall, and Sunshine hours) to see model sensitivity in computation/estimations (output) for Transpiration (T), Evaporation (E), and allocation of irrigation (I) water. Sensitivity analysis depends on the site and environmental conditions and is therefore an essential step in model validation and application. Mehran Model is weather based crop growth simulation model, which uses daily input data of max and min temperatures (temp), dew point temp (humidity), wind speed, daily sunshine hours (radiation) and computes T/sub c/E/sub s/, and allocates Irrigation accordingly. The input and output base values are taken as an average of three years actual field data used during the Mehran Model testing and calibration on wheat and cotton crops. The model sensitivity of specific input parameter was obtained by varying its value and keeping other input parameters at their base values. The input base values varied by+-10 and +-25%. The model was run for each modified input parameter, and output was compared statistically with base outputs. The ME% (Mean Percent Error) was used to obtain variations in output values. The results reveal that the model is most sensitive with variations in temperature. The 10 and 25% increase in temperature resulted increase in Cotton crop's Tc by 12.18 and 28.54%, corresponding Es by 22.32 and 37.88% and irrigation water allocation by 18.41 and 47.83 % respectively increased from average base values. (author)

  11. Surfactant improves irrigant penetration into unoperated sinuses

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrer, Joseph W.; Dion, Greg R.; Brenner, Pryor S.; Abadie, Wesley M.; McMains, Kevin C.; Thomas, Roy F.; Weitzel, Erik K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Saline irrigations are proving to be a valuable intervention in the treatment of chronic sinusitis. The use of surfactants is a well established additive to topical treatments known to reduce surface tension and may prove to be a simple, nonoperative intervention to improve intrasinus douching penetration. Methods: Six 30-mL, flat-bottomed medicine cups with circular holes cut through the bottom center and varying in diameter from 1 to 6 mm were created with punch biopsies. Water,...

  12. Future dairy farming systems in irrigation regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Christie K.M.; Nesseler, R.; Doyle, Peter T.; Malcolm, Bill

    2005-01-01

    The dairy industry in northern Victoria has been subject to rapid change in recent years, resulting in great diversity in the irrigated dairy farming systems in the region. Continuing analysis is needed of the various farming systems that may be viable in the future. This study examined possible development options for different farm systems to enable them to maintain financial viability. Four case studies, representative of different farm systems, were used. All four had options to combat th...

  13. The irrigation project for selected farm

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Huynh Truong, Gia

    2011-01-01

    This master thesis introduces progressive steps in selecting and designing a micro-sprinkler irrigation system in a rambutan farm which is located at Hon Quang, Long Binh, Binh Phuoc province, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. To calculate main parameters of system, the author used formulars and methods which are suggested by FAO. The initial cost and operation cost of proposed system are determined in the thesis as well.

  14. Antimicrobial Irrigants in the Endodontic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of root canal disinfection. It discusses the different endodontic irrigants available and comments on how these can be used most effectively. Eliminating bacteria from the root canal system is an essential stage in endodontic therapy. An objective of endodontic treatment is removal of diseased tissue, elimination of bacteria from the canal system and prevention of recontamination. (1) Disinfection of the root canal system, as part of endodontic therapy, by...

  15. Solar Energy Based Automated Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Lodhi A. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important because the main reason is the lack of rains {&} scarcity of land reservoir water. The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to which a significant amount of water goes waste. For this purpose; we use this automatic plant irrigation system. In this project we use solar energy which is used to operate the irrigation pump. The circuit comprises of sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM358. Op-amp are configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense whether the soil is wet or dry. The Microcontroller is used to control the whole system by monitoring the sensors and when sensors sense the dry condition then the microcontroller will send command to relay driver IC the contacts of which are used to switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when all the sensors are in wet condition. The microcontroller does the above job as it receives the signal from the sensors through the output of the comparator, and these signals operate under the control of software which is stored in ROM of the Microcontroller. The condition of the pump i.e., ON/OFF is displayed on a 16X2 LCD

  16. Economic Evaluation of Irrigated Dairy Forage Production.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffy, Joe; Gyles, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    An optimisation model was developed to compare the profitability of different forage species on irrigated dairy farms. The model is driven by the energy and protein requirements of the milking cow. The objective of the model is to maximise income, after herd and feed costs, by selecting the area of the farm sown to particular forage species. Different forage species may require different animal production systems to optimise their profitability. In order to achieve this, the model can alter t...

  17. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  18. Responsive regulation of cross-border assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-12-01

    This article considers the question: how might Australian regulators constructively respond to the dynamic and complex challenges posed by cross-border assisted reproduction? To begin, the article summarises the available international scholarship and outlines what little we know about Australian cross-border reproductive travel. Of the three generally proposed responses to cross-border reproductive care (prohibition, harm minimisation and harmonisation), the article summarily rejects the first approach, and instead discusses a mixture of the latter two. The article proposes the beginnings of an immediate policy response aimed not at stopping cross-border practices per se, but rather at understanding and reducing the risks associated with them, as well as flagging the pursuit of more ambitious meta-goals such as developing more equitable and accessible treatment frameworks for assisted reproductive technology and encouraging domestic self-sufficiency in reproduction. PMID:26939503

  19. Borders in Education and Living- a Case of Trench Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Pernille

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the notion of border will be examined in a cultural life course perspective. I will investigate borders as psycho-cultural constructions created to enable and control meaning-making in the intersection between subjects engagements and concerns and collectively constructed and guiding meanings. An empirical analysis of one boy's life course in and between home, school and a Leisure Time Activity Center in the years 1st to 3rd grade demonstrates a systemic construction of borders involving him, his teachers and his parents and renders the boy to choose between becoming an engaged pupil or a dedicated son. As such, the analysis can illuminate processes of school - home interactions that work opposite of what is intended and become detrimental to children's life. In a cultural life course perspective borders show how life is maintained as meaningful and not only guide the present living but also serve as directional guides into the future. PMID:26205071

  20. The structure of borders in a small world

    CERN Document Server

    Thiemann, C; Grady, D; Brune, R; Brockmann, D

    2010-01-01

    Geographic borders are not only essential for the effective functioning of government, the distribution of administrative responsibilities and the allocation of public resources, they also influence the interregional flow of information, cross-border trade operations, the diffusion of innovation and technology, and the spatial spread of infectious diseases. However, as growing interactions and mobility across long distances, cultural, and political borders continue to amplify the small world effect and effectively decrease the relative importance of local interactions, it is difficult to assess the location and structure of effective borders that may play the most significant role in mobility-driven processes. The paradigm of spatially coherent communities may no longer be a plausible one, and it is unclear what structures emerge from the interplay of interactions and activities across spatial scales. Here we analyse a multi-scale proxy network for human mobility that incorporates travel across a few to a few...

  1. The European Electricity Market and Cross-Border Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic characteristics and features of trading in electricity, especially in cross-border trading. First, the most important features of electricity as a commodity are explained, with the consequences for electricity trading. Then characteristics and changes in the electricity market after liberalization are discussed. This liberalization has taken place throughout Europe, and the consequences of this revolutionary change are still visible. The main features of electricity trading are mentioned in general. Then cross-border trade in Europe is discussed in greater detail. In this context the basic principles of the allocation of cross-border transmission capacities are explained.The next part of the paper considers the characteristics of the European electricity market from the trader’s point of view. Liquidity as a very important index is introduced here.Finally the most visible trends in cross-border trade and the most probable future development in this area are presented. 

  2. ABOUT INVARIANCE IN PROBLEM HEAT OF EXCHANGE WITH BORDER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    MUSTAPOKULOV KHAMDAM YANGIBOEVICH; MINAROVA NIGORA XUDAYBERGANOVNA

    2015-01-01

    In given work is considered the question about strong and weak invariance of constant ambiguous image for equations heat of exchange with border management. Sufficient conditions are received for strong or weak invariance given ambiguous image.

  3. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness. PMID:16810354

  4. Men, Masculinities and Water Powers in Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Zwarteveen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an informed plea for more explicitly identifying, naming and unravelling the linkages between water control and gender in irrigation. The fact that power, expertise and status in irrigation tend to have a strong masculine connotation is by now quite well established, and underlies calls for more women in water decision making, engineering education and professions. Yet, the questions of how and why water control, status and expertise are linked to masculinity, and of whether and how such links work to legitimise the exercise of power, are seldom asked. To date, associations between masculinity and professional water performance have largely been taken for granted and remained unexamined. The resulting perceived normalcy makes mechanisms of (gendered power and politics in water appear self-evident, unchangeable, and indeed gender-neutral. The article reviews examples of the masculinity of irrigation in different domains to argue that exposing and challenging such hitherto hidden dimensions of (gendered power is important for the identification of new avenues of gender progressive change, and for shedding a new and interesting light on the workings of power in water.

  5. Malaria ecology along the Thailand–Myanmar border

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, DM; Carrara, VI; Pukrittayakamee, S.; McGready, R.; Nosten, FH

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Parker et al. Background: Malaria in Southeast Asia frequently clusters along international borders. For example, while most of Thailand is malaria free, the border region shared with Myanmar continues to have endemic malaria. This spatial pattern is the result of complex interactions between landscape, humans, mosquito vectors, and malaria parasites. An understanding of these complex ecological and socio-cultural interactions is important for designing and implementing malaria elimina...

  6. Can Land Rregistration and Certification Reduce Land Border Conflicts?

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Stein T.; Deininger, Klaus; Ghebru, Hosaena

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses factors related to local land border conflicts and how lowcost land registration and certification has affected land conflicts during and after land registration and certification using data from northern Ethiopia. Border conflicts were more common near district centers, further away from markets, and where property rights had been redistributed more recently. A higher probability of reduction in conflicts during and after the reform was positively associated with nearness...

  7.   Border Carbon Adjustments, the UNFCCC and WTO Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Laura

    2010-01-01

      My presentation on Trade and Climate Change concludes that border carbon adjustments can be consistent with both the climate change and WTO rules - depending of course on their design - but that they are not necessarily attractive. ......  My presentation on Trade and Climate Change concludes that border carbon adjustments can be consistent with both the climate change and WTO rules - depending of course on their design - but that they are not necessarily attractive. ...

  8. COMMUNICATING ACROSS THE BORDER. A EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE FROM WESTERN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Palea

    2011-01-01

    The present article analyzes the challenges faced by the European Union in its endeavour of implementing and developing cross-border cooperation as a means for reconciliation and regional development. It also presents the context in which Euro regions appeared as a form of institutionalized cross-border cooperation and focuses on the Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisa Euro region, highlighting the opportunities and threats faced by this particular Euro region. Acknowledging that mass-media is a mirror of...

  9. Distance and Political Boundaries. Estimating Border Effects under Inequality Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Borraz; Alberto Cavallo; Roberto Rigobon; Leandro Zipitría

    2012-01-01

    The “border effect” literature finds that political boundaries have a large impact on relative prices, implicitly adding several thousands of miles to trade. In this paper we show that the standard empirical specification suffers from selection bias, and propose a new methodology based on quantile regressions. Using a novel data set from Uruguay, we apply our procedure to measure the segmentation introduced by city borders. We find that when the standard methodology is used, two supermarkets ...

  10. A NEW APPROACH FOR BORDER EXTRACTION USING MORPHOLOGICAL METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    M Rama Bai

    2010-01-01

    The objective of border detection is to mark the points in a digital image at which the luminous intensity changes sharply. Acute changes in image features usually reflect important events and changes inproperties of the world. These include (a) discontinuities in depth (b) discontinuities in surface orientation (c) changes in material properties and (d) variations in scene illumination. A novel algorithm based on multi-scale morphological method for the purpose of border detection is introdu...

  11. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  12. Three essays on trade costs and national borders

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Individuals of the same country buy and sell from each other far more than they do with individuals of a different country. A cost is associated with exchanging goods and service across national boundaries. Economists have had difficulty, however, in reconciling the small observable trade frictions with the very large trade reducing effect of borders. In the first chapter of this thesis, we propose an explanation which explains a great deal of the border puzzle between the Unit...

  13. National Cultural Distance and Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Piero Morosini; Scott Shane; Harbir Singh

    1998-01-01

    Previous theoretical research has argued that national cultural distance hinders cross-border acquisition performance by increasing the costs of integration. This article tests the alternative hypothesis that national cultural distance enhances cross-border acquisition performance by providing access to the target's and/or the acquirer's diverse set of routines and repertoires embedded in national culture. Using a multi-dimensional measure of national cultural distance and controlling for oth...

  14. Cross-Border Investment in Small International Financial Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Philip R. Lane; Gian Milesi-Ferretti

    2010-01-01

    This note documents and assesses the role of small financial centers in the international financial system using a newly-assembled dataset. It presents estimates of the foreign asset and liability positions for a number of the most important small financial centers, and places these into context by calculating the importance of these locations in the global aggregate of cross-border investment positions. It also reports some information on bilateral cross-border investment patterns, highlight...

  15. Driven to Drink. Sin Taxes Near a Border

    OpenAIRE

    Beatty, Timothy K. M.; Larsen, Erling Røed; Sommervoll, Dag Einar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates household purchasing behavior in response to differing alcohol and tobacco taxes near an international border. Our study suggests that large tax differentials near borders induce economically important tax avoidance behavior that may limit a government’s ability to raise revenue and potentially undermine the pursuit of important health and social policy goals. We match novel supermarket scanner and consumer expenditure data to measure the size and scope of...

  16. Can Business and Social Networks Explain the Border Effect Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, Pierre-Philippe; Lafourcade, Miren; Mayer, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    McCallum (1995) shows in an influential contribution that, even when controlling for the impact of bilateral distance and region size, borders sharply reduce trade volumes between countries. We use in this Paper data on bilateral trade flows between 94 French regions, for 10 industries and two years (1978 and 1993) to study the magnitude and variations over time of trade impediments, both distance-related and (administrative) border-related. We focus on assessing the role that business and so...

  17. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers ...

  18. What lures cross-border venture capital inflows?

    OpenAIRE

    Schertler, Andrea; Tykvová, Tereza

    2010-01-01

    The change in the business model of venture capitalists from investing locally towards investing across borders started to intensify in the late 1990s. According to a dataset of European and North-American countries, we find that countries with higher expected growth and higher lagged stock market returns receive larger net cross-border venture capital inflows. Thus, portfolio companies located in high-growth and high-return countries receive more venture capital from foreign venture capitali...

  19. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  20. National borders matterwhere one draws the lines too

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Lavallée; Vincent Vicard

    2013-01-01

    The fact that crossing a political border dramatically reduces trade flows has been widely documented in the literature. The increasing number of borders has surprisingly attracted much less attention. The number of independent countries has indeed risen from 72 in 1948 to 192 today. This paper estimates the effect of political disintegration since World War II on the measured growth in world trade. We first show that trade statistics should be considered carefully when assessing globalizatio...

  1. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  2. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to c

  3. The Treaty of Lisbon and the European Border Control Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Takle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The question raised in the article is how the new provisions of the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm programme concerning the EU’s asylum and migration policy might consolidate existing trends within the European border control regime. The regime is defined by a combination of three features: (i a harmonisation of categories among the EU/Schengen member states, (ii a growing use of new technology in networked databases and (iii an increasing sorting of individuals based on security concerns. Although none of these features is new, the combination gives a new impetus to the European border control regime. The article concludes that the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm programme consolidate and strengthen existing trends. This implies that policies on border control, asylum, immigration, judicial cooperation and police cooperation are consolidated in a broader approach to border control, and that there is a strengthening of EU foreign policy within the European border control regime. The boundaries between previously dispersed policy areas are blurred. The combination of different aspects of security and various levels of authority requires coordination of policies with substantially different goals, and goes beyond mere border control.

  4. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  5. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  6. Traditional Irrigation Management in Betmera-Hiwane, Ethiopia: The Main Peculiarities for the Persistence of Irrigation Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Habtu; Kitamura Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Traditional irrigation, as part of the ancient agricultural practices in northern Ethiopia (Tigray), has persisted for long time since 500 B.C.,while many newly introduced irrigation projects have usually failed there. The main objective of this study is thus to investigate the peculiarities pertinent to irrigation management and those having contributed for the persistence of traditional irrigation practices for a long period of time. The experience gained from such areas can definitely help make irrigation management system of new irrigation schemes sustainable. Betmera-Hiwane, one of the ancient traditional irrigation areas in Tigray region, was selected for the field study. Direct observations through field visits accompanied by interviews to farmers, local officials, local knowledgeable individuals and higher officials were made. After analyzing the collected primary and secondary information, the main peculiarities that contributed to the persistence of traditional irrigation areas were identified, and they are: the presence of communally constructed local rules, locally designed hydraulic control structures, ownership feeling of the irrigators and accountability of water distributors to the irrigation management, the culture for mobilizing communal resources and the culture of self-initiating local water management strategies.

  7. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cessation of irrigation before harvesting in reducing microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in urban vegetable farming in Ghana. METHODS: Assessment was done under actual field conditions with urban vegetable farmers in Ghana. Trials...... were arranged in completely randomized block design and done both in the dry and wet seasons. Seven hundred and twenty-six lettuce samples and 36 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: On average, 0.65 log units for indicator thermotolerant coliforms and 0.......4 helminth eggs per 100 g of lettuce were removed on each non-irrigated day from lettuce in the dry season. This corresponded to a daily loss of 1.4 tonnes/ha of fresh weight of lettuce. As an input for exposure analysis to make risk estimates, the decay coefficient, k, for thermotolerant coliforms was 0...

  8. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water-deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through water-deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of not supplying water during specific stages of the season so as to identify the periods during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. The year was exceptionally dry with a climatic deficit throughout the growing season. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early stages and irrigation during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. For sugar beet, when water stress was applied early in the growing season, its effect could be almost entirely removed with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the other hand, good watering early in the season, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. 16 refs, 2 figs, 17 tabs

  9. Energy performance of sprinkler irrigated maize, wheat and sunflower in Vigia irrigation district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Rodrigues, Goncalo Caleia; Paredes, Paula; Pereira, Luis S. [Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER/ISA), Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lspereira@isa.utl.pt

    2008-07-01

    The energy potential of a crop may be evaluated through life cycle assessment methodologies. These refer to the computation of the crop's energy balance and other related indicators, such as the energy ratio and the energetic efficiency, that may be used as to assess how a given irrigated crop may be used for production of biofuel. This study concerns sprinkler irrigated sunflower, wheat and maize crops using data relative to the campaign of 2007 in the Vigia Irrigation District, Alentejo. A model was developed and various scenarios were considered. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that the maize crop is the most efficient in producing energy and sunflower is the least one for all the alternative scenarios considered. (author)

  10. Monitoring of flood irrigation for the characterization of irrigation practices of grassland fields in the Crau region (South of France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkassem Alosman, Mohamed; Ruy, Stéphane; Olioso, Albert; Flamain, Fabrice

    2015-04-01

    Surface irrigation (flooding and furrow) is the main irrigation technic in the world. This irrigation system is known as having poor water efficiency and that results in very large water losses through drainage and runoff out the field. Although these unused water amounts can generate positive externalities (wetlands and groundwater recharge), a decreased of water volume used in surface irrigation is sought in a context of limited water resource. In the Crau area (South of France), more than 12,500 ha of grassland are irrigated by flooding. There, at the regional scale, it is estimated that the water volumes brought into the field are very high; and ranges from 15,000; up to 20,000 m3.h-1.year-1; more than 78% of these amounts recharges the Crau aquifer (Saos, 2006). However, the actual volumes which are injected to the plot surface (the " irrigation dose ") are insufficiently known, because of the diversity of encountered agricultural practices and fields topography. For better characterizing these practices, a campaign of irrigation monitoring has been carried out during an irrigation season (March to September 2014) on a set of representative plots of soil variability, practices, and different stages of hay grow. Each grassland field has been also characterized from a topographical and pedological view point. A mobile device for measurements (soil moisture and water level probes, photographic monitoring, soil sampling, .. ) was deployed for each irrigation. A total of 35 irrigation events were followed. The data obtained allow describing accurately and quantitatively the variability in encountered irrigation practices. Combined with a flood irrigation model (Model CALHY, Bader et al., 2010, Hydrol. Sci. J., 55, 177-191), these data will be used to calculate the water balance at the field scale: amounts of injected, infiltrated and lost water by runoff or drainage. They will also offer different ways for optimizing the irrigation efficiency.

  11. WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Capra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit irrigation (DI is an optimization strategy whereby net returns are maximized by reducing the amount of irrigation water; crops are deliberated allowed to sustain some degree of water deficit and yield reduction. Although the DI strategy dates back to the 1970s, this technique is not usually adopted as a practical alternative to full irrigation by either academics or practitioners. Furthermore, there is a certain amount of confusion regarding its concept. In fact, a review of recent literature dealing with DI has shown that only a few papers use the concept of DI in its complete sense (e.g. both the agronomic and economic aspects. A number of papers only deal with the physiological and agronomical aspects of DI or concern techniques such as Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI and Partial Root Drying (PRD. The paper includes two main parts: i a review of the principal water management strategies under deficit conditions (e.g. conventional DI, RDI and PRD; and ii a description of a recent experimental research conducted by the authors in Sicily (Italy that integrates agronomic, engineering and economic aspects of DI at farm level. Most of the literature reviewed here showed, in general, quite positive effects from DI application, mostly evidenced when the economics of DI is included in the research approach. With regard to the agronomic effects, total fresh mass and total production is generally reduced under DI, whereas the effects on dry matter and product quality are positive, mainly in crops for which excessive soil water availability can cause significant reductions in fruit size, colour or composition (grapes, tomatoes, mangos, etc.. The experimental trial on a lettuce crop in Sicily, during 2005 and 2006, shows that the highest mean marketable yield of lettuce (55.3 t ha-1 in 2005 and 51.9 t ha-1 in 2006 was recorded in plots which received 100% of ET0-PM (reference evapotranspiration by the Penman- Monteith method applied water. In

  12. Improvement of sustainability of irrigation in olive by the accurate management of regulated deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmi, Houssem; Moreno, Marta M.; Gijón, M. Carmen; Pérez-López, David

    2015-04-01

    Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) is a useful tool to balance the improvement of productivity and water saving. This methodology is based in keeping the maximum yield with deficit irrigation. The key consists in setting water deficit during a non-sensitive phenological period. In olive, this phenological period is pit hardening, although, the accurate delimitation of the end of this period is nowadays under researching. Another interesting point in this methodology is how deep can be the water stress during the non-sensitive period. In this assay, three treatments were used in 2012 and 2013. A control treatment (T0), irrigated following FAO methodology, without water stress during the whole season and two RDI treatments in which water stress was avoided only during stage I and III of fruit growth. During stage II, widely considered as pit hardening, irrigation was ceased until trees reach the stated water stress threshold. Water status was monitored by means of stem water potential (ψs) measurements. When ψs value reached -2 MPa in T1 treatment, trees were irrigated but with a low amount of water with the aim of keeping this water status for the whole stage II. The same methodology was used for T2 treatment, but with a threshold of -3 MPa. Water status was also controlled by leaf conductance measurements. Fruit size and yield were determined at the end of each season. The statistically design was a randomized complete blocks with four repetitions. The irrigation amount in T1 and T2 was 50% and 65% less than T0 at the end of the study. There were no significant differences among treatments in terms of yield in 2012 (year off) and 2013 (year on).

  13. Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

  14. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao;

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The...... progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...... resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management...

  15. Methane efflux in rice paddy field under different irrigation managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovane Freire Moterle

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Paddy rice fields may contribute to methane (CH4 emission from soil due to anaerobic conditions after flooding. Alternatives to continuous flooding irrigation in rice have been developed to mitigate CH4 efflux into the atmosphere. This study aims to investigate the effects of irrigation managements in the CH4 efflux during the rice growing season. An experiment was carried out at in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 2007/08 and 2009/10 growing seasons. The treatments were continuous flooding and intermittent irrigation in 2007/08 and continuous flooding, intermittent irrigation and flush irrigation in 2009/10. Intermittent irrigation is effective in mitigating CH4 efflux from rice fields when climatic conditions enable water absence during cultivation, but its efficiency depends on the electrochemical soil conditions during the flooding cycles.

  16. Adjunctive Role of Supra- and Subgingival irrigation in Periodontal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Shewale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of irrigation is to nonspecifically reduce the bacteria and their by-products that lead to the initiation or progression of periodontal diseases. Supragingival irrigation allows for the disruption and dilution of marginal bacteria and their by-products which helps to prevent or treat gingivitis. Subgingival irrigation interferes with the complex ecosystem required for the initiation and continued destruction of the compromised periodontium in the susceptible host. The literature presented here exemplifies an important fact that, like all other therapeutic modalities, irrigation has both limitations and benefits. This review encompasses many new studies investigating various aspects of supragingival and subgingival irrigation including: new devices and methods of delivery by clinicians and patients; effect on plaque toxicity; depth of solution penetration; various chemotherapeutic agents employed; ultrasonics and antimicrobials; safety; and bacteremia associated with irrigation.

  17. Water Supply Planning for Landscape Irrigation in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Adrienne Janel LaBranche

    2009-01-01

    A water supply plan approach was used to investigate irrigation application on landscaped areas in Virginia with a focus on turfgrass. The economically-important turfgrass industry in Virginia should be proactive in conserving drinking water supplies to meet human consumption needs, especially in drought times. This thesis investigates current irrigation water supplies, water supply sustainability, and alternative water sources to meet irrigation demands and offers an insight on how potable w...

  18. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jeffrey P; Anil Shrestha; Joy Hollingsworth; Daniel Munk; Hembree, Kurt J; Tom A. Turini

    2016-01-01

    Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotto...

  19. Priority investment irrigation methodology in depressed rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Ortiz, Jaime E.; Carlos Alfredo Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    The infrastructure for small irrigation systems demands costly investment which may become increased as many social and technical aspects related to the concerns of regions susceptible to investment remain unknown. The lack of both information and a social network supporting planning and design tasks constitute factors affecting many irrigation projects, consigning them to failure. Some indicators were prepared for constructing an irrigation system in the north of the Cauca department in Colo...

  20. Institutionalizing the Informal: Irrigation and government intervention in Bali

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Lorenzen; Rachel P Lorenzen

    2008-01-01

    Although there is greater acceptance that farmers can manage their irrigation systems efficiently, many irrigation experts believe that a shift from informal to more formal management strategies will lead to even better water-flow management. Stephan and Rachel Lorenzen examine a case in Bali where attempts to introduce formal institutions led to confusion within the farming community. They argue that irrigation improvement projects need to engage with the local context and encourage a minimu...