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Sample records for border disease

  1. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  2. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examinati...

  3. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

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    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  4. Monitoring diseases across borders: African regional integrative information systems.

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    Simbini, Tungamirirai; Foster, Rosemary; Nesara, Paul; Hullin Lucay Cossio, Carola

    2010-01-01

    In African countries, communicable diseases remain the chief cause of a heavy disease burden. Regional economic, political and social integration bring new challenges in the management of these diseases, many of which are treatable. Information Communication Technology (ICT) applied through electronic health systems has the potential to strengthen healthcare service delivery and disease surveillance within these countries. This paper discusses the importance of well-defined e-Health strategies within countries and, in addition, proposes that countries within regions collaborate in planning for health information exchange across borders. It is suggested that particular attention be paid to technical and data standards enabling interoperability, and also to issues of security, patient privacy and governance.

  5. Infectious disease morbidity in the US region bordering Mexico, 1990-1998.

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    Doyle, T J; Bryan, R T

    2000-11-01

    The United States and Mexico share an international boundary approximately 3000 km long. This border separates 2 nations with great differences in health status. The objective of this study was to assess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the US region bordering Mexico. The incidence between 1990 and 1998 of 22 nationally notifiable infectious diseases was compared between border and nonborder regions. Disease rates, reflected as rate ratios, were higher in the border region for botulism, brucellosis, diphtheria, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rabies, rubella, salmonellosis, and shigellosis than in either of 2 nonborder comparison regions. These data indicate that incidence rates for a variety of infectious diseases of public health importance are significantly higher in the United States along the Mexican border than in nonborder regions. These results suggest that an inadequate public health infrastructure may contribute to excess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the border region.

  6. Bacteria without borders: communicable disease politics in Europe.

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    Greer, Scott L; Mätzke, Margitta

    2012-12-01

    Communicable disease control might be one of the oldest and most important functions of the modern state, but it receives very little attention today. This article introduces a special issue on the Europeanization of communicable disease control politics in Europe. The Europeanization of communicable disease control is a case of both European integration and communicable disease politics. We first analyze the problems and tensions in communicable disease control as a problem of overlapping interprofessional, interorganizational, intergovernmental, and international tensions. We then present the European Union, a new and understudied actor in communicable disease politics, sketching the theoretical background for Europeanization of the field and introducing the articles in the special issue.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Border Disease Virus Genotype 3 Strain Gifhorn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Höper, Dirk; Beer, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the genotype 3 border disease virus strain Gifhorn has been determined; this strain was originally isolated from pigs. This represents the consensus sequence for the virus used to produce the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cDNA clone pBeloGif3, which yields...

  8. Mucosal disease-like lesions in sheep infected with Border disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monies, R J; Paton, D J; Vilcek, S

    2004-12-11

    An enteric disease characterised by diarrhoea and ill thrift affected 12 of a flock of 700 six- to 12-month-old ewe lambs in Cornwall between December 1996 and September 1997. The affected lambs were undersized, became thin and suffered an unremitting diarrhoea until they died. The illness lasted for three to 14 days, although, with hindsight, the owner considered that the lambs had been below average size before the enteric signs developed. The outbreak ceased only as a result of the dispersal sale of the flock as breeding ewes. The flock had been purchased from different sources, but 11 of the cases occurred in a group of 40 purchased from one source. Postmortem, the alimentary changes resembled mucosal disease in cattle, and immunostaining of histological sections of the affected tissues revealed pestiviral antigen. Non-cytopathic pestiviruses were isolated from the lesions of two of the affected lambs and from the blood of several clinically normal ewe lambs from the same group. All the pestivirus isolates were typed as Border disease virus.

  9. Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade.

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    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5% operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1-80.0% of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. CONCLUSIONS: By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential.

  10. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande

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    Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  11. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

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    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  12. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  13. A new genotype of border disease virus with implications for molecular diagnostics.

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    Peletto, Simone; Caruso, Claudio; Cerutti, Francesco; Modesto, Paola; Zoppi, Simona; Dondo, Alessandro; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Masoero, Loretta

    2016-02-01

    Border disease virus (BDV) is a (+) single-stranded RNA pestivirus affecting mainly sheep and goats worldwide. Genetic typing of BDV has led to the identification of at least seven major genotypes. This study reports the detection of a BDV strain from a goat in northwestern Italy during routine investigations. Sequence analysis revealed mutations in the 5'-UTR of the virus with implications for BDV molecular diagnostics. Moreover, subsequent phylogenetic analysis based on the combined 5'-UTR and Npro/partial C genes, showed divergence from known BDV genotypes, revealing the detection of a novel pestivirus group, for which we propose the name BDV genotype 8.

  14. Border Disease Virus: An Exceptional Driver of Chamois Populations Among Other Threats

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    Serrano, Emmanuel; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Garel, Mathieu; Cabezón, Oscar; Velarde, Roser; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rosell, Rosa; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging infectious diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4) caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange, and BD outbreaks. BD-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations. PMID:26733943

  15. Border Disease Virus: an exceptional driver of chamois populations among other threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eSerrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4 caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange and BDV outbreaks. BDV-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations.

  16. An immunohistochemical study of the distribution of border disease virus in persistently infected sheep.

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    Waldvogel, A S; Ehrensperger, F; Straub, O C; Pospischil, A

    1995-08-01

    Three seronegative sheep persistently infected with Border disease virus and six seropositive, non-viraemic sheep were examined for the cellular distribution of the agent. These animals originated from a closed flock which had been kept in an isolation facility for 5 years. They were killed and immediately necropsied. There were no gross abnormalities other than reduced body weight of the persistently infected sheep. Two samples of each major organ were collected. The first sample was fixed by immersion in formalin and processed for histological examination, which showed no lesions unequivocally attributable to the viral infection. The second sample was snap-frozen for immunohistochemical examination. This revealed viral antigen in all organs of the persistently infected, but in none of the seropositive animals. The infected cells included smooth muscle cells of hollow organs and blood vessels, epithelial cells of the alimentary tract and urogenital organs, lymphocytes in lymphoid organs, endocrine cells, neurons and glial cell.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Phylogeny of Border Disease Virus in Pyrenean Chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebranati, Erika; Cabezón, Oscar; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Lavín, Santiago; Rosell, Rosa; Veo, Carla; Rossi, Luca; Cavallero, Serena; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Marco, Ignasi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2016-01-01

    Border disease virus (BDV) affects a wide range of ruminants worldwide, mainly domestic sheep and goat. Since 2001 several outbreaks of disease associated to BDV infection have been described in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain, France and Andorra. In order to reconstruct the most probable places of origin and pathways of dispersion of BDV among Pyrenean chamois, a phylogenetic analysis of 95 BDV 5’untranslated sequences has been performed on chamois and domestic ungulates, including novel sequences and retrieved from public databases, using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Discrete and continuous space phylogeography have been applied on chamois sequences dataset, using centroid positions and latitude and longitude coordinates of the animals, respectively. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of BDV sequences was 2.9×10−3 subs/site/year (95% HPD: 1.5–4.6×10−3). All the Pyrenean chamois isolates clustered in a unique highly significant clade, that originated from BDV-4a ovine clade. The introduction from sheep (dated back to the early 90s) generated a founder effect on the chamois population and the most probable place of origin of Pyrenean chamois BDV was estimated at coordinates 42.42 N and 1.9 E. The pathways of virus dispersion showed two main routes: the first started on the early 90s of the past century with a westward direction and the second arise in Central Pyrenees. The virus spread westward for more than 125 km and southward for about 50km and the estimated epidemic diffusion rate was about 13.1 km/year (95% HPD 5.2–21.4 km/year). The strong spatial structure, with strains from a single locality segregating together in homogeneous groups, and the significant pathways of viral dispersion among the areas, allowed to reconstruct both events of infection in a single area and of migrations, occurring between neighboring areas. PMID:28033381

  18. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  19. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Lyme Disease Infected Ticks in the Texas-Mexico Border Region

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    Lyme disease (LD) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infection in the United States, with 33,097 cases of LD reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2011. The disease is transmitted to a mammalian host by Ixodes ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Efforts to unde...

  20. Cross-border collaboration for neglected tropical disease efforts-Lessons learned from onchocerciasis control and elimination in the Mano River Union (West Africa).

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    Gustavsen, Kenneth; Sodahlon, Yao; Bush, Simon

    2016-08-22

    Diseases don't respect borders, so efforts to control and eliminate diseases must also be flexible and adaptable enough to effectively reach the populations that live in the areas around national frontiers. Onchocerciasis, commonly known as river blindness is a tropical disease that has historically affected millions of people in 35 countries in Africa and Latin America. In Africa, programs and partnerships to address river blindness through mass drug administration have been active for more than 25 years. While in many cases the disease is found in isolated foci that fall entirely within national boundaries, the geographic scope of many affected areas crosses country borders. National river blindness programs are the responsibility of each nation's Ministry of Health, so in cross-border situations there is a need for effective country-country collaboration. Cross-border collaboration for onchocerciasis control efforts in the countries of the Mano River Basin illustrates the positive impact of a creative model, and offers lessons for expanded application for onchocerciasis elimination as well as other neglected tropical disease (NTD) control and elimination programs.

  1. Two different epidemiological scenarios of border disease in the populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica after the first disease outbreaks.

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    Laura Fernández-Sirera

    Full Text Available Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47% and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79% and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population.

  2. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

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    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  3. Border Patrol Gone Awry: Lung NKT Cell Activation by Francisella tularensis Exacerbates Tularemia-Like Disease.

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    Hill, Timothy M; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Cicek, Basak B; Osina, Maria A; Boyd, Kelli L; Durrant, Douglas M; Metzger, Dennis W; Khanna, Kamal M; Joyce, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    The respiratory mucosa is a major site for pathogen invasion and, hence, a site requiring constant immune surveillance. The type I, semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are enriched within the lung vasculature. Despite optimal positioning, the role of NKT cells in respiratory infectious diseases remains poorly understood. Hence, we assessed their function in a murine model of pulmonary tularemia--because tularemia is a sepsis-like proinflammatory disease and NKT cells are known to control the cellular and humoral responses underlying sepsis. Here we show for the first time that respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain resulted in rapid accumulation of NKT cells within the lung interstitium. Activated NKT cells produced interferon-γ and promoted both local and systemic proinflammatory responses. Consistent with these results, NKT cell-deficient mice showed reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response yet they survived the infection better than their wild type counterparts. Strikingly, NKT cell-deficient mice had increased lymphocytic infiltration in the lungs that organized into tertiary lymphoid structures resembling induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) at the peak of infection. Thus, NKT cell activation by F. tularensis infection hampers iBALT formation and promotes a systemic proinflammatory response, which exacerbates severe pulmonary tularemia-like disease in mice.

  4. Surveillance of border disease in wild ungulates and an outbreak in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Andorra.

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    Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Riba, Landry; Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2012-10-01

    The Principality of Andorra is surrounded by areas in which Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) populations were severely affected by infection with border disease virus (BDV) which caused disease outbreaks between 2001 and 2009. Nevertheless, the Andorran chamois populations were not affected during this period. In light of the severe impact of BDV on several of the neighboring Pyrenean chamois populations, we monitored local Andorran populations in an effort to detect pestivirus antibodies and BDV in wild ungulates. In addition, an episode of mortality between 2009 and 2010 in chamois was investigated. We analyzed samples (spleen or serum) from 175 Pyrenean chamois, 284 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon), 13 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus), and five wild boars (Sus scrofa castilianus). With the exception of three dead chamois found between 2009 and 2010, all samples came from healthy animals hunted during the hunting season. A commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test sera for antibodies against pestivirus. Positive sera were tested with a comparative virus neutralization test (VNT) using three BDV strains and a bovine viral diarrhea virus strain. Reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on all sera and spleen homogenates. Antibodies against pestivirus were detected by ELISA in four of the 69 chamois (5%; 95% CI= 1.29-13.11). The VNT confirmed three of these chamois were infected with a BDV. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in three chamois-one apparently healthy animal hunted in 2009 and two dead animals. Viral sequences showed that the three chamois were infected with a BDV-4, the same genotype that was involved in previous episodes of mortality in the Pyrenees. Although Pyrenean chamois from Andorra had had little contact with the pestiviruses until 2009, in this year BDV was associated with a severe disease outbreak.

  5. Neuropathologic study of border disease virus in naturally infected fetal and neonatal small ruminants and its association with apoptosis.

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    Toplu, N; Oguzoglu, T Ç; Epikmen, E T; Aydogan, A

    2011-05-01

    The present study describes the pathologic changes and cellular apoptosis in the central nervous system (CNS) of fetal and neonatal small ruminants infected with border disease virus (BDV), as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Abortions of ewes and goats were observed, as were births of lambs and kids with poor survival rates and nervous signs. Lesions included cerebellar hypoplasia, porencephaly, hydranencephaly, and nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis with hypomyelinogenesis. Viral antigens and RNA were present in neuropil, glial, and neuronal cells, especially in periventricular areas, cerebellum, and brainstem. TUNEL positivity and labeling of anti-bax and anti-caspases 3, 8, and 9 were detected in BDV-infected CNSs, especially in glial and neuronal cells. The double immunostaining and TUNEL assay revealed that in BDV-infected animals, not only were BDV-infected glial and neuronal cells undergoing apoptosis, but so were uninfected cells in close vicinity of BDV-infected cells. The expression of activated caspases 3, 8, 9; bax; and TUNEL in glial and neuronal cells of the infected fetal and neonatal kids were significantly (P < .05) higher than those of the infected fetal and neonatal lambs. Yet, the expression of bcl-2 in the CNSs of the infected fetal and neonatal lambs was higher (P < .05) in neuronal and glial cells than in those of the infected fetal and neonatal kids. The results suggest that cell death in the BDV-infected CNS is induced by intrinsic and extrinsic cascades of apoptotic pathways.

  6. Epidemiological study of border disease virus infection in Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) after an outbreak of disease in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

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    Marco, Ignasi; Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Hurtado, Ana; Lavín, Santiago

    2008-02-05

    In 2001 and 2002, an outbreak of a previously unreported disease, associated with a border disease virus (BDV), caused high mortality in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) population in the Alt Pallars-Aran National Hunting Reserve in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain). Between 2002 and 2006, sera and/or tissue samples taken from 116 healthy chamois shot during the hunting season, plus 42 from chamois affected by different diseases, were studied. A blocking enzyme-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to study pestivirus seroprevalence in 114 healthy hunted and 31 diseased chamois, yielding positive results in 73.7 and 22.6% of the chamois, respectively. Comparative virus neutralization tests (VNT) performed on 42 seropositive samples with 6 pestivirus strains yielded statistically higher titres to BDV Spain 97, followed by BDV chamois, BDV 137/4, BDV Moredun, Bovine Diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1) NADL and BVDV-2 atypical. Virological investigations for pestivirus detection were performed using an antigen ELISA test in 82 healthy and 18 diseased chamois, RT-PCR in 16 healthy and in all diseased chamois, and virus isolation in 14 diseased chamois. No viral antigen was detected in any of the healthy animals. A pestivirus, characterized as BDV by monoclonal antibodies, was detected in the 10 chamois showing clinical signs consistent with BDV infection. Sequence analysis in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. In the remaining chamois, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, pneumonia, trauma and contagious ecthyma were diagnosed. The cause of death was unknown in five chamois. The results suggest that the infection has become endemic in the population and that it could have a significant impact on chamois population dynamics.

  7. Application of mobile-technology for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria in the "Better Border Healthcare Programme"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meankaew Pongthep

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating the use of cell-phones into a routine malaria prevention and control programme, to improve the management of malaria cases among an under-served population in a border area. The module for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria (DTMM consisted of case investigation and case follow-up for treatment compliance and patients' symptoms. Methods The module combining web-based and mobile technologies was developed as a proof of concept, in an attempt to replace the existing manual, paper-based activities that malaria staff used in treating and caring for malaria patients in the villages for which they were responsible. After a patient was detected and registered onto the system, case-investigation and treatment details were recorded into the malaria database. A follow-up schedule was generated, and the patient's status was updated when the malaria staff conducted their routine home visits, using mobile phones loaded with the follow-up application module. The module also generated text and graph messages for a summary of malaria cases and basic statistics, and automatically fed to predetermined malaria personnel for situation analysis. Following standard public-health practices, access to the patient database was strictly limited to authorized personnel in charge of patient case management. Results The DTMM module was developed and implemented at the trial site in late November 2008, and was fully functioning in 2009. The system captured 534 malaria patients in 2009. Compared to paper-based data in 2004-2008, the mobile-phone-based case follow-up rates by malaria staff improved significantly. The follow-up rates for both Thai and migrant patients were about 94-99% on Day 7 (Plasmodium falciparum and Day 14 (Plasmodium vivax and maintained at 84-93% on Day 90. Adherence to anti-malarial drug therapy, based on self-reporting, showed high completion

  8. Border poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Lundberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The language of poetry is a language of inquiry, not the language of a genre. Poetry has the capacity of entering those zones known as borderlands, where you meet strange things and foreign people. In this poetic world view, the border is not an edge along the fringe of lands, societies and experiences, but rather their very middle – and their in-between. The structures of language are social structures in which meanings and intentions are already in place, always fighting for power and dominance, with rhetorical figures and more violent weapons.

  9. Cardiology without borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Wolk

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cardiovascular disease takes place in a border-free world. The challenge at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and anywhere else in the world is to hold patient care above the artificial barriers raised by geopolitical issues. Fundamentally, the goal of ACC members or of any cardiology societies in the world is to provide excellent patient care. Cardiovascular disease is essentially the same throughout the world. Where there are minor variations among individuals, as clinicians we find priceless opportunity to learn. Expanding- rather contracting -our experience base helps us as individuals to realize our best potential as practitioners.

  10. Retroviral sequence located in border region of short unique region and short terminal repeat of Md5 strain of Marek's disease virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, D; Ito, M; Cho, K O; Kon, Y; Morimura, T; Hayashi, M; Kuwabara, M

    1998-02-01

    A 246-base pair (bp) retroviral sequence, which was homologous to a long terminal repeat of avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV), was detected and cloned from Md5 strain (Md5) of Marek's disease virus type 1 (MDV1) by representational difference analysis (RDA). The retroviral sequence was thought to be located in the border region of short unique region (U(s) and short terminal repeat (TRs), but did not exist in the border region of U(s) and the inverted short repeat (IRs) of the Md5 genome. A cloned fragment of the US/TRs border region of the Md5 genome showed a construction of U-E'-R-U'-E-TRs with the regions designated as follows: E, expanded TRs reported by Jones et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 3855, 1993]; E', a partial copy of the expanded TRs; R, the retroviral sequence detected in Md5 genome; U, TRs-end sequence of U(s); U', a partial copy of TRs-end sequence of U(s). The sequence unit indicated as E'-R-U' was thought to be heterogeneously repeated in the Md5 genome. Since this retroviral sequence reportedly did not exist in the original stock of Md5, the retroviral sequence is thought to be inserted in the Md5 genome without experimental co-infection of avian cells with retrovirus and MDV1. These results suggest that RDA could be useful for the detection of retroviral sequences in the herpesvirus genome.

  11. Dual infection of fetal and neonatal small ruminants with border disease virus and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV): neuronal tropism of PPRV as a novel finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplu, N; Oguzoglu, T C; Albayrak, H

    2012-05-01

    Dual infection of 26 fetal and neonatal small ruminants with border disease virus (BDV) and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is reported. The animals included five aborted lamb fetuses, 19 neonatal lambs and two neonatal kids from flocks in regions of the Black Sea and the Aegean region. BDV and PPRV antigens were detected immunohistochemically in the brain, oral mucosa, intestine and lung of infected animals. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to demonstrate PPRV and BDV in samples of the spleen, lymph node, lung and brain from infected animals. On the basis of observations made, it is concluded that brain damage following intrauterine infection with BDV facilitates the passage of PPRV to the brain and results in infection of neuronal and glial cells by PPRV.

  12. Border Crossings (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing Ports (NTAD 2015) are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states...

  13. AIDS e doenças oportunistas transmissíveis na faixa de fronteira Brasileira AIDS and transmissible opportunistic diseases in the Brazilian border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior

    2010-10-01

    AIDS cases that had been reported by municipalities in the Brazilian border area. METHODS: Brazilian border area municipalities were grouped into three cultural regions; the source data was AIDS cases registered with the Ministry of Health from 1990 to 2003, which were classified according to CDC-adapted, Rio de Janeiro/Caracas and death criteria; detected communicable opportunistic diseases were categorized into groups according to transmission: 1 inhalation agent; 2 contaminated water and/or food ingestion, and 3 interpersonal contact. The descriptive evaluation considered cultural region, years of schooling, sex and age group. RESULTS: Different AIDS incidence patterns were observed among groups of opportunistic diseases in each cultural region. The extreme southern region showed the greatest incidence of AIDS; the absolute incidence of female cases was greatest in the category of heterosexual transmission; the number of male cases was greatest among intravenous drug users; transmission was most frequent in the interpersonal contact group, particularly incidences of candidiasis; tuberculoses and pneumonias were most frequent in the inhalation agent transmission group; the contaminated water/food ingestion transmission group showed an unchanged pattern of absolute incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian border area is a very important and heterogeneous geographic phenomenon; AIDS programs must recognize different cultural geographies.

  14. One Health Interactions of Chagas Disease Vectors, Canid Hosts, and Human Residents along the Texas-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Melissa N.; O’Day, Sarah; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; Gorchakov, Rodion; Patino, Ramiro; Feria Arroyo, Teresa P.; Laing, Susan T.; Lopez, Job E.; Ingber, Alexandra; Jones, Kathryn M.; Murray, Kristy O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection) is the leading cause of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Texas, particularly the southern region, has compounding factors that could contribute to T. cruzi transmission; however, epidemiologic studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of T. cruzi in three different mammalian species (coyotes, stray domestic dogs, and humans) and vectors (Triatoma species) to understand the burden of Chagas disease among sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic cycles. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine prevalence of infection, we tested sera from coyotes, stray domestic dogs housed in public shelters, and residents participating in related research studies and found 8%, 3.8%, and 0.36% positive for T. cruzi, respectively. PCR was used to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi DNA in vectors collected in peridomestic locations in the region, with 56.5% testing positive for the parasite, further confirming risk of transmission in the region. Conclusions/Significance Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence for autochthonous Chagas disease transmission in south Texas. Considering this region has a population of 1.3 million, and up to 30% of T. cruzi infected individuals developing severe cardiac disease, it is imperative that we identify high risk groups for surveillance and treatment purposes. PMID:27832063

  15. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  16. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that dec......Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find...... developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical...

  17. Border cells versus border-like cells: are they alike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Cannesan, Marc-Antoine; Percoco, Giuseppe; Vicré-Gibouin, Maité

    2010-09-01

    Roots of many plants are known to produce large numbers of 'border' cells that play a central role in root protection and the interaction of the root with the rhizosphere. Unlike border cells, border-like cells were described only recently in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species and very little is known about the functional properties of border-like cells as compared with 'classical' border cells. To stimulate discussion and future research on this topic, the function of border cells and the way border-like cells are organized, maintained, and possibly involved in plant protection is discussed here.

  18. The Impact of a "Promotora" on Increasing Routine Chronic Disease Prevention among Women Aged 40 and Older at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer B.; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Papenfuss, Mary; Fernandez, Maria Lourdes; Meister, Joel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2004-01-01

    A randomized controlled intervention tested the effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) program in increasing compliance with annual preventive exams among uninsured Hispanic women living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border area. During 1999-2000, household surveys were administered to women aged 40 and older. Uninsured women not receiving…

  19. Borders, Risks, Exclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Muller

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the border is evaluated as a fold of power relations in which sovereign capacity and competence is marshaled in the furtherance of illiberal practices. Drawing from interview data of officials in various agencies engaged in the US-Canada and particularly the Windsor-Detroit corridor, the argument is made that the border is a site for both negative and positive power, for insertion and subtraction, and that surveillance and compliance regimes are ‘run’ not so much in the furtherance of a precautionary or preemptive end-state, but as intermediate values that are sufficiently malleable by an invigorated sovereign, expressed in the residue of discretion in and between the many border agencies.

  20. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  1. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  2. Borders of Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Janni Berthou

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...

  3. Biometric Borders and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    34Transforming Travel and Border Controls: Checkpoints in the Open Society," Government Information Quarterly 22, no. 4 (01 October 2005), 594-625, http...the Open Society." Government Information Quarterly 22, no. 4 (1 October 2005): 594– 625. Hsu, Spencer S. "U.S. Preparing to Drop Tracking of

  4. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  5. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    of confrontation between divergent political ideologies. In the majority of the Southeast Asian borderlands, this implied violent disruption in the lives of local borderlanders that came to affect their relationship to their nation-state. A case in point is the ethnic Iban population living along the international...... border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...... militarized international disputes with neighbouring Malaysia in the early 1960s, and in subsequent military co-operative ‘anti-communist’ ‘counter-insurgency’ efforts by the two states in the late 1960–1970s. This paper brings together facets of national belonging and citizenship within a borderland context...

  6. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  7. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  8. 新疆边境跨界动物疫病传入风险因素调查%Investigation on Risk Factors of the Entry of Transboundary Animal Diseases from Xinjiang Border

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪涛; 彭程; 孙淑芳; 房志远; 魏荣; 王树双

    2016-01-01

    Due to the vast geographic area and a complex epidemic situation in surrounding countries,Xinjiang is in danger of being introduced exotic animal diseases at any time. An investigation on risk factors of the entry of such animal diseases was conducted. The results showed that the boundary of Xinjiang was long with many countries bordering with it,and the results also indicated that the region had very complex geographic environments,frequent trade of animals and animal products,as well as a wide variety of wildlife. Although the separation facilities along the boundary are relatively perfect,the risk factors of the entry of transboundary animal diseases still exist,and the targeted prevention and control measures in the border shall be strengthened.%新疆地域辽阔,周边国家动物疫情形势复杂,随时有传入外来动物疫病的危险。调查结果表明新疆接壤国家多且边境线长,地理环境复杂,动物及动物产品贸易频繁,野生动物种类繁多,虽然边界线隔离设施较好,但仍然存在跨界动物疫病传入的风险因素,需要有针对性地强化边境防控措施。

  9. Influence du génotype viral sur l’infection fœtale par le virus de la maladie de la frontière (border disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Bethune, Marie-Anne

    2015-01-01

    La Maladie de la Frontière (Border Disease) est une maladie ovine, due à un pestivirus, ayant une répartition mondiale. La région Aveyronnaise, à cause de sa forte concentration en brebis laitières, est particulièrement touchée en France. La lutte contre cette maladie repose sur des mesures sanitaires et vaccinales, visant à empêcher l’infection du fœtus et l’apparition d’agneaux infectés permanents immunotolérants(IPI). Toutefois peu de données existent sur l’infection fœtale par le BDV chez...

  10. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  11. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    -being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well...

  12. Collaborating Across Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  13. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    in two border regions between Niger, Nigeria, and Benin. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  14. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-16

    Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, and the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge can all be found adjacent to the border. The southwest border...Refuge, Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, and Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge (all in Arizona) as components of the National Wilderness

  15. Borders in Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Toshmakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Libraries are fundamental institutions for the life under socialism in Bulgaria (1944-1989. They provide studies and readings for big part of society. This is time when television was very rare in Bulgarian homes and the newspapers were totally controlled by Communist party. This way a library served as the main source of information. Seemingly ordinary cultural centers, they become a powerful tool in the hands of the communist state. They are the ones who are actively worked to impose new socialist thinking trough setting limits on access to readers and therefore control the flow of information. The aim of this article is to trace the influence of restricted by communist censorship institution Glavlit literature. Or to put it another way – what was the role of censorship in the process of establishment of borders created by prohibited access to scientific information.

  16. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  17. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  18. Distance, Borders, and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    This paper explores the spatial and temporal diffusion of political violence in North and West Africa. It does so by endeavoring to represent the mental landscape that lives in the back of a group leader’s mind as he contemplates strategic targeting. We assume that this representation is a combin......This paper explores the spatial and temporal diffusion of political violence in North and West Africa. It does so by endeavoring to represent the mental landscape that lives in the back of a group leader’s mind as he contemplates strategic targeting. We assume that this representation...... constrains a group leader to attack at a location other than the one that would seem to yield the greatest overt payoff. By its very nature, the research problem defies the collection of a full set of structural data. Instead, we leverage functional data from the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data......” of North and West Africa that depicts the permeability to violence. A better understanding of how location, time, and borders condition attacks enables planning, prepositioning, and response....

  19. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  20. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...... influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public...

  1. The structure of borders in a small world

    CERN Document Server

    Thiemann, C; Grady, D; Brune, R; Brockmann, D

    2010-01-01

    Geographic borders are not only essential for the effective functioning of government, the distribution of administrative responsibilities and the allocation of public resources, they also influence the interregional flow of information, cross-border trade operations, the diffusion of innovation and technology, and the spatial spread of infectious diseases. However, as growing interactions and mobility across long distances, cultural, and political borders continue to amplify the small world effect and effectively decrease the relative importance of local interactions, it is difficult to assess the location and structure of effective borders that may play the most significant role in mobility-driven processes. The paradigm of spatially coherent communities may no longer be a plausible one, and it is unclear what structures emerge from the interplay of interactions and activities across spatial scales. Here we analyse a multi-scale proxy network for human mobility that incorporates travel across a few to a few...

  2. Nonstate Actors and the Open Border Policy: The Border Security Case Study of Nepal and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    addressing political and social issues.10 Due to the current environment and the ability to move freely along the Nepalese- Indian border, the Nepalese...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited NONSTATE ACTORS...border, 15. NUMBER OF resti-icted border, border patJ·ol, ct-ime, economy, U.S.-Mexican border relations, border secm-ity force, PAGES Nepalese- Indian

  3. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL33659 Border Security...Presidencia,” May 12, 2005. Translation by CRS. Available at [http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/actividades/crecimiento/?contenido=18195& pagina =31]. Last

  4. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp.

  5. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand–Myanmar Border, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    McCleery, Ellen J.; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Phares, Christina; O’Neal, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand–Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp.

  6. Infectious Disease Border Issues Conference: Meeting Synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    fuel, and electricity ; request international organizations for financial and logistical assistance; coordinate with donor countries to obtain supplies ...Thailand, located primarily in and around the provincial capital of Udon Thani and in the national capital, Bangkok . Officials now report a total of 840...carrying aid supplies to rural areas of the country.  The Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals at the WHO is reporting that a vaccine has

  7. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taki...... of choosing a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results do however not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  8. Group choreography: mechanisms orchestrating the collective movement of border cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montell, Denise J; Yoon, Wan Hee; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2012-10-01

    Cell movements are essential for animal development and homeostasis but also contribute to disease. Moving cells typically extend protrusions towards a chemoattractant, adhere to the substrate, contract and detach at the rear. It is less clear how cells that migrate in interconnected groups in vivo coordinate their behaviour and navigate through natural environments. The border cells of the Drosophila melanogaster ovary have emerged as an excellent model for the study of collective cell movement, aided by innovative genetic, live imaging, and photomanipulation techniques. Here we provide an overview of the molecular choreography of border cells and its more general implications.

  9. Border governance in Mozambique : The intersection of international border controls, regional integration and cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.M. Seda (Fulgêncio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA tension exists between the interests of states in protecting national security through border controls and those of communities in cross-border regions, to whom frequent border crossing is part of daily life – a necessary part of achieving their own wellbeing. The interplay between

  10. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  11. Root Border Cells and Their Role in Plant Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn; Turgeon, B Gillian; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Minh Tran, Tuan; Huskey, David A; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2016-08-01

    Root border cells separate from plant root tips and disperse into the soil environment. In most species, each root tip can produce thousands of metabolically active cells daily, with specialized patterns of gene expression. Their function has been an enduring mystery. Recent studies suggest that border cells operate in a manner similar to mammalian neutrophils: Both cell types export a complex of extracellular DNA (exDNA) and antimicrobial proteins that neutralize threats by trapping pathogens and thereby preventing invasion of host tissues. Extracellular DNases (exDNases) of pathogens promote virulence and systemic spread of the microbes. In plants, adding DNase I to root tips eliminates border cell extracellular traps and abolishes root tip resistance to infection. Mutation of genes encoding exDNase activity in plant-pathogenic bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) and fungi (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) results in reduced virulence. The study of exDNase activities in plant pathogens may yield new targets for disease control.

  12. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  13. Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of public health emergencies of communicable diseases in cross border area of Yunnan Province from 2009-2013%2009-2013年云南省边境地区传染病类突发公共卫生事件流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬志薇; 戚艳波; 林燕; 李琼芬

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过了解云南省边境地区传染病类突发公共卫生事件流行特征,以指导边境地区传染病防控工作.方法 对2009-2013年间云南省边境地区的传染病类突发公共卫生事件资料进行整理和描述分析,资料来源于《中国疾病预防控制信息系统》.结果 云南省25个边境县(市)共报告传染病类突发公共卫生事件110起,占全省疫情的16.72%.主要为一般事件(Ⅳ级),占74.55%;发病7 086例,死亡15人;疫情波及446 213人,罹患率为1.59%.甲类传染病事件4起,占3.64%;乙类46起,占41.82%;丙类33起,占30.00%;其他27起,占24.54%.事件主要发生于每年3-5和9-12月份,以水痘等呼吸道传染病为主,主要发生在学校.境外输入传染病事件6起,均为缅甸输入.结论 传染病跨境输入,特别是甲类传染病跨境输入引起的突发公共卫生事件,是云南省边境地区疾病预防控制工作的一个难点和重点.%[Objective] To understand the epidemiologic characteristics of public health emergencies of communicable diseases in cross border area of Yunnan Province,guide the prevention and control of communicable diseases in cross border area.[Methods] The data of public health emergencies of communicable diseases in cross border area of Yunnan Province from 2009-2013,which were collected from the China disease prevention and control information system,were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology.[Results] Totally 110 public health emergencies of communicable diseases were reported in 25 border counties/ cities,accounting for 16.72% of total events in Yunnan Province.74.55% of the emergencies were general events (grade Ⅳ),there were 7 086 patients and 15 death cases,446 213 people were involved,and the attack rate was 1.59%.There were 4 events of category A communicable disease,46 events of category B communicable disease,33 events of category C communicable disease and 27 events of other communicable disease

  14. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  15. Reviewing the Spanish-Portuguese border: conflict, interaction and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Calderón Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European borders, or borders between European Union member states, are historical products that embody the ebbs and flows of European borderlands. These areas are evolving from past struggles and confrontations between European kingdoms toward a future of progressive European integration. Such processes are highly complex, as they involve border deactivation. In this work, we examine the evolution of the Spanish- Portuguese border from the perspective of cross-border interaction.

  16. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  17. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Kramsch; Kolar Aparna; Huda Degu

    2015-01-01

    Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multipl...

  18. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings.

  19. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh

    2008-03-01

    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  20. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates in pol...... in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...

  1. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  2. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  3. Phenotypic covariance at species’ borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the evolution of species limits is important in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite its likely importance in the evolution of these limits, little is known about phenotypic covariance in geographically marginal populations, and the degree to which it constrains, or facilitates, responses to selection. We investigated phenotypic covariance in morphological traits at species’ borders by comparing phenotypic covariance matrices (P), including the degree of shared structure, the distribution of strengths of pair-wise correlations between traits, the degree of morphological integration of traits, and the ranks of matricies, between central and marginal populations of three species-pairs of coral reef fishes. Results Greater structural differences in P were observed between populations close to range margins and conspecific populations toward range centres, than between pairs of conspecific populations that were both more centrally located within their ranges. Approximately 80% of all pair-wise trait correlations within populations were greater in the north, but these differences were unrelated to the position of the sampled population with respect to the geographic range of the species. Conclusions Neither the degree of morphological integration, nor ranks of P, indicated greater evolutionary constraint at range edges. Characteristics of P observed here provide no support for constraint contributing to the formation of these species’ borders, but may instead reflect structural change in P caused by selection or drift, and their potential to evolve in the future. PMID:23714580

  4. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand–Myanmar Border, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Phares, Christina; O’Neal, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand–Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  5. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.

  6. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  7. A polyhedral approach to computing border bases

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Gábor

    2009-01-01

    Border bases can be considered to be the natural extension of Gr\\"obner bases that have several advantages. Unfortunately, to date the classical border basis algorithm relies on (degree-compatible) term orderings and implicitly on reduced Gr\\"obner bases. We adapt the classical border basis algorithm to allow for calculating border bases for arbitrary degree-compatible order ideals, which is \\emph{independent} from term orderings. Moreover, the algorithm also supports calculating degree-compatible order ideals with \\emph{preference} on contained elements, even though finding a preferred order ideal is NP-hard. Effectively we retain degree-compatibility only to successively extend our computation degree-by-degree. The adaptation is based on our polyhedral characterization: order ideals that support a border basis correspond one-to-one to integral points of the order ideal polytope. This establishes a crucial connection between the ideal and the combinatorial structure of the associated factor spaces.

  8. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  9. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  10. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  11. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  12. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  13. Cross-Border Interactions and Health in the Brazil-Colombia-Peru Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru has a population of over 100,000 people; at least a quarter are indigenous (mostly Tikuna, and the rest is composed of people from the Andean region and some itinerant groups (migrants, traders, etc.. The “twin cities”, Tabatinga (Brazil and Leticia (Colombia, receive a significant flux of people from the adjacent regions of each country, each one having a referral hospital for attending cases of moderate complexity. This region has a high incidence of  water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and hepatitis, those transmitted by vectors, such as malaria and leishmaniasis, and other infectious diseases related to living conditions and the level of access to the health system, such as sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease.. This work presents attempts to carry out a global analysis of the prevalence of some health problems introduced into the area during the last two decades, such as cholera epidemics, malaria, and HIV/AIDS infection, attempting to describe their main determinants in the region.

  14. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  15. Elastic and hegemonic borders and discourse theory: Mexico’s southern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marengo Camacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourse theory is useful for understanding the creation of borders, whether material or imaginary. This paper addresses three situations on Mexico’s southern border between 2000 and 2015 in which elements of discourse theory may be applied. The outcomes were the following: 1 correlations may be made between the elements of the discourse moving from the northern to the southern border, but not in the opposite direction; 2 the process of securitising the discourse about migrants is continuous, and new securitising elements are regularly added; 3 an “elastic borders” phenomenon exists, where borders extend or retract, thereby creating new border regions; and 4 discourses around the southern border are constructed with more pejorative elements than the northern, despite the fact that crime rates are higher in the north.

  16. Corruption, Insecurity and Border control in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    In Niger, building more border offices has proven insufficient to tackle the spread of smuggling, drug trade and circulation of jihadists in the Sahel. Instead, everyday petty corruption makes border control ineffective and, while apparently benign, this has severe consequences in contexts...... of volatile security. In this policy brief, Eric Hahonou argues that without complementary activities, the multiplication of border offices could even expand opportunities for corruption. Instead, security policy should focus on creating a culture of effectiveness including systematic and regular staff...... meetings, reporting, law implementation and sanctions as well as new modalities to reward border guards and other state agents. Because corruption is, to a large extent, embedded in the social norms of the users of public service in Niger, sensitisation among transporters, passengers and traders is crucial....

  17. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users in Kazakhs......The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users...... in Kazakhstan shows that the naming of a state-controlled space on the Internet, through the use of country code top-level domain names (ccTLDs), does in fact matter to the average user. People are aware of national boundary traversals as they navigate the Internet. Respondents in our study identified...

  18. Integrated care across borders: possibilities and complexities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Evers

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this practice paper is to describe and analyse the possibilities and complexities of integrated health care across borders. First, we portray an ideal scenario for this type of care with a case of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and living in the Dutch-Belgian frontier area. It shows how cross border care enhances continuity of care/tailor-made care and the other way around. Secondly, based on different literature sources, we describe actual regulations on health care across borders. We show that these regulations can be a major hindrance to integrated care. This raises questions on the scope and content of policies directed at both cross border and integrated care.

  19. Networks communities within and across borders

    CERN Document Server

    Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...

  20. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  1. A puzzle concerning borders and identities: towards a typology of attitudes to the Irish border

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    State borders are typically held to shape categories of national identification. This paper explores this interrelationship in the light of empirical evidence drawn from research in the Irish border area. It begins by outlining a schema, drawn from the literature, which posits a movement from contestation of borders, to institutionalisation, to transgression. It then proceeds to show how this is reflected in scholarly and political interpretations of attitudes towards the Irish borde...

  2. Improving Nigerian Border Security -- A Comprehensive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    threats, overlapping jurisdictions between different agencies, presence of private sector businesses, and partnerships with neighboring states produce a...help us increase trade amongst West African states. Increased trade means that more goods and services will be produced , increased production means...Border Security, Cooperation and Integration, 69. 22. Adeola and Fayomi, Implications of Cross Border Migration, 6-7. 23. Ibid., 7. 24. Aluko Ola

  3. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  4. Species-dependent effects of border cell and root tip exudates on nematode behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Schmitt, M; Hawes, M C

    2000-11-01

    ABSTRACT Effects of border cell and root tip exudates on root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) behavior were examined. In whole-plant assays using pea, M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) accumulated rapidly around the 1- to 2-mm apical region ensheathed by border cells, but not in the region of elongation. Within 15 to 30 min, J2 which had accumulated within detached clumps of border cells lost motility and entered into a quiescent state. When border cells (and associated root tip exudates) were washed from pea roots prior to challenge with nematodes, no such accumulation and quiescence was induced. Attraction of nematodes by roots was species dependent: no attraction or accumulation occurred in snap bean. Using a quantitative assay, three categories of chemotaxis responses occurred: attraction (pea and alfalfa cv. Thor), repulsion (alfalfa cv. Moapa 69), and no response (snap bean and alfalfa cv. Lahonton). In contrast, total root tip exudates from all three plant species acted as a repellent for M. incognita in the sand assay. An in vitro assay was developed to characterize the induced quiescence response. When total root tip exudate from the tested legumes (as well as corn) was incubated with J2 populations, >80% of the nematodes lost motility. A similar response occurred in Caenorhabditis elegans. Border cell exudates did not induce or contribute to the induction of quiescence. Cocultivation of pea border cells with M. incognita resulted in changes in border cell shape similar to those observed in response to exogenous plant hormones. No such changes occurred in snap bean border cells. Understanding the cell- and host-specific extracellular recognition that occurs between roots and pathogenic nematodes in the early stages before infection occurs could lead to new avenues for disease control.

  5. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation to coopera...

  6. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Police xii SBI Secure Border Initiative SES Senior Executive Service SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica TSA Transportation Security...also been involvement from the Mexican law enforcement agency, Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) on the southwest border (CBP, 2009; ICE, 2009, p. 5

  7. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  8. Formation and separation of root border cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2007-01-01

    Plant roots release a large number of border cells into the rhizosphere, which are believed to play a key role in root development and health. The formation and loss of these cells from the root cap region is a developmentally regulated process that is also controlled by phytohormones and environmental factors. The separation of border cells involves the complete dissociation of individual cells from each other and from root tissue. This process requires the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes that solubilize the cell wall connections between cells. We present and discuss the solubilization process with an emphasis on pectin-degrading enzymes as well as the recently discovered root border-like cells of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  9. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...

  10. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration........ This paper discusses the reasons behind this mismatch which means that the concept still rests upon and draws policy suggestions based on a thin evidence base. Directions for further research are pointed out by underlining the need for holistic empirical validations of the concept together with the need...

  11. The endothelial border to health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nina Wærling; Hansen, Anker Jon; Sams, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The endothelial cell (EC) layer constitutes a barrier that controls movements of fluid, solutes and cells between blood and tissue. Further, the endothelial layer regulates vascular tone and directs local humoral and cellular inflammatory processes. The strategic position makes it an important...... for several endothelial dysfunctions. There is also mounting epidemiological evidence that dietary intake of refined sugars is important for the development of a number of diseases beyond obesity and type 2 diabetes. Various diseases involving inflammatory and immunological components are accelerated...... extracellular proteins form epitopes for potential specific antibody formation upon interactions with reducing sugars. This paper reviews the endothelial metabolism, biology, inflammatory processes, physical barrier functions, and summarizes evidence that although stochastic in nature, endothelial responses...

  12. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.

    2012-01-01

    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  13. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature......-space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion...

  14. A CART extension using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature......-space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion...

  15. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  16. Crossing the Borders: An Eco-cinecritical Analysis of Plant Wars and Bird Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ching Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads two Asian nature-oriented films from the perspective of ecocinecriticism,an ecologically minded film criticism. Plant Wars, produced by PTSTaiwan, questions the demarcation between native plants and exotic plants as well asbetween plants and human beings so as to remap the in-between border area. Thestorytelling method it applies is to feature 14 currently native plants as the maincharacters, and illustrates their relationship to aboriginal people, farmers, beekeepersand to other insect species. Bird Without Borders, also produced by PTS, tells the storyof the migration journey of a group of black-faced spoonbills flying 16,000 kilometersall the way from Tainan, Taiwan, to Japan, along the border of South and North Korea,to a remote island of China to look for feeding places and then back to Taiwan to spendthe winter. Different layers of border-crossing are shown in Bird. One similarity ofthese two PTS productions is the search for border-crossing so as to redefine or revisewhat the border means. Plant questions the biological categorization of the native plantsand the exotic plants; Bird illustrates how the crew physically follows the route of thebirds’ flight which crosses the national borders to provide a vision of remapping thenatural territory through challenging the idea of a fixed “place.” Both are seeking forways to trespass the man-made borders: Plant via environmental imagination; Bird viasome physical movement. While the title of Plant Wars seemingly expresses its positionmore strongly through “wars,” Bird Without Borders explicitly asserts a dream of noborders.

  17. Alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and in non-border areas. Interviews were conducted among Mexican Americans in the border regions of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N=1307). Non-border respondents were interviewed primarily in Houston and Los Angeles (N=1288) as part of the Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Both the border and HABLAS surveys employed multistage cluster sample designs (response rates were 67% and 76%, respectively). In the bivariate analysis, there were no significant differences between border and non-border areas in the proportion of those with one or more social problem. In non-border areas, the prevalence of alcohol problems did not differ significantly by age. However, along the border the prevalence of alcohol problems was significantly different across age groups, with 18 to 29year old men and women having the highest prevalence. The final models showed no residence effect on problem likelihood. Drinking was strongly associated with problems. Although young border residents had higher problem prevalence rates than older residents, the logistic regression models showed no effect of border residence on the likelihood of problems, indicating that problems are due to alcohol consumption, not the border environment. The border, however, did appear to influence more drinking among young people. Regardless of residence, alcohol treatment and preventive interventions tailored to Mexican Americans are essential and special attention should be focused on younger individuals near the border.

  18. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  19. The border population effects of EU integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; Oumer, Abdella

    2012-01-01

    Border cities or regions are in theory more affected by the EU integration process than more central locations as it more drastically influences their transaction costs and market potential. We find a positive empirical effect of EU enlargement as measured by the growth in population share along the

  20. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermo

  1. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  2. Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-29

    Source of Narco Syndicates Rising Firepower,” Narcosphere, March 29, 2009. Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border Congressional Research...50 years old, of museum interest, or derive a substantial amount of their value from the fact that they are novel , rare, bizarre, or because they

  3. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax ev...

  4. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent, a...

  5. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  6. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  7. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    arbitration . This means that states do not necessarily view their borders as matters of existential import, but at most as subjects that may be... ethical , political, civil rights, privacy, and legal implications, the technology is rapidly becoming available to digitally tag, biometrically identify

  8. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate the...

  9. Religious influences on the reproductive health decisions of HIV-positive Latinas on the border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instone, Susan; Mueller, Mary-Rose

    2011-12-01

    The number of HIV-positive Latinas of child-bearing age living on the US-Mexico border is a growing concern. Little is known about how religious beliefs influence the reproductive health decisions of these women in light of disease demands and cultural and religious norms that support high fertility rates and childbearing. Such decisions may be further complicated by the stigma of HIV/AIDS and structural issues related to immigration status and trans-border lives. This paper analyzes extant literature and supports the need for further research so that policy makers and heath and social service providers can develop meaningful and comprehensive reproductive-health related interventions.

  10. U.S.-Mexico cross-border workforce training needs: survey implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Guernsey de Zapien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. METHODS: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. RESULTS: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30% of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations. Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals

  11. U.S.Mexico cross-border workforce training needs:survey implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Cecilia B.; Nuno, Tomas; Dieke, Ada; Galvez, Francisco Navarro; Dutton, Ronald J.; Guerrero, Robert; Dulin, Paul; Jiménez, Elisa Aguilar; Granillo, Brenda; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. Methods: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. Results: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30%) of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations). Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. Conclusions: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals whose

  12. Partnership and Cooperation Models in Cross-Border Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Slusarciuc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at exploring the partnership and cooperation issues in cross-border areas in European Union. The theoretical part of the papers is defining the role of the borders in the framework of the European Union enlarged and it includes a review of forms of cooperation and principles applicable in cross-border cooperation considered by the Council of Europe and the European Union or the Association of European Border Regions. Further there are identified in the specific literature important challenges and key points that are marking the cross-border partnerships. The last part of the paper is focusing on some examples of cross-border cooperation, making distinction between two main situations: the border between Member States and the borders between EU and neighbouring countries.

  13. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  14. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  15. BorderTourism--- IntheCaseofShaTauKokTourismexploitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fangzhou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity is the foundation of tourism.Border regions witness the change of the history, and retain valuable heritages and unique vil ages. Because of the common border protection regulations, natural beauties and cultural landscapes can be also wel preserved, leaving abundant and precious tourism resources for younger generations.Combining with the sha tau kok border region and the surrounding site,analysis of the feasibility of border tourism and chal enges.

  16. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  17. 75 FR 60643 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Parts 831, 841, and 842 RIN 3206-AL69 Customs and Border Protection... available to customs and border protection officers under the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the... Act provides early retirement and enhanced annuity benefits for customs and border protection...

  18. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland...

  19. 75 FR 266 - Customs and Border Protection's Bond Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: E9-30920] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Parts 101, 113, and 133 [Docket No. USCBP-2006-0013] RIN 1505-AB54 Customs and Border Protection's Bond Program AGENCIES: Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  20. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  1. The Dutch-French Language Border in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemyns, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Describes language border fluctuations in Belgium as far as its Dutch-French portion is concerned. Examines the status and function of the language border in Belgium and of actual border fluctuations. Discusses two problem areas in detail: the "Voerstreek, and the Brussels suburban region. Language shift and language change through erosion in…

  2. Imagining and Imaging Borders: Understanding Borderlands for Global Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, V.

    2013-11-01

    Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, self determination and regionalization around the world. We need to know more about how: self determination fuels secessions and new borders; borders result from complex rather than simple policy and governance issues; borders depend on the political clout of borderland communities; market and migration flows impact borders; and borders are always in motion. The paper shows how these organizing principles underlie the basic themes of border governance, flows, culture, history, security and sustainability. Finally, the paper offers two brief illustrations of border imaging to link this presentation to the following discussion of the workshop.

  3. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  4. Deciphering the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to pathogen-derived elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancot, Barbara; Santaella, Catherine; Jaber, Rim; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie Christine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Leprince, Jérôme; Gattin, Isabelle; Souc, Céline; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2013-12-01

    Plant pathogens including fungi and bacteria cause many of the most serious crop diseases. The plant innate immune response is triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. To date, very little is known of MAMP-mediated responses in roots. Root border cells are cells that originate from root caps and are released individually into the rhizosphere. Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as "border-like cells." Whereas root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum) are clearly involved in defense against fungal pathogens, the function of border-like cells remains to be established. In this study, we have investigated the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. We found that both MAMPs triggered a rapid oxidative burst in root border-like cells of both species. The production of reactive oxygen species was accompanied by modifications in the cell wall distribution of extensin epitopes. Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that can be cross linked by hydrogen peroxide to enhance the mechanical strength of the cell wall. In addition, both MAMPs also caused deposition of callose, a well-known marker of MAMP-elicited defense. Furthermore, flagellin22 induced the overexpression of genes involved in the plant immune response in root border-like cells of Arabidopsis. Our findings demonstrate that root border-like cells of flax and Arabidopsis are able to perceive an elicitation and activate defense responses. We also show that cell wall extensin is involved in the innate immunity response of root border-like cells.

  5. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  6. Off-shoring and out-sourcing the borders of EUrope: Libya and EU border work in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines some of the novel ways in which the European Union carries out its ‘border-work’- border-work that stretches far beyond the external borders of the current Union. It highlights, in particular, the role of EUrope's neighbours in new strategies of securitisation, drawing attention

  7. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  8. Centronuclear myopathy in a Border collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D

    2012-10-01

    A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie.

  9. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    OpenAIRE

    Mourrain, B.; J. B. Lasserre; Laurent, Monique; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming. While the border basis algorithms of [17] are ecient and numerically stable for computing complex roots, algorithms based on moment matrices [12] allow the incorporation of additional polynomials, ...

  10. Effective Border Tax Adjustments for Export Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn P. Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we address the administration issues associated with the most important border tax adjustments for export expansion. These relate to the refund of input tax credits under the VAT and the relief from customs duties on imported inputs used to produce exports. Such refunds in many developing countries are either not paid in a timely fashion or have been fraudulently overstated in the claims made by exporters. These become impediments that have frequently discouraged foreign invest...

  11. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  12. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  13. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  14. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  15. Bordering Binarities and Cognitive Cartography: What on Earth Does Literature Have to do with Border Transactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Moi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although literature and poetry have numerous borders of their own,these are rarely assumed to have any significance for the world out-side the text itself. A number of reasons for this distinctive division certainly stem from the literary field itself. This paper intends to indicate the exclusivist stance of some theories of literature, and the inclucivist of others, before exploring the possibilities of bridging between borders in text and territory by reference to the life and literature of Oscar Wilde and a performative and imaginative analysis of Paul Muldoon's epigrammatic poem The Plot.

  16. The new borders of Saint Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Delsahut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1904 the Olympic and Anthropologic Games in Saint Louis, Missouri, were lost in the chaos of the Louisiana Purchase (Universal Exposition. Although the expected universal spirit, for a long time Saint Louis expressed racial prejudices of its personal. This paper shows up how Sport Sciences and growing up Anthropology acted together in sense of serving questioned causes like racial ranking and colonization right. They were important in improving a feeling of nation in North American that took in grant sport as part of its constitution. The Universal Exposition and Market of Saint Louis offered new possibilities in definition of technological, racial, geographic and corporal borders.

  17. Early seismicity of the Scottish Borders Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the seismicity of Southern Scotland and Northern England up to the year 1750. This area was formerly a border area between two states that eventually became politically united. Much of the area is uplands, and the seismicity is moderate to low. This makes for some problems in studying historical seismicity, yet the area provides a number of case studies of general interest in the field of historical seismology, including a rare case of being able to track down a «missing» earthquake.

  18. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  19. Coral disease physiology: the impact of Acroporid white syndrome on Symbiodinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roff, G.; Kvennefors, E. C. E.; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) are physiologically...

  20. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  1. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... a tourist attraction in itself, which benefits the local economies on both sides of the border. However, this potential is not taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. The article, thus, concludes with suggestions for the tourism industry to develop its image and brand by integrating cross...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  2. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems.

  3. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  4. Electricity without borders - The need for cross-border transmission investment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martínez-Anido, C.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in cross-border electricity flows is foreseen in Europe in the coming decades due to large-scale penetration of renewable energy, the electrical integration of the Euro-Mediterranean region, the electrification of transport, and possible shifts in electricity generation dispatc

  5. Border Cracks: Approaching Border Security From a Complexity Theory and Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    33 o. Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) ..................................34 viii p. Federal Police (PF...SIU Sensitive Information Unit SOD Special Operations Division SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica SWB Southwest Border Initiative SWBICP...www.usatoday.com/news/military/2010-04-06-Mexico_N.htm. 34 o. Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) SSP is part of the Federal Civil Service whose aim is

  6. Enhancing Surveillance for Arboviral Infections in the Arizona Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Orion; Vanskike, Frank; Ernst, Kacey; Komatsu, Ken; Margolis, Harold; Waterman, Stephen; Tippit, Laura; Tomashek, Kay; Wertheimer, Anne; Montiel, Sonia; Golenko, Catherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance arboviral surveillance and laboratory capacity to establish a surveillance baseline for the emerging threat of Dengue fever in the Arizona-Mexico border region. Introduction West Nile Virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are both arboviruses which are transmitted to humans by an infected mosquito bite during blood-meal feeding. The clinical presentations of non-neuroinvasive WNV and dengue fever are similar, and symptoms may include acute onset of high fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, nausea, vomiting, and often a maculopapular rash. More serious manifestations of these viruses include fatal encephalitis and meningitis in WNV patients and fatal hemorrhagic disease in dengue patients. Over the last decade, WNV has spread rapidly across North America, reaching Arizona in 2004, and has become a significant cause of human illness since that time. Even though dengue has been described as primarily a disease of the tropics and sub-tropical areas, there is a small but significant risk for dengue outbreaks in the continental United States as evidenced by surveillance efforts in Texas that identified local dengue transmission in 2005. In recent years, outbreaks of dengue have occurred in Mexico border states, most notably Sonora in 2010. That same year, Arizona had the highest incidence of WNV cases in the U.S. including number of neuroinvasive disease cases, total cases, and number of deaths per state. The emergence of DENV and WNV as important public health problems maybe have been due to non-effective mosquito control, global demographic changes (urbanization and population growth), increased air travel, and inadequate surveillance. Methods Vector mapping: Mapping techniques will be utilized to visually depict Aedes aegypti populations captured from previous seasonal public health environmental vector trapping programs. Laboratory capacity: Multi-state laboratory training by CDC Dengue Branch was held in October 2012. Surveillance: The WNV cases

  7. First Philosophy in the Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Rossvaer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.

  8. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.

    2003-12-01

    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  9. Multi-TSO cross border balancing mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, Maria Luisa; Moreno, Laura; Fuente, Jose Ignacio de la; Junco, Paula; Arenillas, Jorge [Red Electrica de Espana (REE) S.A.U., Madrid (Spain). Operation Markets Dept.; Pereira, Pedro [REN - Servicos, S.A., Lisbon (Portugal). Gabinete Mercado e Liquidacoes; Chabanne, Colas [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Markets Dept.; Apoyan, Lalake; Barbieri, Galileo [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Cross-Border Market Design

    2012-07-01

    The balancing market integration has been highlighted as a necessary step to reach the European Union goal for the development of an effective, competitive single market for electricity across Europe. In this paper it is described the work done by RTE, REE and REN regarding the design of a non-discriminatory, efficient and reliable multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism at regional level, extendible to other control areas. The implementation of this multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism will aim at increasing the operational security, enhancing the Liquidity and Competition of balancing markets, facilitating the integration of energy produced by Renewable Energy Sources while optimizing the use of Interconnection capacities. With this mechanism, the three TSOs will be able to exchange to each other balancing energy through the available interconnection capacities after the last intraday market sessions. This mechanism will be based on a common IT platform where TSOs will share their available surplus of reserves and communicate their balancing needs. The available interconnection capacities will be taken into account in an automatic and centralized way. Two main options are investigated regarding the allocation method: on the one hand, the first come first served approach (FCFS), on the other hand, the ''social welfare'' optimization approach. (orig.)

  10. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  11. The Assessment Of Geographical Borders In Economic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowska Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The length of common border between two geographical units is frequently used as a basic weight in spatial analysis. The newest methodological propositions such as tests for hierarchical relations (Markowska et. al. 2014; Sokołowski et. al. 2013, regional spatial moving average and new spatial correlation coefficient (Markowska et. al. 2015 are using border lengths. In cited references new methods have been illustrated by analyses for EU NUTS2 regions. It is obvious that borders between regions belonging to different countries have different socio-economic impact than borders between regions lying in the same country. A new simple method for assesment the importance of borders is proposed in the paper. It is based on a chosen macroeconomic variable available at NUTS 2 level (e.g. GDP, infant mortality, Human Development Index. For neighboring regions bigger value is divided by smaller value giving the local importance of the given border. These measures of local border importance can be than average for borders within the same country and for borders for each pair of neighboring countries.

  12. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  13. Two fatal cases of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2os

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy S. Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is endemic in areas of Southeast Asia, however, there are no published reports from the Thai-Myanmar border.  We report the first two cases of fatal melioidosis in this region. This is of great public health importance and highlights the need to increase clinical awareness of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border and to assess the true burden of disease in the area through improved case detection and Burkholderia pseudomallei prevalence studies.

  14. Two fatal cases of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/373

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy S. Chu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is endemic in areas of Southeast Asia, however, there are no published reports from the Thai-Myanmar border. We report the first two documented cases of fatal melioidosis in this region. This is of great public health importance and highlights the need to both increase clinical awareness of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border, and to assess the true burden of disease in the area through improved case detection and Burkholderia pseudomallei prevalence studies.

  15. Frontiers, territoriality and tensions in bordering spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal

  16. The coordination of care across borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    -savings, improved quality of care, avoidance of unnecessary tests, improved work efficiency, reduced waiting times and improvement in the overall efficiency of the healthcare system. Although benefits exists, healthcare organizations have experienced difficulties attaining them and overall adoption of e...... with implementing a new system, and uncertainty that the technology may actually reduce overall costs. The coordination of care across boundaries presents a plethora of issues that need to be tackled from a policy, legal, practical research perspective. This thesis attempts to address pressing issues...... with a particular focus on the implications health information exchange for the purposes of coordinating care will have on both the patient and healthcare professionals on three levels: international, national and institutional level. The findings of this thesis imply that in order for cross-border health...

  17. Obtaining the borders of urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01

    The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders. The method is based on the density of street crossings around a single seed point associated to the urban area of interest. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.

  18. [Crossing borders. The motivation of extreme sportsmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaschowski, H W

    2005-08-01

    In his article "Crossing borders -- the motivation of extreme sportsmen" the author gets systematically to the bottom of the question of why extreme sportsmen voluntarily take risks and endanger themselves. Within the scope of a representative sampling 217 extreme sportsmen -- from the fields of mountain biking, trekking and free climbing, canoyning, river rafting and deep sea diving, paragliding, parachuting, bungee jumping and survival training -- give information about their personal motives. What fascinates them? The attraction of risk? The search for sensation? Or the drop out of everyday life? And what comes afterwards? Does in the end the whole life become an extreme sport? Fact is: they live extremely, because they want to move beyond well-trodden paths. To escape the boredom of everyday life they are searching for the kick, the thrill, the no-limit experience. It's about calculated risk between altitude flight and deep sea adventure.

  19. Usability in Public Services and Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirelli, Giuliano

    The paper starts with a brief overview of the scale of disability and associated challenges and puts them in the context of the public policy on disability. It then analyses the usability challenges in public services and border control, including the issues of accessibility, safety and communication. These need to be addressed in future policy proposals, to provide the best assistance by new technologies to elderly people and people with disabilities, avoiding creating new barriers due to incorrect or incomplete initial conception. With increasing flux of novel security technology in mass transportation systems, and particularly the use of biometric identification in airports, the challenge of usability is recognized. This paper analyses these issues in the context of users with disability in an idealized process of Simplifying Passenger Travel (SPT).

  20. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  1. POSTMODERN EDUCATION: CRITICAL AND BORDER PEDAGOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of postmodernism on education and investigates the main effects ofpostmodern philosophy on social sciences. It is clearly stated in the article that the effects of postmodernism cannotonly be limited to art and logically it should have an effect on education as well. This effect, described as thepostmodern educational approach, emphasizes that the rudiments of popular culture should also be incorporated toeducation and therefore to curricula. Postmodern educational approach also accentuates the significance of allowing‘others’ who have never possessed the opportunity to articulate their standpoints and desires to have a say in their owneducation. The concrete reflections of postmodern educational approach can be perceived in Critical and BorderPedagogies theorized by Henry A. Giroux. Critical pedagogy aspires to educate individuals who do not acceptoccurrences as they are and are critical of the knowledge they construct all through their education. Only by this waythese individuals will be able to discover their own voices, improve their civilian consciousness by taking risks, andacquire the ability of staying alive and functioning within social relations, traditions and experiences. Border pedagogyis as well a product of postmodern philosophy. It defends counter-text as opposed to the official ones offered, presentedand imposed to learners. Counter-consciousness represents the critical analysis of how the present reads the past andhow the past informs the present. This practice of course results in the re-evaluation of memories and traditions.Memories are the stories which were forgotten or ignored with the support of preserved traditions. It is thereforeconcluded in the article that postmodern educational approach is the critical examination towards dismissing the mainnarratives and discourses which manipulate and configure the curriculum of schools. It is the struggle exercisedtowards the recognition

  2. Editorial: Human rights at the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Molland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is with great honour that I introduce the second issue of the Anti-Trafficking Review (ATR. The first issue received an overwhelming response and has placed the journal at the forefront of rigorous analysis and debate relating to human trafficking and human rights. It raised the topic of accountability in anti-trafficking. This issue hopes to further strengthen the ATR’s position as a global, reputable journal on human trafficking. Strengthening the quality of research, analysis, and reflexivity in the trafficking sector is much needed, and I echo Anne Gallagher’s observation as guest editor of the first issue that standards in anti-trafficking research tend to be less rigorous than in other fields of study. My aim as a guest editor is to contribute to addressing this shortfall by bringing together a set of diverse and insightful articles focussing on the nexus of borders and human rights. It is also my hope that this issue will work towards narrowing the divide between practitioners and academics in anti-trafficking. This is reflected in the varied range of contributors. The last few years have witnessed a significant increase in publishing relating to human trafficking worldwide. However, there is limited measured debate and appraisal of this literature within the anti-trafficking sector. For this reason we have decided to include a book review as a way of highlighting recent major publications. The question of borders, migration control, trafficking and human rights raise contested and controversial questions. The editorial team has attempted to include different perspectives, reflected in the debate section in particular. Needless to say, all papers have been subject to double blind peer review.

  3. Cross-border firing and injury patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nital Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cross-border firing are increasingly being common in the modern era. The injuries resulting from these low intensity conflicts are a source of anxiety among treating physicians and their respective governments. The provisions are required to minimise the suffering of the victims viz. Mode of injuries, mortality patterns, adequacy of treatment at pre-hospital and tertiary care hospital and provisions to decrease morbidity and mortality for the people living in these areas. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in GMCH, Jammu who suffered injuries due to cross border firing in the month of October, 2014. 68 patients were reported in the causality wing. All the patients were referred from level 2 trauma centre. There were 51 males and 17 females out of which 5 were children. The cause of injury, involvement of organ system, cause of mortality and morbidity and loopholes in prehospital management were identified. Results: Sharpnel were the most common cause of injury followed by indirect trauma. The common cause of mortality was abdominal and thoracic injuries. There were 4 deaths at hospital 2 of which were brought dead and 2 died during the course of treatment. There were twenty patients with extremity injuries, fourteen with chest trauma, eleven with abdomen including parineal injuries, three with head injuries, eight with ENT injuries, three with eye injuries and nine with splinters in the back out of which two were in the spinal canal. Conclusion: Prehospital stabilisation, early transport, in-transit resuscitation, immediate surgery if required and implementation of triage model and ATLS protocol has been the key to reduce mortality and morbidity.

  4. Cross-border mobility, unfamiliarity and development policy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, B.; Velde, M. van der

    2013-01-01

    In this special issue, we seek to explore experiences, performances and effects of both “unfamiliarity” and “familiarity” across a diversity of inner and outer borders of the European Union. In EU integration discourse, cross-border unfamiliarity is usually considered to obstruct international mobil

  5. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in...

  6. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: General notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 641 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, (19 U.S.C. 1641) and the U.S. Customs...

  7. 76 FR 50883 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 159 RIN 1515-AD67 (formerly RIN 1505-AC21) Courtesy Notice of Liquidation AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of... of the Code of Federal Regulations (``CFR'') pertaining to the method by which U.S. Customs...

  8. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR...

  9. 77 FR 59206 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Foreign Assembler's Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-day... November 26, 2012, to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to U.S....

  10. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Robinson International (USA) Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products for customs purposes,...

  11. The Maritime and Border Regions of Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Trevor

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the diversity of languages in Western Europe and the peripheralization of maritime and border languages through isolation, domination by other languages, and fragmentation of the culture. Discusses minority rights issues, suggesting rise in bilingual education implies border-language revival. 5 tables, 27 references. (TES)

  12. On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess the potential of cross-border region development on the basis of theoretical and methodological materials. The study examines the Kaliningrad region and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article is focused on the modelling of interindustry balance and export/import functions of border territories.

  13. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  14. Cross-border cooperation in the Fehmarn Belt Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document......Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document...

  15. 76 FR 41993 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... elements of those structures include: (1) A maximum entry age (to maintain a young and vigorous workforce... reference to a Federal occupational series--the Customs and Border Protection job series (GS- 1895). Two... border protection officer will be determined by looking back at the individual's employment history...

  16. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  17. Cross-border innovation cooperation: Partner selection, national borders and knowledge bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  18. Border Security Agency Structure: A Hindrance to Demonstrating Border Security Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    placed on immigration expertise and the inequity in promotion opportunities” (Martin, 2003, p. 17). These observations have led to CBP employees...unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Long-awaited immigration reform may become a reality in 2013, as Congress...debates the merits of a comprehensive overhaul. The primary criteria for triggering reforms in the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration

  19. Border Jumping: Strategic and Operational Considerations in Planning Cross-Border Raids Against Insurgent Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    military and cultural influence. Within month, the agreements rang hollow, as both nations lent support to the FLN.107 The French capture of Ben...Africa in Namibia, 56. 142 Truth and Reconciliation Commission, South Africa Report, 45. Kelly Bell, “Operation Savannah: Task Force Zulu and the...focused cross-border raids. Indigenous intelligence networks can also help preserve tactical forces by sharing cultural information that can affect the

  20. Borders, Corridors, and Economics: The Keys to Stopping Cross Border Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    aspect of their organization. According to the book La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S. Mexican Security, La Familia came onto the scene in...La Familia recruits out of over a dozen rehabilitation clinics they operate. Once a potential recruit is clean they begin their training. The...Rep. Connie. Enhanced Border Security Act. Washington D.C., 2011. Grayson, George W. La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications For U.S.-Mexican Security

  1. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  2. Rethinking Borders in Japan: Internal, Cultural, and Geopolitical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyu Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Bondy. Voice, Silence, and Self: Negotiations of Buraku Identity in Contemporary Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 184 pp. $40 (cloth. Koichi Iwabuchi. Resilient Borders and Cultural Diversity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015. 137 pp. $75 (cloth/e-book. Akihiro Iwashita. Japan’s Border Issues: Pitfalls and Prospects. New York: Routledge, 2016. 144 pp. $160 (cloth. The books reviewed here address three different borders in present-day Japanese society: internal, cultural, and geopolitical. It is rare for three different authors to concurrently publish monographs on Japanese borders from three different angles. This may be a sign of increasing consciousness within Japan on the issues of diversity, multiethnicity, old and new forms of discrimination, and continuing border conflicts with neighboring countries...

  3. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  4. The Humanitarian Drone and the Borders: Unveiling the Rationales Underlying the Deployment of Drones in Border Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa; Custers, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In these days economic and political pressures push for the deployment of drones’ technology in civil and commercial domains. This chapter focuses in particular on the deployment of drones in the context of border surveillance. Border surveillance is a shared competence between the European Union, t

  5. 75 FR 43225 - Finding of No Significant Impact: San Diego-Tijuana Airport Cross Border Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... congestion at the border indicates, existing infrastructure was not designed to handle current traffic... population, economic growth, and security inspections expand. Worsening traffic congestion along the border... and national economic losses associated with border congestion. The sponsor's proposed...

  6. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  7. Summary findings from the border air quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    The Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) is an ongoing study which supports the development of an international strategy for the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed. The study investigates the association of health risks with the exposure to a range of air pollutants. It identified links between air pollutants and several health impacts ranging from asthma to birthweight. The tools developed for studying air quality provide greater spatial resolution, thus enabling the identification of pollution hot spots that require monitoring and intervention. The tools also provide spatially accurate exposure data for future research and enable land-use decisions that reduce risk to the most vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly. The study found that traffic-related air pollution is an additional risk factor for disease, such as bronchiolitis, asthma and middle ear infections in children. Although air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of chronic exposures. Therefore, the BAQS is currently assessing the relationship between air quality and cardiovascular diseases in the Metro Vancouver area, with particular attention to the combined effects of traffic-related air pollution and noise pollution. Wood smoke was also found to be an important source of air pollution, even in urban centres. The study showed that building design and ventilation can help reduce infiltration of air pollutants into buildings. It was concluded that despite some concerns, the air quality in the Georgia-Basin-Puget Sound region is good compared to other major metropolitan areas. Air quality managers can use the study to evaluate different policy scenarios and the associated economic costs of air pollution. 5 figs.

  8. Inverting the Telescope on Borders that Matter: Conversations in Café Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic; Kramsch, Olivier Thomas; Sandberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    of geopolitical as well as everyday life border practices find expression and take place. Inside this tension of multiple realities and politics, border theory is challenged and charged. It is the aim of the article to invite a furthering of ontological border politics in and across such conversations on borders...... that matter. Keywords: border studies, border theory, new comparativism, ontological politics, multiplicity, extra-territoriality/deterritorialisation...

  9. Rates and predictors of DUI among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Mills, Britain A

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines driving under the influence (DUI) arrests and other related factors among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas. Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1307) were interviewed between March 2009 and July 2010 and constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Border or non-border residential location was not associated with self-reported DUI, 12 month DUI arrest, or lifetime DUI arrest. An increase in consumption of 5 drinks per week was associated with an 18% increase in the chance of self-reporting DUI and an 18% increase in the probability of a lifetime DUI arrest. Binge drinkers were more likely to self-report a DUI event (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.61-5.03; pDUI arrest (OR=2.81; 95% CI=1.43-5.53, pDUI as a major problem affecting Hispanics. However, while most correctly identified the legal blood alcohol content to drive in their state as .08 g/dl or lower, approximately one third of individuals were unaware of the legal limit. Compared to their non-border counterparts, border men were more likely to identify a bar/tavern/club and border women were more likely to identify a friend or relative's home as the places of last drink before the most recent DUI trip originated. In conclusion, border and non-border Mexican Americans are not different regarding DUI rates. These rates are high in both groups, especially among men. Intervention strategies to decrease DUI should be implemented not only in drinking establishments but also with families.

  10. Woolfian border poetics and contemporary circadian novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Ryall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Woolf’s circadian novel Mrs Dalloway (1925 has inspired many successors, some of them important works in their own right. Although few of these novels are as explicitly linked to Mrs Dalloway as Michael Cunningham’s The Hours (1998, more recent novels such as Ian McEwan’s Saturday (2005 and Gail Jones’ Five Bells (2011 clearly pay homage to Woolf’s use of the one-day format to reveal whole lives and show how those individual private lives are entangled in history. The essay highlights one particular aspect of these three works, their imaginative and often transformative reworking of elements of Woolfian border poetics, particularly the predominance in Mrs Dalloway of boundary tropes – windows, doors, thresholds – that create a sense of synchronicity between present and past. Adapting Woolf’s boundary tropes to representations of contemporary realities, all three novels in different ways suggest how the present is deepened ”when backed by the past”, as Woolf puts it her memoirs; that is, when the present is not only informed by a remembered past but experienced in terms of both re-enactment and renewal, continuity and change.

  11. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    . For contemporary states the planes have become increasingly disaggregated, in the sense that they do not fall into place at one and the same border. Thus, states have to pick and choose different articulations (often inconsistently) on different planes. We illustrate these ideas with instances, present......-day and historical, of bordering. A corollary of there being more need to pick and choose is that articulations of sovereignty change. So, sovereignty is increasingly the material of ‘sovereignty games’, where sovereignty is used as a political instrument. In sum, our theory directs attention to state bordering...

  12. Red-Hot Sino-Russian Border Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the late 1990s, the Sino-Russian border in northeastern China which had been so silent for many years got busy in a hurry. In the border city of Suifenhe, with a population of only 40,000, and in Dongning County, with its population of 220,000, trains and vehicles drive by on the rails and the road day and night. The annual volume of goods crossing the border amounts to more than 6.5 million tons and the annual number of passengers passing through exceeds 2 million persons. Suifenhe and Dongning now rank first

  13. Petrology of the Upper Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonsen, L.; Tegner, C.; Jakobsen, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    The Upper Border Series crystallized downwards from the roof of the Skaergaard magma chamber. It met with the Layered Series that crystallized upwards from the floor in the Sandwich Horizon that contains the last and most evolved rocks of the intrusion. Previous investigations of the Upper Border Series (Naslund, 1984) have shown that the compositional trends of plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene largely mirror those of the Layered Series. At the same time it was argued that the crystallization sequence in Upper Border Series differed from the Layered Series in that apatite precipitated before magnetite that, in turn, appeared before Ca-rich pyroxene. From the existing data the magma from which the Upper Border Series crystallized was inferred to be enriched in SiO2, K2O, P2O5 and H2O relative to the magma in the lower parts of the intrusion. This has lead to the conception that the Upper Border Series crystallized from a chemically different magma. Here we present new petrography, mineralogy and bulk compositions for samples collected in three profiles through the Upper Border Series (Kilen, Hammerpas and Brødretoppen transects). Although euhedral apatite is present throughout most of the Upper Border Series, we interpret a marked increase in modal apatite late in the crystallization sequence as marking its first appearance on the liquidus at the crystallization front. The plagioclase An% at this level in the Upper Border Series is ˜40 and is identical with plagioclase An% at the level of apatite-in in the Layered Series. Similarly, we find that the plagioclase An% at the onset of FeTi-oxide and sulphide precipitation in the Upper Border Series (52 and 47, respectively) and Layered Series are alike. Finally, we interpret abundant augite in Upper Border Series rocks before magnetite-in as a cumulus phase. We therefore conclude that the crystallization sequences of the two series are identical. The new bulk rock data reveal that the Upper Border Series and the

  14. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing: The case of Southern Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  15. Signaling pathways and tissue interactions in neural plate border formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schille, Carolin; Schambony, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    The neural crest is a transient cell population that gives rise to various cell types of multiple tissues and organs in the vertebrate embryo. Neural crest cells arise from the neural plate border, a region localized at the lateral borders of the prospective neural plate. Temporally and spatially coordinated interaction with the adjacent tissues, the non-neural ectoderm, the neural plate and the prospective dorsolateral mesoderm, is required for neural plate border specification. Signaling molecules, namely BMP, Wnt and FGF ligands and corresponding antagonists are derived from these tissues and interact to induce the expression of neural plate border specific genes. The present mini-review focuses on the current understanding of how the NPB territory is formed and accentuates the need for coordinated interaction of BMP and Wnt signaling pathways and precise tissue communication that are required for the definition of the prospective NC in the competent ectoderm.

  16. Borders in Education and Living- a Case of Trench Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Pernille

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the notion of border will be examined in a cultural life course perspective. I will investigate borders as psycho-cultural constructions created to enable and control meaning-making in the intersection between subjects engagements and concerns and collectively constructed and guiding meanings. An empirical analysis of one boy's life course in and between home, school and a Leisure Time Activity Center in the years 1st to 3rd grade demonstrates a systemic construction of borders involving him, his teachers and his parents and renders the boy to choose between becoming an engaged pupil or a dedicated son. As such, the analysis can illuminate processes of school - home interactions that work opposite of what is intended and become detrimental to children's life. In a cultural life course perspective borders show how life is maintained as meaningful and not only guide the present living but also serve as directional guides into the future.

  17. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...... a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced...... to strengthen the Oresund integration index. This was compiled from patent, publication and collaborative R&D project data. The findings show that this index performs reasonably well in depicting STI integration, while at the same time remaining simple and straightforward enough to be adopted in other cross...

  18. Definig the US-Mexico border as hyperreality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Duarte-Herrera

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The US-Mexico border has been defined as a periphery, as a transborder social system, and more currently, as a station in transnational circuits. The two first definitions presuppose the strongly criticized concepts of region and cultural area. The third definition shares, along with the other two definitions, the positivist epistemological supposition that the border is a specific entity that can be known and experienced as such by any observer, no matter their social site. This paper is to support the definition of the border as a hyperreality constituted by speeches, practices, and experiences of the different social actors. From this posture, the image of the border as a formal geopolitical division is interpreted as a sustained image and reproduced by government agencies. Likewise, this writing is to support the documentation and promotion of alternative images constructed and reproduced by social actors from different power sites.

  19. Border Detection of Common Carotid Artery Using Hough Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Nagahara, Yoshihiro

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. The arteriosclerosis of the common carotid artery is diagnosed using Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) which is obtained from echocardiogram. In order to measure IMT from echocardiogram, it is required to detect a border which is a boundary between vessel tissue layers. The method of border detection requires reproducibility and high accuracy. The conventional methods to detect the border curve depend on differential value of brightness on the common carotid artery. Therefore, we can't extract a good candidate point by influence of a noise. In this paper, we propose the high-accuracy detection method by Hough Transform. About high-accuracy, it realized by attaching importance to high reliable candidate point of border.

  20. The European Electricity Market and Cross-Border Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic characteristics and features of trading in electricity, especially in cross-border trading. First, the most important features of electricity as a commodity are explained, with the consequences for electricity trading. Then characteristics and changes in the electricity market after liberalization are discussed. This liberalization has taken place throughout Europe, and the consequences of this revolutionary change are still visible. The main features of electricity trading are mentioned in general. Then cross-border trade in Europe is discussed in greater detail. In this context the basic principles of the allocation of cross-border transmission capacities are explained.The next part of the paper considers the characteristics of the European electricity market from the trader’s point of view. Liquidity as a very important index is introduced here.Finally the most visible trends in cross-border trade and the most probable future development in this area are presented. 

  1. Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carrillo Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Portal brings together papers examining the intersection of health and borders. In this analysis health is understood not only as the absence of illness, but also as knowledge, as a right, and as the pursuit of identity and self-transformation. Similarly, borders here are used as both physical and mental constructs. The special issue represent a multidisciplinary effort that looks at health from a social science perspective through historical, socio-economic, and cultural approaches. It is also concerned with the health inequities across and within national borders, due to economic imperatives, changing technologies and environments. The articles in this special issue explore lessons learned and new ways of understanding health across time and borders, with specific reference to the cases of India, Australia, Hong Kong and China, Pakistan, and Thailand.

  2. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  3. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1997-01-01

    Detergent-insoluble complexes prepared from pig small intestine are highly enriched in several transmembrane brush border enzymes including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, indicating that they reside in a glycolipid-rich environment in vivo. In the present work galectin-4, an animal lectin...... lacking a N-terminal signal peptide for membrane translocation, was discovered in these complexes as well, and in gradient centrifugation brush border enzymes and galectin-4 formed distinct soluble high molecular weight clusters. Immunoperoxidase cytochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy showed...... by a nonclassical pathway, and the brush border enzymes represent a novel class of natural ligands for a member of the galectin family. Newly synthesized galectin-4 is rapidly "trapped" by association with intracellular structures prior to its apical secretion, but once externalized, association with brush border...

  4. The Sino-Indian Border: Is Conflict Inevitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    99 viii ACRONYMS ADBI Asian Development Bank Initiative BD Border Defense BRICS Brazil Russia... BRICS ) which is emerging as a strong organization (one of the largest organizations in terms of population, area and trade). China has granted a

  5. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  6. Best practices for community gardening in a US-Mexico border community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangadu, Thenral; Kelly, Michael; Orezzoli, Max C E; Gallegos, Rebecca; Matharasi, Pracheta

    2016-04-22

    Minority communities such as those on the US-Mexico border are placed at disproportionate high risk for child and adult obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A built environment characterized by an arid desert climate, lack of access to healthy foods, barriers to increasing physical activity, cultural and community norms which deter healthy eating and sustainable food production, shape obesity-related health disparities in these communities. Three pilot community gardens (implemented by two local governmental organizations and one community-based organization) were funded through the local Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL) initiative in El Paso, Texas, and Las Cruces and Anthony, New Mexico (US-MX border communities with high obesity rates) in order to encourage healthy lifestyles among families in the region. A mixed-methods evaluation (n = 223) examined the implementation process, immediate outcomes and best practices of implementing and sustaining community gardens in these minority binational communities. In addition to nutrition-related outcomes, the potential for psychosocial outcomes from participating in community and school garden projects were observed. The best practices in relation to (i) assessing community norms related to growing food, (ii) increasing access to land and water for community/school gardening and (iii) enhancing social support for gardening are discussed. The implications of these best practices for obesity prevention and implementing community gardens in a minority US-MX border community characterized by cultural, geographical and socioeconomic barriers are examined.

  7. Statistical image segmentation for the detection of skin lesion borders in UV fluorescence excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Padilla-Martinez, Juan Pablo; Franco, Walfre

    2016-04-01

    The skin contains several fluorescent molecules or fluorophores that serve as markers of structure, function and composition. UV fluorescence excitation photography is a simple and effective way to image specific intrinsic fluorophores, such as the one ascribed to tryptophan which emits at a wavelength of 345 nm upon excitation at 295 nm, and is a marker of cellular proliferation. Earlier, we built a clinical UV photography system to image cellular proliferation. In some samples, the naturally low intensity of the fluorescence can make it difficult to separate the fluorescence of cells in higher proliferation states from background fluorescence and other imaging artifacts -- like electronic noise. In this work, we describe a statistical image segmentation method to separate the fluorescence of interest. Statistical image segmentation is based on image averaging, background subtraction and pixel statistics. This method allows to better quantify the intensity and surface distributions of fluorescence, which in turn simplify the detection of borders. Using this method we delineated the borders of highly-proliferative skin conditions and diseases, in particular, allergic contact dermatitis, psoriatic lesions and basal cell carcinoma. Segmented images clearly define lesion borders. UV fluorescence excitation photography along with statistical image segmentation may serve as a quick and simple diagnostic tool for clinicians.

  8. [Tuberculosis transmission in the triple border region: Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, José Ueleres; Herrero, Maria Belén; Cuellar, Célia Martinez de

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a public health problem in South America, but numerous control strategies have proven ineffective in settings with intense transmission. This study aimed to determine whether the triple border region between Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay is an area of high tuberculosis transmission. An ecological study was conducted with incidence data and population estimates for the three countries. Mean incidence rates were calculated for 2001 to 2007. Spatial analysis techniques identified high-incidence areas in the region using maps with Bayesian smoothing of rates and spatial averages. During the target period, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, had the highest incidence, followed by Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, and Puerto Iguazú in Argentina. The analysis showed a spatial cluster of municipalities with high tuberculosis risk in the triple border region. Tuberculosis in the tri-border area shows increasing or stable incidence rates and municipalities with incidence rates above the State average. The area has high tuberculosis incidence and therefore heavy transmission of the disease.

  9. Dengue fever at the U.S.-Mexico border, 1995-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-04

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted acute disease caused by any of four virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) and is characterized by acute manifestations that can include fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, nausea, and vomiting. On August 25, 1995, public health authorities in Mexico notified the Texas Department of Health (TDH) of an ongoing outbreak of dengue fever in the state of Tamaulipas, which borders south Texas. Because of the year-round presence of the Aedes aegypti mosquito (a major vector for dengue) in southernmost Texas and the frequent movement of persons across the U.S.-Mexico border, the outbreak in adjacent Tamaulipas suggested an increased potential for imported and autochthonous cases in Texas, as had occurred during 1980 and 1986. In response to the notification from Mexico, TDH intensified surveillance efforts for dengue, resulting in identification of 29 laboratory-diagnosed cases in Texas residents, including seven persons with no history of travel outside the state. This report summarizes results of dengue surveillance in the U.S.-Mexico border area during 1995-1996.

  10. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Miller-Thayer

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attracti...

  11. Mexican Cartels: The Threat Along Our Southern Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    the drug smuggling on the Southwest Border its leader, Joaquin “El Chapo ” Guzmán, made Forbes’ list of the world’s richest individuals in 2009. 4...resources. 46 UCs are decision-making organizations that develop and seek to implement consensual solutions to defeat narco -terrorism at the border as...Benson, R. G. (2011). Is Merida Antiquated? Part Two: Updating US Policy to Counter Threats of Insurgency and Narco -Terrorism. Washington D.C

  12. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  13. Border Basis for Polynomial System Solving and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Trébuchet, Philippe; Mourrain, Bernard; Abril Bucero, Marta

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We describe the software package borderbasix dedicated to the computation of border bases and the solutions of polynomial equations. We present the main ingredients of the border basis algorithm and the other methods implemented in this package: numerical solutions from multiplication matrices, real radical computation, polynomial optimization. The implementation parameterized by the coefficient type and the choice function provides a versatile family of tools for poly...

  14. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.

  15. Bastion on the Border: Fort Bliss, 1854-1943

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    THE BORDER border. Several smuggling rings even made canvas vests for their runners to wear so they could carry more cartridges per trip. There was...no lack of runners , especially among destitute Mexican refugees eager to earn a few cents per cartridge for carrying ammunition. They knew that if they...Aftermath /99 cavalry found it difficult to maneuver in a maze of irrigation ditches. Accordingly the Villistas were not crushed, but they were completely

  16. Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the “Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable.” The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Represen...

  17. The borders between Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia: Soviet heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Arkhipova, Ekaterina

    2005-01-01

    The administrative-territorial reforms carried out under Soviet power in the Caucasus to delimitate Russia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia have always been and remain a bone of contention. So far their governments have not yet come to terms on several problems on certain border stretches. For fourteen years now, delimitation has been going on with varying intensity. Russia and Azerbaijan have come the closest to settling these disputes with respect to the Daghestanian stretch of their common border....

  18. Militarization of the border and illegal immigration: Tamaulipas laborers

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2009-01-01

    Tamaulipas presents a long tradition of rural migration to the United States in search of farm employment. Until the eighties Tamaulipas’ undocumented workers crossed the border easily. However, from the nineties, as a result of a restrictive migration policy centered exclusively on the “supply–side” to cross the border has become intricate. As a result, most part of immigrants is using the services of “smuggles”. This paper analyses the impact of the militarization of the frontier on the emi...

  19. Alternate Pacing of Border-Collision Period-Doubling Bifurcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaopeng; Schaeffer, David G

    2007-11-01

    Unlike classical bifurcations, border-collision bifurcations occur when, for example, a fixed point of a continuous, piecewise C1 map crosses a boundary in state space. Although classical bifurcations have been much studied, border-collision bifurcations are not well understood. This paper considers a particular class of border-collision bifurcations, i.e., border-collision period-doubling bifurcations. We apply a subharmonic perturbation to the bifurcation parameter, which is also known as alternate pacing, and we investigate the response under such pacing near the original bifurcation point. The resulting behavior is characterized quantitatively by a gain, which is the ratio of the response amplitude to the applied perturbation amplitude. The gain in a border-collision period-doubling bifurcation has a qualitatively different dependence on parameters from that of a classical period-doubling bifurcation. Perhaps surprisingly, the differences are more readily apparent if the gain is plotted vs. the perturbation amplitude (with the bifurcation parameter fixed) than if plotted vs. the bifurcation parameter (with the perturbation amplitude fixed). When this observation is exploited, the gain under alternate pacing provides a useful experimental tool to identify a border-collision period-doubling bifurcation.

  20. Travel and Border Health Measures to Prevent the International Spread of Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole J; Brown, Clive M; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Bair-Brake, Heather; Benenson, Gabrielle A; Chen, Tai-Ho; Demma, Andrew J; Holton, N Kelly; Kohl, Katrin S; Lee, Amanda W; McAdam, David; Pesik, Nicki; Roohi, Shahrokh; Smith, C Lee; Waterman, Stephen H; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-08

    During the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC implemented travel and border health measures to prevent international spread of the disease, educate and protect travelers and communities, and minimize disruption of international travel and trade. CDC staff provided in-country technical assistance for exit screening in countries in West Africa with Ebola outbreaks, implemented an enhanced entry risk assessment and management program for travelers at U.S. ports of entry, and disseminated information and guidance for specific groups of travelers and relevant organizations. New and existing partnerships were crucial to the success of this response, including partnerships with international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Organization for Migration, and nongovernment organizations, as well as domestic partnerships with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and state and local health departments. Although difficult to assess, travel and border health measures might have helped control the epidemic's spread in West Africa by deterring or preventing travel by symptomatic or exposed persons and by educating travelers about protecting themselves. Enhanced entry risk assessment at U.S. airports facilitated management of travelers after arrival, including the recommended active monitoring. These measures also reassured airlines, shipping companies, port partners, and travelers that travel was safe and might have helped maintain continued flow of passenger traffic and resources needed for the response to the affected region. Travel and border health measures implemented in the countries with Ebola outbreaks laid the foundation for future reconstruction efforts related to borders and travel, including development of regional surveillance systems, cross-border coordination, and implementation of core capacities at designated official points of entry in accordance with the International Health Regulations

  1. Mapping the potential of cross-border cooperation in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa.......Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa....

  2. Dengue Fever Seroprevalence and Risk Factors, Texas-Mexico Border, 2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    Dengue fever is both endemic and underrecognized along a section of the southern Texas–Mexico border, and low income is a primary risk factor for infection. As part of a special section on Global Poverty and Human Development, Dr. Joan Marie Brunkard discusses a dengue seroprevalence survey in this region and what can be done to help prevent infection and to identify and treat those who are infected.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/24/2008.

  3. CASE STUDIES OF CROSS-BORDER CO-OPERATION IN EUROPEAN TOURISM – PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE CROSS-BORDER REGION BUCOVINA/OBLAST TSCHERNIWZI

    OpenAIRE

    HEIKE BÄHRE

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on success factors and management models in destination management for cross-border co-operation in tourism. The method is based on literature research, case-studies in European cross-border-regions and descriptive.

  4. The US/Mexico Border: A Binational Approach to Framing Challenges and Constructing Solutions for Improving Farmworkers’ Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US-Mexico border region face health hazards and occupational risks and are becoming commonly known in the public health literature. According to several studies, farmworkers have high levels of chronic diseases such as diabetes and respiratory problems, are at risk for infectious diseases, and experience among the highest incidences of work-related injuries of any profession. The findings from two studies are considered and presented with the objective of contributing to an overall understanding of migrant farmworkers as a workforce moving across national boundaries and affected by the work environments and health stressors both shared and unique to each context. We propose a binational approach to comprehensively address the health problems and socioeconomic challenges faced by migrant and seasonal farmworkers. In this paper we present the results of two distinct but complementary studies of farmworker health on the Arizona-Sonora border.

  5. Being thought from beyond our borders: Towards ethical global citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to the challenge of global citizenship in an age of global crisis. Citizenship has to do with where one feels �at home�, namely the space that gifts identity and life. What kind of narrative is necessary to transform global space into a home from where we can go beyond our borders to embrace the other in multidisciplinary research or interfaith praxis? The different models for multidisciplinary research are made possible by the idea that research seeks that which is beyond its borders. This search could be a common space where the different traditions can accommodate one another, but it is not a home. The dominant discourse of this common space is to seek commonality and identities across borders while being aware of but ignoring differences � identity at the expense of differences. A home founded on identity at the expense of difference will always exclude. Theology can either be interpreted as thinking beyond the borders toward the Divine, or the Divine thinking us. The Exodus, the Incarnation and the Cross are all narratives of the Other crossing borders, liberating from boundaries, deconstructing the laws and norms that exclude. The religious traditions of these sacred narratives have something to offer, namely: to be thought by the Other, to receive life and (alien identity from the Other, the gift of a home which is continuously deconstructed by the home still to come, therefore always open for the Other.

  6. The role of the regions in border dynamics in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiderio Fernández Manjón

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role that the regions have played during this past half century, and which they continue to play now, in the changes that are occurring along the borders between European states and in the webs of interests that are woven as a consequence ofthis evolution. The mapping of borderlines associated with people endowed with singularities is a delicate, complex task, as demonstrated by several paradigmatic examples: the creation of new borders (Flanders and the profound modification of historical orders (the canton of Jura. The difficulty may lie in approval processes and in the appropriate conjugation of interests of other peoples and minorities existing within them. There are several Europeaninstitutions which are contributing to deeply modifying the imaginary of international borders. On the one hand, the Council of Europe, which fosters, among other things, cross-border cooperation and inter-regional cooperation. Secondly, the European Union institutions havetaken many ideas from the Council of Europe and made them their own: the Committee of the Regions and cross-border cooperation. In addition, these institutions force the unitary states to establish a territorial division taking into account the income levels of the population.

  7. Diabetes Hospitalization at the U.S.–Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Albertorio-Diaz, MA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe diabetes hospitalization rate for the region along the U.S. side of the U.S.–Mexico border is unknown, a situation that could limit the success of the Healthy Border 2010 program. To remedy this problem, we analyzed and compared hospital discharge data for Arizona, California, and Texas for the year 2000 and calculated the diabetes hospitalization rates.MethodsWe obtained hospital-discharge public-use data files from the health departments of three U.S. border states and looked for cases of diabetes. Only when diabetes was listed as the first diagnosis on the discharge record was it considered a case of diabetes for our study. Patients with cases of diabetes were classified as border county (BC or nonborder county (NBC residents. Comparisons between age-adjusted diabetes discharge rates were made using the z test.ResultsOverall, 1.2% (86,198 of the discharge records had diabetes listed as the primary diagnosis. BC residents had a significantly higher age-adjusted diabetes discharge rate than NBC residents. BC males had higher diabetes discharge rates than BC females or NBC males. In both the BCs and the NBCs, Hispanics had higher age-adjusted diabetes discharge rates than non-Hispanics.ConclusionThe results of this study provide a benchmark against which the effectiveness of the Healthy Border 2010 program can be measured.

  8. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkee; Holbrook, N Michele; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2012-01-01

    Ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance are hypothesized to result from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in the bordered pit membranes separating adjacent xylem vessels. Although the kinetics of the ion-mediated changes in hydraulic resistance are consistent with the swelling/deswelling behavior of pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate structural changes in bordered pit membranes associated with changes in the ionic concentration of the surrounding solution. When submerged in de-ionized water, AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft, and lacking any sharp edges surface, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM) or AFM performed on air-dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties and elevation features. Specifically, bordered pit membranes became harder and the fiber edges were clearly visible. In addition, the membrane contracted and appeared much rougher due to exposed microfibers. In neither solution was there any evidence of discrete pores through the membrane whose dimensions were altered in response to the ionic composition of the surrounding solution. Instead the variable hydraulic resistance appears to involve changes in the both the permeability and the thickness of the pit membrane.

  9. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  10. Public health and terrorism preparedness: cross-border issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the "Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable." The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Representatives from six state and local public health departments and three provincial governments were invited to identify cross-border needs and issues using a nominal group process. The result of the roundtable was identification of the needs considered most important and most doable across all the focus groups. The need to collaborate on and exchange plans and protocols among agencies was identified as most important and most doable across all groups. Development of contact protocols and creation and maintenance of a contact database was also considered important and doable for a majority of groups. Other needs ranked important across the majority of groups included specific isolation and quarantine protocols for multi-state responses; a system for rapid and secure exchange of information; specific protocols for sharing human resources across borders, including emergency credentials for physicians and health care workers; and a specific protocol to coordinate Strategic National Stockpile mechanisms across border communities.

  11. The role of root border cells in plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M C; Gunawardena, U; Miyasaka, S; Zhao, X

    2000-03-01

    The survival of a plant depends upon the capacity of root tips to sense and move towards water and other nutrients in the soil. Perhaps because of the root tip's vital role in plant health, it is ensheathed by large populations of detached somatic cells - root 'border' cells - which have the ability to engineer the chemical and physical properties of the external environment. Of particular significance, is the production by border cells of specific chemicals that can dramatically alter the behavior of populations of soilborne microflora. Molecular approaches are being used to identify and manipulate the expression of plant genes that control the production and the specialized properties of border cells in transgenic plants. Such plants can be used to test the hypothesis that these unusual cells act as a phalanx of biological 'goalies', which neutralize dangers to newly generated root tissue as the root tip makes its way through soil.

  12. State borders in ETRS89 coordinates – reality or fiction ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Poláček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Common unique ETRS89 coordinates of the state boundaries are crucial for cross-border data harmonization for international projects. In the frame of European Location Framework (ELF project Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (ČÚZK cooperates with Poland on egde-matching on the state border. During the preliminary phase of the project was some difficulty identified. If the state boundary is measured and administered in the national coordinate system, the accuracy of the transformation into the ETRS89 is influenced by discrepancies of the local trigonometric network, which results in two slightly different state boundaries. Final solution for Europe – international treaties on the state borders based on the ETRS89 coordinates – is necessary, but it will take years.

  13. Border Collision Bifurcations in Two Dimensional Piecewise Smooth Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Soumitro; Grebogi, Celso

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations on the bifurcations in switching circuits have shown that many atypical bifurcations can occur in piecewise smooth maps which can not be classified among the generic cases like saddle-node, pitchfork or Hopf bifurcations occurring in smooth maps. In this paper we first present experimental results to establish the theoretical problem: the development of a theory and classification of the new type of bifurcations resulting from border collision. We then present a systematic analysis of such bifurcations by deriving a normal form --- the piecewise linear approximation in the neighborhood of the border. We show that there can be eleven qualitatively different types of border collision bifurcations depending on the parameters of the normal form, and these are classified under six cases. We present a partitioning of the parameter space of the normal form showing the regions where different types of bifurcations occur. This theoretical framework will help in explaining bifurcations in all syst...

  14. Cross-border regional innovation system integration: An analytical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system....... However, little attention has been given to the empirical analysis of the concept. This paper suggests a framework for empirically validating the concept by examining the levels of integration between cross-border regions. The outcome is a proposed framework can be operationalized by measurable indicators...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  15. Block-bordered diagonalization and parallel iterative solvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, F.; Dag, H.; Bruggencate, M. ten [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    One of the most common techniques for enhancing parallelism in direct sparse matrix methods is the reorganization of a matrix into a blocked-bordered structure. Incomplete LDU factorization is a very good preconditioner for PCG in serial environments. However, the inherent sequential nature of the preconditioning step makes it less desirable in parallel environments. This paper explores the use of BBD (Blocked Bordered Diagonalization) in connection with ILU preconditioners. The paper shows that BBD-based ILU preconditioners are quite amenable to parallel processing. Neglecting entries from the entire border can result in a blocked diagonal matrix. The result is a great increase in parallelism at the expense of additional iterations. Experiments on the Sequent Symmetry shared memory machine using (mostly) power system that matrices indicate that the method is generally better than conventional ILU preconditioners and in many cases even better than partitioned inverse preconditioners, without the initial setup disadvantages of partitioned inverse preconditioners.

  16. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    information (phenotypical descriptions) or extended profiles, including descriptions of the donors hobbies, looks and likes. I find fertility travellers crossing the Danish border particularly interesting, because many of them travel in order to bypass a national legislation. In this presentation, I...... will analyze how women and their partners crossing the Danish border accounts for their donor choice, and their practices of choosing. I will be exploring the question: How are women and their partners accounting for choosing a sperm donor, crossing the (ethical) border to Denmark? The use of the term...... accountability is central, because it implies both a theoretical and methodological inspirations from Donna Haraway and Karen Barad. The idea is to use accountability as a theoretical and methodological concept that enables the development of an ethics of practices. The presentation is based on a multi...

  17. Forecasting the electricity consumption of the Mexican border states maquiladoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.E.; Phelan, P.E. [Arizona State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tempe, AZ (United States); Mou, J.-I. [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Operation Planning Div., Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Bryan, H. [Arizona State Univ., School of Architecture, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The consumption of electricity by maquiladora industries in the Mexican border states is an important driver for determining future powerplant needs in that area. An industrial electricity forecasting model is developed for the border states' maquiladoras, and the outputs are compared with a reference forecasting model developed for the US industrial sector, for which considerably more data are available. This model enables the prediction of the effect of implementing various energy efficiency measures in the industrial sector. As an illustration, here the impact of implementing energy-efficient lighting and motors in the Mexican border states' maquiladoras was determined to be substantial. Without such energy efficiency measures, electricity consumption for these industries is predicted to rise by 64% from 2001 to 2010, but if these measures are implemented on a gradual basis over the same time period, electricity consumption is forecast to rise by only 36%. (Author)

  18. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary...... for coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö...... and Hamburg is taken as a case for discussion. Cross-border governance is analyzed within a multi-level policy network approach including actors from supranational, national and subnational levels, in order to determine the existence of a policy network across the borders. The main finding is a depiction...

  19. Establishment of crown-root domain borders in mouse incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuri, Emma; Saito, Kan; Lefebvre, Sylvie; Michon, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    Teeth are composed of two domains, the enamel-covered crown and the enamel-free root. The understanding of the initiation and regulation of crown and root domain formation is important for the development of bioengineered teeth. In most teeth the crown develops before the root, and erupts to the oral cavity whereas the root anchors the tooth to the jawbone. However, in the continuously growing mouse incisor the crown and root domains form simultaneously, the crown domain forming the labial and the root domain the lingual part of the tooth. While the crown-root border on the incisor distal side supports the distal enamel extent, reflecting an evolutionary diet adaptation, on the incisor mesial side the root-like surface is necessary for the attachment of the interdental ligament between the two incisors. Therefore, the mouse incisor exhibits a functional distal-mesial asymmetry. Here, we used the mouse incisor as a model to understand the mechanisms involved in the crown-root border formation. We analyzed the cellular origins and gene expression patterns leading to the development of the mesial and distal crown-root borders. We discovered that Barx2, En1, Wnt11, and Runx3 were exclusively expressed on the mesial crown-root border. In addition, the distal border of the crown-root domain might be established by cells from a different origin and by an early Follistatin expression, factor known to be involved in the root domain formation. The use of different mechanisms to establish domain borders gives indications of the incisor functional asymmetry.

  20. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  1. Reflection of bending Waves from Border of the Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belubekyan M.V.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To problems of the reflection of the bending waves from flat border of the ambience dedicated to the multiple studies. Relatively little works are connected with questions of the reflection curved waves from flat edge of the thin plate. In this work happen to the decisions of the problem of the plate under different border condition. For partial case of the free edge, as limiting case of the absence of the reflected wave, is got decision of the problem localized curved variations.

  2. Borderlands Theory: Producing Border Epistemologies with Gloria Anzaldua

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco-Mendoza, Elva Fabiola

    2008-01-01

    This study is dedicated to examine the concept of borders, geographical and otherwise, as instruments that are socially produced. It utilizes Gloria Anzalduaâ s theoretical framework of Borderlands theory as a set of processes that seek to attain the de-colonization of the inner self. The historical and spatial dynamics of the geographical border between Mexico and United States, largely shaped by the U.S. expansionist agenda, resulted in the Mexican lost of more than half of its territory a...

  3. Militarization of the border and illegal immigration: Tamaulipas laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tamaulipas presents a long tradition of rural migration to the United States in search of farm employment. Until the eighties Tamaulipas’ undocumented workers crossed the border easily. However, from the nineties, as a result of a restrictive migration policy centered exclusively on the “supply–side” to cross the border has become intricate. As a result, most part of immigrants is using the services of “smuggles”. This paper analyses the impact of the militarization of the frontier on the emigration of Tamaulipas’ illegal rural workers seeking for farm jobs in the United States.

  4. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    accountability is central, because it implies both a theoretical and methodological inspirations from Donna Haraway and Karen Barad. The idea is to use accountability as a theoretical and methodological concept that enables the development of an ethics of practices. The presentation is based on a multi...... will analyze how women and their partners crossing the Danish border accounts for their donor choice, and their practices of choosing. I will be exploring the question: How are women and their partners accounting for choosing a sperm donor, crossing the (ethical) border to Denmark? The use of the term...

  5. Brujeria and the U.S.-Mexico Border Outlaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Conover

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the death metal band Brujeria, their use of both traditional and contemporary outlaw imagery, and their connection to the narcocorrido, in order to examine the tenacity of the outlaw paradigm as an expression of resistance by subordinate groups in situations of social inequality. It deals with the contemporary figure of the outlaw in connection to the U.S.-Mexico border region, as influenced by outlaw traditions in the area, and as an expression of specific contemporary historical circumstances of that region, including Mexican economic crisis, globalization, and border conflicts surrounding immigration, drug trafficking, and labor.

  6. Analysis of the Advantages of Creating Border Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Rosca-Sadurschi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a changing environment and rapid globalization, competitiveness of a country or region depends increasingly more effective in innovation. The main challenge for research and innovation is to facilitate the networking of companies and research laboratories. These networks can take the form of a highly integrated cross-border economic group, but may consist of action to facilitate business linkages and inter-laboratory, or cross-border clusters. The creation of these clusters requires performing several conditions but bring significant benefits to all stakeholders.

  7. Information Analysis Methodology for Border Security Deployment Prioritization and Post Deployment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Paul M.; Maple, Scott A.

    2010-06-08

    Due to international commerce, cross-border conflicts, and corruption, a holistic, information driven, approach to border security is required to best understand how resources should be applied to affect sustainable improvements in border security. The ability to transport goods and people by land, sea, and air across international borders with relative ease for legitimate commercial purposes creates a challenging environment to detect illicit smuggling activities that destabilize national level border security. Smuggling activities operated for profit or smuggling operations driven by cross border conflicts where militant or terrorist organizations facilitate the transport of materials and or extremists to advance a cause add complexity to smuggling interdiction efforts. Border security efforts are further hampered when corruption thwarts interdiction efforts or reduces the effectiveness of technology deployed to enhance border security. These issues necessitate the implementation of a holistic approach to border security that leverages all available data. Large amounts of information found in hundreds of thousands of documents can be compiled to assess national or regional borders to identify variables that influence border security. Location data associated with border topics of interest may be extracted and plotted to better characterize the current border security environment for a given country or region. This baseline assessment enables further analysis, but also documents the initial state of border security that can be used to evaluate progress after border security improvements are made. Then, border security threats are prioritized via a systems analysis approach. Mitigation factors to address risks can be developed and evaluated against inhibiting factor such as corruption. This holistic approach to border security helps address the dynamic smuggling interdiction environment where illicit activities divert to a new location that provides less resistance

  8. Tuberculosis-diabetes epidemiology in the border and non-border regions of Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Bassent E; Garcia-Viveros, Moncerrato; Ramirez-Oropesa, Horacio; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2016-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a re-emerging risk factor for TB development and adverse TB outcomes. As a follow-up of our previous study in 1998-2004, we reassessed prevalence of DM and its associated factors among 8431 TB patients using surveillance data from 2006 to 2013 for the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, across the border with Texas. Prevalence of DM was 25.2%, with an increase of at least 2.8% over the study period. Newly discovered factors associated with TB-DM (versus no DM) were lower education and higher unemployment (p < 0.001), which are reportedly associated with poorer DM management. At least 15% of the DM patients were newly-diagnosed and younger than those previously diagnosed, showing the importance of early DM diagnosis at TB clinics. TB-DM patients were more likely to have smear-positive, pulmonary (versus extra-pulmonary) and drug-resistant TB (1.9-, 3.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively). During treatment, TB-DM patients were more likely to be smear-positive, and less likely to die or abandon TB treatment. Thus, the increasing prevalence of DM among TB, and its association with low education, features of a more contagious TB, and drug resistance, highlight the need for design of TB management programs in DM patients, blood testing of all new TB patients for DM, and if positive for DM, testing for drug resistance.

  9. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    Full Text Available Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control.We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO.A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries.Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies. The under-fives and the school going children were the most

  10. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesawina, Maurice; Baluku, Yosia; Kanyanda, Setiala S. E.; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control. Materials and Methods We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO. Results A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries. Conclusions Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies). The under-fives and the

  11. The principle of territoriality and cross-border loss compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marres, O.

    2011-01-01

    Member States are free to define their income tax base. They may in principle disregard foreign-sourced income, resulting in the impossibility of cross-border loss compensation. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has accepted the principle of territoriality as a criterion for the division of the au

  12. Border Kids in the Home of the Brave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman-Orozco, Susan

    2015-01-01

    As a new wave of unaccompanied minors flowed across the border between Mexico and the United States in 2014, educators began to scramble to educate students who came to them with little or no English, having survived traumatic and arduous immigration journeys, and often with significantly limited formal schooling. Many of these children were…

  13. Newcomer Immigrant Students Reinventing Academic Lives across National Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Relocation across national borders poses unique challenges and possibilities to newcomer immigrant students who enter diverse urban high schools. Based on focus group data with 27 newcomer students, in this article the author attends to the ways in which these students begin to counteract the challenges that relocation poses for them by…

  14. Social and Symbolic Capital in Border Region Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to a specific industry sector. The actors have relationships characterised by interdependencies of different strength and quality that define the boundaries. Empirically this contribution is sticking to a firm cluster in the Danish - German border region in Southern Jutland/Danmark. We found global players...

  15. Languages without Borders: TESOL in a Transient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, Shondel

    2012-01-01

    In today's transient world, where a continual multidirectional flow of people, goods, and services has deterritorialized languages and their users, languages, especially English, are now without borders. In this context, English language teaching (ELT) as a profession is called to a new task. In this article, I examine this task by asking the…

  16. What lures cross-border venture capital inflows?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schertler, Andrea; Tykvova, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    We investigate if economic factors drive gross and net cross-border venture capital inflows differently. Using a dataset of venture capital investments in European and North American countries from 2000 to 2008, we find that higher expected economic growth goes hand in hand with higher gross as well

  17. Multinationals, Cross-border Acquisitions and Wage Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyman, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic...

  18. Cross-border banking in Europe and financial stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose country-specific and systemic metrics that can be used to judge whether cross-border banking in a country (or region) takes a desirable form. Applying these metrics to the EU countries, we find that the countries with the largest banking centres, the UK and Germany, are wel

  19. Inconsistency in precipitation measurements across Alaska and Yukon border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Scaff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies the inconsistency in gauge precipitation observations across the border of Alaska and Yukon. It analyses the precipitation measurements by the national standard gauges (NWS 8-in gauge and Nipher gauge, and the bias-corrected data to account for wind effect on the gauge catch, wetting loss and trace events. The bias corrections show a significant amount of errors in the gauge records due to the windy and cold environment in the northern areas of Alaska and Yukon. Monthly corrections increase solid precipitation by 135 % in January, 20 % for July at the Barter Island in Alaska, and about 31 % for January and 4 % for July at the Yukon stations. Regression analyses of the monthly precipitation data show a stronger correlation for the warm months (mainly rainfall than for cold month (mainly snowfall between the station pairs, and small changes in the precipitation relationship due to the bias corrections. Double mass curves also indicate changes in the cumulative precipitation over the study periods. This change leads to a smaller and inverted precipitation gradient across the border, representing a significant modification in the precipitation pattern over the northern region. Overall, this study discovers significant inconsistency in the precipitation measurements across the US and Canada border. This discontinuity is greater for snowfall than for rainfall, as gauge snowfall observations have large errors in the windy and cold conditions. This result will certainly impact regional, particularly cross borders, climate and hydrology investigations.

  20. Gazons duurder dan borders met rozen of vaste planten?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.E.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In de eerste uitgave van Vitale Stad stond een artikel over gazons die duurder zouden zijn dan borders met vaste planten of sierheesters. Volgens dit artikel zouden vaste planten dus goedkoper zijn dan gazons. Als wij die vraag stellen aan de gemiddelde groenbeheerder, krijgt je een compleet ander a

  1. How Neighbours Communicate: The Role of Language in Border Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonni Olsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the linguistic situation in the border region where Norway meets Russia in the north. The aim of the study was to investigate language use when contact is revitalised after a long period with closed borders. The Norwegian and Russian languages are very different in vocabulary and structure, which makes communication difficult. How are the two languages affected by extended contact and migration across the border? The study was carried out by the author and Marit Bjerkeng through interviews, a questionnaire and observation of the linguistic situations in two Norwegian communities. The results show an ongoing development where the neighbouring language is increasingly noticeable, and there is a clear link between attitudes, identity and language use. The role of public policy seems to play an important role for the developing linguistic situation, as the Barents region as a political concept introduced in the 1990s has led to cross-border contact within various fields and also inspired local language policy, contributing to cultural pride an

  2. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers and acquisitions in Europe. Thus, under the continuous economic recovery of the European countries and the other worldwide economies, the recovery of financial markets and the growth of corporate profits, we shall witness an intensive cross-border merger and acquisition activity in Europe. The expansion engine of these operations seems to be represented by the emerging economies. This research is based on a systematic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature and statistical data regarding the cross-border mergers and acquisitions that involve European companies in recent years. This paper is part of the doctoral thesis Mergers and acquisitions- strategies of growth and development of enterprises. European and national particularities, coordinated by professor Ph.D. Alina Bădulescu from University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics. The doctoral research is supported by The Sectorial Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, Contract POSDRU 59/1.5/S/1- Romanian researchers through modern and efficient doctoral programs.

  3. The National Guard on the Southwest Border: Defining The Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    rape, and child molestation. CPB also seized over 870,000 pounds of illegal drugs, $147 million in currency, more than 29,000 fraudulent documents...the number increased to more than 11,600 drug related homicides and an estimated 34,500 total deaths since 2006, making the Mexican border one of the

  4. Modelling cross-border regional network for innovative development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tumbas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides detailed presentations of entities and functions of the Cross-border Regional network for innovative development, the manner and methods of its functioning, and its significance for enhancing university-industry cooperation in innovative development. Special attention was devoted to proper implementation of the Triple Helix concept in the development of an innovative network.

  5. Acateco de la Frontera Sur (Acateco of the Southern Border).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Roberto Zavala

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Acatec, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken along Mexico's southern border. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the linguistic…

  6. The German-Romance Language Borders in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Felicity

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on language contact phenomena at the borders of Switzerland's four language communities (German, French, Italian, and Romansch), the legal status of the four Swiss national languages, and the language policies of individual bilingual and trilingual cantons. Describes the historical movements of the language boundaries, with particular…

  7. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  8. Blending Borders of Language and Culture: Schooling in La Villita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Irma M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the efforts of a school in a Mexican community in Chicago to help children and parents capitalize on the language and culture of their 2 worlds. It builds on the concepts of border crossings and hybridity, metaphors used to describe the sociocultural and linguistic reality of people living transnationally. Some US communities…

  9. Recruiting Languages and Lifeworlds for Border-Crossing Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Allison; Bomer, Randy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we show how two transnational youth, with the instructional support of their teacher, recruited their languages and lifeworlds, particularly their border-crossing experiences, as tools for engaging with school-based literacy practices. We analyze literary texts that the students composed, showing how the students' uses of…

  10. Borders in Nigeria’s Relations with Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolara Akinyemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Border incidences are sources of irritants in the relationships between Nigeria and Cameroun. Examples are not far-fetched from Bakassi Peninsula imbroglio leading to hostile relationship between the two countries, and subsequent ruling of Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroun by the International Court of Justice in 2002. Indeed, this also led to the revival of the Joint Cameroun-Nigeria Border Commission entrusted with the task of demarcation of the Land and Maritime boundaries between the two countries, as mandated by the 2002 judgment. However, the demarcation exercise has caused confusion and anxiety with the inhabitants of the Cross River State, Nigeria, resulting in the inability of the team to locate pillar 133A, thereby erecting a new pillar. This exercise is lacking in proper consideration of the effects on the people in the demarcation of the land boundary. Thus, the paper finds out that the demarcationof the Land boundary which the International Court of Justice perceived as the antidote to the border skirmishes between Nigeria and Cameroun is likely to generate to another border conflicts between the two countries. This is so because, the erecting of new pillars will lead to another claim of some parts of Nigeria to Cameroun. Hence, the demarcation of Land boundary if not properly checked may be an outcome of future skirmishes and chaos.

  11. Cross-border Insurance in Europe : Challenges for Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); J. Sass (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAt the start of Solvency II in January 2016, there is no overview of the insurance market in Europe. This paper develops a methodology to link various data sets on foreign branches and subsidiaries. The result is a new and comprehensive data set of cross-border insurance in Europe. W

  12. Shifting Institutional Boundaries through Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alberto; Tavares, Orlanda; Cardoso, Sónia; Sin, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border higher education (CBHE) has been changing the organizational boundaries of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African…

  13. Border Crossing in the Classroom through Performed Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tara

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I share the ways I have used performed ethnography to explore the notion of border crossing in an undergraduate course called "Equity and Activism in Education." Performed ethnography involves turning the findings of ethnographic research into a play script. My students read two performed ethnographies, "Harriet's…

  14. Global Liquidity and Drivers of Cross-Border Bank Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerutti, E.; Claessens, S.; Ratnovski, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a definition of global liquidity consistent with its meaning as the "ease of financing" in international financial markets. Using a longer time series and broader sample of countries than in previous studies, it identifies global factors driving cross-border bank flows, alongside

  15. Cross-Border Takeovers, Corruption, and Related Aspects of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Berns, S.

    2006-01-01

    We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance related factors such as political stabilit

  16. Why socio-political borders and boundaries matter in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallimer, Martin; Strange, Niels

    2015-01-01

    to address the adverse effects of socio-political borders on conservation: (i) scale-matching, (ii) quantification of the mutual economic benefits of conservation across boundaries, (iii) determining transboundary societal values, and (iv) acknowledging the importance of stakeholder behaviour and incentives....

  17. Cross-Border Electricity Cooperation in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Anoop; Jamasb, Tooraj; Nepal, Rabindra; Toman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    South Asian countries, facing challenges in efficiently meeting growing electricity demand, can benefit from increased cross-border electricity cooperation and trade by harnessing complementarities in electricity demand patterns, diversity in resource endowments for power generation, and gains from larger market access. The region has witnessed slow progress in expanding regional electrici...

  18. Rethinking borders in a mobile world: An alternative model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    national borders. The second section elaborates the fundamentals of an alternative model that is not reliant, as is classical spatial analysis, on points, lines and surfaces to represent movement. The article then presents three types of limits: the confines, the threshold and the horizon, which result...

  19. Optimal Deployment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    and intercept intruders that are trying to trespass a border. These intruders can include terrorists, drug traffickers, smugglers, illegal immigrants ...intruders can include terrorists, drug traffickers, smugglers, illegal immigrants , and others who represent a threat to national interests. Unmanned...traffickers, smugglers, illegal immigrants , and others who represent a threat to national interests. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) allow a modernization

  20. Cross- border interfirm knowledge generation and enterprise development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is grounded in the theoretical understanding that knowledge provides the foundation for innovation within fi rms and industries and propels economic growth. Furthermore, the amount and value of the learning that takes place within and between fi rms locally and in cross- border colla...

  1. Crossing and Passing: Discursive Borders in Off Shoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Elmoudden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As a term in popular discourse, globalisation marks a celebrated openness of global spaces. Critics of globalisation argue that a global economy creates borders that are more discursive than territorial. A current challenge to globalisation scholars is reaching an understanding of how the many configurations of context, space, time and place created by globalisation result in new ways of organizing space and identity. Based on rich ethnographic data from an off shore call centre in Morocco and informed by interdisciplinary research on space, this paper bridges the links between territorial and discursive borders in the global social network of off shoring. Metaphorical spaces come about when dynamic configurations of contexts at territorial borders relate or are made to relate. Call centre agents use metaphorical spaces to fix the meaning of space. In this article, I identify two different metaphorical spaces: crossing and passing that help agents organize and negotiate their spaces and subsequently their identities and power relations. I suggest that agents negotiate place through space. This crossing takes place as they imbricate the Moroccan context of “L’hrig” within the continuum of the call centre. I also suggest that agents negotiate space through place. This passing occurs via the imbrication of metaphorical space of polyvalence. Crossing and passing inscribe not only a literal meaning of “movement” and “disembodiment”, but also the nuanced meaning of “movement and staying” and “disembodiment and re-embodiment” in a place where conjunctions of space, time, place and context collide. The creation of metaphorical spaces of crossing and passing suggests modification of our understanding of diaspora: attaining the diasporic space can no longer depend on physical borders alone; it must also rely on discursive borders.

  2. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  3. Investigation ofBorrelia spp. in ticks (Acari:Ixodidae) at the border crossings between China and Russia in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Liu; Chao Yuan; Yun-Fu Cui; Bai-Xiang Li; Li-Jie Wu; Ying Liu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the precise species of tick vector and theBorrelia spirochete pathogen at the Heilongjiang Province international border with Russia.Methods:In this study, ticks were collected from12 Heilongjiang border crossings (including grasslands, shrublands, forests, and plantantions) to determine the rate and species type of spirochete-infected ticks and the most prevalent spirochete genotypes.Results:The ticks represented three genera and four species of the Ixodidae family [Ixodes persulcatus,Dermacentor silvarum,Haemaphysalis concinna and Haemaphysalis japonica].Ixodes persulcatus had the highest amount ofBorrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection of25.6% and the most common species ofBorreliaisolated from Ixodes persulcatus wasBorrelia garinii, strainPD91.Conclusions: Our results suggest thatBorrelia gariniiPD91-infectedIxodes persulcatus may be the principal cause of Lyme disease in the border crossing areas of Heilongjiang Province.

  4. The Impact of Land Border Security on Terrorism Financing: Turkey’s Southeast Land Border and the PKK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Theory & Praxis 31, no. 3 (2009): 340–359, 354. 106 Dashtseren, Border Protection and National Security of Mongolia, 91, 8–9. 35 B. TURKEY’S...Insecurity.” Administrative Theory & Praxis 31, no. 3 (2009): 340–359. Hobsbawm, Eric J. Globalisation, Democracy and Terrorism. London: Little

  5. The utopia of cross-border regions : territorial transformation and cross-border governance on Espace Mont-Blanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lissandrello, Enza

    2006-01-01

    The theories on globalisation, internationalisation, post-nationalism or trans-nationalism dismiss the concept of 'territoriality' within the paradigm of the beyond the 'nation-state' sovereignty. In this work, a diverse idea is sustained: borders and territoriality are not just lost terms within th

  6. Literacies Crossing Borders: Transfronterizo Literacy Practices of Students in a Dual Language Program on the USA-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa; Araujo, Blanca E.

    2012-01-01

    Research on transnational literacies has generally focused on youth who live in one country and communicate using digital literacies across national boundaries. Our work contributes to this literature by providing a view of transnational literacies that are unique to the USA-Mexico border region. The students in this ethnographic study navigate…

  7. Living in a High Mountain Border Region: the Case of the 'Bhotiyas' of the Indo-Chinese Border Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Bergmann; Martin Gerwin; Marcus Nüsse; William S. Sax

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces one of South Asia's most important border regions into academic discourse, namely, the Central Himalayan mountain rim separating India and the Tibetan Autonomous Region (People's Republic of China). What makes this border region so interesting is a tangled interplay of changing environmental, cultural, and political forms to which the local populations constantly have to adapt in order to make a living there. We focused on the so-called 'Bhotiyas' of Uttarakhand, former trans-Himalayan traders whose ethnicity and livelihood was traditionally associated with the Indo-Chinese border that was sealed as a result of the India-China war in 1962. Drawing on the work of borderland scholarship, we identified the key processes and developments that changed the perspective of this area. Competing political aspirations as well as the 'Bhotiyas' countervailing strategies were considered equally important for understanding local livelihoods and identities within the dynamics of a 'high mountain border region'. Through an exemplary analysis of historical differences of power in one 'Bhotiya' valley, we further explored the ways in which shifting socio-spatial constellations are creatively re-interpreted by the borderlanders.

  8. John Snow's legacy: epidemiology without borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Paul; Victora, Cesar G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan; Curtis, Val; Heymann, David L; Slutkin, Gary; May, Robert M; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Ian; Wortley, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Deaton, Angus

    2013-04-13

    This Review provides abstracts from a meeting held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, on April 11-12, 2013, to celebrate the legacy of John Snow. They describe conventional and unconventional applications of epidemiological methods to problems ranging from diarrhoeal disease, mental health, cancer, and accident care, to education, poverty, financial networks, crime, and violence. Common themes appear throughout, including recognition of the importance of Snow's example, the philosophical and practical implications of assessment of causality, and an emphasis on the evaluation of preventive, ameliorative, and curative interventions, in a wide variety of medical and societal examples. Almost all self-described epidemiologists nowadays work within the health arena, and this is the focus of most of the societies, journals, and courses that carry the name epidemiology. The range of applications evident in these contributions might encourage some of these institutions to consider broadening their remits. In so doing, they may contribute more directly to, and learn from, non-health-related areas that use the language and methods of epidemiology to address many important problems now facing the world.

  9. Effects of Vegetated Field Borders on Arthropods in Cotton Fields in Eastern North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Bradley, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurr...

  10. Migrant and Refugee Patient Perspectives on Travel and Tuberculosis along the Thailand-Myanmar Border: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Tabitha; Nosten, Francois; Foster, Angel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Thailand-Myanmar border separates two very different health systems. The healthcare system in eastern Myanmar remains underdeveloped as a result of decades of instability. Comparatively, Tak province, Thailand has more healthcare resources. In this Thai border province government hospitals and non-governmental organizations provide tuberculosis (TB) treatment to migrants and refugees. Objectives Our overall study aimed to explore accessibility of TB treatment, TB surveillance and health system responsiveness specific to migrant and refugee populations in Tak province. In this paper, we focus on the perspectives of migrant and refugee TB patients with respect to travel and treatment in Tak province. Methods In 2014 we conducted focus group discussions with 61 TB, Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus co-infection, and multidrug-resistant TB patients in Tak province. We analyzed the data for content and themes and documented individual travel trajectories. Results and Discussion Migrants are travelling with active TB within the country and between Thailand and Myanmar. Migrants primarily travelled to obtain treatment but two participants reported travelling home to seek family care in Myanmar before returning to Thailand for treatment. Travel, while expensive and arduous, is an adaptive strategy that migrants use to access healthcare. Conclusions Migrant’s need for travel points to larger difficulties associated with healthcare access in the border region. Long distance travel with an infectious disease can be seen as an indicator that local healthcare is not available or affordable. These findings suggest that public health officials from both sides of the border should discuss the factors that contribute to travel with active TB and explore potential solutions to mitigate disease transmission in migrant populations. PMID:27509036

  11. 47 CFR 73.504 - Channel assignments in the Mexican border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel assignments in the Mexican border area... assignments in the Mexican border area. (a) NCE-FM stations within 199 miles (320 km) of the United States-Mexican border shall comply with the separation requirements and other provisions of the...

  12. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region and has been revised to consist...

  13. 75 FR 61508 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I- ] 68). This request for comment is being made... Form I-68. Abstract: The Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) allows...

  14. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is being... Form I-68. Abstract: The Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) allows...

  15. Changing Destinations: Ideal Attraction and Actual Movement of Cross-Border Tertiary Students from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has driven growth in the market for cross-border students. Mainland China, with a burgeoning economy and the largest national population, has become an important source of cross-border students. This study identifies ideal attraction in mainland China to destinations for cross-border tertiary education, as expressed by ideal first…

  16. Deploying drones in policing European borders: constraints and challenges for data protection and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, L.; Krajcíková, K.; Zavrsnik, A.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the challenges underlying the policy choice of deploying dronetechnology in the area of border surveillance, with specific reference to the surveillance of European Union (EU) Member States’ external southern borders. Border surveillance is one of the top priorities of the Membe

  17. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. In... service which began before and extended into the Mexican border period or ended during World War I,...

  18. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PHLEBOTOMINAE IN PUERTO IGUAZU-MISIONES, ARGENTINA-BRAZIL-PARAGUAY BORDER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Soledad Santini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The first Argentinian autochthonous human case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was confirmed in Posadas (Misiones in 2006. Since then, the disease has increased its incidence and geographical distribution. In the 2006-2012 period, 107 human cases were detected (11 deaths. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was detected in peridomiciles in Puerto Iguazú urban area in 2010; some of these findings were associated with households where cases of canine VL had already been reported. The objective of this study was to ascertain the abundance and spatial distribution of Lu. longipalpis in Puerto Iguazú City, on the Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay border. Lu. longipalpis proved to be exclusively urban and was found in 31% of the households sampled (n = 53, 67% of which belonged to areas of low abundance, 20% to areas of moderate abundance and 13% to areas of high abundance. Nyssomyia whitmani was the only species found both in urban and peri-urban environments, and Migonemyia migonei was registered only on the outskirts of the city. Due to the fact that Puerto Iguazú is considered to be at moderate risk at the moment, it is necessary to intensify human and canine case controls, as well as take integrated prevention and control measures regarding the environment, vectors and reservoirs on the Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay border area.

  19. Effects of vegetated field borders on arthropods in cotton fields in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E; Bradley, J R

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurred. Early season thrips populations appeared to be unaffected by the presence of a border. Pitfall sampling disclosed no differences in ground-dwelling predaceous arthropods but did detect increased populations of crickets around fields with borders. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations were too low during the study to adequately assess border effects. Heliothines, Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), egg numbers and damage rates were largely unaffected by the presence or absence of a border, although in one instance egg numbers were significantly lower in fields with borders. Overall, foliage-dwelling predaceous arthropods were somewhat more abundant in fields with borders than in fields without borders. Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) were significantly more abundant in fields with borders, but stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare (Say), and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) numbers appeared to be largely unaffected by border treatment. Few taxa clearly exhibited distributional edge effects relative to the presence or absence of border vegetation. Field borders like those examined in this study likely will have little impact on insect pest management in cotton under current insect management regimens.

  20. Detecting a trend change in cross-border epidemic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2016-09-01

    A method for a system of Langevin equations is developed for detecting a trend change in cross-border epidemic transmission. The equations represent a standard epidemiological SIR compartment model and a meta-population network model. The method analyzes a time series of the number of new cases reported in multiple geographical regions. The method is applicable to investigating the efficacy of the implemented public health intervention in managing infectious travelers across borders. It is found that the change point of the probability of travel movements was one week after the WHO worldwide alert on the SARS outbreak in 2003. The alert was effective in managing infectious travelers. On the other hand, it is found that the probability of travel movements did not change at all for the flu pandemic in 2009. The pandemic did not affect potential travelers despite the WHO alert.

  1. Border collisions inside the stability domain of a fixed point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrutin, Viktor; Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies on a power electronic DC/AC converter (inverter) have demonstrated that such systems may undergo a transition from regular dynamics (associated with a globally attracting fixed point of a suitable stroboscopic map) to chaos through an irregular sequence of border-collision events. Chaotic dynamics of an inverter is not suitable for practical purposes. However, the parameter domain in which the stroboscopic map has a globally attracting fixed point has generally been considered to be uniform and suitable for practical use. In the present paper we show that this domain actually has a complicated interior structure formed by boundaries defined by persistence border collisions. We describe a simple approach that is based on symbolic dynamics and makes it possible to detect such boundaries numerically. Using this approach we describe several regions in the parameter space leading to qualitatively different output signals of the inverter although all associated with globally attracting fixed points of the corresponding stroboscopic map.

  2. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology and Economics, Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland). Istituto di microeconomia e economia Pubblica; Hunt, L.C. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom). Department of Economics, Surrey Energy Economics Centre

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO{sub 2}-tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  3. Border Collision Route to Quasiperiodicity: Numerical Investigation and Experimental Confirmation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Mosekilde, Erik; Maity, S.;

    2006-01-01

    Numerical studies of higher-dimensional piecewise-smooth systems have recently shown how a torus can arise from a periodic cycle through a special type of border-collision bifurcation. The present article investigates this new route to quasiperiodicity in the two-dimensional piecewise-linear normal...... form map. We have obtained the chart of the dynamical modes for this map and showed that border-collision bifurcations can lead to the birth of a stable closed invariant curve associated with quasiperiodic or periodic dynamics. In the parameter regions leading to the existence of an invariant closed...... periodicity, e.g., a period-5 focus. This article also contains a discussion of torus destruction via a homoclinic bifurcation in the piecewise-linear normal map. Using a dc–dc converter with two-level control as an example, we report the first experimental verification of the direct transition...

  4. CITY | NATURE BORDER ON TEST - [URBANISM STUDIO 2015}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for city-nature border conditions on Amager, Copenhagen. From November 2014 to February 2015, 33 students from eight countries with an equal number of foreign and Danish students explored possible solutions for new city-nature border conditions of Amager and Nature Park Amager seeking to unfold the future......What if a plant and hydrological test center becomes a dynamic transition zone between Nature Park Amager and the city, testing the reaction of plants to shifting water levels as well as being a public and social reclamation learning center? How can military traces be the foundation for new site......- specific larger urban notes of city and park? And what if the shopping centre Fields is being opened up, and a new public main square across the highway becomes the new centre of Ørestad interlinking Amager north to south, east to west? This catalogue presents strategic development and design proposals...

  5. Democracy on the Border. Freedom of Movement and Popular Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Greblo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea that the sovereignty of the nation-state has collapsed under the weight of globalization "and it is now an empty shell" has long been a conviction rooted in political and social sciences, which speak openly of an era of post-sovereignty. However, the sovereignty of the State finds an ultimate and indispensable bulwark in the defense and in the border control. But as things stand when sovereignty is «popular»? What principles the democratic state of law can appeal to practice an immigration policy which unilaterally terminate the company to strangers? The thesis proposed in the article argues that the democratic theory does not consider, in this regard, any discretionary. If «the people is an aspiration, not a fact», as Benhabib argues, the regime of border control, to be democratically legitimate, should take into account both the perspective of insiders, and that of the outsiders.

  6. Identities and conflicts in territories of rural-urban border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Gonzalez Maraschio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes socio-economical transformation processes, occurred in the last two decades booth in rural and urban dimensions, and his further consequences. It also tries to explain why such transformations, thereby, posits the need of rethinking rural as a concept considering the new mea­nings and values that country side has in the actual moment. Also, it presents briefly three different cases of rural border placed in the frontier with metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (Argentinean Re­public, where government and citizen action’s allow reducing conflicts and feed backing activities in order to achieve local development. Finally, it sets what the author considered the main factors in the specific recognition of border line between rural and urban spaces, which they consider should be the backbone (or the grassroot for public policy in order to attend sustainable and inclusive territorial dynamics at the frontiers. 

  7. Justice for All? Issues Faced by Linguistic Minorities and Border Patrol Agents during Interpreted Arraignment Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Tijuana (Mexico) - San Ysidro (San Diego County, CA) international border is the world’s busiest port of entry. The US Customs and Border Protection Agency hires over 60,000 employees, 21,000 of whom are agents in the US Border Patrol. Several steps must be taken to become a border patrol agent, but being bilingual is not a pre-requisite. In order to communicate with detainees, and interrogate them, the US Border Patrol Agency hires the services of Telephone Interpreting Companies. In thi...

  8. Terrorists, Geopolitics and Kenya’s Proposed Border Wall with Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon John Cannon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Addressing border security appears to be a plausible approach for states that suffer from terrorism. Kenya’s border wall is to keep terrorists out of Kenya. Utilizing a comparative approach, this paper explores the efficacy of border walls, particularly Kenya’s wall with Somalia. Findings show that walls rarely accomplish stated goals and have unintended consequences. In Kenya’s case, it may reignite border disputes and separate communities. The success of Kenya’s border wall is low given the high levels of corruption and the fact that walls have been demonstrated to only be as good as the people who guard them.

  9. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    34 Washington Quarterly 29, no. 1: 21-40, accessed February 3, 2016, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost . 1... EBSCOhost . 4 Richard D. Hooker, Jr., Joseph J. Collins, eds., Lessons Encountered Learning from the Long War (Washington, DC: National Defense University...Press, 1996. Saikal, Amin. "Securing Afghanistan’s border." Survival (00396338) 48, no. 1: 129-141. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost , Accessed

  10. Report on the cross border movement of children

    OpenAIRE

    Society for Advanced Legal Studies, Family Law Working Group

    1999-01-01

    Report by a Working Group of practitioners and academic lawyers who have expertise in family law, and an interest in and commitment to that field of law. The papers take a contemporary view of problems and issues relating to the cross border movement of children. They cover a wide range of topics including international child abduction, international adoption, EC law, Shari'a law, immigration and movement of children for abusive purposes.

  11. Fiqh Issues in the Border Areas of West Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Hamka Siregar

    2016-01-01

    The less prosperous condition of the community in the Indonesia-Malaysia border area in the province of West Kalimantan has resulted in several problems including those related to fiqh, such as the sale and purchase of illegal goods from Malaysia, the phenomena of illegal migrant workers from Indonesia, human trafficking, transnational marriages, double identity cards, etc. In the perspective of fiqh, there is no ban on trading between people of different nationalities. In the legislative pro...

  12. National Security Threats at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-24

    civil authorities in numbers sufficient to operate and expand their nefarious enterprise with reasonable freedom and security. This process has also been...have no desire to be involved in politics or governance. Corruption is utilized, along with violence, to obtain freedom of action for their criminal...Each troop was also screened for tattoos indicating gang affiliation. Finally, volunteers who lived within 70 miles of the border were

  13. Population and employment in selected countries bordering the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, M B

    1982-12-01

    This study is concerned with the dynamics of labor force composition in selected countries bordering the Pacific. The estimates presented are based on national definitions of urban and rural places and of the labor force and are derived primarily from published U.N. data. Variations in labor force composition and in urbanization levels by country are discussed. Countries considered include Canada, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Nicaragua, Peru, the Philippines, and the United States.

  14. Moment Matrices, Border Bases and Real Radical Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, Jean-Bernard; Laurent, Monique; Mourrain, Bernard; Rostalski, Philipp; Trébuchet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is finite. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-definite programming. While the border basis algorithms of [17] are efficient and numerically stable for computing complex roots, algorithms based on moment matrices [12] allow the incorpora...

  15. Brujeria and the U.S.-Mexico Border Outlaw

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the death metal band Brujeria, their use of both traditional and contemporary outlaw imagery, and their connection to the narcocorrido, in order to examine the tenacity of the outlaw paradigm as an expression of resistance by subordinate groups in situations of social inequality. It deals with the contemporary figure of the outlaw in connection to the U.S.-Mexico border region, as influenced by outlaw traditions in the area, and as an expression of specific contemporar...

  16. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  17. The US Army on the Mexican Border: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Brigadier.General.Edward.Ord,.William.R..“Pecos. Bill” Shafter, and Porfirio Diaz ...................................51 . Summary...Zaragoza and Porfirio Diaz on 5 May (Cinco de Mayo). The French were forced to wait for reinforcements before continuing their conquest of Mexico. 42 When...Bill” Shafter, and Porfirio Diaz After Mackenzie’s successful raid against the Kickapoos, the border remained relatively quiet for several years. In

  18. Foreign Direct Investment in Cross-Border Infrastructure Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Kwok-Chiu; Garcia-Herrero, Alicia; Ng, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the authors critically review the relevant information and literature that can enhance the feasibility and the successful implementation of cross-border infrastructure projects. They provide detailed information concerning foreign direct investment in the major emerging regions: East Asia and the Pacific, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. They also discuss the theoretical and empirical literature which sheds light on the characteristics of transnational infrastructure projects,...

  19. Bauhäusler on the Franco-Spanish Border

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Martínez de Guereñu

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the travels of Bauhaus masters and instructors and on the transport of Bauhaus products to Spain in 1929, when the Franco-Spanish border was still culturally permeable. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer introduced their tubular-steel furniture in the Spanish market. Mies and Lilly Reich designed the interiors of all German industrial sections at the Barcelona International Exposition, where the Bauhaus sent objects from its carpentry, metal, and weaving worksh...

  20. Extracellular proteins in pea root tip and border cell exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fushi; VanEtten, Hans D; Tsaprailis, George; Hawes, Martha C

    2007-02-01

    Newly generated plant tissue is inherently sensitive to infection. Yet, when pea (Pisum sativum) roots are inoculated with the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca, most newly generated root tips remain uninfected even though most roots develop lesions just behind the tip in the region of elongation. The resistance mechanism is unknown but is correlated spatially with the presence of border cells on the cap periphery. Previously, an array of >100 extracellular proteins was found to be released while border cell separation proceeds. Here we report that protein secretion from pea root caps is induced in correlation with border cell separation. When this root cap secretome was proteolytically degraded during inoculation of pea roots with N. haematococca, the percentage of infected root tips increased from 4% +/- 3% to 100%. In control experiments, protease treatment of conidia or roots had no effect on growth and development of the fungus or the plant. A complex of >100 extracellular proteins was confirmed, by multidimensional protein identification technology, to comprise the root cap secretome. In addition to defense-related and signaling enzymes known to be present in the plant apoplast were ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and others typically associated with intracellular localization but recently shown to be extracellular components of microbial biofilms. We conclude that the root cap, long known to release a high molecular weight polysaccharide mucilage and thousands of living cells into the incipient rhizosphere, also secretes a complex mixture of proteins that appear to function in protection of the root tip from infection.

  1. Moment Matrices, Border Bases and Real Radical Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, Jean-Bernard; Mourrain, Bernard; Rostalki, Philipp; Trébuchet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is finite. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-definite programming. While the border basis algorithms of [17] are efficient and numerically stable for computing complex roots, algorithms based on moment matrices [12] allow the incorporation of additional polynomials, e.g., to re- strict the computation to real roots or to eliminate multiple solutions. The proposed algorithm can be used to compute a border basis of the input ideal and, as opposed to other approaches, it can also compute the quotient structure of the (real) radical ideal directly, i.e., without prior algebraic techniques such as Gr\\"obner bases. It thus combines the strength of existing algorithms and provides a unified treatment for the computation of border bases for the ideal, the radical ideal and the real r...

  2. Modeling emergent border-crossing behaviors during pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eunice E.; Santos, Eugene; Korah, John; Thompson, Jeremy E.; Gu, Qi; Kim, Keum Joo; Li, Deqing; Russell, Jacob; Subramanian, Suresh; Zhang, Yuxi; Zhao, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Modeling real-world scenarios is a challenge for traditional social science researchers, as it is often hard to capture the intricacies and dynamisms of real-world situations without making simplistic assumptions. This imposes severe limitations on the capabilities of such models and frameworks. Complex population dynamics during natural disasters such as pandemics is an area where computational social science can provide useful insights and explanations. In this paper, we employ a novel intent-driven modeling paradigm for such real-world scenarios by causally mapping beliefs, goals, and actions of individuals and groups to overall behavior using a probabilistic representation called Bayesian Knowledge Bases (BKBs). To validate our framework we examine emergent behavior occurring near a national border during pandemics, specifically the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. The novelty of the work in this paper lies in representing the dynamism at multiple scales by including both coarse-grained (events at the national level) and finegrained (events at two separate border locations) information. This is especially useful for analysts in disaster management and first responder organizations who need to be able to understand both macro-level behavior and changes in the immediate vicinity, to help with planning, prevention, and mitigation. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework in uncovering previously hidden connections and explanations by comparing independent models of the border locations with their fused model to identify emergent behaviors not found in either independent location models nor in a simple linear combination of those models.

  3. European Identity in Russian Regions Bordering on Finland: Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Domanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Th e quantitative analysis of an opinion poll conducted in October 2013 in three Russian cities located near Finnish border (St-Petersburg, Kronstadt and Vyborg explores European identity of their citizens. Th is area was chosen to illustrate the crucial importance of space interpretation in spatial identity formation by using critical geopolitical approach. Th e study shows how diff erent images of space on the same territory act as intermediate variables between objective territorial characteristics and citizens’ identities. As the geographical position at the border of Russia provides the citizens with geopolitical alternatives to identify their location as a fortress defending the nation (as in the case of Kronstadt or a bridge between cultures, the given study allows us to compare reasons for these geopolitical choices of inhabitants. Furthermore, the research aims at bridging the gap in the studies of European and multiple identity in Russian regions and provides Northwest Russian perspective on the perpetual discussion about subjective Eastern border of Europe.

  4. Frontier Government: The Folding of the Canada-US Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O'Connor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the border is evaluated as a fold of power relations in which sovereign capacity and competence is marshalled alongside strategies of control, surveillance, and risk management to constitute, what we call, a zone of frontier government. We advance the argument that the border is a site for both negative and positive power, for insertion and subtraction, and that the assemblage of surveillance and compliance regimes are "run" not so much in the furtherance of a precautionary or pre-emptive end-state, but as intermediate values that are sufficiently malleable by an invigorated sovereign, expressed in the residue of discretion in and between the many border agencies.  Our analysis is based on extensive policy and program documents, as well as twenty-five interviews with officials in various agencies engaged in the US-Canada and, particularly, the Windsor-Detroit corridor. Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Automatic Intruder Combat System: A way to Smart Border Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Security and safeguard of international borders have always been a dominant issue for every nation. A large part of a nation’s budget is provided to its defense system. Besides wars, illegal intrusion in terms of terrorism is a critical matter that causes severe harm to nation’s property. In India’s perspective, border patrolling by Border Security Forces (BSF has already been practiced from a long time for surveillance. The patrolling parties are equipped with high-end surveillance equipments but yet an alternative to the ply of huge manpower and that too in harsh environmental conditions hasn’t been in existence. An automatic mechanism for smart surveillance and combat is proposed in this paper as a solution to the above-discussed problems. Smart surveillance requires automatic intrusion detection in the surveillance video, which is achieved by using optical flow information as motion features for intruder/human in the scene. The use of optical flow in the proposed smart surveillance makes it robust and more accurate. Use of a simple horizontal feature for fence detection makes system simple and faster to work in real-time. System is also designed to respond against the activities of intruders, of which auto combat is one kind of response.

  6. The role of tourism in the development of border regions in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID Lóránt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the changes of regimes in Central Europe, research into border regions has been increasingly adverted. However, various suggestions of researchers came into light on the definition and role of borders. Prior to the changes of regimes, the development of cross-border tourism was counterworked by administrative tools resulting in settlements in border regions becoming peripheral. Negative effects emerged mostly at border sections demarcated between countries either not able to join (for some reason or not willing to gain access to the European Union and certain member states (occurring at the Ukrainian, Serbian, Belarusian and, in some cases, the Croatian border. In the field of cross-border cooperation, within the tourism industry, a west-to-east and north-to-south gradient can be detected that, by the present logic, can be explained by the changes of economic circumstances and the succession of European Union accession.

  7. Investigations on Rickettsia in Ticks at the Sino-Russian and Sino-Mongolian Borders, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Yu; Wang, Jiancheng; Cao, Xiaomei; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Hong; Hou, Yong; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Baoliang

    2015-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of Rickettsia in ticks at the Sino-Russian and Sino-Mongolian borders, a total of 292 ticks were collected and tested by conventional PCR assays. The prevalence of Rickettsia was 53.4%, and phylogenetic analysis showed that they belonged to R. raoultii species after alignment for the ompA, ompB, and gltA genes, respectively. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected for 14%, and no Ehrlichia, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Babesia species were found. Co-infection of two pathogens was 9.9%, and no co-infection with three or more pathogens was found. This study suggested Rickettsia was the most common pathogen in the ticks and co-infection was found. The findings might be helpful to provide advice on the prevention and control of tick-borne disease potential for tourists and residents.

  8. Latino beliefs about biomedical research participation: a qualitative study on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Rachel M; Knerr, Sarah; Scott, Mary Alice; Hohl, Sarah D; Malen, Rachel C; Vilchis, Hugo; Thompson, Beti

    2014-10-01

    Latinos are under-represented in biomedical research conducted in the United States, impeding disease prevention and treatment efforts for this growing demographic group. We gathered perceptions of biomedical research and gauged willingness to participate through elicitation interviews and focus groups with Latinos living on the U.S.-Mexico border. Themes that emerged included a strong willingness to participate in biomedical studies and suggested that Latinos may be under-represented due to limited formal education and access to health information, not distrust. The conflation of research and clinical care was common and motivated participation. Outreach efforts and educational interventions to inform Latinos of participation opportunities and clarify harms and benefits associated with biomedical research participation will be essential to maintain trust within Latino communities.

  9. 镶边四块矩阵的Moore-Penrose逆%The Bordered Moore-Penrose Inverse of a Bordered Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱红兵; 罗季; 刘柏森

    2013-01-01

    摘要:考虑镶边四块矩阵L=(A B C O)的Moore Penrose逆,得到了当L的Moore-Penrose逆中有一子块为零时的Moore-Penrose逆的表达式,并给出了表达式成立的充分必要条件.%In the paper, the issue of bordered Moore-Penrose inverse of a bordered matrix L=ABCO is discussed. The Moore-Penrose inverse formula of L is given under the case of one zero sub-block of the Moore-Penrose inverse. Moreover, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the expression are established.

  10. Regional connectivity and coastal expansion: differentiating pre-border and post-border vectors for the invasive tunicate Styela clava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstien, S J; Schiel, D R; Gemmell, N J

    2010-03-01

    The dramatic increase in marine bio-invasions, particularly of non-indigenous ascidians, has highlighted the vulnerability of marine ecosystems and the productive sectors that rely on them. A critical issue in managing invasive species is determining the relative roles of ongoing introductions, versus the local movement of propagules from established source populations. Styela clava (Herdman, 1882), the Asian clubbed tunicate, once restricted to the Pacific shores of Asia and Russia, is now abundant throughout the northern and southern hemispheres and has had significant economic impact in at least one site of incursion. In 2005 S. clava was identified in New Zealand. The recent introduction of this species, coupled with its restricted distribution, provided an ideal model to compare and contrast the introduction and expansion process. In this study, the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) gene and 11 microsatellite markers were used to test the regional genetic structure and diversity of 318 S. clava individuals from 10 populations within New Zealand. Both markers showed significant differentiation between the northern and southern populations, indicative of minimal pre- or post-border connectivity. Additional statistics further support pre- and post-border differentiation among Port and Harbour populations (i.e. marinas and aquaculture farms). We conclude that New Zealand receives multiple introductions, and that the primary vector for pre-border incursions and post-border spread is most likely the extensive influx of recreational vessels that enter northern marinas independent of the Port. This is a timely reminder of the potential for hull-fouling organisms to expand their range as climates change and open new pathways.

  11. How Borders Come to Matter? The "Physicality" of the Border in Gloria Anzaldúa’s "Borderlands/La Frontera"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Pereira Savi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2015v20n2p181 In this piece I attempt to address the ways in which Gloria Anzaldúa, in Borderlands: La Frontera (2007, negotiates the idea of the border as having both discursive and material dimensions. In creating a new mestiza consciousness from the borderland, which is the space that is affected by the borderline, Anzaldúa develops concepts and ideas that can be linked to Donna Haraway’s articulation of the cyborg and to Karen Barad’s theory of an agential realist ontology in the sense that Anzaldúa engages creatively with contradicting parts of her identity in a cyborgian fashion, and sees the enactment of borders as both limiting and empowering, as having emotional and material effects. Anzaldúa then addresses these effects and demonstrates how she applies them in the fabrication of a new consciousness, the consciousness of the new mestiza. In this work, therefore, I explore how the border makes itself physically present in Anzaldúa’s Borderlands and how the discursive meets matter; and I do this by finding common threads and possible connections among the works of Anzaldúa, Haraway, and Barad.

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Border Crossers during Temporary Enforcement of a Formal Entry Requirement for Mexican-Style Soft Cheeses, 2009†

    Science.gov (United States)

    NGUYEN, AN V.; COHEN, NICOLE J.; GAO, HONGJIANG; FISHBEIN, DANIEL B.; KEIR, JANE; OCANA, J. MIGUEL; SENINI, LORI; FLORES, ALETA; WATERMAN, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Mexican-style soft cheese known as queso fresco (QF), which is often unpasteurized, has been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) exercises discretion in enforcement of noncommercial importation of cheese. To test control measures aimed at decreasing unlawful QF importation, in 2009 the FDA temporarily enforced a requirement for formal commercial entry for all cheeses over 5 lb (2.3 kg) at the San Diego–Tijuana border. Enforcement was combined with educational outreach. Border crossers importing cheese and those not importing cheese were surveyed at the beginning and end of the temporary enforcement period. Data collected included participant demographic information, knowledge of QF-associated health risks, and attitudes and practices regarding QF consumption and importation. We surveyed 306 importers and 381 nonimporters. Compared with nonimporters, importers had a lower level of knowledge regarding QF-associated health risks (P < 0.0001). Border crossers carrying cheese were more likely to have less education, be U.S. or dual residents, consume QF more frequently, and cross the border less often. Importation and consumption of unpasteurized QF remained prevalent among border crossers during the temporary enforcement period, and the level of knowledge regarding QF-associated risks remained low among these crossers. More vigorous, sustained messaging targeted at high-risk groups is needed to change behaviors. Definition and consistent enforcement of limits will likely be needed to reduce QF importation and the risk of QF-associated diseases along the U.S.–Mexico border; however, public health benefits will need to be balanced against the cost of enforcement. PMID:25198849

  13. 75 FR 36663 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Committee on Commercial Operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (COAC) will meet Thursday, July...

  14. 75 FR 63847 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Committee on Commercial Operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (COAC) will meet on November...

  15. 75 FR 6214 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Committee on Commercial Operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (COAC) will meet on February...

  16. 75 FR 37823 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Committee on Commercial Operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (COAC) will meet on...

  17. The Danish-German police cooperation cross Danish-German land border in Schleswig-/South Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    The Danish-German police cooperation cross Danish-German land border in Schleswig-/South Jutland The level of cross-border migration in the Danish-German border has always been quite high besides a few years after the end of WWII, where the border was almost hermetically closed for most citizens...

  18. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  19. Creditor protection in cross-border mergers; unfinished business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert T.M.J. Raaijmakers

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In cross-border mergers, creditor protection is important to facilitate a smooth, efficient and transparent process necessary to facilitate the single market. As all assets and liabilities are being transferred and there is a risk that the liabilities of the acquiring company will exceed the assets, creditor protection needs to be safeguarded in legal mergers. As the title suggests, creditor protection in the context of cross-border mergers and the recently adopted directive is examined in this paper, as well as the position of creditors under Dutch law and the Third Directive. The ex-ante and ex-post systems of creditor protection, both existing in the Member States of the EU, and which are both supported by strong arguments, are also discussed. The fact that differences in creditor protection rules nevertheless remain may create unjustifiable differences in the position of various groups of creditors involved in one single cross-border merger. The authors conclude that the case for leaving creditor protection to the Member States is weakening. Differences in national legislation on creditor protection, defendable as they may be, are ultimately of a technical nature and create unnecessary and unjustifiable impediments. There are strong arguments, in other words, to adopt the same provisions for all transactions for the sake of simplicity, but while this may be attractive, it can lead to undesired delay. Amending the Directive at this point in time thus seems equally unfeasible. This stresses the need to make haste with at least some further harmonization of creditor protection rules related to the Third Directive.

  20. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil

  1. Border Spectra in the Skies of Hokusai and Hiroshige

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Olaf L.

    2015-01-01

    In his earliest prismatic experiments (1665), the young Newton discovered the two border spectra (black-blue-turquoise/cyan-white; white-yellow-red-black). Newton chose to ignore them in his celebrated theory of light and colours (1672), as he took them to be derivative phenomena. In Goethe's Beyträge zur Optik (1791) and in his Farbenlehre (1808/10), they regained prominent attention. To the human eye, their colours appear much cleaner than the colours of Newton's spectra – particularly in t...

  2. Cross border testamentary trusts and the conflict of laws

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente Sánchez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    The trust is a creation of equity and the English Common Law which has not passed to civil jurisdictions. Among the different types, the testamentary trusts are created by the testator in the will to provide the benefits of property after his or her death. This article explores the issue of conflict of laws –jurisdiction and applicable law- and the cross-border testamentary trusts from the perspective of English Common Law. The paper highlights the obstacles arising in the application of the ...

  3. European Identity in Russian Regions Bordering on Finland: Quantitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Domanov

    2014-01-01

    Th e quantitative analysis of an opinion poll conducted in October 2013 in three Russian cities located near Finnish border (St-Petersburg, Kronstadt and Vyborg) explores European identity of their citizens. Th is area was chosen to illustrate the crucial importance of space interpretation in spatial identity formation by using critical geopolitical approach. Th e study shows how diff erent images of space on the same territory act as intermediate variables between objective territorial chara...

  4. Rivers as Political Boundaries: Peru and its Dynamic Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, J. D.; Escobar, C.; Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers, although inherently dynamic, have been chosen as political boundaries since the beginning of colonization for several reasons. Such divisions were chosen namely for their defensive capabilities and military benefits, and because they were often the first features mapped out by explorers. Furthermore, rivers were indisputable boundaries that did not require boundary pillars or people to guard them. However, it is important to understand the complexities of a river as a boundary. All rivers inevitably change over time through processes such as accretion, deposition, cut-off, or avulsion, rendering a political boundary subject to dispute. Depending upon the flow, size, and surrounding land, a river will migrate differently than others. As these natural features migrate one country loses land while another gains land leading to tension between legal rigidity and fluid dynamism. This in turn can manifest in social disruption due to cultural differences, political upheaval, or conflict risk as a result of scarce water resources. The purpose of this research is to assess the temporal and spatial variability of the political boundaries of Peru that follow rivers. Peru shares borders with Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador. A large part of its northern border with Colombia follows the Putumayo River and later the Amazon River. Part of its eastern border with Brazil follows the Yavari River and later the Yaquirana River. These rivers are natural features used as political boundaries yet they differ in how each migrates. By means of a spatial and temporal analysis of satellite images it was possible to obtain erosion and deposition areas for the Putumayo River, the portion of the Amazon River that is part of the Peruvian boundary, the Yavari River, and the Yaquirana River. The erosion and deposition areas were related to land distribution among Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. By examining the Digital Elevation Model one can see how the altitude of the

  5. Optical benchmarking of security document readers for automated border control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Kristián.; Wild, Peter; Å tolc, Svorad; Daubner, Franz; Clabian, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Authentication and optical verification of travel documents upon crossing borders is of utmost importance for national security. Understanding the workflow and different approaches to ICAO 9303 travel document scanning in passport readers, as well as highlighting normalization issues and designing new methods to achieve better harmonization across inspection devices are key steps for the development of more effective and efficient next- generation passport inspection. This paper presents a survey of state-of-the-art document inspection systems, showcasing results of a document reader challenge investigating 9 devices with regards to optical characteristics.

  6. Cross-border collaboration in history among Nordic students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd; Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    , content and technical competence, was used as the analytical framework, together with nation-specific curricula and the European Union’s recommendations regarding students’ skills for lifelong learning. A range of empirical materials was analyzed, such as classroom observations, students’ video...... with the synchronous model concentrated on the content and quality of the communication. Notwithstanding obstacles, cross-border collaboration provided added value. The nation-specific differences triggered curiosity and motivation to produce digital presentations of history content to be understood by the students...

  7. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Kawa; Wojciech Zdrenka

    2016-01-01

    Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce...

  8. Stimulation of border cell production in response to increased carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Misaghi, I J; Hawes, M C

    2000-01-01

    Field soil atmospheres have higher CO(2) and lower O(2) concentrations compared with ambient atmosphere, but little is known about the impact of such conditions on root exudation patterns. We used altered levels of CO(2) and O(2) relative to ambient conditions to examine the influence of the atmosphere on the production of root border cells by pea (Pisum sativum) root tips. During germination, atmospheres with high CO(2) and low O(2) inhibited root development and border cell separation in pea seedlings. Later in development, the same atmospheric composition stimulated border cell separation without significantly influencing root growth. Increased CO(2), not low O(2), was responsible for the observed stimulation of border cell number. High CO(2) apparently can override endogenous signals that regulate the number of border cells released from pea roots into the rhizosphere. The same conditions that stimulated border cell production in pea had no such effect in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

  9. Cross-border Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémolières, Marie; Walther, Olivier

    policy networks, showing that borders have notable and diverse impacts on exchanges of information and the relative power of networks. The report then analyses a range of regional indicators of co-operation potential, visually demonstrating that borders can also affect the ability of sub-regions within......This publication examines how policy actors involved in cross-border co-operation contribute to the regional integration process in West Africa. It uses a pioneering methodology, known as social network analysis, to visualise the formal and informal relationships between actors involved in cross-border...... West Africa to develop cross-border initiatives in a number of ways. Combining these two analyses with the perceptions of regional policy makers as to which border areas they consider as priorities for regional integration, the publication concludes with the analytical foundations for more effective...

  10. Road infrastructure and mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mungaray-Moctezuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area. The study shows that the population in the Mexicali sections closer to border crossings generates the greatest amount of consumption dynamics with places located in Imperial Valley. Conversely, Imperial Valley sections that are more distant from the border concentrate a greater number of destination sites for these cross-border trips. It is concluded that a higher quality and more integrated road infrastructure allows the new consumption centers in Imperial Valley to be located farther away from the border and that the Mexicali population with visas can cross indiscriminately through any border crossing by taking longer journeys toward these centers.

  11. Socioeconomic Context and the Food Landscape in Texas: Results from Hotspot Analysis and Border/Non-Border Comparison of Unhealthy Food Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Salinas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the food landscape of Texas using the CDC’s Modified Retail Food Environment (mRFEI and to make comparisons by border/non-border. Methods: The Modified Retail Food Environment index (mRFEI (2008 is an index developed by the CDC that measures what percent of the total food vendors in a census track sell healthy food. The range of values is 0 (unhealthy areas with limited access to fruits and vegetables to (100—Healthy. These data were linked to 2010 US Census socioeconomic and ethnic concentration data. Spatial analysis and GIS techniques were applied to assess the differences between border and non-border regions. Variables of interest were mRFEI score, median income, total population, percent total population less than five years, median age, % receiving food stamps, % Hispanic, and % with a bachelor degree. Results: Findings from this study reveal that food environment in Texas tends to be characteristic of a “food desert”. Analysis also demonstrates differences by border/non-border location and percent of the population that is foreign born and by percent of families who receive food stamps. Conclusions: Identifying the relationship between socioeconomic disparity, ethnic concentration and mRFEI score could be a fundamental step in improving health in disadvantage communities, particularly those on the Texas-Mexico border.

  12. Escalation and resolution of border disputes and interstate conflicts in Africa the Malawi--Tanzania Case

    OpenAIRE

    Msafiri, Fulgence S.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Border disputes cause strife worldwide, especially in underdeveloped countries. In Africa, border disputes are commonplace, and they produce bitter conflicts and tribulations. This thesis investigates the border dispute between Malawi and Tanzania over Lake Nyasa. It argues that the protracted dispute is the result of inaction and poor leadership, rather than 'colonial legacy.' Using game theory, this thesis demonstrates that partial...

  13. Features of the Triple Helix Model in Cross-Border Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhaylov, S. Andrey

    2013-01-01

    The article is aimed at discussing the unique characteristics of the “triple helix” model that are unveiled while applied to cross - border cluster studies. The results of the case study method of the best practice on cross - border cluster formation at the Baltic Sea region shows evidence of the doubling of the number of helices represented in a complex collaboration system. Major factors of the dynamics and the transformation of the cross-border cluster interactions are stated. The hypothes...

  14. Influenza A H5N1 immigration is filtered out at some international borders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Wallace

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Geographic spread of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1, the bird flu strain, appears a necessary condition for accelerating the evolution of a related human-to-human infection. As H5N1 spreads the virus diversifies in response to the variety of socioecological environments encountered, increasing the chance a human infection emerges. Genetic phylogenies have for the most part provided only qualitative evidence that localities differ in H5N1 diversity. For the first time H5N1 variation is quantified across geographic space. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We constructed a statistical phylogeography of 481 H5N1 hemagglutinin genetic sequences from samples collected across 28 Eurasian and African localities through 2006. The MigraPhyla protocol showed southern China was a source of multiple H5N1 strains. Nested clade analysis indicated H5N1 was widely dispersed across southern China by both limited dispersal and long distance colonization. The UniFrac metric, a measure of shared phylogenetic history, grouped H5N1 from Indonesia, Japan, Thailand and Vietnam with those from southeastern Chinese provinces engaged in intensive international trade. Finally, H5N1's accumulative phylogenetic diversity was greatest in southern China and declined beyond. The gradient was interrupted by areas of greater and lesser phylogenetic dispersion, indicating H5N1 migration was restricted at some geopolitical borders. Thailand and Vietnam, just south of China, showed significant phylogenetic clustering, suggesting newly invasive H5N1 strains have been repeatedly filtered out at their northern borders even as both countries suffered recurring outbreaks of endemic strains. In contrast, Japan, while successful in controlling outbreaks, has been subjected to multiple introductions of the virus. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis demonstrates phylogenies can provide local health officials with more than hypotheses about relatedness. Pathogen dispersal, the

  15. Beyond Our Borders? Public Resistance to Global Genomic Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Mary A; Cook-Deegan, Robert; McGuire, Amy L

    2016-11-01

    Prospects have never seemed better for a truly global approach to science to improve human health, with leaders of national initiatives laying out their vision of a worldwide network of related projects. An extensive literature addresses obstacles to global genomic data sharing, yet a series of public polls suggests that the scientific community may be overlooking a significant barrier: potential public resistance to data sharing across national borders. In several large United States surveys, university researchers in other countries were deemed the least acceptable group of data users, and a just-completed US survey found a marked increase in privacy and security concerns related to data access by non-US researchers. Furthermore, diminished support for sharing beyond national borders is not unique to the US, although the limited data from outside the US suggest variation across countries as well as demographic groups. Possible sources of resistance include apprehension about privacy and security protections. Strategies for building public support include making the affirmative case for global data sharing, addressing privacy, security, and other legitimate concerns, and investigating public concerns in greater depth.

  16. DEFORESTATION ALONG THE MAYA MOUNTAIN MASSIF BELIZE-GUATEMALA BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Chicas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize’s Maya Mountain Massif (MMM have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize’s protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were −1.04% and −6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  17. Golden Jubilee photos - The first cross-border Accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A few months after the signature of the agreement giving the go-ahead for the expansion of CERN into French territory (see Bulletin no.24/2004), work began on the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Two years later, on 31 July 1974, the Robbins tunnel-boring machine excavating the SPS tunnel returned to its starting point (see photograph). It had excavated a tunnel with a circumference of 7 kilometres, at an average depth of 40 metres below the surface. The tunnel straddled the Franco-Swiss border, making the SPS the first cross-border accelerator. More than a thousand magnets were needed to equip the ring. The civil engineering and installation work was completed in record time after only four years. The SPS was equipped with a control system which was ahead of its time, consisting of 24 small control computers distributed in the tunnel and the control room and communicating by means of a high-rate data transmission system. The main control room housed only four consoles as opposed to the banks of electronic ...

  18. Bauhäusler on the Franco-Spanish Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martínez de Guereñu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the travels of Bauhaus masters and instructors and on the transport of Bauhaus products to Spain in 1929, when the Franco-Spanish border was still culturally permeable. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer introduced their tubular-steel furniture in the Spanish market. Mies and Lilly Reich designed the interiors of all German industrial sections at the Barcelona International Exposition, where the Bauhaus sent objects from its carpentry, metal, and weaving workshops. Josef and Anni Albers traveled to see the exhibition and then went to meet Vassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee, who spent over a month on holiday in the Côte Basque. Albers captured their trip in photo collages, Kandinsky registered his impressions in snapshots, while Klee wrote abundant correspondence and produced drawings. Focusing on the itineraries the Bauhäusler followed, along with the means by which they expressed their travel impressions, this article reveals the effect of travel in their later design attitudes and work. Significant cultural transfers between Germany and Spain took place in a critical moment of European history, suggesting that further developments of these learning experiences might have materialized later on both sides of the border, possibly even reaching across the Atlantic.

  19. CROSS-BORDER COLLABORATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurship, as an integral part of education, is now widely accepted worldwide. Entrepreneurial education is considered today as a holistic and inclusive process and not just a component of education in business. The activity of developing the entrepreneurial spirit organized on new principles must be seen by the universities as the foundation of successful fulfillment of university’s mission in contributing to social and economic development. This paper's main purpose is to identify a number of solutions on how they can ensure through cross-border cooperation the development of entrepreneurial skills within the universities through learning experiences contexts. In this regard, the paper proposes a model of entrepreneurial project which takes the form of simulated enterprise developed by the University of Pitesti, and a number of solutions for this project to be developed and implemented through cross-border cooperation, in accordance with the strategies and principles promoted by European Commission and European Parliament, which stresses the importance of developing through international cooperation of innovative methods that go beyond the traditional frame in which, currently, are formed the competencies and the educational process is performed. Thus, the proposed model can be expanded and implemented "in the mirror" and internationally by building partnerships between countries, universities and economic agents from those countries with real benefits for all parties involved through valuing the national specificities.

  20. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  1. Images crossing borders: image and workflow sharing on multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Peeter; Pohjonen, Hanna

    2011-04-01

    Digitalisation of medical data makes it possible to share images and workflows between related parties. In addition to linear data flow where healthcare professionals or patients are the information carriers, a new type of matrix of many-to-many connections is emerging. Implementation of shared workflow brings challenges of interoperability and legal clarity. Sharing images or workflows can be implemented on different levels with different challenges: inside the organisation, between organisations, across country borders, or between healthcare institutions and citizens. Interoperability issues vary according to the level of sharing and are either technical or semantic, including language. Legal uncertainty increases when crossing national borders. Teleradiology is regulated by multiple European Union (EU) directives and legal documents, which makes interpretation of the legal system complex. To achieve wider use of eHealth and teleradiology several strategic documents were published recently by the EU. Despite EU activities, responsibility for organising, providing and funding healthcare systems remains with the Member States. Therefore, the implementation of new solutions requires strong co-operation between radiologists, societies of radiology, healthcare administrators, politicians and relevant EU authorities. The aim of this article is to describe different dimensions of image and workflow sharing and to analyse legal acts concerning teleradiology in the EU.

  2. Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. Ladino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.

  3. Novel Cross-Border Approaches to Optimise Identification of Asymptomatic and Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Infection in Mobile Populations Crossing Cambodian Borders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M Edwards

    Full Text Available Human population movement across country borders presents a real challenge for malaria control and elimination efforts in Cambodia and its neighbouring countries. To quantify Plasmodium infection among the border-crossing population, including asymptomatic and artemisinin resistant (AR parasites, three official border crossing points, one from each of Cambodia's borders with Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, were selected for sampling.A total of 3206 participants (of 4110 approached were recruited as they crossed the border, tested for malaria and interviewed. By real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 5.4% of all screened individuals were found to harbour Plasmodium parasites. The proportion was highest at the Laos border (11.5%. Overall there were 97 P. vivax (55.7%, 55 P. falciparum (31.6%, two P. malariae (1.1% and 20 mixed infections (11.5%. Of identified infections, only 20% were febrile at the time of screening. Of the 24 P. falciparum samples where a further PCR was possible to assess AR, 15 (62.5% had mutations in the K13 propeller domain gene, all from participants at the Laos border point. Malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT pLDH/HRP-2 identified a positivity rate of 3.2% overall and sensitivity compared to RT-PCR was very low (43.1%. Main individual risk factors for infection included sex, fever, being a forest-goer, poor knowledge of malaria prevention methods and previous malaria infection. Occupation, day of the week and time of crossing (morning vs. afternoon also appeared to play an important role in predicting positive cases.This study offers a novel approach to identify asymptomatic infections and monitor AR parasite flow among mobile and migrant populations crossing the borders. Similar screening activities are recommended to identify other hot borders and characterise potential hot spots of AR. Targeted "customised" interventions and surveillance activities should be implemented in these sites to accelerate elimination efforts

  4. Novel rapid genotyping assays for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Border Collie dogs and high frequency of the mutant allele in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yabuki, Akira; Kawamichi, Takuji; Kawahara, Natsuko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Hossain, Mohammad A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Yamato, Osamu

    2011-11-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) constitutes a group of recessively inherited lysosomal storage diseases that primarily affect neuronal cells. Such diseases share certain clinical and pathologic features in human beings and animals. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Border Collie dogs was first detected in Australia in the 1980s, and the pathogenic mutation was shown to be a nonsense mutation (c.619C>T) in exon 4 in canine CLN5 gene. In the present study, novel rapid genotyping assays including polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR primer-induced restriction analysis, mutagenically separated PCR, and real-time PCR with TaqMan minor groove binder probes, were developed. The utility of microchip electrophoresis was also evaluated. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of Border Collies in Japan using these assays to determine the current allele frequency in Japan, providing information to control and prevent this disease in the next stage. All assays developed in the current study are available to discriminate these genotypes, and microchip electrophoresis showed a timesaving advantage over agarose gel electrophoresis. Of all assays, real-time PCR was the most suitable for large-scale examination because of its high throughput. The genotyping survey demonstrated that the carrier frequency was 8.1%. This finding suggested that the mutant allele frequency of NCL in Border Collies is high enough in Japan that measures to control and prevent the disease would be warranted. The genotyping assays developed in the present study could contribute to the prevention of NCL in Border Collies.

  5. Understanding contextual barriers, supports, and opportunities for physical activity among Mexican-origin children in Texas border colonias: A descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Umstattd Meyer M Renée; Sharkey Joseph R; Patterson Megan S; Dean Wesley R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing numbers of colonias along the U.S.-Mexico border are characterized by disproportionately poor families of Mexican-origin, limited access to resources and health services, and heightened risk for obesity and diabetes. Despite consistent evidence supporting physical activity (PA) in prevention of chronic diseases, many individuals of Mexican-origin, including children, fail to meet PA recommendations. Environmental influences on PA, founded in ecological and s...

  6. Inhibition of growth and development of root border cells in wheat by Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mu-Yuan; Ahn, Sung-Ju; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2003-03-01

    The production and development of border cells vary with genotype, and they are released in wheat at an earlier stage of root development than other species studied so far. No significant difference was observed in the maximum number of border cells between Al-tolerant (Atlas 66) and Al-sensitive (Scout 66) cultivars in the absence of Al treatment. Al seriously inhibited the production and release of border cells, resulting in clumping of border cells in Scout 66, but less clustering in Atlas 66. The number of border cells released from roots treated with Al is significantly less than that from roots grown without Al treatment. Al treatment induced the death of detached border cells in vitro and they were killed by a 20-h treatment with 25 micro m Al. No significant difference in survival percentage of detached border cells was observed between Atlas 66 and Scout 66, regardless of the presence or absence of Al. The removal of border cells from root tips of both Atlas 66 and Scout 66 enhanced the Al-induced inhibition of root elongation concomitant with increased Al accumulation in the root. These results suggest that border cells adhered to the root tips play a potential role in the protection of root from Al injury in wheat.

  7. Endocytic trafficking from the small intestinal brush border probed with FM dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte;

    2009-01-01

    The small intestinal brush border functions as the body's main portal for uptake of dietary nutrients and simultaneously acts as the largest permeability barrier against pathogens. To enable this, the digestive enzymes of the brush border are organized in lipid raft microdomains stabilized by cross...... localized deeper into the cytoplasm of the enterocytes. Two major raft-associated brush border enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase N, were excluded from endocytosis. We propose that the terminal web cytoskeleton, by inhibiting traffic from apical early endosomes further into the cell......, contributes to the overall permeability barrier of the gut. Key words: FM dye, small intestine, brush border, endocytosis....

  8. Proximity and scientific collaboration in Northern European “cross-border regional innovation systems”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach, namely cross-border regional innovation system, has been recently introduced to the literature on economic geography as a framework for studying innovation and scientific collaboration in a cross-border context. However, despite the importance of the topic for cross-border regions...... and cultural statistics together with measures for accessibility and institutional and organisational similarity. These measures are linked to the varying types of proximity discussed in the literature on innovation and scientific collaboration; the impacts of proximity on the volume of cross-border scientific...

  9. Does Online Cross-border Shopping Affect State Use Tax Liabilities?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; Melnik, Mikhail I.

    2012-01-01

    How does online cross-border shopping affect state use tax liabilities? We collect our own data on actual online cross-border shopping transactions from eBay.com, focusing upon a "representative" commodity classification and a "typical" day. These data allow us to examine the extent of actual online cross-border shopping by buyers, and the subsequent potential impact on state use tax liabilities of buyers. Our results indicate that online cross-border shopping is highly prevalent on eBay, wit...

  10. Scientific collaboration in the Danish-German border region of Southern Jutland-Schleswig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    in border regions, in general, and the studied region, in particular, has rarely been discussed in the academic literature. The integration model of cross-border regional innovation systems provides the conceptual framework for the task. The paper, thus, gives methodological insights for the measurement...... this can be found in the science bases–arguably more than from historic, linguistic or ethnic reasons–of the adjacent sides of the border. The research fields that the local scientists are engaged in seem to be too different between the Danish and German sides of the border region to foster large numbers...

  11. STUDY ON RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT FOR IMPORTED VECTOR-BORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND VECTORS ON BORDER PORTS:RISK ANALYSIS%国境口岸输入性虫媒传染病及媒介生物风险分析和风险管理系统研究: 风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鑫; 方志强; 张晓龙; 马立新; 赵彤言

    2012-01-01

    为在口岸传染病防控方面探索新的思路和方法,建立科学的风险评估机制,采用澳大利亚和新西兰联合开发的风险管理标准,对境外的虫媒传染病及其媒介生物传入我国口岸的风险建立评估方法和体系.结果显示,通过对国际国内传染病疫情进行有效评估,分析传染病传播模式和趋势,确定输入输出风险等级和主要防控环节,及时发出预警信息,然后有针对性地在重点地区口岸和重点环节采取措施,能够有效控制媒介生物以及携带病原体的传播.引入风险分析理论,建立风险评估机制,对有效减少传染病疫情所带来的危害,保障我国口岸公共卫生安全十分必要.%To explore the new ideas and methods and establish the scientific risk assessment mechanism using in prevention and control of infectious diseases at the ports, the methods and systems basing on the risk management standards jointly developed by Australia and New Zealand and its application assessing the risk of imported vector-borne infectious diseases and vectors were used. The results showed that according to the effective evaluation of the international and domestic epidemic situation and the analysis of infectious diseases spreading tendency, we determine the input and output risk grade and prevention and control of main parts, publish warning information and take measures in the targeted areas, ports and parts in order to effectively control the vectors and pathogens spreading. It is necessary to introduce the risk analysis theory and build the risk assessment mechanism, which are beneficial in reducing the harm caused by infectious diseases and protecting port safety.

  12. Studies on vesical schistosomiasis among rural Ezza farmers in the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosike, Jude C; Oguwuike, Uche; Nwoke, Bertram; Asor, Joe; Ikpeama, Chidinma; Nwosu, Dennis; Ogbusu, Fidelia

    2006-01-01

    Studies on vesical schistosomiasis and its snail vectors were carried out between October 2001-May 2002 among rural Ezza farmers inhabiting the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The people are predominantly farmers. Of the 2,104 urine specimens examined in 10 communities, 466 (22.1%) comprising 305 (23.7%) men and 161 (19.7%) women were infected with visible haematuria as the predominant presenting symptom. Ezza people associate bloody urine with sexually transmitted diseases. There were no significant differences in the prevalence rates amongst various villages and sexes (p > 0.05). There was a gradual increase in the disease prevalence as the subjects' age increases. About 78.3% of the infected persons are aged 0-20 years. Statistical analysis revealed that the prevalence, intensity and visible haematuria were significantly more ( p infected population, 183 (39.3%) and 283 (60.7%) were excreting 50 eggs/10 ml urine and above 50 eggs/10 ml urine respectively. Lack of visible haematuria is a more valid indicator of the absence of vesical schistosomiasis. Of the various snails collected during malacological survey, mainly B. globosus were infected. Possible control measures are discussed.

  13. An Investigation and Analysis of Cross-border Ethnic Marriage in the Sino-Vietnam Border Area---Taking Tianpeng and Muyang Townships of Funing County in Yunnan Province as Case Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Tianjian

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border ethnic marriage is a special form of marriage that is found in border are-as.Although there is a historical basis and it is sanctioned morally, it is characterized by loose u-nions with no legal certification.This eventually has impacts,either positive or negative,on social man-agement and social stability in the frontier region. In the areas along the long border of China, the phenomenon of cross-border ethnic marriage does not lack written documentation,and appears in va-rious kinds of media.However,in terms of the cur-rent focus of domestic academic circles, the phe-nomenon of cross-border ethnic marriage in the Si-no-Vietnam border area is of particular concern. Thus,this area has become one with typical case studies of cross-border ethnic marriage in China's border areas.Cross-border ethnic marriages among the frontier people who live in the Sino-Vietnam border area is a historical phenomenon.However,it was not until after the founding of New China (1949) that cases of cross-border ethnic marriages were systematically registered,and the data became more accurate.However, because of the mobility and hidden nature of the people involved with cross-border marriages,it makes the statistical data in the China-Vietnam border area less reliable.In-stead of having specific data,we can only have es-timates.

  14. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  15. The minimally conscious state: defining the borders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacino, J T

    2005-01-01

    There is no agreement as to where the limits of consciousness lie, or even if these putative borders exist. Problems inherent to the study of consciousness continue to confound efforts to establish a universally accepted theory of consciousness. Consequently, clinical definitions of consciousness and unconsciousness are unavoidably arbitrary. Recently, a condition of severely altered consciousness has been described, which characterizes the borderzone between the vegetative state and so-called "normal" consciousness. This condition, referred to as the minimally conscious state (MCS), is distinguished from the vegetative state by the presence of minimal but clearly discernible behavioral evidence of self or environmental awareness. This chapter reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, prognostic relevance, neurobehavioral assessment procedures and treatment implications associated with MCS.

  16. Motives for Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    that were conducted amongst Danish firms, our empirical evidence supports that CBM&A motives are based on Rationality Hypothesis, including Synergy Theory, Resource Dependence Theory, and Resource-based View. Besides, overconfidence and imitation sometimes play a role in the firms’ decision-making process......This study addresses two questions based on Danish firms’ practices: first, what are motives for cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As)? Second, how the external and internal factors influence the firms’ decisions? Based on the literature review, survey questionnaire and multiple-case study......, and acquiring technical knowledge & expertise are the top five motives for Danish firms. In addition, we found the nature of the firms’ businesses mainly determines their motives for conducting CBM&As. They focus on their core businesses rather than diversification, and horizontal CBM&As....

  17. Advanced Technologies for Intelligent Systems of National Border Security

    CERN Document Server

    Simek, Krzysztof; Świerniak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    One of the world’s leading problems in the field of national security is protection of borders and borderlands. This book addresses multiple issues on advanced innovative methods of multi-level control of both ground (UGVs) and aerial drones (UAVs). Those objects combined with innovative algorithms become autonomous objects capable of patrolling chosen borderland areas by themselves and automatically inform the operator of the system about potential place of detection of a specific incident. This is achieved by using sophisticated methods of generation of non-collision trajectory for those types of objects and enabling automatic integration of both ground and aerial unmanned vehicles. The topics included in this book also cover presentation of complete information and communication technology (ICT) systems capable of control, observation and detection of various types of incidents and threats. This book is a valuable source of information for constructors and developers of such solutions for uniformed servi...

  18. Disentangling value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Sørensen, Olav Jull; Moini, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    important strategic dimensions for realizing synergy and creating value in CBAs . Furthermore, mediation analysis shows that the two acquisition-based dynamic capabilities—value identification and resource reconfiguration—act as important mediators in how the joining firms’ resource base impacts acquisition......This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three...... outcomes. The results shed light on the mechanisms through which the constructs influence value creation in CBAs and highlight the procedural and dynamic character of these determinants. The results also indicate that an integrative and process perspective, such as the “input-process-output” model proposed...

  19. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    as it constitute a rendezvous of traditional market-based efficiency logics and concerns over sovereignty. Moreover, the defence industry has been an institutional island still exhibiting all the national protectionist mechanisms that European integration mostly has done away with in other sectors. The paper...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...... foreign policy establishment and industrial-military complexes reluctant to cede control over a vital technology and production base - particular to neighbouring countries which in a not to distant past were rivals rather then partners. The latter will be linked to recent work on the nature and impacts...

  20. WINNING HEARTS AND MINDS IN THE NAMIBIAN BORDER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieneke Eloff de Visser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During the Namibian border war, South African counterinsurgency doctrine acknowledged the importance of securing the allegiance and cooperation of the population. This article demonstrates that, in the operational zone, the responsibility of winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian people largely fell to the SADF (South African Defence Force. Although the SADF dedicated considerable resources to this task, these efforts were often at cross-purposes with those of institutions in the political, police and administrative domains. In addition, there was a lack of unity and purpose within the SADF. This article argues that lack of unity between and within the different domains undermined the effort at winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian population, and must at least partly have contributed to SWAPO´s victory in the 1989 elections.

  1. Strangers and neighbours: cross-border banking in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. DEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with regulatory and competitive aspects of the mutual penetration by Canadian and U.S. banks of each other’s domestic markets. The authors assess the degree to which economic factors alone are responsible for the difference in growth rates between domestic and foreign banks in North America. They argue that regulation has not affected the growth of foreign banks in North America by addressing the question of reciprocity in banking regulations, before examining foreign banks in the U.S. and the manner in which they have been regulated. U.S. banks operating in Canada are then dealt with. Finally, the results of an empirical test of the proposition that the growth of cross-border banking is attributable to factors other than differential regulation is presented.

  2. Placebo Trends across the Border: US versus Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory S Harris

    Full Text Available Physicians around the world report to using placebos in a variety of situations and with varying degrees of frequency. Inconsistent methodologies, however, complicate interpretation and prevent direct comparisons across studies. While US- and Canada-based physicians share similar professional standards, Canada harbours a less-litigious universal healthcare model with no formal placebo-related policy-factors that may impact how physicians view and use placebos.To compare American and Canadian data, we circulated an online survey to academic physicians practicing in Canada, collected anonymous responses, and extracted those of internists and rheumatologists for comparison to US data obtained through parallel methodologies.Whereas our data show overall concordance across the border-from definitions to ethical limitations and therapeutic potential-differences between American- and Canadian-based placebo practices merit acknowledgement. For example, compared to 45%-80% among US-based respondents, only 23±7% of Canada-based respondents reported using placebos in clinical practice. However, 79±7% of Canada-respondents-a figure comparable to US data-professed to prescribing at least one form of treatment without proven or expected efficacy. Placebo interventions including unwarranted vitamins and herbal supplements (impure placebos as well as sugar pills and saline injections (pure placebos appear more common in Canada, where more doctors described placebos as "placebos" (rather than "medications" and used them as a "diagnostic" tool (rather than a means of placating patient demands for treatment.Cross-border variation in the use of clinical placebos appears minor despite substantial differences in health care delivery system, malpractice climate, and placebo-related policy. The prevalence of impure placebos in both Canadian and US clinics raises ethical and practical questions currently unaddressed by policy and warranting investigation.

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis in border areas: clustered distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in Clorinda, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D Salomón

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three years after the first report of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Clorinda, Argentina, a border city near Asunción, Paraguay, the city was surveyed again. Lu. longipalpis was found clustered in the same neighbourhoods in 2007 as in 2004, even though the scattered distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis was more related to the traffic of dogs through the border.

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis in border areas: clustered distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in Clorinda, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar D; Quintana, María G; Bruno, Mario R; Quiriconi, Ricardo V; Cabral, Viviana

    2009-08-01

    Three years after the first report of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Clorinda, Argentina, a border city near Asunción, Paraguay, the city was surveyed again. Lu. longipalpis was found clustered in the same neighbourhoods in 2007 as in 2004, even though the scattered distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis was more related to the traffic of dogs through the border.

  5. Assessing the significance of borders and territoriality in a globalized Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    During the 1990s emerged a de-territorialization, or ‘borderless world’ trend which tended to dismiss borders as increasingly irrelevant to the human experience. Thus, the idea that borders were becoming increasingly fuzzy became popular in political discourse, particularly in Europe. This article...

  6. 47 CFR 90.1337 - Operation near Canadian and Mexican borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation near Canadian and Mexican borders. 90.1337 Section 90.1337 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... § 90.1337 Operation near Canadian and Mexican borders. (a) Fixed devices generally must be located...

  7. At the Border: Reflections on Psychoanalytically Oriented Counselling in an Italian University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, S. M. G.; Fontana, M. R.; Preti, E.; Prunas, A.; Riffaldi, M. L.; Sarno, I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the "border" position of counselling services in Italian universities. The concept of "border" has great relevance in the work of psychoanalytically oriented university students' counsellors. Counselling is part of a continuum of interventions, from befriending to psychotherapy. This closeness encompasses the need for…

  8. 76 FR 2917 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... (CBP Form I-68). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously approved... Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP Form I-68. Abstract: The Canadian Border...

  9. Cross-border Place Branding: Zooming in the potential case of Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS 3 Minho-Lima, Cávado, Ave, Grande Porto, Tâmega, En

  10. Spatial Identities at the Russo-Chinese Border: The Cases of Blagoveshensk and Heihe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Tislenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the phenomenon of Blagoveshchensk and Heihe – border ‘twin cities’ – is in the spotlight of the researcher. The author observes, how these cities separated from each other by the Amur and the state border have been able to construct their own model of spatial identity taking into account Russian and Chinese national identities. 

  11. Mitigating the Exploitation of U.S. Borders by Jihadists and Criminal Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Steinmetz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the events of September 11, 2001, the U.S. Government began improving security in large population centers and near potential highvalue terrorist targets. Included in these efforts was the development of a more robust border security program, with an emphasis on reducing the threat of terrorist infiltration at America's borders. However, nearly a decade after 9/11, terrorism and organized crime continue to pose significant threats to the United States. As many of these threats emanate from other nations, improved border security helps mitigate these threats. This article summarizes known terrorist activity along the U.S. northern and southern borders, and highlights the threat of organized crime in the southwest border region. Furthermore, it analyzes current border security efforts and identifies key deficiencies in the system. Finally, it provides a tool kit for future border security endeavors that center on developing a larger but more coordinated and nimble border security force, driven by intelligence, and supported by proven technologies and tactical infrastructure.

  12. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Trial Demonstration of Area Lighting Retrofit, Yuma Border Patrol, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, A. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCullough, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments.

  13. 75 FR 19420 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0144; Wildlife Without Borders...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Without Borders--Amphibians in Decline Grant Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Decline grant program to fund projects that conserve the world's rapidly declining amphibian species. This...: 1018-0144. Title: Wildlife Without Borders--Amphibians in Decline Grant Program. Service Form...

  14. 78 FR 11671 - Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... the meeting, contact Ms. Wanda Tate, Office of Trade Relations, U.S. Customs and Border Protection at... docket number in the subject line of the message. Fax: 202-325-4290. Mail: Ms. Wanda Tate, Office of.... Wanda Tate, Office of Trade Relations, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue...

  15. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  16. Small molecule pinocytosis and clathrin-dependent endocytosis at the intestinal brush border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2016-01-01

    compartments, indicating the existence of two different uptake mechanisms operating simultaneously at the brush border. CTB is internalized by clathrin-dependent receptor mediated endocytosis, but surprisingly the toxin also caused a rapid disappearance from the apical cell surface of two major brush border...

  17. Cross-border merger & acquisition activity and revealed comparative advantage in manufacturing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    We estimate an important implication of oligopolistic international trade modeling for the predicted pattern of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Our core argument is that cross-border M&As are, among other factors, driven by cross-country differences in comparative advantage. We find st

  18. Buddhism on the Border: Shan Buddhism and Transborder Migration in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Murakami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformation of Shan Buddhism in the border area of Northern Thailand. Shan and other ethnic groups have a long history of migration between Northern Thailand and the Shan State of Myanmar; the migration continued even after the border was demarcated at the end of the nineteenth century. Recently, the migration has become unidirectional—from Myanmar to Thailand— and the number of migrants is growing steadily. An anomalous situation exists in this area: a fluid border crossing of people, goods, and information in spite of rigid border control by the Thai government. In the religious sphere, the Thai government has been institutionalizing and standardizing “Thai Buddhism” since the early twentieth century. The government’s efforts seem to have succeeded, resulting in the unified organization of “State Sangha” and a systematized curriculum for monastic education. In the process, local Sanghas (Buddhist monastic communities in the kingdom have been integrated into the State Sangha of Thailand. However, Shan Buddhism in the border area has not been totally assimilated into Thai Buddhism and maintains its unique seasonal festivals, religious rites of passage, practices using Shan manuscripts, and temple architecture. By focusing on the movement of people in the border area, where strong state control and a porous border coexist, this paper analyzes the important role of border migration in the continuation and development of Shan Buddhist practices in Northern Thailand.

  19. Bordering the Civic Imaginary: Alienization, Fence Logic, and the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChaine, D. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Current figurations of the "immigration problem" in the United States challenge our understanding of the rhetoricity of contemporary bordering practices. The public discourse of the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps serves to chart the alienization of undocumented migrants and the enactment of alien abjection on the U.S.-Mexico border.…

  20. Borders and Identity: A Resource Guide for Teachers = Identidad y Fronteras: Una Guia para Maestros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belauus, Betty; Botein, Emily; Cadaval, Olivia

    The materials in this resource guide include a four-part video, a poster-size cultural map with additional exercises, and the five sections of this guide. The unit, presented in English and Spanish, intends to introduce students to the peoples and cultures of the U.S.-Mexico border, to explore the concept of borders in their own communities, to…

  1. K ocenke potenciala razvitija prigranichnyh regionov [On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess the potential of cross-border region development on the basis of theoretical and methodological materials. The study examines the Kaliningrad region and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article is focused on the modelling of interindustry balance and export/import functions of border territories.

  2. Inverting the Telescope on Borders that Matter: Conversations in Café Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic; Kramsch, Olivier Thomas; Sandberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    for their continuous re-envisioning through extra-territorial and post-colonial enframings of Europe, the standard horizontal gaze of border studies, it is argued, is dislocated. 'Inverting the telescope' on border studies thus enables a productive space of tension – named Café Europa – in which the negotiations...

  3. Paired Border Towns or TwinCities from Finland and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riitta Kosonen; Xu Feng; Erja Kettunen

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-border cooperation at the level of urban socio-economic systems.Worldwide,cross-border urban cooperation has in several cases produced socio-economic and political coherence supported by various joint programs and efforts.However,the degree of coherence varies and seldom creates socio-economically and politically tightly integrated "TwinCities" where the state border becomes highly transparent or obscure.Focusing on Finland and China,our aim is to identify whether the selected border towns represent coherent TwinCities or a more loose type of "paired border towns".The study uses an empirical examination of three Finnish towns (Helsinki,Tomio,Imatra) and their neighboring towns in Estonia,Sweden,and Russia as a benchmark.Then,a comparative study is made regarding three Chinese eross-border cities facing Russia,Vietnam and Kazakhstan.We highlight the differences in cross-border integration from the viewpoint of shared public sector programs,cross-border enterprise relocation and networking,and integrated social sector in terms of labor market,education and shopping area.

  4. Genesis and Evolution of the Romance-Germanic Language Border in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Durme, Luc

    2002-01-01

    Discusses various language border theories for the Belgian-Northern French area, and summarizes the results of 40 years of research into the development of the Romance-Germanic language border at large. Suggests that a late Roman Latin-Germanic opposition has functioned as a direct predisposition for the early medieval Romance-Germanic language…

  5. Bilingual Education in the Ethnically Mixed Areas along the Slovene-Italian Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Lucija; Pertot, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on education language policy in Slovene Istria and of Slovenia in Italy. On both sides of the Slovene-Italian border there is an ethnically mixed population of Italians and Slovenes, an Italian minority in Slovenia, and a Slovene minority in Italy. On both sides of the border apparently similar systems of bilingual education have…

  6. The Differential Use of Spanish and Portuguese along the Uruguayan-Brazilian Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltermire, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1800s, the Uruguayan Government has attempted to enforce cultural and linguistic norms along the border with Brazil through the prohibition of Portuguese, especially in schools, despite the fact that this is the heritage language of most border residents. This research focuses on the differential use of Spanish and Portuguese in…

  7. Conversation at the Border Between Organizational Culture Theory and Institutional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Zilber, Tammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects our conversation at the border - a dividing line but also a potential meeting place - of organizational culture theory and institutional theory. First, we discuss the border between institutional theory and organizational culture theory by exploring two notions central to both...

  8. 76 FR 57751 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Northern Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... activities supporting the homeland security mission of CBP focused on applying alternative approaches to... terrorist and criminal threats, CBP plans to implement a diversified approach to border security over the... Border Security Program. CBP will seek public input on these studies and will use them in agency...

  9. Information seeking, technology use, and vulnerability among migrants at the U.S.-Mexico border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Gomez, Ricardo; Guajardo, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Through interviews with migrants and migrant aid-workers at a shelter in the border town of Nogales, Mexico, we examine how undocumented migrants are seeking, acquiring, understanding, and using information prior to, and during, migration across the U.S.-Mexico border. Our study examines migrants’ p

  10. 75 FR 17406 - Kinder Morgan Border Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Border Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing March 31, 2010. Take notice that on March 15, 2010, and March 17, 2010, Kinder Morgan Border Pipeline, LLC...

  11. 75 FR 31429 - Kinder Morgan Border Pipeline LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Border Pipeline LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing May 27, 2010. Take notice that on May 24, 2010, Kinder Morgan Border Pipeline LLC submitted a baseline filing of...

  12. "The perfect business": human trafficking and Lao-Thai cross-border migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molland, Sverre

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years some governments and development organizations have increasingly articulated cross-border mobility as "trafficking in persons". The notion of a market where traffickers prey on the "supply" of migrants that flows across international borders to meet the "demand" for labour has become a central trope among anti-trafficking development organizations. This article problematizes such economism by drawing attention to the oscillating cross-border migration of Lao sex workers within a border zone between Laos and Thailand. It illuminates the incongruity between the recruitment of women into the sex industry along the Lao-Thai border and the market models that are employed by the anti-trafficking sector. It discusses the ways in which these cross-border markets are conceived in a context where aid programming is taking on an increasingly important role in the politics of borders. The author concludes that allusions to ideal forms of knowledge (in the guise of classic economic theory) and an emphasis on borders become necessary for anti-trafficking programmes in order to make their object of intervention legible as well as providing post-hoc rationalizations for their continuing operation.

  13. An Improved Objective Evaluation Measure for Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Stoecker, William V; Malters, Joseph M; Grichnik, James M; 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2009.00387.x

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, dermoscopy image analysis has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Although numerous methods have been developed for the detection of lesion borders, very few studies were comprehensive in the evaluation of their results. Methods: In this paper, we evaluate five recent border detection methods on a set of 90 dermoscopy images using three sets of dermatologist-drawn borders as the ground-truth. In contrast to previous work, we utilize an objective measure, the Normalized Probabilistic Rand Index, which takes into account the variations in the ground-truth images. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the differences between four of the evaluated border detection methods are in fact smaller than those predicted by ...

  14. Informal transborder trade between México and Guatemala from permissive border perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Ruiz Juárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes processes of interaction, tension, conflict and economic interests in one of the major border areas between Mexico and Guatemala. Informal transborder trade involves several actors who have been building these processes pursuant to agency initiatives. Among these actors, Guatemalan transborder traders who come to buy goods from their Mexican counterparts (retail and wholesale shop owners play a prominent role, as do the camareros who transport the traders and their merchandise across the Suchiate River on rafts and other actors such as moneychangers and rickshaw drivers who participate in economic and social interaction in the region. From a conceptual perspective, supported by the dialectical relationship between the notions of a border the behavior of transborder actors, it is concluded that in the study area, an informal border-trade integration process has developed and its actors transcend the border, rendering that border permissive.

  15. Alleviating Border Effects in Wavelet Transforms for Nonlinear Time-varying Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU, H.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Border effects are very common in many finite signals analysis and processing approaches using convolution operation. Alleviating the border effects that can occur in the processing of finite-length signals using wavelet transform is considered in this paper. Traditional methods for alleviating the border effects are suitable to compression or coding applications. We propose an algorithm based on Fourier series which is proved to be appropriate to the application of time-frequency analysis of nonlinear signals. Fourier series extension method preserves the time-varying characteristics of the signals. A modified signal duration expression for measuring the extent of border effects region is presented. The proposed algorithm is confirmed to be efficient to alleviate the border effects in comparison to the current methods through the numerical examples.

  16. Introduction to "Stories and Histories from the China-Vietnam Border"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue-Tam Ho Tai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Whether on land or at sea, border areas are not just sites of conflict. For the ethnically diverse communities who live at the margins of empires or nations, border crossing is a facet of everyday life. It may involve trade and smuggling, pillaging raids, flight from fighting or from the state, human trafficking, marriage, or family visits. These historical events and trends are often narrated within the confines of national histories. Yet they highlight the fuzziness of national boundaries and the importance of forms of social organization that cut across borders and unite individuals and communities that nations seek to separate and distinguish. Not only does the study of border areas and border crossings “rescue history from the nation,” to borrow from Prasenjit Duara (1995, but it also points out that the highly local can be transnational, and that apparently remote places can be linked to global currents of people, ideas, and commodities...

  17. The fencing issue relative to the control of foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutmoller, Paul

    2002-10-01

    Certain livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, such as foot-and-mouth disease are difficult to control because of the large numbers of infected wildlife hosts. These wildlife disease reservoirs form a continuous hazard of transmittal of the diseases to domestic livestock, which limits the access of livestock products from southern Africa to international markets. The disease reservoirs are often found in border areas between countries with susceptible species and infected reservoir animals continuously crossing the border. A regional approach to disease control is probably the only way to achieve any real progress. Here we review the positive and negative attributes of fencing as a control mechanism for disease transmission.

  18. Gallstones: an intestinal disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erpecum, K J; Van Berge-Henegouwen, G P

    1999-03-01

    Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world.

  19. Developmental characteristics and response to iron toxicity of root border cells in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cheng-hua; Zhu, Mei-hong; Cai, Miao-zhen; Liu, Peng; Xu, Gen-di; Wu, Shao-hui

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the Fe2+ effects on root tips in rice plant, experiments were carried out using border cells in vitro. The border cells were pre-planted in aeroponic culture and detached from root tips. Most border cells have a long elliptical shape. The number and the viability of border cells in situ reached the maxima of 1600 and 97.5%, respectively, at 20-25 mm root length. This mortality was more pronounced at the first 1-12 h exposure to 250 mg/L Fe2+ than at the last 12-36 h. After 36 h, the cell viability exposed to 250 mg/L Fe2+ decreased to nought, whereas it was 46.5% at 0 mg/L Fe2+. Increased Fe2+ dosage stimulated the death of detached border cells from rice cultivars. After 4 h Fe2+ treatment, the cell viabilities were > or =80% at 0 and 50 mg/L Fe2+ treatment and were border cells decreased by 10% when the Fe2+ concentration increased by 100 mg/L. After 24 h Fe2+ treatment, the viabilities of border cells at all the Fe2+ levels were border cells decreased by 20% when the Fe2+ concentration increased by 100 mg/L. The decreased viabilities of border cells indicated that Fe2+ dosage and treatment time would cause deadly effect on the border cells. The increased cell death could protect the root tips from toxic harm. Therefore, it may protect root from the damage caused by harmful iron toxicity.

  20. Developmental characteristics and response to iron toxicity of root border cells in rice seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-hua XING; Mei-hong ZHU; Miao-zhen CAI; Peng LIU; Gen-di XU; Shao-hui WU

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the Fe2+ effects on root tips in rice plant, experiments were carded out using border cells in vitro. The border cells were pre-planted in aeroponic culture and detached from root tips. Most border cells have a long elliptical shape. The number and the viability of border cells in situ reached the maxima of 1600 and 97.5%, respectively, at 20~25 mm root length. This mortality was more pronounced at the first 1~12 h exposure to 250 mg/L Fe2+ than at the last 12~36 h. After 36 h, the cell viability exposed to 250 mg/L Fe2+ decreased to nought, whereas it was 46.5% at 0 mg/L Fe2+. Increased Fe2+ dosage stimulated the death of detached border cells from rice cultivars. After 4 h Fe2+ treatment, the cell viabilities were≥80% at 0 and 50 mg/L Fe2+ treatment and were <62% at 150, 250 and 350 mg/L Fe2+ treatment; The viability of border cells decreased by 10% when the Fe2+ concentration increased by 100 mg/L. After 24 h Fe2+ treatment, the viabilities of border cells at all the Fe2+ levels were <65%; The viability of border cells decreased by 20% when the Fe2+ concentration increased by 100 mg/L. The decreased viabilities of border cells indicated that Fe2+ dosage and treatment time would cause deadly effect on the border cells. The increased cell death could protect the root tips from toxic harm. Therefore, it may protect root from the damage caused by harmful iron toxicity.

  1. Process evaluation of a promotora de salud intervention for improving hypertension outcomes for Latinos living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Victoria; Cacari Stone, Lisa; Moffett, Maurice L; Nguyen, PhoungGiang; Muhammad, Michael; Bruna-Lewis, Sean; Urias-Chauvin, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Hypertension is a growing public health problem for U.S.-Mexico border Latinos, who commonly experience low levels of awareness, treatment, and control. We report on a process evaluation that assessed the delivery of Corazón por la Vida, a 9-week promotora de salud-led curriculum to help Latinos manage and reduce hypertension risks in two rural/frontier counties in the New Mexico border region. Ninety-six adults participated in the program, delivered in three waves and in three communities. We assessed program delivery and quality, adherence, exposure, and participant responsiveness. Participant outcome measures included self-reported eating and physical activities and assessment of community resources. Findings suggest that the program was fully delivered (99%) and that most participants (81.7%) were very satisfied with the educational sessions. The average participant attendance for educational sessions was 77.47%. We found significant differences in self-reported behavioral changes depending on the number of sessions completed: The higher the dose of sessions, the better the self-reported outcomes. These findings suggest that a promotora-led curriculum may be useful for promoting self-management of chronic disease in rural/frontier border Latino populations. Future evaluation should focus on training and implementation adaptations within evidence-based chronic disease programs for diverse Latino communities.

  2. Consequences of BSE disease outbreaks in the Canadian beef industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Čechura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines farm to wholesale prices spreads to measure the impact of the BSE disease outbreak on the Canadian beef industry. The study uses structure break tests developed by Gregory and Hansen (1996 and Hansen (1992 examine possible breaks within co integrating relationships. The study finds evidence that the industry began realignment as a result of the UK BSE disease outbreak, and the Canadian BSE disease outbreak was simply the largest realignment of the process beginning with the UK disease outbreak. However, the only statistically significant break was the BSE disease outbreak itself in May 2003. Stability was not restored until the border was reopened in 2005. Specific results indicated that the processing sector exploited the border closure in May 2003 to enhance its market power and that the system returned to a competitive one after the border re-opened in July 2005.

  3. Between Securitisation and Neglect: Managing Ebola at the Borders of Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigsbaum, Mark

    2017-04-01

    In 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) was widely criticised for failing to anticipate that an outbreak of Ebola in a remote forested region of south-eastern Guinea would trigger a public health emergency of international concern (pheic). In explaining the WHO's failure, critics have pointed to structural restraints on the United Nations organisation and a leadership 'vacuum' in Geneva, among other factors. This paper takes a different approach. Drawing on internal WHO documents and interviews with key actors in the epidemic response, I argue that the WHO's failure is better understood as a consequence of Ebola's shifting medical identity and of triage systems for managing emerging infectious disease (EID) risks. Focusing on the discursive and non-discursive practices that produced Ebola as a 'problem' for global health security, I argue that by 2014 Ebola was no longer regarded as a paradigmatic EID and potential biothreat so much as a neglected tropical disease. The result was to relegate Ebola to the fringes of biosecurity concerns just at the moment when the virus was crossing international borders in West Africa and triggering large urban outbreaks for the first time. Ebola's fluctuating medical identity also helps explain the prominence of fear and rumours during the epidemic and social resistance to Ebola control measures. Contrasting the WHO's delay over declaring a pheic in 2014, with its rapid declaration of pheics in relation to H1N1 swine flu in 2009 and polio in 2014, I conclude that such 'missed alarms' may be an inescapable consequence of pandemic preparedness systems that seek to rationalise responses to the emergence of new diseases.

  4. 77 FR 76504 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Doc No: 2012-31280] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection [Docket No. USCBP-2012-0046] Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security...

  5. 76 FR 66872 - International Services Surveys: Amendments to the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and Charge Card Transactions AGENCY... entities that would be required to report information on the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border...-based debit network companies would be required to report on cross-border transactions between (1)...

  6. 77 FR 10958 - International Services Surveys: BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and Charge Card Transactions AGENCY: Bureau of Economic... on the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and Charge Card Transactions, to... number (PIN). PIN-based debit network companies will be required to report on cross- border...

  7. 76 FR 9808 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Saybolt LP, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... Services, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Suite 1500N, Washington,...

  8. Soil transmitted helminthiasis in indigenous groups. A community cross sectional study in the Amazonian southern border region of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Ortiz-Rico, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Valdivieso, Daniel; Sandoval, Carlos; Pástor, Jacob; Martín, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Background Rural communities in the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador have benefited from governmental social programmes over the past 9 years, which have addressed, among other things, diseases associated with poverty, such as soil transmitted helminth infections. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of geohelminth infection and several factors associated with it in these communities. Methods This was a cross sectional study in two indigenous communities of the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador. The data were analysed at both the household and individual levels. Results At the individual level, the prevalence of geohelminth infection reached 46.9% (95% CI 39.5% to 54.2%), with no differences in terms of gender, age, temporary migration movements or previous chemoprophylaxis. In 72.9% of households, one or more members were infected. Receiving subsidies and overcrowding were associated with the presence of helminths. Conclusions The prevalence of geohelminth infection was high. Our study suggests that it is necessary to conduct studies focusing on communities, and not simply on captive groups, such as schoolchildren, with the object of proposing more suitable and effective strategies to control this problem. PMID:28292765

  9. Differential Expression of Proteins and mRNAs from Border Cells and Root Tips of Pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. A.; Woo, H. H.; Nicoll, S. M.; Hawes, M. C.

    1995-10-01

    Many plants release large numbers of metabolically active root border cells into the rhizosphere. We have proposed that border cells, cells produced by the root cap meristem that separate from the rest of the root upon reaching the periphery of the cap, are a singularly differentiated part of the root system that modulates the environment of the plant root by producing specific substances to be released into the rhizosphere. Proteins synthesized in border cells exhibit profiles that are very distinct from those of the root tip (root cap, root meristem, and adjacent cells). In vivo-labeling experiments demonstrate that 13% of the proteins that are abundant in preparations from border cells are undetectable in root tip preparations. Twenty-five percent of the proteins synthesized by border cells in a 1-h period are rapidly excreted into the incubation medium. Quantitative variation in levels of specific marker proteins, including glutamine synthetase, heat-shock protein 70, and isoflavone reductase, also occurs between border cells and cells in the root tip. mRNA differential-display assays demonstrate that these large qualitative and quantitative differences in protein expression are correlated with similarly distinct patterns of gene expression. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that a major switch in gene expression accompanies differentiation into root border cells, as expected for cells with specialized functions in plant development.

  10. Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of visa liberalisation between Russia and the European Union, which constitutes a key aspect of the parties’ diplomatic cooperation. This work sets out to identify the main results of Russia/EU cooperation. The authors have conducted a brief historical analysis of this area of relations. The visa “regionalisation” is considered in the context of identifying the key actors of the EU — Russia negotiations: the Kaliningrad region, Germany, Poland, and Lithuania. In their analysis, the authors rely mostly on primary sources: intergovernmental agreements on simplified border traffic, border-crossing statistics for the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the local border traffic, expert interviews, and related analytic reports. Specifically, local border traffic is viewed as the most effective form of interaction in the field of visa regime simplification and border territory development. An assessment of the positions of key negotiators shows that local border traffic between the Kaliningrad region of Russia and the Polish border voivodeships is a success, which stresses the need for a prompt transition to a visa-free regime with the EU.

  11. Ecosystem Services and Border Regions. Case Study from Czech – Polish Borderland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Spyra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-use management and planning of cross-border regions is a complex problem. Different legislatures, development visions and interests on both sides of the border make it even more complicated. Introducing ecosystem services concept into land-use planning and management at cross-border regions is a challenge.  However not much is said about this issue in literature.This paper aims to present result of the study concerning to ecosystem services concept in the context of cross-border part of Pradziad Euroregion. The studyed area is situated within Czech – Polish borderland. First part of the research concerns to land-cover analyze of the region. The second one to Czech and Polish land-use strategies, which are binding at NUTS 4 and 5 level in the studyed area.Resoults of the research indicates asymmetry of the cross-border landscape of the analyzed region. The asymmetry is indicated by different types, biodiversities and areas of ecosystems identified on both sides of the border. It is also identified by differences in land-use strategies concerning to the region.It is discussed to what extend ecosystem services concept can be implemented in planning legislature of the cross-border region.

  12. The Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Development Modes of Border Ports in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoe Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Border ports play a substantial role in socio-economic exchanges, which reflect the diplomatic relations between neighboring countries. This paper maps and analyzes the evolution process of border ports in China since the 1930s, in terms of the spatial distribution, transport modes, cargo and flows of people. Four development modes of border ports and cities are summarized based on the functions and development level of border ports and their proximity to urban core areas. The four modes include: (1 Port-Port mode; (2 City-Port-Port-City mode; (3 City (Port-Port-City mode; (4 City (Port-City (Port mode, which also reflect the spatio-temporal evolution process of certain border ports and cities. The results show that the development of border ports is closely related to the bilateral relations with neighboring countries and their complementarities of natural resources and economic development, national foreign policies, as well as the physical, historical and cultural context. The findings of this study are helpful to promote the sustainable development of the border port system which is crucial for win-win reciprocity between China and its neighboring countries.

  13. Integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics reveal enhanced specialized metabolism in Medicago truncatula root border cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Bonnie S; Bedair, Mohamed F; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Huhman, David V; Yang, Dong Sik; Allen, Stacy N; Li, Wensheng; Tang, Yuhong; Sumner, Lloyd W

    2015-04-01

    Integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics of Medicago truncatula seedling border cells and root tips revealed substantial metabolic differences between these distinct and spatially segregated root regions. Large differential increases in oxylipin-pathway lipoxygenases and auxin-responsive transcript levels in border cells corresponded to differences in phytohormone and volatile levels compared with adjacent root tips. Morphological examinations of border cells revealed the presence of significant starch deposits that serve as critical energy and carbon reserves, as documented through increased β-amylase transcript levels and associated starch hydrolysis metabolites. A substantial proportion of primary metabolism transcripts were decreased in border cells, while many flavonoid- and triterpenoid-related metabolite and transcript levels were increased dramatically. The cumulative data provide compounding evidence that primary and secondary metabolism are differentially programmed in border cells relative to root tips. Metabolic resources normally destined for growth and development are redirected toward elevated accumulation of specialized metabolites in border cells, resulting in constitutively elevated defense and signaling compounds needed to protect the delicate root cap and signal motile rhizobia required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Elevated levels of 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone were further increased in border cells of roots exposed to cotton root rot (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora), and the value of 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone as an antimicrobial compound was demonstrated using in vitro growth inhibition assays. The cumulative and pathway-specific data provide key insights into the metabolic programming of border cells that strongly implicate a more prominent mechanistic role for border cells in plant-microbe signaling, defense, and interactions than envisioned previously.

  14. Possible role of root border cells in detection and avoidance of aluminum toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, S C; Hawes, M C

    2001-04-01

    Root border cells are living cells that surround root apices of most plant species and are involved in production of root exudates. We tested predictions of the hypothesis that they participate in detection and avoidance of aluminum (Al) toxicity by comparing responses of two snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars (cv Dade and cv Romano) known to differ in Al resistance at the whole-root level. Root border cells of these cultivars were killed by excess Al in agarose gels or in simple salt solutions. Percent viability of Al-sensitive cv Romano border cells exposed in situ for 96 h to 200 microM total Al in an agarose gel was significantly less than that of cv Dade border cells; similarly, relative viability of harvested cv Romano border cells was significantly less than that of cv Dade cells after 24 h in 25 microM total Al in a simple salt solution. These results indicate that Al-resistance mechanisms that operate at the level of whole roots also operate at the cellular level in border cells. Al induced a thicker mucilage layer around detached border cells of both cultivars. Cultivar Dade border cells produced a thicker mucilage layer in response to 25 microM Al compared with that of cv Romano cells after 8 h of treatment and this phenomenon preceded that of observed cultivar differences in relative cell viability. Release of an Al-binding mucilage by border cells could play a role in protecting root tips from Al-induced cellular damage.

  15. Pak3 regulates apical-basal polarity in migrating border cells during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Martina; Chayengia, Mrinal; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Sharma, Aditi; Prasad, Mohit

    2015-11-01

    Group cell migration is a highly coordinated process that is involved in a number of physiological events such as morphogenesis, wound healing and tumor metastasis. Unlike single cells, collectively moving cells are physically attached to each other and retain some degree of apical-basal polarity during the migratory phase. Although much is known about direction sensing, how polarity is regulated in multicellular movement remains unclear. Here we report the role of the protein kinase Pak3 in maintaining apical-basal polarity in migrating border cell clusters during Drosophila oogenesis. Pak3 is enriched in border cells and downregulation of its function impedes border cell movement. Time-lapse imaging suggests that Pak3 affects protrusive behavior of the border cell cluster, specifically regulating the stability and directionality of protrusions. Pak3 functions downstream of guidance receptor signaling to regulate the level and distribution of F-actin in migrating border cells. We also provide evidence that Pak3 genetically interacts with the lateral polarity marker Scribble and that it regulates JNK signaling in the moving border cells. Since Pak3 depletion results in mislocalization of several apical-basal polarity markers and overexpression of Jra rescues the polarity of the Pak3-depleted cluster, we propose that Pak3 functions through JNK signaling to modulate apical-basal polarity of the migrating border cell cluster. We also observe loss of apical-basal polarity in Rac1-depleted border cell clusters, suggesting that guidance receptor signaling functions through Rac GTPase and Pak3 to regulate the overall polarity of the cluster and mediate efficient collective movement of the border cells to the oocyte boundary.

  16. A Trusted Centralized Public Key to Secure Border Gateway Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divan Raimagia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Secure Border Gateway Protocol (S-BGP is used when two different Autonomous System communicate with each other and upon reception of UPDATE from neighbor Autonomous System. A core layer Router in single Autonomous System called BGP speaker first verifies the receiving update and signs the full path with own digital signature and send it to neighbor AS. In Real scenario so many ASes and Routers communicate to each other. So due to several digital signatures mandates, large storage require in router as well as high processor overhead and more time require for sign generation and verification in S-BGP. In this paper, we propose a new approach that less burden on BGP Speaker for verify and generate number of digital signatures using Autonomous System makes trusted through KDC server. The Central KDC Server will send master certificate to validate autonomous system. In this environment each BGP speaker verify only one sign on each update and verify path only between itself and neighbor router. After verification of UPDATE, each BGP speaker sign full path encrypt routing table with neighbor’s public key,

  17. IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE IN ETAWAH: A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the coverage of immunization among children of 12-23 months age group in rural Etawah (a border District of Uttar Pradesh? Objectives: 1. To assess the immunization coverage among 12-23 months age group children in rural Etawah. 2. To study the association of different socio-demographic factors with utilization of immunization services. Study Design: A community based cross sectional study. Setting: The present study was conducted in Saifai Block of District Etawah. Participants: Two hundred and ten children of 12-23 months were included in the study. Results: The percentage of completely immunized children was found to be 40%. The present study revealed that approximately 79.0% children were immunized against BCG, while the corresponding figure for measles vaccination was just 42.4%. Drop-out rate for complete immunization was 48.1%. Conclusion: Overall coverage of immunization services among children aged 12-23 months was lower than the national figures for rural Etawah. Literacy status of parents was significantly associated with the percentage of fully immunized children and the drop-out rate was also found to be higher among children of illiterate mothers. So there is need and scope of more focused Information, education and communication efforts towards parents regarding immunization services.

  18. Forecasting urban growth across the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Feller, M.; Phillip, Guertin D.

    2009-01-01

    The sister-city area of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, is known collectively as Ambos (both) Nogales. This area was historically one city and was administratively divided by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. These arid-lands have limited and sensitive natural resources. Environmental planning can support sustainable development to accommodate the predicted influx of population. The objective of this research is to quantify the amount of predicted urban growth for the Ambos Nogales watershed to support future planning for sustainable development. Two modeling regimes are explored. Our goal is to identify possible growth patterns associated with the twin-city area as a whole and with the two cities modeled as separate entities. We analyzed the cross-border watershed using regression analysis from satellite images from 1975, 1983, 1996, and 2002 and created urban area classifications. We used these classifications as input to the urban growth model, SLEUTH, to simulate likely patterns of development and define projected conversion probabilities. Model results indicate that the two cities are undergoing very different patterns of change and identify locations of expected growth based on historical development. Growth in Nogales, Arizona is stagnant while the urban area in Nogales, Sonora is exploding. This paper demonstrates an application that portrays how future binational urban growth could develop and affect the environment. This research also provides locations of potential growth for use in city planning.

  19. Border Dispute in the Adriatic Sea between Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fabijaniæ GAGRO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This Article represents an overview of long-running border dispute between two neighboring states – Republic of Croatia and Republic of Slovenia in the maritime area of the Northern Adriatic. Despite more than two decades of unsuccessful efforts, including several documents controversial on one or both sides, there are still some disputable points waiting for the final settlement. It is expected to be reached by the Arbitration Tribunal established by the Arbitration Agreement between Croatia and Slovenia, signed in 2009. Without any doubt, this Agreement represents a step forward in their mutual efforts toward peaceful solution, but also contains few open questions to be resolved by the Arbitration Tribunal. In this Article the author presents brief overview of long-time efforts that led to the conclusion of the Arbitration Agreement, as well as the main components that has to be considered – strong political demands in relation to preserve territorial integrities of both states and – at the end – to accomplish a peaceful solution in accordance to the rules of international law.

  20. Library of monoclonal antibodies against brush border membrane epithelial antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behar, M.; Katz, A.; Silverman, M.

    1986-03-01

    A purified fraction of proximal tubule brush border membranes (BBM) was prepared from dog kidney and used to immunize mice. The standard technique of hybridoma production was followed as described by Kohler and Milstein. Production of antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence on dog kidney slices and by immunodot against the purified fraction on nitrocellulose. Five hybrids exhibited anti BBM activity. These were cloned twice and yielded stable cell lines producing IgG type monoclonal antibodies against BBM. They were designated A/sub 1/, C/sub 7/, D/sub 3/, D/sub 7/ and H/sub 4/. As a family these five monoclonals have broad tissue specificity, i.e. positive staining of the surface mucosa of intestinal kidney proximal tubules. D/sub 3/ exhibits even broader specificity for epithelium reacting with bile canaliculi and choroid plexus. The authors have verified that at least 4/5 antibodies are directed against BBM protein as revealed by immunoprecipitation of solubilized BBM and detected by Coomassie blue staining or autoradiography of lactoperoxidase labelled BBM. Most interestingly all antibodies bind to the surface of LL CPK/sub 1/ cells, a continuous pig kidney cell line of undefined origin but exhibiting many characteristics of proximal tubule cells. The library of monoclonal antibodies obtained provide important probes with which to study membrane biogenesis and polarization in epithelial cells.

  1. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K

    2013-08-01

    Although "association with delinquent peers" is commonly identified as "a risk factor for youth violence," this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these "doubly diverse" friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and "delinquent peers." It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk.

  2. The transformation of the countryside at the Slovene-Croatian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Koščak

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the rural areas along the Slovene - Croatian border was influenced by many reasons, among which the most important was polycentric concept of social demogarphy as well as physical development. After introduction of a border line between Slovenia and Croatia the process of transformation of rural areas have taken on additional issues connected to the problems of border areas and marginal regions and thus are both specific and new for this region. Transformation of rural areas is a permanent process,that affects both the landscape, as well as its functions.

  3. The Border Patrol and Their Migra Corridos: Propaganda, Genre Adaptation, and Mexican Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    María Herrera-Sobek

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Border Patrol efforts to stop illegal immigration from Mexico to the United States are manifold. In recent times, the U.S. Border Patrol has begun employing so-called corridos, or Mexican ballads, as a means of covert propaganda to slow down illegal immigration. In her article, María Herrera-Sobek discusses the appropriation of the corrido genre by the U.S. Border Control and analyzes the corridos from the point of view of extra-literary adaptations.

  4. The Border Patrol and Their Migra Corridos: Propaganda, Genre Adaptation, and Mexican Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Herrera-Sobek

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Border Patrol efforts to stop illegal immigration from Mexico to the United States are manifold. In recent times, the U.S. Border Patrol has begun employing so-called corridos, or Mexican ballads, as a means of covert propaganda to slow down illegal immigration. In her article, María Herrera-Sobek discusses the appropriation of the corrido genre by the U.S. Border Control and analyzes the corridos from the point of view of extra-literary adaptations.

  5. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1988-01-01

    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  6. A determination Standard of Jurisdiction in Cross-Border Insolvency——Center of Main Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玥

    2010-01-01

    The UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency (‘the Model Law’) enacted on May 5 1997 and the European Commission Insolvency Regulation enforced in 2002 both adopted a new type of establishing standard-company’s main interest (COMI)-to distribute the jurisdiction around the world in cross-border insolvency cases. The purpose of these two legal documents is to endeavor to find the place that has the most significant connection with the debtor. This essay is trying to analyze the new standard and enlighten the judicial practice of China in cross-border insolvency field.

  7. Cross-Border Labor Organizing in the Garment and Automobile Industries: The Phillips Van-Heusen and Ford Cuautitlan Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has created new opportunities for cross-border labor organizing. In this paper I examine two case studies of cross -border labor organizing. One case involves Phillips Van-Hernen (PVH workers in Guatemala City, and the other Ford automobile workers in Cuautitlan, Mexico. The PVH case illustrates the potential for cross-border labor organizing in the highly mobile garment industry. The PVH workers' union and their cross-border allies adopted a "strategic cross-border organizing model" that included consumer and trade pressure, an active international trade secretariat, and several other strategies, to achieve an amazing victory. However, the Ford Cuautitlan case demonstrates that corporatist state-labor relations and internal union conflicts have limited cross-border organizing in the automobile industry. These two case studies and their different outcomes have many important lessons for academics and activists interested in cross-border labor organizing.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of cystic lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghoon; Lee, Eun Joo

    2017-01-01

    Cystic lung disease (CLD) is a group of lung disorders characterized by the presence of multiple cysts, defined as air-filled lucencies or low-attenuating areas, bordered by a thin wall (usually Hogg-Dube syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia/follicular bronchiolitis, and amyloidosis. PMID:28264540

  9. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria: A methodological note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large......The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... traders, and considered as re-export products: building materials, cereals and flour, textile, used clothing, used vehicles, cigarettes and oil....

  10. MONDAY: EPA to Hold U.S.-Mexico Border 2020 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (Sept. 21, 2015) The U.S-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Mexican Environment and Natural Resources Secretariat (SEMARNAT) are holding their first biennial national coordinators meeting. The meeting is part of the Border 2020 U

  11. Function of root border cells in plant health: pioneers in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M C; Brigham, L A; Wen, F; Woo, H H; Zhu, Y

    1998-01-01

    Plants dedicate a large amount of energy to the regulated production of living cells programmed to separate from roots into the external environment. This unusual process may be worth the cost because it enables the plant to dictate which species will share its ecological niche. For example, border cells can rapidly attract and stimulate growth in some microorganisms and repel and inhibit the growth of others. Such specificity may provide a way to control the dynamics of adjacent microbial populations in the soil to foster beneficial associations and inhibit pathogenic invasion. Plant genes controlling the delivery of border cells and the expression of their unique properties provide tools to genetically engineer plants with altered border cell quality and quantity. Such variants are being used to test the hypothesis that the function of border cells is to protect plant health by controlling the ecology of the root system.

  12. Dynamic transcriptional signature and cell fate analysis reveals plasticity of individual neural plate border cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Daniela; Tan-Cabugao, Johanna; Esaian, Sevan; Bronner, Marianne E

    2017-03-29

    The 'neural plate border' of vertebrate embryos contains precursors of neural crest and placode cells, both defining vertebrate characteristics. How these lineages segregate from neural and epidermal fates has been a matter of debate. We address this by performing a fine-scale quantitative temporal analysis of transcription factor expression in the neural plate border of chick embryos. The results reveal significant overlap of transcription factors characteristic of multiple lineages in individual border cells from gastrula through neurula stages. Cell fate analysis using a Sox2 (neural) enhancer reveals that cells that are initially Sox2+ cells can contribute not only to neural tube but also to neural crest and epidermis. Moreover, modulating levels of Sox2 or Pax7 alters the apportionment of neural tube versus neural crest fates. Our results resolve a long-standing question and suggest that many individual border cells maintain ability to contribute to multiple ectodermal lineages until or beyond neural tube closure.

  13. Low level genotypic chloroquine resistance near Malawi's northern border with Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Daniel J; Molyneux, Malcolm; Nkhoma, Standwell

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a prevalence study of mutations in Plasmodium falciparum that are associated with antimalarial drug resistance at a rural site in Karonga near Malawi's northern border with Tanzania. We found a higher prevalence of the key chloroquine resistance-conferring mutation in the pfcrt gene (K76T) at this site in comparison with the prevalence in Blantyre, a city in the south of Malawi, far from an international border (9%vs. 0%; P Malawi was recently reported to be over 50%. Our findings suggest a considerable 'leakage' of parasite antimalarial drug resistance across the border between two countries with different national malaria control policies and with different levels of resistance. Neighbouring countries should consider implementing common regional rather than national malaria treatment policies to prevent the spread of antimalarial drug resistance alleles across their borders.

  14. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Implementation: The Future of Commercial Trucking Across the Mexican Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Fruits, vegetables, beverages, confectionary and other products requiring either refrigeration or temperature protection account for over a quarter...Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, TransBorder Freight Data, as of March 2007. Prepared by BTS

  15. Modularity maximization and tree clustering: Novel ways to determine effective geographic borders

    CERN Document Server

    Grady, Daniel; Thiemann, Christian; Theis, Fabian; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, most existing administrative borders were determined by a variety of historic and political circumstances along with some degree of arbitrariness. Societies have changed drastically, and it is doubtful that currently existing borders reflect the most logical divisions. Fortunately, at this point in history we are in a position to actually measure some aspects of the geographic structure of society through human mobility. Large-scale transportation systems such as trains and airlines provide data about the number of people traveling between geographic locations, and many promising human mobility proxies are being discovered, such as cell phones, bank notes, and various online social networks. In this chapter we apply two optimiz...

  16. [Malaria in the triple border region between Brazil, Colombia and Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Paulo César; Franco, Vivian da Cruz; Gracie, Renata; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to analyze the malaria surveillance situation on the triple border between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. This was a qualitative study using questionnaires in the border towns in 2011. The results were analyzed with the SWOT matrix methodology, pointing to significant differences between the malaria surveillance systems along the border. Weaknesses included lack of linkage between actors, lack of trained personnel, high turnover in teams, and lack of malaria specialists in the local hospitals. The study also showed lack of knowledge on malaria and its prevention in the local population. The strengths are the inclusion of new institutional actors, improvement of professional training, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and possibilities for complementary action between surveillance systems through cooperation between health teams on the border. Malaria control can only be successful if the region is dealt with as a whole.

  17. In the Eyes of the Beholder: Border enforcement, suspect travellers and trafficking victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Ham

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the border and border policing has figured as central to identifying and responding to trafficking. This article draws on original research into immigration officers’ decision-making — both at the border and within the nation — to identify the persistent preoccupation with suspect travellers. Examining research in Australia and Thailand that spans seven years, the article brings together research that demonstrates the predominance of the binary category of victim of trafficking/unlawful migrant worker and highlights the ambiguity of daily decision-making processes that categorise women who come into contact with immigration authorities. While the policy rhetoric is based on categories and risk profiles for identifying suspected victims of trafficking or those deemed at risk, we contribute to the growing body of work that has highlighted the presence of gendered and racialised stereotypes in immigration decision-making and consider implications this may have on women’s mobility across and within borders.

  18. Satellite change detection analysis of deforestation rates and patterns along the Colombia-Ecuador border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, Andrés; Echavarria, Fernando R; Rundquist, Donald C

    2004-05-01

    This study uses Landsat satellite data to document the rates and patterns of land-cover change along a portion of the Colombia-Ecuador border during a 23-yr period (1973-1996). Human colonization has resulted in extensive deforestation in both countries. Satellite change detection analysis showed that the annual rates of deforestation were considerably higher for the Colombian side of the border. In addition, loss of forest cover on the Colombian side for the study period was almost 43%, while only 22% on the Ecuadorian side. The study found that there is no single factor driving deforestation on either side of the border, but concluded that the higher rates on the Colombian side may be due to higher colonization pressures and intensification of illegal coca cultivation. On the Ecuador side of the border the satellite images documented patterns of deforestation that reflected road networks associated with oil exploration and development.

  19. Mixed Initial-Boundary Value Problem for Telegraph Equation in Domain with Variable Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ostapenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed initial-boundary value problem for telegraph equation in domain with variable borders is considered. On one part of domain’s border are the boundary conditions of the first type, on other part of the boundary are set boundary conditions of the second type. Besides, the sizes of area are variable. The solution of such problem demands development of special methods. With the help of consecutive application of procedure of construction waves reflected from borders of domain, it is possible to obtain the solution of this problem in quadratures. In addition, for construction of the waves reflected from mobile border, it is necessary to apply the procedure specially developed for these purposes.

  20. U.S. Customs and Border Protection Import Trade Trends - FY 2010, Year-End Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — U.S. Customs and Border Protection is pleased to present the Import Trade Trends Report. This report is produced semiannually and features graphical analysis and...

  1. U.S. Customs and Border Protection Import Trade Trends - FY 2011, Year-End Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — U.S. Customs and Border Protection is pleased to present the Import Trade Trends Report. This report is produced semiannually and features graphical analysis and...

  2. Development of the model of protected cross-border information interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyashev, R. G.; Nyssanbayeva, S. E.; Begimbayeva, Ye. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This article investigates a proposed model of cross-border exchange and information security in the cross-border interaction in the integration system. A structural scheme of protected cross-border information exchange is proposed. Cross-border interaction of sides for information exchange in the integrated system is provided by the creation and use of the integration segment and national segments. The main tasks of a trusted third party are formulated. The model of sides' interaction scheme of the integration system using the integration gateway is presented. In this paper, a model of modified nonconventional digital signature system based on the scheme of the Digital Signature Algorithm and nonpositional polynomial number systems (NPNs) are described. Application of NPNs allows creating effective cryptographic systems of high reliability, which enables the confidentiality, authentication, integrity of stored and transmitted information.

  3. A balanced way for China's inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of solutions to China’s inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation, the doctoral dissertation provides 10 original recommendations accompanied with comments, which are entitled “CICIA”.

  4. Cross-border entrepreneurship in a global world: a critical reconceptualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Servais, Per

    2017-01-01

    , while immigrant entrepreneurship mainly considers incoming entrepreneurial activity. This paper critically discusses such a dichotomy, highlighting how differentiating immigrant entrepreneurs and international entrepreneurs perpetuates orientalist assumptions about cross-border business activity...

  5. U.S. Customs and Border Protection Import Trade Trends -FY2012, Year-End Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — U.S. Customs and Border Protection is pleased to present the Import Trade Trends Report. This report is produced semiannually and features graphical analysis and...

  6. Genetic evidence of an accessory activity required specifically for cubilin brush-border expression and intrinsic factor-cobalamin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Kozyraki, R; Newman, T C; Fyfe, J C

    1999-11-15

    Cubilin is a high molecular weight multiligand receptor that mediates intestinal absorption of intrinsic factor-cobalamin and selective protein reabsorption in renal tubules. The genetic basis of selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption with proteinuria was investigated in a canine model closely resembling human Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome caused by cubilin mutations. Canine CUBN cDNA was cloned and sequenced, showing high identity with human and rat CUBN cDNAs. An intragenic CUBN marker was identified in the canine family and used to test the hypothesis of genetic linkage of the disease and CUBN loci. Linkage was rejected, indicating that the canine disorder resembling Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome is caused by defect of a gene product other than cubilin. These results imply that there may be locus heterogeneity among human kindreds with selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria and that normal brush-border expression of cubilin requires the activity of an accessory protein.

  7. Voices from the Borders. Feridun Zaimoglu’s Kanaksprak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Urbano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kanak Sprak, a collection of reportages by the Turkish-German author Feridun Zaimoglu issued in 1995, suggests two considerations: on the one hand on the strategies of empowerment of the stigma “Kanake”, which labels Turkish and other Germans with migration background who have been raised in the Federal Republic; on the other hand on the distortion of the mainstream language as a strategy of decolonization. Hence, this paper focuses on the subversion of the stereotype and the “relexification” of the language. The stereotype works – as Homi Bhabha claims – like an apparatus, a deployment in which relations of force are formed and operate. By turning the stereotype into an articulation of their difference, Zaimoglu’s Kanaken try to subvert the hegemonic gaze, which contains their fluid identity into a label, and thus to assert their “in-betweeness” as “synthetic products”. Yet, their strategy of empowerment works as a performance of codes of behaviour and of a body language, which turn to absorb the mainstream gaze, failing in the claim for a resistant identity. Furthermore their corrupted language, which is neither German nor Turkish, but a sort of provocative street slang rich in vernacular terms, works as a “relexification”, as Chantal Zabus calls the attempt to corrupt an European language with elements from another cultural substrate. Yet, Zaimoglu’s rendering of it sounds like a mockery of this slang, as the hegemonic German culture usually encodes it. So, the fluid border crossing of Kanak interstitial identity in the end crystallizes in a mimicry, in which both codes of behaviour and language structures become a metonymic representation of difference.

  8. Moving across the border: modeling migratory bat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscena, Wiederholt; López-Hoffman, Laura; Cline, Jon; Medellin, Rodrigo; Cryan, Paul M.; Russell, Amy; McCracken, Gary; Diffendorfer, Jay; Semmens, Darius J.

    2013-01-01

    The migration of animals across long distances and between multiple habitats presents a major challenge for conservation. For the migratory Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), these challenges include identifying and protecting migratory routes and critical roosts in two countries, the United States and Mexico. Knowledge and conservation of bat migratory routes is critical in the face of increasing threats from climate change and wind turbines that might decrease migratory survival. We employ a new modeling approach for bat migration, network modeling, to simulate migratory routes between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding habitat in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. We use the model to identify key migratory routes and the roosts of greatest conservation value to the overall population. We measure roost importance by the degree to which the overall bat population declined when the roost was removed from the model. The major migratory routes—those with the greatest number of migrants—were between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding roosts in Texas and the northern Mexican states of Sonora and Nuevo Leon. The summer breeding roosts in Texas, Sonora, and Nuevo Leon were the most important for maintaining population numbers and network structure – these are also the largest roosts. This modeling approach contributes to conservation efforts by identifying the most influential areas for bat populations, and can be used as a tool to improve our understanding of bat migration for other species. We anticipate this approach will help direct coordination of habitat protection across borders.

  9. TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY IN A BORDER TERRITORY: ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Beltrán Antolín

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain, an European Union country, has become a new location for Asian transnationalism, a new territory to explore, an horizon to discover, a border to cross over. The Spanish economy is an attractive sector for Asian investment and business initiatives, that receives projects and initiatives already tested in other places, or new ones, particularly adapted to the local factors. The diasporas that have taken place, can be categorised, in general terms, into three typologies: the commercial diaspora, the elite and “bottom-up transnationalism”; three models of transnationalism which –in Spain– have demonstrated great adaptability and a high level of integration into the social and economic life of the welcoming country. However, at the same time, inevitable processes of economic competition have been unleashed and have sometimes given rise to violent outbreaks of racism and xenophobia. The Asian disembarkation of its diasporas in a boundary territory of Europe such as Spain, together with the accompanying economic and entrepreneurial dynamism, foster both the increase of wealth and the internationalisation of the national economy. Asian transnationalism –in the context of Spain– should be considered as multinodal and not exclusively binational (origin and destination, as the links actively maintained by the actors-agents of transnationalism include different Asian immigrant communities scattered throughout the world, as well as the countrie of origin. Spain is just another location, one step more in the cross-over that Asian transnationalism involves; in short, a boundary territory that is still filled with opportunities to explore.

  10. Imageries Connected with Border in The Farming of Bones by Edwidge Danticat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi

    2014-01-01

    This essay indicates the intertwined relation between border and identity in Danticat ’s novel The Farming of Bones. The author makes a combination of the recurring imageries like“River”,“Parsley”and“Twins”related to border-the Massa-cre River as a metaphor to emphasize this boundary which causes all the sufferings of Haitian people like Amabelle and the new hope the survivor are seeking for.

  11. The patterns of language choice at the border of Malaysia-Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar; Norsimah Mat Awal; Mohammed Azlan Mis; Norhayati Lateh

    2016-01-01

    Any activities conducted at the boundary area between countries will only be successful if the community of speakers has mutual understanding in terms of language, especially those involving business. This study focuses on a community in the northern part of Malaysia near the Thailand border where majority of people are bilingual in Malay and Thai. This study aims to investigate the patterns of language used by speakers in the Malaysia-Thailand border, in the context of language maintenance a...

  12. Exploration of the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles along with Other Assets to Enhance Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Border Initiative SUAV Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar TTPs Tactics, Techniques, And Procedures TRVS Trailer Remote...portable systems, and Trailer Remote Video Systems (TRVS) that are generally mounted on “Sky Watch” trailer systems (U.S. CBP, 2008). Some characteristics...areas, the Border Patrol even employs horses, all-terrain motorcycles, bicycles , and snowmobiles (U.S. CBP, 2009). BP conducts its mission within 20

  13. Contrast kinetics of the malignant breast tumour - border versus centre enhancement on dynamic midfield MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, M.; Torp-Pedersen, S.; Bentzon, N.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the border versus centre enhancement of malignant breast tumours on dynamic magnetic resonance mammography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two women diagnosed with primary breast cancer underwent dynamic magnetic resonance mammography (Omniscan 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight...... receptor negative tumours. CONCLUSION: The border/centre enhancement difference in malignant breast tumours is easily visualized on midfield dynamic magnetic resonance mammography. The dynamic behaviour is significantly correlated to histological features and receptor status of the tumours Udgivelsesdato...

  14. Developing and Adapting a Family-based Diabetes Program at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolette I. Teufel-Shone, PhD; Rebecca Drummond, MA; Ulrike Rawiel, MS

    2005-01-01

    Context The prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics is more than twice that of non-Hispanic whites in communities along the U.S.-Mexico border. The University of Arizona and two community health agencies on the Arizona border, Campesinos Sin Fronteras and Mariposa Community Health Center, collaborated to design, pilot and assess the feasibility of a lay health-outreach worker- (promotora-) delivered diabetes education program for families. La Diabetes y La Unión Familiar was developed to buil...

  15. Determinants of Illegal Mexican Immigration into the US Southern Border States

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Buehn; Stefan Eichler

    2013-01-01

    We model illegal immigration across the US-Mexico border into Arizona, California, and Texas as an unobservable variable applying a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model. Using state-level data from 1985 to 2004, we test the incentives and deterrents influencing illegal immigration. Better labor market conditions in a US state and worse in Mexico encourage illegal immigration while more intense border enforcement deters it. Estimating the state-specific inflow of illegal Mexican immigrant...

  16. Some aspects of historical research on <borders>> earthquakes in eighteenth century Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ambraseys

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the CEC project <> the border areas and <borders>> repositories are presented, with special attention paid to eighteenth century Europe.

  17. Cross-Border Higher Education Institutions in Mainland China : A developmental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Mei; Li, Shengbing

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border higher education institutions are considered a main way to fulfill the educational internalization in Mainland China; to some extent they represent the attitude of entering the international market. In this paper, the history, status quo, and future of Chinese-foreign cooperatively-run schools are analyzed and discussed. Cross-border higher education institutions in Mainland China have experienced the process from accidental and disorder to a systematic and quality orientation.

  18. Trends of cross-border mobility of physicians and nurses between Portugal and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Claudia; Conceição, Cláudia; Dussault,Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Context Health workforce cross-border mobility has an impact not only on individual health workers, but also on how health services are organized, planned, and delivered. This paper presents the results of a study of current mobility trends of health professionals along the borders between Portugal and Spain. The objective was to describe the profile of mobile physicians and nurses; to elicit the opinions of employers on mobility factors; to describe incentive policies to retain or attract he...

  19. The Role of Borders, Languages, and Currencies as Obstacles to Labor Market Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bartz, Kevin; Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Based on a modified Spatiotemporal Autoregressive Model (STAR), we analyze whether borders still constitute significant impediments to labor market integration in the European Union, despite the formal law of free movement of labor. Using regional data from the EU-15 countries over 21 years, we find that this is the case. We further investigate whether the abolishment of border checks through the Schengen agreement or the introduction of the Euro improved our measure of labor market integrati...

  20. Scientific collaboration in the Danish–German border region of Southern Jutland–Schleswig

    OpenAIRE

    Makkonen, T.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Danish Geographical Society. This paper investigates the geographical and organizational patterns of scientific collaboration, in terms of co-authored scientific articles, in the Danish–German border region of Southern Jutland–Schleswig. The motivation behind the approach lies in the fact that scientific collaboration in border regions, in general, and the studied region, in particular, has rarely been discussed in the academic literature. The integration model of cross-borde...