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Sample records for border disease

  1. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

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    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  2. Border screening vs. community level disease control for infectious diseases: Timing and effectiveness

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    Kim, Sehjeong; Chang, Dong Eui

    2017-06-01

    There have been many studies of the border screening using a simple math model or a statistical analysis to investigate the ineffectiveness of border screening during 2003 and 2009 pandemics. However, the use of border screening is still a controversial issue. It is due to focusing only on the functionality of border screening without considering the timing to use. In this paper, we attempt to qualitatively answer whether the use of border screening is a desirable action during a disease pandemic. Thus, a novel mathematical model with a transition probability of status change during flight and border screening is developed. A condition to check a timing of the border screening is established in terms of a lower bound of the basic reproduction number. If the lower bound is greater than one, which indicates a pandemic, then the border screening may not be effective and the disease persists. In this case, a community level control strategy should be conducted.

  3. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

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    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  4. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examination.......50. There was no difference between the prevalence in sheep and goat herds. Records for well over half of the herds could be combined with data from the Danish Central Husbandry Register. No association between occurrence of ED and herd size was found. Cattle were registered as contemporarily present on 135 out of 521 herds...

  5. Infectious disease morbidity in the US region bordering Mexico, 1990-1998.

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    Doyle, T J; Bryan, R T

    2000-11-01

    The United States and Mexico share an international boundary approximately 3000 km long. This border separates 2 nations with great differences in health status. The objective of this study was to assess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the US region bordering Mexico. The incidence between 1990 and 1998 of 22 nationally notifiable infectious diseases was compared between border and nonborder regions. Disease rates, reflected as rate ratios, were higher in the border region for botulism, brucellosis, diphtheria, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rabies, rubella, salmonellosis, and shigellosis than in either of 2 nonborder comparison regions. These data indicate that incidence rates for a variety of infectious diseases of public health importance are significantly higher in the United States along the Mexican border than in nonborder regions. These results suggest that an inadequate public health infrastructure may contribute to excess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the border region.

  6. The politics of securing borders and the identities of disease.

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    Taylor, Rosemary C R

    2013-02-01

    This article compares the policies adopted by Britain, France and Germany to cope with health threats thought to be posed by entrants and migrants and explains why these governments screened at their borders for tuberculosis but not for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). In order to understand these outcomes, we must recognise that diseases acquire durable identities, conditioned by collective imaginaries and institutional contexts when they first come to attention, which bias subsequent decisions, notably about how to balance the value of mandatory testing against the rights of the individual. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Evidence of circulation of the novel border disease virus genotype 8 in chamois.

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    Caruso, Claudio; Peletto, Simone; Cerutti, Francesco; Modesto, Paola; Robetto, Serena; Domenis, Lorenzo; Masoero, Loretta; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2017-02-01

    Evidence of association between the novel putative border disease virus genotype 8 (BDV-8) and fatal disease in an Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is reported. Diagnostically, we also demonstrated, as already previously reported, the failure of BDV-specific primers (PDB1 and PDB2) to detect BDV-8.

  8. Severe outbreak of disease in the southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) associated with border disease virus infection.

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    Marco, Ignasi; Lopez-Olvera, Jorge Ramon; Rosell, Rosa; Vidal, Enric; Hurtado, Ana; Juste, Ramon; Pumarola, Marti; Lavin, Santiago

    2007-02-25

    An outbreak of a previously unreported disease affecting southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the central Pyrenees (NE Spain) was recorded in 2001 and 2002. There was a marked temporal distribution, most animals being found between February and June. After the outbreak, the population was found to have decreased by about 42%, most probably due to the disease. We examined 20 affected chamois. Clinical manifestations included depression, weakness and movement difficulties in all cases. Three chamois presented abnormal behaviour, with absence of flight reaction, and 16 showed different degrees of alopecia with skin hyperpigmentation. At necropsy cachexia was observed in all animals, four chamois had abscesses in different parts of the body, four had pneumonia, one had an extensive subcutaneous infection on the head and neck and one had severe orchitis. Microscopic lesions were found in the brain, mainly edema, gliosis, espongiosis, cariorrexis and neuronal multifocal necrosis. A perivascular mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate was present in three of them. Skin lesions included marked follicular atrophy, mild to moderate epidermal hyperplasia with orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and follicular hyperkeratosis, and hypermelanosis. In 13 chamois there were haemosiderin deposits in the spleen, and in three individuals kidney "cloissone" was observed. Intraeritrocitic parasites were detected either by direct observation or PCR in 8 of 17 chamois. A pestivirus was isolated and detected by RT-PCR from 12 of 13 affected chamois and antigenic characterized as border disease virus by monoclonal antibodies. This is the first time a border disease virus has been associated with an outbreak of a high-mortality disease in a wild species.

  9. Bacteria without borders: communicable disease politics in Europe.

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    Greer, Scott L; Mätzke, Margitta

    2012-12-01

    Communicable disease control might be one of the oldest and most important functions of the modern state, but it receives very little attention today. This article introduces a special issue on the Europeanization of communicable disease control politics in Europe. The Europeanization of communicable disease control is a case of both European integration and communicable disease politics. We first analyze the problems and tensions in communicable disease control as a problem of overlapping interprofessional, interorganizational, intergovernmental, and international tensions. We then present the European Union, a new and understudied actor in communicable disease politics, sketching the theoretical background for Europeanization of the field and introducing the articles in the special issue.

  10. The Potential Impact of Border Security Upon Prevalence of Infectious Disease.

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    Dallas, Christiana R; Harris, Curtis H; Dallas, Cham E

    2018-03-15

    In the U.S., migration has been documented to affect the prevalence of infectious disease. As a mitigation entity, border security has been recorded by numerous scholarly works as being essential to the support of the health of the U.S. Consequently, the lack of current health care monitoring of the permeable U.S. border places the U.S. population at risk in the broad sectors of infectious disease and interpersonal violence. Visualizing border security in the context of public health mitigation has significant potential to protect migrant health as well as that of all populations on both sides of the border. Examples of how commonly this philosophy is held can be found in the expansive use of security-focused terms regarding public health. Using tools such as GIS to screen for disease in people before their entrance into a nation would be more efficient and ethical than treating patients once they have entered a population and increased the impact on the healthcare system. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 9).

  11. Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade.

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    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time.A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5% operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1-80.0% of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries.By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential.

  12. Potential Risk of Regional Disease Spread in West Africa through Cross-Border Cattle Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anna S.; Fournié, Guillaume; Kulo, Abalo E.; Boukaya, G. Aboudou; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2013-01-01

    Background Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. Methods and Principal Findings A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5%) operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1–80.0%) of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. Conclusions By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential. PMID:24130721

  13. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

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    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  14. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  15. Border Disease Virus: An Exceptional Driver of Chamois Populations Among Other Threats

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    Serrano, Emmanuel; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Garel, Mathieu; Cabezón, Oscar; Velarde, Roser; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rosell, Rosa; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging infectious diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4) caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange, and BD outbreaks. BD-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations. PMID:26733943

  16. Border Disease Virus: an exceptional driver of chamois populations among other threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eSerrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4 caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange and BDV outbreaks. BDV-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations.

  17. Chagas Disease Infection among Migrants at the Mexico/Guatemala Border.

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    Conners, Erin E; Ordoñez, Teresa López; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Casanueva, Carmen Fernández; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2017-10-01

    Chagas disease results in the largest burden, in terms of disability-adjusted-life-years, of any parasitic disease in the Americas. Monitoring Chagas disease among migrants is critical to controlling its spread and to serving the needs of the migrant community. Therefore, we determined the prevalence and correlates of Chagas disease in regional and international migrant populations at the Mexico/Guatemala border. Data were collected as part of a larger study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and migration. Participants were a sample of recent regional and international migrants who used an illicit substance or had recent problem drinking. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was classified as testing positive on two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Interviewer-administered surveys captured sociodemographics, migration history, Chagas disease knowledge, and access to care. We enrolled 389 recent migrants, and the prevalence of Chagas disease was 3.1%. Only 19% of the participants reported having ever heard of the disease and less than 1% had been previously tested. Trypanosoma cruzi -positive participants were more likely to have been born in a rural area or town than a city (92% yes versus 59% no, P = 0.02) and have recently lived in a house with a makeshift roof (33% yes versus 8% no, P distribution of Chagas disease, more work needs to be done to create targeted surveillance programs and provide access to affordable treatment among Latin American migrants.

  18. The two sides of border disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica): silent persistence and population collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Cabezón, Oscar; Velarde, Roser; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Serrano, Emmanuel; Rosell, Rosa; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Lavín, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    In 2001, border disease virus (BDV) was identified as the cause of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in Spain. Since then, the disease has caused a dramatic decrease, and in some cases collapse, of chamois populations and has expanded to nearly the entire distribution area in the Pyrenees. Chamois BDV was characterized as BDV-4 genotype and experimental studies confirmed that it was the primary agent of the disease. The infection has become endemic in the Central and Eastern Pyrenees. However, while most Pyrenean chamois populations have been severely affected by the disease, others have not, despite the circulation of BDV in apparently healthy individuals, suggesting the existence of different viral strategies for persisting in the host population. Changes in the interplay of pathogen, host and environmental factors may lead to the formation of different disease patterns. A key factor influencing disease emergence may be pathogen invasiveness through viral mutation. Host factors, such as behavior, immunity at the population level and genetic variability, may also have driven different epidemiological scenarios. Climatic and other ecological factors may have favored secondary infections, such as pneumonia, that under particular circumstances have been major contributing factors in the high mortality observed in some areas.

  19. Haematology and serum chemistry of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) naturally infected with a border disease virus.

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    Fernández-Sirera, L; Mentaberre, G; López-Olvera, J R; Cuenca, R; Lavín, S; Marco, I

    2011-06-01

    In 2005 and 2006 an outbreak of disease associated with border disease virus (BDV) infection caused high mortality in the Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain). The aim of this study was to determine values for different haematological and serum biochemical analytes in 32 free-ranging Pyrenean chamois affected by the disease and to compare them with those obtained from healthy chamois. In the affected chamois red blood cell counts, haemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volumes, mean corpuscular volumes and lymphocyte counts were all lower, while the neutrophil and platelet counts were higher. Glucose, lactate, triglycerides, creatinine, total protein concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity were also lower, in contrast to the concentrations of total bilirubin, urea and aspartate aminotransferase activity, which were higher. Most of the observed changes could be associated with cachexia and inflammation in the affected chamois. Lymphopenia could be directly related to the BDV, which would lead to immunosuppression and explain the high rate of secondary infection observed in these animals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A survey of folk remedies for gastrointestinal tract diseases from Thailand's three southern border provinces.

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    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Tuwaemaengae, Tuwaeyah; Bensulong, Fatin; Asae, Asma; Mosamae, Kholeel

    2012-10-31

    Gastrointestinal tract diseases commonly occur in Thailand. However, surveying for finding out traditional drugs has never been done. To quantify and categorize the folk medicinal remedies that are used for healing the gastrointestinal tract by the traditional healers living in Thailand's three southern border provinces. The Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat provinces were selected. Semi-structured interviews of nine healers were conducted to collect information that included the remedy names, herbal ingredients, plant parts used, preparation, properties and treatment methods. The data were then further analyzed. The results revealed that 39 multi-species remedies and 36 single-species remedies were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 103 plant species and 5 other materia medica were used as therapeutics. Most of the plants used were of the Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae families. Furthermore, it was found that although most of the healers used different remedies for a particular disease, some of the ingredients might have been similar. For example, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. was an ingredient used for parasitic disease remedies, and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. was used for constipation remedies. A review of the literature revealed 57 plant species and 2 other materia medica that have already been tested for their biological activities, whereas 46 plant species and 3 materia medica have never been tested. Consequently, research should be performed to confirm the pharmacological properties of folk remedies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental infection with chamois border disease virus causes long-lasting viraemia and disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

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    Cabezón, Oscar; Velarde, Roser; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; López-Olvera, Jorge; Serrano, Emmanuel; Rosell, Rosa; Riquelme, Cristina; Lavín, Santiago; Segalés, Joaquim; Marco, Ignasi

    2011-11-01

    Since 2001, severe outbreaks of disease associated with border disease virus (BDV) infection have been reported in Pyrenean chamois. The disease is characterized by variable degrees of cachexia, alopecia and neurological manifestations prior to death. The aim of this study was to investigate this disease under experimental conditions. To assess viral virulence, humoral immune response, dissemination and probable routes of transmission, seven chamois (five seronegative and two seropositive for BDV) were inoculated with a BDV isolated from a naturally infected chamois. A group of three chamois were maintained as uninfected controls. The five seronegative chamois became viraemic from day 2 post-inoculation (p.i.) until their death (three animals) or the end of the experiment (on day 34 p.i.) and developed neutralizing antibodies from day 18 p.i. until the end of the study. Continuous shedding of the virus was detected by RT-PCR in oral, nasal and rectal swabs in viraemic chamois from day 5 p.i. Despite none of the viraemic chamois showing obvious neurological signs, all of them had a non-suppurative meningoencephalitis as seen in naturally infected chamois. The two inoculated BDV-seropositive chamois did not become viraemic. This study confirms that BDV is the primary agent of the disease that has been affecting chamois populations in recent years in the Pyrenees and that previously acquired humoral immunity is protective.

  2. Experimental infection of pigs with Border disease virus isolated from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

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    Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Sibila, Marina; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi; Segalés, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    Between 2001 and 2007, several outbreaks of disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection were reported in the central Pyrenees (northeast Spain) and were associated with a major reduction in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations. At the same time, wild boars (Sus scrofa) from the same area were found to be seropositive to this pestivirus, without showing clinical signs. The present study examines the susceptibility of domestic swine and the course of the infection with a BDV strain isolated from naturally infected chamois. Twenty pigs were inoculated with 1 x 10(7) TCID(50) (50% tissue culture infective dose) by oronasal route, and 16 control pigs received Eagles sterile Minimal Essential Medium. Serologic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization test) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on serum samples obtained at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 31 days postinoculation (dpi). All infected pigs were viremic from 3 to 14 dpi. After 14 dpi, all infected animals developed an antibody response against the homologous virus. Clinical signs or histologic lesions were not observed in inoculated pigs. The present work demonstrates the susceptibility of domestic swine to a BDV strain of chamois origin.

  3. Border disease virus shedding and detection in naturally infected Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

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    Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Velarde, Roser; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2010-09-01

    Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations of the central and eastern Pyrenees have been affected by severe outbreaks associated with Border disease virus (BDV) since 2001. Eight Pyrenean chamois (7 males and 1 female) from 1 to 8 years of age with clinical signs consistent with BDV infection were studied. At necropsy, whole blood, tissue samples (skin, brain, prescapular lymph node, thyroid gland, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, small intestine, bone marrow, and testicle), urine, and nasal, oral, and rectal swabs were obtained. The fetus from a pregnant female was also studied. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the virus in all samples, and virus isolation was performed. Sera and tissue samples were positive to RT-PCR, and the virus was isolated from all chamois. The nasal, oral, and rectal swabs and urine samples were RT-PCR positive in 100%, 85.71%, 71.43%, and 100% of chamois, respectively, confirming the excretion of the virus via these 4 routes. In addition, sera were tested for BDV antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and seroneutralization techniques, with negative results. Sequence analysis of the 5' untranslated region in 7 of the chamois confirmed that the virus is grouped into the BDV-4 genotype, the same BDV previously described in Pyrenean chamois. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study of naturally infected Pyrenean chamois, providing evidence that infected animals shed BDV through nasal, oral, fecal, and urinary excretion routes.

  4. Experimental infection of pregnant Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) with border disease virus subtype 4.

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    Martin, Claire; Duquesne, Véronique; Guibert, Jean-Michel; Pulido, Coralie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Gibert, Philippe; Velarde, Roser; Thiéry, Richard; Marco, Ignasi; Dubois, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Border disease virus (BDV) causes high mortality in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) on the French and Spanish sides of the Pyrenees Mountains. We investigated the pathology induced by BDV in pregnant chamois via experimental infection. Three females were inoculated during the second third of pregnancy with a BDV-4 subgroup strain isolated from a wild Pyrenean chamois during an acute epizootic. A fourth pregnant chamois and one nonpregnant ewe were kept as negative controls. Animals were monitored to assess clinical signs, hematology, viremia, and serology. Postmortem examinations included necropsy, histopathology, and quantification of viral RNA in organs. Pregnancy was unsuccessful in all inoculated animals. One died 24 days postinoculation (dpi) without showing any precursory clinical signs. The second animal had profuse diarrhea from 13 dpi to its death at 51 dpi. The third aborted at 46 dpi and was euthanized at 51 dpi. All animals were viremic from 4 dpi until death. Neutralizing antibodies against BDV-4 were detected from 12 dpi. Necropsies showed generalized lymphadenomegaly, associated in one case with disseminated petechial hemorrhages in the digestive tract. Seventy-eight of 79 organs from inoculated adults and their fetuses had detectable viral RNA. The main histologic lesions in adults were mild lymphohistiocytic encephalitis associated with moderate or moderately severe lymphoid depletion. Control animals remained negative for virus (in blood and organs), antibody, and lesions upon postmortem examination. BDV infection during pregnancy in Pyrenean chamois causes severe disease leading to abortion, then death. Despite 100% fetal death following inoculation, viral RNA was recovered from all organs of infected fetuses, suggesting that persistently infected offspring could be born. Our results may help explain the reported decrease in chamois populations in several areas and suggest that great care must be taken when interpreting infection status

  5. Spatial and Temporal Phylogeny of Border Disease Virus in Pyrenean Chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica).

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    Luzzago, Camilla; Ebranati, Erika; Cabezón, Oscar; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Lavín, Santiago; Rosell, Rosa; Veo, Carla; Rossi, Luca; Cavallero, Serena; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Marco, Ignasi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2016-01-01

    Border disease virus (BDV) affects a wide range of ruminants worldwide, mainly domestic sheep and goat. Since 2001 several outbreaks of disease associated to BDV infection have been described in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain, France and Andorra. In order to reconstruct the most probable places of origin and pathways of dispersion of BDV among Pyrenean chamois, a phylogenetic analysis of 95 BDV 5'untranslated sequences has been performed on chamois and domestic ungulates, including novel sequences and retrieved from public databases, using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Discrete and continuous space phylogeography have been applied on chamois sequences dataset, using centroid positions and latitude and longitude coordinates of the animals, respectively. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of BDV sequences was 2.9×10-3 subs/site/year (95% HPD: 1.5-4.6×10-3). All the Pyrenean chamois isolates clustered in a unique highly significant clade, that originated from BDV-4a ovine clade. The introduction from sheep (dated back to the early 90s) generated a founder effect on the chamois population and the most probable place of origin of Pyrenean chamois BDV was estimated at coordinates 42.42 N and 1.9 E. The pathways of virus dispersion showed two main routes: the first started on the early 90s of the past century with a westward direction and the second arise in Central Pyrenees. The virus spread westward for more than 125 km and southward for about 50km and the estimated epidemic diffusion rate was about 13.1 km/year (95% HPD 5.2-21.4 km/year). The strong spatial structure, with strains from a single locality segregating together in homogeneous groups, and the significant pathways of viral dispersion among the areas, allowed to reconstruct both events of infection in a single area and of migrations, occurring between neighboring areas.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Phylogeny of Border Disease Virus in Pyrenean Chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Luzzago

    Full Text Available Border disease virus (BDV affects a wide range of ruminants worldwide, mainly domestic sheep and goat. Since 2001 several outbreaks of disease associated to BDV infection have been described in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica in Spain, France and Andorra. In order to reconstruct the most probable places of origin and pathways of dispersion of BDV among Pyrenean chamois, a phylogenetic analysis of 95 BDV 5'untranslated sequences has been performed on chamois and domestic ungulates, including novel sequences and retrieved from public databases, using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Discrete and continuous space phylogeography have been applied on chamois sequences dataset, using centroid positions and latitude and longitude coordinates of the animals, respectively. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of BDV sequences was 2.9×10-3 subs/site/year (95% HPD: 1.5-4.6×10-3. All the Pyrenean chamois isolates clustered in a unique highly significant clade, that originated from BDV-4a ovine clade. The introduction from sheep (dated back to the early 90s generated a founder effect on the chamois population and the most probable place of origin of Pyrenean chamois BDV was estimated at coordinates 42.42 N and 1.9 E. The pathways of virus dispersion showed two main routes: the first started on the early 90s of the past century with a westward direction and the second arise in Central Pyrenees. The virus spread westward for more than 125 km and southward for about 50km and the estimated epidemic diffusion rate was about 13.1 km/year (95% HPD 5.2-21.4 km/year. The strong spatial structure, with strains from a single locality segregating together in homogeneous groups, and the significant pathways of viral dispersion among the areas, allowed to reconstruct both events of infection in a single area and of migrations, occurring between neighboring areas.

  7. Immunity status of foot-and-mouth disease in the border districts of Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisamy, K.; Daud, Z.M.; Seri Masran, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    A serological survey for the prevalence of protective level of antibody to Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was carried out in 10 border districts in Peninsular Malaysia. A liquid phase blocking ELISA kit prepared and standardized by World Reference Laboratory (WRL) for FMD was used for the testing. A total of 800 serum samples collected by a random process were tested for protective level of antibody for virus types O, A and Asia I. An overall mean prevalence for antibody to FMD in the 'immune-belt' region was found to be 51.0%, 37.3%, 53.6% for virus types Q, A, and Asia I respectively and 28.9% for all the three sero-types. The percentage of cattle population having protective level of antibody was too low to prevent active spread of FMD infection. There was also substantial variation in the prevalence of antibody detected at the district level and varied from a low mean of 18.8% for the State of Kedah and a high of 67.5% for the district of Besut. More than 70% of the population need to have protective level of antibody to effectively prevent disease spread. The States of Kedah and Kelantan had variable levels of vaccination coverage from 1994 and had less than 45% coverage for the year 1996. A coverage of more than 90% would be essential to maintain high herd immunity and the current high variability in the vaccination coverage at the district level will only favour a higher infection on rate in the field. (author)

  8. Ceroid lipofuscinosis in the border collie dog: retinal lesions in an animal model of juvenile Batten disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1992-02-15

    Ceroid lipofuscinosis, an inherited disorder of lipopigment accumulation, was identified in a group of Border Collie dogs. The dogs developed mental, motor, and visual signs between age 15 and 22 months and progressed rapidly to severe neurological disease. The principal signs were blindness and gait and behavioural abnormalities with progressive dementia. Lipopigment accumulation was severe in neurones and glial cells of the central nervous system and was present in some visceral cells. Inclusions with variable ultrastructure were common in all cells of the retina, but the pigment accumulation did not damage the retinal architecture. The cytoplasmic inclusions were granular, sudanophilic, eosinophilic, and autofluorescent. Ultrastructural morphology varied, but fingerprint and curvilinear patterns predominated. The retinal lesions in the Border Collies were similar to those in English Setters with ceroid lipofuscinosis, but were much less severe than in juvenile human ceroid lipofuscinosis. This disorder bears a close resemblance to ceroid lipofuscinosis in English Setters and is another useful model for Batten's disease.

  9. Complete Genomic Sequence of Border Disease Virus, a Pestivirus from Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Paul; Orlich, Michaela; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen

    1998-01-01

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae comprises three established species, namely, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and border disease virus from sheep (BDV). In this study, we report the first complete nucleotide sequence of BDV, that of strain X818. The genome is 12,333 nucleotides long and contains one long open reading frame encoding 3,895 amino acids. The 5′ noncoding region (NCR) of BDV X818 consists of 372 nucleotides and is thus similar in length to the 5′ NCR reported for other pestiviruses. The 3′ NCR of X818 is 273 nucleotides long and thereby at least 32 nucleotides longer than the 3′ NCR of pestiviruses analyzed thus far. Within the 3′ NCR of BDV X818, the sequence motif TATTTATTTA was identified at four locations. The same repeat was found at two or three locations within the 3′ NCR of different CSFV isolates but was absent in the 3′ NCR of BVDV. Analysis of five additional BDV strains showed that the 3′ NCR sequences are highly conserved within this species. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of X818 with the ones of other pestiviruses allowed the prediction of polyprotein cleavage sites which were conserved with regard to the structural proteins. It has been reported for two BVDV strains that cleavage at the nonstructural (NS) protein sites 3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B is mediated by the NS3 serine protease and for each site a conserved leucine was found at the P1 position followed by either serine or alanine at P1′ (N. Tautz, K. Elbers, D. Stoll, G. Meyers, and H.-J. Thiel, J. Virol. 71:5415–5422, 1997; J. Xu, E. Mendez, P. R. Caron, C. Lin, M. A. Murcko, M. S. Collett, and C. M. Rice, J. Virol. 71:5312–5322). Interestingly, P1′ of the predicted NS5A/5B cleavage site of BDV is represented by an asparagine residue. Transient expression studies demonstrated that this unusual NS5A/5B processing site is efficiently cleaved by the NS3 serine protease of BDV. PMID

  10. The role of ethnicity and travel on Hepatitis A vaccination coverage and disease incidence in Arizona at the United States–Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Kacey C; Erhart, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis A (HAV) incidence has decreased in the United States, yet regional disparities persist. The role of international travel has become increasingly important in HAV transmission. We compared the relative burden of HAV in border and non-border regions in Arizona and examined the role of travel in sustaining HAV transmission. Methods: HAV vaccination coverage was calculated by age and region, using Arizona State Immunization Information System data. Incidence, demographics, and risk factors of cases reported through Arizona’s infectious disease surveillance system between 2006 and 2011 were analyzed. Results: Hepatitis A incidence was higher in the border region of Arizona. Compared with the rest of Arizona, one-dose coverage in children <15 years was lower in the border region until 2008. Second dose coverage was lower in the border region, particularly among Spanish speakers. International travel among cases was generally high; however, in the border region cases were more likely to visit Mexico or South/Central America (94% vs. 80%, P value = 0.01) and be Hispanic (68% vs. 42%, P value = 0.0003). Conclusions: Rates of HAV continue to be higher in the Arizona border region; the risk appears particularly high among Hispanics with recent travel in the Americas. Border surveillance should be emphasized, along with vaccination of all travelers, to continue to decrease and control HAV. PMID:24603091

  11. Spatial fuzzy c-means algorithm with adaptive fuzzy exponent selection for robust vermilion border detection in healthy and diseased lower lips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridonos, Panagiota; Gaitanis, Georgios; Tzaphlidou, Margaret; Bassukas, Ioannis D

    2014-05-01

    Accurate lip contour identification is demanding since variations in color, form and surface texture, even in normal lips, introduce artifacts in non-adapted segmentation algorithms. Herein, a method for vermilion border detection and quantification in healthy and diseased lower lips is presented. To quantify the morphological irregularities of lower lip border, to validate its discriminative power in solar cheilosis diagnosis and to provide supportive tools toward, cost effective, non invasive, disease monitoring. Segmentation algorithm for lower lip border was based on spatial fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm with adaptive selection of fuzzy exponent m. Lip features measuring morphological lip border deviations were estimated. The method of lip border extraction and quantitative description was evaluated in a gold standard set of 25 young volunteers without onset of lip diseases. Quantitative descriptors were evaluated in terms of correct classification rates in differentiating 30 healthy control cases from 41 patients with solar cheilosis and were further applied to quantify the therapeutic outcome after immunocryosurgery in eight patients with solar cheilosis. Adaptive estimation of fuzzy exponent m substantially boosted the segmentation quality in gold standard cases yielding quite smooth lip contours and uniformly low values of lip irregularity features. Discriminant analysis highlighted the distance between the extracted and modeled vermilion border as a feature with excellent diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity 98% and 93% respectively). Results on patients with solar cheilosis followed up after treatment with immunocryosurgery showed that proposed quantitative lip marker was able to trace the improvement of disease after treatment. Correct lip border recognition is the prerequisite for extracting essential morphological descriptors from lips with epithelial diseases like solar cheilosis. In this paper we presented an efficient method for the

  12. HEALTH-DISEASE: the proximity of care in a world without borders and rapid mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Lopes; Felismina Mendes; Lucília Nunes; Alice Ruivo; António Amaral

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article offers an in - depth reflection on the proximity of care in a rapidly changing world where health problems require local responses, although they have lost their local expression in the globalized world we live in. Methods: This is an essay that presents an in-depth formulation on global health and nursing interventions in this context. Results: Reflecting on the proximity of care in a world at borders and with rapid mobility requires an analysis of global health and t...

  13. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...

  14. HEALTH-DISEASE: the proximity of care in a world without borders and rapid mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article offers an in - depth reflection on the proximity of care in a rapidly changing world where health problems require local responses, although they have lost their local expression in the globalized world we live in. Methods: This is an essay that presents an in-depth formulation on global health and nursing interventions in this context. Results: Reflecting on the proximity of care in a world at borders and with rapid mobility requires an analysis of global health and the indicators in which it is expressed; the ethical-moral and political dimension of health and economic development and health. Conclusions: A global health perspective, which analyzes and secures health care in global terms is imperative but has to allow global and local action. At the same time, this perspective can never omit that access to health care is a right and a prime factor of human development.

  15. Border installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaerts, Koen

    1988-01-01

    Border installations cover all nuclear plants located near the border with a neighbouring state. However, the actual distance depends on the context. The distance can vary considerably. Also the prohibition on siting near a heavily populated area also defines the actual distance variably. The distance criteria may be modified by other factors of topography, prevailing climate and so on. Various examples which illustrate the problems are given. For example, the Creys-Melville nuclear power plant is 80km from Geneva and the Cattonam installation is 12km from the French border with Luxembourg and Germany. The Cattenom case is explained and the legal position within the European Institutions is discussed. The French licensing procedures for nuclear power stations are described with special reference to the Cattenom power plant. Border installations are discussed in the context of European Community Law and Public International Law. (U.K.)

  16. Two different epidemiological scenarios of border disease in the populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) after the first disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Cabezón, Oscar; Allepuz, Alberto; Rosell, Rosa; Riquelme, Cristina; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population.

  17. Two different epidemiological scenarios of border disease in the populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica after the first disease outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-Sirera

    Full Text Available Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47% and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79% and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population.

  18. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Suk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  19. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  20. The endothelial border to health: Mechanistic evidence of the hyperglycemic culprit of inflammatory disease acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nina Waerling; Hansen, Anker Jon; Sams, Anette

    2017-03-01

    The endothelial cell (EC) layer constitutes a barrier that controls movements of fluid, solutes and cells between blood and tissue. Further, the endothelial layer regulates vascular tone and directs local humoral and cellular inflammatory processes. The strategic position makes it an important player for maintenance of health and for development of a number of diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is known to be an important component of type 2 diabetes, but is also assumed to be involved in many other diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases. We here suggest that the EC plays a pivotal role in disease pathophysiology through initiation, potentiation, and maintenance of several inflammatory mechanisms. Our contention is based on the observation that hyperglycemia-intermittent or sustained, local or systemic-is a major culprit for several endothelial dysfunctions. There is also mounting epidemiological evidence that dietary intake of refined sugars is important for the development of a number of diseases beyond obesity and type 2 diabetes. Various diseases involving inflammatory and immunological components are accelerated by hyperglycemic events because the endothelium transduces "high glucose" signaling into significant pathophysiological phenomena leading to reduced endothelial barrier function, compromised vascular tone regulation and inflammation (e.g., cytokine secretion and RAGE activation). In addition, endothelial extracellular proteins form epitopes for potential specific antibody formation upon interactions with reducing sugars. This paper reviews the endothelial metabolism, biology, inflammatory processes, physical barrier functions, and summarizes evidence that although stochastic in nature, endothelial responses to hyperglycemia are major contributors to disease pathophysiology. We present molecular and mechanistic evidence that both biological and physical barriers, protein function

  1. Non-communicable diseases and preventive health behaviors: a comparison of Hispanics nationally and those living along the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda M; Wang, Jing; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Boutte, Alycia; Vatcheva, Kristina; McCormick, Joseph B

    2015-06-19

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are rising among US Hispanics, but few studies have examined the preventive health behaviors for these NCDs among Hispanics. This study compared the preventive health behaviors of smoke-free living, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and avoidance of heavy alcohol use in Hispanics in the United States and Hispanics living along the US-Mexico border. Two weighted data sets with information on Hispanic populations were analyzed: 1) the national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (n = 29,942) from 2009; and 2) the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (n = 1,439) recruited from the US-Mexico border between 2008-2011. To compare the preventive health behaviors of the samples, within a generalized estimating equation framework, weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted controlling for age, educational attainment, employment, language, and insurance status. Statistical tests were two-sided with a significance level set at 0.05. Both samples reported low engagement in preventive behaviors. However, Hispanic males and females from the US-Mexico border were significantly less likely than the national sample to meet physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines. Also, Hispanic males from the US-Mexico border were more likely to engage in heavy alcohol use. The lack of preventive health behaviors among Hispanics living along the US-Mexico border presents a dire prospect for NCD control in the region. Multipronged approaches to address multiple behaviors should be considered.

  2. Border Patrol Gone Awry: Lung NKT Cell Activation by Francisella tularensis Exacerbates Tularemia-Like Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Timothy M; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Cicek, Basak B; Osina, Maria A; Boyd, Kelli L; Durrant, Douglas M; Metzger, Dennis W; Khanna, Kamal M; Joyce, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    The respiratory mucosa is a major site for pathogen invasion and, hence, a site requiring constant immune surveillance. The type I, semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are enriched within the lung vasculature. Despite optimal positioning, the role of NKT cells in respiratory infectious diseases remains poorly understood. Hence, we assessed their function in a murine model of pulmonary tularemia--because tularemia is a sepsis-like proinflammatory disease and NKT cells are known to control the cellular and humoral responses underlying sepsis. Here we show for the first time that respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain resulted in rapid accumulation of NKT cells within the lung interstitium. Activated NKT cells produced interferon-γ and promoted both local and systemic proinflammatory responses. Consistent with these results, NKT cell-deficient mice showed reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response yet they survived the infection better than their wild type counterparts. Strikingly, NKT cell-deficient mice had increased lymphocytic infiltration in the lungs that organized into tertiary lymphoid structures resembling induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) at the peak of infection. Thus, NKT cell activation by F. tularensis infection hampers iBALT formation and promotes a systemic proinflammatory response, which exacerbates severe pulmonary tularemia-like disease in mice.

  3. Surveillance of border disease in wild ungulates and an outbreak in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Andorra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Riba, Landry; Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2012-10-01

    The Principality of Andorra is surrounded by areas in which Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) populations were severely affected by infection with border disease virus (BDV) which caused disease outbreaks between 2001 and 2009. Nevertheless, the Andorran chamois populations were not affected during this period. In light of the severe impact of BDV on several of the neighboring Pyrenean chamois populations, we monitored local Andorran populations in an effort to detect pestivirus antibodies and BDV in wild ungulates. In addition, an episode of mortality between 2009 and 2010 in chamois was investigated. We analyzed samples (spleen or serum) from 175 Pyrenean chamois, 284 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon), 13 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus), and five wild boars (Sus scrofa castilianus). With the exception of three dead chamois found between 2009 and 2010, all samples came from healthy animals hunted during the hunting season. A commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test sera for antibodies against pestivirus. Positive sera were tested with a comparative virus neutralization test (VNT) using three BDV strains and a bovine viral diarrhea virus strain. Reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on all sera and spleen homogenates. Antibodies against pestivirus were detected by ELISA in four of the 69 chamois (5%; 95% CI= 1.29-13.11). The VNT confirmed three of these chamois were infected with a BDV. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in three chamois-one apparently healthy animal hunted in 2009 and two dead animals. Viral sequences showed that the three chamois were infected with a BDV-4, the same genotype that was involved in previous episodes of mortality in the Pyrenees. Although Pyrenean chamois from Andorra had had little contact with the pestiviruses until 2009, in this year BDV was associated with a severe disease outbreak.

  4. Molecular and serological investigation of border disease virus infection in sheep in the Kars District of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a serological and virological examination of the border disease virus (BDV in sheep at 1–5 years of age from private small scale production units of less than 20 sheep per unit, in the Kars District of Turkey. For this purpose, blood sera from 460 sheep were tested for antibodies against BDV using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Since BDV causes persistent infection, antigen-ELISA was also performed for this agent. Seropositivity rate was detected to be 74.57%. In addition, the BDV antigen was detected in one sample of seronegative sera (0.85%. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique was used to determine the presence of pestivirus nucleic acid by using 5’UTR primer pair. Pestivirus nucleic acid was found in 2 of 117 seronegative samples (1.71% by RT-PCR. The results suggest that the infection was spreading in private small scale production units. Furthermore, recommendations for the control of BDV infection are presented. This study is the first molecular and serological study to determine viroprevalence and seroprevalence of BDV infection in sheep in the Kars District of Turkey.

  5. Epidemiological study of border disease virus infection in Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) after an outbreak of disease in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Hurtado, Ana; Lavín, Santiago

    2008-02-05

    In 2001 and 2002, an outbreak of a previously unreported disease, associated with a border disease virus (BDV), caused high mortality in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) population in the Alt Pallars-Aran National Hunting Reserve in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain). Between 2002 and 2006, sera and/or tissue samples taken from 116 healthy chamois shot during the hunting season, plus 42 from chamois affected by different diseases, were studied. A blocking enzyme-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to study pestivirus seroprevalence in 114 healthy hunted and 31 diseased chamois, yielding positive results in 73.7 and 22.6% of the chamois, respectively. Comparative virus neutralization tests (VNT) performed on 42 seropositive samples with 6 pestivirus strains yielded statistically higher titres to BDV Spain 97, followed by BDV chamois, BDV 137/4, BDV Moredun, Bovine Diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1) NADL and BVDV-2 atypical. Virological investigations for pestivirus detection were performed using an antigen ELISA test in 82 healthy and 18 diseased chamois, RT-PCR in 16 healthy and in all diseased chamois, and virus isolation in 14 diseased chamois. No viral antigen was detected in any of the healthy animals. A pestivirus, characterized as BDV by monoclonal antibodies, was detected in the 10 chamois showing clinical signs consistent with BDV infection. Sequence analysis in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. In the remaining chamois, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, pneumonia, trauma and contagious ecthyma were diagnosed. The cause of death was unknown in five chamois. The results suggest that the infection has become endemic in the population and that it could have a significant impact on chamois population dynamics.

  6. Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, V; Nebel, L; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Zanoni, R G; Schweizer, M

    2017-01-13

    In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection. In this work the cross-serum neutralisation test (SNT) procedure was adapted to the epidemiological situation in Switzerland by the use of three pestiviruses, i.e., strains representing the subgenotype BVDV-1a, BVDV-1h and BDSwiss-a, for adequate differentiation between BVDV and BDV. Thereby the BDV-seroprevalence in seropositive cattle in Switzerland was determined for the first time. Out of 1,555 seropositive blood samples taken from cattle in the frame of the surveillance program, a total of 104 samples (6.7%) reacted with significantly higher titers against BDV than BVDV. These samples originated from 65 farms and encompassed 15 different cantons with the highest BDV-seroprevalence found in Central Switzerland. On the base of epidemiological information collected by questionnaire in case- and control farms, common housing of cattle and sheep was identified as the most significant risk factor for BDV infection in cattle by logistic regression. This indicates that pestiviruses from sheep should be considered as a source of infection of domestic cattle and might well impede serological BVD surveillance.

  7. Application of mobile-technology for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria in the "Better Border Healthcare Programme"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meankaew Pongthep

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating the use of cell-phones into a routine malaria prevention and control programme, to improve the management of malaria cases among an under-served population in a border area. The module for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria (DTMM consisted of case investigation and case follow-up for treatment compliance and patients' symptoms. Methods The module combining web-based and mobile technologies was developed as a proof of concept, in an attempt to replace the existing manual, paper-based activities that malaria staff used in treating and caring for malaria patients in the villages for which they were responsible. After a patient was detected and registered onto the system, case-investigation and treatment details were recorded into the malaria database. A follow-up schedule was generated, and the patient's status was updated when the malaria staff conducted their routine home visits, using mobile phones loaded with the follow-up application module. The module also generated text and graph messages for a summary of malaria cases and basic statistics, and automatically fed to predetermined malaria personnel for situation analysis. Following standard public-health practices, access to the patient database was strictly limited to authorized personnel in charge of patient case management. Results The DTMM module was developed and implemented at the trial site in late November 2008, and was fully functioning in 2009. The system captured 534 malaria patients in 2009. Compared to paper-based data in 2004-2008, the mobile-phone-based case follow-up rates by malaria staff improved significantly. The follow-up rates for both Thai and migrant patients were about 94-99% on Day 7 (Plasmodium falciparum and Day 14 (Plasmodium vivax and maintained at 84-93% on Day 90. Adherence to anti-malarial drug therapy, based on self-reporting, showed high completion

  8. Border poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Lundberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The language of poetry is a language of inquiry, not the language of a genre. Poetry has the capacity of entering those zones known as borderlands, where you meet strange things and foreign people. In this poetic world view, the border is not an edge along the fringe of lands, societies and experiences, but rather their very middle – and their in-between. The structures of language are social structures in which meanings and intentions are already in place, always fighting for power and dominance, with rhetorical figures and more violent weapons.

  9. Serological investigation of the prevalence of Border disease (BD in sheep herds of Tabriz area with a history\tin 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    The causal agent of border disease is a pestivirus, which is closely related to a similar virus of cattle called bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV. Clinical manifestations of the disease include: infertility, low fertility, mummified fetuses, abortion and still birth, the birth of small weak lambs with tremor and abnormalities of hair coat. This study was conducted in winter of 2008 by referring to sheep farms around Tabriz with a history of abortion especially the Ligwan area as a main sheep rearing area and selection of 4000 sheep as the sample population. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein by venoject from 10% of each sheep herd population, the samples were transferred to laboratory in ice and after obtaining serum, the sera were freezed in –20 in order to measure antibody levels with (LSI KIT FRANCE. From a total of 373 sheep including 333 ewes and 40 rams, 282 (75.6% sheep were considered positive and 91 (24.4% were negative for Border antivirus - antibody serum. According to sample separation 252 (75.6% ewes showed positive serum and 81 (24.4% ewes showed negative serum, 30 (75% rams showed positive serum and 10 (25% rams showed negative serum. The results indicate that 75.6% of sheep in Tabriz area are challenged with BDV virus and probably Border virus in one of the main factors in reduction of sheep herds reproduction performance in Tabriz.

  10. Border installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaerts, K.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter highlights the legal problems raised by the concept of a border installation. Using the Cattenom nuclear power plant as an example, the author describes the different stages of the legal conflict raised by construction of the plant and analyses the relationship between French administrative law and some provisions of the Euratom Treaty. Based on the Treaty, the Community institutions have adopted directives to strengthen inter-State co-operation and consultation between neighbouring countries. He observes that these principles of co-operation, consultation and vigilance already exist in public international law; however, international case law has not yet made it possible to establish the strict liability of the constructing state in case of a nuclear accident (NEA) [fr

  11. A promotora de salud model for addressing cardiovascular disease risk factors in the US-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, Héctor; Alvarado, Matilde; Cantu, Frank; Pedregon, Veronica; Fulwood, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute partnered with the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA's) Bureau of Primary Health Care and Office of Rural Health Policy to address cardiovascular health in the US-Mexico border region. From 2003 through 2005, the 2 agencies agreed to conduct an intervention program using Salud para su Corazón with promotores de salud (community health workers) in high-risk Hispanic communities served by community health centers (CHCs) in the border region to reduce risk factors and improve health behaviors. Promotores de salud from each CHC delivered lessons from the curriculum Your Heart, Your Life. Four centers implemented a 1-group pretest-posttest study design. Educational sessions were delivered for 2 to 3 months. To test Salud para su Corazón-HRSA health objectives, the CHCs conducted the program and assessed behavioral and clinical outcomes at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention. A 2-sample paired t test and analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences from baseline to postintervention. Changes in heart-healthy behaviors were observed, as they have been in previous Salud para su Corazón studies, lending credibility to the effectiveness of a promotores de salud program in a clinical setting. Positive changes were also observed in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, weight, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results suggest that integrating promotores de salud into clinical practices is a promising strategy for culturally competent and effective service delivery. Promotores de salud build coalitions and partnerships in the community. The Salud para su Corazón-HRSA initiative was successful in helping to develop an infrastructure to support a promotores de salud workforce in the US-Mexico border region.

  12. Increased expressions of ADAMTS-13, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and neurofilament correlate with severity of neuropathology in Border disease virus-infected small ruminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gungor Cagdas Dincel

    Full Text Available Border Disease (BD, caused by Pestivirus from the family Flaviviridae, leads to serious reproductive losses and brain anomalies such as hydranencephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia in aborted fetuses and neonatal lambs. In this report it is aimed to investigate the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with Thrombospondin type I repeats-13 (ADAMTS-13, and neurofilament (NF in the brain tissue in small ruminants infected with Border Disease Virus (BDV and to identify any correlation between hypomyelinogenesis and BD neuropathology. Results of the study revealed that the levels of ADAMTS-13 (p<0.05, nNOS (p<0.05, and NF (p<0.05 were remarkably higher in BDV-infected brain tissue than in the uninfected control. It was suggested that L-arginine-NO synthase pathway is activated after infection by BDV and that the expression of NF and nNOS is associated with the severity of BD. A few studies have focused on ADAMTS-13 expression in the central nervous system, and its function continues to remain unclear. The most prominent finding from our study was that ADAMTS-13, which contain two CUB domains, has two CUB domains and its high expression levels are probably associated with the development of the central nervous system (CNS. The results also clearly indicate that the interaction of ADAMTS-13 and NO may play an important role in the regulation and protection of the CNS microenvironment in neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, NF expression might indicate the progress of the disease. To the best of the authors'knowledge, this is the first report on ADAMTS-13 expression in the CNS of BDV-infected small ruminants.

  13. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides border scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  14. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  15. AIDS e doenças oportunistas transmissíveis na faixa de fronteira Brasileira AIDS and transmissible opportunistic diseases in the Brazilian border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior

    2010-10-01

    AIDS cases that had been reported by municipalities in the Brazilian border area. METHODS: Brazilian border area municipalities were grouped into three cultural regions; the source data was AIDS cases registered with the Ministry of Health from 1990 to 2003, which were classified according to CDC-adapted, Rio de Janeiro/Caracas and death criteria; detected communicable opportunistic diseases were categorized into groups according to transmission: 1 inhalation agent; 2 contaminated water and/or food ingestion, and 3 interpersonal contact. The descriptive evaluation considered cultural region, years of schooling, sex and age group. RESULTS: Different AIDS incidence patterns were observed among groups of opportunistic diseases in each cultural region. The extreme southern region showed the greatest incidence of AIDS; the absolute incidence of female cases was greatest in the category of heterosexual transmission; the number of male cases was greatest among intravenous drug users; transmission was most frequent in the interpersonal contact group, particularly incidences of candidiasis; tuberculoses and pneumonias were most frequent in the inhalation agent transmission group; the contaminated water/food ingestion transmission group showed an unchanged pattern of absolute incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian border area is a very important and heterogeneous geographic phenomenon; AIDS programs must recognize different cultural geographies.

  16. Incidence, disease onset and short-term outcome in urea cycle disorders -cross-border surveillance in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Susanne; Kölker, Stefan; Karall, Daniela; Häberle, Johannes; Posset, Roland; Hoffmann, Georg F; Heinrich, Beate; Gleich, Florian; Garbade, Sven F

    2017-06-15

    Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are a group of rare inherited metabolic disorders. Affected individuals often present with hyperammonemic encephalopathy (HE) and have an increased risk of severe neurologic disease and early death. The study aims to provide epidemiologic data and to describe the disease manifestation and short-term outcome. Cross-border surveillance of newly diagnosed patients with UCDs - below 16 years of age - was performed from July 2012 to June 2015 in Germany and Austria and from January 2012 to December 2015 in Switzerland. Inquiries were sent monthly to all Pediatric Departments in Germany and Switzerland, and quarterly to the Austrian Metabolic Group. In addition, data were collected via a second source (metabolic laboratories) in all three countries. Between July 2012 and June 2015, fifty patients (Germany: 39, Austria: 7, Switzerland: 4) with newly diagnosed UCDs were reported and later confirmed resulting in an estimated cumulative incidence of 1 in 51,946 live births. At diagnosis, thirty-nine patients were symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic [10 identified by newborn screening (NBS), 1 by high-risk-family screening (HRF)]. The majority of symptomatic patients (30 of 39 patients) developed HE with (n = 25) or without coma (n = 5), 28 of them with neonatal onset. Despite emergency treatment 15 of 30 patients with HE already died during the newborn period. Noteworthy, 10 of 11 patients diagnosed by NBS or HRF remained asymptomatic. Comparison with the European registry and network for intoxication type metabolic diseases (E-IMD) demonstrated that cross-national surveillance identified a higher number of clinically severe UCD patients characterized by earlier onset of symptoms, higher peak ammonium concentrations in plasma and higher mortality. Cross-border surveillance is a powerful tool to identify patients with UCDs demonstrating that (1) the cumulative incidence of UCDs is lower than originally suggested, (2) the mortality rate is still

  17. Obstetric ultrasound aids prompt referral of gestational trophoblastic disease in marginalized populations on the Thailand-Myanmar border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGregor, Kathryn; Min, Aung Myat; Karunkonkowit, Noaeni; Keereechareon, Suporn; Tyrosvoutis, Mary Ellen; Tun, Nay Win; Rijken, Marcus J.; Hoogenboom, Gabie; Boel, Machteld; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use of obstetric ultrasound in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in high-income settings is well established, leading to prompt management and high survival rates. Evidence from low-income settings suggests ultrasound is essential in identifying complicated

  18. One Health Interactions of Chagas Disease Vectors, Canid Hosts, and Human Residents along the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Melissa N; O'Day, Sarah; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; Gorchakov, Rodion; Patino, Ramiro; Feria Arroyo, Teresa P; Laing, Susan T; Lopez, Job E; Ingber, Alexandra; Jones, Kathryn M; Murray, Kristy O

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection) is the leading cause of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Texas, particularly the southern region, has compounding factors that could contribute to T. cruzi transmission; however, epidemiologic studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of T. cruzi in three different mammalian species (coyotes, stray domestic dogs, and humans) and vectors (Triatoma species) to understand the burden of Chagas disease among sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic cycles. To determine prevalence of infection, we tested sera from coyotes, stray domestic dogs housed in public shelters, and residents participating in related research studies and found 8%, 3.8%, and 0.36% positive for T. cruzi, respectively. PCR was used to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi DNA in vectors collected in peridomestic locations in the region, with 56.5% testing positive for the parasite, further confirming risk of transmission in the region. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence for autochthonous Chagas disease transmission in south Texas. Considering this region has a population of 1.3 million, and up to 30% of T. cruzi infected individuals developing severe cardiac disease, it is imperative that we identify high risk groups for surveillance and treatment purposes.

  19. One Health Interactions of Chagas Disease Vectors, Canid Hosts, and Human Residents along the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection is the leading cause of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Texas, particularly the southern region, has compounding factors that could contribute to T. cruzi transmission; however, epidemiologic studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of T. cruzi in three different mammalian species (coyotes, stray domestic dogs, and humans and vectors (Triatoma species to understand the burden of Chagas disease among sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic cycles.To determine prevalence of infection, we tested sera from coyotes, stray domestic dogs housed in public shelters, and residents participating in related research studies and found 8%, 3.8%, and 0.36% positive for T. cruzi, respectively. PCR was used to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi DNA in vectors collected in peridomestic locations in the region, with 56.5% testing positive for the parasite, further confirming risk of transmission in the region.Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence for autochthonous Chagas disease transmission in south Texas. Considering this region has a population of 1.3 million, and up to 30% of T. cruzi infected individuals developing severe cardiac disease, it is imperative that we identify high risk groups for surveillance and treatment purposes.

  20. Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old. A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results: Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion: Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.

  1. Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jun; Lv, Quan; Li, Hongbin; McNeil, Edward B; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-10-15

    Background : In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods : A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old) and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old). A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results : Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion : Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.

  2. An ecological model using promotores de salud to prevent cardiovascular disease on the US-Mexico border: the HEART project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, Hector; Wise, Sherrie; Rosenthal, E Lee; Ochoa, Cecilia; Rodriguez, Jose; Hastings, Diana; Flores, Leticia; Hernandez, Lorraine; Duarte-Gardea, Maria

    2012-01-01

    To address cardiovascular disease risk factors among Hispanics, a community model of prevention requires a comprehensive approach to community engagement. The objectives of our intervention were to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hispanics living in 2 low-income areas of El Paso, Texas, and to engage the community in a physical activity and nutrition intervention. Drawing on lessons learned in phase 1 (years 2005-2008) of the HEART Project, we used an iterative, community-based process to develop an intervention based on an ecological framework. New community partners were introduced and community health workers delivered several elements of the intervention, including the curriculum entitled "Mi Corazón, Mi Comunidad" ("MiCMiC" [My Heart, My Community]). We received feedback from the project's Community Health Academy and Leadership Council throughout the development process and established a policy agenda that promotes integration of community health workers into the local and state workforce. Collaboration with 2 new community partners, the YWCA and the Department of Parks and Recreation, were instrumental in the process of community-based participatory research. We enrolled 113 participants in the first cohort; 78% were female, and the mean age was 41 years. More than 50% reported having no health insurance coverage. Seventy-two (60%) participants attended 1 or more promotora-led Su Corazón, Su Vida sessions, and 74 (62%) participants attended 1 or more of the 15 exercise classes. HEART phase 2 includes a multilevel ecological model to address cardiovascular disease risk among Hispanics. Future similarly targeted initiatives can benefit from an ecological approach that also embraces the promotora model.

  3. Molecular, biological, and antigenic characterization of a Border disease virus isolated from a pig during classical swine fever surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Makoto; Aoki, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kozasa, Takashi; Tominaga-Teshima, Kaho; Mine, Junki; Abe, Yuri; Tamura, Tomokazu; Kobayashi, Tsubasa; Nishine, Kaoru; Tateishi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yudai; Fukuhara, Mai; Ohmori, Keitaro; Todaka, Reiko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Shigeyuki; Kida, Hiroshi; Shirai, Junsuke

    2014-07-01

    In the current study, molecular, biological, and antigenic analyses were performed to characterize Border disease virus (BDV) strain FNK2012-1 isolated from a pig in 2012 in Japan. The complete genome comprises 12,327 nucleotides (nt), including a large open reading frame of 11,685 nt. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that FNK2012-1 was clustered into BDV genotype 1 with ovine strains. FNK2012-1 grew in porcine, bovine, and ovine primary cells and cell lines, but grew better in bovine and ovine cells than in porcine cells. Specific pathogen-free pigs inoculated with FNK2012-1 did not show any clinical signs. Noninoculated contact control pigs also did not show clinical signs and did not seroconvert. The results suggest that FNK2012-1 may be of ruminant origin and is poorly adapted to pigs. Such observations can provide important insights into evidence for infection and transmission of BDV, which may be of ruminant origin, among pigs.

  4. Chinese border disease virus strain JSLS12-01 infects piglets and down-regulates the antibody responses of classical swine fever virus C strain vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Liu, Xia; Hao, Fei; Yang, Leilei; Deng, Jiawu; Zhang, Wenwen; Wei, Jianzhong; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2015-07-31

    During 2012 and 2013, several border disease virus (BDV) strains were identified from Chinese goat and sheep herds. At the same time, pigs from the same areas were found to be seropositive to BDV by ELISA, without showing clinical signs (unpublished data). To examine the susceptibility of pigs to the Chinese BDV strains, BDV isolate JSLS12-01, isolated from naturally infected sheep, was used to infect pigs. Antibody responses, viremia, clinical signs and pathological changes of the infected animals were examined. It confirmed that the current BDV strain could infect the domestic pigs, the animals showed viremia during 4 to 14 days post infection (dpi) and sero-conversion from 14dpi; no clinical and pathological changes were observed. In addition, CSFV maternal antibody did not influence BDV infection. Subsequently, pigs were infected with the BDV isolate and vaccinated with Hog cholera lapinized virus (HCLV) 21 days later to determine the effect of BDV infection on antibody induction of CSFV vaccination. The specific CSFV antibody and neutralizing antibody titers of the BDV infected group remained negative after the primary vaccination. Even after the boost vaccination, they were still significantly lower than those of the uninfected groups (p<0.05). These results indicated that BDV infection could down-regulate the antibody responses of CSFV C-strain vaccination. It should be paid attention that BDV prevalence in pig herds and in live vaccines might hamper the vaccination of CSF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pig traders' networks on the Kenya-Uganda border highlight potential for mitigation of African swine fever virus transmission and improved ASF disease risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichoti, Jacqueline Kasiiti; Davies, Jocelyn; Maru, Yiheyis; Kitala, Philip M; Githigia, Samuel M; Okoth, Edward; Bukachi, Salome A; Okuthe, Sam; Bishop, Richard P

    2017-05-01

    We applied social network analysis to pig trader networks on the Kenya-Uganda border. Social network analysis is a recently developed tool, which is useful for understanding value chains and improving disease control policies. We interviewed a sample of 33 traders about their experiences with trade and African swine fever (ASF), analyzed the networks they generated in purchasing pigs and selling pork and their potential contribution to modulating dissemination of the ASF virus (ASFV). The majority of the traders were aware of clinical signs of ASF and the risk of trade transmitting ASFV. Most said they avoided buying pigs from ASF outbreak villages or sick pigs but their experiences also indicated that inadvertent purchase was relatively common. Traders had early knowledge of outbreaks since they were contacted by farmers who had heard rumours and wanted to sell their pigs to avoid the risk of them dying. Individual traders bought pigs in up to nine villages, and up to six traders operated in a village. Although each trade typically spanned less than 5km, networks of the various traders, comprising movements of pigs from source villages to slaughter slabs/sites and retail outlets, and movement of pork to villages where it was consumed, linked up indirectly across the 100km×50km study area and revealed several trade pathways across the Kenya-Uganda border. ASF could potentially spread across this area and beyond through sequential pig and pork transactions. Regulation of the pig and pork trade was minimal in practice. The risk of ASFV being spread by traders was compounded by their use of poorly constructed slaughter slabs/sites with open drainage, ineffective or non-existent meat inspection services, lack of provision for biosecurity in the value chain, and sales of pork to customers who were unaware of the risks to their own pigs from contact with ASF infected pork. More effective regulation is warranted. However, limitations on government capacity, together with

  6. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that dec......Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find...... developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical...

  7. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  8. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  9. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Gabriel; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2017-05-06

    An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38) and non-border municipalities (n = 2360) and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998-2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate), the covariates (education, insurance and population size) and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border). Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p Mexico border region is disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease mortality as compared to the non-border region of Mexico. This was not explained by education, population density, or insurance coverage. Proximity to the US culture and related diet and habits can be explanations of the increasing mortality trend.

  10. Leishmaniasis: sickness without borders | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A fly carrying a deadly parasite is endemic in the jungles of the Iguazu Falls, located where the borders of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay meet. For centuries, this insect did not bother anyone in this remote area. But as its territory has been encroached on by settlements, the disease has spread. With IDRC's support ...

  11. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  12. Librarians Without Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Feridun Büyükyıldız

    2014-01-01

    It is not possible for librarians, who have an universal duty of sharing and presenting professional information, to stuck in their own borders. In this respect, this article gives brief information about the set-up of the Turkey base of “Librarians Without Borders” regarding that librarians also target all humanity just like doctors, lawyers, journalists, architects, teachers.

  13. Librarians Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridun Büyükyıldız

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not possible for librarians, who have an universal duty of sharing and presenting professional information, to stuck in their own borders. In this respect, this article gives brief information about the set-up of the Turkey base of “Librarians Without Borders” regarding that librarians also target all humanity just like doctors, lawyers, journalists, architects, teachers.

  14. Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border relations between Nigeria and Niger republic. ... cordial relations between her and her immediate neighbours and thus stem the scourge of smuggling and other trans-border crimes which have negatively affected the Nigerian economy and her international image.

  15. Partition of distinct chromosomal regions: negotiable border and fixed border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akatsuki; Horikoshi, Masami

    2004-06-01

    Chromosomes are partitioned into distinct functional regions. For example, heterochromatin regions consist of condensed chromatin and contain few transcriptionally active genes, whereas euchromatin regions are less condensed and majority of active genes reside in the euchromatin regions. Because distinct regions reside in each chromosome, borders are accordingly established between these regions. A prevailing view of the borders is that they are 'walls' that actively inhibit communication between distinct regions on chromosomes. Although little is known about the molecular bases of these walls, specific DNA elements are considered to recruit these walls to define the positions of the borders. We call the borders established with this mechanism as 'fixed borders'. Past studies have identified various insulators (boundary DNA elements) that have been suggested to recruit fixed borders to them. Another mechanism, which we introduce and focus on in this review, does not require walls recruited by specific DNA elements at the chromosomal borders. Instead, the borders are defined by a balance of opposing enzymatic activities located at the opposite sides of the resultant borders. We name these borders 'negotiable borders'. Here we review some of the recent progress in the field that offer valuable insight into mechanisms of establishing structural and functional borders on chromosomes. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Limited

  16. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  17. Domestic and international border effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies in the border-effect literature surprisingly found that domestic border effects are larger than international border effects (e.g., in the United States or Brazil). One interpretation of this result is that these estimates include the effects of producer agglomeration. Therefore, in this study, we estimate those border effects exclusively for transactions for final consumption, in which such agglomeration forces will be weak, in China and Japan. As a result, we found larger i...

  18. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  19. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  20. Defeating Cross Border Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    population of Pakistan, the Hindus with the Hindu in India and the Buddhists in Ladakh with the Tibetans . The cross border ethnic tie between Pakistan...Ladakh region by Buddhist .9 These demographics of IAK lay out the complexity of the issue. While there is an identifiable Kashmiri ethnicity, the three...Demographics IAK Population Muslim Hindu Buddhist Sikh Jammu 4,4 mio 29 % 65 % Less than 2% Less than 5% Kashmir 5,4 mio 96 % less than 4% None Less

  1. Distance, Borders, and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    is a combination of the physical geography of the target environment, and the mental and physical cost of following a seemingly random pattern of attacks. Focusing on the distance and time between attacks and taking into consideration the transaction costs that state boundaries impose, we wish to understand what......” of North and West Africa that depicts the permeability to violence. A better understanding of how location, time, and borders condition attacks enables planning, prepositioning, and response....

  2. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  3. Does knowledge have borders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Hanne

    International education is often promoted through discourses of openness, cross-cultural relationship-building and global understanding. But how inclusive is the kind of knowledge offered in the so-called “global” learning environments? The paper explores possible limits to knowledge production a...... and represented within their course and academic discipline. We will present in the paper the preliminary findings of our research, pointing to some of the visible and invisible borders that one finds within the field of global education....

  4. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    in two border regions between Niger, Nigeria, and Benin. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  5. Effect of greater trochanteric epiphysiodesis after femoral varus osteotomy for lateral pillar classification B and B/C border Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Keun-Sang; Wang, Sung Il; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Moon, Young Jae; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2017-08-01

    This is a retrospective observational study. Greater trochanteric epiphysiodesis (GTE) has been recommended to prevent Trendelenburg gait and limitation of the hip joint motion due to trochanteric overgrowth after femoral varus osteotomy (FVO) in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD). However, capital femoral physeal arrest frequently occurs in patients with severe disease (lateral pillar C), so GTE might not be as effective in these patients. The aim of this study was to compare trochanteric growth inhibition due to GTE after FVO between 2 age groups (8 years) in patients with lateral pillar B and B/C border LCPD and evaluate the effectiveness of GTE compared with the normal, unaffected hip.This study included 19 children with lateral pillar B and B/C border LCPD in 1 leg who underwent FVO followed by GTE. Of the 19 children, 9 underwent GTE before the age of 8 years and 10 underwent GTE after 8 years of age. On radiographs taken at the immediate postoperative period and at skeletal maturity, the articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD), center-trochanteric distance (CTD), and neck-shaft angle (NSA) were compared between the 2 age groups. The amount of correction was compared between groups. The contralateral, unaffected hip was used as a control for trochanteric growth. The patients were clinically evaluated with Iowa hip score at the final follow-up.There was no significant difference between the 2 age groups in terms of time to GTE, length of follow-up, or lateral pillar classification. In the affected hip, the amount of correction of the ATD, CTD, and NSA was significantly greater in patients  8 years. However, in the unaffected hip, the change in the ATD, CTD, and NSA did not differ significantly between the 2 groups.We suggest that FVO followed by GTE for lateral pillar B and B/C border LCPD in patients under the age of 8 years can affect growth of the greater trochanter. However, effective growth inhibition due to GTE was not achieved after 8 years of age.

  6. Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1988-01-01

    Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some visceral cells. At ultrastructural examination inclusions of variable morphology were observed.

  7. three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The main security problem that any state faces today is protecting its citizens in countering organised crime and terrorism. Wars between states are less frequent than in previous eras. Border defence and border security are distinct missions requiring different forces with different training and different equipment.

  8. Cross-border agglomeration benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Martijn J.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial correlations exist for many economic phenomena. We also know such interactions are typically weaker across country borders than within countries, due to institutional, infrastructural or cultural factors. However, in spatial econometric analyses, the effect of borders is rarely taken into

  9. Oficios de frontera - Border trades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the efforts of Alfaqueques many captives were recovered from Cieza, following the violent riot Nazari in 1477. Other border trades as ejeas, almocadenes and adalides were known for centuries along the Andalusian border between Murcia and Granada.

  10. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  11. Microsensors for border patrol applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian; Shimazu, Ron; Berglund, Victor

    2005-05-01

    A top concern in homeland security efforts is the lack of ability to monitor the thousands of miles of open border with our neighbors. It is not currently feasible to continually monitor the borders for illegal intrusions. The MicroSensor System (MSS) seeks to achieve a low-cost monitoring solution that can be efficiently deployed for border patrol applications. The modifications and issues regarding the unique requirements of this application will be discussed and presented. The MicroSensor System was developed by the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) for military applications, but border patrol applications, with their unique sensor requirements, demand careful adaptation and modification from the military application. Adaptation of the existing sensor design for border applications has been initiated. Coverage issues, communications needs, and other requirements need to be explored for the border patrol application. Currently, border patrol has a number of deficiencies that can be addressed with a microsensor network. First, a distributed networked sensor field could mitigate the porous border intruder detection problem. Second, a unified database needs to be available to identify aliens attempting to cross into the United States. This database needs to take unique characteristics (e.g. biometrics, fingerprints) recovered from a specialized field unit to reliably identify intruders. Finally, this sensor network needs to provide a communication ability to allow border patrol officers to have quick access to intrusion information as well as equipment tracking and voice communication. MSS already addresses the sensing portion of the solution, including detection of acoustic, infrared, magnetic, and seismic events. MSS also includes a low-power networking protocol to lengthen the battery life. In addition to current military requirements, MSS needs a solar panel solution to extend its battery life to 5 years, and an additional backbone communication link

  12. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  13. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-16

    Nogales, AZ; Naco , AZ; Douglas, AZ; and El Paso, TX. In 1996, Congress passed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act... Naco , AZ; Douglas, AZ; and El Paso, TX.80 In a 1999 study which was commissioned by the INS and performed under a Memorandum of Understanding, the...Naturalization Service, Final Environmental Assessment U.S. Border Patrol Temporary Vehicle Barriers Naco and Douglas, Arizona, November 2002. Border Security

  14. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taking...... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...

  15. Greening transportation at the border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    On February 2324, 2011, Federal agencies from the United : States, Canada, and Mexico sponsored a workshop in San : Diego, California, to discuss opportunities for improvement : regarding the greening of transportation at the borders.1 : The works...

  16. Cardiovascular disease risk among the Mexican American population in the Texas-Mexico border region, by age and length of residence in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Abdelbary, Bassent; Rentfro, Anne; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; McCormick, Joseph

    2014-04-10

    Although the relationship between health behaviors and outcomes such as smoking and obesity with longer residence in the United States among Mexican American immigrants is established, the relationship between length of residency in the United States and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between immigrant status, length of residence in the United States, age, and CVD markers in a sample of Mexican American adults living in Brownsville, Texas. We categorized participants in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort study as immigrants in the United States for 10 years or less, immigrants in the United States for more than 10 years, or born in the United States. We conducted logistic and ordinary least squares regression for self-reported chronic conditions and CVD biomarkers. We found bivariate differences in the prevalence of self-reported conditions and 1 CVD biomarker (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) by length of residence in the middle (41-64 y) and younger (18-40 y) age groups. After adjusting for covariates, the following varied significantly by immigrant status: stroke and high cholesterol (self-reported conditions) and diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (CVD biomarkers). The association between immigrant status, length of residence in the United States, and CVD markers varied. The effect of length of residence in the United States or immigrant status may depend on age and may be most influential in middle or older age.

  17. Rabies Across Borders

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-04

    Dr. Roman Biek, with the Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, discusses rabies outbreaks in Canada from the U.S.  Created: 12/4/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/4/2017.

  18. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. Methods We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38 and non-border municipalities (n = 2360 and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998–2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate, the covariates (education, insurance and population size and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border. Results Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p < 0 · 001 more cardiovascular deaths after adjusting for covariates. Larger municipal size and higher education levels showed a reduction in cardiovascular mortality of 12 · 6 (95% CI 11 · 4-13 · 8, p < 0 · 001 deaths and 8 · 6 (95% CI 5 · 5-11 · 8, p < 0 · 001 deaths respectively. Insurance coverage showed an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 3 · 6 (95% CI 3 · 1-4 · 0, p < 0 · 001 deaths per decile point increase. There was an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 0 · 3 (95% CI −0 · 001-0 · 6

  19. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  20. The Effect of the Border on Chinese Direct Investments : Evidence from Russian Border Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Novopashina, Alina

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of the border on Chinese direct investments to Russian border regions. The findings of this paper show that Chinese direct investments to Russia gravitated to industries in the border regions exporting their goods to China and to the production of non-tradable goods in non-border regions. The net Chinese foreign direct investments (FDI) inflow to Russian border regions is very small but the development of border trade led to informal investments be...

  1. A mutation in canine CLN5 causes neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Scott A; Wilson, Carmen L; Chiang, Chiu S; Studdert, Virginia P; Lingaas, Frode; Wilton, Alan N

    2005-09-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a neurodegenerative disease found in Border collie dogs, humans, and other animals. Disease gene studies in humans and animals provided candidates for the NCL gene in Border collies. A combination of linkage analysis and comparative genomics localized the gene to CFA22 in an area syntenic to HSA13q that contains the CLN5 gene responsible for the Finnish variant of human late infantile NCL. Sequencing of CLN5 revealed a nonsense mutation (Q206X) within exon 4 that correlated with NCL in Border collies. This truncation mutation should result in a protein product of a size similar to that of some mutations identified in human CLN5 and therefore the Border collie may make a good model for human NCL. A simple test was developed to enable screening of the Border collie population for carriers so the disease can be eliminated as a problem in the breed.

  2. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  3. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  4. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  5. Briefing : the Eritrean-Ethiopian border dispute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    On 6 May 1998, a violent conflict erupted in the Ethiopian-Eritrean border area. This article contends that this border crisis is neither unexpected nor the result of a real border dispute. Rather, it is due to three factors: the particular history and relationship of the two insurgent movements

  6. Cross-border merger and domestic welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Arijit Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    We consider the welfare effect of cross-border merger in presence of international R&D competition. Cross-border merger increases domestic welfare if the bargaining power of the foreign firm and the slope of the marginal cost of R&D are sufficiently low. Otherwise, domestic welfare is lower under cross-border merger.

  7. Cross-Border Exposures and Financial Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated financial markets provide opportunities for expansion and improved risk sharing, but also pose threats of contagion risk through cross-border exposures. This paper examines cross-border contagion risk over the period 1999-2006. To that purpose we use aggregate cross-border exposures of

  8. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  9. European Banks Straddling Borders: Risky or Rewarding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Duijm (Patty); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTheory suggests that cross-border banking is beneficial as long as there is a non-perfect correlation across country-specific risks. Using a unique hand-collected dataset with cross-border loans for the 61 largest European banks, we find that cross-border banking in general decreases

  10. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  11. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  12. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  13. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Border malaria in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Liu, H

    1997-09-01

    Yunnan Province, due its international borders with Myanmar, Vietnam and Lao PDR has a large number of imported cases of malaria, including a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum, as a result of the mobility of the population. This movement is due to workers coming from other provinces where there is no malaria to work in the productive tropical lowlands. Chinese nationals who have gone to work in neighboring countries, border trade and refugees from Myanmar. Much of Yunnan is peopled by ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous and forested areas which are difficult to reach. However, surveillance has been strengthened by training 3,900 primary health care workers and combining the search for visiting foreigners, returning Chinese and people from other provinces with public security, customs formalities and employers. Any visitor detected by these services is obliged to have a blood slide taken. This has resulted in an earlier and more complete detection of malaria cases, reducing incidence from 19.19 to 12.12/10,000 in the border area over the last 10 years. This is despite a considerable increase in population movement and the threat of drug resistant malaria.

  15. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been el...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration.......The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...... elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...

  16. An echocardiographic study of healthy Border Collies with normal reference ranges for the breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jake H; Boon, June A; Bright, Janice M

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain standard echocardiographic measurements from healthy Border Collies and to compare these measurements to those previously reported for a general population of dogs. Standard echocardiographic data were obtained from twenty apparently healthy Border Collie dogs. These data (n = 20) were compared to data obtained from a general population of healthy dogs (n = 69). Border Collies were deemed healthy based on normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure, with no evidence of congenital or acquired heart disease on echocardiographic examination. Standard two dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiographic measurements were obtained and normal ranges determined. The data were compared to data previously obtained at our hospital from a general population of normal dogs. Two dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler reference ranges for healthy Border Collies are presented in tabular form. Comparison of the weight adjusted M-mode echocardiographic means from Border Collies to those from the general population of dogs showed Border Collies to have larger left ventricular systolic and diastolic dimensions, smaller interventricular septal thickness, and lower fractional shortening. There are differences in some echocardiographic parameters between healthy Border Collies and the general dog population, and the echocardiographic reference ranges provided in this study should be used as breed specific reference values for Border Collies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is tuberculosis crossing borders at the Eastern boundary of the European Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Marieke J; Hollo, Vahur; Noori, Teymur

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern border of the European Union (EU) consists of 10 countries after the expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2007. These 10 countries border to the East to countries with high tuberculosis (TB) notification rates. We analyzed the notification data of Europe to quantify the impact of cross-border TB at the Eastern border of the EU. We used TB surveillance data of 2010 submitted by 53 European Region countries to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin of the case (national/foreign). We calculated the contribution of foreign to overall TB notification. In the 10 EU countries located at the EU Eastern border, 618 notified TB cases (1.7% of all notified TB cases) were of foreign origin. Of those 618 TB cases, 173 (28.0%) were from countries bordering the EU to the East. More specifically, 90 (52.0%) were from Russia, 33 (19.1%) from Belarus, 33 (19.1%) from Ukraine, 13 (7.5%) from Moldova and 4 (2.3%) from Turkey. Currently, migrants contribute little to TB notifications in the 10 EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU, but changes in migration patterns may result in an increasing contribution. Therefore, EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU should strive to provide prompt diagnostic services and adequate treatment of migrants.

  18. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  19. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  20. Nuclear risk behind the border?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1995-01-01

    The condition of nuclear wastes and facilities in Russia and in the Baltic countries arouses concern in Finland. Russia has two large nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, over 300 nuclear submarine reactors and more than ten icebreaker reactors in close proximity to Finland's eastern border. The Lithuanian Ingalina nuclear power plant is also situated close to Finland. Following the Chernobyl accident, considerable improvements have been made to the technology and safety culture of Russian nuclear power plants, for instance, through international support programmes. The unstable social climate in Russia is, however, slowing progress down. Yet it is certain that no accident in the power plants near Finland's borders would cause immediate health risks in Finland, or would threaten the health of large numbers of people in the long term, either. Russia has not always taken proper care of its nuclear waste. In particular, spent fuel from nuclear submarines stored in Northern Russia causes problems. Russians have disposed of some waste by dumping ship reactors, with their fuel, into the Arctic Ocean. Some nuclear-powered submarines have sunk with all their crew. Russia has also conducted many nuclear tests in the vicinity of Finland. (orig.)

  1. The cross-border cooperation agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to achieve a short analysis of cross-border cooperation agreements between territorial-administrative units in the border areas of Romania and similar structures in neighboring states. The article investigates the form they takes these agreements – contract or treaty –, the role of multinational enterprises and the law applicable to transnational contracts, the cross-border cooperation agreement governed by Law no. 215/2001 on local public administration and its legal nature. The end of the article is discussed cross-border cooperation in international documents signed by Romania with its neighbors.

  2. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  3. Is the international border effect larger than the domestic border effect? Evidence from US trade

    OpenAIRE

    Cletus C. Coughlin; Dennis Novy

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have found that international borders represent large barriers to trade. But how do international borders compare to domestic border barriers? We investigate international and domestic border barriers in a unified framework. We consider a data set of exports from individual US states to foreign countries and combine it with trade flows between and within US states. After controlling for distance and country size, we estimate that relative to state-to-state trade, crossing an indi...

  4. Learning Mobility Challenging Borders: Cross-border Experiences of eastern European Immigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Marcu, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This article examines the cross-border mobility practices of eastern European immigrants across and within European Union (EU) borders, taking into account the changes in the patterns of the EU border regime, which have affected mobility in the last 20 years. Drawing on empirical research with references to in-depth qualitative interviews of eastern immigrants in Spain, this article highlights the ways in which the emerging models of cross-border mobility management are producing new geo...

  5. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.

  6. The Armchair at the Borders: The "Messy" Ideas of Borders and Border Epistemologies within Multicultural Science Education Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to further articulate multicultural science education scholarship. In particular, it explores the notions of borders and border epistemologies as intellectual resources to think again about the challenges of science education in the global world that demand more sophisticated concepts to unravel some of its complexities. It…

  7. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  8. INTERCEPTION OF ANIMAL-ORIGIN PRODUCTS AT LAND BORDERS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Janice Eidt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious agents and veterinary diseases can be disseminated across borders and contribute to change the country sanitary status. The aim of this study was to identify the main animal products intercepted and seized by the agricultural surveillance units. This paper studied three Agricultural Surveillance Units located at land borders in the North region of Brazil: Assis Brasil and Epitaciolândia (Acre State and Pacaraima (Roraima State, respectively borders with Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela. The main animal products confiscated were dairy products, fish, meat, sausage, veterinary products (drugs, animal food (pet foods and apiculture products. Given the clandestine nature of animal transit and its products in these borders, the possibilities of introduction of infectious agents and diseases must be better evaluated, considering the type of products confiscated, as well as the sanitary status of the countries of origin.

  9. Paroxysmal Dyskinesia in Border Terriers: Clinical, Epidemiological, and Genetic Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Q E M; Koskinen, L L E; van Steenbeek, F G; Seppälä, E H; Jokinen, T S; Prins, P G M; Bok, H G J; Zandvliet, M M J M; Vos-Loohuis, M; Leegwater, P A J; Lohi, H

    2017-07-01

    In the last decade, a disorder characterized by episodes of involuntary movements and dystonia has been recognized in Border Terriers. To define clinical features of paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD) in a large number of Border Terriers and to study the genetics of the disease. 110 affected and 128 unaffected client-owned Border Terriers. A questionnaire regarding clinical characteristics of PD was designed at Utrecht University and the University of Helsinki. Thirty-five affected Border Terriers underwent physical examination and blood testing (hematology and clinical biochemistry). Diagnostic imaging of the brain was performed in 17 affected dogs and electroencephalograms (EEG) between episodes were obtained in 10 affected dogs. A genomewide association study (GWAS) was performed with DNA of 110 affected and 128 unaffected dogs. One hundred forty-seven questionnaires were included in the study. The most characteristic signs during episodes were dystonia, muscle fasciculations, and falling over. The majority of owners believed that their dogs remained conscious during the episodes. A beneficial effect of anti-epileptic therapy was observed in 29 of 43 dogs. Fifteen owners changed their dogs' diet to a hypoallergenic, gluten-free diet, and all reported reasonable to good improvement of signs. Clinical examinations and diagnostic test results were unremarkable. The GWAS did not identify significantly associated chromosome regions. The survey results and EEG studies provided further evidence that the observed syndrome is a PD rather than epilepsy. Failure to achieve conclusive results by GWAS indicates that inheritance of PD in Border Terriers probably is complex. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Researching Transfronterizo Literacies in Texas Border Colonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines literacies practiced in bilingual households located in emerging communities along the Texas-Mexico border known as border colonias. Drawing on theoretical notions of space as geographic and temporal, the simultaneity of global and local forces at work in colonias, and expressions of agency that are "in between"…

  11. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  12. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry...

  13. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  14. BEYOND THE BORDER WAR: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    they viewed as necessary cross-border-, deep penetration and/or pre-emptive strikes against the People's Liberation ... Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa's Late Cold War. Conflicts falls in a .... Sasha Gear writes about veterans and the effect of the war on them and those close to them - or rather, ...

  15. Interplay between river dynamics and international borders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefi, Saleh; Keesstra, Saskia; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Surian, Nicola; Mirzaee, Somayeh

    2017-01-01

    Fluvial dynamics in riverine borders can play an important role in political relationships between countries. Rivers move and evolve under the influence of natural processes and external drivers (e.g. land use change in river catchments). The Hirmand River is an important riverine border between

  16. Cross-border mobility of Iraqi refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Chatelard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Far more attention needs to be paid to the circulation of Iraqirefugees across the borders between Iraq and Syria or Jordan. Lackof analysis of this cross-border mobility will be to the detriment ofpolicy planning and the search for durable solutions.

  17. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  18. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  19. The border effects in Spain: an industry-level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Llano Verduras, Carlos; Requena, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    A gravity-model approach is used to estimate the magnitude of the internal border (home bias) and external border (frontier) effects in Spain using industry-level trade flows. We find that the average border effects are about 30 and 10, respectively. Next we explore the variation in the industry-specific border effects. First, the border effects are larger in highly product differentiated industries. Second, the internal border effect is twice bigger for trade in intermediate g...

  20. Employment of Personnel at the Tucson Border Patrol Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    and Sells, Arizona. Tucson Station Border Patrol Agents (BPAs) drive to the border to perform their duties each day and night in different forms of...Station Border Patrol Agents (BPAs) drive to the border to perform their duties each day and night in different forms of personnel employment once...comprised of eight stations responsible for 262 linear miles of border from the New Mexico and Arizona border in the east to Yuma County, Arizona to

  1. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  2. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  3. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  4. Dyck Words, Lattice Paths, and Abelian Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet-Sadri, F.; Chen, Kun; Hawes, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We use results on Dyck words and lattice paths to derive a formula for the exact number of binary words of a given length with a given minimal abelian border length, tightening a bound on that number from Christodoulakis et al. (Discrete Applied Mathematics, 2014). We also extend to any number of distinct abelian borders a result of Rampersad et al. (Developments in Language Theory, 2013) on the exact number of binary words of a given length with no abelian borders. Furthermore, we generalize...

  5. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  6. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  7. Borders as barriers to tourism: tourists experiences at the Beitbridge Border Post (Zimbabwean side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getrude Kwanisai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International borders greatly influence tourism development. In 2012 and 2013, a decline in tourists to Zimbabwe from South Africa was partially attributed to tourist border facilitation issues. It is against this background that this study sought to establish the nature of challenges faced by tourists when using the Beitbridge border post (Zimbabwean side. Questionnaire responses were thematically analysed and the study concluded that border administrative management related issues are a major barrier to tourism. Key among the study's recommendations is that the depressed tourists' border experiences obtaining at Beitbridge border post among other constraints have to be addressed as a matter of urgency. This will enhance Zimbabwe's accessibility, tourist satisfaction and the image of the country as a destination. The paper further identifies several destination managerial implications and future research priorities.

  8. Elastic and hegemonic borders and discourse theory: Mexico’s southern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marengo Camacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourse theory is useful for understanding the creation of borders, whether material or imaginary. This paper addresses three situations on Mexico’s southern border between 2000 and 2015 in which elements of discourse theory may be applied. The outcomes were the following: 1 correlations may be made between the elements of the discourse moving from the northern to the southern border, but not in the opposite direction; 2 the process of securitising the discourse about migrants is continuous, and new securitising elements are regularly added; 3 an “elastic borders” phenomenon exists, where borders extend or retract, thereby creating new border regions; and 4 discourses around the southern border are constructed with more pejorative elements than the northern, despite the fact that crime rates are higher in the north.

  9. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates...... in political philosophy concerning coercion, entry/exit, protection elsewhere and self-determination, and against the backdrop of empirical cases, such as the EU Commission’s UNHCR-donations, the Dublin II Regulation and the export of migrant camps to North Africa. In the third article the governance of asylum...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...

  10. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  11. Conservative Libertarianism and the Ethics of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Camacho Beltran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many conservatives endorse a defence of closed borders grounded in basic liberal rights such as the basic right of association. Some conservatives also endorse libertarian principles of legitimacy. It is not clear though that this sort of defence of closed borders is somehow coherent with these libertarian ideals. I argue that conservative libertarians of this kind must reject this defence of closed borders because either it collapses into a form of statism incoherent with libertarian principles of legitimacy, or into an ideal precept without appeal regarding reality in the here and now that could only be applied to changing the very nature of the societies we know. As a result, at least conservative libertarians need to find a different source of justification for closed borders.

  12. Cross-Border Interactions and Health in the Brazil-Colombia-Peru Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru has a population of over 100,000 people; at least a quarter are indigenous (mostly Tikuna, and the rest is composed of people from the Andean region and some itinerant groups (migrants, traders, etc.. The “twin cities”, Tabatinga (Brazil and Leticia (Colombia, receive a significant flux of people from the adjacent regions of each country, each one having a referral hospital for attending cases of moderate complexity. This region has a high incidence of  water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and hepatitis, those transmitted by vectors, such as malaria and leishmaniasis, and other infectious diseases related to living conditions and the level of access to the health system, such as sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease.. This work presents attempts to carry out a global analysis of the prevalence of some health problems introduced into the area during the last two decades, such as cholera epidemics, malaria, and HIV/AIDS infection, attempting to describe their main determinants in the region.

  13. Border Security: A Conceptual Model of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    to aid stranded drivers with no food, water, or toilets.5 Computer manufacturers in Taiwan, Singapore, and South Korea could not ship their 3...border inspections. Washington State, for example, experienced a 50% drop in tourism and lost over $100 million in local revenue because of the...in large part because of what is known as “The Amistad Case.” The Spanish cargo ship La Amistad ran aground on the coastal border of New York

  14. Territorial borders, toleration and the English school.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.

    2002-01-01

    This article offers an assessment of the ethical status of territorial borders, arguing for a partial defence of their role in international relations. Utilising the English School as one way such a defence has been developed, it assesses pluralist and solidarist arguments, suggesting both are flawed. The article develops a notion of territorial borders as contributing to the value of tolerating difference in international relations, and that this is an ethically desirable thing to do. In doi...

  15. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) in Southwestern Border States: Examining Trends, Population Correlates, and Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Garcia Saavedra, Luigi F

    2018-03-23

    Introduction Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is withdrawal syndrome in newborns following birth and is primarily caused by maternal drug use during pregnancy. This study examines trends, population correlates, and policy implications of NAS in two Southwest border states. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis of Hospital Inpatient Discharge Data (HIDD) was utilized to examine the incidence of NAS in the Southwest border states of Arizona (AZ) and New Mexico (NM). All inpatient hospital births in AZ and NM from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2013 with ICD9-CM codes for NAS (779.5), cocaine (760.72), or narcotics (760.75) were extracted. Results During 2008-2013 there were 1472 NAS cases in AZ and 888 in NM. The overall NAS rate during this period was 2.83 per 1000 births (95% CI 2.68-2.97) in AZ and 5.31 (95% CI 4.96-5.66) in NM. NAS rates increased 157% in AZ and 174% in NM. NAS newborns were more likely to have low birth weight, have respiratory distress, more likely to have feeding difficulties, and more likely to be on state Medicaid insurance. AZ border region (border with Mexico) had NAS rates significantly higher than the state rate (4.06 per 1000 births [95% CI 3.68-4.44] vs. 2.83 [95% CI 2.68-2.97], respectively). In NM, the border region rate (2.09 per 1000 births [95% CI 1.48-2.69]) was significantly lower than the state rate (5.31 [95% CI 4.96-5.66]). Conclusions Despite a dramatic increase in the incidence of NAS in the U.S. and, in particular, the Southwest border states of AZ and NM, there is still scant research on the overall incidence of NAS, its assessment in the southwest border, and associated long-term outcomes. The Healthy Border (HB) 2020 binational initiative of the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission is an initiative that addresses several public health priorities that not only include chronic and degenerative diseases, infectious diseases, injury prevention, maternal and child health but also mental health and

  16. Geneticky determinované choroby u border kolií

    OpenAIRE

    Trýznová, Alena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the description of genetically determined diseases affecting the Border Collie breed. The described diseases include Collie Eye Anomaly, Trapped Neutrophile Syndrome and Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. The individual sections describe their symptoms, history, therapy, diagnostics and genetic dispositions of individual diseases, genetic testing methods and numbers of tested individuals. The thesis deals with diseases that could not be diagnosed genetically until recently; however,...

  17. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  18. Radiation safety without borders initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblee, Martha; Dickson, Howard; Krieger, Ken; Lopez, Jose; Waite, David; Weaver, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Without Borders (RSWB) initiative provides peer support to radiation safety professionals in developing countries, which bolsters the country's infrastructure and may lead the way for IRPA Associate membership. The Health Physics Society (HPS) recognizes that many nations do not possess the infrastructure to adequately control and beneficially use ionizing radiation. In a substantial number of countries, organized radiation protection programs are minimal. The RSWB initiative relies on HPS volunteers to assist their counterparts in developing countries with emerging health physics and radiation safety programs, but whose resources are limited, to provide tools that promote and support infrastructure and help these professionals help themselves. RSWB experience to date has shown that by providing refurbished instruments, promoting visits to a HPS venue, or visiting a country just to look provide valuable technical and social infrastructure experiences often missing in the developing nation's cadre of radiation safety professionals. HPS/RSWB with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) pairs chapters with a country, with the expectation that the country's professional radiation safety personnel will form a foreign HPS chapter, and the country eventually will become an IRPA Associate. Although still in its formative stage, RSWB nonetheless has gotten valuable information in spite of the small number of missions. The RSWB initiative continues to have significant beneficial impacts, including: Improving the radiation safety infrastructure of the countries that participate; Assisting those countries without professional radiation safety societies to form one; Strengthening the humanitarian efforts of the United States; Enhancing Homeland Security efforts through improved control of radioactive material internationally. Developing countries, including those in Latin America, underwritten by IAEA, may take advantage of resources

  19. The Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Border: Institutional Legitimacy and Regional Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    intervention into global political economy,” than ever before in history .127 The paradox of the twenty-first century resides in the tension between two...TERMS borders, border security, border studies, legitimacy, authority, perceptions, globalization , regional stability, global context, border...27  1.  More than Static Lines: Places of Interaction and Change .....28  2.  Globalization : Borders Never Left, Just Shifted

  20. Cerebellar abiotrophy in a family of Border Collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, J R; Slocombe, R E; Mitten, R W; Jedwab, D

    2002-11-01

    Cerebellar abiotrophies have a nonsex-linked, autosomal, recessively inherited basis in a number of species, and lesions typically reflect profound and progressive loss of Purkinje cells. In this report, an unusual form of abiotrophy is described for two sibling Border Collies. Extensive loss of the cerebellar granular cell layer was present with relative sparing of Purkinje cells of two female pups. The biochemical basis for this form of cerebellar abiotrophy is unknown, but the lack of disease in other siblings supports an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.

  1. Measuring cross-border travel times for freight : Otay Mesa international border crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Cross border movement of people and goods is a vital part of the North American economy. : Accurate real-time data on travel times along the US-Mexico border can help generate a range : of tangible benefits covering improved operations and security, ...

  2. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation to coopera...

  3. Border Cracks: Approaching Border Security From a Complexity Theory and Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    the Gulf Cartel is currently battling the new organization for control of smuggling routes in Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, and Veracruz .99...organization has also expanded its operations to Zacatecas, Veracruz , Tabasco, Campache, Quintana Roo, and Chiapas, in addition to increasing its... sale of alcoholic beverages. This created a crisis along the border and the Immigration Services Border Patrol was quickly expanded to 450 officers

  4. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Police xii SBI Secure Border Initiative SES Senior Executive Service SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica TSA Transportation Security...also been involvement from the Mexican law enforcement agency, Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) on the southwest border (CBP, 2009; ICE, 2009, p. 5

  6. Border regions as the tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Vukica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, as a global phenomenon, has found its place in every corner of the world. During a certain period of time, the tourism market has become saturated by mass tourism causing the creation of new attractive destinations for tourists. Thus, some of the border areas in the world attract and keep passers-by while transforming into the new tourist destinations. In this paper, it is possible to see relations and interconnections between tourism and international boundaries. Tourism in border regions has an opportunity to activate these areas that are often neglected by the state. Some European countries have taken advantage of this opportunity and they improved their tourism industry by developing their border regions. This kind of tourism development can be applied in Serbia and, in that way, activate the border areas of our country. However, in order to develop tourism in these areas, it is necessary to have an adequate international cooperation between two or more states. This can be achieved by various instruments of cross-border cooperation in tourism through the engagement of neighbouring countries in joint plans and cooperation.

  7. Cross-border regional innovation system integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system....... However, little attention has been given to the empirical analysis of the concept. This paper suggests a framework for empirically validating the concept by examining the levels of integration between cross-border regions. The outcome is a proposed framework can be operationalized by measurable indicators...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  8. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  9. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature-space into subs......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature......-space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion...

  10. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    in Kazakhstan shows that the naming of a state-controlled space on the Internet, through the use of country code top-level domain names (ccTLDs), does in fact matter to the average user. People are aware of national boundary traversals as they navigate the Internet. Respondents in our study identified......The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users...... their activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that cc...

  11. The endothelial border to health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nina Wærling; Hansen, Anker Jon; Sams, Anette

    2017-01-01

    by hyperglycemic events because the endothelium transduces “high glucose” signaling into significant pathophysiological phenomena leading to reduced endothelial barrier function, compromised vascular tone regulation and inflammation (e.g., cytokine secretion and RAGE activation). In addition, endothelial...... extracellular proteins form epitopes for potential specific antibody formation upon interactions with reducing sugars. This paper reviews the endothelial metabolism, biology, inflammatory processes, physical barrier functions, and summarizes evidence that although stochastic in nature, endothelial responses...... for several endothelial dysfunctions. There is also mounting epidemiological evidence that dietary intake of refined sugars is important for the development of a number of diseases beyond obesity and type 2 diabetes. Various diseases involving inflammatory and immunological components are accelerated...

  12. The changing forms and nature of borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary borders are not always where you would expect them to be. On a flight to America, for instance, the crew will inform you that passengers are not allowed to congregate in groups around the toilets or anywhere in the aircraft. This US State Department regulation applies whether you are on Swiss soil waiting for takeoff, contemplating the Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of 33’000 feet above international waters, or landing at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York City. Borders are no lo...

  13. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...... appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied...

  14. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  15. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.

    2012-01-01

    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  16. Border health in the shadow of the Hispanic paradox: issues in the conceptualization of health disparities in older Mexican Americans living in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Su, Dejun; Al Snih, Soham

    2013-09-01

    Mexican Americans have demonstrated lower than what would be expected mortality rates and disease prevalence, given their overrepresentation among those living in poverty. However, Mexican Americans living along the US-Mexico border have been documented as carrying a higher burden of disease and disability that seems to contradict or at least challenge evidence in support of a "Hispanic Paradox". The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the concept of border health as it relates to the conceptualization and measurement of health outcomes in older Mexican Americans living in the Southwest United States. Data for this study comes from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) wave 1 and mortality files up to wave 5. Border residence was determined using La Paz Agreement county and distance from a port of entry classifications. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess border versus non-border differences in cause of death, disability, disease prevalence and premature mortality. Adjusted regression models were used to predict cause of death, disability and disease-free life expectancy and premature mortality (i.e. occurring before life expectancy). Interaction models between border/non-border and median income were also performed. Finally, distance from the US-Mexico border was used to determine the effect of distance to the US-Mexico border in border-residing participants. The findings from this study indicate that participants in the HEPESE were more likely to be alive at Wave 5 if they resided in a border county, however more likely to transition into ADL disability status. These findings were not explained by behaviors, duration in the US or sociocultural characteristics of where they lived. Additionally, Hispanic EPESE subjects that lived in the border region were more likely to have died from old age and were less likely to be lost to follow up. Interaction models revealed significant effects for

  17. Crossing the Borders: An Eco-cinecritical Analysis of Plant Wars and Bird Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ching Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads two Asian nature-oriented films from the perspective of ecocinecriticism,an ecologically minded film criticism. Plant Wars, produced by PTSTaiwan, questions the demarcation between native plants and exotic plants as well asbetween plants and human beings so as to remap the in-between border area. Thestorytelling method it applies is to feature 14 currently native plants as the maincharacters, and illustrates their relationship to aboriginal people, farmers, beekeepersand to other insect species. Bird Without Borders, also produced by PTS, tells the storyof the migration journey of a group of black-faced spoonbills flying 16,000 kilometersall the way from Tainan, Taiwan, to Japan, along the border of South and North Korea,to a remote island of China to look for feeding places and then back to Taiwan to spendthe winter. Different layers of border-crossing are shown in Bird. One similarity ofthese two PTS productions is the search for border-crossing so as to redefine or revisewhat the border means. Plant questions the biological categorization of the native plantsand the exotic plants; Bird illustrates how the crew physically follows the route of thebirds’ flight which crosses the national borders to provide a vision of remapping thenatural territory through challenging the idea of a fixed “place.” Both are seeking forways to trespass the man-made borders: Plant via environmental imagination; Bird viasome physical movement. While the title of Plant Wars seemingly expresses its positionmore strongly through “wars,” Bird Without Borders explicitly asserts a dream of noborders.

  18. Alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and in non-border areas. Interviews were conducted among Mexican Americans in the border regions of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N=1307). Non-border respondents were interviewed primarily in Houston and Los Angeles (N=1288) as part of the Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Both the border and HABLAS surveys employed multistage cluster sample designs (response rates were 67% and 76%, respectively). In the bivariate analysis, there were no significant differences between border and non-border areas in the proportion of those with one or more social problem. In non-border areas, the prevalence of alcohol problems did not differ significantly by age. However, along the border the prevalence of alcohol problems was significantly different across age groups, with 18 to 29year old men and women having the highest prevalence. The final models showed no residence effect on problem likelihood. Drinking was strongly associated with problems. Although young border residents had higher problem prevalence rates than older residents, the logistic regression models showed no effect of border residence on the likelihood of problems, indicating that problems are due to alcohol consumption, not the border environment. The border, however, did appear to influence more drinking among young people. Regardless of residence, alcohol treatment and preventive interventions tailored to Mexican Americans are essential and special attention should be focused on younger individuals near the border. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The border population effects of EU integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; Oumer, Abdella

    Border cities or regions are in theory more affected by the EU integration process than more central locations as it more drastically influences their transaction costs and market potential. We find a positive empirical effect of EU enlargement as measured by the growth in population share along the

  20. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax...

  1. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.

  2. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate...

  3. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  4. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  5. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  6. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  7. Education without borders: Internationalisation of the tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education without borders: Internationalisation of the tourism business curriculum in the central Baltic area. ... Research in Hospitality Management ... This paper focuses on internationalisation of a tourism business curriculum in higher professional education in three Baltic Sea states: Finland, Estonia and Latvia. The aim of ...

  8. Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunez-Neto, Blas

    2005-01-01

    .... Today, the USBP's primary mission is to detect and prevent the entry of terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and illegal aliens into the country, and to interdict drug smugglers and other criminals along the border...

  9. Resolution of canine ocular thelaziosis in avermectin-sensitive Border Collies from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Sánchez-Murillo, José Marín; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Sánchez-Moro, José; Latrofa, Maria Stefanía; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-02-24

    Ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda is an emerging disease that affects primarily dogs, but also cats, foxes and other wild carnivores, as well as humans. Three clinical cases of unilateral conjunctivitis caused by Thelazia nematodes were detected in Border Collie, a dog breed intolerant to the macrocyclic lactones. Animals came from southwestern Spain, on the border with Portugal. Eight worms were collected and identified molecularly as T. callipaeda by amplification and sequencing of partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Oral treatment with mebendazole 20mg/kg (Telmin(®)) was effective in curing the infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. API and PNR data in use for border control authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Chang; McGauran, Rachel; Nelen, Hans

    Airplanes transport a large number of travelers simultaneously, and airports are often described as inland borders where strangers converge and disperse. They are also a conduit for terrorism and transnational crimes. Border control authorities have endeavored to obtain information regarding

  11. Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    .... Prior to the terrorist attacks, the priorities for border security policy were beginning to shift from immigration-related issues to issues related to facilitating legitimate cross-border commerce...

  12. Border Security -- One Step Toward Resolving the Conflict in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Mark S

    2005-01-01

    .... It will do this by proving that border security is a key component to suppressing the Iraqi insurgency and that border security operations have been hindered by a lack of interagency coordination...

  13. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  14. Crossing borders: The Case of ethnic Dagestani in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Meurmishvili, Giorgi

    2014-01-01

    According to William Zartman Borders run across land but through people. On maps they appear as fine one-dimensional lines, whereas on the ground they have many dimensions. Borders are boundaries in depth, space around a line, place where state meets society" (Zartman 2010:16). It is impossible to understand borders, without peripheral relations between the states and societies they contain. Itself borders are zones in which people create special relationship with other people. ...

  15. Cross-Border Cooperation of the Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko; Totev, Stoyan

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the role, prospects and policies of the cross-border cooperation in the Balkan countries border regions. The main goal is to define the reasons, due to which the cross-border cooperation between the enterprises can be considered as an "optimal" policy for the Balkan countries. The opportunities for development of mutually beneficial cross-border relations are presented based on information obtained by different studies. The potential and the barriers for the development o...

  16. A reappraisal of the border effect on relative price volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; Lai, Kon-Sun

    2006-01-01

    Engel and Rogers (1996) find that crossing the US-Canada border can considerably raise relative price volatility and that exchange rate fluctuations explain about one-third of the volatility increase. In reevaluating the border effect, this study shows that cross-country heterogeneity in price volatility can lead to significant bias in measuring the border effect unless proper adjustment is made to correct it. The analysis explores the implication of symmetric sampling for border effect estim...

  17. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  18. 8 CFR 1212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... combined B-1/B-2 visitor visa and non-biometric border crossing identification card or (a similar stamp in... non-biometric border crossing identification card (or similar stamp in a passport), issued by the DOS... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Border crossing identification cards. 1212...

  19. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection....S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-Day notice and...: Direct all written comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and...

  20. 75 FR 60643 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and 842 RIN 3206-AL69 Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement AGENCY: Office of Personnel... regulations, to reflect changes in the retirement benefits available to customs and border protection officers... enhanced annuity benefits for customs and border protection officers employed by the United States...

  1. 76 FR 50883 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19... of Liquidation AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security; Department of... Regulations (``CFR'') pertaining to the method by which U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') issues...

  2. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security.... 1641) and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection regulations (19 CFR 111.51), the following Customs...

  3. 77 FR 59206 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Foreign Assembler's Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... written comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings...

  4. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... information collection: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of...

  5. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of the Burmese-Thai border; final technical report. Documents. Border industrialization and labour mobility : a case of Burmese migrant workers in border area factories. Rapports. Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007 ...

  6. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  7. Progressive Retinal Atrophy in the Border Collie: A new XLPRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Anne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA segregate in more than 100 breeds of dog with each PRA segregating in one or a few breeds. This breed specificity may be accounted for by founder effects and genetic drift, which have reduced the genetic heterogeneity of each breed, thereby facilitating the identification of causal mutations. We report here a new form of PRA segregating in the Border Collie breed. The clinical signs, including the loss of night vision and a progressive loss of day vision, resulting in complete blindness, occur at the age of three to four years and may be detected earlier through systematic ocular fundus examination and electroretinography (ERG. Results Ophthalmic examinations performed on 487 dogs showed that affected dogs present a classical form of PRA. Of those, 274 have been sampled for DNA extraction and 87 could be connected through a large pedigree. Segregation analysis suggested an X-linked mode of transmission; therefore both XLPRA1 and XLPRA2 mutations were excluded through the genetic tests. Conclusion Having excluded these mutations, we suggest that this PRA segregating in Border Collie is a new XLPRA (XLPRA3 and propose it as a potential model for the homologous human disease, X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa.

  8. Progressive retinal atrophy in the Border Collie: a new XLPRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilboux, Thierry; Chaudieu, Gilles; Jeannin, Patricia; Delattre, Delphine; Hedan, Benoit; Bourgain, Catherine; Queney, Guillaume; Galibert, Francis; Thomas, Anne; André, Catherine

    2008-03-03

    Several forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) segregate in more than 100 breeds of dog with each PRA segregating in one or a few breeds. This breed specificity may be accounted for by founder effects and genetic drift, which have reduced the genetic heterogeneity of each breed, thereby facilitating the identification of causal mutations. We report here a new form of PRA segregating in the Border Collie breed. The clinical signs, including the loss of night vision and a progressive loss of day vision, resulting in complete blindness, occur at the age of three to four years and may be detected earlier through systematic ocular fundus examination and electroretinography (ERG). Ophthalmic examinations performed on 487 dogs showed that affected dogs present a classical form of PRA. Of those, 274 have been sampled for DNA extraction and 87 could be connected through a large pedigree. Segregation analysis suggested an X-linked mode of transmission; therefore both XLPRA1 and XLPRA2 mutations were excluded through the genetic tests. Having excluded these mutations, we suggest that this PRA segregating in Border Collie is a new XLPRA (XLPRA3) and propose it as a potential model for the homologous human disease, X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa.

  9. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    OpenAIRE

    Marika McAdam

    2013-01-01

    International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in ide...

  10. Is the international border effect larger than the domestic border effect? : evidence from U.S. trade

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Cletus C.; Novy, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have found that international borders represent large barriers to trade. But how do international borders compare to domestic border barriers? We investigate international and domestic border barriers in a unified framework. We consider a unique data set of exports from individual U.S. states to foreign countries and combine it with trade flows within and between U.S. states. After controlling for distance and country size, we find that relative to state-to-state trade, crossing ...

  11. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  12. Deaths at the borders database : evidence of deceased migrants’ bodies found along the southern external borders of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Last, T.K.; Mirto, Giorgia; Ulusoy, O.; Urquijo, Ignacio; Harte, J.M.; Bami, Nefeli; Pérez Pérez, Marta; Macias Delgado, Flor; Tapella, Amélie; Michalaki, Alexandra; Michalitsi, Eirini; Latsoudi, Efi; Tselepi, Naya; Chatziprokopiou, Marios; Spijkerboer, T.P.

    2017-01-01

    Irregular migrants and asylum seekers have died and continue to die attempting to cross the external borders of the EU without authorisation, seeking to enter the territories of its Member States. Yet, remarkably little is known about these ‘border deaths’. In 2015, the Human Costs of Border Control

  13. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  14. A permanent US-Mexico border environmental health commission. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-27

    Public health officials, physicians, and politicians have long been aware of the squalid environmental conditions existing along the US-Mexico border. Some attempts have been made to improve the environmental pollution and causes of human disease, beginning as early as the 1930s with the IBWC, established in 1889. More recent agreements and legislation have called for US and Mexico cooperation by way of each nation's corresponding environmental agency (ie, the EPA and Mexico's SEDUE) and their agencies of foreign affairs (ie, the IBWC). Nevertheless, environmental monitoring and disease incidence data continue to point out that public and environmental health along the border--the result of uncontrolled air and water pollution and lack of disease vector control--is rapidly deteriorating and seriously affecting the health and future economic vitality on both sides of the border. Many prominent public health professionals and environmental organizations are concerned that the present working relationship between the United States and Mexico is not functioning well and cannot adequately cope with existing environmental conditions; for one thing, the efforts of the EPA and SEDUE are reviewed no more frequently than once a year by a staff quartered in Washington and Mexico City. Some projects to improve these conditions have been undertaken by the EPA and SEDUE and the IBWC; at present, the prospects for success do not appear promising. Consequently, these individuals and organizations have urged creation of a US-Mexico border environmental health commission. Congress did see fit last year to give responsibility for the environment to the IBWC in the form of Public Law 100-465. This law, however, does not address the full severity of environmental and public health degradation along the border; it does not address the pollution of the New River, Agua Prieta, the San Pedro River, or the Pacific Ocean, neither does it offer remedial control of hazardous waste sites

  15. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...... impact on the success, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance. Taking a process perspective, this study specially focuses on the main implementation activities during acquisition process......, with the aim to empirically investigate their relative importance and joint effect on the performance of cross-border acquisitions. Such integrative understanding of how and why these actions explain acquisition success also yields important implications for managers....

  16. Centronuclear myopathy in a Border collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D

    2012-10-01

    A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Overcoming bordering practices through the arts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    During 2014, Denmark received nearly 15,000 asylum seekers, almost twice the number from the previous year as more people fleeing Syria’s war fled to Europe. By 2016, Denmark succeeded in making the country highly unattractive as a destination for refugees fleeing war torn countries. The country...... introduced a controversial “jewellery bill”, placed adverts in a newspaper in Lebanon dissuading refugees from contemplating a trip to Denmark, and cut assistance benefits for refugees by half. These state bordering practices aimed at securing some kind of “Danishness”. This article aims at ascribing agency...... to young Syrian refugees in Denmark who have experienced these bordering practices and who seek to counter these practices by participating in meaningful social interactions with their Danish counterparts. The empirical focus is an artistic enactment – a weeklong dance workshop that brought...

  18. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  19. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent......, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance....

  20. Developing a simulation for border safeguarding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . This limits the study to ground targets, often unarmed and with low hostility levels. Border safeguarding is a Joint Command and Control (JC2) operation between the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) and South African Police Service (SAPS... without the use of intelligent threat behaviour. Section 5 contains our conclusions. 2. Joint Control and Command Figure 1 shows how JC2 operate and communicate between the levels of war as defined in [2]. The levels signify Strategic goals...

  1. Can cross-border pollution reduce pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Panos Hatzipanayotou; Sajal Lahiri; Michael S. Michael

    2002-01-01

    We develop a North-South model of foreign aid and cross-border pollution resulting from production activities in the recipient country. There is both private and public abatement of pollution, the latter being financed through emissions tax revenue and foreign aid. We characterise a Nash equilibrium where the donor country chooses the amount of aid, and the recipient chooses the fraction of aid allocated to pollution abatement and/or the emission tax rate. At this equilibrium, an increase in ...

  2. Resolving international border disputes: the Irish experience

    OpenAIRE

    Coakley, John

    2017-01-01

    The literature on international border disputes has in recent years focused increasingly on the role played by norm transition in promoting or facilitating new political compromises. This article explores the value of a specific model of norm replacement in accounting for the circumstances leading to Ireland’s Good Friday agreement in 1998, which formally and finally settled the long-running territorial dispute between Ireland and the United Kingdom. Drawing on the theoretical literature, it ...

  3. Cross border M and A environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the Canada-U.S. cross-border merger and acquisition environment and exchangeable share structure within the petroleum industry is provided. Recent U.S. acquisitions in Canada, Canadian investment conditions, indexed price analysis from January 1, 1997 to October 16, 1998, and a variety of other share price/cash flow statistics relevant to mergers and acquisitions are examined. tabs., figs

  4. Sharing Knowledge and Experience Across Borders | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In many parts of Yemen, tap water flows just once a month. Yemeni farmers have to drill their wells as deep as six metres to get enough water to irrigate crops. In this parched country — bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the east, with coastlines on the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Arabian Sea — a litre of ...

  5. Type 2 diabetes mortality at Mexican borders

    OpenAIRE

    Manzanares Rivera, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze type II diabetes mortality rates geographic distribution and evolution in time across both Mexican border regions during the period 1998-2013. Methods: The work is based on exploratory and inferential data analysis conducted using death reports from the national health information system. The analysis considers social determinants of health as a theoretical paradigm and includes microdata on consumption patterns at household level for the US-Mexico and Mexico-Guatemala b...

  6. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  7. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  8. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United States-Mexico...

  9. Sensory and motor neuropathy in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Kenneth R; Cash, Walter C; Shelton, G Diane

    2005-10-15

    A 5-month-old female Border Collie was evaluated because of progressive hind limb ataxia. The predominant clinical findings suggested a sensory neuropathy. Sensory nerve conduction velocity was absent in the tibial, common peroneal, and radial nerves and was decreased in the ulnar nerve; motor nerve conduction velocity was decreased in the tibial, common peroneal, and ulnar nerves. Histologic examination of nerve biopsy specimens revealed considerable nerve fiber depletion; some tissue sections had myelin ovoids, foamy macrophages, and axonal degeneration in remaining fibers. Marked depletion of most myelinated fibers within the peroneal nerve (a mixed sensory and motor nerve) supported the electrodiagnostic findings indicative of sensorimotor neuropathy. Progressive deterioration in motor function occurred over the following 19 months until the dog was euthanatized. A hereditary link was not established, but a littermate was similarly affected. The hereditary characteristic of this disease requires further investigation.

  10. Simulation of Cross-border Impacts Resulting from Classical Swine Fever Epidemics within the Netherlands and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-02-01

    The cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and the two German states of North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and Lower Saxony (LS) is a large and highly integrated livestock production area. This region increasingly develops towards a single epidemiological area in which disease introduction is a shared veterinary and, consequently, economic risk. The objectives of this study were to examine classical swine fever (CSF) control strategies' veterinary and direct economic impacts for NL, NRW and LS given the current production structure and to analyse CSF's cross-border causes and impacts within the NL-NRW-LS region. The course of the epidemic was simulated by the use of InterSpread Plus, whereas economic analysis was restricted to calculating disease control costs and costs directly resulting from the control measures applied. Three veterinary control strategies were considered: a strategy based on the minimum EU requirements, a vaccination and a depopulation strategy based on NL and GER's contingency plans. Regardless of the veterinary control strategy, simulated outbreak sizes and durations for 2010 were much smaller than those simulated previously, using data from over 10 years ago. For example, worst-case outbreaks (50th percentile) in NL resulted in 30-40 infected farms and lasted for two to four and a half months; associated direct costs and direct consequential costs ranged from €24.7 to 28.6 million and €11.7 to 26.7 million, respectively. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies were efficient in controlling outbreaks, especially large outbreaks, whereas the EU minimum strategy was especially deficient in controlling worst-case outbreaks. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies resulted in low direct costs and direct consequential costs. The probability of cross-border disease spread was relatively low, and cross-border spread resulted in small, short outbreaks in neighbouring countries. Few opportunities for further cross-border harmonization and

  11. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  12. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  13. A study on basic demographic and disease characteristics of cancer-diagnosed Syrian refugees treated in the border city of Turkey, Sanliurfa; a hospital-based retrospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkal Temi, Yasemin; Murat Sedef, Ali; Gokcay, Serkan; Coskun, Hatice; Oskeroglu Kaplan, Sedenay; Ozkul, Ozlem; Mertsoylu, Huseyin; Kose, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Turkey hosts around 3 million Syrian refugees which is more than any other country in the world. Along with some other adaptation issues like cultural, language, and economic difficulties, significant problems in managing medical problems, chronic diseases like cancer in particular, have to be fixed. However, there are few studies which explore main patient and clinicopathological characteristics in Syrian refugees with cancer. The purpose of this study was to highlight the aforementioned characteristics along with management issues after cancer diagnosis of these patients. This study was designed as a hospital-based retrospective observational case-series study of 134 Syrian refugees cancer patients between 2015 and 2017. The patient median age was 47.5 years (range 18- 80). Out of the 134, 102 (76.1%) were female. The most common cancer types were breast (n=57, 42.5%) and gynecological cancers (n=14, 10.4%). The majority of patients were diagnosed at advanced stage (n=60, 44.8%). There were 91 (67.9%) and 43 (32.1%) patients admitted to our center from refugee camps and staying in a house, respectively. The median follow-up was 14 months (range 1-111) and 11 (8.2%) patients died. One and two-year survival rate of the whole group were 93% and 86%, respectively. There were 12 (9%) patients with grade 3-4 hematological and non-hematological toxicities. Neutropenia was the most common grade 3-4 toxicity (n=8, 6%). The patients staying in refugee camp (n-91) or in a house (n=43) finished all planned cycles of chemotherapy with a rate of 71% (n=65) and 79% (n=34), respectively. Statistical analysis failed to show significant relationship between the staying site (either camp or house), chemotherapy compliance rate, grade 3-4 toxicities with p=0.347 and p=0.09, respectively. Our results revealed that breast cancer and gynecological cancers were the most common cancer types which are good candidates for cancer screening. Unfortunately, the majority of patients had cancer

  14. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  15. Smart border initiative: a Franco-German cross-border energy optimisation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Integrated and optimised local energy systems will play a key role in achieving the energy transition objectives set by France and Germany, in line with the Energy Union's goals, and contribute to ensuring a secure, affordable and climate-friendly energy supply in the EU. In order to capitalise on the French and German expertise and experiences in developing such systems and to continue strengthening the cross-border cooperation towards a fully integrated European energy market, both Governments have decided to launch a common initiative to identify and structure a cross-border energy optimisation project. Tilia and Dena have undertaken this mission to jointly develop the Smart Border Initiative (SBI). The SBI will, on the one hand, connect policies designed by France and Germany in order to support their cities and territories in their energy transition strategies and European market integration. It is currently a paradox that, though more balanced and resilient energy systems build up, bottom-up, at the local level, borders remain an obstacle to this local integration, in spite of the numerous complementarities observed in cross-border regions, and of their specific needs, in terms of smart mobility for example. The SBI project aims at enabling European neighbouring regions separated by a border to jointly build up optimised local energy systems, and jointly develop their local economies following an integrated, sustainable and low-carbon model. On the other hand, this showcase project will initiate a new stage in the EU electricity market integration, by completing high voltage interconnections with local, low voltage integration at DSO level, opening new optimisation possibilities in managing the electricity balance, and enabling DSOs to jointly overcome some of the current challenges, notably the increased share of renewable energy (RE) and ensuring Europe's security of supply

  16. Cross-border policy effects on alcohol outcomes: drinking without thinking on the u.s.-Mexico border?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    Rates of alcohol-related outcomes are sensitive to policy differences in politically distinct, adjacent territories. Factors that shape these cross-border effects, particularly when the policy differences are longstanding, remain poorly understood. We compared the ability of 2 classes of variables with theoretical relevance to the U.S.-Mexico border context-bar attendance and alcohol-related social-cognitive variables-to explain elevated drinking on the U.S. side of the border relative to other areas of the United States. Data were collected from multistage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border (current drinker N = 1,351). Structural equation models were used to test drinking context (frequency of bar attendance) and 6 different social-cognitive variables (including alcohol-related attitudes, norms, motives, and beliefs) as mediators of border effects on a composite drinking index. The border effect on drinking varied by age (with younger adults showing a stronger effect), consistent with previous findings and known risk factors in the region. Contrary to theoretical expectations, 6 different social-cognitive variables-despite relating strongly with drinking-were comparable in border and nonborder areas (within and across age) and played no role in elevated drinking on the border. Conversely, elevated drinking among border youth was mediated by bar attendance. This mediated moderation effect held after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and neighborhood-level confounders. Increased drinking among U.S.-Mexico border youth is explained by patterns of bar attendance, but not by more permissive alcohol-related social-cognitive variables in border areas: Border youth attend bars and drink more than their nonborder counterparts, despite having comparable alcohol-related beliefs, attitudes, norms, and motives for use. Alcohol's heightened availability and visibility on both sides of the border may create opportunities for

  17. Bordering Binarities and Cognitive Cartography: What on Earth Does Literature Have to do with Border Transactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Moi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although literature and poetry have numerous borders of their own,these are rarely assumed to have any significance for the world out-side the text itself. A number of reasons for this distinctive division certainly stem from the literary field itself. This paper intends to indicate the exclusivist stance of some theories of literature, and the inclucivist of others, before exploring the possibilities of bridging between borders in text and territory by reference to the life and literature of Oscar Wilde and a performative and imaginative analysis of Paul Muldoon's epigrammatic poem The Plot.

  18. Early seismicity of the Scottish Borders Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the seismicity of Southern Scotland and Northern England up to the year 1750. This area was formerly a border area between two states that eventually became politically united. Much of the area is uplands, and the seismicity is moderate to low. This makes for some problems in studying historical seismicity, yet the area provides a number of case studies of general interest in the field of historical seismology, including a rare case of being able to track down a «missing» earthquake.

  19. Algeria Post Arab Spring : The Forced Virtualisation of the Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Dris-Aït Hamadouche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Algeria is the core of the Maghreb and shares land borders with seven countries Maghreb and Sahel countries. However, since 2011, none of the seven land borders is stable and se-cure. So, even if Algeria is considered as a stable country, this stability is fragile and is likely to be more precarious if the country has to face simultaneously an economic crisis and deli-cate presidential succession. Domestic incertitude coupled to regional conflicts puts the Algerian borders under unprecedented pressure. Consequently, almost all the governmental declarations expressed worries about the vulnerability of the borders, and assurances about the security services determination to assure the state security. However, to what extant this promise can be entirely fulfilled, regarding the borders’ characteristics and the specificity of the context? Why is the virtualization of the borders forced? As regards to the growing per-meability of the borders, can their militarization guarantee their security?

  20. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  1. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering....... For contemporary states the planes have become increasingly disaggregated, in the sense that they do not fall into place at one and the same border. Thus, states have to pick and choose different articulations (often inconsistently) on different planes. We illustrate these ideas with instances, present......-day and historical, of bordering. A corollary of there being more need to pick and choose is that articulations of sovereignty change. So, sovereignty is increasingly the material of ‘sovereignty games’, where sovereignty is used as a political instrument. In sum, our theory directs attention to state bordering...

  2. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems.

  3. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  4. Algeria Post Arab Spring : The Forced Virtualisation of the Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Louisa Dris-Aït Hamadouche

    2016-01-01

    Algeria is the core of the Maghreb and shares land borders with seven countries Maghreb and Sahel countries. However, since 2011, none of the seven land borders is stable and se-cure. So, even if Algeria is considered as a stable country, this stability is fragile and is likely to be more precarious if the country has to face simultaneously an economic crisis and deli-cate presidential succession. Domestic incertitude coupled to regional conflicts puts the Algerian borders under unprecedented...

  5. Regional economic development policy of cross-border cooperation: improving trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Lutchak

    2014-11-01

    Accordingly, it is necessary to work out a proper independent regional policy of economic cross-border cooperation development that will define a strategy for border regions development and cross-border cooperation across the whole state border. In the process of implementation this policy should include programme development that will provide for the use of opportunities of cross-border cooperation for increase of living standards of border regions by forming of integrated cross-border economic space of Ukraine.

  6. First Philosophy in the Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Rossvaer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.

  7. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...

  8. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...

  9. The Border Effect in the Japanese Market: Gravity Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the border effect, which indicates how biased interregional trade is, compared with international trade, by means of the Gravity Model. The border effect reveals how open to the foreign countries the nation is. This research suggests that the border effect in Japan is much lower than that of the US and Canada, and has declined year by year. Furthermore, in 1990, the border effect faded out. These trends may be reflected by international incidents such as the surge of the f...

  10. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  11. Cross-border entrepreneurship in a global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Servais, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that international entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurship increasingly intersect in a global world. Both research streams address cross-border entrepreneurial activity in parallel to each other. International entrepreneurship focuses on outgoing entrepreneurial activity......, while immigrant entrepreneurship mainly considers incoming entrepreneurial activity. This paper critically discusses such a dichotomy, highlighting how differentiating immigrant entrepreneurs and international entrepreneurs perpetuates orientalist assumptions about cross-border business activity....... Focusing on a entrepreneurship as behaviour, the paper proposes an alternative perspective to cross-border entrepreneurship, discussing cross-border opportunity identification and exploitation between an entrepreneur’s country of residence and a foreign country. This perspective provides a number...

  12. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2000-01-01

    for antibodies was performed using a blocking ELISA detecting antibodies to pestivirus. Data from 815 herds were analysed statistically by the maximum likelihood method in a multinomial model. The estimated herd prevalence was 0.083 and the estimated individual prevalence within the positive herds was 0...

  13. Detection of latent tuberculosis infection among migrant farmworkers along the US-Mexico border

    OpenAIRE

    Oren, E.; Fiero, M. H.; Barrett, E.; Anderson, B.; Nu?ez, M.; Gonzalez-Salazar, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrant farmworkers are among the highest-risk populations for latent TB infection (LTBI) in the United States with numerous barriers to healthcare access and increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. LTBI is usually diagnosed on the border using the tuberculin skin test (TST). QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) also measures immune response against specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. The objective of this study is to assess the comparability of TST and QFT-GIT t...

  14. Characteristics of border nervous-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapsaj, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is revealed that border nervouse-mental disorders for victims connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident are the most widely spread diseases. Their specific features are the following: prevalence of the disorders from asthenic and psycho-organic circles; relatively small positive dynamics in the cause of treatment; uniformity in symptoms, which do not depend on psychological characteristics of a person. Particular efforts should be concentrated on developing psychosocial programs for rendering the victims help. 3 refs

  15. Coral disease physiology: the impact of Acroporid white syndrome on Symbiodinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roff, G.; Kvennefors, E. C. E.; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) are physiologically ...

  16. Crossing borders, creating boundaries : Identity making of the Angolan diaspora residing in the border town of Rundu, northern Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis explores the relationship between borders, boundaries and migration, and their effect on identity making from a diasporic perspective. The study focuses on notions of national, regional, cultural, tribal and ethnic identity, and set in relation to the influence borders and boundarieshave on these processes. It investigates this topical realm within the specific conditions of the Angolan-Namibian border, following the developments from the era of colonization, independen...

  17. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  18. Paediatric tuberculosis in Queensland, Australia: overrepresentation of cross-border and Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnan, E J; Coulter, C; Simpson, G; Clark, J; Nourse, C

    2017-03-01

    Queensland, Australia. Understanding paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is important, as children with TB typically reflect recent community transmission. Children pose unique diagnostic challenges and are at risk of developing severe disseminated infection. To describe the epidemiology, presentation and outcomes of children with TB disease in Queensland. This is a retrospective case series of children diagnosed with TB aged 0-16 years notified in 2005-2014. Data collected in the Queensland Notifiable Conditions System were extracted and analysed. Of 127 children diagnosed with TB, 16 were Australian-born (including 12 Indigenous Queenslanders), 41 were overseas-born permanent and temporary residents and 70 were cross-border Papua New Guinea (PNG) children; 88 children had pulmonary disease (with/without other sites) and 39 had extra-pulmonary disease only, with lymph node TB the predominant extra-pulmonary site; 70.1% of children had laboratory confirmation; and 14 cross-border children had multidrug-resistant TB. Treatment outcomes among children residing in Australia were good (100% among Australian-born and 97.2% among permanent and temporary residents), but they were less favourable among PNG children diagnosed in the Torres Strait Protected Zone (76.6%). Queensland has unique challenges in TB control, with a high proportion of cross-border diagnoses and over-representation of Indigenous children. Vigilance is needed given the wide spectrum of clinical presentation, particularly in high-risk communities.

  19. Nina Coltart and the border of Bethlehem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Philip

    2016-11-01

    Nina Coltart's freedom in addressing delicate areas such as spirituality and Buddhism within a psychoanalytic framework has opened borders between different psychoanalytic communities. This paper sets out to identify a deep-rooted philosophical tension that runs through several aspects of Coltart's work starting from her 'Slouching towards Bethlehem … or, thinking the unthinkable in psychoanalysis'. In exploring this central topic in depth psychology, of the distinction between thinkable and unthinkable contents, the author argues that it is not a fundamental distinction in Coltart's work but is rather a particular example of a more fundamental structural dichotomy which pervades her approach and which manifests in several different guises. It is the breadth and sincerity of Coltart's writings which make this a useful exercise, not only for understanding the structure of her work but also in illuminating some structural tensions which permeate depth-psychological pursuits in general. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  1. Nuclear Plants in the Vicinity of Borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, Elmar.

    1979-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants in border areas is decided according to 'national criteria' which are governed by the cost/benefit principle, i.e. a comparison between investment and profit; human values are taken into consideration by transforming them into financial values according to the 'quantification' procedure. However ecology cannot be quantified as it is linked to the great complexity of the natural system. To harmonize technical criteria and ecological requirements, the jurist suggests a legal system of indemnity which takes into account both damage which has already occurred and the degree of probability of its occurrence. Thus a new criterion would be introduced in the decision-making process on plant siting: compensation costs for the national population and for the neighbouring countries would then be a factor in cost/benefit calculations. (NEA) [fr

  2. POSTMODERN EDUCATION: CRITICAL AND BORDER PEDAGOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of postmodernism on education and investigates the main effects ofpostmodern philosophy on social sciences. It is clearly stated in the article that the effects of postmodernism cannotonly be limited to art and logically it should have an effect on education as well. This effect, described as thepostmodern educational approach, emphasizes that the rudiments of popular culture should also be incorporated toeducation and therefore to curricula. Postmodern educational approach also accentuates the significance of allowing‘others’ who have never possessed the opportunity to articulate their standpoints and desires to have a say in their owneducation. The concrete reflections of postmodern educational approach can be perceived in Critical and BorderPedagogies theorized by Henry A. Giroux. Critical pedagogy aspires to educate individuals who do not acceptoccurrences as they are and are critical of the knowledge they construct all through their education. Only by this waythese individuals will be able to discover their own voices, improve their civilian consciousness by taking risks, andacquire the ability of staying alive and functioning within social relations, traditions and experiences. Border pedagogyis as well a product of postmodern philosophy. It defends counter-text as opposed to the official ones offered, presentedand imposed to learners. Counter-consciousness represents the critical analysis of how the present reads the past andhow the past informs the present. This practice of course results in the re-evaluation of memories and traditions.Memories are the stories which were forgotten or ignored with the support of preserved traditions. It is thereforeconcluded in the article that postmodern educational approach is the critical examination towards dismissing the mainnarratives and discourses which manipulate and configure the curriculum of schools. It is the struggle exercisedtowards the recognition

  3. Cross border mobility of nurse educators: Case studies from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on cross border mobility of nurse educators and draw on Foucault's analysis to conceptualise the means by which cross border migration of nurse educators could be revisited. A case study design of seven nurse educators who had migrated and came back to their countries ...

  4. Communicative challenges of interpreting in cross-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the challenges encountered by court interpreters who interpret in cross-border languages, i.e. languages spoken across the borders of two neighbouring countries. Data used in the article were collected from participants by adopting a qualitative approach, based on the observation of courtroom ...

  5. Cross-border mobility, unfamiliarity and development policy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, B.; Velde, M. van der

    2013-01-01

    In this special issue, we seek to explore experiences, performances and effects of both “unfamiliarity” and “familiarity” across a diversity of inner and outer borders of the European Union. In EU integration discourse, cross-border unfamiliarity is usually considered to obstruct international

  6. Geology of the border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloten, van Roger

    1954-01-01

    The border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas is part of the mountainous country south of Parras in northeastern Mexico. It includes a thickness of about 2,600 meters of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks that were deposited along the northern border of the Mexican geosyncline along the southern

  7. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2018-01-01

    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature as geograph...

  8. National Security Threats at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-24

    from Latin America. There are enhanced “push” factors of overpopulation , civil unrest, unemployment, poverty and violence. Then there are the “pull...national security threat. Nevertheless, it should be addressed concurrently with border security. Securing the border will facilitate the resolution of

  9. IDentity, crude data and narrative at the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Perle

    (Andrejevic & Gates 2014; Tsianos & Kuster 2016), my analysis takes an ethnographic approach to the practical work of border control agents. And on the floor where borders are erected and maintained on a daily basis, surveillance, control and data base consulting are indeed very practical and mundane matters...

  10. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Border Control Operational Coordinating Committee (BCOCC) is a national body “responsible for the strategic management of the South African border environment in a coordinated manner.” This includes the key components of improved and coordinated...

  11. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13...

  12. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Robinson International (USA) Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... products for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13. Anyone...

  13. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR 192...

  14. The Refugee Crisis, Non-Citizens, Border Politics and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    In the midst of the most serious refugee crisis since WWII, nation states are buttressing their borders. This paper explores the border politics of the nation state in response to the refugee crisis. Drawing on the work of Susan Sontag, Judith Butler and Imogen Tyler it considers the ways in which the imagery of the pain and suffering of Others is…

  15. Permeability of Czech-Polish Border Using by Selected Criteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Zyszkowska, K.; Batelková, Kateřina; Ciok, S.; Dolzblasz, K.; Kirchner, Karel; Krejčí, Tomáš; Raczyk, A.; Spaller, W.; Zapletalová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 51-65 ISSN 1842-5135 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : natural barrier * cross border co-operation * population pressure * border segments * Poland and Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://technicalgeography.org/pdf/1_2015/06_kolejka.pdf

  16. Cross-Border Banking in Europe : What's Next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, F.; Beck, T.H.L.; Carletti, E.; Lane, P.; Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the role of banks in cross-border finance has become an urgent priority. Cross-border banks have played a central role in the dynamics of the global crisis of 2007-2009. First, European banks had a surprisingly large exposure to the US securitised asset markets, which arose to a

  17. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  18. Simulation of cross-border impacts resulting from classical swine fever epidemics within the Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    The cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and the two German states of North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and Lower Saxony (LS) is a large and highly integrated livestock production area. This region increasingly develops towards a single epidemiological area in which disease introduction is a

  19. Two fatal cases of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2os

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy S. Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is endemic in areas of Southeast Asia, however, there are no published reports from the Thai-Myanmar border.  We report the first two cases of fatal melioidosis in this region. This is of great public health importance and highlights the need to increase clinical awareness of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border and to assess the true burden of disease in the area through improved case detection and Burkholderia pseudomallei prevalence studies.

  20. Two fatal cases of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/373

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy S. Chu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is endemic in areas of Southeast Asia, however, there are no published reports from the Thai-Myanmar border. We report the first two documented cases of fatal melioidosis in this region. This is of great public health importance and highlights the need to both increase clinical awareness of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border, and to assess the true burden of disease in the area through improved case detection and Burkholderia pseudomallei prevalence studies.

  1. People Crossing Borders: An Analysis of U.S. Border Protection Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    Fence Act, as well as developing and deploying the technology component of the SBInet initiative—commonly referred to as “ virtual fence.” Under SBI...Offices, and state and local law enforcement. Moreover, the Mexican law enforcement agency Secretaria de Seguridad Publica is a partner along the...eventual deployment of the virtual fence is intended to occur along the entire United States border, thereby theoretically tightening supply corridors

  2. U.S. Border Enforcement and Mexican Immigrant Location Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Sarah; Pugatch, Todd

    2015-10-01

    We provide the first evidence on the causal effect of border enforcement on the full spatial distribution of Mexican immigrants to the United States. We address the endogeneity of border enforcement with an instrumental variables strategy based on administrative delays in budgetary allocations for border security. We find that 1,000 additional Border Patrol officers assigned to prevent unauthorized migrants from entering a U.S. state decreases that state's share of Mexican immigrants by 21.9 %. Our estimates imply that if border enforcement had not changed from 1994 to 2011, the shares of Mexican immigrants locating in California and Texas would each be 8 percentage points greater, with all other states' shares lower or unchanged.

  3. Cross-Border Tourism and its Significance for Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman LIVANDOVSCHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with cross-border tourism. It enhances the importance of cross-border cooperation in tourism. Cross-border cooperation is a form of international cooperation, along with interregional, transitional and trans-frontier cooperation. Cross-border regions often share the same historical and cultural traditions and attractive natural landscapes, such is the case of the Republic of Moldova and Romania. In both cases, cross-border regions can benefit from cooperation – cooperation can help create greater diversity and differentiation of the range of tourism and environmental products; create economies of scale and make promotion more effective, and can help better address specific problems or issues for tourism development.

  4. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  5. The Humanitarian Drone and the Borders: Unveiling the Rationales Underlying the Deployment of Drones in Border Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa; Custers, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In these days economic and political pressures push for the deployment of drones’ technology in civil and commercial domains. This chapter focuses in particular on the deployment of drones in the context of border surveillance. Border surveillance is a shared competence between the European Union,

  6. People, borders, trajectories: an approach to cross-border mobility and immobility in and to the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, B.M.R. van der; Naerssen, Ton van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the outlines of a geographical approach to cross-border mobility, which in this article we use synonymously with international migration. The approach consists of three constitutive parts that we discern in international migration: people, borders and trajectories. People

  7. Symmetry or asymmetry? Cross-border openness of service providers in Polish-Czech and Polish-German border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołzbłasz Sylwia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry and/or asymmetry in terms of cross-border openness of service providers is examined in this article, for the cases of two border twin towns: Cieszyn/Český Těšín at the Polish-Czech border, and Gubin/Guben at the Polish-German border. To assess the level of openness of firms towards clients from the other side of the border, four trans-border categories were examined: neighbour’s language visible at store location; business offers in the language of the neighbour; the possibilities of payment in the neighbour’s currency; and the staff’s knowledge of the language. This enabled a comparison of both parts of the particular twin towns in relation to the character of cross-border openness, as well as an assessment of their symmetry/asymmetry. Comparisons of Gubin/Guben and Cieszyn/Český Těšín with respect to the analysed features were also carried out. The analysis shows significant variation in the level of cross-border openness towards clients from neighbouring countries. Whereas in the Polish-Czech town a relative symmetry was observed, in the Polish-German case, significant asymmetry was noted.

  8. Negotiating mobility, debating borders: migration diplomacy in Turkey-EU relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    İçduygu, A.; Üstübici, A.; Schwenken, H.; Ruß-Sattar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of 'citizenship' and 'border' have rarely been systematically brought together. New Border and Citizenship Politics challenges this, examining the intersections and dynamics of bordering processes and citizenship politics. Case-studies from the United States, Europe, the Mediterranean

  9. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  10. Border Terriers under primary veterinary care in England: demography and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dan G; Darwent, Elisabeth C; Church, David B; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2017-01-01

    The Border Terrier is a working terrier type that is generally considered to be a relatively healthy and hardy breed. This study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of Border Terriers receiving veterinary care in England using de-identified electronic patient record data within the VetCompass™ Programme. Annual birth proportion for Border Terriers showed a decreasing trend from 1.46% in 2005 to 0.78% in 2014. The median adult bodyweight for males (10.9 kg, IQR: 9.6-12.3, range: 6.3-25.0) was higher than for females (9.1 kg, IQR: 8.2-10.3, range: 5.2-21.6) ( P  skin disorder (10.17%, 95% CI: 8.60-11.93).Syndromic analysis showed that the most prevalent body locations affected were the head-and-neck (37.75%, 95% CI: 35.14-40.43), abdomen (18.61%, 95% CI: 16.55-20.81) and limb (11.53%, 95% CI: 9.86-13.37). At least one organ system was affected in 834 (62.85%) Border Terriers. The most prevalent organ systems affected were the digestive (32.03%, 95% CI: 29.52-34.61), integument (26.68%, 95% CI: 24.31-29.14), connective/soft tissue (11.15%, 95% CI: 9.51-12.97) and auditory (9.87%, 95% CI: 8.32-11.60). At least one affected pathophysiological process was described in 881 (66.39%) Border Terriers. The most prevalent pathophysiologic processes recorded were inflammation (31.65%, 95% CI: 29.15-34.23), nutritional (9.04%, 95% CI: 7.55-10.72), mass/swelling (8.89%, 95% CI: 7.42-10.55), traumatic (7.99%, 95% CI: 6.59-9.58) and infectious (7.76%, 95% CI: 6.38-9.33). This study documented a trend towards reducing ownership and relatively long-livedness in the Border Terrier. The most common disorders were periodontal disease, overweight/obesity and otitis externa. Predisposition to dental and neurological disease was suggested. These results can provide a comprehensive evidence resource to support breed-based health plans that can contribute positively to reforms to improve health and welfare within the breed.

  11. Impacts of the Implementation of Border Crossing Area Agreement Between Indonesia and the Philippines at the Border of Miangas Island of North Celebes

    OpenAIRE

    A.P.G Frederik, Wulanmas

    2011-01-01

    The existence of Border Crossing Area Agreement (BCA) in 1975 regulating the border agreement between Miangas Island of North Celebes and the Philippines created positive and negative impacts on border people in Miangas Island. The legal aspects, BCA is a legal regulation regulating the border crossing and commerce in that area; economic aspects; BCA has not accommodated border people's interests maximally yet and it has a limiting impression rather than facilitating people's interests, thus,...

  12. The border as a resource for the development of borderland: A comparative analysis of two Polish urban centres at the external border of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Studzińska, Dominika; Domaniewski, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    The entry into force of the Agreement between the Republic of Poland and the Russian Federation on visa- free movement in 2012 caused an increase in border permeability, and hence a sudden increase in border crossings. The border which used to divide the neighbouring states started linking them instead. Crossing the border became part of the everyday life of local communities. Actors on both sides benefited from the commercial services of the other country. For Kaliningrad citizens, border-cr...

  13. Investigation of Borrelia spp. in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) at the border crossings between China and Russia in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Yuan, Chao; Cui, Yun-Fu; Li, Bai-Xiang; Wu, Li-Jie; Liu, Ying

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the precise species of tick vector and the Borrelia spirochete pathogen at the Heilongjiang Province international border with Russia. In this study, ticks were collected from 12 Heilongjiang border crossings (including grasslands, shrublands, forests, and plantantions) to determine the rate and species type of spirochete-infected ticks and the most prevalent spirochete genotypes. The ticks represented three genera and four species of the Ixodidae family [Ixodes persulcatus, Dermacentor silvarum, Haemaphysalis concinna and Haemaphysalis japonica]. Ixodes persulcatus had the highest amount of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection of 25.6% and the most common species of Borrelia isolated from Ixodes persulcatus was Borrelia garinii, strain PD91. Our results suggest that Borrelia garinii PD91-infected Ixodes persulcatus may be the principal cause of Lyme disease in the border crossing areas of Heilongjiang Province. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  15. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  16. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  17. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to influenza and the influenza vaccine in US-Mexico border communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phippard, Alba E; Kimura, Akiko C; Lopez, Karla; Kriner, Paula

    2013-08-01

    Hispanics are less likely to receive the influenza vaccine compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the US. Hispanic residents of the US-Mexico border region may have differing health beliefs and behaviors, and their cross-border mobility impacts disease control. To assess beliefs and behaviors regarding influenza prevention and control among border populations, surveys were conducted at border clinics. Of 197 respondents, 34 % reported conditions for which vaccination is indicated, and travel to Mexico was common. Few (35 %) believed influenza could make them 'very sick', and 76 % believed they should take antibiotics to treat influenza. Influenza vaccine awareness was high, and considered important, but only 36 % reported recent vaccination. The belief that influenza vaccination is 'very important' was strongly associated with recent vaccination; "Didn't think about it" was the most common reason for being un-vaccinated. Misconceptions about influenza risk, prevention and treatment were common in this Hispanic border population; improved educational efforts and reminder systems could impact vaccination behaviors.

  18. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. An open mind to closed borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallet, Ulrike; Lefeber, Bob

    2017-04-01

    One aspect of "Science in tomorrow's classroom" is teaching geography students the basic skills and knowledge to play an active role in society as citizens. Topics that frame the development of good citizenship are wide-ranged and include climate change, migration and integration as well as democracy and identity. Often these kinds of topics do not allow for right or wrong answers or classroom lectures; it is more important to encourage students to find and discuss arguments with which to underpin their opinion. In this way, civic education is very suitable for active learning. Active learning is described as a method of learning in which students are actively involved in the learning process through (group) discussion, experiments or games. By doing so, students are stimulated to engage in higher-order thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, which are inherent to becoming responsible, reflective and critical citizens as well as (future) scientists. It has also been shown that the use of active learning methods significantly increased the number of meaningful geographical relationships that students give in tests (Karkdijk, 2012). I, therefore, propose to use active learning to approach civic education in the classroom. Specifically, I used a "mystery" to engage students in active learning on the highly polarizing subject of migration. A mystery (Leat, 1990) is a didactic method that uses short bits of information to solve an intriguing question. A current polarizing subject in society and in the classroom is the migration from Northern Africa and the Middle East to Europe and the increasing number of terrorist attacks by individuals who have radicalised before, during or after their journey over the Mediterranean. In class, students were asked to solve this migration mystery: "Could the terrorist attack in Berlin have been stopped by closing the borders of the Mediterranean countries to migrants?" In order to solve this mystery and to find an

  20. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Han.Blok@royalhaskoning.com

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  1. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m 2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m 2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  2. Conserved gene regulatory module specifies lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Horie, Takeo; Chen, Geng; Bao, Hongcun; Chen, Siyu; Liu, Weihong; Horie, Ryoko; Liang, Tao; Dong, Biyu; Feng, Qianqian; Tao, Qinghua; Liu, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The lateral neural plate border (NPB), the neural part of the vertebrate neural border, is composed of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and peripheral nervous system (PNS) progenitors. In invertebrates, PNS progenitors are also juxtaposed to the lateral boundary of the CNS. Whether there are conserved molecular mechanisms determining vertebrate and invertebrate lateral neural borders remains unclear. Using single-cell-resolution gene-expression profiling and genetic analysis, we present evidence that orthologs of the NPB specification module specify the invertebrate lateral neural border, which is composed of CNS and PNS progenitors. First, like in vertebrates, the conserved neuroectoderm lateral border specifier Msx/vab-15 specifies lateral neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans Second, orthologs of the vertebrate NPB specification module ( Msx/vab-15 , Pax3/7/pax-3 , and Zic/ref-2 ) are significantly enriched in worm lateral neuroblasts. In addition, like in other bilaterians, the expression domain of Msx/vab-15 is more lateral than those of Pax3/7/pax-3 and Zic/ref- 2 in C. elegans Third, we show that Msx/vab-15 regulates the development of mechanosensory neurons derived from lateral neural progenitors in multiple invertebrate species, including C. elegans , Drosophila melanogaster , and Ciona intestinalis We also identify a novel lateral neural border specifier, ZNF703/tlp-1 , which functions synergistically with Msx/vab- 15 in both C. elegans and Xenopus laevis These data suggest a common origin of the molecular mechanism specifying lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

  3. Extrahepatic biliary atresia in a border collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, C; Rothuizen, J; van Sluijs, F J; Hazewinkel, H A; van den Ingh, T S

    2000-01-01

    Progressive lameness and leg pain were the predominant clinical signs in a 17-week-old male border collie presented for examination. On clinical investigation, extrahepatic cholestasis in association with rickets due to inadequate vitamin D resorption was diagnosed. The dog was treated parenterally with vitamin D and a cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. At 25 days postsurgery the lameness had resolved and bone structure was radiographically normal. However, at six weeks postsurgery, the dog's condition deteriorated rapidly and euthanasia was finally performed at eight weeks postsurgery. At postmortem examination, Toxocara canis nematodes were found to have invaded the biliary system via the anastomosis between the gallbladder and duodenum, causing biliary and hepatic toxocariasis. The cause of the primary extrahepatic cholestasis was atresia of the common bile duct at the hepatic end. The liver tissue showed microscopic lesions of chronic extrahepatic cholestasis as well as acute inflammation associated with the nematode invasion. There was no postmortem evidence of bone lesions. Extrahepatic biliary atresia is extremely rare in animals and has not been described before in dogs. In contrast, it represents the most common cause of congenital cholestasis in children, occurring in approximately one per 10,000 to 15,000 live births.

  4. Border Collision Route to Quasiperiodicity: Numerical Investigation and Experimental Confirmation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Mosekilde, Erik; Maity, S.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical studies of higher-dimensional piecewise-smooth systems have recently shown how a torus can arise from a periodic cycle through a special type of border-collision bifurcation. The present article investigates this new route to quasiperiodicity in the two-dimensional piecewise-linear normal...... form map. We have obtained the chart of the dynamical modes for this map and showed that border-collision bifurcations can lead to the birth of a stable closed invariant curve associated with quasiperiodic or periodic dynamics. In the parameter regions leading to the existence of an invariant closed...... to quasiperiodicity through a border-collision bifurcation. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...

  5. Cause of Border Conflict over the World Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Akihiro

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to show causes of border conflict between Thailand and Cambodia, and to look for the means of solving the conflict. Preah Vihear Temple is an old Khmer temple ruins situated on the border of Thailand and Cambodia. UNESCO decided to list it as a World Heritage Site on July 7, 2008. However, the two countries have been in a state of border conflict since that time. The conflict leaves dozens of casualties. This paper shows that there are two causes of conflict. The first one...

  6. Satisfaction in border tourism: An analysis with structural equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jimber del Río

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Border tourism is the temporary displacement of people to the dividing line between two countries contiguous areas. This activity promotes the economic development of these geographical regions. The aim of this research is to analyze visitors from the Dominican Republic and Haiti border. We propose the results of an empirical study with structural equations that show correlations between the attitude factor towards the border tourism, the value factors perceived by the tourist, satisfaction and loyalty of the visitor in the destination place.

  7. Social and cultural influences among Mexican border entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Bretones, Francisco; Cappello, Héctor M; Garcia, Pedro A

    2009-06-01

    Social and cultural conditions (including U.S. border and inland influence, role models within the family, and educational background) which affect locus of control and achievement motivation among Mexican entrepreneurs were explored among 64 selected entrepreneurs in two Mexican towns, one on the Mexico-U.S. border, the other located inland. Analyses showed that the border subsample scored higher on External locus of control; however, in both subsamples the father was an important element in the locus of control variable and the entrepreneur status. No statistically significant mean difference was noted for achievement motivation. Practical applications and limitations are discussed.

  8. CHANGING BORDERS, RETHINKING SOVEREIGNTY: TOWARDS A RIGHT TO MIGRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Casas-Cortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The intervention of European Union border authorities in countries of Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe has shown how the European state “border” has been displaced from its national moorings and externalized across the territories of neighboring states. Our research examines the outsourcing of the southern European Union border, focusing on the case of Spain and its relationship with Morocco and countries of Western Africa. In this paper we describe the development and implementation of this strategy of migration management, signaling implications of border externalization from the point of geopolitics and legality, including a suggestive call to reclaim the legal tradition of the Right to Migrate.

  9. Deciphering the Responses of Root Border-Like Cells of Arabidopsis and Flax to Pathogen-Derived Elicitors1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancot, Barbara; Santaella, Catherine; Jaber, Rim; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie Christine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Leprince, Jérôme; Gattin, Isabelle; Souc, Céline; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens including fungi and bacteria cause many of the most serious crop diseases. The plant innate immune response is triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. To date, very little is known of MAMP-mediated responses in roots. Root border cells are cells that originate from root caps and are released individually into the rhizosphere. Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as “border-like cells.” Whereas root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum) are clearly involved in defense against fungal pathogens, the function of border-like cells remains to be established. In this study, we have investigated the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. We found that both MAMPs triggered a rapid oxidative burst in root border-like cells of both species. The production of reactive oxygen species was accompanied by modifications in the cell wall distribution of extensin epitopes. Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that can be cross linked by hydrogen peroxide to enhance the mechanical strength of the cell wall. In addition, both MAMPs also caused deposition of callose, a well-known marker of MAMP-elicited defense. Furthermore, flagellin22 induced the overexpression of genes involved in the plant immune response in root border-like cells of Arabidopsis. Our findings demonstrate that root border-like cells of flax and Arabidopsis are able to perceive an elicitation and activate defense responses. We also show that cell wall extensin is involved in the innate immunity response of root border-like cells. PMID:24130195

  10. BORDER EFFECTS ON DSM-5 ALCOHOL USE DISORDERS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Zemore, Sarah E.; Borges, Guilherme; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little epidemiological evidence exists on alcohol use and related problems along the U.S.-Mexico border, although the borderlands have been the focus of recent media attention related to the escalating drug/violence “epidemic”. In the present study the relationship of proximity of living at the border and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is analyzed from the U.S.-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC). Methods Household surveys were conducted on 2,336 Mexican Americans in Texas (771 in a non-border city and 1,565 from three border cities located in the three poorest counties in the U.S.) and 2,460 Mexicans from the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas in Mexico (811 in a non-border city and 1,649 from three cities which are sister cities to the Texas border sites). Results Among current drinkers, prevalence of AUD was marginally greater (pMexico (pMexico. Conclusion The data suggest that border proximity may affect AUD in both the U.S. and Mexico, but in the opposite direction, and may be related to the relative perceived or actual stress of living in the respective communities. PMID:25649987

  11. Protecting Our Perimeter: "Border Searches" Under the Fourth Amendment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    .... This report does not address interior searches and seizures performed by immigration personnel since they are not traditional "border searches" in the Court's view. This report will be updated as warranted.

  12. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  13. Migration and the new technological borders of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijstelbloem, H.; Meijer, A.

    2011-01-01

    European borders that aim to control migration and mobility increasingly rely on technology to distinguish between citizens and aliens. This book explores new tensions in Europe between states and citizens, and between politics, technology and human rights.

  14. Definig the US-Mexico border as hyperreality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Duarte-Herrera

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The US-Mexico border has been defined as a periphery, as a transborder social system, and more currently, as a station in transnational circuits. The two first definitions presuppose the strongly criticized concepts of region and cultural area. The third definition shares, along with the other two definitions, the positivist epistemological supposition that the border is a specific entity that can be known and experienced as such by any observer, no matter their social site. This paper is to support the definition of the border as a hyperreality constituted by speeches, practices, and experiences of the different social actors. From this posture, the image of the border as a formal geopolitical division is interpreted as a sustained image and reproduced by government agencies. Likewise, this writing is to support the documentation and promotion of alternative images constructed and reproduced by social actors from different power sites.

  15. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  16. Smuggling and cross border shopping of tobacco in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1995-05-27

    Governments have recently become concerned about cross border shopping and smuggling because it can decrease tax revenue. The tobacco industry predicted that, with the removal of border controls in the European Union, price differences between neighbouring countries would lead to a diversion of tobacco trade, legally and illegally, to countries with cheaper cigarettes. According to them this diversion would be through increased cross border shopping for personal consumption or through increased smuggling of cheap cigarettes from countries with low tax to countries with high tax, where cigarettes are more expensive. These arguments have been used to urge governments not to increase tax on tobacco products. The evidence suggests, however, that cross border shopping is not yet a problem in Europe and that smuggling is not of cheap cigarettes to expensive countries. Instead, more expensive "international" brands are smuggled into northern Europe and sold illegally on the streets of the cheaper countries of southern Europe.

  17. Geopolitics in the Forest: A Border of Wilderness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, 1/2 (2016), s. 5-23 ISSN 1212-4923 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : borders * Białowieża Forest * identity * Europeanization * environmental movement Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Situational crime prevention and cross-border crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on

  19. Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    .... Reported escalations in criminal activity and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some law makers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the Mexico-United States border region...

  20. Desert ‘trash’ : posthumanism, border struggles, and humanitarian politics

    OpenAIRE

    Squire, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    What is the political significance of humanitarian activist engagements with the discarded belongings of migrants? This article explores how bordering practices between states resonate with bordering practices between the human and non-human. It argues that attempts to transform ‘desert/ed trash’ into objects of value are nothing less than struggles over the very category of ‘the human’ itself. Focusing on humanitarian engagements with the objects that migrants leave behind across the Mexico-...

  1. Cross-border Ties and Arab American Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N=896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties – attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  2.   Border Carbon Adjustments, the UNFCCC and WTO Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Laura

    2010-01-01

      My presentation on Trade and Climate Change concludes that border carbon adjustments can be consistent with both the climate change and WTO rules - depending of course on their design - but that they are not necessarily attractive. ......  My presentation on Trade and Climate Change concludes that border carbon adjustments can be consistent with both the climate change and WTO rules - depending of course on their design - but that they are not necessarily attractive. ...

  3. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    James Campbell

    2013-01-01

    Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces ...

  4. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. Copyright © 2016

  5. Using automatic identification system technology to improve maritime border security

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, Tedric R.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Our coastal waters are the United States’ most open and vulnerable borders. This vast maritime domain harbors critical threats from terrorism, criminal activities, and natural disasters. Maritime borders pose significant security challenges, as nefarious entities have used small boats to conduct illegal activities for years, and they continue to do so today. Illegal drugs, money, weapons, and migrants flow both directions across our ma...

  6. Explaining National Border Effects in the Quad Food Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina

    2006-01-01

    Starting from a theoretically consistent gravity model, this paper first provides estimates of bilateral 'border effects' in food trade among Quad countries (Canada, USA, Japan and EU) at the ISIC 4-digit level. Then, it investigates the underlying reasons of border effect, assessing the role played by policy barriers (tariffs and non-tariff barriers) with respect to barriers unrelated to trade policy, such as information related costs and cultural proximity. In contrast with several previous...

  7. The Relevance of Borders in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    explains how the word frontier has an historical nuance related to the American construction of the nation from the 19th century , and to the differences...THE RELEVANCE OF BORDERS IN THE 21st CENTURY BY LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MATHIEU RIGG, FRENCH AIR FORCE A THESIS PRESENTED TO...v ABSTRACT This study assesses the relevance of borders in the 21st century . The author analyses the different approaches of the concept of

  8. Border Biofuels Limited - maintaining a sense of balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief description is given of a renewable energy initiative to grow wood fuel in the Scottish and English border region. The aim is to develop a new rural industry based on wood fuel feeding a power plant in a central location in the Borders area. The financial arrangements to grow short rotation coppice are outlined as are the environmental impacts and energy balance. (UK)

  9. Children's mental health and collective violence: a binational study on the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Marie; Puertas, Hector; Caratachea, Raúl; Avila, Carmen; Atluru, Aparna; Briones, David; Vargas, Cecilia de

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the risk effects of poverty and exposure to collective violence attributed to organized crime on the mental health of children living on the United States-Mexico border. A repeated, cross-sectional study measured risk effects by comparing scores of psychosocial and behavioral problems among children and adolescents living on the border in the United States or Mexico in 2007 and 2010. Patients living in poverty who responded once to the Pictorial Child Behavior Checklist (P+CBCL) in Spanish were randomly selected from clinics in El Paso, Texas, United States (poverty alone group), and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (poverty plus violence group). Only children of Hispanic origin (Mexican-American or Mexican) living below the poverty level and presenting at the clinic for nonemergency visits with no history of diagnosed mental, neurological, or life-threatening disease or disability were included. Exposure to collective violence and poverty seemed to have an additive effect on children's mental health. Children exposed to both poverty and collective violence had higher problem scores, as measured by the P+CBCL, than those exposed to poverty alone. It is important to consider that children and adolescents exposed to collective violence and poverty also have fewer chances to receive treatment. Untreated mental health problems predict violence, antisocial behaviors, and delinquency and affect families, communities, and individuals. It is crucial to address the mental health of children on the border to counteract the devastating effects this setting will have in the short term and the near future.

  10. Detection of latent tuberculosis infection among migrant farmworkers along the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, E; Fiero, M H; Barrett, E; Anderson, B; Nuῆez, M; Gonzalez-Salazar, F

    2016-11-03

    Migrant farmworkers are among the highest-risk populations for latent TB infection (LTBI) in the United States with numerous barriers to healthcare access and increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. LTBI is usually diagnosed on the border using the tuberculin skin test (TST). QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) also measures immune response against specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. The objective of this study is to assess the comparability of TST and QFT-GIT to detect LTBI among migrant farmworkers on the border, as well as to examine the effects of various demographic and clinical factors on test positivity. Participants were recruited using mobile clinics on the San Luis US-Mexico border and tested with QFT-GIT and TST. Demographic profiles and clinical histories were collected. Kappa coefficients assessed agreement between TST and QFT-GIT using various assay cutoffs. Logistic regression examined factors associated with positive TST or QFT-GIT results. Of 109 participants, 59 of 108 (55 %) were either TST (24/71, 34 %) or QFT-GIT (52/106, 50 %) positive. Concordance between TST and QFT-GIT was fair (71 % agreement, ĸ = 0.38, 95 % CI: 0.15, 0.61). Factors associated with LTBI positivity included smoking (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI-1.01-1.58) and diabetes/high blood sugar (OR = 0.70, 95 % CI = 0.51-0.98). Test concordance between the two tests was fair, with numerous discordant results observed. Greater proportion of positives detected using QFT-GIT may help avoid LTBI under-diagnosis. Assessment of LTBI status on the border provides evidence whether QFT-GIT should replace the TST in routine practice, as well as identifies risk factors for LTBI among migrant populations.

  11. Detection of latent tuberculosis infection among migrant farmworkers along the US-Mexico border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oren

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrant farmworkers are among the highest-risk populations for latent TB infection (LTBI in the United States with numerous barriers to healthcare access and increased vulnerability to infectious diseases. LTBI is usually diagnosed on the border using the tuberculin skin test (TST. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT also measures immune response against specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. The objective of this study is to assess the comparability of TST and QFT-GIT to detect LTBI among migrant farmworkers on the border, as well as to examine the effects of various demographic and clinical factors on test positivity. Methods Participants were recruited using mobile clinics on the San Luis US-Mexico border and tested with QFT-GIT and TST. Demographic profiles and clinical histories were collected. Kappa coefficients assessed agreement between TST and QFT-GIT using various assay cutoffs. Logistic regression examined factors associated with positive TST or QFT-GIT results. Results Of 109 participants, 59 of 108 (55 % were either TST (24/71, 34 % or QFT-GIT (52/106, 50 % positive. Concordance between TST and QFT-GIT was fair (71 % agreement, ĸ = 0.38, 95 % CI: 0.15, 0.61. Factors associated with LTBI positivity included smoking (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI–1.01–1.58 and diabetes/high blood sugar (OR = 0.70, 95 % CI = 0.51–0.98. Discussion Test concordance between the two tests was fair, with numerous discordant results observed. Greater proportion of positives detected using QFT-GIT may help avoid LTBI under-diagnosis. Assessment of LTBI status on the border provides evidence whether QFT-GIT should replace the TST in routine practice, as well as identifies risk factors for LTBI among migrant populations.

  12. Hyperendemic H. pylori and tapeworm infections in a U.S.-Mexico border population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Victor M; Mena, Kristina D; Ortiz, Melchor; Karri, Sitrulasi; Variyam, Easwaran; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Snowden, Karen F; Flisser, Ana; Bristol, John R; Mayberry, Lillian F; Ortega, Ynes R; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Campos, Armando; Graham, David Y

    2010-01-01

    A higher incidence of infectious disease has been documented in U.S. regions bordering Mexico compared with non-border areas. We assessed the prevalence of important gastrointestinal infections in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, the largest binational community along the U.S.-Mexico border. Fecal specimens from a sample of the asymptomatic population representing all ages were tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and other intestinal parasitic pathogens using flotation, immunoassays, and/or polymerase chain reaction. We also measured indicators of microbiological contamination of drinking water, hands of food preparers, and kitchen surfaces. Overall, of the 386 participants, H. pylori was present in 38.2%, Taenia spp. in 3.3%, Giardia spp. in 2.7%, Cryptosporidium spp. in 1.9%, Entamoeba dispar in 1.3%, and Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus in 0.3% of the study subjects; Cyclospora spp. and Entamoeba histolytica were not found. H. pylori infection was associated with handwashing (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0, 1.8). Taenia spp. was found more often on the U.S. side (PR=8.6, 95% CI 2.3, 30.8). We did not find an association between these infections and the occurrence of total coliforms or fecal coliforms on kitchen surfaces. In addition, Escherichia coli was not found in any drinking water sample. The study results indicated that H. pylori and Taenia spp. infections may be highly prevalent along the U.S.-Mexico border. Additional research is necessary to adequately characterize the prevalence, as well as determine whether interventions that reduce these infections are warranted.

  13. Mapping and assessing the environmental impacts of border tactical infrastructure in the Sky Island Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline Patrick-Birdwell; Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jenny Neeley; Louise Misztal

    2013-01-01

    In this project we mapped the different types of border barriers, identified impacts of border infrastructure on public and private lands and conducted spatial analyses within the approximately 200 miles of international border in the Sky Island region. The Sky Island region, bisected by the U.S.-Mexico border, is critically important for its biodiversity and...

  14. Cross-border Specialization of Interregional Interaction: Applying New Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border cooperation as a type of interregional interaction is becoming a significant factor in the development of border regions. It can be viewed as a result of intensification of cross-border contacts and greater economic openness of cross-border regions. Thus, the roots of current development are quite easy to pinpoint. However, assessment of the impact of cross-border cooperation on the development of border regions appears to be a research challenge. In this paper, we offer an approach to the assessment of the role of cross-border cooperation in the system of interregional interaction between border regions. We present a system of indices to describe cross-border specialization of interregional interaction in certain fields, namely investment, international trade, tourism, and migration. Cross-border specialization determines the role of cross-border cooperation in regional external relations. The empiric data we have gathered is used to develop and implement a pilot assessment of cross-border specialization of interregional relations which are characteristic of the border regions of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation. The article offers cross-border specialization indices for each border region of the Northwestern Federal District. With their help, we were able to identify the spheres of interaction with the highest degree of cross-border specialization, and in particular foreign investment and business activities with the participation of foreign capital.

  15. Food security in a world without borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    is through community nutrition programmes that encourage the full participation and co-operation of the entire community, maximise the utilisation of local resources, grasp the benefits of new technologies for productivity gains, involve multiple sectors and engage strong political commitment. The international community will be judged by its treatment of its most vulnerable members. The international community has repeatedly declared that it is dedicated to the eradication of poverty. Eliminating hunger and malnutrition is a vital first step. The political will to fight hunger and a firm commitment to invest in agriculture' and rural development are critical elements in any effort to achieve sustainable alleviation of hunger and poverty. This meeting and the WFS:FYL provide the additional impetus to meet the challenge of achieving food and nutritional security in a world without borders and free from hunger and malnutrition.

  16. Acculturation, depression, and function in individuals seeking pain management in a predominantly Hispanic southwestern border community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristynia M; Monsivais, Jose J

    2011-06-01

    Acculturation does not inform practice in the acute or primary care setting; nor does it explain ethnic disparities in the recognition and treatment of chronic diseases, particularly chronic pain. As clinicians, it is imperative that we recognize contributing factors, comorbid conditions, and the impact of chronic pain on individuals and families. The purposes of this article are to present evidence that exemplifies the nonsignificant role acculturation plays in expression of pain and function of a predominantly Hispanic population on the United States border; and to identify more meaningful perspectives of culture that may lessen health disparities and improve pain management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dengue Fever Seroprevalence and Risk Factors, Texas-Mexico Border, 2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    Dengue fever is both endemic and underrecognized along a section of the southern Texas–Mexico border, and low income is a primary risk factor for infection. As part of a special section on Global Poverty and Human Development, Dr. Joan Marie Brunkard discusses a dengue seroprevalence survey in this region and what can be done to help prevent infection and to identify and treat those who are infected.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/24/2008.

  18. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  19. BORDER ISSUES IN CENTRAL ASIA: CURRENT CONFLICTS, CONTROVERSIES AND COMPROMISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulduz Baizakova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Border issues have always been an inherent part of the Post-Soviet realities within Central Asia. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia had to face numerous structural challenges including the management of the borders. Today when all five Central Asian countries are celebrating the 25th anniversary of their independence, there are significant border issues that remain unresolved and in most cases are overcomplicated. Over the years many disputed parts of the borders emerged, predominantly in the Fergana valley, where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan territories meet, converge and in some cases clash. All three Republics found themselves with some portion of the territory whose population could not identify itself with the host nation. What was once in fact a part of a single country run from Moscow that easily handled any slight ethnic territorial, political and economic tensions, now it is under the control of three different countries with different legislation, foreign policies and approaches to border management and regulation

  20. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  1. Semiautomatic detection of scoliotic rib borders from posteroanterior chest radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Frédéric; Cheriet, Farida; Dansereau, Jean

    2012-04-01

    3-D assessment of scoliotic deformities relies on an accurate 3-D reconstruction of bone structures from biplanar X-rays, which requires a precise detection and matching of anatomical structures in both views. In this paper, we propose a novel semiautomated technique for detecting complete scoliotic rib borders from PA-0° and PA-20° chest radiographs, by using an edge-following approach with multiple-path branching and oriented filtering. Edge-following processes are initiated from user starting points along upper and lower rib edges and the final rib border is obtained by finding the most parallel pair among detected edges. The method is based on a perceptual analysis leading to the assumption that no matter how bent a scoliotic rib is, it will always present relatively parallel upper and lower edges. The proposed method was tested on 44 chest radiographs of scoliotic patients and was validated by comparing pixels from all detected rib borders against their reference locations taken from the associated manually delineated rib borders. The overall 2-D detection accuracy was 2.64 ± 1.21 pixels. Comparing this accuracy level to reported results in the literature shows that the proposed method is very well suited for precisely detecting borders of scoliotic ribs from PA-0° and PA-20° chest radiographs.

  2. The role of immigration age on alcohol and drug use among border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Vaeth, Patrice A C

    2014-07-01

    To determine the age of immigration at which the marked increase in risk for alcohol- and drug-use problems in adulthood is observed among Mexican American adults residing in 2 distinct contexts: the U.S.-Mexico border, and cities not proximal to the border. We used 2 samples of Mexican American adults: specifically, 1,307 who resided along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 1,288 non-border adults who were interviewed as a part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey study. Survey logistic and Poisson regression methods were used to examine how immigration age during adolescence is related to alcohol- and drug-use behavior in adulthood. We found that participants who immigrate to the United States prior to age 14 have qualitatively different alcohol- and drug-related outcomes compared to those who immigrate later in life. Adults who immigrated at younger ages have alcohol- and drug-use patterns similar to those who were U.S.-born. Adults who immigrated at young ages and reside distal from the U.S.-Mexico border are at greater risk for alcohol and drug use than those who live in border contexts. Immigration from Mexico to the U.S. before age 14 results in alcohol- and drug-related behavior that mirrors the behavior of U.S.-born residents, and the alcohol- and drug-use effects were more pronounced among adults who did not reside proximal to the U.S.-Mexico border. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US-Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewby, Hannah; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Real, Leslie A; Biek, Roman

    2017-09-01

    Disease control programs aim to constrain and reduce the spread of infection. Human disease interventions such as wildlife vaccination play a major role in determining the limits of a pathogen's spatial distribution. Over the past few decades, a raccoon-specific variant of rabies virus (RRV) has invaded large areas of eastern North America. Although expansion into Canada has been largely prevented through vaccination along the US border, several outbreaks have occurred in Canada. Applying phylogeographic approaches to 289 RRV whole-genome sequences derived from isolates collected in Canada and adjacent US states, we examined the processes underlying these outbreaks. RRV incursions were attributable predominantly to systematic virus leakage of local strains across areas along the border where vaccination has been conducted but also to single stochastic events such as long-distance translocations. These results demonstrate the utility of phylogeographic analysis of pathogen genomes for understanding transboundary outbreaks.

  4. State borders in ETRS89 coordinates – reality or fiction ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Poláček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Common unique ETRS89 coordinates of the state boundaries are crucial for cross-border data harmonization for international projects. In the frame of European Location Framework (ELF project Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (ČÚZK cooperates with Poland on egde-matching on the state border. During the preliminary phase of the project was some difficulty identified. If the state boundary is measured and administered in the national coordinate system, the accuracy of the transformation into the ETRS89 is influenced by discrepancies of the local trigonometric network, which results in two slightly different state boundaries. Final solution for Europe – international treaties on the state borders based on the ETRS89 coordinates – is necessary, but it will take years.

  5. Forecasting the electricity consumption of the Mexican border states maquiladoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.E.; Phelan, P.E. [Arizona State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tempe, AZ (United States); Mou, J.-I. [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Operation Planning Div., Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Bryan, H. [Arizona State Univ., School of Architecture, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The consumption of electricity by maquiladora industries in the Mexican border states is an important driver for determining future powerplant needs in that area. An industrial electricity forecasting model is developed for the border states' maquiladoras, and the outputs are compared with a reference forecasting model developed for the US industrial sector, for which considerably more data are available. This model enables the prediction of the effect of implementing various energy efficiency measures in the industrial sector. As an illustration, here the impact of implementing energy-efficient lighting and motors in the Mexican border states' maquiladoras was determined to be substantial. Without such energy efficiency measures, electricity consumption for these industries is predicted to rise by 64% from 2001 to 2010, but if these measures are implemented on a gradual basis over the same time period, electricity consumption is forecast to rise by only 36%. (Author)

  6. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary...... for coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö...... and Hamburg is taken as a case for discussion. Cross-border governance is analyzed within a multi-level policy network approach including actors from supranational, national and subnational levels, in order to determine the existence of a policy network across the borders. The main finding is a depiction...

  7. A survey on impact of border markets on customer satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohid Safipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Border markets in many countries have been considered as the most important bridge for building a financial connection between inside and outside the countries. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of border market on customer satisfaction. The proposed study of this paper considers the effects of eight factors including competitive brand, foreign investment, management of imported goods, governmental supportive rules, monetary policies, supply chain management, buyers, marketing planning and import management on customer satisfaction who purchase on border markets. The proposed model of this paper designs and distributes 400 questionnaires among some experts and uses factor analysis and structural equation modeling to test nine hypotheses. The results indicate that there are some strong evidences that all nine factors impact customer satisfaction and foreign investment has the highest impact on customer satisfaction followed by supply chain management, marketing planning import management.

  8. MATRIX FOR COOPERATION IN THE CROSS-BORDER AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela ȘLUSARCIUC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crossborder areas have no constitutional competences, therefore most of the times they are not part of the decision making process in the agreements in cross-border relationships. Although the states are the ones to decide the policies and the agreements based on their own legal rules, considering the shape of the new European Union, they should more and more accept the conditionality of a regional overstate structure linked only to some geographical parts of the countries. The present paper proposes a theoretical and intuitive frame for assessing the cross-border areas based on the factors that are influencing it, starting from a listing of them, secondly grouping them in separating and uniting, then finding the significant differences. The matrix of factors can be used for conflict resolution or for development of cross-border areas as long as it shows the points that will be a potential obstacle or a source for cooperation.

  9. Pregnant migrant and refugee women?s perceptions of mental illness on the Thai-Myanmar border: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Fellmeth, Gracia; Plugge, Emma; Paw, Moo Kho; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Nosten, Fran?ois; McGready, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental illness is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease, with prevalence highest in low- and middle-income countries. Rates are high in women of childbearing age, especially during pregnancy and the first year post-partum. Migrant and refugee populations are at risk of developing mental illness due to the multiple stressors associated with migration. The Thai-Myanmar border area is home to large populations of migrants and refugees as a result of long-standing ...

  10. Displaced Borders: The Written Traumatic Borderline between Pskov Province and Chechnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ristolainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the narrative construction of borders through an analysis of "non-professional writing" produced by the residents of Pskov. It discusses the construction of national borders and the symbolic meanings invested in them, with the empirical focus being placed on the symbolic Russian-Chechen border. The theoretical essence is the realization that due to the constructive and narrative na-tures of border production, the creation of a national borderline does not necessarily pre-suppose that the two sides share a geographical border. The article also addresses questions of traumatic memory and links border production with the concept of cultural trauma. By asking where Russia's borders currently located, this article provides an example of the cultural construction and symbolic displacement of the "national border", and a representation of how the national b/ordering processes differ when viewed from both "bottom up" and "top-down" perspectives in the contemporary Russian Federation.

  11. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  12. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M.; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano; Hunt, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO 2 -tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  13. Militarization of the border and illegal immigration: Tamaulipas laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tamaulipas presents a long tradition of rural migration to the United States in search of farm employment. Until the eighties Tamaulipas’ undocumented workers crossed the border easily. However, from the nineties, as a result of a restrictive migration policy centered exclusively on the “supply–side” to cross the border has become intricate. As a result, most part of immigrants is using the services of “smuggles”. This paper analyses the impact of the militarization of the frontier on the emigration of Tamaulipas’ illegal rural workers seeking for farm jobs in the United States.

  14. Brujeria and the U.S.-Mexico Border Outlaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Conover

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the death metal band Brujeria, their use of both traditional and contemporary outlaw imagery, and their connection to the narcocorrido, in order to examine the tenacity of the outlaw paradigm as an expression of resistance by subordinate groups in situations of social inequality. It deals with the contemporary figure of the outlaw in connection to the U.S.-Mexico border region, as influenced by outlaw traditions in the area, and as an expression of specific contemporary historical circumstances of that region, including Mexican economic crisis, globalization, and border conflicts surrounding immigration, drug trafficking, and labor.

  15. Analysis of the Advantages of Creating Border Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Rosca-Sadurschi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a changing environment and rapid globalization, competitiveness of a country or region depends increasingly more effective in innovation. The main challenge for research and innovation is to facilitate the networking of companies and research laboratories. These networks can take the form of a highly integrated cross-border economic group, but may consist of action to facilitate business linkages and inter-laboratory, or cross-border clusters. The creation of these clusters requires performing several conditions but bring significant benefits to all stakeholders.

  16. A Philosophical vs. a Psychological Perspective on Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2016-03-01

    This paper questions to what extent borders are to be understood from a philosophical or a psychological perspective. This is done by investigating the distinction between philosophy and psychology that comes up as a result of Immanuel Kant's investigation of the pure reason. Ontology is found as a demarcation criterion between the two fields in the sense that it is of crucial importance in philosophy, but not of certain interest from a psychological point of view. An investigation of three assumptions in the perspective of affective loading follows this up, which confirms the efficiency of borders in psychological meaning production.

  17. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    The European Defence Industry is undergoing consolidation cutting across national borders. This is spurred by European Union policy initiatives and active encouragement by some national governments fearing a US-led global consolidation of the industry. The process in many ways proves challenging...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...... of foreign policy identities. Ultimately the paper aspires to establish an analytical framework combining insights from international political economy and international politics....

  18. Multinationals, Cross-border Acquisitions and Wage Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyman, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    multinationals and local firms increase wage dispersion but so do also other types of cross-border acquisitions. Hence, it is the acquisition itself rather than foreign ownership that increases wage dispersion. The positive wage effect is concentrated to CEOs and other managers, whereas other groups are either......We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic...

  19. Transmit Diversity at the Cell Border Using Smart Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Dammann

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the problems at the most critical area in a cellular multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA network, namely, the cell border. At a mobile terminal the diversity can be increased by using transmit diversity techniques such as cyclic delay diversity (CDD and space-time coding like Alamouti. We transfer these transmit diversity techniques to a cellular environment. Therefore, the performance is enhanced at the cell border, intercellular interference is avoided, and soft handover procedures are simplified all together. By this, macrodiversity concepts are exchanged by transmit diversity concepts. These concepts also shift parts of the complexity from the mobile terminal to smart base stations.

  20. Transmit Diversity at the Cell Border Using Smart Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plass Simon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problems at the most critical area in a cellular multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA network, namely, the cell border. At a mobile terminal the diversity can be increased by using transmit diversity techniques such as cyclic delay diversity (CDD and space-time coding like Alamouti. We transfer these transmit diversity techniques to a cellular environment. Therefore, the performance is enhanced at the cell border, intercellular interference is avoided, and soft handover procedures are simplified all together. By this, macrodiversity concepts are exchanged by transmit diversity concepts. These concepts also shift parts of the complexity from the mobile terminal to smart base stations.

  1. Information Analysis Methodology for Border Security Deployment Prioritization and Post Deployment Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Paul M.; Maple, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Due to international commerce, cross-border conflicts, and corruption, a holistic, information driven, approach to border security is required to best understand how resources should be applied to affect sustainable improvements in border security. The ability to transport goods and people by land, sea, and air across international borders with relative ease for legitimate commercial purposes creates a challenging environment to detect illicit smuggling activities that destabilize national level border security. Smuggling activities operated for profit or smuggling operations driven by cross border conflicts where militant or terrorist organizations facilitate the transport of materials and or extremists to advance a cause add complexity to smuggling interdiction efforts. Border security efforts are further hampered when corruption thwarts interdiction efforts or reduces the effectiveness of technology deployed to enhance border security. These issues necessitate the implementation of a holistic approach to border security that leverages all available data. Large amounts of information found in hundreds of thousands of documents can be compiled to assess national or regional borders to identify variables that influence border security. Location data associated with border topics of interest may be extracted and plotted to better characterize the current border security environment for a given country or region. This baseline assessment enables further analysis, but also documents the initial state of border security that can be used to evaluate progress after border security improvements are made. Then, border security threats are prioritized via a systems analysis approach. Mitigation factors to address risks can be developed and evaluated against inhibiting factor such as corruption. This holistic approach to border security helps address the dynamic smuggling interdiction environment where illicit activities divert to a new location that provides less resistance

  2. Does Border Enforcement Protect U.S. Workers from Illegal Immigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson; Raymond Robertson; Antonio Spilimbergo

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the impact of government enforcement of the U.S.-Mexican border on wages in the border regions of the United States and Mexico. The U.S. Border Patrol polices U.S. boundaries, seeking to apprehend any individual attempting to enter the United States illegally. These efforts are concentrated on the Mexican border, as most illegal immigrants embark from a Mexican border city and choose a U.S. border state as their final destination. We examine labor markets in southern...

  3. Amphibians and land use in the Chihuahuan Desert border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    The pressures of growing borderland populations, increased land use, and Increased water use are threatening amphibians in the Chihuahuan Desert border area. In this paper, we describe potential direct threats such as loss or contamination of aquatic habitats, and indirect threats such as the sublethal effects of pesticides on developing larvae and tadpoles. More...

  4. Problems concerned with scrap metal monitoring at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Since the early 1980's numerous incidents have been reported in which radioactive material or empty labelled containers for radioactive sources have been found in scrap metal. Apart from the potential health hazard to employees and the general public resulting costs for decontamination, shutdown of production and waste of products already amounted to multi-million dollar figures. Since the opening of the ''iron border'' in Europe, incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive sources across borders and contamination of scrap metal imported from the former ''Eastern Countries'' have considerably increased, as a result of the lack of a suitable radiation protection infrastructure in some of these countries. This initiated monitoring of scrap metal transports at the borders of several European countries, such as Austria, Finland, Germany and Italy. Up to now neither universally accepted clearance levels for scrap contamination, nor an agreed standardised procedure for its control exist, although the IAEA as well as the European Commission have proposed some recommendations. As a pragmatic solution for border monitoring it is suggested to apply, as practical clearance level, a dose rate on the outside of the vehicle in the order of 0,1 μSv/h, which is approximately equivalent to double natural environmental background. This dose rate would correspond to an activity concentration for 60 Co in the order of 1 kBq/kg and therefore be in a tolerable range, even in view of products coming in close contact with the public. (author)

  5. Border adjustment for European emissions trading: Competitiveness and carbon leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuik, Onno, E-mail: onno.kuik@ivm.vu.n [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hofkes, Marjan [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Unilateral or sub-global policies to combat climate change are potentially sensitive to free-riding and carbon leakage. One way of dealing with carbon leakage and competitiveness is the imposition of border adjustment measures for competing imports, for example in the form of the obligation to importers of goods to purchase and surrender emissions allowances to the authorities when importing. In this paper, we explore some implications of border adjustment measures in the EU ETS, for sectors that might be subject to carbon leakage. We examine the implications of two variants of these measures on the competitiveness of these sectors and on the global environment with the help of a multi-sector, multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the global economy. Our calculations suggest that border adjustment might reduce the sectoral rate of leakage of the iron and steel industry rather forcefully, but that the reduction would be less for the mineral products sector, including cement. The reduction of the overall or macro rate of leakage would be modest. So, from an environmental point of view border tax adjustments would not be a very effective policy measure, but might mainly be justified by considerations of sectoral competitiveness.

  6. Border adjustment for European emissions trading. Competitiveness and carbon leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuik, Onno; Hofkes, Marjan [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Unilateral or sub-global policies to combat climate change are potentially sensitive to free-riding and carbon leakage. One way of dealing with carbon leakage and competitiveness is the imposition of border adjustment measures for competing imports, for example in the form of the obligation to importers of goods to purchase and surrender emissions allowances to the authorities when importing. In this paper, we explore some implications of border adjustment measures in the EU ETS, for sectors that might be subject to carbon leakage. We examine the implications of two variants of these measures on the competitiveness of these sectors and on the global environment with the help of a multi-sector, multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the global economy. Our calculations suggest that border adjustment might reduce the sectoral rate of leakage of the iron and steel industry rather forcefully, but that the reduction would be less for the mineral products sector, including cement. The reduction of the overall or macro rate of leakage would be modest. So, from an environmental point of view border tax adjustments would not be a very effective policy measure, but might mainly be justified by considerations of sectoral competitiveness. (author)

  7. Cross-border insolvencies as a global economic problem | Stander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National insolvency laws have not kept pace with the trend, and there is a need to develop an efficient and fair system for the administration of cross-border ... improves the position of foreign creditors, foreign representatives and foreign courts, while it is still doubtful how foreign courts will treat South African creditors.

  8. Radioactivity in groundwater along the borders of Oman and UAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Alshamsi, D.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the quality and radioactivity of groundwater is vital as it represents valuable resource in arid regions. Here we present radioactivity level in groundwater collected from wells in a region along the border between Sultanate of Oman and United Arab Emirates (UAE). The aquifers...

  9. Languages without Borders: TESOL in a Transient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, Shondel

    2012-01-01

    In today's transient world, where a continual multidirectional flow of people, goods, and services has deterritorialized languages and their users, languages, especially English, are now without borders. In this context, English language teaching (ELT) as a profession is called to a new task. In this article, I examine this task by asking the…

  10. Crossing Borders within: Stanley Cavell and the Politics of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoko; Standish, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The matter of crossing borders in the creation of democratic communities arises in ways that are pressing, both within the nation-state and on a global scale. Tensions between tendencies toward nationalism and the cosmopolitan call for global understanding touch the heart of ideas of democracy as beginning at home--at political, psychological, and…

  11. Cross-Border Movements, Female Migration and Human Rights : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cross-Border Movements, Female Migration and Human Rights : a Postcolonial Evaluation. Until recently, women have been excluded from migration analyses or perceived as passive dependants of male migrants or non-migrants waiting for their spouses to return. Increasingly, however, scholars and advocates have ...

  12. Cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Per; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Verho, Jouko

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol taxes. We estimate the effect of a large cut in the Finnish alcohol tax on mortality, alcohol-related illnesses and work absenteeism in Sweden. This tax cut led to large differences in the prices of alcoholic beverages between these two countries and to a considerable increase in cross-border shopping. The effect is identified using differences-in-differences strategy where changes in these outcomes in regions near the Finnish border are compared to changes in other parts of northern Sweden. We use register data where micro level data on deaths, hospitalisations and absenteeism is merged to population-wide micro data on demographics and labour market outcomes. Our results show that the Finnish tax cut did not have any clear effect on mortality or alcohol-related hospitalisations in Sweden. However, we find that workplace absenteeism increased by 9% for males and by 15% for females near the Finnish border as a result of the tax cut. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Smartening border security in the European Union : An associational inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeandesboz, J.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution asks how the reliance on mass dataveillance of travellers is sustained as a central policy option in the governance of EU border security. It examines this question by analysing a recent initiative of the European Commission proposing the establishment of EU ‘smart borders’. The

  14. Cross-Border Takeovers, Corruption, and Related Aspects of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Berns, S.

    We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance related factors such as political

  15. Border Crossing Knowledge Systems: A PNG Teacher's Autoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta, Medi

    2010-01-01

    Narratives have always been integral to Indigenous knowledge transfer. In this autoethnography the author shares her border crossings between her Indigenous knowledge systems and the often dominant Western knowledge system. Pertinent to these experiences are the stark contrasts that exist between the two knowledge systems and their educational…

  16. Cross-border Insurance in Europe : Challenges for Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); J. Sass (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAt the start of Solvency II in January 2016, there is no overview of the insurance market in Europe. This paper develops a methodology to link various data sets on foreign branches and subsidiaries. The result is a new and comprehensive data set of cross-border insurance in Europe.

  17. Improving the Tanzania - Mombasa cross-border chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesveld, van M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the pilot is to improve the cross-border tomato chain from Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania, to Mombasa Kenya, by increasing substantially (10%) the productivity (physical and financial yield per unit input), the product quality and the total market volume.

  18. Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection and homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandon, Christopher; Kimber, Paul K.

    2003-09-01

    During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for border protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit illegal immigration and smuggling. After 9/11 defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the provision of police and para-military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSU's). This approach may also be considered for the US Homeland Defense initiative. These MSU's utilize standard road vehicles converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSU will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets while retaining the highest performance derived from the latest military standard thermal imagers.

  19. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers and acquisitions in Europe. Thus, under the continuous economic recovery of the European countries and the other worldwide economies, the recovery of financial markets and the growth of corporate profits, we shall witness an intensive cross-border merger and acquisition activity in Europe. The expansion engine of these operations seems to be represented by the emerging economies. This research is based on a systematic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature and statistical data regarding the cross-border mergers and acquisitions that involve European companies in recent years. This paper is part of the doctoral thesis Mergers and acquisitions- strategies of growth and development of enterprises. European and national particularities, coordinated by professor Ph.D. Alina Bădulescu from University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics. The doctoral research is supported by The Sectorial Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, Contract POSDRU 59/1.5/S/1- Romanian researchers through modern and efficient doctoral programs.

  20. Cross-Border Acquisitions and Employee-Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Hao; Renneboog, Luc; Vansteenkiste, Cara

    2017-01-01

    We provide novel evidence that a firm’s engagement in employee-related issues explains part of the value difference between its domestic and cross-border takeovers. An acquirer’s investment in employee relations is positively related to the firm’s performance when acquiring domestically, but

  1. The Idea of Open Borders: For and Against | Mekonnen | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What position one is likely to take concerning immigration depends upon one's general view about the nature of the state, what membership to a political community constitutes and about the legitimacy of state borders. This paper examines the discord of opinions that has marked recent discourses on immigration. After a ...

  2. Immunoelectrophoretic studies on pig intestinal brush border proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1977-01-01

    Brush borders were prepared from pig intestinal mucosa and the membrane proteins solubilized with either Triton X-100 or papain. Proteins, thus released, were used as antigens to raise antisera in rabbits. The immunoglobulin G fractions were isolated and shown by the double layer immunofluorescence...

  3. Bridging Borders: Toward a Pedagogy of Preparedness for Visiting Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzi, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    This analytical article largely draws on the experiences of visiting faculty teaching at post-secondary institutions overseas. What is largely understood in the literature is that visiting faculty need to navigate the sociocultural, professional, and contextual differences that shape the work context. Drawing on the theory of border pedagogy, this…

  4. And at Home: Homeland Defense Strategy at the Southwest Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    NMS, 5. 2 For an in-depth study of the concept of globalization, see Friedman‘s The Lexus and the Olive Tree. 3 Strategy for Homeland Defense and... Lexus and The Olive Tree. New York: Random House, Inc., 1999. Hayworth, J. D. Whatever It Takes: Illegal Immigration, Border Security, and the War on

  5. Shifting Institutional Boundaries through Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alberto; Tavares, Orlanda; Cardoso, Sónia; Sin, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border higher education (CBHE) has been changing the organizational boundaries of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African…

  6. Cross-Border Movements, Female Migration and Human Rights : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine the relationship between migration, prostitution and trafficking with respect to cross-border movement of women between three South Asian countries: Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Researchers will. conduct an extensive review of the literature on female migration in the three countries;; examine ...

  7. What lures cross-border venture capital inflows?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schertler, Andrea; Tykvova, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    We investigate if economic factors drive gross and net cross-border venture capital inflows differently. Using a dataset of venture capital investments in European and North American countries from 2000 to 2008, we find that higher expected economic growth goes hand in hand with higher gross as well

  8. Building better borders in Latin America | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-21

    Oct 21, 2016 ... Illegal trading and the violence that can accompany it is a scourge along Latin America's borders, but researchers from across the region are working together to find ways to combat the problem. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, ...

  9. Border Pedagogy as a Conduit to Greater Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a study that was conducted in Malaysia, and at the borders of Chihuahua, Mexico, and Ontario, Canada, to compare the reactions of social studies teachers from Canada, Malaysia, and Mexico to the bombing of Iraq by the U.S. on March 20, 2003. The key objective of the investigations in all three countries was to uncover…

  10. How Neighbours Communicate: The Role of Language in Border Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonni Olsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the linguistic situation in the border region where Norway meets Russia in the north. The aim of the study was to investigate language use when contact is revitalised after a long period with closed borders. The Norwegian and Russian languages are very different in vocabulary and structure, which makes communication difficult. How are the two languages affected by extended contact and migration across the border? The study was carried out by the author and Marit Bjerkeng through interviews, a questionnaire and observation of the linguistic situations in two Norwegian communities. The results show an ongoing development where the neighbouring language is increasingly noticeable, and there is a clear link between attitudes, identity and language use. The role of public policy seems to play an important role for the developing linguistic situation, as the Barents region as a political concept introduced in the 1990s has led to cross-border contact within various fields and also inspired local language policy, contributing to cultural pride an

  11. 8 CFR 212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 212.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY... valid on or after October 1, 2002, the non-biometric border crossing card portion of the document is not... contain a machine-readable biometric identifier, may be admitted on the basis of the nonimmigrant visa...

  12. Using Collaboration to Understand Border Security and Cartels [video

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Jason Jones, Captain (ret) Texas Department of Public Safety, is interviewed in this first episode of a series of Casual Conversations with CHDS Alumni and other subject matter experts in Homeland Security. This video focuses on the importance of collaboration among US organizations to understand cartels and border security.

  13. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  14. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asian Institute of Technology. Institution Country. Thailand. Institution Website. http://www.ait.asia ... study of the Burmese-Thai border; final technical report. Download PDF. Reports. Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007.

  15. Cross-border Banking in Europe and Financial Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose country-specific and systemic metrics that can be used to judge whether cross-border banking in a country (or region) takes a desirable form. Applying these metrics to the EU countries, we find that the countries with the largest banking centres, the UK and Germany, are

  16. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    Full Text Available Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control.We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO.A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries.Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies. The under-fives and the school going children were the most

  17. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Mwesawina, Maurice; Baluku, Yosia; Kanyanda, Setiala S E; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control. We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO. A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries. Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies). The under-fives and the school going children were the most affected age

  18. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1997-11-01

    Detergent-insoluble complexes prepared from pig small intestine are highly enriched in several transmembrane brush border enzymes including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, indicating that they reside in a glycolipid-rich environment in vivo. In the present work galectin-4, an animal lectin lacking a N-terminal signal peptide for membrane translocation, was discovered in these complexes as well, and in gradient centrifugation brush border enzymes and galectin-4 formed distinct soluble high molecular weight clusters. Immunoperoxidase cytochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy showed that galectin-4 is indeed an intestinal brush border protein; we also localized galectin-4 throughout the cell, mainly associated with membraneous structures, including small vesicles, and to the rootlets of microvillar actin filaments. This was confirmed by subcellular fractionation, showing about half the amount of galectin-4 to be in the microvillar fraction, the rest being associated with insoluble intracellular structures. A direct association between the lectin and aminopeptidase N was evidenced by a colocalization along microvilli in double immunogold labeling and by the ability of an antibody to galectin-4 to coimmunoprecipitate aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase. Furthermore, galectin-4 was released from microvillar, right-side-out vesicles as well as from mucosal explants by a brief wash with 100 mM lactose, confirming its extracellular localization. Galectin-4 is therefore secreted by a nonclassical pathway, and the brush border enzymes represent a novel class of natural ligands for a member of the galectin family. Newly synthesized galectin-4 is rapidly "trapped" by association with intracellular structures prior to its apical secretion, but once externalized, association with brush border enzymes prevents it from being released from the enterocyte into the intestinal lumen.

  19. Risk management of infrastructure development in border area Indonesia - Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Suryani; Trikariastoto, Reinita, Ita

    2017-11-01

    Border area is geographically adjacent to neighboring countries with the primary function of maintaining state sovereignty and public welfare. Area in question is part of the provinces, districts or cities that directly intersect with national boundaries (or territory) and / or that have a functional relationship (linkage) and has a strategic value for the state. The border area is considered strategic because it involves the national lives of many people in terms of the interests of political, economic, social and cultural as well as defense and security (poleksosbudhankam) both located on land, sea or air. The border area is geographically adjacent to neighboring countries with the primary function of maintaining state sovereignty and public welfare. Area in question is part of the provinces, districts or cities that directly intersect with national boundaries (or territory) and / or that have a functional relationship (linkage) and has a strategic value for the state. To realize the necessary research on the development of the area, based on good practices from other countries some of the city that can meet all these challenges and at least can be applied with minor changes / adjustments. Furthermore, the application must be supported by the availability of funds. This study to discuss about any problems either obstacles or things that drive to develop function becomes an ideal border area with major support infrastructure for housing, transportation, energy availability, and distribution of clean water which will strengthen in its function which consists of five pillars, namely: central community service; trade and distribution center; financial center; tourism center; related to the field of community development. Articulation between key stakeholders such as government, private, and community is a major concern in this study, including in determining the appropriate financing schemes. The results of this study will be recommended to the government to improve

  20. Crossing and Passing: Discursive Borders in Off Shoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Elmoudden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As a term in popular discourse, globalisation marks a celebrated openness of global spaces. Critics of globalisation argue that a global economy creates borders that are more discursive than territorial. A current challenge to globalisation scholars is reaching an understanding of how the many configurations of context, space, time and place created by globalisation result in new ways of organizing space and identity. Based on rich ethnographic data from an off shore call centre in Morocco and informed by interdisciplinary research on space, this paper bridges the links between territorial and discursive borders in the global social network of off shoring. Metaphorical spaces come about when dynamic configurations of contexts at territorial borders relate or are made to relate. Call centre agents use metaphorical spaces to fix the meaning of space. In this article, I identify two different metaphorical spaces: crossing and passing that help agents organize and negotiate their spaces and subsequently their identities and power relations. I suggest that agents negotiate place through space. This crossing takes place as they imbricate the Moroccan context of “L’hrig” within the continuum of the call centre. I also suggest that agents negotiate space through place. This passing occurs via the imbrication of metaphorical space of polyvalence. Crossing and passing inscribe not only a literal meaning of “movement” and “disembodiment”, but also the nuanced meaning of “movement and staying” and “disembodiment and re-embodiment” in a place where conjunctions of space, time, place and context collide. The creation of metaphorical spaces of crossing and passing suggests modification of our understanding of diaspora: attaining the diasporic space can no longer depend on physical borders alone; it must also rely on discursive borders.

  1. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  2. Virtual Borders Between Chile and Its Neighbors: Argentina, Peru and Bolivia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palma, Alberto E

    2007-01-01

    .... It is based on which economy breaks with the previous scheme, and the possibilities of conflict beyond the borders of countries, where the interests collide, although that geographic space is distant from the recognized borders.

  3. 77 FR 45366 - Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of Customs and Border Protection (COAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Border Security Subcommittee: Updates and observations on the Customs--Trade Partnership Against... Border Subcommittee: Updates on discussions regarding Trusted Trader Partnership Programs. The work of... Part 111 (Broker Regulations). The formation of an Export subcommittee; review of subcommittee scope...

  4. Tuberculosis-diabetes epidemiology in the border and non-border regions of Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Bassent E; Garcia-Viveros, Moncerrato; Ramirez-Oropesa, Horacio; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2016-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a re-emerging risk factor for TB development and adverse TB outcomes. As a follow-up of our previous study in 1998-2004, we reassessed prevalence of DM and its associated factors among 8431 TB patients using surveillance data from 2006 to 2013 for the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, across the border with Texas. Prevalence of DM was 25.2%, with an increase of at least 2.8% over the study period. Newly discovered factors associated with TB-DM (versus no DM) were lower education and higher unemployment (p < 0.001), which are reportedly associated with poorer DM management. At least 15% of the DM patients were newly-diagnosed and younger than those previously diagnosed, showing the importance of early DM diagnosis at TB clinics. TB-DM patients were more likely to have smear-positive, pulmonary (versus extra-pulmonary) and drug-resistant TB (1.9-, 3.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively). During treatment, TB-DM patients were more likely to be smear-positive, and less likely to die or abandon TB treatment. Thus, the increasing prevalence of DM among TB, and its association with low education, features of a more contagious TB, and drug resistance, highlight the need for design of TB management programs in DM patients, blood testing of all new TB patients for DM, and if positive for DM, testing for drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The borders that divide, the borders that unite: (Re)interpreting Garo Processes of identification in India and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, E.W.; Claquin-Chambugong, T.

    2014-01-01

    The people known as Garos, from the Garo Hills and adjacent (lowland) areas in India and Bangladesh, have never constituted one unified and self-defined in-group, although British colonial rule indeed produced a feeble notion of an imagined Garo community. Hence, the international border of 1947

  6. The utopia of cross-border regions : territorial transformation and cross-border governance on Espace Mont-Blanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lissandrello, Enza

    2006-01-01

    The theories on globalisation, internationalisation, post-nationalism or trans-nationalism dismiss the concept of 'territoriality' within the paradigm of the beyond the 'nation-state' sovereignty. In this work, a diverse idea is sustained: borders and territoriality are not just lost terms within

  7. Stories of the "Boring Border". The Dutch-German Borderscape in People's Minds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strüver, A.

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation examines the 'open' Dutch-German border and people's everyday practices in relation to this border within the context of Dutch-German relations and the process of European integration. For, despite the opening of this border in 1993, it has not disappeared and continues to form an

  8. Caught on the Mexican-US Border: The Insecurity and Desire of Collaboration between Two Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Maldonado, Alma; Cantwell, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    Understandings of cross-border university collaboration are often informed by a concept of internationalisation that privileges the rationales of university administrators. A case study of two asymmetric universities along the border of Mexico and the United States--one of the most active and problematic borders in the world--found that, rather…

  9. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the...

  10. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. In... service which began before and extended into the Mexican border period or ended during World War I, or...

  11. Wanting and Getting Help for Substance Problems on Both Sides of the US-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallisch, Lynn; Zemore, Sarah E; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Borges, Guilherme

    2017-10-01

    The US-Mexico border presents potential cultural and logistic barriers to obtaining substance abuse treatment. We compare the prevalence and correlates of wanting and getting help between border and non-border residents in both the US and Mexico. Data come from the 2011 to 2012 US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions which surveyed 3214 border and 1582 non-border residents in the US and Mexico. Multivariate logistic regressions estimate the effect of border residence on desire for and receipt of help. In both countries, border substance users were about half as likely as nonborder substance users to have wanted or obtained any kind of help, independent of predisposing, need and enabling factors, including migration status. Among those desiring help, however, about half had obtained it, both on and off the border in both countries. While substantial proportions of those who need help do not get it either on or off the border, lower motivation for treatment may be more important than access in explaining border/non-border differences. Future research should investigate whether there are border-specific barriers to wanting help, and how to minimize them.

  12. The U.S.-Canada Border Effect : Smaller Than Previously Thought and Becoming Smaller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    We revisit the effect of the U.S.-Canada national border on trade, considering to what extent the border reduces trade when : observable economic factors are controlled. A reexamination of the data yields estimates of the border effect that are 50% :...

  13. 19 CFR 141.113 - Recall of merchandise released from Customs and Border Protection custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Border Protection custody. 141.113 Section 141.113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Merchandise § 141.113 Recall of merchandise released from Customs and Border Protection custody. (a)(1... be not legally marked, the port director may demand its return to CBP custody for the purpose of...

  14. Changing Destinations: Ideal Attraction and Actual Movement of Cross-Border Tertiary Students from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has driven growth in the market for cross-border students. Mainland China, with a burgeoning economy and the largest national population, has become an important source of cross-border students. This study identifies ideal attraction in mainland China to destinations for cross-border tertiary education, as expressed by ideal first…

  15. Deploying drones in policing European borders : constraints and challenges for data protection and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa; Krajcíková, K.; Zavrsnik, A.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the challenges underlying the policy choice of deploying dronetechnology in the area of border surveillance, with specific reference to the surveillance of European Union (EU) Member States’ external southern borders. Border surveillance is one of the top priorities of the

  16. Socio-cultural proximity, daily life and shopping tourism in the Dutch–German border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szytniewski, Bianca B.; Spierings, Bas; van der Velde, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses feelings of socio-cultural proximity and distance with a specific focus on the tourist experience in cross-border shopping and everyday life practices in border regions. We examined shopping practices of Dutch border crossers who visit the German town Kleve in the Dutch–German

  17. [Investigation on the vectors of Borrella burgdorferi and on the identification of the isolates along China-Russia border in Eastern Heilongjiang province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Hao, Qin; Hu, Man-xia; Hou, Xue-xia; Fan, Dong-hui; Geng, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Shao-hua; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Yong-sheng; Wang, Chuan-song; Cui, Wen-fu; Wan, Kang-lin; Yang, Li-wei

    2007-01-01

    To explore the fact that the east border of Heilongjiang had been a lyme disease natural focus,we investigated the species and distribution of ticks and isolated bacteria from ticks and identified genomic species of Borrelia burdorferi sensu lato. This study provided evidence for prevention and control of lyme disease. Ticks were caught by flagging method and Direct immunofluorescence method was used to detect the rate of bacteria borne by the tick. BSK UI culture medium was used to isolate the agent and Specific McAbs were used to identify the bacteria. SDS-PAGE protein profile and PCR-RFLP method were also used to identify the species of Spirochetes. Ticks, collected from China-Russia border of east Heilongiiang province were classified including Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, Dermacentor sivarum Olener, Haemaphysalis concinna Kock,and Haemaphysalis japonica Kock. We found that the distributon of ticks was different under different circumstances and the predominant species were also different in different ports. The rate of bacteria borne by Iodes persulaatus Schulze was 31.4% ,by Dermacentor sivarum Olener and Haemaphysalis concinna Kock were 2.2% and 3.8%, respectively. However,it was negative for Haenaphysalis japonica Kock. Spirochetes isolated from Ixodes persulcatus Schulze were collected from Dongning and Tongjiang while Genomic species of Spirochetes, isolated from ticks of the border belonged to B. garinii. All the results showed that the east border of Heilongjiang province was the natural focus of lyme disease.

  18. Illegal Immigration: Is the Use of Military Force in Policing the United states' Border with Mexico a Viable Option?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, David

    2001-01-01

    Illegal immigration across the United States' borders, in particular the Southern Border with Mexico, has been a continual problem confronting our local, state and national political decision makers...

  19. ITRAP - an international pilot study on border monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Duftschmid, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the design and preliminary results of an extended pilot study of commercially available monitoring systems for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials at borders. The study consists of a laboratory test phase and field tests at the Austrian/Hungarian border and the Vienna airport, each for a duration of one year. The results will be used to derive realistic performance requirements for border control systems in view of optimized technical and economic conditions as well as to propose an 'investigation level'. The ITRAP study consists of three phases. In the first phase equipment currently available on the market is subjected to laboratory testing at the Austrian Research Centres Seibersdorf. The instrument categories include hand-held, portable, and fixed-installed equipment. The test criteria defined as minimum requirements have been established together with the manufacturers. The laboratory tests started in May 1998 and will last until end of this year. During the second phase, the field study, equipment passing the laboratory tests will be installed at a major Austrian-Hungarian border crossing (Nickelsdorf) for monitoring of cars, trucks and trains, as well as at the Vienna airport for pedestrians, luggage and cargo. In this phase the results gained from the lab tests about the 'fitness for use' will be verified in practice, in close co-operation with the law enforcement officers at the borders. Also training issues and questions of maintenance and support shall be evaluated. In the third phase, realistic specifications and performance requirements shall be derived with the help of international experts and selected specialists from the users and manufacturers. The results of the field study will focus not only on the technical aspects of monitoring equipment (e.g. detection threshold and rate of false alarms) but also on the operational (e.g. ease of use, reliability, training requirements, field support) and economic

  20. Seasonal influenza vaccination among Mexican migrants traveling through the Mexico-US border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejebe, Ifna H; Zhang, Xiao; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Martinez-Donate, Ana P

    2015-02-01

    Mobile populations are at high risk for communicable diseases and can serve as a bridge between sending and receiving communities. The objective of this study is to determine the rates of, and factors associated with, seasonal influenza vaccination among Mexican migrants traveling through the US-Mexico border. We used a 2013 cross-sectional population-based survey of adult mobile Mexican migrants traveling through the Mexico-US border region (N=2313; weighted N=652,500). We performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis to model the odds of receiving an influenza vaccination in the past year by sociodemographics, migration history, health status, and access to health care. The seasonal influenza vaccination rate in this population was 18.6%. Gender, health status, and health insurance were associated with the likelihood to receive an influenza vaccination. Overall, the rates of seasonal influenza vaccination in circular Mexican migrants are low compared to adults in Mexico and the US Efforts are needed to increase influenza vaccination among this highly mobile population, particularly in adults with chronic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Border Collie Collapse: Owner Survey Results and Veterinary Description of Videotaped Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan; Minor, Katie; Shmon, Cindy L; Shelton, G Diane; Patterson, Edward E; Mickelson, James R

    Completed surveys were obtained from owners of 165 border collies experiencing repeated episodes of abnormal gait or collapse during strenuous exercise. Unremarkable veterinary evaluation and lack of disease progression over time made common systemic, cardiac, and neurologic causes of exercise intolerance unlikely. Survey questions addressed signalment, age of onset, description of episodes, and owner perception of factors associated with collapse. Most dogs were young adults (median 2 yr) when episodes began, and they had experienced from 2 to more than 100 episodes (median 6) prior to their owners completing the survey. Retrieving was the activity most commonly associated with episodes (112/165 dogs, 68%), followed by herding stock (39/165 dogs, 24%). Owners reported that high environmental temperatures (111/165 dogs, 67%) and excitement (67/165 dogs, 41%) increased the likelihood of their dog having an episode during strenuous activity. Veterinary evaluation of videotapes of presumed border collie collapse (BCC) episodes (40 dogs) were used to provide a description of the typical features of BCC episodes. Altered mentation, symmetrical ataxia affecting all four limbs, increased pelvic limb extensor tone and toe scuffing or knuckling, truncal swaying, and falling to the side were common features, suggesting that BCC may be an episodic diffuse central nervous system disorder.

  2. Post-vaccinal distemper encephalitis in two Border Collie cross littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, R A; Knesl, O; Pesavento, P A; Elias, B C

    2015-03-01

    One 4.5-month-old male Border Collie cross presented with aggression and seizures in October 2006. A 16-month-old, female, spayed Border Collie cross presented with hypersalivation and a dropped jaw and rapidly became stuporous in September 2007. The dogs were littermates and developed acute neurological signs 5 and 27 days, respectively, after vaccination with different modified live vaccines containing canine distemper virus. Sections of brain in both dogs showed evidence of encephalitis mainly centred on the grey matter of brainstem nuclei, where there was extensive and intense parenchymal and perivascular infiltration of histiocytes and lymphocytes. Intra-nuclear and intra-cytoplasmic inclusions typical of distemper were plentiful and there was abundant labelling for canine distemper virus using immunohistochemistry. Post-vaccinal canine distemper. Post-vaccinal canine distemper has mainly been attributed to virulent vaccine virus, but it may also occur in dogs whose immunologic nature makes them susceptible to disease induced by a modified-live vaccine virus that is safe and protective for most dogs.

  3. Identification of a Newly Isolated Getah Virus in the China-Laos Border, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan Yuan; Fu, Shi Hong; Guo, Xiao Fang; Lei, Wen Wen; Li, Xiao Long; Song, Jing Dong; Cao, Lei; Gao, Xiao Yan; Lyu, Zhi; He, Ying; Wang, Huan Yu; Ren, Xiao Jie; Zhou, Hong Ning; Wang, Gui Qin; Liang, Guo Dong

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we isolated a virus strain (YN12031) from specimens of Armigeres subalbatus collected in the China-Laos border. BHK-21 cells infected with YN12031 exhibited an evident cytopathic effect (CPE) 32 h post-infection. The virus particles were spherical, 70 nm in diameter, and enveloped; they also featured surface fibers. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that YN12031 was closely related to alpha viruses such as Chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus, and located in the same clade as MM2021, the prototype of Getahvirus (GETV) isolated in Malaysia in 1955. Phylogenetic analysis of the E2 and capsid genes further revealed that YN12031 was located in the same clade as the Russian isolate LEIV/16275/Mag. Analysis of the homology of nucleotides and amino acids in the coding area and E2 gene demonstrated that the YN12031 isolated from the China-Laos border (tropical region) was related closest to the LEIV/16275/Mag isolate obtained in Russia (North frigid zone area) among other isolates studied. These results suggest that GETV can adapt to different geographical environments to propagate and evolve. Thus, strengthening the detection and monitoring of GETV and its related diseases is very crucial. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Diabetes among Latinos in the Southwestern United States: border health and binational cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Casey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This analysis reviews cooperation between the four border states of the United States of America (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas and international partners in Mexico with regard to type 2 diabetes among Latinos. Binational cooperation, academic collaboration, preventative health initiatives, and efforts to improve health care access for the border population are highlighted. This meta-analysis of the literature points out causative factors of the increased type 2 diabetes prevalence among Latinos in the United States; an inverse correlation between diabetes and education and socioeconomic level; contributing factors, including barriers with language, health care payment, transportation, and underestimating diabetes implications; and a lack of social and environmental support for disease management. Medical and indirect costs in socioeconomic terms are also included. Cooperation between the United States and Mexico may be beneficial to promoting further collaborative efforts between these nations, and serve as a template for greater cooperative efforts to mitigate the substantial public health and socioeconomic implications of type 2 diabetes globally.

  5. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PHLEBOTOMINAE IN PUERTO IGUAZU-MISIONES, ARGENTINA-BRAZIL-PARAGUAY BORDER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Soledad Santini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The first Argentinian autochthonous human case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was confirmed in Posadas (Misiones in 2006. Since then, the disease has increased its incidence and geographical distribution. In the 2006-2012 period, 107 human cases were detected (11 deaths. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was detected in peridomiciles in Puerto Iguazú urban area in 2010; some of these findings were associated with households where cases of canine VL had already been reported. The objective of this study was to ascertain the abundance and spatial distribution of Lu. longipalpis in Puerto Iguazú City, on the Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay border. Lu. longipalpis proved to be exclusively urban and was found in 31% of the households sampled (n = 53, 67% of which belonged to areas of low abundance, 20% to areas of moderate abundance and 13% to areas of high abundance. Nyssomyia whitmani was the only species found both in urban and peri-urban environments, and Migonemyia migonei was registered only on the outskirts of the city. Due to the fact that Puerto Iguazú is considered to be at moderate risk at the moment, it is necessary to intensify human and canine case controls, as well as take integrated prevention and control measures regarding the environment, vectors and reservoirs on the Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay border area.

  6. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology and Economics, Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland). Istituto di microeconomia e economia Pubblica; Hunt, L.C. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom). Department of Economics, Surrey Energy Economics Centre

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO{sub 2}-tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  7. Radiation Control on Uzbekistan Borders - Results and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrenko, Vitaliy; Yuldashev, Bekhzod; Ismailov, Ulughbek; Shipilov, Nikolay; Chipizubov, Sergey; Avezov, Anvar

    2009-01-01

    The measures and actions on prevention, detection and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving radioactive materials in Uzbekistan are presented. In frames of program of radiation monitoring to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials main customs border checkpoints were equipped with commercial radiation portal monitors. Special radiation monitors elaborated and manufactured in INP AS RU are installed in INP(main gates, research reactor and laboratory building) to provide nuclear security of Institute facilities. The experience of Uzbekistan in establishing radiation monitoring systems on its borders, their operation and maintenance would be useful for realization of proposed plan of strengthening measures to prevent illicit trafficking in Republics of Central Asia region.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Border Collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, An-Quan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Li, Li-Li; Chen, Long; Yang, Tong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Border Collie dog is one of the famous breed of dog. In the present work we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Border Collie dog for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,730 bp with the base composition of 31.6% for A, 28.7% for T, 25.5% for C, and 14.2% for G and an A-T (60.3%)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of dogs.

  9. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past years, Denmark has become a destination for fertility travellers, in need for donated sperm. Today, treatment is possible no matter of marital status or sexuality. Furthermore, users of sperm donation can choose between anonymous and non-anonymous sperm, with either basic...... will analyze how women and their partners crossing the Danish border accounts for their donor choice, and their practices of choosing. I will be exploring the question: How are women and their partners accounting for choosing a sperm donor, crossing the (ethical) border to Denmark? The use of the term......-sited ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish private fertility clinic, and a Danish sperm bank. The presentation will mainly draw on interviews with fertility travellers going through treatment with donor sperm in Denmark....

  10. BOOK REVIEW: THE SOCIAL ECOLOGY OF BORDER LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wiedmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Social Ecology of Border Landscapes, edited by Grichting and Zebich-Kros, is part of the Anthem Series on International Environmental Policy, which seeks to provide new evidence-based insights on global environmental governance. The book attempts to address this objective by inviting a wide variety of authors from various disciplines to contribute international case studies on border landscapes. All these studies are situated in the field of critical social theory and social ecology in particular – a subject that is focused on the complex interrelationships between nature and society. The wide range of scientific perspectives on social-ecological systems is categorised into four main parts: Frames, Bridges, Corridors and Portals. This structure functions as a suitable guide to distinguish major focal points within the rather complex discourse.

  11. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1997-01-01

    that galectin-4 is indeed an intestinal brush border protein; we also localized galectin-4 throughout the cell, mainly associated with membraneous structures, including small vesicles, and to the rootlets of microvillar actin filaments. This was confirmed by subcellular fractionation, showing about half...... lacking a N-terminal signal peptide for membrane translocation, was discovered in these complexes as well, and in gradient centrifugation brush border enzymes and galectin-4 formed distinct soluble high molecular weight clusters. Immunoperoxidase cytochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy showed...... the amount of galectin-4 to be in the microvillar fraction, the rest being associated with insoluble intracellular structures. A direct association between the lectin and aminopeptidase N was evidenced by a colocalization along microvilli in double immunogold labeling and by the ability of an antibody...

  12. Cross-border Co-operation Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    initiatives that aim to cultivate co-operation between countries, regions and municipalities while ensuring the protection and promoting the interests and rights of the people living in border regions. Despite these regional initiatives, the effective functioning of cross-border co-operation still remains...... largely unknown across West Africa. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap, with an analysis of both the social structure and the geography of West African governance networks. On the basis of this structural and geographic analysis, policy recommendations are formulated aimed at implementing...... policies that are more place-based, more attentive to relations between the actors at play in co-operation, and more specifically adapted to the constraints and opportunities of the West African region....

  13. Disentangling value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Sørensen, Olav Jull; Moini, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three impo...... in this study, is an important step forward in merger and acquisition (M&A) research. Moreover, numerous research findings offer tactical implications for international acquirers.......This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three...... important strategic dimensions for realizing synergy and creating value in CBAs . Furthermore, mediation analysis shows that the two acquisition-based dynamic capabilities—value identification and resource reconfiguration—act as important mediators in how the joining firms’ resource base impacts acquisition...

  14. Nationalist Reconstructions in the Face of the Disappearance of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kentel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Together with the conflictive negotiation abouth the definition and the feeling of nation, on a strategic level, the repercussions of globalisation (and especially the negotiations with the European Union are complicating the border issue and, as a consequence, the issue of unity (which is “always in danger”, according to the nationalist-Kemalist elites. The nationalist discourse is consumed on a popular level but, rather than simple consumption or pure strategic production, it is constituted as the production of different nationalisms in the tactics of everyday life. In this way, this article tackles the subject of the new nationalist productions, examining more deeply the tactics that range from survival to subversion or new religious rites in a situation of uncertainties and ambivalences brought about by globalisation, by a new encounter with the West and by the disappearance of borders.

  15. The South African Border War (1966 - 1989) a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The South African Border War – or the Bush War - was a quite remarkable conflict that took place in the border region between South-West-Africa (Namibia), Angola and the Republic of South Africa between 1966 and 1989 which makes it one of the longest conflicts on the African continent. The conflict...... is not well known because the events took place during the Cold War where the involved actors de facto acted as proxies in the overall ideological struggle between East and West. The conflict covered most of the South African region. The seed to the conflict originated from the colonial past, where most...... African countries were colonized and governed by European nations and white minorities. Following the end of World War II, African states gradually gained independence from their former colonial rulers often through a violent liberation struggle aimed against the colonial authorities but also against...

  16. Cross-border Cooperation as a Mechanism of Regional Marketing in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Denis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a pragmatic approach to certain aspects of cross-border regionalisation. The marketing component of Euroregion development and the implementation of cross-border cooperation projects are considered as key directions of the joint activity of cross-border partner-regions. The authors analyse the opportunity to apply the territory brand model to research on the mechanisms of cross-border cooperation and to the elaboration of an efficient development strategy as a promising direction of further study of the cross-border cooperation and regionalisation phenomena.

  17. What is an economic migrant? Europe's new borders and the politics of classification

    OpenAIRE

    Szmagalska Follis, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    After the United States-Mexico border, the second longest border between a poor and an affluent region is the eastern external boundary of the European U nion.l This essay discusses the selective permeability of this border, drawing on a larger study of the emergence of a new border regime between Poland and Ukraine following the 2004 expansion of the European Union. In 2005-2006 I conducted twelve months months of field research in Poland and Ukraine, among border guards an...

  18. Terrorists, Geopolitics and Kenya’s Proposed Border Wall with Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon John Cannon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Addressing border security appears to be a plausible approach for states that suffer from terrorism. Kenya’s border wall is to keep terrorists out of Kenya. Utilizing a comparative approach, this paper explores the efficacy of border walls, particularly Kenya’s wall with Somalia. Findings show that walls rarely accomplish stated goals and have unintended consequences. In Kenya’s case, it may reignite border disputes and separate communities. The success of Kenya’s border wall is low given the high levels of corruption and the fact that walls have been demonstrated to only be as good as the people who guard them.

  19. Progressivity and decomposition of VAT in the Mexican border, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Huesca; Arturo Robles Valencia; Abdelkrim Araar

    2015-01-01

    We measure the general redistributive effect in the Mexican fiscal system and its northern border with two decomposition approaches. The novelty of this application lies in the use of non-parametric techniques and the fact that we did not assume any functional relationship among the variables in analysis. Our paper contributes with an assessment of the new 2014 fiscal reform according to the Value Added Tax (VAT) and its effects on the households. A tax-benefit system with relative progressiv...

  20. The Sino-Indian Border: Is Conflict Inevitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Literature Related to the Geostrategic Setting between China and India John Graver in his The Gestalt of Sino-Indian Relations opines that the...relationship between China and India may be thought in terms of a gestalt theory. The basis of the gestalt theory is that before perceiving different...greater than the sum of the parts” is often used to explain gestalt theory.33 Analysts on both sides often view their relations as the sum of border

  1. Irregular Female Migrant Workers along Lao-Thai Borders

    OpenAIRE

    SIRAKUL SUWINTHAWONG

    2018-01-01

    This thesis focuses on irregular migration from Laos to Thailand, and irregular migrant labour in Thailand. This research is set in Mukdahan – a small (in size and population) yet important province as a gateway to cross-border activities in the Mekong region. It draws on the experiences of Lao irregular female migrant labourers in Mukdahan, northeastern Thailand, and the practices and perspectives of Thai authorities and employers in relation to irregular migrant labour law and enforcement. ...

  2. Binding of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus to Brush Border Membrane Sialoglycoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Zimmer, Gert; Schröder, Bernd; Breves, Gerhard; Herrler, Georg

    2003-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is a porcine pathogen causing enteric infections that are lethal for suckling piglets. The enterotropism of TGEV is connected with the sialic acid binding activity of the viral surface protein S. Here we show that, among porcine intestinal brush border membrane proteins, TGEV recognizes a mucin-type glycoprotein designated MGP in a sialic acid-dependent fashion. Virus binding assays with cryosections of the small intestine from a suckling pigle...

  3. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK.

  4. Progressive Retinal Atrophy in the Border Collie: A new XLPRA

    OpenAIRE

    Vilboux, Thierry; Chaudieu, Gilles; Jeannin, Patricia; Delattre, Delphine; Hedan, Benoit; Bourgain, Catherine; Queney, Guillaume; Galibert, Francis; Thomas, Anne; André, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Several forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) segregate in more than 100 breeds of dog with each PRA segregating in one or a few breeds. This breed specificity may be accounted for by founder effects and genetic drift, which have reduced the genetic heterogeneity of each breed, thereby facilitating the identification of causal mutations. We report here a new form of PRA segregating in the Border Collie breed. The clinical signs, including the loss of night vision and ...

  5. Threats to NATO external borders in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the current security dilemma in Syria with the focus on production, use, and the process of disposal of chemical weapons and its impacts. Specifically, the thesis addresses the issue of Syria's chemical weapons in the context of threats to NATO external borders. Degree of Security in the region and Resistance effort are measured according to RAND. Consequently, phases of Chemical weapons Program implementation in Syria are analyzed according to ACWA model....

  6. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona-Medina, J A; Trelles, O

    2016-10-25

    DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR), the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP) is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB) and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  7. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  8. U.S. Southwest Border Security: An Operational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    include threats to their (or their family’s) livelihood and safety. Understanding the complex physical terrain is vital to understanding the border...multiple markets quickly with minimal cost. Further, if failure is caused at some point in the supply chain, the diversification affords the flexibility...Analysis The COG for TCOs is their complex network structure. The TCO’s end is to maximize profits through the diversification of illicit operations. TCO

  9. The US Army on the Mexican Border: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Brigadier.General.Edward.Ord,.William.R..“Pecos. Bill” Shafter, and Porfirio Diaz ...................................51 . Summary...Zaragoza and Porfirio Diaz on 5 May (Cinco de Mayo). The French were forced to wait for reinforcements before continuing their conquest of Mexico. 42 When...Bill” Shafter, and Porfirio Diaz After Mackenzie’s successful raid against the Kickapoos, the border remained relatively quiet for several years. In

  10. Adaptation without borders. Full-year 2015 results

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Vardomatski

    2016-01-01

    Belarusians are demonstrating unprecedented achievements in adapting to the constantly worsening economic situation. It is worsening not only according to objective statistical indicators, but also subjective economic moods. This conclusion – adaptation without borders – which has not been elucidated in this article is, in our opinion, the main feature of Belarusian society in 2015. Every molecule of steam inside the Belarusian pressure-cooker changes its own movement trajectory in order to c...

  11. Civilian Patrols Along the Border: Legal and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-07

    6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Federation of American...Scientists 1717 K St, NW Suite 209 Washington, DC 20036 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...proliferated along the U.S.- Mexico border, partly due to the increasing numbers of aliens entering the country illegally. In the spring of 2005

  12. THE NORTHERN BORDER A FORGOTTEN NATIONAL SECURITY THREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    and smuggling between the ports of entry (POEs), a focus on cross border economic flow at entry points, and a growing number of Syrian refugees in...than mere entry of cells or teams is the potential proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the hands of terrorists. This scenario, albeit...considerable effort preventing the use and proliferation of nuclear weapons even though no American’s have suffered death because of nuclear attack. A

  13. Decision Model for U.S.- Mexico Border Security Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    23 G. INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY AND BORDER DEFENSE ..........25 H. STATE AND LOCAL LAW ENFORCEMENT ..................................28 I...2014, 6, http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/testimonies/CT400/CT415/RAND_CT415.pdf. 5 changes in cargo security and the costs companies ...that private companies take. In the private sector, ROI is a measure of the overall profit or loss of an investment, expressed in percentage.25 For

  14. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    must believe 14 Robert A. Pape, Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996), 4. 15 Ibid., 7. 16 Ibid...Vietnam. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Pape, Robert A. Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University...Infiltrating to Win : The Conduct of Border Denial Operations A Monograph by MAJ Craig A. Broyles United

  15. Improving food security empowerment in Indonesia- Timor Leste border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, G. D. P.; Yustikaningrum, R. V.

    2018-03-01

    Post Referendum 1999, Indonesia and Timor Leste have a strategic challenge to provide food consistently around the border. This research intended to discover an appropriate strategy to tackle fragility of food security in the land border of Indonesia-Timor Leste, to improve collaborative actions between parties, as well as, opportunity to actualize food cross-border trading between local farmers and factories. For the result, there are two approaches will be applied. First, the empowerment term refers to the strategy of empowerment in strengthening the capability and capacity of human capital as one of the determinant factors of the resilience and self-sufficiency achievement. Second, the gender approach looks at the women and men build confidence, resilience, and independence which one of them through an educational intervention that enable the local people to manage food chain. Atambua is a region count as relatively as high poverty, poor human capital, weak quality and competitiveness of agriculture products, livestock and fishery, SMEs, and infrastructure. Thus, field study research is applied to find the actual and strategic effort aim to lead the achievement of food security and to engage Atambua over food trade to Timor Leste.

  16. Pendulum migration and healthcare in border área.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, Ricardo; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to reflect about the importance and the potential impact of pendulum migration in the pursuance for healthcare, and, specifically, about the peculiarity of this kind of mobility in border areas. It describes the context in which the pendulum migration is inserted for the modification of the urban space in the 20th century, makes initial comments about legal aspects of the theme in health sector, and describes the reality of the Brazil-Argentina-Paraguay triple border as an important location of pendulum migration for the pursuance of healthcare as an illustrative fact. In this way, hypotheses are formulated about the causes of the pendulum migration impact on patient's health like the effect of the distance covered from home to healthcare facilities, and organizational aspects related to healthcare like the uncertainty about having or not health assistance due to international mobility. It concludes that this kind of mobility is very common in the pursuance of healthcare despite the traditional approach to the theme mentioning only work or study. Besides that, it is very important to study its impact on health and to include this theme on the cross border healthcare debate.

  17. Necessary borders for negotiation: the role of translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ar Rouz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Translation is usually deemed to help bridge gaps but seldom thought of as a means of strengthening or, at least, highlighting borders. The present article uses the example of translations involving the Breton language in order to show that translation may favour negotiation by both helping negotiators to understand each other and having them recognise the social border that makes them different. The article explains firstly the author’s understanding of borders and negotiation. Secondly, the case of translation from and into Breton is examined. And finally, the discussion is extended to the European institutions, where European language policy also illustrates the dual function of translation in negotiation. The example of Breton evidences that translation fosters social distinction, language development and cooperation. At the EU level, the same roles are assumed by translation services and they contribute moreover to the legitimacy of the institutions and to the exercise of democracy. Such a conclusion invites to consider translation as an adequate means to manage language and cultural differences, even compared to language learning. It may be used, then, to deal with pressing issues such as the current migration flows to Europe.

  18. Modeling emergent border-crossing behaviors during pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eunice E.; Santos, Eugene; Korah, John; Thompson, Jeremy E.; Gu, Qi; Kim, Keum Joo; Li, Deqing; Russell, Jacob; Subramanian, Suresh; Zhang, Yuxi; Zhao, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Modeling real-world scenarios is a challenge for traditional social science researchers, as it is often hard to capture the intricacies and dynamisms of real-world situations without making simplistic assumptions. This imposes severe limitations on the capabilities of such models and frameworks. Complex population dynamics during natural disasters such as pandemics is an area where computational social science can provide useful insights and explanations. In this paper, we employ a novel intent-driven modeling paradigm for such real-world scenarios by causally mapping beliefs, goals, and actions of individuals and groups to overall behavior using a probabilistic representation called Bayesian Knowledge Bases (BKBs). To validate our framework we examine emergent behavior occurring near a national border during pandemics, specifically the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. The novelty of the work in this paper lies in representing the dynamism at multiple scales by including both coarse-grained (events at the national level) and finegrained (events at two separate border locations) information. This is especially useful for analysts in disaster management and first responder organizations who need to be able to understand both macro-level behavior and changes in the immediate vicinity, to help with planning, prevention, and mitigation. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework in uncovering previously hidden connections and explanations by comparing independent models of the border locations with their fused model to identify emergent behaviors not found in either independent location models nor in a simple linear combination of those models.

  19. The Enemy at the Gates: International Borders, Migration and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Oberoi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers contemporary border management regimes from a human rights perspective. It demonstrates how a preoccupation with border controls and enforcement has led to serious concerns for the safety and protection of migrants. As border zones have expanded, border crossing has become a more stigmatized and dangerous activity, and even as globalization has given rise to easier and faster international travel, for some, such movement has been outlawed and stigmatized. Measures to strengthen and “secure” borders have paradoxically made migrants, particularly irregular and vulnerable migrants, more at risk of violence and exploitation by non-State and State actors. Migration governance regimes at international borders are thus increasingly located within security and enforcement frameworks that pay little attention to the principles and standards of international human rights law. The paper argues that a human rights-based approach to such regimes is urgently needed, in order to address a growing human rights crisis at international borders.

  20. The borders, they are a-changin'! The emergence of socio-digital borders in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena König

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Relying on big data, modern surveillance becomes increasingly influential in determining societal power relations. Lyon argues that modern surveillance always categorises people entailing social effects, what he conceptualises as social sorting. This paper assesses if patterns of social sorting can be found in the EU surveillance systems for migration Schengen Information System (SIS, Visa Information System (VIS and EUROpean DACtylographic comparison system (EURODAC, which are planned to be merged in order to ensure maximum efficiency in surveillance. To do so, the paper analyses relevant documents referring to SIS, VIS and EURODAC. These systems have assumed the traditional border function of deciding on societal inclusion and exclusion. I argue that, to some extent, socio-digital borders are drawn along the categories established through social sorting. The paper exemplifies how social sorting relying on big data may be a disempowering surveillance practice.

  1. The Impact of Land Border Security on Terrorism Financing: Turkey’s Southeast Land Border and the PKK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    According to Kiser, “[the] state sponsor of terrorism list includes seven states: Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea , Sudan, and Syria.”23 The second...procedures have had some negative effects on legal travelers as well. Tourism , business and other legal entries into the United States have been...land border with Canada and Mexico and 2,000 miles of coastal waters surrounding Florida and Southern California. Nearly 52,000 employees work in the

  2. Stigma and unmet sexual and reproductive health needs among international migrant sex workers at the Mexico-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Fernández-Casanueva, Carmen; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2018-01-12

    To explore international migrant sex workers' experiences and narratives pertaining to the unmet need for and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) at the Mexico-Guatemala border. An inductive qualitative analysis was conducted based on ethnographic fieldwork (2012-2015) including participant observation and audio-recorded in-depth interviews. The participants were female sex workers aged 18 years or older and international migrants working at the Mexico-Guatemala border. In total, 31 women were included. The greatest areas of unmet need included accessible, affordable, and nonstigmatizing access to contraception and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. On both sides of the border, poor information about the health systems, services affordability, and perceived stigma resulted in barriers to access SRH services, with women preferring to access private doctors in their destination country or delaying uptake of until their next trip home. Financial barriers prevented women from accessing needed services, with most only receiving SRH services in their destination country through public health regulations surrounding sex work or as urgent care. There is a crucial need to avoid prioritizing vertical disease-specific services and to promote access to rights-based SRH services for migrant sex workers in both home and destination settings. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  3. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species concerned by Border disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached...... performed, Border disease can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 3, 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred to in points......Border disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Border disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Border disease according to disease...

  4. Brush border Myosin Ia has tumor suppressor activity in the intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Rocco; Dopeso, Higinio; Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Chang, Wakam; Rodrigues, Paulo; Bazzocco, Sarah; Alazzouzi, Hafid; Landolfi, Stefania; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Andretta, Elena; Alhopuro, Pia; Espín, Eloy; Armengol, Manel; Tabernero, Josep; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Kloor, Matthias; Gebert, Johannes; Mariadason, John M.; Schwartz, Simo; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Mooseker, Mark S.; Arango, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The loss of the epithelial architecture and cell polarity/differentiation is known to be important during the tumorigenic process. Here we demonstrate that the brush border protein Myosin Ia (MYO1A) is important for polarization and differentiation of colon cancer cells and is frequently inactivated in colorectal tumors by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. MYO1A frame-shift mutations were observed in 32% (37 of 116) of the colorectal tumors with microsatellite instability analyzed, and evidence of promoter methylation was observed in a significant proportion of colon cancer cell lines and primary colorectal tumors. The loss of polarization/differentiation resulting from MYO1A inactivation is associated with higher tumor growth in soft agar and in a xenograft model. In addition, the progression of genetically and carcinogen-initiated intestinal tumors was significantly accelerated in Myo1a knockout mice compared with Myo1a wild-type animals. Moreover, MYO1A tumor expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for colorectal cancer patients. Patients with low MYO1A tumor protein levels had significantly shorter disease-free and overall survival compared with patients with high tumoral MYO1A (logrank test P = 0.004 and P = 0.009, respectively). The median time-to-disease recurrence in patients with low MYO1A was 1 y, compared with >9 y in the group of patients with high MYO1A. These results identify MYO1A as a unique tumor-suppressor gene in colorectal cancer and demonstrate that the loss of structural brush border proteins involved in cell polarity are important for tumor development. PMID:22307608

  5. Migrant screening: Lessons learned from the migrant holding level at the Greek-Turkish borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eonomopoulou, Assimoula; Pavli, Androula; Stasinopoulou, Panagiota; Giannopoulos, Lambros A; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    In March 2011, a migrant health project became operational that aimed to provide medical and psychosocial support to migrants at the Greek-Turkish border. The aim of this study is to describe common syndromes, the communicable disease profile and vaccination patterns in newly arrived migrants through a surveillance system that was based on medical records data as well as screening procedures. Data were collected prospectively using one standardized form per patient including demographic information, civil status, and medical and vaccination history. A tuberculin screening test (TST) and serological testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C were performed after obtaining informed consent. A total of 6899 migrants were screened, the majority of whom were male (91%) and 18-31 years old (85%), with a mean age of 25.3 years. Of all patients, 2.5% received secondary care. Common complaints and diagnoses included respiratory infections (23%) and myalgia (18%). The tuberculin screening test (TST) was positive in 7.8% out of 1132 patients tested. Out of 632 migrants, 0.3%, 3.2% and 0.8% tested positive for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, respectively. Overall, 22.3% of adults were vaccinated against poliomyelitis. Irregular migrants that enter Greek borders are generally in good health. Nevertheless, the risk of spreading communicable diseases is an important issue to consider among migrants at the holding level due to severe overcrowding conditions. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen surveillance and implement harmonized screening procedures with the aim of providing sustainable and good quality services that are focused on prevention and early treatment. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CASE STUDIES OF CROSS-BORDER CO-OPERATION IN EUROPEAN TOURISM – PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE CROSS-BORDER REGION BUCOVINA/OBLAST TSCHERNIWZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEIKE BÄHRE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on success factors and management models in destination management for cross-border co-operation in tourism. The method is based on literature research, case-studies in European cross-border-regions and descriptive.

  7. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on transportation in the border areas of the United States : with emphasis on the California-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This report identifies impacts of the North ?American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on transportation in the U.S. border areas. Emphasis is on the California-Baja California border zone. Focus is on the identification of recommendations to the Califor...

  8. Mladi in življenje v obmejnih regijah Slovenije = The youth and the life in border regions of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Kolenc-Kolnik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This article present the results of research in which we worked with 523 Slovenian secondary school pupils who live in the border regions of Slovenia and Europe. Their opinion on the state border and multicultural diversity of border regions, their spatial identification and perspectives of their lives in different border regions are discussed.

  9. The region's borders: Heterotopia and identity - Epistemological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been developed on the margins of Foucault's idea of Heterotopia, on the basic distinction of Utopian and heterotopian. If pre-civil epoch is characterized experience of temporaries, which is overcome by going back (genealogy or leaving to the future (prediction superstition then its main feature is Utopian thinking, which means domination of the conception of Time over the conception of Space. On the contrary, the birth of Moderne introduces, gradually but surely overwhelming of Time over Space, where Utopia is being replaced by Heterotopia. It means, at the same time, abolishing of the eschatology of the pas (myths, genealogy and the future (ideal community, ideal order with an 'eschatology' of the present (here, now, which implies space variables, distribution. If Utopia is the place that is nowhere, then Heterotopia is the place that can be anywhere. Distribution means permanent change of borders, prevents institutionalization in the categories of the classical political theory, and questions categories of Tradition and Identity. In dealing with the problem of a region and regionalization, the paper starts from relation this historical transformation in human through and structuration of relations and the reality derived from these. The basic argument is that a region is paradoxical, if it lies on the local traditional, cultural, which are anachronistic values from the point of view of Heterotopia. At the same time if means that the borders of a region are of changeable, negotiable character, and that they don't have to match the previous administrative, political and cultural entities. The tendency of matching these borders means renewal of Utopia.

  10. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  11. ARCOCT: Automatic detection of lumen border in intravascular OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Riga, Maria; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Doulaverakis, Charalambos; Tsamboulatidis, Ioannis; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Giannoglou, George D; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2017-11-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable tool for the detection of pathological features on the arterial wall and the investigation of post-stenting complications. Computational lumen border detection in OCT images is highly advantageous, since it may support rapid morphometric analysis. However, automatic detection is very challenging, since OCT images typically include various artifacts that impact image clarity, including features such as side branches and intraluminal blood presence. This paper presents ARCOCT, a segmentation method for fully-automatic detection of lumen border in OCT images. ARCOCT relies on multiple, consecutive processing steps, accounting for image preparation, contour extraction and refinement. In particular, for contour extraction ARCOCT employs the transformation of OCT images based on physical characteristics such as reflectivity and absorption of the tissue and, for contour refinement, local regression using weighted linear least squares and a 2nd degree polynomial model is employed to achieve artifact and small-branch correction as well as smoothness of the artery mesh. Our major focus was to achieve accurate contour delineation in the various types of OCT images, i.e., even in challenging cases with branches and artifacts. ARCOCT has been assessed in a dataset of 1812 images (308 from stented and 1504 from native segments) obtained from 20 patients. ARCOCT was compared against ground-truth manual segmentation performed by experts on the basis of various geometric features (e.g. area, perimeter, radius, diameter, centroid, etc.) and closed contour matching indicators (the Dice index, the Hausdorff distance and the undirected average distance), using standard statistical analysis methods. The proposed method was proven very efficient and close to the ground-truth, exhibiting non statistically-significant differences for most of the examined metrics. ARCOCT allows accurate and fully-automated lumen border

  12. Creditor protection in cross-border mergers; unfinished business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert T.M.J. Raaijmakers

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In cross-border mergers, creditor protection is important to facilitate a smooth, efficient and transparent process necessary to facilitate the single market. As all assets and liabilities are being transferred and there is a risk that the liabilities of the acquiring company will exceed the assets, creditor protection needs to be safeguarded in legal mergers. As the title suggests, creditor protection in the context of cross-border mergers and the recently adopted directive is examined in this paper, as well as the position of creditors under Dutch law and the Third Directive. The ex-ante and ex-post systems of creditor protection, both existing in the Member States of the EU, and which are both supported by strong arguments, are also discussed. The fact that differences in creditor protection rules nevertheless remain may create unjustifiable differences in the position of various groups of creditors involved in one single cross-border merger. The authors conclude that the case for leaving creditor protection to the Member States is weakening. Differences in national legislation on creditor protection, defendable as they may be, are ultimately of a technical nature and create unnecessary and unjustifiable impediments. There are strong arguments, in other words, to adopt the same provisions for all transactions for the sake of simplicity, but while this may be attractive, it can lead to undesired delay. Amending the Directive at this point in time thus seems equally unfeasible. This stresses the need to make haste with at least some further harmonization of creditor protection rules related to the Third Directive.

  13. Impacting Binational Health through Leadership Development: A Program Evaluation of the Leaders across Borders Program, 2010?2014

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Omar A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Eduardo; Valencia, Celina I.; Rangel, Maria Gudelia

    2017-01-01

    Background Workforce and leadership development is imperative for the advancement of public health along the U.S./Mexico border. The Leaders across borders (LaB) program aims to train the public health and health-care workforce of the border region. The LaB is a 6-month intensive leadership development program, which offers training in various areas of public health. Program curriculum topics include: leadership, border health epidemiology, health diplomacy, border public policies, and con...

  14. The Canarian linguistic heritage in the Mexican border with Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Arístides Pérez Aguilar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of words that arrived in the Mexican border with Belize during the first half of the XVIII century with Canarian colonizers whom were brought by the governor of Yucatán to populate the village of Salamanca de Bacalar in order to built a fortress to stop the English advance in the region. It is about verbs, nouns and adjectives that became embedded within certain blocks of the material life of the society from Bacalar made of indios, mestizos and Spanish whom their percentages allowed the ingrainment and diffusion of these voices which until today still have a peculiar vitality on both sides of the river.

  15. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Kawa; Wojciech Zdrenka

    2016-01-01

    Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce...

  16. The role of spectroscopy versus detection for border security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Ely, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Countries around the world are deploying radiation portal monitor systems to interdict the illicit shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. Because of their high efficiency for gamma-ray detection, most deployed systems are based on plastic scintillators and are non-spectroscopic in capability. Spectroscopic portal monitor systems are undergoing engineering development for near term deployment. The ability to identify the detected radionuclides may allow improved operational handling of radiation alarms, particularly those from the normal commerce of naturally occurring radioactive material. The goal for improved systems is to increase the sensitivity to threats while reducing the operational impact of nuisance alarms. (author)

  17. Central tarsal bone fracture in the border collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliard, M

    2007-07-01

    Fracture of the plantar process of the central tarsal bone together with a dorsomedial displacement of the body of the bone was seen in six border collies. All injuries occurred during free exercise, with no extrinsic trauma. Three dogs had concomitant tarsal fractures. Primary treatment was by lag screwing the central tarsal bone to the fourth tarsal bone. All cases eventually made an excellent recovery. The superficial radiographic appearance was of a luxation of the bone as reported in a previous series, but appraisal of the radiographs showed evidence of fracture in all cases. A cadaver study to assess the mechanism of luxation showed that it is unlikely to occur naturally.

  18. Clinical features of ceroid lipofuscinosis in border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, V P; Mitten, R W

    1991-04-01

    Ceroid lipofuscinosis was diagnosed by histopathological and histochemical findings in 17 related border collie dogs and by clinical signs in 6 of their litter mates. Behavioural changes, first hyperactivity and later aggression, commenced at 16 to 23 (mean 19.5) months of age. Motor abnormalities and blindness were observed at the mean ages of 20.8 and 21.2 months, respectively. All dogs were euthanased 1 to 6 months after the onset of clinical signs, mean age 23.1 months. Pedigree data supported an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.

  19. Synchronic Seriality: The Dissolving of Diegetic Borders Through Metalepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige M. Piper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In dialogue with Gérard Genette’s literary concept of metalepsis to television, this paper considers instances of meta-textual actor/character portrayals in serial narratives to show that meta-narrative intrusion fosters a greater empathetic link between the spectator and character, whilst simultaneously inviting the viewer to appreciate the technique as an artifice-aware gesture. The fluidity of diegetic borders brought on by the conflation of performer/performance replicates Baudrillard’s simulacra, creating a synchronic form of seriality and transcending rigid genre classifications.

  20. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakker, E.

    2006-04-01

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil

  1. Iberian major Regions Interregional Trade across the Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalho Bruno Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade flows that one region establishes with other regions in the same country are very rarely analyzed in the economic literature. Even less frequently are the trade relations with other regions in a neighbor country. Based on previous estimates of interregional trade within the Iberian Peninsula, this paper analyses the trade patterns of the four major trading regions: Madrid, Cataluña, Comunidad Valenciana and Lisboa e Vale do Tejo. Similarities among them are identified. A sector analysis is performed showing high levels of concentration. Confirming the literature a strong border effect is identified.

  2. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1997-01-01

    to galectin-4 to coimmunoprecipitate aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase. Furthermore, galectin-4 was released from microvillar, right-side-out vesicles as well as from mucosal explants by a brief wash with 100 mM lactose, confirming its extracellular localization. Galectin-4 is therefore secreted...... that galectin-4 is indeed an intestinal brush border protein; we also localized galectin-4 throughout the cell, mainly associated with membraneous structures, including small vesicles, and to the rootlets of microvillar actin filaments. This was confirmed by subcellular fractionation, showing about half...

  3. Hand, foot, and mouth disease on the soles (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is cause by a coxsackie virus. It produces mouth ulcers and small blisters (vesicles) on the hands and feet. The vesicles often have a reddish border with a white or lighter colored area in ...

  4. Borders, history and identities: symbolic struggle in indigenous land demarcation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Cordeiro Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the issue of the border based upon a study of the experiences of the Terena indigenous people in Mato Grosso do Sul. This people lives in villages situated in an international border region. I present a number of theoretical reflections on symbolic conflicts, the border development process and its effects on indigenous societies. The article contains two analytic movements: 1. an analysis of the symbolic conflict permeating the legal processes, linked to the territorial conflicts between the Terena and rural producers, showing how the idea of the border is activated in the construction of political mechanisms for excluding and (delegitimizing ethnic groups; 2. an analysis of the State’s border policies, territorial dynamics and its confrontation with indigenous symbolic policies in different local situations along the border, which also form part of the symbolic struggle for recognition of the legitimacy of indigenous identities and territories.

  5. The effect of cross-border mobility on alcohol and drug use among Mexican-American residents living at the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Ye, Yu; Zemore, Sarah E; Bond, Jason; Borges, Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    Little epidemiological evidence exists on alcohol or other substance use and related problems along the U.S.-Mexico border, although the border has been the focus of recent media attention related to the escalating drug/violence "epidemic". The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of variables related to crossing the border (cross-border mobility) with three substance use outcomes reported for the last year: 1) heavy drinking (5+ drinks per day for men or 4+ for women), 2) alcohol use disorder (AUD), and 3) co-occurring heavy drinking and drug use (any use of illicit and/or non-medically prescribed drugs). Household surveys were conducted, using area probability sampling of 1565 Mexican-American residents, aged 18-65, living at the Texas-Mexico border in the metropolitan areas of Laredo and McAllen/Brownsville. Among those 18-29, more frequent crossing of the border was significantly predictive of AUD (OR = 1.61, p border mobility may play an important role in substance use and problems, especially among those 18-29. Findings also highlight the importance of "drug tourism" in substance use across the age spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regional economic development policy of cross-border cooperation: improving trends

    OpenAIRE

    O. O. Sokolovska

    2014-01-01

    Development of regional cross-border economic cooperation on the national and regional levels become increasingly important for the european integration of Ukraine. When forming the state regional policy, in the field of cross-border economic cooperation it is necessary to use the approach that is directed at strengthening the role of regions in the integration process of Ukraine and cross-border cooperation development, increasing the region’s competitiveness, that can finally result in econ...

  7. Climate Policy and Border Measures: The Case of the US Aluminum Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Ian; McCorriston, Steve

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, analysis is presented relating to the impact of border measures for climate policy on the problem of carbon leakage, and the related issue of competitiveness in the US aluminum industry, which can be characterized as oligopolistic. Specifically, it is shown that an appropriate border measure depends on the nature of competition in aluminum production, as well as the basis for assessing the trade neutrality of any border measure. If trade neutrality is defined in terms of market...

  8. Bi-National Delay Pattern Analysis For Commercial and Passenger Vehicles at Niagara Frontier Border

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Lin, Lei; Zhu, Lei; Sharma, Anuj

    2017-01-01

    Border crossing delays between New York State and Southern Ontario cause problems like enormous economic loss and massive environmental pollutions. In this area, there are three border-crossing ports: Peace Bridge (PB), Rainbow Bridge (RB) and Lewiston-Queenston Bridge (LQ) at Niagara Frontier border. The goals of this paper are to figure out whether the distributions of bi-national wait times for commercial and passenger vehicles are evenly distributed among the three ports and uncover the h...

  9. Income, Wealth and Consumption of Cross-Border Commuters to Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. Mathä; Alessandro Porpiglia; Michael Ziegelmeyer

    2012-01-01

    Exceeding 40% of domestic employment cross-border commuters are extremely important to Luxembourg's economy and labour market in general. This paper presents unique information on their income, wealth and consumption using representative survey data from cross-border commuter households to Luxembourg. The estimated average total net wealth of cross-border commuter households is about EUR 240,000, which falls substantially short of comparable estimates for Luxembourg resident households exceed...

  10. Bilateral Cooperation Between The Government of Indonesia Malaysia On Management Border Territory

    OpenAIRE

    Thontowi, Jawahir

    2016-01-01

    This study reveals that bilateral cooperation between the government of Indonesia-Malaysia began continue since 1960. It was until 1974, two Governments signed MoU and followed to by 25 join diplomacy meetings in persuing border problem. In practice however, it is found it difficult for Indonesian government to progress people development in border area. Not only because the Indonesian and Malaysian negotiation diplomacy are less effective to prevent and control border area, but rather becaus...

  11. Knowledge-based urban development of cross-border twin cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi

    2016-01-01

    sets out to propose an analytical framework for empirical studies on shared KBUD processes of cross-border twin cities based on indicators adapted from the literature on cross-border regional innovation systems. The proposed framework was tested with two cases: Helsinki-Tallinn and Copenhagen......-Malmö. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the framework, guide potential further studies on KBUD and twin cities and raise relevant suggestions for urban policy-makers in border regions....

  12. Listening to the Line: Notes on Music, Globalization, and the US-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Kun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The following is an experiment in theory and practice, and is therefore divided into two parts. The first introduces the concept of “the aural border”, my attempt to listen to the US-Mexico border as a geography of sound and music. The second explores this notion through an excerpt from a critical performance text of mine, “Border Sound Files: An Audio Essay”, which tells musical stories of the border as a key site of globalization.

  13. Abnormal Spatial-Temporal Pattern Analysis for Niagara Frontier Border Wait Times

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Lin, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Border crossing delays cause problems like huge economics loss and heavy environmental pollutions. To understand more about the nature of border crossing delay, this study applies a dictionary-based compression algorithm to process the historical Niagara Frontier border wait times data. It can identify the abnormal spatial-temporal patterns for both passenger vehicles and trucks at three bridges connecting US and Canada. Furthermore, it provides a quantitate anomaly score to rank the wait tim...

  14. U.S.-Canadian Border Security: Lessons Learned from Denmarks Experience with the Schengen Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Naturalization Service IBET Integrated Border Enforcement Team NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NORAD...Customs and Border Protection, “How Long is the U.S. Border with Canada and Mexico ?,” CBP INFO Center, accessed December 24, 2013, https://help.cbp.gov...country. Two historical events have shaped these assessments. The first is the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) that went into effect

  15. Force Multiplier: The Military’s Future Role in U.S. Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    1994 North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ), promoted the expansion of free trade between Canada, the United States, and Mexico . The most recent...of the 2,000-mile U.S- Mexico border lend credibility to this assumption. Although the majority of individuals who illegally enter the United...Border Security U.S. border security strategy has evolved significantly since the nation’s founding. In The Three U.S.- Mexico Wars, Tony Payan

  16. Measuring border delay and crossing times at the US-Mexico border : part II. Step-by-step guidelines for implementing a radio frequency identification (RFID) system to measure border crossing and wait times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of these step-by-step guidelines is to assist in planning, designing, and deploying a system that uses radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to measure the time needed for commercial vehicles to complete the northbound border c...

  17. A border versus non-border comparison of food environment, poverty, and ethnic composition in Texas urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Sexton, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The goal was to examine the relationship between the food environment and selected socioeconomic variables and ethnic/racial makeup in the eight largest urban settings in Texas so as to gain a better understanding of the relationships among Hispanic composition, poverty, and urban foodscapes, comparing border to non-border urban environments. Census-tract level data on (a) socioeconomic factors, like percentage below the poverty line and number of households on foodstamps, and (b) ethnic variables, like percent of Mexican origin and percent foreign born, were obtained from the U.S. Census. Data at the census-tract level on the total number of healthy (e.g., supermarkets) and less-healthy (e.g., fast food outlets) food retailers were acquired from the CDC's modified retail food environment index (mRFEI). Variation among urban settings in terms of the relationship between mRFEI scores and socioeconomic and ethnic context was tested using a mixed-effect model, and linear regression was used to identify significant factors for each urban location. A jackknife variance estimate was used to account for clustering and autocorrelation of adjacent census tracts. Average census-tract mRFEI scores exhibited comparatively small variation across Texas urban settings, while socioeconomic and ethnic factors varied significantly. The only covariates significantly associated with mRFEI score were percent foreign born and percent Mexican origin. Compared to the highest-population county (Harris, which incorporates most of Houston), the only counties that had significantly different mRFEI scores were Bexar, which is analogous to San Antonio (2.12 lower), El Paso (2.79 higher), and Neuces, which encompasses Corpus Christi (2.90 less). Significant interaction effects between mRFEI and percent foreign born (El Paso, Tarrant - Fort Worth, Travis - Austin), percent Mexican origin (Hidalgo - McAllen, El Paso, Tarrant, Travis), and percent living below the poverty line (El Paso) were

  18. A border-ownership model based on computational electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Zaem Arif; Satoh, Shunji

    2018-03-01

    The mathematical relation between a vector electric field and its corresponding scalar potential field is useful to formulate computational problems of lower/middle-order visual processing, specifically related to the assignment of borders to the side of the object: so-called border ownership (BO). BO coding is a key process for extracting the objects from the background, allowing one to organize a cluttered scene. We propose that the problem is solvable simultaneously by application of a theorem of electromagnetism, i.e., "conservative vector fields have zero rotation, or "curl." We hypothesize that (i) the BO signal is definable as a vector electric field with arrowheads pointing to the inner side of perceived objects, and (ii) its corresponding scalar field carries information related to perceived order in depth of occluding/occluded objects. A simple model was developed based on this computational theory. Model results qualitatively agree with object-side selectivity of BO-coding neurons, and with perceptions of object order. The model update rule can be reproduced as a plausible neural network that presents new interpretations of existing physiological results. Results of this study also suggest that T-junction detectors are unnecessary to calculate depth order. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CROSS-BORDER COLLABORATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurship, as an integral part of education, is now widely accepted worldwide. Entrepreneurial education is considered today as a holistic and inclusive process and not just a component of education in business. The activity of developing the entrepreneurial spirit organized on new principles must be seen by the universities as the foundation of successful fulfillment of university’s mission in contributing to social and economic development. This paper's main purpose is to identify a number of solutions on how they can ensure through cross-border cooperation the development of entrepreneurial skills within the universities through learning experiences contexts. In this regard, the paper proposes a model of entrepreneurial project which takes the form of simulated enterprise developed by the University of Pitesti, and a number of solutions for this project to be developed and implemented through cross-border cooperation, in accordance with the strategies and principles promoted by European Commission and European Parliament, which stresses the importance of developing through international cooperation of innovative methods that go beyond the traditional frame in which, currently, are formed the competencies and the educational process is performed. Thus, the proposed model can be expanded and implemented "in the mirror" and internationally by building partnerships between countries, universities and economic agents from those countries with real benefits for all parties involved through valuing the national specificities.

  20. Golden Jubilee photos - The first cross-border Accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A few months after the signature of the agreement giving the go-ahead for the expansion of CERN into French territory (see Bulletin no.24/2004), work began on the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Two years later, on 31 July 1974, the Robbins tunnel-boring machine excavating the SPS tunnel returned to its starting point (see photograph). It had excavated a tunnel with a circumference of 7 kilometres, at an average depth of 40 metres below the surface. The tunnel straddled the Franco-Swiss border, making the SPS the first cross-border accelerator. More than a thousand magnets were needed to equip the ring. The civil engineering and installation work was completed in record time after only four years. The SPS was equipped with a control system which was ahead of its time, consisting of 24 small control computers distributed in the tunnel and the control room and communicating by means of a high-rate data transmission system. The main control room housed only four consoles as opposed to the banks of electronic ...