WorldWideScience

Sample records for border adjustment mechanisms

  1. Global climate regulation and border adjustment mechanisms: the case of carbon importers inclusion in the european trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    The creation of an inclusion mechanism applied to imports whose production process increases significantly the global climate risk is looked upon as a solution to a collective-action problem. Such a mechanism would provide those States that will sign the next United Nations Convention on Climate Change with a potential remedy if and when gaps between quantified objects, to which all are committed, entail significant competition distortions. Whether this mechanism assumes the form of an external carbon tax or consists in including importers in the European system of CO 2 quota exchanges, it would surely respond to the re-distributive need generated by global warming, provided that the proceeds are used to help bring industrial production in developing countries up to standard. These restrictive measures aimed at preserving the planet are probably compatible with the extraordinary regimes applied by the WTO, which already uses exogenous non-trade norms to arbitrate conflicts. This would validate further the legitimacy of authority transfers onto the WTO, whose scope of legal authority increases constantly, along with that of conflicts that stem from collective preferences. (author)

  2.   Border Carbon Adjustments, the UNFCCC and WTO Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Laura

    2010-01-01

      My presentation on Trade and Climate Change concludes that border carbon adjustments can be consistent with both the climate change and WTO rules - depending of course on their design - but that they are not necessarily attractive. ......  My presentation on Trade and Climate Change concludes that border carbon adjustments can be consistent with both the climate change and WTO rules - depending of course on their design - but that they are not necessarily attractive. ...

  3. Will carbon motivated border tax adjustments function as a threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aijun; Zhang Aizhen

    2012-01-01

    Due to large incremental carbon emissions, China might become an important target country of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments). To levy CBTA could reduce China’s emissions. Meanwhile, China’s emissions reduction could also be achieved by China’s climate policies (termed as CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies). This paper contributes to the discussion on CBTA by comparing the potential regional effects of CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. The main findings are as follows: (1) CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies would result in relocations of outputs across regions and countries, affect the structure of economy and contribute to world’s emissions reduction. (2) There would be significant differences in the regional effects between CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. (3) Compared to carbon tax, CBTA would be a costly and inefficient policy instrument to reduce emissions, but could function as an effective coercion strategy. (4) These policies would result in competitiveness issue and rebound effects, wherein different countries would be affected differently. China is a large economy and energy consumer with high openness to international trade. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should consider the potential interactions between China and other economies when designing tax reforms. - Highlights: ►We compare regional effects of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments) and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. ► We explore the interactions between China and other economies. ► We investigate the potential international externalities and their effects across countries.

  4. Multi-TSO cross border balancing mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, Maria Luisa; Moreno, Laura; Fuente, Jose Ignacio de la; Junco, Paula; Arenillas, Jorge [Red Electrica de Espana (REE) S.A.U., Madrid (Spain). Operation Markets Dept.; Pereira, Pedro [REN - Servicos, S.A., Lisbon (Portugal). Gabinete Mercado e Liquidacoes; Chabanne, Colas [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Markets Dept.; Apoyan, Lalake; Barbieri, Galileo [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Cross-Border Market Design

    2012-07-01

    The balancing market integration has been highlighted as a necessary step to reach the European Union goal for the development of an effective, competitive single market for electricity across Europe. In this paper it is described the work done by RTE, REE and REN regarding the design of a non-discriminatory, efficient and reliable multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism at regional level, extendible to other control areas. The implementation of this multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism will aim at increasing the operational security, enhancing the Liquidity and Competition of balancing markets, facilitating the integration of energy produced by Renewable Energy Sources while optimizing the use of Interconnection capacities. With this mechanism, the three TSOs will be able to exchange to each other balancing energy through the available interconnection capacities after the last intraday market sessions. This mechanism will be based on a common IT platform where TSOs will share their available surplus of reserves and communicate their balancing needs. The available interconnection capacities will be taken into account in an automatic and centralized way. Two main options are investigated regarding the allocation method: on the one hand, the first come first served approach (FCFS), on the other hand, the ''social welfare'' optimization approach. (orig.)

  5. Border carbon adjustments: Addressing emissions embodied in trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Marco; Barrett, John

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one fourth of global emissions are embodied in international trade and a significant portion flows from non-carbon-priced to carbon-priced economies. Border carbon adjustments (BCAs) figure prominently as instruments to address concerns arising from unilateral climate policy. Estimating the volume of emissions that could be potentially taxed under a BCA scheme has received little attention until now. This paper examines how a number of issues involved in the implementation of BCAs can affect their ability to cover emissions embodied in trade and thus address carbon leakage. These issues range from ensuring compliance with trade provisions and assumptions on the carbon intensity of imports, to determining which countries are included and whether intermediate and final demand are considered. Here we show that the volume of CO_2 captured by a scheme that involved all Annex B countries could be significantly reduced due to these issues, particularly by trade provisions, such as the principle of ‘best available technology’ (BAT). As a consequence, the tariff burdens faced by non-Annex B parties could dwindle considerably. These findings have important policy implications, as they question the effectiveness and practicalities of BCAs to reduce carbon leakage and alleviate competitiveness concerns, adding further arguments against their implementation. - Highlights: •We estimate the volume of emissions that could be potentially taxed by BCAs. •We study the effects of trade provisions and country and sectoral coverage on BCAs. •Trade provisions can significantly reduce the scope and effectiveness of BCAs. •Best available technology and exclusion of electricity reduce tariffs considerably. •BCAs are not optimal policy tools to address carbon leakage concerns.

  6. Potential of border tax adjustments to deter free riding in international climate agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcu Irfanoglu, Zeynep; Sesmero, Juan P.; Golub, Alla

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct assessment of the hypothesis that trade sanctions in the form of border tax adjustments (BTAs) used by the United States against China, constitute a viable enforcement mechanism to sustain compliance with a range of emissions taxes in the context of agreements to curb global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The performance of BTAs is then compared with those of punitive tariffs on the basis of the range of emission taxes that can be successfully enforced by their implementation. Results show that BTAs are a viable enforcement mechanism for international GHG mitigation agreements. However the maximum level of carbon tax that can be enforced varies dramatically with (1) the marginal damage of pollution perceived by Chinese authorities, and (2) the legal limitations that GATT rules may impose on BTAs. Finally, while BTAs seem a promising enforcement mechanism in the context of climate agreements, punitive tariffs seem to be capable of supporting a much stricter environmental target.

  7. On the Borders: Adjusting to Academic, Social and Cultural Practices at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John; Ljungdahl, Lesley; Maher, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment to university is challenging for students as they navigate a path through new academic, social and cultural practices. Some may feel on the borders, marginalised by their background. Issues such as adjustment to university life, independence, performance expectations, establishing friendships, technological competence, cultural capital,…

  8. Border tax adjustments and the EU-ETS. A quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manders, T.; Veenendaal, P.

    2008-10-01

    If the EU stands alone in adopting climate policy and imposes a strict emissions ceiling, competitiveness of EU energy-intensive sectors will be affected negatively. Relocation of EU energy-intensive firms to countries with a lax regime also leads to carbon leakage. However, when use is made of the opportunities of the Clean Development Mechanism these impacts are very modest. Border tax adjustments (BTAs) to 'level the playing field' between domestic and foreign producers may be considered to address the concerns about both competitiveness and carbon leakage. It is far from clear whether these measures are WTO-proof. Simulations show that both an import levy and an export refund restore competitiveness to a certain extent. BTAs may lower the costs for energy-intensive sectors, but induce higher costs for other sectors. This paper uses a general equilibrium model to quantify and assess the implications of a number of policy scenarios

  9. Carbon-related border tax adjustment: mitigating climate change or restricting international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christine; Weber, Rolf H

    2011-01-01

    Border tax adjustments in the form of carbon taxes on products from countries with lax environmental production standards or in the form of a required participation in an emissions allowances' trading system have become a heavily debated issue under WTO law. Such an adjustment might be permissible if energy taxes as indirect taxes are applied on inputs during the production process. Compliance with the Most Favoured Nation principle has less practical importance than the not-yet settled liken...

  10. Potential of border tax adjustments to deter free riding in international climate agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfanoglu, Zeynep Burcu; Golub, Alla; Sesmero, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct assessment of the hypothesis that trade sanctions in the form of border tax adjustments (BTAs) used by the United States against China, constitute a viable enforcement mechanism to sustain compliance with a range of emissions taxes in the context of agreements to curb global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The performance of BTAs is then compared with those of punitive tariffs on the basis of the range of emission taxes that can be successfully enforced by their implementation. Results show that BTAs are a viable enforcement mechanism for international GHG mitigation agreements. However the maximum level of carbon tax that can be enforced varies dramatically with (1) the marginal damage of pollution perceived by Chinese authorities, and (2) the legal limitations that GATT rules may impose on BTAs. Finally, while BTAs seem a promising enforcement mechanism in the context of climate agreements, punitive tariffs seem to be capable of supporting a much stricter environmental target. (letter)

  11. How to design a border adjustment for the European Union Emissions Trading System?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjon, Stephanie; Quirion, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Border adjustments are currently discussed to limit the possible adverse impact of climate policies on competitiveness and carbon leakage. We discuss the main choices that will have to be made if the European Union implements such a system alongside the EU ETS. Although more analysis is required on some issues, on others some design options seem clearly preferable to others. First, the import adjustment should be a requirement to surrender allowances rather than a tax. Second, the general rule to determine the amount of allowances per ton imported should be the product-specific benchmarks that the European Commission is currently elaborating for a different purpose (i.e. to determine the amount of free allowances). Third, this obligation should apply when the imported product is registered at the EU border, and not after the end of the year as is the case for domestic emitters. Fourth, the export adjustment should take the form of a rebate on the amount of allowances a domestic emitter has to surrender. Five, this rebate should equal the above-mentioned product-specific benchmarks, not the emissions of the particular exporting plant or firm. Finally, the adjustment does not have to apply to consumer products but mostly to basic products. (author)

  12. Proposal for a national inventory adjustment for trade in the presence of border carbon adjustment: Assessing carbon tax policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xin; Yano, Takashi; Kojima, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we pointed out a hidden inequality in accounting for trade-related emissions in the presence of border carbon adjustment. Under a domestic carbon pricing policy, producers pay for the carbon costs in exchange for the right to emit. Under border carbon adjustment, however, the exporting country pays for the carbon costs of their exports to the importing country but not be given any emission credits. As a result, export-related emissions will be remained in the national inventory of the exporting country based on the UNFCCC inventory approach. This hidden inequality is important to climate policy but has not yet been pointed out. To address this issue we propose a method of National Inventory Adjustment for Trade, by which export-related emissions will be deducted from the national inventory of the exporting country and added to the national inventory of the importing country which implements border carbon adjustment. To assess the policy impacts, we simulated a carbon tax policy with border tax adjustment for Japan using a multi-region computable general equilibrium model. The results indicate that with the National Inventory Adjustment for Trade, both Japan′s national inventory and the carbon leakage effects of Japan′s climate policy will be greatly different. - Highlights: • The inequality in GHG accounting caused by border carbon adjustment presented. • National inventory adjustment for trade under border carbon adjustment proposed. • Policy impacts on international competitiveness and carbon leakage assessed. • Practical issues related to the national inventory adjustment for trade discussed

  13. Disentangling value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Sørensen, Olav Jull; Moini, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three impo...... in this study, is an important step forward in merger and acquisition (M&A) research. Moreover, numerous research findings offer tactical implications for international acquirers.......This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three...... important strategic dimensions for realizing synergy and creating value in CBAs . Furthermore, mediation analysis shows that the two acquisition-based dynamic capabilities—value identification and resource reconfiguration—act as important mediators in how the joining firms’ resource base impacts acquisition...

  14. Mechanism of laser micro-adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Hong

    2008-01-01

    Miniaturization is a requirement in engineering to produce competitive products in the field of optical and electronic industries. Laser micro-adjustment is a new and promising technology for sheet metal actuator systems. Efforts have been made to understand the mechanisms of metal plate forming using a laser heating source. Three mechanisms have been proposed for describing the laser forming processes in different scenarios, namely the temperature gradient mechanism (TGM), buckling mechanism and upsetting mechanism (UM). However, none of these mechanisms can fully describe the deformation mechanisms involved in laser micro-adjustment. Based on the thermal and elastoplastic analyses, a coupled TGM and UM are presented in this paper to illustrate the thermal mechanical behaviours of two-bridge actuators when applying a laser forming process. To validate the proposed coupling mechanism, numerical simulations are carried out and the corresponding results demonstrate the mechanism proposed. The mechanism of the micro-laser adjustment could be taken as a supplement to the laser forming process.

  15. Kinematic synthesis of adjustable robotic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenchom, Thatchai

    1993-01-01

    Conventional hard automation, such as a linkage-based or a cam-driven system, provides high speed capability and repeatability but not the flexibility required in many industrial applications. The conventional mechanisms, that are typically single-degree-of-freedom systems, are being increasingly replaced by multi-degree-of-freedom multi-actuators driven by logic controllers. Although this new trend in sophistication provides greatly enhanced flexibility, there are many instances where the flexibility needs are exaggerated and the associated complexity is unnecessary. Traditional mechanism-based hard automation, on the other hand, neither can fulfill multi-task requirements nor are cost-effective mainly due to lack of methods and tools to design-in flexibility. This dissertation attempts to bridge this technological gap by developing Adjustable Robotic Mechanisms (ARM's) or 'programmable mechanisms' as a middle ground between high speed hard automation and expensive serial jointed-arm robots. This research introduces the concept of adjustable robotic mechanisms towards cost-effective manufacturing automation. A generalized analytical synthesis technique has been developed to support the computational design of ARM's that lays the theoretical foundation for synthesis of adjustable mechanisms. The synthesis method developed in this dissertation, called generalized adjustable dyad and triad synthesis, advances the well-known Burmester theory in kinematics to a new level. While this method provides planar solutions, a novel patented scheme is utilized for converting prescribed three-dimensional motion specifications into sets of planar projections. This provides an analytical and a computational tool for designing adjustable mechanisms that satisfy multiple sets of three-dimensional motion specifications. Several design issues were addressed, including adjustable parameter identification, branching defect, and mechanical errors. An efficient mathematical scheme for

  16. Cross-border effects of capacity mechanisms in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, Christina

    2014-01-01

    To ensure security of supply in liberalized electricity markets, different types of capacity mechanisms are currently being debated or have recently been implemented in many European countries. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cross-border effects resulting from different choices on capacity mechanisms in neighboring countries. We consider a model with two connected countries that differ in the regulator's choice on capacity mechanism, namely strategic reserves or capacity payments. In both countries, competitive fi rms invest in generation capacity before selling electricity on the spot market. We characterize market equilibria and find the following main result: While consumers' costs may be the same under both capacity mechanisms in non-connected countries, we show that the different capacity mechanisms in interconnected countries induce redistribution effects. More precisely, we nd that consumers' costs are higher in countries in which reserve capacities are procured than in countries in which capacity payments are used to ensure the targeted reliable level of electricity.

  17. Sharing responsibility for carbon dioxide emissions: A perspective on border tax adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the equity and efficiency of current allocation principles related to responsibility for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions have been presented in the recent literature. The objective of this paper is to design a calculation framework for shared responsibility from the perspective of border tax adjustments. The advantage of this framework is that it makes the shared responsibility principle and border carbon taxation complementary to each other; these are important policies for reducing global CO 2 emissions, but they are individually supported by developing and developed countries. As an illustration, the proposed framework is applied to data from China in 2007. The empirical results show that for the Chinese economy as a whole, changing from the production-based criterion to the shared responsibility approach would lead to an 11% decrease in its responsibility for CO 2 emissions. Moreover, the differences observed between the production-based criterion and the shared responsibility approach are considerable in several sectors; for example, changing from the production-based criterion to the shared principle would lead to a 60% decrease in the responsibility of the textile sector. - Highlights: • This paper designs a shared responsibility calculation framework for CO 2 emissions. • This paper suggests that the carbon tariff rate serve as a basis for calculating shared responsibility. • The proposed framework is applied to data from China in 2007. • Shared responsibility principle will significantly decrease China's responsibility for CO 2 emissions

  18. Europe facing climate change - a border adjustment measure to prepare the after-Kyoto?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Mehdi; Sindico, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Considering the different relationships between the trade framework and that of the struggle against climate change, the authors address the European Union (EU) environmental strategy within the perspective of a multilateral governance of climate changes for the after-Kyoto period. After having recalled what is at stake in a border adjustment measure and outlined the difficulties of implementation of a tax-based solution at a multilateral level, the authors present the available strategies for the EU. Then, they address the strategy based on trade liberalization as incentive to the struggle against climate changes. They discuss the derogation to standard rules and finally propose a governance system between the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) and the WTO

  19. Climate policy and trade policy - The French proposal for a EU-wide border tax adjustment for CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, M.; Abbasn, M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the French proposal to establish a EU-wide border tax adjustment for CO 2 emissions. The tax seeks to offset competitive distortions toward European industries which incur the cost of the Kyoto Protocol and to prompt European competitors to join the Kyoto Protocol. So far, the debate has chiefly focused on the compatibility of such a border tax adjustment with the rules of the multilateral trading system of the World Trade Organization. Without auguring how a dispute would eventually be settled within the WTO frame-work, the paper argues that the implementation of a border tax adjustment is not as much an issue of technical feasibility or compatibility with the multilateral trading system, as a matter of collective determination to drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The French proposal is a yardstick for climate policy after the expiration of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012. The paper looks in more details into the core directions of pending negotiations. (authors)

  20. Cross-border effects of capacity mechanisms in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elberg, Christina

    2014-07-15

    To ensure security of supply in liberalized electricity markets, different types of capacity mechanisms are currently being debated or have recently been implemented in many European countries. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cross-border effects resulting from different choices on capacity mechanisms in neighboring countries. We consider a model with two connected countries that differ in the regulator's choice on capacity mechanism, namely strategic reserves or capacity payments. In both countries, competitive fi rms invest in generation capacity before selling electricity on the spot market. We characterize market equilibria and find the following main result: While consumers' costs may be the same under both capacity mechanisms in non-connected countries, we show that the different capacity mechanisms in interconnected countries induce redistribution effects. More precisely, we nd that consumers' costs are higher in countries in which reserve capacities are procured than in countries in which capacity payments are used to ensure the targeted reliable level of electricity.

  1. The missing link in an international framework for carbon pricing: border adjustment with taxes or allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    was created at the initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Over the past five years the share of global CO2 emissions subject to carbon pricing via either taxes or allowances have tripled, from four to twelve per cent. In anticipation of a widening gap between countries the scope...... allow for such adjustment under its exemption mechanisms and when all other options have been exhausted. As a highly sensitive measure, not only the complex technical and legal questions deserve attention, but also how to make the best diplomacy of it within the arsenal of climate change mitigation...

  2. Border adjustment with taxes or allowances to level the price of carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2018-01-01

    was created at the initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Over the past five years, the share of global CO2 emissions subject to carbon pricing via either taxes or allowances has tripled from four to twelve per cent. In anticipation of a widening gap between countries, the scope...... for such adjustment under its exemption mechanisms and when all other options have been exhausted. As a highly sensitive measure, not only the complex technical and legal questions deserve attention; attention must also be paid as to how to make the best diplomacy of it within the arsenal of climate change mitigation...

  3. Addressing competitiveness and leakage concerns in climate policy: An analysis of border adjustment measures in the US and the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, Harro van; Brewer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of climate policies in the US and EU in light of uncertainties about future international climate policy has shifted attention to two interrelated concerns, namely competitiveness and carbon leakage. Although various policy measures are available to address these concerns, there has been much discussion about one such measure in particular: the use of offsetting measures at the border. This article compares policy discussions in the US and the EU on how to address competitiveness and carbon leakage concerns, with a focus on the role of import-related border adjustment measures. It analyses the kinds of measures that so far have been put forward with a view to addressing competitiveness and carbon leakage; compares the approaches to the problems in the US and the EU; and provides a preliminary discussion of international cooperation on border adjustment measures. It concludes that two kinds of cooperation are needed between the EU and the US - not only cooperation through formal international negotiations, but also cooperation through international learning processes, in which the EU and the US learn from each other about design and implementation issues as they develop their respective cap-and-trade systems.

  4. Controlling chaos based on an adaptive adjustment mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the ideas and techniques developed by Huang [Huang W. Stabilizing nonlinear dynamical systems by an adaptive adjustment mechanism. Phys Rev E 2000;61:R1012-5] for controlling discrete-time chaotic system using adaptive adjustment mechanism to continuous-time chaotic system. Two control approaches, namely adaptive adjustment mechanism (AAM) and modified adaptive adjustment mechanism (MAAM), are investigated. In both case sufficient conditions for the stabilization of chaotic systems are given analytically. The simulation results on Chen chaotic system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed techniques

  5. Presumed cultural similarity paradox : Expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, P.; van Engen, M.L.; Mol, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and research

  6. Presumed cultural similarity paradox: expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, P.; van Engen, M.; Mol, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - To introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and

  7. How large are the impacts of carbon-motivated border tax adjustments on China and how to mitigate them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Zhang, Aizhen; Cai, Hongbo; Li, Xingfeng; Peng, Shishen

    2013-01-01

    There have been growing clamours for carbon-motivated border tax adjustments (CBTAs) targeted at countries that do not accept the carbon emission reduction targets. Currently, China is the largest carbon emitter with large annual incremental carbon emissions and might have to face the challenge of CBTA. Therefore, it is a pressing policy challenge for the government to get prepared for mitigating the negative impacts of CBTAs on China. In this article, we compare the impacts of CBTAs across large developing economies and compare the performances of different policy options to mitigate the negative impacts. The main findings are as follows. First, CBTA would affect different economies and different sectors differently. CBTA would result in a shift of production across sectors and relocation of output from the target countries to CBTA users. Second, CBTA would contribute to world's emissions reduction, but less than expected due to carbon leakage. Finally, policy options, which could reduce the present distorting effects, would be preferred to other policy options that would add additional distorting effects to the economy. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should get prepared for mitigating the negative impacts of CBTAs because its economy could be adversely affected. - Highlights: • We compare impacts of carbon-motivated border tax adjustments (CBTAs) across large emerging countries. • We test effectiveness of different policy options to mitigate the negative impacts. • We investigate how to design policy mix to mitigate negative impacts of CBTAs

  8. The Hippo pathway controls border cell migration through distinct mechanisms in outer border cells and polar cells of the Drosophila ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Huai; Yeh, Tsung-Han; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2014-11-01

    The Hippo pathway is a key signaling cascade in controlling organ size. The core components of this pathway are two kinases, Hippo (Hpo) and Warts (Wts), and a transcriptional coactivator, Yorkie (Yki). Yes-associated protein (YAP, a Yki homolog in mammals) promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell migration in vitro. Here, we use border cells in the Drosophila ovary as a model to study Hippo pathway functions in cell migration in vivo. During oogenesis, polar cells secrete Unpaired (Upd), which activates JAK/STAT signaling of neighboring cells and specifies them into outer border cells. The outer border cells form a cluster with polar cells and undergo migration. We find that hpo and wts are required for migration of the border cell cluster. In outer border cells, overexpression of hpo disrupts polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and attenuates migration. In polar cells, knockdown of hpo and wts or overexpression of yki impairs border cell induction and disrupts migration. These manipulations in polar cells reduce JAK/STAT activity in outer border cells. Expression of upd-lacZ is increased and decreased in yki and hpo mutant polar cells, respectively. Furthermore, forced expression of upd in polar cells rescues defects of border cell induction and migration caused by wts knockdown. These results suggest that Yki negatively regulates border cell induction by inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling. Together, our data elucidate two distinct mechanisms of the Hippo pathway in controlling border cell migration: (1) in outer border cells, it regulates polarized distribution of the actin cytoskeleton; (2) in polar cells, it regulates upd expression to control border cell induction and migration. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Rules of the annual allocation mechanism for export capacities on the Italian Northwest Border for 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    RTE (Reseau de Transport de l'Electricite) and GRTN (Gestore della Rete di Trasmissione Nazionale) are the transmission system operators respectively in France and in Italy. In the frame of the liberalization of the electricity market, the AEEG (Autorita per l'energia elettrica e il gas), and the CRE (the French regulatory authority) entered into an agreement on transfer capacity allocation over the Italian north west border (France-Italy and Switzerland-Italy borders) for the year 2004 ('the Agreement'). This allocation concerns the transfer capacity from France to Italy and from Switzerland to Italy autonomously allocable by Italy. This document summarizes the rules of the annual allocation mechanism for export capacities on the Italian northwest border for 2003: 1 - definitions; 2 - annual available capacity for the free market on the northwest border (reserved capacity, annual available capacity for the free market); 3 - annual allocation mechanism (prerequisite conditions, provisions for interruptible customer to participate to the annual allocation mechanism, provisions for eligible customers and traders to participate to the annual allocation mechanism, accuracy and completeness, nature, information about the user, annual allocation mechanism, capacity allocation confirmation, nomination of the annual allocated capacity and the reserved capacity, specific provisions related to the maintenance period on the France-Italy border, specific provisions related to the guarantee of the annual allocated capacity on the France-Italy border); 4 - general provisions (coming into force and duration of the rules, loss of the right to use the annual allocated capacity, guarantee prices and reimbursement, conditions of payment, force majeure, confidentiality, transfer of rights and obligations, notifications, contractual documents, responsibility, applicable law and language, dispute resolution). Application forms and special provisions for the

  10. Primary and embedded steel imports to the U.S.: implications for the design of border tax adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Catherine F; Weber, Christopher L; Matthews, H Scott

    2010-09-01

    Carbon Border Tax Adjustments (BTAs) are a politically popular strategy for avoiding competitive disadvantage problems when a country implements a unilateral climate change policy. A BTA taxes carbon embodied in imported goods in order to protect domestic industry and motivate other countries to implement climate change policy. To estimate the effectiveness of a BTA, is it is necessary to know which products are covered, where they were originally produced and ultimately exported from, and how the covered amount compares to total production in foreign countries. Using a scrap-adjusted, mixed-unit input-output model in conjunction with a multiregional input-output model, this analysis evaluates the effectiveness of BTAs for the case study of U.S. steel imports. Most imported steel by mass is embedded in finished products (60%), and 30% of that steel is produced in a different country than the one from which the final good is exported. Given the magnitudes involved and complexities of global supply chains, a BTA that protects domestic industry will be a challenge to implement. We propose a logistically feasible BTA structure that minimizes the information burden while still accounting for these complexities. However, the amount of steel imported to the U.S. is negligible (5%) compared to foreign production in BTA-eligible countries and is unlikely to motivate affected countries to impose an emissions reduction policy.

  11. Cross-border effects of capacity mechanisms in interconnected power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhagwat, P.C.; Richstein, J.C.; Chappin, E.J.L.; Iychettira, K.K.; de Vries, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The cross-border effects of a capacity market and a strategic reserve in interconnected electricity markets are modeled using an agent-based modeling methodology. Both capacity mechanisms improve the security of supply and reduce consumer costs. Our results indicate that interconnections do not

  12. LABOUR MOBILITY AS AN ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM IN THE EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Puiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the capacity of labour mobility in the euro area to act as an adjustment mechanism in the event of an asymmetric shock. According to the optimum currency area theory, labour mobility has been emphasized as one of the main adjustment mechanism. Given the present situation, where there are major concerns about the future of the euro area, it is necessary to study if the mechanism for stability works and if it can be improved. Considering the difficulty of quantifying the labour mobility, we have analyzed the net migration and the regulations regarding labour market. The empirical evidence shows that labour mobility does not act as a sufficient adjustment mechanism.

  13. Mechanical design of a power-adjustable spectacle lens frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Asuncion; Barbero, Sergio

    2011-05-01

    Power-adjustable spectacle lenses, based on the Alvarez-Lohmann principle, can be used to provide affordable spectacles for subjective refractive errors measurement and its correction. A new mechanical frame has been designed to maximize the advantages of this technology. The design includes a mechanism to match the interpupillary distance with that of the optical centers of the lenses. The frame can be manufactured using low cost plastic injection molding techniques. A prototype has been built to test the functioning of this mechanical design.

  14. Personality, emotional adjustment, and cardiovascular risk: marriage as a mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L

    2014-12-01

    A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Balance of payments adjustment mechanisms in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel HNÁT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the current situation in the Euro area with respect to the balance of payments adjustment mechanism that should normally be at place. Internally, the Euro area membership represents a combination of the fixed exchange rate, capital mobility and no monetary policy autonomy; externally, the Euro area countries apply floating exchange rates with high capital mobility, and autonomous monetary policy. Member states thus cannot use the monetary instruments to prevent external influences; they can only use fiscal policies, which are limited by the Stability and Growth Pact and debt constraint. When external imbalance occurs (such as today, the economies of member states are exposed to the price and income adjustment processes as well as to their own fiscal and ECB policy impacts. This article shows that all these factors interfere and influence real effects of automatic adjustment mechanisms which in some cases cannot come forth at all. Factors within domestic economic policies that limit the restoration of external balance within the Euro area thus create an important outcome of this paper.

  16. Research Facility for Mechanical Press Closed Gap Adjuster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ancifirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an example of the research facility for closed gap adjustment mechanism based on the KD2128 closed-die forging press. Its rated force with a servo drive used is 630kN. The servo drive consists of a motor with nominal power of 1.57kW and a frequency converter with power of 7.5kW, which has functions of the programmable logic controller.The article notes that such a facility is expedient and useful for practical classes on forging-andstamping machines at the BMSTU Department of «Technology processing by pressure» to demonstrate the capabilities of existing technological facility, learn a design of forging-andstamping machine units, solve the problems of automatic control, monitoring, and diagnostics in blank manufacturing.The article presents a detailed facility diagram of the closed gap adjustment mechanism and its photograph, describes the mechanism and its basic parameters, gives characteristics of the synchronous motor to drive the mechanism, reviews practical works, which the research facility may provide.Based on the four experiments the article estimates an efficiency of the research facilityuse under consideration, especially when modeling a servo motor shaft under the maximum load. The relevant diagrams confirm experimental results, namely: control current, angle of motor shaft and its speed versus time. Thus, upon the diagram analysis it can be noted that the research facility design allows providing kinematics and dynamics of the press closed gap adjuster.This article describes how to determine the closed gap adjusting accuracy of the press. Eight experiments have been conducted to evaluate a working out control signal to the linear movement of the press punch when using the research facility. It is noted that the linear positioning accuracy of the press punch reaches the hundredth parts of a millimeter of the adjustment value that is sufficient to achieve the required precision when performing operations such as

  17. Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jane M; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Arcese, Peter

    2015-07-01

    One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. We propose three demographic processes that could potentially cause mean f to differ between individual females' EPO and WPO given random extra-pair reproduction with available males without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. Specifically, such a difference could arise if social pairings formed non-randomly with respect to relatedness or persisted non-randomly with respect to relatedness, or if the distribution of relatedness between females and their sets of potential mates changed during the period through which social pairings persisted. We used comprehensive pedigree and pairing data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to quantify these three processes and hence investigate how individual females could adjust mean offspring f through instantaneously random extra-pair reproduction. Female song sparrows tended to form social pairings with unrelated or distantly related males slightly less frequently than expected given random pairing within the defined set of available males. Furthermore, social pairings between more closely related mates tended to be more likely to persist across years than social pairings between less closely related mates. However, these effects were small and the mean relatedness between females and their sets of potential extra-pair males did not change substantially across the years through which social pairings persisted. Our framework and analyses illustrate how demographic and social structuring within

  18. Open issues concerning cross border trade mechanism in southeastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugu, Florin; Mihailescu, Florentina; Cirlan, Florica

    2004-01-01

    The first South East Europe Electricity Regulatory Forum (SEEER) has agreed that all participants in the 'Athens Process' (AP) should collaborate efficiently in achieving a clear common objective consisting in the creation of a competitive Regional Electricity Market (REM) in South-Eastern Europe (SEE), based on the rules currently in force and being developed in the European Union. The 'Memorandum of Understanding on the REM in SEE and its integration in EU Internal Electricity Market (IEM)' has charged CEER to undertake actions for pursuing a series of specific technical activities. One of the most important actions was the implementation of a trading mechanism such as cross border tariffs. Based on this mechanism the Transmission System Operators, TSO, shall receive compensation for costs incurred as a result of hosting transit flows of electricity on their network. An important problem is the Horizontal Network (HN) cost calculation. Horizontal Network is defined as a part of the transmission network that is most significantly influenced by the cross border exchanges. The calculation of the cost of the SEE HN is in some way problematic because the reorganization of the SEE power sector in different countries is often at the beginning. The paper presents the impact on the TSO's cost claim of the following technical issues which, at present, are not solved in conformity to ETSO CBT mechanism for 2003: - 110 kV network inclusion in the HN definition and its impact on HN cost; - Consideration of the standard cost in the calculation of the HN annual cost; - Consideration of the annual consumption for the calculation of the HN annual cost due to transits (transit key). The Cross Border Trade, CBT, mechanism represents an harmonized payment scheme for the compensation of the national transmission systems for their usage by the cross border flows. The paper addresses the following issues: 1. Assessment of the current state of play in the SEE region; 2. Main principles

  19. Capacity mechanisms and cross-border participation: the EU wide approach in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2014-07-01

    A capacity remuneration mechanism (CRM) which excludes cross border participants is considered to have serious distortive effects on long term competition, compared to explicit cross border participation (CBP), on the grounds that it doesn't capture the advantages of multi-system competition. This paper examines the reality of these advantages by distinguishing situations with and without congestion between systems during critical periods because congestion separates markets and their collective goods of reliability and adequacy for each system, and suppresses any economic and physical relevance of a capacity commitment from a new external participant to a CRM. From the limited perspective of any single system, there are two potential advantages of explicit CBP: the first is the supplement of the set of committed capacities to a CRM; the second is the lower cost of the adequacy policy of the system, thanks to enlarged competition, but it is illusory because the clearing price of capacity is the same with and without explicit CBP. Moreover concretization of such benefits for the system is not possible when there is congestion. From the EU wide perspective, we identify some potential gains of social efficiency from explicit CBP at the multi-system level, when we have systems with a long standing situation of over-capacity beside systems with tight situations during their critical periods; or when there exists projects of hydro equipment (pumping storage, etc... But again, congestion removes any sense to any additional revenue to them. In any case erratic revenues certainly do not steer new investment towards either system. Furthermore exchanges of capacity rights between systems equipped with different CRMs introduce a supplement of distortions compared to the same situation with implicit CPB and no trade of capacity rights. It is problematic in the case of congestion; this delays the price signal of capacity scarcity in the system with the least attractive CRM in

  20. Study on a mechanical snubber with an adjustment mechanism for resisting force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmata, Kenichiro; Miyanaga, Hiroyuki.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical snubber is an earthquakeproof device for a piping system under particular circumstances such as high temperature and radioactivity. It restrains the piping system by a strong resisting force during an earthquake. This strong force can cause elastic failure of grooves on a brake disk, where steel balls are placed. In this report, an improved mechanical snubber having an adjustment mechanism for resisting force is proposed in order to obtain a mechanical snubber which has almost the same restraint effect and less resisting force in comparison with a conventional mechanical snubber. The resisting force characteristics and the restraint effect of the improved mechanical snubber applied to a simple beam are discussed both numerically and experimentally. The digital simulations are carried out using the Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL). (author)

  1. Energetics and formation mechanism of borders between hexagonal boron nitride and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawahata, Hisaki; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Maruyama, Mina; Okada, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    We studied the energetics of two-dimensional heterostructures consisting of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene with respect to the border structure and heterobond species using density functional theory. A BC heterobond is energetically preferable at the border between h-BN and graphene. We also found that the polarization at the zigzag border increases the total energy of the heterostructures. Competition between the bond formation energy and the polarization energy leads to chiral borders at which BC heterobonds are dominant. By taking the formation process of the heterostructures into account, the zigzag border with BC heterobonds is found to be preferentially synthesized from graphene edges under hydrogen-rich conditions.

  2. Asymmetric cell division requires specific mechanisms for adjusting global transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Adriana; Medina, Daniel A; García-Martínez, José; Begley, Victoria; Singh, Abhyudai; Chávez, Sebastián; Muñoz-Centeno, Mari C; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2017-12-01

    Most cells divide symmetrically into two approximately identical cells. There are many examples, however, of asymmetric cell division that can generate sibling cell size differences. Whereas physical asymmetric division mechanisms and cell fate consequences have been investigated, the specific problem caused by asymmetric division at the transcription level has not yet been addressed. In symmetrically dividing cells the nascent transcription rate increases in parallel to cell volume to compensate it by keeping the actual mRNA synthesis rate constant. This cannot apply to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where this mechanism would provoke a never-ending increasing mRNA synthesis rate in smaller daughter cells. We show here that, contrarily to other eukaryotes with symmetric division, budding yeast keeps the nascent transcription rates of its RNA polymerases constant and increases mRNA stability. This control on RNA pol II-dependent transcription rate is obtained by controlling the cellular concentration of this enzyme. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Cross-border transmission capacity allocation mechanisms in South East Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2007-01-01

    South East Europe (SEE) is moving rapidly toward the creation of a regional electricity market and wholesale electricity market/power exchange that will improve competitive performance and increase liquidity and reliability. We describe the current applied and future possible congestion management methods in Europe including the SEE region. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a regional electricity and cross-border trade within the region and neighboring countries, and concludes with a brief discussion of policy issues. (author)

  4. Net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms for utility DSM programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the experiences that states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. Contrary to concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate the NLRA is a feasible approach to the lost-revenue disincentive. Seven of the 10 states we studied report no substantial problems with their approach. We observe several conditions linked to effective NLRA implementation and, for those states reporting problems, conditions linked to implementation difficulties. Finally, observed changes in utility-investment behavior occur after implementation of DSM rate reforms, which include deployment of NLRA mechanisms. We find that utilities in states with lost revenue recovery invest more than twice as much in DSM as do utilities in other states. (Author)

  5. Positioning accuracy analysis of adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Wang Kun; Sun Linzhi; Zhou Shasha

    2012-01-01

    A novel adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude is presented according to the characteristics of the target transport subsystem in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The mechanism consists of a tangent mechanism adjusting rotation angle and a set of orthogonal tangent mechanism adjusting two-dimensional deflection angles. The structural parameters of the adjusting target mechanism are analyzed according to principle errors, structure errors and motion errors of following. The analysis results indicate that the system error of the adjusting target mechanism is influenced by the displacement of the linear actuators, the actuator ball radius, the working radius of the tangent mechanism, the angle error of the inclined installation hole, the centralization error of the actuators, the orthogonal error of the two tangent mechanism, and the angle errors of the inclined target rod inclined rotation shaft. The errors of the inclined target rod and inclined rotation shaft are the two greatest impact factors, the spherical contact error is the next. By means of precise assembly and control system compensation, the accuracy of the adjusting target mechanism can be less than 0.1 mrad. (authors)

  6. Dealing with friction in a reusable 6 degrees of freedom adjustment mechanism with sliding contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkhamer, J.F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Although the possibility of a 6 degrees of freedom adjustment based on a single body pulled onto on six adjustable supports follows directly from the kinematic theory, such mechanisms are seldom used in actual products. Two major drawbacks for the use of this solution are: Due to the sliding contact

  7. An Approach to Implementing A Threshold Adjusting Mechanism in Very Complex Negotiations : A Preliminary Result

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Katsuhide; Ito, Takayuki; Hattori, Hiromitsu; Klein, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a threshold adjusting mechanism in very complex negotiations among software agents. The proposed mechanism can facilitate agents to reach an agreement while keeping their private information as much as possible. Multi-issue negotiation protocols have been studied widely and represent a promising field since most negotiation problems in the real world involve interdependent multiple issues. We have proposed negotiation protocols where a bidding-based mechanism is used...

  8. Design amp Validation Of E-Rpm Adjustment Assembly For Mechanical Governor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi kumar manhotra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper detailing the problem of speed fluctuation of IDI engine Rpm i.e. hunting and dipping. It is due to E-RPM adjustment assembly for mechanical centrifugal flyweight governor system. E-RPM adjustment assembly works mainly for high speed adjustment ampidle speed adjustment. In mechanical centrifugal flyweight governor system of IDI engine issue at idle rpm hunting and dipping issue was reported in field.New designs of plunger type stopper cover with compressed coil spring are proposed for E-RPM adjustment assembly for mechanical centrifugal fly-weight governor system. 3D-Modeling of new design is done on Seimens NX. Kinematic simulation was done with the help of Altairs Motion-View amp Motion-Solver. Based on the results from MBD the prototype is made and tested in engine. As per the test results from engine testing with new design there is no hunting and dipping problem is reported at idle rpm.

  9. Risk-adjusted survival after tissue versus mechanical aortic valve replacement: a 23-year assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaca, Jeffrey G; Clare, Robert M; Rankin, J Scott; Daneshmand, Mani A; Milano, Carmelo A; Hughes, G Chad; Wolfe, Walter G; Glower, Donald D; Smith, Peter K

    2013-11-01

    Detailed analyses of risk-adjusted outcomes after mitral valve surgery have documented significant survival decrements with tissue valves at any age. Several recent studies of prosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR) also have suggested a poorer performance of tissue valves, although analyses have been limited to small matched series. The study aim was to test the hypothesis that AVR with tissue valves is associated with a lower risk-adjusted survival, as compared to mechanical valves. Between 1986 and 2009, primary isolated AVR, with or without coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), was performed with currently available valve types in 2148 patients (1108 tissue valves, 1040 mechanical). Patients were selected for tissue valves to be used primarily in the elderly. Baseline and operative characteristics were documented prospectively with a consistent variable set over the entire 23-year period. Follow up was obtained with mailed questionnaires, supplemented by National Death Index searches. The average time to death or follow up was seven years, and follow up for survival was 96.2% complete. Risk-adjusted survival characteristics for the two groups were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model with stepwise selection of candidate variables. Differences in baseline characteristics between groups were (tissue versus mechanical): median age 73 versus 61 years; non-elective surgery 32% versus 28%; CABG 45% versus 35%; median ejection fraction 55% versus 55%; renal failure 6% versus 1%; diabetes 18% versus 7% (pvalves; however, after risk adjustment for the adverse profiles of tissue valve patients, no significant difference was observed in survival after tissue or mechanical AVR. Thus, the hypothesis did not hold, and risk-adjusted survival was equivalent, of course qualified by the fact that selection bias was evident. With selection criteria that employed tissue AVR more frequently in elderly patients, tissue and mechanical valves achieved similar survival

  10. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  11. Modeling and Control of the Redundant Parallel Adjustment Mechanism on a Deployable Antenna Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of developing multiple input and multiple output (MIMO coupling systems with a redundant parallel adjustment mechanism on the deployable antenna panel, a structural control integrated design methodology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the modal information from the finite element model of the structure of the antenna panel is extracted, and then the mathematical model is established with the Hamilton principle; Secondly, the discrete Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR controller is added to the model in order to control the actuators and adjust the shape of the panel. Finally, the engineering practicality of the modeling and control method based on finite element analysis simulation is verified.

  12. Etude Climat no. 33 'Joint Implementation: a frontier mechanism within the borders of an emissions cap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishlov, Igor; Bellassen, Valentin; Leguet, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: Based on specific projects rather than economy-wide emissions reductions, and driven by the demand from the installations covered by the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), Joint Implementation (JI) turned out to be a largely private sector mechanism. Besides attracting private investors in GHG abatement projects, JI creates an opportunity for countries to exploit the arbitrage price spread between different carbon offsets: Emission Reduction Units (ERU), the credits issued from JI projects, trade with a premium of up to 50% over Assigned Amount Units (AAU), the country-level carbon allowances. Some countries, like for instance Ukraine, quickly realized the added value of JI and boosted its development, while in others, like Russia, JI lacked political support and efficient frameworks took time to be established. According to the ERU supply forecasting model developed by CDC Climat Research, Annex I countries are expected to generate up to 356 million ERUs for the first Kyoto commitment period. Around 80% of these credits shall originate from Russia and Ukraine, and up to 70 million shall be generated from countries participating in the EU ETS. Within the EU, JI has been used as a 'frontier mechanism': JI projects mostly explored abatement opportunities not covered by the scheme and, as highlighted by the case of nitrous oxide emissions from the production of nitric acid, played an important role in identifying abatement technologies and providing information to extend the scope of the EU ETS. One of the most complex issues related to JI is the practice of additionality. The cases of France and Ukraine demonstrate that the stakes associated with additionality may differ depending on a country's compliance position. In Ukraine, additionality was not perceived as a significant economic risk due to a

  13. Atomic collision experiments at the border line between classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilanti, V.

    1984-01-01

    In order to understand atomic and molecular interactions, one has to learn how to live with the wave-particle duality, considering classical nuclei and quantum electrons. A better way, illustrated by reference to experiments, is by quasiclassical (or semi-classical) mechanics, governing a world with a quasi-zero Planck's constant. One thus explains optical analogs (shadows, rainbows, glories) as interference effects in atomic collisions. Reference is also made to Wheeler's 'black bird' on the inversion problem from spectroscopy and scattering to molecular structure. The paper concludes outlining a journey in the hyperspace to escape from Einstein's torus and to find interferences and resonances in three body scattering and reactions. (Auth.)

  14. [Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). A new mode of assisted mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerer, O; Barwing, J; Quintel, M

    2008-10-01

    The aim of mechanical ventilation is to assure gas exchange while efficiently unloading the respiratory muscles and mechanical ventilation is an integral part of the care of patients with acute respiratory failure. Modern lung protective strategies of mechanical ventilation include low-tidal-volume ventilation and the continuation of spontaneous breathing which has been shown to be beneficial in reducing atelectasis and improving oxygenation. Poor patient-ventilator interaction is a major issue during conventional assisted ventilation. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NAVA) is a new mode of mechanical ventilation that uses the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) to control the ventilator. First experimental studies showed an improved patient-ventilator synchrony and an efficient unloading of the respiratory muscles. Future clinical studies will have to show that NAVA is of clinical advantage when compared to conventional modes of assisted mechanical ventilation. This review characterizes NAVA according to current publications on this topic.

  15. Brokerage in Cross-Border Mobility: Social Mechanisms and the (ReProduction of Social Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Faist

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brokerage is an essential yet understudied function in social life. In one of the classics in the field of sociology, Georg Simmel differentiated three types of the “third” which help to analyse brokerage: the disinterested mediator or arbitrator, tertius gaudens and divide et impera. Studies that conceptualise traffickers and smugglers as brokers are extremely rare. Scholars lack a typology which can serve as a basis for comparative research. To advance scholarship on brokerage this article seeks to develop a conceptual-typological matrix by setting out to explore three questions: Why does brokerage exist? What kind of social mechanism is brokerage? What are the implications of brokerage for social inequalities and equalities? The analysis concludes with the consequences of different types of brokerage for the (reproduction of social inequalities.

  16. Radon mitigation with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation adjusted by a pressure control unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotti, H.; Keskikuru, T.; Kalliokoski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Effective ventilation and positive or low negative pressure indoors are suggested to low indoor radon levels. The aim of this study is to develop and to test an equipment, which makes it possible to achieve simultaneously effective ventilation and minimum outdoor-pressure difference. The unit includes mechanical supply and exhaust air fans, a exchanger and a pressure control unit in direct digital control (DDC), which adjusts continuously air exchange based on the pressure difference transmitter information. (orig.). (8 refs., 6 figs.)

  17. Electro-mechanical characteristics of myocardial infarction border zones and ventricular arrhythmic risk: novel insights from grid-tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Dennis T.L.; Weightman, Michael J.; Baumert, Mathias; Tayeb, Hussam; Richardson, James D.; Puri, Rishi; Bertaso, Angela G.; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C.; Sanders, Prashanthan; Worthley, Matthew I.; Worthley, Stephen G.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether grid-tag myocardial strain evaluation can characterise 'border-zone' peri-infarct region and identify patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia as the peri-infarct myocardial zone may represent an important contributor to ventricular arrhythmia following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Forty-five patients with STEMI underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging on days 3 and 90 following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Circumferential peak circumferential systolic strain (CS) and strain rate (CSR) were calculated from grid-tagged images. Myocardial segments were classified into 'infarct', 'border-zone', 'adjacent' and 'remote' regions by late-gadolinium enhancement distribution. The relationship between CS and CSR and these distinct myocardial regions was assessed. Ambulatory Holter monitoring was performed 14 days post myocardial infarction (MI) to estimate ventricular arrhythmia risk via evaluation of heart-rate variability (HRV). We analysed 1,222 myocardial segments. Remote and adjacent regions had near-normal parameters of CS and CSR. Border-zone regions had intermediate CS (-9.0 ± 4.6 vs -5.9 ± 7.4, P < 0.001) and CSR (-86.4 ± 33.3 vs -73.5 ± 51.4, P < 0.001) severity compared with infarct regions. Patients with 'border-zone' peri-infarct regions had reduced very-low-frequency power on HRV analysis, which is a surrogate for ventricular arrhythmia risk (P = 0.03). Grid-tagged CMR-derived myocardial strain accurately characterises the mechanical characteristics of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region. Presence of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region correlated with a surrogate marker of heightened arrhythmia risk following STEMI. (orig.)

  18. Border installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaerts, Koen

    1988-01-01

    Border installations cover all nuclear plants located near the border with a neighbouring state. However, the actual distance depends on the context. The distance can vary considerably. Also the prohibition on siting near a heavily populated area also defines the actual distance variably. The distance criteria may be modified by other factors of topography, prevailing climate and so on. Various examples which illustrate the problems are given. For example, the Creys-Melville nuclear power plant is 80km from Geneva and the Cattonam installation is 12km from the French border with Luxembourg and Germany. The Cattenom case is explained and the legal position within the European Institutions is discussed. The French licensing procedures for nuclear power stations are described with special reference to the Cattenom power plant. Border installations are discussed in the context of European Community Law and Public International Law. (U.K.)

  19. A fine adjustment mechanism of the second crystal in a double-crystal monochromator with a 3-PS parallel manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chongzhen; Gao, X.; Ma, P.; Yu, H.; Wang, F.; Huang, Y.; Liu, P.

    2005-01-01

    A novel fine adjustment mechanism of the second crystal in a double-crystal monochromator is put forward, which is based on a 3-PS parallel manipulator and the magnetic force. Not only is the principle of fine adjusting the pitch angle and the roll angle analyzed, but also optimization of the structure parameters of the permanent magnet, a key part of the fine adjustment mechanism. The fine adjustment mechanism with the 3-PS parallel manipulator has been applied successfully in the double-crystal monochromator of 4W1B beam line in the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF)

  20. A simple mechanism for measuring and adjusting distraction forces during maxillary advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

    2009-10-01

    Direct measurement of distraction forces on the craniofacial skeleton has never been reported. The present report describes the development of a method of assessing and adjusting traction forces applied through maxillary distraction osteogenesis. A simple mechanism to measure and adjust tension force during maxillary distraction osteogenesis was developed and connected bilaterally to the traction screws of a rigid external distraction device. Measurements were carried out before and after activation using a Shimpo (Nidec-Shimpo America Corporation, Itasca, IL) force gauge in 4 patients (2 with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, 1 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 1 with noncleft) during the distraction process. Activation was performed twice a day at a rate of 1 mm/day. The average maximum force applied throughout the distraction period was 42.5 N (range 16.4 to 65.3 N), with increments, after activation, averaging 10.5 N (range 7.9 to 15.7 N). In patients with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, distraction forces on the larger segment were 65.1% higher than on the lesser segment. A differential pattern of forces was also observed in the patients with asymmetric noncleft. However, the differential forces between lateral segments were not observed in the patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate. During the activation period, distraction forces progressively increased, whereas the amount of maxillary movement decreased. Pain and discomfort were reported with high forces. Through this mechanism, direct measurement and adjustment of distraction forces during maxillary advancement was possible. The unbalanced pattern of forces observed in patients with cleft suggests the necessity of individual adjustments for controlling pain and clinical symptoms. Accordingly, assessment of distraction forces during maxillary distraction osteogenesis is extremely helpful in understanding the biomechanics of the distraction process.

  1. Border Injuries: An Analysis of Prehospital Demographics, Mechanisms, and Patterns of Injuries Encountered by USBP EMS Agents in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Russell A

    2017-08-01

    Study Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate Emergency Medical Services (EMS), use, injury mechanisms, prehospital assessments, and injuries among those receiving aid from the United States Border Patrol (USBP) in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. This is a time-series, retrospective analysis of all prehospital data for injuries among patients receiving care from USBP EMS on the US Mexico border in the El Paso sector from February 6, 2014 to February 6, 2016. A total of 473 documented EMS encounters occurred in this two-year period and demonstrated a male gender predominance (male 63%; female 37%) with the most prominent ages between 22-40 years old. The most prevalent EMS call types were medical (55%) and trauma (42%). The most common chief complaints were an injured or painful extremity (35%) and rash (13%). The most common USBP EMS provider primary impression was traumatic injury (34%), followed by fever/infection (17%) and extremity injury (7%); however, the most common secondary impression was also extremity injury (20%). The most common mechanism of injury was fall (26%) and motor vehicle accident (MVA; 22%). The USBP EMS was the first provider on scene in 96% of the MVAs. The author reports on injury patterns, mechanisms, chief complaints, EMS impressions, as well as demographics of patients reporting to USBP EMS. A knowledge of these injury patterns will be useful to EMS administrators and physicians along the US Mexico border. Baker RA . Border injuries: an analysis of prehospital demographics, mechanisms, and patterns of injuries encountered by USBP EMS agents in the El Paso (Texas USA) Sector. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):431-436.

  2. A New and Versatile Adjustable Rigidity Actuator with Add-on Locking Mechanism (ARES-XL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cestari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented in robotic devices because of their ability to minimize large forces due to impacts, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Conceived as a new force-controlled compliant actuator, an adjustable rigidity with embedded sensor and locking mechanism actuator (ARES-XL is presented in this paper. This compliant system is intended to be implemented in a gait exoskeleton for children with neuro muscular diseases (NMDs to exploit the intrinsic dynamics during locomotion. This paper describes the mechanics and initial evaluation of the ARES-XL, a novel variable impedance actuator (VIA that allows the implementation of an add-on locking mechanism to this system, and in combination with its zero stiffness capability and large deflection range, provides this novel joint with improved properties when compared to previous prototypes developed by the authors and other state-of-the-art (SoA devices. The evaluation of the system proves how this design exceeds the main capabilities of a previous prototype as well as providing versatile actuation that could lead to its implementation in multiple joints.

  3. Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of the Adjust and Control System Mechanism for Reactor CAREM-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larreteguy, A.E; Mazufri, C.M

    2000-01-01

    The adjust and control system mechanism, MSAC, is an advanced, and in some senses unique, hydromechanical device.The efforts in modeling this mechanism are aimed to: Get a deep understanding of the physical phenomena involved,Identify the set of parameters relevant to the dynamics of the system,Allow the numerical simulation of the system,Predict the behavior of the mechanism in conditions other than that obtainable within the range of operation of the experimental setup (CEM), and Help in defining the design of the CAPEM (loop for testing the mechanism under high pressure/high temperature conditions).Thanks to the close interaction between the mechanics, the experimenters, and the modelists that compose the MSAC task force, it has been possible to suggest improvements, not only in the design of the mechanism, but also in the design and the operation of the pulse generator (GDP) and the rest of the CEM.This effort has led to a design mature enough so as to be tested in a high-pressure loop

  4. BORDERS AS AN INTERDISCPLINARY PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Vrban

    2018-04-01

    bio-metric, have transformed classical, linear forms of territorial border surveillance into mechanisms of remote control and ruling at a distance.

  5. Assessment of net lost revenue adjustment mechanisms for utility DSM programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    Utility shareholders can lose money on demand-side management (DSM) investments between rate cases. Several industry analysts argue that the revenues lost from utility DSM programs are an important financial disincentive to utility DSM investment. A key utility regulatory reform undertaken since 1989 allows utilities to recover the lost revenues incurred through successful operation of DSM programs. Explicitly defined net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms are states` preferred approach to lost revenue recovery from DSM programs. This report examines the experiences states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. The report has three objectives. First, we determine whether NLRA is a feasible and successful approach to removing the lost-revenue disincentive to utility operation of DSM programs. Second, we identify the conditions linked to successful implementation of NLRA mechanisms in different states and assess whether NLRA has changed utility investment behavior. Third, we suggest improvements to NLRA mechanisms. We first identify states with NLRA mechanisms where utilities are recovering lost revenues from DSM programs. We interview staff at regulatory agencies in all these states and utility staff in four states. These interviews focus on the status of NLRA, implementation issues, DSM measurement issues, and NLRA results. We also analyze regulatory agency orders on NLRA, as well as associated testimony, reports, and utility lost revenue recovery filings. Finally, we use qualitative and quantitative indicators to assess NLRA`s effectiveness. Contrary to the concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate NLRA is a feasible approach to the lost-revenue disincentive.

  6. Analysis of the highly diverse gene borders in Ebola virus reveals a distinct mechanism of transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauburger, Kristina; Boehmann, Yannik; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Hoenen, Thomas; Olejnik, Judith; Schümann, Michael; Ebihara, Hideki; Mühlberger, Elke

    2014-11-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses. The seven EBOV genes are separated by variable gene borders, including short (4- or 5-nucleotide) intergenic regions (IRs), a single long (144-nucleotide) IR, and gene overlaps, where the neighboring gene end and start signals share five conserved nucleotides. The unique structure of the gene overlaps and the presence of a single long IR are conserved among all filoviruses. Here, we sought to determine the impact of the EBOV gene borders during viral transcription. We show that readthrough mRNA synthesis occurs in EBOV-infected cells irrespective of the structure of the gene border, indicating that the gene overlaps do not promote recognition of the gene end signal. However, two consecutive gene end signals at the VP24 gene might improve termination at the VP24-L gene border, ensuring efficient L gene expression. We further demonstrate that the long IR is not essential for but regulates transcription reinitiation in a length-dependent but sequence-independent manner. Mutational analysis of bicistronic minigenomes and recombinant EBOVs showed no direct correlation between IR length and reinitiation rates but demonstrated that specific IR lengths not found naturally in filoviruses profoundly inhibit downstream gene expression. Intriguingly, although truncation of the 144-nucleotide-long IR to 5 nucleotides did not substantially affect EBOV transcription, it led to a significant reduction of viral growth. Our current understanding of EBOV transcription regulation is limited due to the requirement for high-containment conditions to study this highly pathogenic virus. EBOV is thought to share many mechanistic features with well-analyzed prototype nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses. A single polymerase entry site at the 3' end of the genome determines that transcription of the genes is mainly controlled by gene order and cis-acting signals found at the gene borders. Here, we examined

  7. The Newton constant and gravitational waves in some vector field adjusting mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillán, Osvaldo P. [IMAS (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Scornavacche, Marina, E-mail: firenzecita@hotmail.com, E-mail: marina.scorna@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2017-10-01

    At the present, there exist some Lorentz breaking scenarios which explain the smallness of the cosmological constant at the present era [1]–[2]. An important aspect to analyze is the propagation of gravitational waves and the screening or enhancement of the Newton constant G {sub N} in these models. The problem is that the Lorentz symmetry breaking terms may induce an unacceptable value of the Newton constant G {sub N} or introduce longitudinal modes in the gravitational wave propagation. Furthermore this breaking may spoil the standard dispersion relation ω= ck . In [3] the authors have presented a model suggesting that the behavior of the gravitational constant is correct for asymptotic times. In the present work, an explicit checking is made and we finally agree with these claims. Furthermore, it is suggested that the gravitational waves are also well behaved for large times. In the process, some new models with the same behavior are obtained, thus enlarging the list of possible adjustment mechanisms.

  8. Border poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Lundberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The language of poetry is a language of inquiry, not the language of a genre. Poetry has the capacity of entering those zones known as borderlands, where you meet strange things and foreign people. In this poetic world view, the border is not an edge along the fringe of lands, societies and experiences, but rather their very middle – and their in-between. The structures of language are social structures in which meanings and intentions are already in place, always fighting for power and dominance, with rhetorical figures and more violent weapons.

  9. Punishment Mechanism with Self-Adjusting Rules in Spatial Voluntary Public Goods Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong-Wei; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    The phenomena of cooperation in animal and human society are ubiquitous, but the selfish outcome that no player contributes to the public good will lead to the “tragedy of the commons”. The recent research shows that high punishment can improve the cooperation of the population. In this paper, we introduce a punishment mechanism into spatial voluntary public goods games with every individual only knowing his own payoff in each round. Using the self-adjusting rules, we find that the different cost for punishment can lead to different effects on the voluntary public goods games. Especially, when the cost for punishment is decreased, a higher contribution region will appear in the case of low r value. It means even for the low r value, individuals can form the contributing groups in large quantities to produce a more efficient outcome than that in moderate r value. In addition, we also find the players' memory can have effects on the average outcome of the population.

  10. Perichondrium phenotype and border function are regulated by Ext1 and heparan sulfate in developing long bones: a mechanism likely deranged in Hereditary Multiple Exostoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huegel, Julianne; Mundy, Christina; Sgariglia, Federica; Nygren, Patrik; Billings, Paul C; Yamaguchi, Yu; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    During limb skeletogenesis the cartilaginous long bone anlagen and their growth plates become delimited by perichondrium with which they interact functionally. Yet, little is known about how, despite being so intimately associated with cartilage, perichondrium acquires and maintains its distinct phenotype and exerts its border function. Because perichondrium becomes deranged and interrupted by cartilaginous outgrowths in Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME), a pediatric disorder caused by EXT mutations and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, we asked whether EXT genes and HS normally have roles in establishing its phenotype and function. Indeed, conditional Ext1 ablation in perichondrium and lateral chondrocytes flanking the epiphyseal region of mouse embryo long bone anlagen - a region encompassing the groove of Ranvier - caused ectopic cartilage formation. A similar response was observed when HS function was disrupted in long bone anlagen explants by genetic, pharmacological or enzymatic means, a response preceded by ectopic BMP signaling within perichondrium. These treatments also triggered excess chondrogenesis and cartilage nodule formation and overexpression of chondrogenic and matrix genes in limb bud mesenchymal cells in micromass culture. Interestingly, the treatments disrupted the peripheral definition and border of the cartilage nodules in such a way that many nodules overgrew and fused with each other into large amorphous cartilaginous masses. Interference with HS function reduced the physical association and interactions of BMP2 with HS and increased the cell responsiveness to endogenous and exogenous BMP proteins. In sum, Ext genes and HS are needed to establish and maintain perichondrium's phenotype and border function, restrain pro-chondrogenic signaling proteins including BMPs, and restrict chondrogenesis. Alterations in these mechanisms may contribute to exostosis formation in HME, particularly at the expense of regions rich in progenitor

  11. Border installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaerts, K.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter highlights the legal problems raised by the concept of a border installation. Using the Cattenom nuclear power plant as an example, the author describes the different stages of the legal conflict raised by construction of the plant and analyses the relationship between French administrative law and some provisions of the Euratom Treaty. Based on the Treaty, the Community institutions have adopted directives to strengthen inter-State co-operation and consultation between neighbouring countries. He observes that these principles of co-operation, consultation and vigilance already exist in public international law; however, international case law has not yet made it possible to establish the strict liability of the constructing state in case of a nuclear accident (NEA) [fr

  12. Validation of the force and frequency characteristics of the activator adjusting instrument: effectiveness as a mechanical impedance measurement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, T S; Colloca, C J; Fuhr, A W

    1999-02-01

    To determine the dynamic force-time and force-frequency characteristics of the Activator Adjusting Instrument and to validate its effectiveness as a mechanical impedance measurement device; in addition, to refine or optimize the force-frequency characteristics of the Activator Adjusting Instrument to provide enhanced dynamic structural measurement reliability and accuracy. An idealized test structure consisting of a rectangular steel beam with a static stiffness similar to that of the human thoracolumbar spine was used for validation of a method to determine the dynamic mechanical response of the spine. The Activator Adjusting Instrument equipped with a load cell and accelerometer was used to measure forces and accelerations during mechanical excitation of the steel beam. Driving point and transfer mechanical impedance and resonant frequency of the beam were determined by use of a frequency spectrum analysis for different force settings, stylus masses, and stylus tips. Results were compared with beam theory and transfer impedance measurements obtained by use of a commercial electronic PCB impact hammer. The Activator Adjusting Instrument imparted a very complex dynamic impact comprising an initial high force (116 to 140 N), short duration pulse (analysis of the Activator Adjusting Instrument impulse indicated that the Activator Adjusting Instrument has a variable force spectrum and delivers its peak energy at a frequency of 20 Hz. Added masses and different durometer stylus tips had very little influence on the Activator Adjusting Instrument force spectrum. The resonant frequency of the beam was accurately predicted by both the Activator Adjusting Instrument and electronic PCB impact hammer, but variations in the magnitude of the driving point impedance at the resonant frequency were high (67%) compared with the transfer impedance measurements obtained with the electronic PCB impact hammer, which had a more uniform force spectrum and was more repeatable (frequency

  13. Antecedents, Consequences, and Mechanisms: On the Longitudinal Interplay Between Academic Self-Enhancement and Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Michael; Reitz, Anne K; Zander, Lysann

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the reciprocal associations between academic self-enhancement and key indicators of intra- and interpersonal adjustment as well as the role of self-esteem as a mediator. This longitudinal study involved three assessments in a sample of 709 German children and adolescents (Mage  = 11.83; 54% female) over the course of one academic year. We assessed self-reported subjective well-being as an indicator of intrapersonal adjustment and peer-reported popularity as an indicator of interpersonal adjustment. We computed cross-lagged and longitudinal mediational analyses. Academic self-enhancement prospectively predicted high subsequent well-being and popularity. Vice versa, well-being and popularity prospectively predicted high subsequent levels of self-enhancement. High self-esteem mediated the longitudinal associations between self-enhancement and well-being in both directions, but not the links between self-enhancement and popularity. Self-enhancement and adjustment are bidirectionally linked: Self-enhancement entails intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits; at the same time, adjustment in both domains fosters self-enhancement. In terms of intrapersonal, but not interpersonal adjustment, self-esteem seems to serve as a linchpin, accounting for all longitudinal associations. Furthermore, we present evidence indicating that self-enhancement indicators that are based on difference scores (instead of residuals) are problematic and might have led to negatively biased results in the literature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  15. The Flexible Acceleration Mechanism of China’s Capital Adjustment with the Goal of Consumption-Driven Sustainable Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China has had an investment-led growth pattern that is unsustainable. It is struggling to shift to a consumption-driven economy, and capital adjustment is crucial to the transition. In response, the principal objective of this study is to analyze the internal market mechanism of China’s capital adjustment. Due to the imperfections of the market, we use the flexible acceleration model, which we put in an IS (Investment – Saving equation–LM (Liquidity preference – Money supply equation framework in order to reflect the guiding role of demand. The results show that the flexible acceleration model fits China’s investment well, and the demand-oriented market mechanism of capital adjustment has been formed; however, China’s market adjustment ability is not strong. The adjustment coefficient is only 0.22, and shows a decreasing trend. So, in the capital optimization process, relying on the market alone is not realistic. Furthermore, the calculated replacement rate is up to 0.429, which indicates that China’s capital is less efficient, and there are duplicated assets, idle assets, and wasted investments. The error correction model’s results show that the impact of the interest rate on the investments is not significant in the short term, so the existence of invalid capital is more likely to stem from the soft budget constraints, which require attention.

  16. Alignment Adjustment Procedures. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with automobile alignment and adjustment procedures. Covered in the module are identifying positive and negative cambers, positive and negative casters, and toe-ins;…

  17. Mechanosensation across borders: fibroblasts inside a macroporous scaffold sense and respond to the mechanical environment beyond the scaffold walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnig, D; Herrera, A; Duda, G N; Petersen, A

    2018-01-01

    In tissue defects, cells face distinct mechanical boundary conditions, but how this influences early stages of tissue regeneration remains largely unknown. Biomaterials are used to fill defects but also to provide specific mechanical or geometrical signals. However, they might at the same time shield mechanical information from surrounding tissues that is relevant for tissue functionalisation. This study investigated how fibroblasts in a soft macroporous biomaterial scaffold respond to distinct mechanical environments while they form microtissues. Different boundary stiffnesses counteracting scaffold contraction were provided via a newly developed in vitro setup. Online monitoring over 14 days revealed 3.0 times lower microtissue contraction but 1.6 times higher contraction force for high vs. low stiffness. This difference was significant already after 48 h, a very early stage of microtissue growth. The microtissue's mechanical and geometrical adaptation indicated a collective cellular behaviour and mechanical communication across scaffold pore walls. Surprisingly, the stiffness of the environment influenced cell behaviour even inside macroporous scaffolds where direct cell-cell contacts are hindered. Mechanical communication between cells via traction forces is essential for tissue adaptation to the environment and should not be blocked by rigid biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Design procedure for a wind-wheel with self-adjusting blade mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady A. Oborsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed is a wind-wheel design equipped with the self-adjusting blade. The blade is positioned eccentrically to the balance wheel and can freely rotate around its axis. Elaborated is the method of calculating the energy characteristics for a wind-wheel with the self-adjusting blade, considering not only the wind force but the force of air counter flow resistance to the blade’s rotation. Initially, the blade being located at an angle α = 45 to the wheel rotation plane, the air flow rotates the wheel with the maximum force. Thus, the speed of rotation increases that involves the increase in air counter flow resistance and results in blade turning with respective angle α reduction. This, consequently, reduces the torque. When the torsional force and the resistance enter into equilibrium, the blade takes a certain angle α, and the wheel speed becomes constant. This wind-wheel design including a self-adjusting blade allows increasing the air flow load ratio when compared to the wind-wheel equipped with a jammed blade.

  19. The Unemployed Workers’ Perceptions of Stress and Employment Prospects in Macedonia: The Role of Alternative Adjustment Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski Dimitar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressed labour market conditions in Macedonia manifested by high and persistent unemployment rate, strong segmentation and prevailing long-term unemployment is considered as a heritage of more than two decades long period of transition. Unemployment has a number of negative consequences such a decreased income which is assumed to influence the subjective experience of unemployment. The negative macroeconomic shocks in Macedonia have been mitigated due to the strengthened role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms such as: employment in the informal sector, emigration and inactivity. However, their impact on the unemployed workers’ perceptions of stress and future labour market prospects is less clear-cut. In this paper we use results from a survey carried out on a sample of unemployed workers in Macedonia in order to identify the psychological implications of unemployment by assessing the perceived stress and employment prospects with particular reference to the role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms.

  20. Design and Optimal Research of a Non-Contact Adjustable Magnetic Adhesion Mechanism for a Wall-Climbing Welding Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall-climbing welding robots (WCWRs can replace workers in manufacturing and maintaining large unstructured equipment, such as ships. The adhesion mechanism is the key component of WCWRs. As it is directly related to the robot's ability in relation to adsorbing, moving flexibly and obstacle-passing. In this paper, a novel non-contact adjustably magnetic adhesion mechanism is proposed. The magnet suckers are mounted under the robot's axils and the sucker and wall are in non-contact. In order to pass obstacles, the sucker and the wheel unit can be pulled up and pushed down by a lifting mechanism. The magnetic adhesion force can be adjusted by changing the height of the gap between the sucker and the wall by the lifting mechanism. In order to increase the adhesion force, the value of the sucker's magnetic energy density (MED is maximized by optimizing the magnet sucker's structure parameters with a finite element method. Experiments prove that the magnetic adhesion mechanism has enough adhesion force and that the WCWR can complete wall-climbing work within a large unstructured environment.

  1. Border information flow architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This brochure describes the Border Information Flow Architecture (BIFA). The Transportation Border Working Group, a bi-national group that works to enhance coordination and planning between the United States and Canada, identified collaboration on th...

  2. Detection of a bad mechanical adjustment of a stator through a CEPSTRALE analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Reverend, D.

    1985-01-01

    After the failure of the stator of the CRUAS 2 nuclear power plant, a full check up was necessary before restarting the engine. In spite of examinations and repairs, a defect could remain. Thereby, an on line surveillance system is usefull, especially during the first months after start up. The ''Mecanique appliquee'' division developed a device for the surveillance of the mechanical integrity of the stator. This equipment is based on the analysis of the vibration [fr

  3. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  4. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  5. Multipathway Integrated Adjustment Mechanism of Glycyrrhiza Triterpenes Curing Gastric Ulcer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Shuai; Bao, Yongrui; Li, Tianjiao; Chang, Xin; Yang, Guanlin; Meng, Xiansheng

    2017-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common chronic disease in human digestive system, which is difficult to cure, easy to relapse, and endangers human health seriously. Compared with western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine has a unique advantage in improving the general situation, stablizing medical condition, and with little side effects. Glycyrrhiza known as "king of all the medicine", has a range of pharmacological activities and is commonly used in a variety of proprietary Chinese medicines and formulations. On the basis of explicit antiulcer effect of Glycyrrhiza triterpenes, the molecular mechanisms of its therapeutic effect on acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats were explored. Acetic acid induced gastric ulcer model in rats was established to evaluate the curing effect of G. triterpenes and all of the rats were randomised into six groups: Control group, model group, omeprazole group (0.8 mg/mL), triterpenes high dose group (378.0 mg/mL), triterpenes middle dose group (126.0 mg/mL), and triterpenes low dose group (42.0 mg/mL). All rats in groups were orally administered the active group solution 1.5 mL once daily (model and control groups with saline) for 7 days. HPLC-TOF-MS analysis method was performed to obtain the plasma metabolites spectrums of control group, model group, triterpenes high, middle and low dose groups. A total of 11 differential endogenous metabolites related to the therapeutic effect of G. triterpenes were identified, including tryptophan, phingosine-1-phosphate, pantothenic acid, and so on, among which tryptophan and phingosine-1-phosphate are related with the calcium signaling pathway and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. At the same time, in order to verify the above results, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the expression of H + -K + -ATPase alpha mRNA and phospholipase a 2 mRNA in relational signaling pathways. Combined with statistical analysis of plasma metabolic spectrum and gene expression

  6. DIANA: A Machine Learning Mechanism for Adjusting the TDD Uplink-Downlink Configuration in XG-PON-LTE Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Sarigiannidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern broadband hybrid optical-wireless access networks have gained the attention of academia and industry due to their strategic advantages (cost-efficiency, huge bandwidth, flexibility, and mobility. At the same time, the proliferation of Software Defined Networking (SDN enables the efficient reconfiguration of the underlying network components dynamically using SDN controllers. Hence, effective traffic-aware schemes are feasible in dynamically determining suitable configuration parameters for advancing the network performance. To this end, a novel machine learning mechanism is proposed for an SDN-enabled hybrid optical-wireless network. The proposed architecture consists of a 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network (XG-PON in the network backhaul and multiple Long Term Evolution (LTE radio access networks in the fronthaul. The proposed mechanism receives traffic-aware knowledge from the SDN controllers and applies an adjustment on the uplink-downlink configuration in the LTE radio communication. This traffic-aware mechanism is capable of determining the most suitable configuration based on the traffic dynamics in the whole hybrid network. The introduced scheme is evaluated in a realistic environment using real traffic traces such as Voice over IP (VoIP, real-time video, and streaming video. According to the obtained numerical results, the proposed mechanism offers significant improvements in the network performance in terms of latency and jitter.

  7. Unexperienced mechanical effects of muscular fatigue can be predicted by the Central Nervous System as revealed by anticipatory postural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Muscular fatigue effects have been shown to be compensated by the implementation of adaptive compensatory neuromuscular strategies, resulting in modifications of the initial motion coordination. However, no studies have focused on the efficiency of the feedforward motor commands when muscular fatigue occurs for the first time during a particular movement. This study included 18 healthy subjects who had to perform arm-raising movements in a standing posture at a maximal velocity before and after a fatiguing procedure involving focal muscles. The arm-raising task implies the generation of predictive processes of control, namely Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs), whose temporal and quantitative features have been shown to be dependent on the kinematics of the upcoming arm-raising movement. By altering significantly the kinematic profile of the focal movement with a fatiguing procedure, we sought to find out whether APAs scaled to the lower mechanical disturbance. APAs were measured using surface electromyography. Following the fatiguing procedure, acceleration peaks of the arm movement decreased by ~27%. APAs scaled to this lower fatigue-related disturbance during the very first trial post-fatigue, suggesting that the Central Nervous System can predict unexperienced mechanical effects of muscle fatigue. It is suggested that these results are accounted for by prediction processes in which the central integration of the groups III and IV afferents leads to an update of the internal model by remapping the relationship between focal motor command magnitude and the actual mechanical output.

  8. Cost per QALY (quality-adjusted life year and lifetime cost of prolonged mechanical ventilation in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chuan Hung

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV are increasing and producing financial burdens worldwide. This study determines the cost per QALY (quality-adjusted life year, out-of-pocket expenses, and lifetime costs for PMV patients stratified by underlying diseases and cognition levels. METHODS: A nationwide sample of 50,481 patients with continual mechanical ventilation for more than 21 days was collected during 1997-2007. After stratifying the patients according to specific diagnoses, a latent class analysis (LCA was performed to categorise PMV patients with multiple co-morbidities into several homogeneous groups. The survival functions were estimated for individual groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and extrapolated to 300 months through a semi-parametric method. The survival functions were adjusted using an EQ-5D utility value derived from a convenience sample of 142 PMV patients to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALE. Another convenience sample of 165 patients was used to estimate the out-of-pocket expenses. The lifetime expenditures paid by the single-payer National Health Insurance (NHI system and patients' families were estimated by multiplying average monthly expenditures by the survival probabilities and summing the values over lifetime. RESULTS: PMV therapy costs more than 100,000 U.S. dollars (USD per QALY for all patients with poor cognition. For patients with partial cognition, PMV therapy costs less than 56,000 USD per QALY for those with liver cirrhosis, intracranial or spinal cord injuries, and 57,000-69,000 USD for patients with multiple co-morbidities under age of 65. The average lifetime cost of PMV was usually below 56,000 USD. The out-of-pocket expenses were often more than one-third of the total cost of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PMV treatment for patients with poor cognition would cost more than 5 times Taiwan's GDP (gross domestic products, or less cost-effective. The out

  9. The cross-border project between France and Italy MARS+. Sub-project - Innovative technologies for the mechanization of the areas hard to reach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tirrò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The care and protection of the mountain areas and their traditional crops were some of the reasons that led regional governments of Liguria and Tuscany to participate in the strategic project “Sea, Countryside and Land: potentiate the strategic unitarily” (MARS +. This project has also involved the participation of the four cross-border regions: Tuscany (leader, Sardinia, Liguria and Corsica. The aim was to promote the development of the innovations and entrepreneurship in the rural areas in order to increase competitiveness. In particular, the subproject SC has provided the transfer of innovations to facilitate the processes of mechanization in vineyards and olive orchards in contexts defined as “heroic”, areas of high landscape and environmental value in which the typical cultures has been always carried out, generally, on terraces or slopes. These conditions require a great effort by the farmers and result in high production costs. The transfer of the innovations has provided the organization of demonstration days in which the technological solutions for the management of the farming operations in vineyards and olive orchards were proposed and tested. During these events, the participative process was fundamentally reconfirmed, not only as a means to expand the knowledge of innovative products, but also as an opportunity for farmers, retailers, manufacturers, researchers, and local administrators to interact and facilitate the development of other technologies. The parameters that led to the innovative solutions included: the small size, user-friendliness, agility, and the ability of operating on systems not easily accessible. These products must also ensure the ergonomics and safety of workers performing all the growing operations. A thorough research of the available technologies and prototypes, still under development, affirms the presence of many innovations. These innovations not only allow the execution of all the field

  10. Border Crossings, US-Mexico Border, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for Region 9. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other important...

  11. Border Crossing Points, US-Mexico Border, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for the United States. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other...

  12. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...

  13. The Border Pedagogy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Border pedagogy is a multicultural educational approach utilized in multicultural settings to help students understand their histories and experiences and how it affects their identities and cultures. The approach seeks to produce intellectuals that transcend physical and metaphysical boundaries. The goal of border pedagogy is to remove cultural…

  14. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find...... developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical...... origin of the traders engaged in cross-border activities. In those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots....

  15. Why Border Enforcement Backfired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Durand, Jorge; Pren, Karen A

    2016-03-01

    In this article we undertake a systematic analysis of why border enforcement backfired as a strategy of immigration control in the United States. We argue theoretically that border enforcement emerged as a policy response to a moral panic about the perceived threat of Latino immigration to the United States propounded by self-interested bureaucrats, politicians, and pundits who sought to mobilize political and material resources for their own benefit. The end result was a self-perpetuating cycle of rising enforcement and increased apprehensions that resulted in the militarization of the border in a way that was disconnected from the actual size of the undocumented flow. Using an instrumental variable approach, we show how border militarization affected the behavior of unauthorized migrants and border outcomes to transform undocumented Mexican migration from a circular flow of male workers going to three states into an eleven-million person population of settled families living in 50 states.

  16. Adjustable, physiological ventricular restraint improves left ventricular mechanics and reduces dilatation in an ovine model of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Rangaraj, Aravind; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Lee, Lawrence; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Bolman, R Morton; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2007-03-13

    Ventricular restraint is a nontransplantation surgical treatment for heart failure. The effect of varying restraint level on left ventricular (LV) mechanics and remodeling is not known. We hypothesized that restraint level may affect therapy efficacy. We studied the immediate effect of varying restraint levels in an ovine heart failure model. We then studied the long-term effect of restraint applied over a 2-month period. Restraint level was quantified by use of fluid-filled epicardial balloons placed around the ventricles and measurement of balloon luminal pressure at end diastole. At 4 different restraint levels (0, 3, 5, and 8 mm Hg), transmural myocardial pressure (P(tm)) and indices of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) were determined in control (n=5) and ovine heart failure (n=5). Ventricular restraint therapy decreased P(tm) and MVO2, and improved mechanical efficiency. An optimal physiological restraint level of 3 mm Hg was identified to maximize improvement without an adverse affect on systemic hemodynamics. At this optimal level, end-diastolic P(tm) and MVO2 indices decreased by 27% and 20%, respectively. The serial longitudinal effects of optimized ventricular restraint were then evaluated in ovine heart failure with (n=3) and without (n=3) restraint over 2 months. Optimized ventricular restraint prevented and reversed pathological LV dilatation (130+/-22 mL to 91+/-18 mL) and improved LV ejection fraction (27+/-3% to 43+/-5%). Measured restraint level decreased over time as the LV became smaller, and reverse remodeling slowed. Ventricular restraint level affects the degree of decrease in P(tm), the degree of decrease in MVO2, and the rate of LV reverse remodeling. Periodic physiological adjustments of restraint level may be required for optimal restraint therapy efficacy.

  17. The Benefits of Goal Adjustment Capacities for Well-Being Among Women With Breast Cancer: Potential Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mens, Maria G; Scheier, Michael F

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer can seriously disrupt a person's important life goals. As such, the ability to adjust one's goals may be critical for well-being. The present study investigated the relationships between disengagement/reengagement capacity and well-being among women with breast cancer, as well as several potential mechanisms (intrusive thoughts, life purpose, and physical activity) that could explain these relationships. The sample consisted of 230 women with early-stage (n = 172) or late-stage (n = 58) breast cancer, who were followed prospectively for 8 months. Well-being measures consisted of global mental health, perceived physical health, positive/negative affect, and sleep efficiency. Disengagement capacity did not predict any outcome variable. In contrast, reengagement capacity prospectively predicted changes in global mental health, positive affect, negative affect, sleep efficiency, life purpose, and physical activity. Life purpose mediated the prospective relationship between reengagement capacity and multiple aspects of well-being. The relationships between purpose and positive/negative affect were reciprocal over time. Results also suggested that physical activity is not a mediator, but is in fact a result of the effect of reengagement capacity on well-being. The results demonstrate that reengagement capacity is important for well-being among women with breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cross-border policy effects on alcohol outcomes: drinking without thinking on the u.s.-Mexico border?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    Rates of alcohol-related outcomes are sensitive to policy differences in politically distinct, adjacent territories. Factors that shape these cross-border effects, particularly when the policy differences are longstanding, remain poorly understood. We compared the ability of 2 classes of variables with theoretical relevance to the U.S.-Mexico border context-bar attendance and alcohol-related social-cognitive variables-to explain elevated drinking on the U.S. side of the border relative to other areas of the United States. Data were collected from multistage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border (current drinker N = 1,351). Structural equation models were used to test drinking context (frequency of bar attendance) and 6 different social-cognitive variables (including alcohol-related attitudes, norms, motives, and beliefs) as mediators of border effects on a composite drinking index. The border effect on drinking varied by age (with younger adults showing a stronger effect), consistent with previous findings and known risk factors in the region. Contrary to theoretical expectations, 6 different social-cognitive variables-despite relating strongly with drinking-were comparable in border and nonborder areas (within and across age) and played no role in elevated drinking on the border. Conversely, elevated drinking among border youth was mediated by bar attendance. This mediated moderation effect held after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and neighborhood-level confounders. Increased drinking among U.S.-Mexico border youth is explained by patterns of bar attendance, but not by more permissive alcohol-related social-cognitive variables in border areas: Border youth attend bars and drink more than their nonborder counterparts, despite having comparable alcohol-related beliefs, attitudes, norms, and motives for use. Alcohol's heightened availability and visibility on both sides of the border may create opportunities for

  19. Border tax adjustments for additional costs engendered by internal and EU environmental protection measures. Implementation options and WTO admissibility; Grenzsteuerausgleich fuer Mehrkosten infolge nationaler/europaeischer Umweltschutzinstrumente. Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten und WTO-rechtliche Zulaessigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Jacqueline; Berg, Holger (comps.)

    2008-04-15

    At the end of the year 2006, France proposed the introduction of a 'climatic tariff' into the discussion of the international climatic protection. The 'climatic tariff' shall adjust extra costs, which result from the domestic production by means of environmental protection instruments and to which the import goods are not exposed, with import/export compensatory payments in the form of import duties and/or taxes on import goods. The introduction of an import/export compensatory payment system aims to load imported goods equivalent to domestic products in order to adjust competitive disadvantages. In the contribution under consideration the authors report on possibilities and problems of design for an import/export tax compensatory. The authors examine the validity of the measures of import/export compensation from legal view the World Trade Organization (Geneva, Switzerland) based on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

  20. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  1. Border of spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Nakao, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    It is still uncertain whether the cosmic censorship conjecture is true or not. To get a new insight into this issue, we propose the concept of the border of spacetime as a generalization of the spacetime singularity and discuss its visibility. The visible border, corresponding to the naked singularity, is not only relevant to mathematical completeness of general relativity but also a window into new physics in strongly curved spacetimes, which is in principle observable

  2. Border effects without borders: What divides Japan's internal trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Wrona, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 20 years the trade literature repeatedly documented the trade-reducing effects of inter- and intra-national borders. Thereby, the puzzling size and persistence of observed border effects from the beginning raised doubts on the role of underlying political borders. However, when observed border effects are not caused by political trade barriers, why should their spatial dimension then inevitably coincide with the geography of present or past political borders? This paper identifi...

  3. A review of the literature pertaining to the efficacy, safety, educational requirements, uses and usage of mechanical adjusting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shane H; Arnold, Nicole D; Biggs, Lesley; Colloca, Christopher J; Mierau, Dale R; Symons, Bruce P; Triano, John J

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, mechanical adjusting devices (MADs) were a major source of debate within the Chiropractors’ Association of Saskatchewan (CAS). Since Saskatchewan was the only jurisdiction in North America to prohibit the use of MADs, the CAS established a committee in 2001 to review the literature on MADs. The committee evaluated the literature on the efficacy, safety, and uses of moving stylus instruments within chiropractic practice, and the educational requirements for chiropractic practice. Following the rating criteria for the evaluation of evidence, as outlined in the Clinical Guidelines for Chiropractic Practice in Canada (1994), the committee reviewed 55 articles – all of which pertained to the Activator. Of the 55 articles, 13 were eliminated from the final study. Of the 42 remaining articles, 6 were rated as class 1 evidence; 11 were rated as class 2 evidence and 25 were rated as class 3 evidence. In this article – the second in a series of two – we review the results of uses and usage, safety and educational requirements. Of the 30 articles designated under the category of usage, 3 were rated as Class 1 evidence; 9 studies were classified as Class 2 evidence and 18 were rated as Class 3 evidence. Overall the committee reached consensus that in clinical practice, there is broad application of these procedures. A minority report was written arguing that the reviewer was unable to reach a conclusion about the use of the Activator Instrument other than it is used as a clinical and research tool. Of the 16 studies that dealt either explicitly or implicitly with safety, 4 were Class 1 evidence; 3 were Class 2 evidence and 9 were Class 3 evidence. Overall the committee reached consensus that the evidence supports that the Activator instrument is safe and has no more relative risk than do manual HVLA procedures. A minority report was written arguing that there is no evidence either to support or refute the view that MAD is safe. Of the 5 studies

  4. Mechanism of cis- and trans-substrate interactions at the tetraethylammonium/H+ exchanger of rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.H.; Wunz, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic basis for trans-effects of intravesicular substrates on the uptake of the organic cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA), into rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) was studied. Preloading BBMV with 1, 2, or 4 mM TEA stimulated the initial rate of uptake and the total net accumulation of 0.1 mM [ 3 H]TEA. The stimulatory effect of intravesicular TEA on the initial rate of uptake was a saturable function of the trans-TEA concentration, with a half-maximal effect noted at an intravesicular concentration of 0.28 mM. A 1 mM trans-concentration of TEA increased the Jmax of [ 3 H]TEA uptake (from 4.3 to 6.8 nmol.mg-1.min-1) without affecting the apparent Kt. An outwardly directed H+ gradient also increased Jmax (to 10.7 nmol.mg-1.min-1), although the addition of an outwardly directed TEA gradient did not produce further increases in the rate of TEA uptake. External H+ acted as a competitive inhibitor of TEA uptake, and an increase in external [H+] (from 32 nM to 100 nM) produced an increase in the apparent Kt for TEA transport (from 0.12 to 0.26 mM) without affecting the Jmax. The results suggested that TEA and H+ compete for a common site or set of mutually exclusive sites on the cytoplasmic and luminal aspects of TEA/H+ exchanger in the renal brush border, and that these sites have a similar affinity for TEA

  5. A Flexure-Based Mechanism for Precision Adjustment of National Ignition Facility Target Shrouds in Three Rotational Degrees of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.-J.; Gibson, C. R.; Hollaway, J. R.; Espinoza-Loza, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the design of a flexure-based mount allowing adjustment in three rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) through high-precision set-screw actuators. The requirements of the application called for small but controlled angular adjustments for mounting a cantilevered beam. The proposed design is based on an array of parallel beams to provide sufficiently high stiffness in the translational directions while allowing angular adjustment through the actuators. A simplified physical model in combination with standard beam theory was applied to estimate the deflection profile and maximum stresses in the beams. A finite element model was built to calculate the stresses and beam profiles for scenarios in which the flexure is simultaneously actuated in more than one DOF.

  6. Study on Gas Field Optimization Distribution with Parameters Adjustment of the Air Duct Outlet for Mechanized Heading Face in Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Yi; Wu, Yue; Xia, Zhi-Xin; Li, Ying

    2017-12-01

    At present, as the increasingly drilling dimensions with cross-section expansion and distance prolong in coal mine, the situation of gas accumulation in mechanized heading face becomes severe. In this paper, optimization research of gas distribution was carried out by adjusting parameters of the air duct outlet, including angle, caliber and the front and rear distance of air duct outlet. Mechanized heading face of Ningtiaota coal mine was taken as the research object, simulated and analyzed the problems of original gas field, the reasonable parameters range of the air duct outlet was determined according to the allowable range of wind speed and the effect of gas dilution, the adjustment range of each parameter of the air duct outlet is preliminarily determined. Base on this, the distribution of gas field under different parameters adjustment of air duct outlet was simulated. The specific parameters under the different distance between the air duct outlet and the mechanized heading face were obtained, and a new method of optimizing the gas distribution by adjusting parameters of the air duct outlet was provided.

  7. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  8. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...... upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  9. Studies on the mechanism of cholesterol uptake and on the effects of bile salts on this uptake by brush-border membranes isolated from rabbit small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, P; Aubry, H; Brglez, I; Williamson, D G

    1984-12-19

    The effect of bile salts and other surfactants on the rate of incorporation of cholesterol into isolated brush-border membranes was tested. At constant cholesterol concentration, a stimulatory effect of taurocholate was noticed which increased as the bile salt concentration was raised to 20 mM. Taurodeoxycholate was as effective as taurocholate at concentrations of up to 5 mM and inhibited at higher concentrations. Glycocholate was only moderately stimulatory whereas cholate was nearly as effective as taurocholate at concentrations above 5 mM. Other surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100 were very inhibitory at all concentrations tried whereas cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride was stimulatory only at a very low range of concentrations. These micellizing agents all caused some disruption of the membranes and the greater effectiveness of taurocholate in stimulating sterol uptake was partly relatable to the weaker membrane solubilizing action of this bile salt. Preincubation of membranes with 20 mM taurocholate followed by washing and exposure to cholesterol-containing lipid suspensions lacking bile salt, did not enhance the incorporation of the sterol. In the absence of bile salt the incorporation of cholesterol was unaffected by stirring of the incubation mixtures. Increasing the cholesterol concentration in the mixed micelle while keeping the concentration of bile salt constant caused an increase in rate of sterol incorporation. This increased rate was seen whether the cholesterol suspension was turbid, i.e., contained non-micellized cholesterol, or whether it was optically-clear and contained only monomers and micelles. When the concentration of taurocholate and cholesterol were increased simultaneously such that the concentration ratio of these two components was kept constant, there resulted a corresponding increase in rate of cholesterol uptake. The initial rates of cholesterol incorporation from suspensions containing micellar and monomer

  10. Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border relations between Nigeria and Niger republic. ... cordial relations between her and her immediate neighbours and thus stem the scourge of smuggling and other trans-border crimes which have negatively affected the Nigerian economy and her international image.

  11. The European Union Joint Procurement Agreement for cross-border health threats: what is the potential for this new mechanism of health system collaboration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha; Schroder-Bäck, Peter; Brand, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    The Joint Procurement Agreement (JPA) is an innovative instrument for multi-country procurement of medical countermeasures against cross-border health threats. This paper aims to assess its potential performance. A literature review was conducted to identify key features of successful joint procurement programmes. Documentary analysis and a key informants' interview were carried out to analyse the European Union (EU) JPA. Ownership, equity, transparency, stable central financing, standardisation, flexibility and gradual development were identified as important prerequisites for successful establishment of multi-country joint procurement programmes in the literature while security of supply, favourable prices, reduction of operational costs and administrative burden and creation of professional expert networks were identified as desirable outcomes. The EU JPA appears to fulfil the criteria of ownership, transparency, equity, flexibility and gradual development. Standardisation is only partly fulfilled and central EU level financing is not provided. Security of supply is an important outcome for all EU Member States (MS). Price savings, reduction in administrative burden and creation of professional networks may be particularly attractive for the smaller MS. The JPA has the potential to increase health system collaboration and efficiency at EU level provided that the incentives for sustained commitment of larger MS are sufficiently attractive.

  12. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate...

  13. Border Crossing/Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  14. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  15. Spec Rekindled-A Simple Torque Correction Mechanics for Transposed Teeth in Conjunction with Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Maurya, Raj Kumar; Thakkar, Surbhi

    2016-12-01

    Complete transposition of teeth is a rather rare phenomenon. After correction of transposed and malaligned lateral incisor and canine, attainment of appropriate individual antagonistic tooth torque is indispensable, which many orthodontists consider to be a herculean task. Here, a novel method is proposed which demonstrates the use of Spec reverse torquing auxillary as an effective adjunctive aid in conjunction with pre-adjusted edgewise brackets.

  16. Border installations: the experience of Wackersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, K.

    1988-01-01

    Following the decision of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany to construct a fuel reprocessing plant (in the wider context of organising radioactive waste disposal) at Wackersdorf, 130 km from the Austrian border, actions were brought against the German constructor before Austrian and German courts. The author describes the mechanisms governing administrative procedures in both countries and their connection with public international law. He analyses the legal argumentations developed before the different courts as well as the debate on the concept of territoriality and border installations (NEA) [fr

  17. The Effects of Mechanical Transparency on Adjustment to a Complex Visuomotor Transformation at Early and Late Working Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Herbert; Hegele, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical tools are transparent in the sense that their input-output relations can be derived from their perceptible characteristics. Modern technology creates more and more tools that lack mechanical transparency, such as in the control of the position of a cursor by means of a computer mouse or some other input device. We inquired whether an…

  18. 76 FR 74625 - Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ...-2011] RIN 1125-AA69 Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustment AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... adjust for inflation certain civil monetary penalties assessed under the Immigration and Nationality Act... assessed under the INA. The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (Adjustment Act...

  19. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  20. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show how a formal approach to networks can make a significant contribution to the study of cross-border trade in West Africa. Building on the formal tools and theories developed by Social Network Analysis, we examine the network organization of 136 large traders...... in two border regions between Niger, Nigeria, and Benin. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  1. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  2. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  3. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Gabriel; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2017-05-06

    An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38) and non-border municipalities (n = 2360) and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998-2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate), the covariates (education, insurance and population size) and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border). Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p Insurance coverage showed an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 3 · 6 (95% CI 3 · 1-4 · 0, p Mexico border region is disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease mortality as compared to the non-border region of Mexico. This was not explained by education, population density, or insurance coverage. Proximity to the US culture and related diet and habits can be explanations of the increasing mortality trend.

  4. A poly(glycerol sebacate)-coated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffold with adjustable mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Yang, Kai; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yutong; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-07-01

    Various requirements in the field of tissue engineering have motivated the development of three-dimensional scaffold with adjustable physicochemical properties and biological functions. A series of multiparameter-adjustable mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds with uncrosslinked poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) coating was prepared in this article. MBG scaffold was prepared by a modified F127/PU co-templating process and then PGS was coated by a simple adsorption and lyophilization process. Through controlling macropore parameters and PGS coating amount, the mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior of the composite scaffold could be modulated in a wide range. PGS coating successfully endowed MBG scaffold with improved toughness and adjustable mechanical strength covering the bearing range of trabecular bone (2-12MPa). Multilevel degradation rate of the scaffold and controlled-release rate of protein from mesopore could be achieved, with little impact on the protein activity owing to an "ultralow-solvent" coating and "nano-cavity entrapment" immobilization method. In vitro studies indicated that PGS coating promoted cell attachment and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the osteogenic induction capacity of MBG substrate. These results first provide strong evidence that uncrosslinked PGS might also yield extraordinary achievements in traditional MBG scaffold. With the multiparameter adjustability, the composite MBG/PGS scaffolds would have a hopeful prospect in bone tissue engineering. The design considerations and coating method of this study can also be extended to other ceramic-based artificial scaffolds and are expected to provide new thoughts on development of future tissue engineering materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  6. UNESCO Without Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in 1945 with twin aims: to rebuild various institutions of the world destroyed by war, and to promote international understanding and peaceful cooperation among nations. Based on empirical and historical...... research and with a particular focus on history teaching, international understanding and peace, UNESCO Without Borders offers a new research trajectory for understanding the roles played by UNESCO and other international organizations, as well as the effects of globalization on education. With fifteen...

  7. Conserved gene regulatory module specifies lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Horie, Takeo; Chen, Geng; Bao, Hongcun; Chen, Siyu; Liu, Weihong; Horie, Ryoko; Liang, Tao; Dong, Biyu; Feng, Qianqian; Tao, Qinghua; Liu, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The lateral neural plate border (NPB), the neural part of the vertebrate neural border, is composed of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and peripheral nervous system (PNS) progenitors. In invertebrates, PNS progenitors are also juxtaposed to the lateral boundary of the CNS. Whether there are conserved molecular mechanisms determining vertebrate and invertebrate lateral neural borders remains unclear. Using single-cell-resolution gene-expression profiling and genetic analysis, we present evidence that orthologs of the NPB specification module specify the invertebrate lateral neural border, which is composed of CNS and PNS progenitors. First, like in vertebrates, the conserved neuroectoderm lateral border specifier Msx/vab-15 specifies lateral neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans Second, orthologs of the vertebrate NPB specification module ( Msx/vab-15 , Pax3/7/pax-3 , and Zic/ref-2 ) are significantly enriched in worm lateral neuroblasts. In addition, like in other bilaterians, the expression domain of Msx/vab-15 is more lateral than those of Pax3/7/pax-3 and Zic/ref- 2 in C. elegans Third, we show that Msx/vab-15 regulates the development of mechanosensory neurons derived from lateral neural progenitors in multiple invertebrate species, including C. elegans , Drosophila melanogaster , and Ciona intestinalis We also identify a novel lateral neural border specifier, ZNF703/tlp-1 , which functions synergistically with Msx/vab- 15 in both C. elegans and Xenopus laevis These data suggest a common origin of the molecular mechanism specifying lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

  8. Parental Incarceration, Transnational Migration, and Military Deployment: Family Process Mechanisms of Youth Adjustment to Temporary Parent Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J.; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    The temporary absence of a parent (e.g., due to incarceration, migration, or military deployment) is experienced by many youth and can have profound effects. Available research within these disparate literatures primarily has catalogued contextual and individual variables that influence youth adaptation, which are integrated and summarized here. In addition, we present a systematic review of proximal family process mechanisms by which youth and their family members adapt to periods of temporary parent absence. This systematic review across the different types of parent absence produced four themes: communication among family members, parenting characteristics during absence, negotiation of decision-making power and authority, and shifts in family roles. By juxtaposing the three types of temporary parent absence, we aim to bridge the separate research silos of parent absence due to incarceration, deployment, and migration, and to bring wide-ranging characteristics and processes of temporary parent-absent families into sharper focus. The review highlights possibilities for fuller integration of these literatures, and emphasizes the clinical value of considering these types of experiences from a family and relational perspective, rather than an individual coping perspective. PMID:25304163

  9. Does knowledge have borders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Hanne

    International education is often promoted through discourses of openness, cross-cultural relationship-building and global understanding. But how inclusive is the kind of knowledge offered in the so-called “global” learning environments? The paper explores possible limits to knowledge production a...... and represented within their course and academic discipline. We will present in the paper the preliminary findings of our research, pointing to some of the visible and invisible borders that one finds within the field of global education....... system embedded in a specific national and institutional environment, and from this research follows that certain frames of reference, or contexts, are taken for granted by local staff and students. With internationalization, however, comes a change in the make-up of the student cohort, including...

  10. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... acculturative stress and developmental possibilities are realities experienced in the search of new worlds and new opportunities. The symposia will include such changes from Denmark, India, UK and the USA, covering theoretical, methodological issues including the ethical aspects. Themes involved in crossing...

  11. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  12. Border trees of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villas Boas, Paulino R; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Travieso, Gonzalo; Fontoura Costa, Luciano da

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive characterization of the structure of complex networks is essential to understand the dynamical processes which guide their evolution. The discovery of the scale-free distribution and the small-world properties of real networks were fundamental to stimulate more realistic models and to understand important dynamical processes related to network growth. However, the properties of the network borders (nodes with degree equal to 1), one of its most fragile parts, remained little investigated and understood. The border nodes may be involved in the evolution of structures such as geographical networks. Here we analyze the border trees of complex networks, which are defined as the subgraphs without cycles connected to the remainder of the network (containing cycles) and terminating into border nodes. In addition to describing an algorithm for identification of such tree subgraphs, we also consider how their topological properties can be quantified in terms of their depth and number of leaves. We investigate the properties of border trees for several theoretical models as well as real-world networks. Among the obtained results, we found that more than half of the nodes of some real-world networks belong to the border trees. A power-law with cut-off was observed for the distribution of the depth and number of leaves of the border trees. An analysis of the local role of the nodes in the border trees was also performed

  13. Structure of the human vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human...

  14. Effect of adjustable molecular chain structure and pure silica zeolite nanoparticles on thermal, mechanical, dielectric, UV-shielding and hydrophobic properties of fluorinated copolyimide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Liao, Guangfu; Zhang, Shulai; Pang, Long; Tong, Hao; Zhao, Wenzhe; Xu, Zushun

    2018-01-01

    A series of polyimide (PI) films, polyimide/pure silica zeolite nanoparticles (PSZN) blend films and polyimide/amine-functionalized pure silica zeolite nanoparticles (APSZN) composite films were successfully prepared by random copolycondensation. Thereinto, PSZN were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The polyimides were derived from 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA), and three adjustable molar ratios (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) of 2,2-bis[4-(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)phenyl] propane dianhydride (BPADA) and 4,4‧-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA). The effects of PSZN, APSZN and different chain structure on PI films were specifically evaluated in terms of morphology, thermal, mechanical, dielectric and UV-shielding properties, etc. Comparison was given among pure PI flims, PI/PSZN blend films and PI/APSZN composite flims. The results showed that the thermal and mechanical properties of PI films were drastically impaired after adding PSZN. On the contrary, the strength, toughness and thermal stability were improved after adding APSZN. Moreover, the dielectric constants of the PI/APSZN composite flims were lowered but UV-shielding properties were enhanced. Interestingly, we found that the greatest effects were obtained through introducing APSZN in PI derived by the 1:1 ratio of BPADA:6FDA. The corresponding PI/APSZN composite flim exhibited the most reinforced and toughened properties, the largest decrement of dielectric constant and the best UV-shielding efficiency, which made the composite flim be used as ultraviolet shielding material in outer space filled with high temperature and intensive ultraviolet light. Meanwhile, this work also provided a facile way to synthesize composite materials with adjustable performance.

  15. Asymmetric adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A method of adjusting a signal processing parameter for a first hearing aid and a second hearing aid forming parts of a binaural hearing aid system to be worn by a user is provided. The binaural hearing aid system comprises a user specific model representing a desired asymmetry between a first ear

  16. three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Of these there are three intelligence methodologies applicable to this article – trends ..... globalisation associated with open and artificial borders and ever increasing costs of weapon ..... the technological development of mass tourist transport.

  17. Securing the Borders: Creation of the Border Patrol Auxiliary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-05

    DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Securing the Borders: Creation of the Border Patrol Auxillary 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Substantial work experience which demonstrates an ability to (1) take charge, make sound decisions , and maintain composure in stressful situations; (2...applicable laws, court decisions , and law enforcement procedures; and 4. Develop and maintain contact with the network of informants. ¾ To qualify at

  18. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-16

    1980). 120 Mexican Government Press Release, “Crecimiento con Calidad: El Presidente Vicente Fox encabezará la cena de gala de la XI Cumbre Anual...and Roads at Various Project Areas Located in California, Arizona, New Mexico , and Texas...Diego Border Primary Fence The USBP’s San Diego sector extends along the first 66 miles from the Pacific Ocean of the international border with Mexico

  19. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  20. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  1. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  2. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  3. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...... influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public...... administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  4. Shaft adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  5. Adjustable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Covic, J.; Leininger, G.

    1981-01-01

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  6. Liouville gravity on bordered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskolski, Z.

    1991-11-01

    The functional quantization of the Liouville gravity on bordered surfaces in the conformal gauge is developed. It was shown that the geometrical interpretation of the Polyakov path integral as a sum over bordered surfaces uniquely determines the boundary conditions for the fields involved. The gravitational scaling dimensions of boundary and bulk operators and the critical exponents are derived. In particular, the boundary Hausdorff dimension is calculated. (author). 21 refs

  7. Facet-dependent photocatalytic mechanisms of anatase TiO2: A new sight on the self-adjusted surface heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shujun; Wang, Wei; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi

    2015-01-01

    Efficient separation of photo-generated electrons and holes is crucial for improving the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. In the present study, we show surface heterojunction is existed on anatase TiO 2 with exposed {101}, {010}, {001}, and {110} facets. With the help of selective Pt deposition, it is found the Schottky junction together with proper surface heterojunction is helpful to separate the photo-generated electrons and holes. Moreover, the photo-reduction and photo-oxidation activities of the facets are depended on the reaction systems, resulting in self-adjusted surface heterojunction. The as-prepared photocatalyst will give the highest phenol degradation efficiency when Pt nanoparticles are only deposited on the {101} and {010} facets. In contrast, more Pt deposited on the {001} and {110} facets will decrease the photocatalytic activity. The average phenol degradation rate, which will gradually reduce along with the increased phenol concentration, of TiO 2 (20 mg) is ca. 1.59 mg/min when its concentration is lower than 8 mg/L. However, similar results have not been observed in P25-based reaction systems, evidencing the great influence of self-adjusted surface heterojunction. This study may be helpful to understand the photocatalytic mechanisms of semiconductor photocatalysts with exposed different facets. Thus more efficient practical application of the photocatalysts for environment protection can be reached. - Highlights: • Surface heterojunction is systematically discussed on TiO 2 with various facets. • The surface heterojunction is found to be closely related to the reaction systems. • Proper surface heterojunction and Schottky junction is positive for photocatalysis. • A new sight is given to sufficiently unleash the fascinating properties of TiO 2 . • More efficient practical application can be reached

  8. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. Methods We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38 and non-border municipalities (n = 2360 and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998–2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate, the covariates (education, insurance and population size and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border. Results Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p < 0 · 001 more cardiovascular deaths after adjusting for covariates. Larger municipal size and higher education levels showed a reduction in cardiovascular mortality of 12 · 6 (95% CI 11 · 4-13 · 8, p < 0 · 001 deaths and 8 · 6 (95% CI 5 · 5-11 · 8, p < 0 · 001 deaths respectively. Insurance coverage showed an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 3 · 6 (95% CI 3 · 1-4 · 0, p < 0 · 001 deaths per decile point increase. There was an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 0 · 3 (95% CI −0 · 001-0 · 6

  9. Border-ownership-dependent tilt aftereffect in incomplete figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Tadashi; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Sakai, Ko

    2007-01-01

    A recent physiological finding of neural coding for border ownership (BO) that defines the direction of a figure with respect to the border has provided a possible basis for figure-ground segregation. To explore the underlying neural mechanisms of BO, we investigated stimulus configurations that activate BO circuitry through psychophysical investigation of the BO-dependent tilt aftereffect (BO-TAE). Specifically, we examined robustness of the border ownership signal by determining whether the BO-TAE is observed when gestalt factors are broken. The results showed significant BO-TAEs even when a global shape was not explicitly given due to the ambiguity of the contour, suggesting a contour-independent mechanism for BO coding.

  10. Border detection in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Viana, Matheus Palhares; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2009-01-01

    One important issue implied by the finite nature of real-world networks regards the identification of their more external (border) and internal nodes. The present work proposes a formal and objective definition of these properties, founded on the recently introduced concept of node diversity. It is shown that this feature does not exhibit any relevant correlation with several well-established complex networks measurements. A methodology for the identification of the borders of complex networks is described and illustrated with respect to theoretical (geographical and knitted networks) as well as real-world networks (urban and word association networks), yielding interesting results and insights in both cases.

  11. The 'border within': inhabiting the border in Trieste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.; Minca, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we look to the Italian border city of Trieste-at various points in its past, a cosmopolitan port, Austria's urbs europeissima, but also a battleground for competing understandings of territoriality, identity, and belonging and a paragon of the violent application of an ethnoterritorial

  12. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL33659 Border Security...Presidencia,” May 12, 2005. Translation by CRS. Available at [http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/actividades/crecimiento/?contenido=18195& pagina =31]. Last

  13. Mechanisms of physiological adjustment of N2 fixation in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) during early stages of water deficit: single or multi-factor controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Sulieman, Saad; Schulze, Joachim; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-09-01

    Drought negatively impacts symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea), thereby limiting yield potential. Understanding how drought affects chickpea nodulation will enable the development of strategies to biotechnologically engineer chickpea varieties with enhanced SNF under drought conditions. By analyzing carbon and nitrogen metabolism, we studied the mechanisms of physiological adjustment of nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants nodulated with Mesorhizobium ciceri during both drought stress and subsequent recovery. The nitrogenase activity, levels of several key carbon (in nodules) and nitrogen (in both nodules and leaves) metabolites and antioxidant compounds, as well as the activity of related nodule enzymes were examined in M. ciceri-inoculated chickpea plants under early drought stress and subsequent recovery. Results indicated that drought reduced nitrogenase activity, and that this was associated with a reduced expression of the nifK gene. Furthermore, drought stress promoted an accumulation of amino acids, mainly asparagine in nodules (but not in leaves), and caused a cell redox imbalance in nodules. An accumulation of organic acids, especially malate, in nodules, which coincided with the decline of nodulated root respiration, was also observed under drought stress. Taken together, our findings indicate that reduced nitrogenase activity occurring at early stages of drought stress involves, at least, the inhibition of respiration, nitrogen accumulation and an imbalance in cell redox status in nodules. The results of this study demonstrate the potential that the genetic engineering-based improvement of SNF efficiency could be applied to reduce the impact of drought on the productivity of chickpea, and perhaps other legume crops. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Eliminating national borders as labour market barriers in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Harm

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses one important mechanism through which the EU tries to improve the operation of its labour markets: the opening up of national borders for free worker movement within the EU. Free worker movement is a fundamental EU right; but EU enlargement begged the question of how and when to

  15. A neural model of border-ownership from kinetic occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Oliver W; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Camouflaged animals that have very similar textures to their surroundings are difficult to detect when stationary. However, when an animal moves, humans readily see a figure at a different depth than the background. How do humans perceive a figure breaking camouflage, even though the texture of the figure and its background may be statistically identical in luminance? We present a model that demonstrates how the primate visual system performs figure-ground segregation in extreme cases of breaking camouflage based on motion alone. Border-ownership signals develop as an emergent property in model V2 units whose receptive fields are nearby kinetically defined borders that separate the figure and background. Model simulations support border-ownership as a general mechanism by which the visual system performs figure-ground segregation, despite whether figure-ground boundaries are defined by luminance or motion contrast. The gradient of motion- and luminance-related border-ownership signals explains the perceived depth ordering of the foreground and background surfaces. Our model predicts that V2 neurons, which are sensitive to kinetic edges, are selective to border-ownership (magnocellular B cells). A distinct population of model V2 neurons is selective to border-ownership in figures defined by luminance contrast (parvocellular B cells). B cells in model V2 receive feedback from neurons in V4 and MT with larger receptive fields to bias border-ownership signals toward the figure. We predict that neurons in V4 and MT sensitive to kinetically defined figures play a crucial role in determining whether the foreground surface accretes, deletes, or produces a shearing motion with respect to the background. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 跨境重大工程多主体间决策冲突处理机制研究%Conflict-solving Mechanism Between Multi-agent Decision in the Cross-border Engineering Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕雪; 张劲文

    2015-01-01

    在经济全球化推动下,各国、各地区之间的跨境工程合作日益频繁。然而,由于决策主体利益诉求不同、文化价值观差异、信息不对称等因素的影响,导致跨境工程决策主体间冲突越来越显著。如何科学有效地处理跨境工程主体间的决策冲突已引起理论和实践界的关注。结合港珠澳大桥工程多主体间决策冲突处理的实践,系统分析跨境工程前期决策冲突的起因,从内容维和关系维的角度对决策冲突进行分类。在冲突诱因分析及冲突分类的基础上,探索多主体间决策冲突处理机制,为一般跨境工程多主体间决策冲突的处理提供了新的思路和方法。%driven by increasing global economics,the cooperation of cross-border projects between states and districts has become more and more intense. However, due to different profits requirements,different culture and unbalanced information of different decision makers,the conflicts among these decision makers who are responsible for the cross-border projects are rising and becoming a significant factor. How to scientifically and effectively solve the conflicts among decision makers of cross-border projects has drawn attention both theoretically and practically. Based on the practice on dealing with conflicts between decision makers of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge project,the paper systematically analyzes the cause of conflicts of cross-border projects in the early stage and categorizes such conflicts from the prospective of their contents and inner relationship. Then,the paper explores a conflicts solving system between multiple decision makers and provides new thoughts and methods for solving conflicts between decision makers in common cross-border projects.

  17. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  18. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  19. Developing a simulation for border safeguarding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Border safeguarding is the defence of territorial integrity and sovereignty, and this is a joint responsibility of the military and the police. Military doctrine for conventional warfare is not sufficient for Border Safeguarding operations due...

  20. An echocardiographic study of healthy Border Collies with normal reference ranges for the breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jake H; Boon, June A; Bright, Janice M

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain standard echocardiographic measurements from healthy Border Collies and to compare these measurements to those previously reported for a general population of dogs. Standard echocardiographic data were obtained from twenty apparently healthy Border Collie dogs. These data (n = 20) were compared to data obtained from a general population of healthy dogs (n = 69). Border Collies were deemed healthy based on normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure, with no evidence of congenital or acquired heart disease on echocardiographic examination. Standard two dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiographic measurements were obtained and normal ranges determined. The data were compared to data previously obtained at our hospital from a general population of normal dogs. Two dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler reference ranges for healthy Border Collies are presented in tabular form. Comparison of the weight adjusted M-mode echocardiographic means from Border Collies to those from the general population of dogs showed Border Collies to have larger left ventricular systolic and diastolic dimensions, smaller interventricular septal thickness, and lower fractional shortening. There are differences in some echocardiographic parameters between healthy Border Collies and the general dog population, and the echocardiographic reference ranges provided in this study should be used as breed specific reference values for Border Collies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Introduction: Borders in Translation and Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Evans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to this special issue discusses the notion of border and its position in current scholarship in translation studies and intercultural communication. It then analyses ways in which borders can be useful for thinking, focusing particularly on Walter Mignolo’s notion of “border thinking”. It reviews how borders are viewed in both translation studies and intercultural communication and offers some possible directions for future research before introducing the papers in this special issue.

  2. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  3. Briefing : the Eritrean-Ethiopian border dispute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    On 6 May 1998, a violent conflict erupted in the Ethiopian-Eritrean border area. This article contends that this border crisis is neither unexpected nor the result of a real border dispute. Rather, it is due to three factors: the particular history and relationship of the two insurgent movements

  4. European Banks Straddling Borders: Risky or Rewarding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Duijm (Patty); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTheory suggests that cross-border banking is beneficial as long as there is a non-perfect correlation across country-specific risks. Using a unique hand-collected dataset with cross-border loans for the 61 largest European banks, we find that cross-border banking in general decreases

  5. Cross-Border Exposures and Financial Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated financial markets provide opportunities for expansion and improved risk sharing, but also pose threats of contagion risk through cross-border exposures. This paper examines cross-border contagion risk over the period 1999-2006. To that purpose we use aggregate cross-border exposures of

  6. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  7. Public health and terrorism preparedness: cross-border issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the "Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable." The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Representatives from six state and local public health departments and three provincial governments were invited to identify cross-border needs and issues using a nominal group process. The result of the roundtable was identification of the needs considered most important and most doable across all the focus groups. The need to collaborate on and exchange plans and protocols among agencies was identified as most important and most doable across all groups. Development of contact protocols and creation and maintenance of a contact database was also considered important and doable for a majority of groups. Other needs ranked important across the majority of groups included specific isolation and quarantine protocols for multi-state responses; a system for rapid and secure exchange of information; specific protocols for sharing human resources across borders, including emergency credentials for physicians and health care workers; and a specific protocol to coordinate Strategic National Stockpile mechanisms across border communities.

  8. Acculturation and cross-border utilization of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dejun; Wang, Daphne

    2012-08-01

    Health services from Mexico constitute an important source of care for U.S. residents living along the U.S.-Mexico border. Data from The Cross-Border Utilization of Health Care Survey (n = 966) were used to estimate logit models that related acculturation, as measured by generational status, to the use of medication, physician, dental, and inpatient services from Mexico by U.S. residents in the Texas border region. Relative to first-generation Mexican immigrants, later-generation Mexican-Americans were progressively less likely to go to Mexico for health services. This finding holds with or without adjusting for the effects of selected demographic and socioeconomic variables. Addressing unmet needs in medical care in the southwestern U.S. border area should go beyond a simple expansion of health insurance coverage--it is also important to deliver health services that are sensitive to generational differences within the population in terms of linguistic and cultural barriers to health care access.

  9. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  10. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  11. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  12. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Strengthening border control and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzis, I.

    2008-01-01

    The world has experienced monumental changes in recent years. Globalization has brought many benefits. Business and commerce have increased and, as a result, brought us cheaper, more accessible goods from all regions of the world. We have access to relatively cheap and certainly much easier travel. We now live in a world of instant communications with mobile phones, laptops and 'BlackBerries'. However, there is a downside to globalization - transnationally organized crime and the reality of terrorism have grown. As more people cross borders, it is harder to detect criminals and terrorists. In the European Union, the internal borders of the now 27 member States have been dismantled. Effective international measures to counter organized crime and terrorist groups are of crucial importance. It is important to think globally and to act locally. The paper looks at some of the crime challenges and provides insight into the role and work of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in drugs and crime control. It focuses on border control initiatives conducted by the UNODC. (author)

  14. Laredo District Coahuila/Nuevo Leon/Tamaulipas border master plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Border Master Plans document a regions needs and priorities, and recommend a mechanism to ensure coordination on current and planned future port of entry (POE) projects and supporting transportation infrastructure to serve the anticipated demand i...

  15. Risk management of infrastructure development in border area Indonesia - Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Suryani; Trikariastoto, Reinita, Ita

    2017-11-01

    Border area is geographically adjacent to neighboring countries with the primary function of maintaining state sovereignty and public welfare. Area in question is part of the provinces, districts or cities that directly intersect with national boundaries (or territory) and / or that have a functional relationship (linkage) and has a strategic value for the state. The border area is considered strategic because it involves the national lives of many people in terms of the interests of political, economic, social and cultural as well as defense and security (poleksosbudhankam) both located on land, sea or air. The border area is geographically adjacent to neighboring countries with the primary function of maintaining state sovereignty and public welfare. Area in question is part of the provinces, districts or cities that directly intersect with national boundaries (or territory) and / or that have a functional relationship (linkage) and has a strategic value for the state. To realize the necessary research on the development of the area, based on good practices from other countries some of the city that can meet all these challenges and at least can be applied with minor changes / adjustments. Furthermore, the application must be supported by the availability of funds. This study to discuss about any problems either obstacles or things that drive to develop function becomes an ideal border area with major support infrastructure for housing, transportation, energy availability, and distribution of clean water which will strengthen in its function which consists of five pillars, namely: central community service; trade and distribution center; financial center; tourism center; related to the field of community development. Articulation between key stakeholders such as government, private, and community is a major concern in this study, including in determining the appropriate financing schemes. The results of this study will be recommended to the government to improve

  16. Prevalence of Asthma in School Children on the Arizona-Sonora Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Beamer, Paloma I; Rothers, Janet; Stern, Debra A; Gerald, Lynn B; Rosales, Cecilia B; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Pivniouk, Oksana N; Vercelli, Donata; Halonen, Marilyn; Gameros, Mercedes; Martinez, Fernando D; Wright, Anne L

    Mexican-born children living in the United States have a lower prevalence of asthma than other US children. Although children of Mexican descent near the Arizona (AZ)-Sonora border are genetically similar, differences in environmental exposures might result in differences in asthma prevalence across this region. The objective of this study was to determine if the prevalence of asthma and wheeze in these children varies across the AZ-Sonora border. The International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children written and video questionnaires were administered to 1753 adolescents from 5 middle schools: Tucson (school A), Nogales, AZ (schools B, C), and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico (schools D, E). The prevalence of asthma and symptoms was compared, with analyses in the AZ schools limited to self-identified Mexican American students. Compared with the Sonoran reference school E, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for asthma was significantly higher in US schools A (OR 4.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.72-8.80), B (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.88-6.42), and C (OR 4.12, 95% CI 1.78-9.60). The adjusted OR for wheeze in the past year was significantly higher in schools A (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.20-4.01) and B (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.42-5.01) on the written questionnaire and significantly higher in A (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.22-3.75), B (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.07-3.53), and Sonoran school D (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.28-4.30) on the video questionnaire compared with school E. Asthma and wheeze prevalence differed significantly between schools and was higher in the United States. Environmental factors that may account for these differences could provide insight into mechanisms of protection from asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [U.S.-Mexico cross-border cooperation in research on diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela-Soler, Jaume; Frontini, María; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ruiz-Holguín, Rosalba; Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A

    2010-09-01

    To describe and analyze, utilizing a case study approach, the U.S.- Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a health research cooperation initiative incorporating the participation of federal, state, and local institutions of both countries. A model of equal representation, participation, consensus, and shared leadership was used, with the participation of more than 130 institutions. A sample of 4 020 people over 18 years of age was obtained by a random, multistage, stratified, clustered design. A questionnaire about diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and health was applied. The statistical analysis took into account the design effect. The prevalence of diagnosed DM2 was 14.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 12.5-17.6) and the prevalence of diagnosed DM2 adjusted by age was 19.5% (95% CI: 16.8-22.6) on the Mexican side of the border and 16.1% (IC95%: 13.5-19.2) on the U.S. border side. There were differences between the DM2 prevalence and risk factors along the border. The U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project allowed the border zone between the two countries to be considered, for the first time ever, as a unit for epidemiological research. A shared understanding among all participating institutions and entities of sociopolitical structures and procedures is required for effective border health cooperation initiatives.

  18. A self-driven temperature and flow rate co-adjustment mechanism based on Shape-Memory-Alloy (SMA) assembly for an adaptive thermal control coldplate module with on-orbit service characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Yunhua; Li, Yun-Ze; Zhong, Ming-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Ji-Xiang; Zhang, Jia-Xun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A self-driven temperature and flow rate co-adjustment mechanism based on SMA assembly is proposed. • An adaptive thermal control coldplate module (TCCM) is introduced. • A testbed is set up to investigate the TCCM adaptive thermal management performances. • The TCCM has the potential for spacecrafts on-orbit services. - Abstract: An adaptive thermal control coldplate module (TCCM) was proposed in this paper to fulfill the requirements of modular thermal control systems for spacecrafts on-orbit services. The TCCM could provide flow rate and temperature co-adjustment by using Shape-Memory-Alloy (SMA) assembly which possesses self-driven abilities. In this paper, the adaptive thermal management mechanism of the TCCM integrated with a single phase mechanically pumped fluid loop (SPMPFL) is described in detail, a verification testbed was established to examine the TCCM dynamic characteristics. Various working conditions such as inlet temperature, flow rate and thermal load disturbances were imposed on the TCCM to inspect its startup and transient performance. It was observed that the TCCM may present robust temperature control results with low overshoot (maximum 16.8%) and small temperature control error (minimum 0.18%), fast time response (minimum 600 s) was also revealed. The results demonstrated that the well-designed TCCM provided effective autonomous flow-rate and temperature co-adjustment operations, which may be a promising candidate for realizing modular level adaptive thermal management for spacecrafts on-orbit services.

  19. The Analysis of the Determinants of Sustainable Cross-Border Cooperation and Recommendations on Its Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border partnerships are a distinctive example of inter-organizational cooperation, embedded, in terms of territory, in the neighboring borderland regions of two or more countries. The aim of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to the sustainable cross-border cooperation and affect motivation to increase cooperation between cross-border partners. The objective implementation is connected with the verification of a hypothesis referring to the possible impact of the European Union funds on the trans-boundary cooperation transformations. Results of desk research and quantitative research involving IDI, CATI, CAWI and CATI and PAPI data collection methods, implemented in the Polish–Czech borderland in 2016 were used in this paper. Research on the Polish–Lithuanian borderland was also used in the paper to conduct comparative analysis, useful to identify and evaluate factors motivating sustainable cross-border cooperation in the Czech–Polish borderland. The sustainable, cross-border and inter-organizational cooperation in the borderlands results from the simultaneous interaction of three groups of factors: (1 people and institutions (the quality of interpersonal relationships; (2 cross-border planning, procedures and support mechanisms (e.g., the possibility of jointly planning the cross-border cooperation and obtaining EU funds for the development of the borderlands as well as the availability of other funds helpful in this kind of cooperation; and (3 environment (historical affinity and geographical proximity of neighboring border regions, system support at the regional and local level in neighboring countries.

  20. Introduction : Borders, Informality, International Trade and Customs

    OpenAIRE

    Cantens, Thomas; Ireland, Robert; Raballand, Gael

    2015-01-01

    Trading goods is an original human activity that precedes borders (Renfrew, 1969). With the rise of nation-states with demarcated political boundaries, trade that crosses borders became regulated by government institutions such as Customs, with tariffs, quotas, or outright prohibitions. While borders are perhaps not quite “the dead, the fixed, the undialectical, the immobile” (Foucault, 1970, p. 70), they are a formal structure that places less flexibility on trade activities. Focusing on inf...

  1. Network communities within and across borders

    OpenAIRE

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by t...

  2. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  3. Competitive implications of cross-border banking

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on cross-border banking, with a focus on policy implications. Cross-border banking has increased sharply in recent decades, particularly in the form of entry, and has affected the development of financial systems, access to financial services, and stability. Reviewing the empirical literature, the author finds much, although not uniform, evidence that cross-border banking supports the development of an efficient and stable financial system that offers ...

  4. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  5. Phenotypic covariance at species' borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, M Julian; Cripps, Edward; Game, Edward T

    2013-05-28

    Understanding the evolution of species limits is important in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite its likely importance in the evolution of these limits, little is known about phenotypic covariance in geographically marginal populations, and the degree to which it constrains, or facilitates, responses to selection. We investigated phenotypic covariance in morphological traits at species' borders by comparing phenotypic covariance matrices (P), including the degree of shared structure, the distribution of strengths of pair-wise correlations between traits, the degree of morphological integration of traits, and the ranks of matricies, between central and marginal populations of three species-pairs of coral reef fishes. Greater structural differences in P were observed between populations close to range margins and conspecific populations toward range centres, than between pairs of conspecific populations that were both more centrally located within their ranges. Approximately 80% of all pair-wise trait correlations within populations were greater in the north, but these differences were unrelated to the position of the sampled population with respect to the geographic range of the species. Neither the degree of morphological integration, nor ranks of P, indicated greater evolutionary constraint at range edges. Characteristics of P observed here provide no support for constraint contributing to the formation of these species' borders, but may instead reflect structural change in P caused by selection or drift, and their potential to evolve in the future.

  6. Nuclear risk behind the border?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1995-01-01

    The condition of nuclear wastes and facilities in Russia and in the Baltic countries arouses concern in Finland. Russia has two large nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, over 300 nuclear submarine reactors and more than ten icebreaker reactors in close proximity to Finland's eastern border. The Lithuanian Ingalina nuclear power plant is also situated close to Finland. Following the Chernobyl accident, considerable improvements have been made to the technology and safety culture of Russian nuclear power plants, for instance, through international support programmes. The unstable social climate in Russia is, however, slowing progress down. Yet it is certain that no accident in the power plants near Finland's borders would cause immediate health risks in Finland, or would threaten the health of large numbers of people in the long term, either. Russia has not always taken proper care of its nuclear waste. In particular, spent fuel from nuclear submarines stored in Northern Russia causes problems. Russians have disposed of some waste by dumping ship reactors, with their fuel, into the Arctic Ocean. Some nuclear-powered submarines have sunk with all their crew. Russia has also conducted many nuclear tests in the vicinity of Finland. (orig.)

  7. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  8. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  9. The Intersectionality of Border Pedagogy and Latino/a Youth: Enacting Border Pedagogy in Multiple Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Ross, Lydia; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this one-year qualitative study, the authors examined how border pedagogy is enacted by two Latino/a high school teachers in a border community in Southern California. Through classroom observations, the authors documented powerful student discussions that named complex borders (Giroux, 1992) that existed in their daily lives. We drew from…

  10. Infectious Disease Border Issues Conference: Meeting Synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Operation MECACAR 1998 was highlighted as a successful example of cross-border coordination...training courses, no joint public health investigation teams) and illegal animal transportation across borders were identified as some of the existing...Work (2007), including fostering global partnerships; strengthening public health security in travel and transport ; improving the WHO global alert

  11. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  12. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  13. Border Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Jennifer Andrea

    2011-01-01

    AbstractBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico BorderbyJennifer Andrea ReimerDoctor of Philosophy in Ethnic StudiesUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor José David Saldívar, Co-ChairProfessor Laura E. Pérez, Co-ChairBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border is a transnational, interdisciplinary cultural study of the contemporary U.S.-Mexico border that argues for the critical role of the international border in the racial past, p...

  14. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  15. Determination of mandibular border and functional movement protocols using an electromagnetic articulograph (EMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ramon; Navarro, Pablo; Curiqueo, Aldo; Ottone, Nicolas E

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic articulograph (EMA) is a device that can collect movement data by positioning sensors at multiple points, measuring displacements of the structure in real time, as well as the acoustics and mechanics of speech using a microphone connected to the measurement system. The aim of this study is to describe protocols for the generation, measurement and visualization of mandibular border and functional movements in the three spatial planes (frontal, sagittal and horizontal) using the EMA. The EMA has transmitter coils that determine magnetic fields to collect information about movements from sensors located on different structures (tongue, palate, mouth, incisors, skin, etc.) and in every direction in an area of 300 mm. After measurement with the EMA, the information is transferred to a computer and read with the Visartico software to visualize the recording of the mandibular movements registered by the EMA. The sensors placed in the space between the three axes XYZ are observed, and then the plots created from the mandibular movements included in the corresponding protocol can be visualized, enabling interpretation of these data. Four protocols for the obtaining of images of the opening and closing mandibular movements were defined and developed, as well as border movements in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes, managing to accurately reproduce Posselt's diagram and Gothic arch on the latter two axes. Measurements with the EMA will allow more exact data to be collected in relation to the mandibular clinical physiology and morphology, which will permit more accurate diagnoses and application of more precise and adjusted treatments in the future.

  16. Determination of mandibular border and functional movement protocols using an electromagnetic articulograph (EMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ramon; Navarro, Pablo; Curiqueo, Aldo; Ottone, Nicolas E

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic articulograph (EMA) is a device that can collect movement data by positioning sensors at multiple points, measuring displacements of the structure in real time, as well as the acoustics and mechanics of speech using a microphone connected to the measurement system. The aim of this study is to describe protocols for the generation, measurement and visualization of mandibular border and functional movements in the three spatial planes (frontal, sagittal and horizontal) using the EMA. The EMA has transmitter coils that determine magnetic fields to collect information about movements from sensors located on different structures (tongue, palate, mouth, incisors, skin, etc.) and in every direction in an area of 300 mm. After measurement with the EMA, the information is transferred to a computer and read with the Visartico software to visualize the recording of the mandibular movements registered by the EMA. The sensors placed in the space between the three axes XYZ are observed, and then the plots created from the mandibular movements included in the corresponding protocol can be visualized, enabling interpretation of these data. Four protocols for the obtaining of images of the opening and closing mandibular movements were defined and developed, as well as border movements in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes, managing to accurately reproduce Posselt’s diagram and Gothic arch on the latter two axes. Measurements with the EMA will allow more exact data to be collected in relation to the mandibular clinical physiology and morphology, which will permit more accurate diagnoses and application of more precise and adjusted treatments in the future. PMID:26884903

  17. Why Sociology Is Silent Concerning Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Nikolov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Border in sociological sense means a barrier that separates social groups, strata, their values, and the difference between ways of life between particular social groups. Such groups may be separated by many dividing lines, or borders: social/living conditions, opportunities/prospects, legal rights/customs, viewpoints, and so on. Sometimes mobility does not permit other than individual, or small-group, crossing of these borders. It seems really strange why border topic is almost completely absent from the sociology. It is so pertinent to the fate and shaping of various social groups, depending from the location of the border. We think of a boundary whenever we think of an entity demarcated from its surroundings. Events, too, have boundaries – temporal ones: their beginning, climax, final. All our lives are bounded in the continuum between our births and our deaths. A philosopher would imply also that even imaginary, abstract entities, such as concepts or layouts, have boundaries of their own. One may say that condition for all this boundary/border talk is coherent, and whether it reproduces the world around us’ structure, or the organizing activity of our intellect, are matters of deep philosophical controversy. Borders are difficult to disappear totally even within the European Union, providing some obstacles to the freedom of movement to those left still outside the Schengen agreement.

  18. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  19. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  20. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  1. An ergonomics prototype of adjustable chin stands aid for visual mechanical inspection at electronic manufacturing-based company in Kuantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Nurainaa; Mat Yahya, Nafrizuan

    2018-04-01

    Chin stands aid is a device designed to reduce fatigue on the chin during the Visual Mechanical Inspection (VMI) task for operators in TT Electronic Sdn Bhd, Kuantan, Malaysia. It is also used to reduce cycle time and also improve employee well-being in terms of comfort. In this project, a 3D model of chin stands aid with an ergonomics approach is created using SOLIDWORKS software. Two different concepts were designed and the best one is chosen based on the Pugh concept selection method, concept screening and also concept scoring. After the selection of concepts is done, a prototype of chin stands aid will be developed and a simulation of the prototype is performed. The simulation has been executed by using Workbench ANSYS software as a tool. Stress analysis, deformation analysis, and fatigue analysis have been done to know the strength and lifespan of the product. The prototype also has been tested to know the functionality and also comfortability for the user to use the chin stands aid.

  2. Borders as barriers to tourism: tourists experiences at the Beitbridge Border Post (Zimbabwean side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getrude Kwanisai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International borders greatly influence tourism development. In 2012 and 2013, a decline in tourists to Zimbabwe from South Africa was partially attributed to tourist border facilitation issues. It is against this background that this study sought to establish the nature of challenges faced by tourists when using the Beitbridge border post (Zimbabwean side. Questionnaire responses were thematically analysed and the study concluded that border administrative management related issues are a major barrier to tourism. Key among the study's recommendations is that the depressed tourists' border experiences obtaining at Beitbridge border post among other constraints have to be addressed as a matter of urgency. This will enhance Zimbabwe's accessibility, tourist satisfaction and the image of the country as a destination. The paper further identifies several destination managerial implications and future research priorities.

  3. The Migrant Border Crossing Study: A methodological overview of research along the Sonora-Arizona border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Daniel E; Slack, Jeremy; Beyerlein, Kraig; Vandervoet, Prescott; Klingman, Kristin; Molina, Paola; Manning, Shiras; Burham, Melissa; Walzak, Kylie; Valencia, Kristen; Gamboa, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Increased border enforcement efforts have redistributed unauthorized Mexican migration to the United States (US) away from traditional points of crossing, such as San Diego and El Paso, and into more remote areas along the US-Mexico border, including southern Arizona. Yet relatively little quantitative scholarly work exists examining Mexican migrants' crossing, apprehension, and repatriation experiences in southern Arizona. We contend that if scholars truly want to understand the experiences of unauthorized migrants in transit, such migrants should be interviewed either at the border after being removed from the US, or during their trajectories across the border, or both. This paper provides a methodological overview of the Migrant Border Crossing Study (MBCS), a unique data source on Mexican migrants who attempted an unauthorized crossing along the Sonora-Arizona border, were apprehended, and repatriated to Nogales, Sonora in 2007-09. We also discuss substantive and theoretical contributions of the MBCS.

  4. Conservative Libertarianism and the Ethics of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Camacho Beltran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many conservatives endorse a defence of closed borders grounded in basic liberal rights such as the basic right of association. Some conservatives also endorse libertarian principles of legitimacy. It is not clear though that this sort of defence of closed borders is somehow coherent with these libertarian ideals. I argue that conservative libertarians of this kind must reject this defence of closed borders because either it collapses into a form of statism incoherent with libertarian principles of legitimacy, or into an ideal precept without appeal regarding reality in the here and now that could only be applied to changing the very nature of the societies we know. As a result, at least conservative libertarians need to find a different source of justification for closed borders.

  5. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  6. Measuring cross-border regional STI integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, T

    2016-07-01

    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced to strengthen the Oresund integration index. This was compiled from patent, publication and collaborative R&D project data. The findings show that this index performs reasonably well in depicting STI integration, while at the same time remaining simple and straightforward enough to be adopted in other crossborder regions. (Author)

  7. Nuclear security at Zimbabwe’s borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstrom, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing detection capabilities at the Victoria Falls border crossing provides confidence to people visiting Zimbabwe that measures are in place to prevent disruption caused by radioactive materials and helps to protect the local environment.

  8. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  9. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  10. The development of cross-border economic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the influence of a state border on the development of cross-border economic relations in the European Union. The focus is on the frequency, number, and success of cross-border relations between firms in the border regions of the Netherlands and Belgium. The study fills

  11. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  12. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  13. Radiation safety without borders initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblee, Martha; Dickson, Howard; Krieger, Ken; Lopez, Jose; Waite, David; Weaver, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Without Borders (RSWB) initiative provides peer support to radiation safety professionals in developing countries, which bolsters the country's infrastructure and may lead the way for IRPA Associate membership. The Health Physics Society (HPS) recognizes that many nations do not possess the infrastructure to adequately control and beneficially use ionizing radiation. In a substantial number of countries, organized radiation protection programs are minimal. The RSWB initiative relies on HPS volunteers to assist their counterparts in developing countries with emerging health physics and radiation safety programs, but whose resources are limited, to provide tools that promote and support infrastructure and help these professionals help themselves. RSWB experience to date has shown that by providing refurbished instruments, promoting visits to a HPS venue, or visiting a country just to look provide valuable technical and social infrastructure experiences often missing in the developing nation's cadre of radiation safety professionals. HPS/RSWB with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) pairs chapters with a country, with the expectation that the country's professional radiation safety personnel will form a foreign HPS chapter, and the country eventually will become an IRPA Associate. Although still in its formative stage, RSWB nonetheless has gotten valuable information in spite of the small number of missions. The RSWB initiative continues to have significant beneficial impacts, including: Improving the radiation safety infrastructure of the countries that participate; Assisting those countries without professional radiation safety societies to form one; Strengthening the humanitarian efforts of the United States; Enhancing Homeland Security efforts through improved control of radioactive material internationally. Developing countries, including those in Latin America, underwritten by IAEA, may take advantage of resources

  14. Decision Model for U.S.- Mexico Border Security Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    missions that the I&A focuses on is, “border security, including narcotics smuggling, alien and human smuggling, and money laundering ...and money assigned to border security investments. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Department of Homeland Security (DHS), border security, U.S.–Mexico border...and money assigned to border security investments. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION

  15. Organizing cross-border fire brigade response in the Dutch-German border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.K.; Engelman, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the opportunities and problems with cross-border collaboration between the Dutch and German fire brigades. The following are the main problems: 1) no uniformity in concluding and using the cross-border agreements for emergency assistance, 2) the language problem, 3) the

  16. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Police xii SBI Secure Border Initiative SES Senior Executive Service SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica TSA Transportation Security...also been involvement from the Mexican law enforcement agency, Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) on the southwest border (CBP, 2009; ICE, 2009, p. 5

  17. Measuring cross-border travel times for freight : Otay Mesa international border crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Cross border movement of people and goods is a vital part of the North American economy. Accurate real-time data on travel times along the US-Mexico border can help generate a range of tangible benefits covering improved operations and security, lowe...

  18. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    as it constitute a rendezvous of traditional market-based efficiency logics and concerns over sovereignty. Moreover, the defence industry has been an institutional island still exhibiting all the national protectionist mechanisms that European integration mostly has done away with in other sectors. The paper...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...

  19. Central tarsal bone fracture in the border collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliard, M

    2007-07-01

    Fracture of the plantar process of the central tarsal bone together with a dorsomedial displacement of the body of the bone was seen in six border collies. All injuries occurred during free exercise, with no extrinsic trauma. Three dogs had concomitant tarsal fractures. Primary treatment was by lag screwing the central tarsal bone to the fourth tarsal bone. All cases eventually made an excellent recovery. The superficial radiographic appearance was of a luxation of the bone as reported in a previous series, but appraisal of the radiographs showed evidence of fracture in all cases. A cadaver study to assess the mechanism of luxation showed that it is unlikely to occur naturally.

  20. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Anisiewicz Renata; Palmowski Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew stea...

  1. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  2. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.; Neef, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  3. Network communities within and across borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index.

  4. Crossing Linguistic Borders : Translating Democracy in the 2012 Egyptian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Quaranta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of political concepts into different places and cultures happens first and foremost through translation. Far from being a simple transposition of meaning into a different language to facilitate border crossing, it also entails a process of adjustment to a different cultural context and a change in what is perceived to be the original meaning of the concept. Translation should also include the analysis of the social contexts that cause a political concept to be modified. Through Baker's social narrative theory, all these aspects can be integrated to analyse how the concept of democracy moves from place to place and from language to language leading to more complex understandings of it. I will examine the meaning of the concept of democracy in the 2012 Egyptian Constitution to outline the main features of an intercultural translational process of the concept of democracy.

  5. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  6. Cross-border regional innovation system integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility........ However, little attention has been given to the empirical analysis of the concept. This paper suggests a framework for empirically validating the concept by examining the levels of integration between cross-border regions. The outcome is a proposed framework can be operationalized by measurable indicators...

  7. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  8. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  9. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    seeking children in Denmark is assessed as a form of liberal nationalism. Several problematic features with this system are discussed, such as the lacking Danish implementation of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, and the use of cultural generalizations in case evaluations. Chapter four conducts...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...

  10. DIRECT TUNNELLING AND MOSFET BORDER TRAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Drach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The border traps, in particular slow border traps, are being investigated in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, utilizing n-channel MOSFET as a test sample. The industrial process technology of test samples manufacturing is described. The automated experimental setup is discussed, the implementation of the experimental setup had made it possible to complete the entire set of measurements. The schematic diagram of automated experimental setup is shown. The charging time characteristic of the ID-VG shift reveals that the charging process is a direct tunnelling process and highly bias dependent.

  11. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    . This paper discusses the reasons behind this mismatch which means that the concept still rests upon and draws policy suggestions based on a thin evidence base. Directions for further research are pointed out by underlining the need for holistic empirical validations of the concept together with the need......The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...

  12. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.

    2012-01-01

    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  13. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...... appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied...

  14. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  15. An Inter-Networking Mechanism with Stepwise Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Murata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To realize the ambient information society, multiple wireless networks deployed in the region and devices carried by users are required to cooperate with each other. Since duty cycles and operational frequencies are different among networks, we need a mechanism to allow networks to efficiently exchange messages. For this purpose, we propose a novel inter-networking mechanism where two networks are synchronized with each other in a moderate manner, which we call stepwise synchronization. With our proposal, to bridge the gap between intrinsic operational frequencies, nodes near the border of networks adjust their operational frequencies in a stepwise fashion based on the pulse-coupled oscillator model as a fundamental theory of synchronization. Through simulation experiments, we show that the communication delay and the energy consumption of border nodes are reduced, which enables wireless sensor networks to communicate longer with each other.

  16. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...

  17. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent...

  18. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  19. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  20. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  1. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  2. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  3. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  4. Border Protection and National Security of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    simple acts, such as a cartographer labeling an island “Turkish” instead of “ Greek ,” have triggered the mobilization of armed forces on both sides as...been replaced with marble columns that are guaranteed to last for a century. Parts of the state borders in some directions have been negotiated and

  5. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  6. THE LESSONS OF THE BORDER WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem Scholtz

    At the time of writing, the Border War has been over for 24 years. Some of .... artillery together with other support troops were learnt.5 ..... Beforehand they were as excited as naïve children before a picnic; ..... and a tank squadron (which was later augmented with a second squadron). ..... They are distanced so far from reality.

  7. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.

  8. Legal aspects of cross-border teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattynama, Peter M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The growth of cross-border teleradiology has created legal challenges that are insufficiently addressed by nation health laws. New legislation is currently under development at the European level. This article will look at the details of the existing and proposed legislation and the still unsettled issues and will discuss the implications for international teleradiology.

  9. Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunez-Neto, Blas

    2005-01-01

    .... Today, the USBP's primary mission is to detect and prevent the entry of terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and illegal aliens into the country, and to interdict drug smugglers and other criminals along the border...

  10. Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    .... Prior to the terrorist attacks, the priorities for border security policy were beginning to shift from immigration-related issues to issues related to facilitating legitimate cross-border commerce...

  11. Border Security -- One Step Toward Resolving the Conflict in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Mark S

    2005-01-01

    .... It will do this by proving that border security is a key component to suppressing the Iraqi insurgency and that border security operations have been hindered by a lack of interagency coordination...

  12. Improved Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment of Dunhuang Wall Painting Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K.; Huang, X.; You, H.

    2017-09-01

    Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA) method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  13. IMPROVED CONJUGATE GRADIENT BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT OF DUNHUANG WALL PAINTING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  14. Photosynthetic Energy Transfer at the Quantum/Classical Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Nir; Paltiel, Yossi

    2018-06-01

    Quantum mechanics diverges from the classical description of our world when very small scales or very fast processes are involved. Unlike classical mechanics, quantum effects cannot be easily related to our everyday experience and are often counterintuitive to us. Nevertheless, the dimensions and time scales of the photosynthetic energy transfer processes puts them close to the quantum/classical border, bringing them into the range of measurable quantum effects. Here we review recent advances in the field and suggest that photosynthetic processes can take advantage of the sensitivity of quantum effects to the environmental 'noise' as means of tuning exciton energy transfer efficiency. If true, this design principle could be a base for 'nontrivial' coherent wave property nano-devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  16. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  17. Crossing borders: The Case of ethnic Dagestani in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Meurmishvili, Giorgi

    2014-01-01

    According to William Zartman Borders run across land but through people. On maps they appear as fine one-dimensional lines, whereas on the ground they have many dimensions. Borders are boundaries in depth, space around a line, place where state meets society" (Zartman 2010:16). It is impossible to understand borders, without peripheral relations between the states and societies they contain. Itself borders are zones in which people create special relationship with other people. ...

  18. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  19. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  20. 8 CFR 1212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... combined B-1/B-2 visitor visa and non-biometric border crossing identification card or (a similar stamp in... non-biometric border crossing identification card (or similar stamp in a passport), issued by the DOS... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Border crossing identification cards. 1212...

  1. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security.... 1641) and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection regulations (19 CFR 111.51), the following Customs...

  2. 76 FR 50883 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19... of Liquidation AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security; Department of... Regulations (``CFR'') pertaining to the method by which U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') issues...

  3. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... information collection: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of...

  4. 77 FR 59206 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Foreign Assembler's Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... written comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings...

  5. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  6. IDentity, crude data and narrative at the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Perle

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork among border control agents at a Schengen border point, the paper explores the linkages and dissociations between human and computer intelligence work in the daily operation of border control where voyagers are profiled, their IDs verified and their intentions scru...

  7. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of the Burmese-Thai border; final technical report. Documents. Border industrialization and labour mobility : a case of Burmese migrant workers in border area factories. Rapports. Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007 ...

  8. A numerical model of p-n junctions bordering on surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altermatt, P.P.; Aberle, A.G.; Jianhua Zhao; Aihua Wang; Heiser, G. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Centre for Photovolatic Engineering

    2002-10-01

    Many solar cell structures contain regions where the emitter p-n junction borders on the surface. If the surface is not well passivated, a large amount of recombination occurs in such regions. This type of recombination is influenced by the electrostatics of both the p-n junction and the surface, and hence it is different from the commonly described recombination phenomena occurring in the p-n junction within the bulk. We developed a two-dimensional model for the recombination mechanisms occurring in emitter p-n junctions bordering on surfaces. The model is validated by reproducing the experimental I-V curves of specially designed silicon solar cells. It is shown under which circumstances a poor surface passivation, near where the p-n junction borders on the surface, reduces the fill factor and the open-circuit voltage. The model can be applied to many other types of solar cells. (author)

  9. Recent advances to address European Union Health Security from cross border chemical health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Davidson, R; Orford, R; Wyke, S; Griffiths, M; Amlôt, R; Chilcott, R

    2014-11-01

    The European Union (EU) Decision (1082/2013/EU) on serious cross border threats to health was adopted by the European Parliament in November 2013, in recognition of the need to strengthen the capacity of Member States to coordinate the public health response to cross border threats, whether from biological, chemical, environmental events or events which have an unknown origin. Although mechanisms have been in place for years for reporting cross border health threats from communicable diseases, this has not been the case for incidents involving chemicals and/or environmental events. A variety of collaborative EU projects have been funded over the past 10 years through the Health Programme to address gaps in knowledge on health security and to improve resilience and response to major incidents involving chemicals. This paper looks at the EU Health Programme that underpins recent research activities to address gaps in resilience, planning, responding to and recovering from a cross border chemical incident. It also looks at how the outputs from the research programme will contribute to improving public health management of transnational incidents that have the potential to overwhelm national capabilities, putting this into context with the new requirements as the Decision on serious cross border threats to health as well as highlighting areas for future development. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. European Provisions for the Protection of Dissenting Shareholders within the Framework of Cross-border Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alavi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European legislative framework of cross-border mergers is a result of a long process of identifying the needs of the common market, domestic laws and national businesses and bringing them closer together. From virtual impossibility of merging across national borders, to a transfer of seat, to the Cross-Border Mergers Directive private and public limited companies can now engage in a cross-border merger transaction under best harmonised rules to date. However, the diversity of national company laws leaves gaps that are not resolved on a European level - there is no harmonising instrument in the area of creditor protection and the protection of dissenting minority shareholders, among others. The CBM Directive contains a framework provision referencing the need of protection of minority members, whereas specific mechanisms are left for the Member States to implement. The question that arises is whether the status quo of minority protection is sufficient to ensure smooth functioning of the cross-border mergers framework or whether further harmonisation is required.

  11. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  12. Efficient Security Mechanisms for the Border Gateway Routing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-22

    Finding Algorithm for Loop- Free Routing. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 5(1):148{160, Feb. 1997. [7] International Standards Organization. ISO/IEC...Jersey 07974, Feb. 1985. ftp://netlib.att.com/netlib/att/cs/ cstr /117.ps.Z. [16] S. L. Murphy. Presentation in Panel on \\Security Architecture for the

  13. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  14. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  15. The resurgence of cultural borders in international finance during the financial crisis: Evidence from Eurozone cross-border depositing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleimeier, S.; Sander, H.; Heuchemer, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that cultural borders in international finance resurge during financial crises. To investigate the role of cultural borders during both tranquil and crisis periods, we employ a unique data set that focuses on Eurozone cross-border depositing in a gravity-model

  16. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  17. The smoking ban next door: do hospitality businesses in border areas have reduced sales after a statewide smoke-free policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Hood, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating no significant economic effects on hospitality businesses following a statewide smoke-free (SF) policy, regional concerns suggest that areas near states without SF policies may experience a loss of hospitality sales across the border. The present study evaluated the impact of Ohio's statewide SF policy on taxable restaurant and bar sales in border and non-border areas. Spline regression analysis was used to assess changes in monthly taxable sales at the county level in full-service restaurants and bars in Ohio. Data were analyzed from four years prior to policy implementation to three years post-policy. Change in the differences in the slope of taxable sales for border (n = 21) and non-border (n = 67) counties were evaluated for changes following the statewide SF policy enforcement, adjusted for unemployment rates, general trends in the hospitality sector, and seasonality. After adjusting for covariates, there was no statistically significant change in the difference in slope for taxable sales for either restaurants (β = 0.9, p = 0.09) or bars (β = 0.2, p = 0.07) following the SF policy for border areas compared to non-border areas of Ohio. Border regions in Ohio did not experience a significant change in bar and restaurant sales compared to non-border areas following a statewide SF policy. Results support that Ohio's statewide SF policy did not impact these two areas differently, and provide additional evidence for the continued use of SF policies to provide protection from exposure to secondhand smoke for both workers and the general public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  20. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...... a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......-border regions....

  1. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  2. Centronuclear myopathy in a Border collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D

    2012-10-01

    A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    both licit and illicit networks. Traditional territorial security concerns declined in the Americas following the end of the Cold War, and NAFTA in...deepen economic ties and liberalize regimes, privileging development over security.12 Similarly, trade, fostered through NAFTA , has shaped and affected...FOR FURTHER RESEARCH States determine what a “problem” at the border is through their constitutions , legal regimes, and policies. This means that

  4. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermore, such taxation is almost fully passed on into higher interest margins charged abroad. These results imply that international double taxation distorts the activities of international ban...

  5. Cross border M and A environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the Canada-U.S. cross-border merger and acquisition environment and exchangeable share structure within the petroleum industry is provided. Recent U.S. acquisitions in Canada, Canadian investment conditions, indexed price analysis from January 1, 1997 to October 16, 1998, and a variety of other share price/cash flow statistics relevant to mergers and acquisitions are examined. tabs., figs

  6. Vocal and Tangible Interaction Crossing Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Anders-Petter; Cappelen, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Our voice and body are important parts of our self-expression and self-experience for all of us. They are also essential for our way to communicate and build relations cross borders such as abilities, ages, locations and backgrounds. Voice, body and tangibility gradually become more important for ICT, due to increased development of tangible interaction and mobile communication. The voice and tangible interaction therefore also become more important for the Universal Design field. In this pap...

  7. Culture as a Moving Symbolic Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Lívia Mathias

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the notion of culture as a symbolic moving border. Departing from both, Boesch's (1991) concept of culture as a symbolic field of action, and Herbst's (1995) co-genetic logic, I will discuss the dynamics of self-other relationships in terms of their potentiality as sources of movement in culture. A brief analysis of an empirical material is given in illustrative character of the ideas here exposed.

  8. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    their activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that cc......TLDs are not just symbolic markers but have real meaning and their importance increases in locations where notions of statehood are in flux....

  9. Type 2 diabetes mortality at Mexican borders

    OpenAIRE

    Manzanares Rivera, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract:Objective: To analyze type II diabetes mortality rates geographic distribution and evolution in time across both Mexican border regions during the period 1998-2013.Methods: The work is based on exploratory and inferential data analysis conducted using death reports from the national health information system. The analysis considers social determinants of health as a theoretical paradigm and includes microdata on consumption patterns at household level for the US-Mexico and Mexico- Gu...

  10. Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1988-01-01

    Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some visceral cells. At ultrastructural examination inclusions of variable morphology were observed.

  11. Knowledge of practice: A multi-sited event ethnography of border security fairs in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Theodore

    2017-06-01

    This article takes the reader inside four border security fairs in Europe and North America to examine the knowledge practices of border security professionals. Building on the border security as practice research agenda, the analysis focuses on the production, circulation, and consumption of scarce forms of knowledge. To explore situated knowledge of border security practices, I develop an approach to multi-sited event ethnography to observe and interpret knowledge that may be hard to access at the security fairs. The analysis focuses on mechanisms for disseminating and distributing scarce forms of knowledge, technological materializations of situated knowledge, expressions of transversal knowledge of security problems, how masculinities structure knowledge in gendered ways, and how unease is expressed through imagined futures in order to anticipate emergent solutions to proposed security problems. The article concludes by reflecting on the contradictions at play at fairs and how to address such contradictions through alternative knowledges and practices.

  12. The structure of borders in a small world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Christian; Theis, Fabian; Grady, Daniel; Brune, Rafael; Brockmann, Dirk

    2010-11-18

    Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, it is unclear if existing administrative subdivisions that typically evolved decades ago still reflect the most plausible organizational structure of today. The complexity of modern human communication, the ease of long-distance movement, and increased interaction across political borders complicate the operational definition and assessment of geographic borders that optimally reflect the multi-scale nature of today's human connectivity patterns. What border structures emerge directly from the interplay of scales in human interactions is an open question. Based on a massive proxy dataset, we analyze a multi-scale human mobility network and compute effective geographic borders inherent to human mobility patterns in the United States. We propose two computational techniques for extracting these borders and for quantifying their strength. We find that effective borders only partially overlap with existing administrative borders, and show that some of the strongest mobility borders exist in unexpected regions. We show that the observed structures cannot be generated by gravity models for human traffic. Finally, we introduce the concept of link significance that clarifies the observed structure of effective borders. Our approach represents a novel type of quantitative, comparative analysis framework for spatially embedded multi-scale interaction networks in general and may yield important insight into a multitude of spatiotemporal phenomena generated by human activity.

  13. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  14. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    . As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...

  15. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  16. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  17. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  18. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  19. Cross-border drug injection relationships among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla D.; Pollini, Robin A.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Vera, Alicia; Volkmann, Tyson A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background International borders are unique social and environmental contexts characterized by high levels of mobility. Among drug users, mobility increases risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in part through its effects on the social environment. However, the social dynamics of drug users living in border regions are understudied. Methods 1056 injection drug users (IDUs) residing in Tijuana, Mexico were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from 2006 to 2007, and underwent surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis (TB). Using logistic regression on baseline data, we identified correlates of having ever injected drugs with someone from the US. Results Almost half (48%) reported ever injecting drugs with someone from the US. In RDS-adjusted logistic regression, factors independently associated with having ever injected with someone from the US included: having greater than middle school education (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.91; 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.52, 5.91), speaking English (AOR 3.24, 95% C.I. 1.96, 5.36), age (AOR 1.10 per year; 95% C.I. 1.07, 1.14), age at initiation of injection drug use (AOR 0.90 per year; 95% C.I. 0.86, 0.94), homelessness (AOR 2.61; 95% C.I. 1.27, 5.39), and having ever been incarcerated (AOR 11.82; 95% C.I., 5.22, 26.77). No associations with HIV, syphilis, TB, drug use, or injection risk behavior were detected. Conclusion Findings suggest that IDU networks in Mexico and the US may transcend international borders, with implications for cross-border transmission of infectious disease. Binational programs and policies need to consider the structure and geographic distribution of drug using networks. PMID:20889270

  20. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  1. Smart border initiative: a Franco-German cross-border energy optimisation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Integrated and optimised local energy systems will play a key role in achieving the energy transition objectives set by France and Germany, in line with the Energy Union's goals, and contribute to ensuring a secure, affordable and climate-friendly energy supply in the EU. In order to capitalise on the French and German expertise and experiences in developing such systems and to continue strengthening the cross-border cooperation towards a fully integrated European energy market, both Governments have decided to launch a common initiative to identify and structure a cross-border energy optimisation project. Tilia and Dena have undertaken this mission to jointly develop the Smart Border Initiative (SBI). The SBI will, on the one hand, connect policies designed by France and Germany in order to support their cities and territories in their energy transition strategies and European market integration. It is currently a paradox that, though more balanced and resilient energy systems build up, bottom-up, at the local level, borders remain an obstacle to this local integration, in spite of the numerous complementarities observed in cross-border regions, and of their specific needs, in terms of smart mobility for example. The SBI project aims at enabling European neighbouring regions separated by a border to jointly build up optimised local energy systems, and jointly develop their local economies following an integrated, sustainable and low-carbon model. On the other hand, this showcase project will initiate a new stage in the EU electricity market integration, by completing high voltage interconnections with local, low voltage integration at DSO level, opening new optimisation possibilities in managing the electricity balance, and enabling DSOs to jointly overcome some of the current challenges, notably the increased share of renewable energy (RE) and ensuring Europe's security of supply

  2. Reformulation of controlled-release oxycodone and pharmacy dispensing patterns near the US-Canada border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tara; Paterson, J Michael; Juurlink, David N; Dhalla, Irfan A; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2012-01-01

    In August 2010, a tamper-resistant formulation of controlled-release oxycodone (OxyContin-OP) was introduced in the United States but not in Canada. Our objective was to determine whether introduction of OxyContin-OP in the United States influenced prescription volumes for the original controlled-release oxycodone formulation (OxyContin) at Canadian pharmacies near the international border. We conducted a population-based, serial, cross-sectional study of prescriptions dispensed from pharmacies in the 3 cities with the highest volume of US-Canada border crossings in Ontario: Niagara Falls, Windsor and Sarnia. We analyzed data on all outpatient prescriptions for OxyContin dispensed by Canadian pharmacies near each border crossing between 2010 Apr. 1 and 2012 Feb. 29. We calculated and compared monthly prescription rates, adjusted per 1000 population and stratified by tablet strength. The number of tablets dispensed near 4 border crossings in the 3 Canadian cities remained stable over the study period. However, the rate of dispensing at pharmacies near the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel increased roughly 4-fold between August 2010 and February 2011, from 505 to 1969 tablets per 1000 population. By April 2011, following warnings to prescribers and pharmacies regarding drug-seeking behaviour, the dispensing rate declined to 1683 tablets per 1000 population in this area. By November 2011, the rate had returned to levels observed in early 2010. Our analyses suggest that 242 075 excess OxyContin tablets were dispensed near the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel between August 2010 and October 2011. Prescribing of the original formulation of controlled-release oxycodone rose substantially near a major international border crossing following the introduction of a tamper-resistant formulation in the United States. It is possible that the restriction of this finding to the area surrounding the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel reflects specific characteristics of this border crossing, including its high

  3. Bordering Binarities and Cognitive Cartography: What on Earth Does Literature Have to do with Border Transactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Moi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although literature and poetry have numerous borders of their own,these are rarely assumed to have any significance for the world out-side the text itself. A number of reasons for this distinctive division certainly stem from the literary field itself. This paper intends to indicate the exclusivist stance of some theories of literature, and the inclucivist of others, before exploring the possibilities of bridging between borders in text and territory by reference to the life and literature of Oscar Wilde and a performative and imaginative analysis of Paul Muldoon's epigrammatic poem The Plot.

  4. Robust simultaneous detection of coronary borders in complex images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonka, M.; Winniford, M.D.; Collins, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Visual estimation of coronary obstruction severity from angiograms suffers from poor inter- and intraobserver reproducibility and is often inaccurate. In spite of the widely recognized limitations of visual analysis, automated methods have not found widespread clinical use, in part because they too frequently fail to accurately identify vessel borders. The authors have developed a robust method for simultaneous detection of left and right coronary borders that is suitable for analysis of complex images with poor contrast, nearby or overlapping structures, or branching vessels. The reliability of the simultaneous border detection method and that of their previously reported conventional border detection method were tested in 130 complex images, selected because conventional automated border detection might be expected to fail. Conventional analysis failed to yield acceptable borders in 65/130 or 50% of images. Simultaneous border detection was much more robust (p < .001) and failed in only 15/130 or 12% of complex images. Simultaneous border detection identified stenosis diameters that correlated significantly better with observer-derived stenosis diameters than did diameters obtained with conventional border detection (p < 0.001). Simultaneous detection of left and right coronary borders is highly robust and has substantial promise for enhancing the utility of quantitative coronary angiography in the clinical setting

  5. The Theoretical Prerequisites for the Emergence of Interactive Marketing in the System of Management of Cross-Border Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gegedosh Kristian V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to characterize the basic theoretical aspects of marketing in cross-border cooperation. It has been found that, in the current context of the IT sector development, it is of substantial relevance to apply the benefits of online marketing together with integrating it into the international regional cross-border economic relations. The author’s own conception of the use of interactive marketing to further improve interaction of the entities of neighbouring countries in various areas of cross-border cooperation (CBC has been proposed. A layout of web site interface of the interactive cross-border business center has been developed on the example of the euroregional formation of member countries in the Interregional Association «Carpathian Euroregion». One of the main challenges to the development of the CBC today is the lack of a well-functioning mechanism of interaction of «local authorities – regional development agencies – business structures». However, after building a model for development of a cross-border economy based on interactive marketing principles, the border areas on both sides will be able to better develop the regional economy and, consequently, the social well-being of the territory as a whole.

  6. Nuclear Security in Action at Malaysian Borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstrom Danielle

    2013-01-01

    ''For Malaysia, trade has to be a transparent'', explained Raja Adnan, the Director General of the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). ''Goods are imported and exported, not just between two countries, but are in transit between several countries. Nuclear security measures help to guarantee open trade and makes sure that everyone is trading responsibly,'' emphasized Adnan. Officials from AELB prepare for a joint Indonesian-Malaysian exercise in effective border control by reviewing their national standard operating procedures (SOPs) on nuclear security, which were developed in close coordination with the IAEA

  7. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  8. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  9. Over the border - the problems of uncontrolled radioactive materials crossing national borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duftschmid, K.E. E-mail: k.duftschmid@aon.at

    2002-03-01

    Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources. A further potentially serious problem is illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. In 1995 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a programme to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, which includes an international database on incidents of illicit trafficking, receiving reports from some 80 member states. For the period 1993-2000 the IAEA database includes 345 confirmed incidents. While from 1994-1996 the frequency declined significantly, this trend has been reversed since 1997, largely due to radioactive sources rather than nuclear material. This paper compares monitoring techniques for radioactive materials in scrap applied at steel plants and scrap yards with monitoring at borders, a completely different situation. It discusses the results of the 'Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program', a large international pilot study, conducted in cooperation between the IAEA, the Austrian Government and the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The aim of this exercise was to derive realistic and internationally agreed requirements for border monitoring instrumentation. Finally the present extent of border monitoring installations is discussed. (author)

  10. Sustainable Planning of Cross-Border Cooperation: A Strategy for Alliances in Border Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, cooperation among nations has become a critical issue towards sustainable development of neighbor cities in border areas. In this regard, sustainable common planning approaches and policies are an increasing reality, particularly in European territories. Considering the significant amount of cross-border cooperation (CBC projects and strategies within Europe, it is crucial to promote research approaches that are able to identify the most positive approaches towards the establishment of alliances in border territories, serving as pivotal methodologies for achieving success. Contextually, the present study considered direct and indirect research methods and tools, literature reviews, data collection, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI and computer-assisted web interview (CAWI, all applied over two European border cities: Cieszyn (Poland and Cesky Tesin (Czech Republic. These methods enabled the assembly of perspectives of local authorities, public and private institutions, non-governmental organizations, and entrepreneurs from the cities under study. Through the analysis of the collected data, five conditions have been identified for the success of strategic alliances in CBC projects: (i well defining the alliance goals; (ii ensuring participation in the alliance of various groups of stakeholders; (iii involvement of both partners with extensive experience in CBC; (iv ensuring the coherence of the key objective; and (v guaranteeing the alliance benefits both sides. These conditions might effectively contribute to achieve more successful outputs in CBC projects, highlighting the relevance of previously developed strategies on the definition of future approaches.

  11. Remote Power Systems for Sensors on the Northern Border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-08

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) [1] to field sensors that accurately track different types of transportation across the northern border of the U.S.. To do this, the sensors require remote power so that they can be placed in the most advantageous geographical locations, often where no grid power is available. This enables the sensors to detect and track aircraft/vehicles despite natural features (e.g., mountains, ridges, valleys, trees) that often prevent standard methods (e.g., monostatic radar or visual observers) from detecting them. Without grid power, portable power systems were used to provide between 80 and 300 W continuously, even in bitter cold and when buried under feet of snow/ice. NREL provides details about the design, installation, and lessons learned from long-term deployment of a second-generation of novel power systems that used adjustable-angle photovoltaics (PV), lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells that provide power to achieve 100% up-time.

  12. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  13. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  14. Divided we fall... or rise? Tajikistan–Kyrgyzstan border dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matveeva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan border remains one of the last undefined frontiers in the Commonwealth of Independent States, where the governments are reluctant to act against the wishes of their border communities and force delimitation solutions that may cause social protests. Uncertainty of territorial arrangements persists; however, the era of commonality and interdependence may be at its end due to the establishment of a border as a means of spatial control. Border drawing reflects the divergent development trajectories of the new states, seeking to break out of an interdependence pattern. Borderlands’ interactions become more conflictual. Generation change and a loss of common language work to widen the inter-communal gap. Ethnicity and identity factors grew in significance as association with the nation-states increased, and a border expresses a symbol of nationhood in this paradigm. Crucially, a border justifies a security regime, reinforced by international assistance policies, to project power over the territory. Actions of security structures cause grievances but also signify a protective arm of the state, a role that the border communities appreciate, themselves acting as a collective border guard and projecting their fears of encroachment onto the borders. The expansion of the Eurasian Economic Union became a new factor that could have served to alleviate the pressure to divide territory and assets, but this could work only if two countries joined it at the same period. With this option unavailable, a territorial impasse has been reached.

  15. Cross-border entrepreneurship in a global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Servais, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that international entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurship increasingly intersect in a global world. Both research streams address cross-border entrepreneurial activity in parallel to each other. International entrepreneurship focuses on outgoing entrepreneurial activity......, while immigrant entrepreneurship mainly considers incoming entrepreneurial activity. This paper critically discusses such a dichotomy, highlighting how differentiating immigrant entrepreneurs and international entrepreneurs perpetuates orientalist assumptions about cross-border business activity....... Focusing on a entrepreneurship as behaviour, the paper proposes an alternative perspective to cross-border entrepreneurship, discussing cross-border opportunity identification and exploitation between an entrepreneur’s country of residence and a foreign country. This perspective provides a number...

  16. Berlin: Emergency shelters and contemporary border struggles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Podgornik-Jakil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researching the developments of present political economy must necessarily include investigating the tools of contemporary border regime. These are used for surveillance and control of populations in order to create new divisions of labour and enable extraction of rent by using peoples’ bodies. The article focuses on emergency shelters in Berlin, that is, on their function and ways in which the asylum seekers accommodated there spontaneously struggle against them. The research was done as a militant and cooperative work of the network Lager Mobilisation Network in Berlin’s district Wedding, which builds connections with people housed in the sports halls in the mentioned district. The author underlines that exhausting the aslyum seekers psychically is one of the strategies for filtering the ‘unwanted’ from the ‘wanted’, that is the ones that are interesting for the labour market. At the same time, the restriction of movement and limited access to civil rights confine asylum seekers in emergency shelters run by private companies, which seek profits on their account. Far from claiming that non-profit companies have a ‘better’ shelter administration, since the boundaries between them and profit-oriented companies are often blurred, the author rather speaks of new forms of anticolonial struggles by the people living inside. He understands these struggles as the struggles against the contemporary border regime in Germany and the EU and as a potential for building an inclusive society.

  17. First Philosophy in the Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Rossvaer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.

  18. Downhole adjustable bent assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes downhole adjustable apparatus for creating a bend angle in order to affect the inclination of a drilled borehole. It comprises an upper tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; lower tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; one of the portions being received within the other for relative rotational movement about an axis that is inclined with respect to the the longitudinal axes of the members, whereby in a first rotational position the longitudinal axes have one geometrical relationship, and in a second rotational position the longitudinal axes have a second, different geometrical relationship

  19. Spectrum of critical illness in undocumented border crossers. The Arizona-Mexico border experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Candy; Hsu, Wendy; Carr, Gordon E

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 150-250 migrants die each year while attempting to cross the border from Mexico to the Southwest United States. Many border crossers survive the journey, but some develop life-threatening medical complications. Such complications have been subject to little formal analysis. We sought to determine the causes of critical illness in this population and to analyze the hospital course and outcomes of these patients. We retrospectively identified border crossers admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of two major teaching hospitals in southern Arizona. We recorded admitting diagnoses, severity of illness, length of stay, resource use, discharge diagnoses, and mortality. Our investigation identified 55 admissions to adult ICUs between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012. The median age of patients was 27 years. The median hospital length of stay was 7 days, with a median ICU length of stay of 3 days. The median temperature on arrival to the emergency department was 36.8°C. The most common admission diagnoses included trauma (40), rhabdomyolysis (27), acute liver injury (25), dehydration (24), acute kidney injury (19), and encephalopathy (17). Thirteen patients presented with respiratory failure, six patients with severe sepsis, and two with septic shock. A total of 19 patients required ventilator support during their hospital stay, and 30 required at least one surgical intervention. One patient required renal replacement therapy. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 6. All but one patient survived to discharge from the hospital. Border crossers are a unique population of young individuals exposed to high temperatures and extreme conditions. Our review of border crosser admissions showed that most patients demonstrated signs of dehydration and leukocytosis, despite a normal median temperature. The median ICU stay was short, despite a high number of patients requiring ventilator support and surgical intervention. Only

  20. Adjusting water resources management to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riebsame, W E

    1988-01-01

    The nature of climate impacts and adjustment in water supply and flood management is discussed, and a case study of water manager response to climate fluctuation in California's Sacramento Basin is presented. The case illuminates the effect on climate impact and response of traditional management approaches, the dynamic qualities of maturing water systems, socially imposed constraints, and climate extremes. A dual pattern of crisis-response and gradual adjustment emerges, and specific mechanisms for effecting adjustment of water management systems are identified. The case study, and broader trends in US water development, suggest that oversized structural capacity, the traditional adjustment to climate variability in water resources, may prove less feasible in the future as projects become smaller and new facilities are delayed by economic and environmental concerns.

  1. MIGRATION POLICIES AND STATE CONTROL IN ARGENTINA: EXPERIENCES OF VULNERABLE BOLIVIAN WOMEN WHO CROSS THE BORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Pizarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the way in which migration policies impact in the trajectories of Bolivian women who live and work in the outskirts of the main cities of Argentina. It focuses on three cases representative of the experiences of women laborers who, coming from the poorest rural areas of Bolivia, crossed the international border when Argentine migration policy was very restrictive. It shows that symbolic and socio-economic borders keep on excluding them, as well as other labor migrants, within the Argentine territory even when the current Migration Law enacted in 2004 is more inclusive, since it grants human and social rights to the migrants. It highlights the way in which particular state control mechanisms operate nowadays both at the international border and within the Argentine territory, and analyses the difficulties that these women experience due to their positions of class, ethnic, gender, nationality and migratory status. It remarks that despite the changes in the immigration policy of Argentina, state policies keep on controlling labor migrations in accordance with the paradigm of the governance of migration. It also analyses the strategies that these women develop in order to sort out state control policies. Therefore, it considers that they are active agents even though they still have feelings of fear and trauma associated with the crossing of borders.

  2. Actuation of chitosan-aptamer nanobrush borders for pathogen sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Katherine D; Oliveira, Daniela A; Cavallaro, Nicholas D; Gomes, Carmen L; McLamore, Eric S

    2018-03-26

    We demonstrate a sensing mechanism for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples using the actuation of chitosan-aptamer nanobrush borders. The bio-inspired soft material and sensing strategy mimic natural symbiotic systems, where low levels of bacteria are selectively captured from complex matrices. To engineer this biomimetic system, we first develop reduced graphene oxide/nanoplatinum (rGO-nPt) electrodes, and characterize the fundamental electrochemical behavior in the presence and absence of chitosan nanobrushes during actuation (pH-stimulated osmotic swelling). We then characterize the electrochemical behavior of the nanobrush when receptors (antibodies or DNA aptamers) are conjugated to the surface. Finally, we test various techniques to determine the most efficient capture strategy based on nanobrush actuation, and then apply the biosensors in a food product. Maximum cell capture occurs when aptamers conjugated to the nanobrush bind cells in the extended conformation (pH 6). The aptamer-nanobrush hybrid material was more efficient than the antibody-nanobrush material, which was likely due to the relatively high adsorption capacity for aptamers. The biomimetic material was used to develop a rapid test (17 min) for selectively detecting L. monocytogenes at concentrations ranging from 9 to 107 CFU mL-1 with no pre-concentration, and in the presence of other Gram-positive cells (Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus aureus). Use of this bio-inspired material is among the most efficient for L. monocytogenes sensing to date, and does not require sample pretreatment, making nanobrush borders a promising new material for rapid pathogen detection in food.

  3. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  4. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  5. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  6. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  7. Disentangling contributions of bar attendance, drinking, and other factors to elevated acute alcohol problems on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M

    2015-11-01

    Levels of drinking are unusually elevated among young adults on the U.S.-Mexico border, and this elevation can be largely explained by young border residents' unusually high frequency of bar attendance. However, this explanation complicates interpretation of high alcohol problem rates that have also been observed in this group. Because bar environments can lower the threshold for many types of problems, the extent to which elevated alcohol problems among young border residents can be attributed to drinking per se-versus this common drinking context-is not clear. Data were collected from multistage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border (current drinker N = 1,351). After developing structural models of acute alcohol problems, estimates were subjected to path decompositions to disentangle the common and distinct contributions of drinking and bar attendance to problem disparities on and off the border. Additionally, models were estimated under varying degrees of adjustment to gauge the sensitivity of the results to sociodemographic, social-cognitive, and environmental sources of confounding. Consistent with previous findings for both drinking and other problem measures, acute alcohol problems were particularly elevated among young adults on the border. This elevation was entirely explained by a single common pathway involving bar attendance frequency and drinking. Bar attendance did not predict acute alcohol problems independently of drinking, and its effect was not moderated by border proximity or age. The common indirect effect and its component effects (of border youth on bar attendance, of bar attendance on drinking, and of drinking on problems) were surprisingly robust to adjustment for confounding in all parts of the model (e.g., fully adjusted indirect effect: b = 0.11, SE = 0.04, p Bar attendance and associated increases in drinking play a key, unique role in the high levels of acute alcohol problems among the border

  8. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  9. Inverting the Telescope on Borders that Matter: Conversations in Café Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic; Kramsch, Olivier Thomas; Sandberg, Marie

    2017-01-01

    and questions the often taken for granted relationships between borders, borderers and the bordered. While each chapter concentrates on a different (but overlapping) border issue or perspective, they are united through their focus on the level of everyday bordering practices and experiences, as well...

  10. Adjustable continence balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Line; Fode, Mikkel; Nørgaard, Nis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the results of the Danish experience with the ProACT urinary continence device inserted in men with stress urinary incontinence. Material and methods. The ProACT was inserted in 114 patients. Data were registered prospectively. The main endpoints...... in urinary leakage > 50% was seen in 72 patients (80%). Complications were seen in 23 patients. All of these were treated successfully by removal of the device in the outpatient setting followed by replacement of the device. Another eight patients had a third balloon inserted to improve continence further....... Fourteen patients (12%) ended up with an artificial sphincter or a urethral sling. Sixty patients (63%) experienced no discomfort and 58 (61%) reported being dry or markedly improved. Overall, 50 patients (53%) reported being very or predominantly satisfied. Conclusions. Adjustable continence balloons seem...

  11. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    ) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  12. Frontiers, territoriality and tensions in bordering spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal

  13. [Crossing borders. The motivation of extreme sportsmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaschowski, H W

    2005-08-01

    In his article "Crossing borders -- the motivation of extreme sportsmen" the author gets systematically to the bottom of the question of why extreme sportsmen voluntarily take risks and endanger themselves. Within the scope of a representative sampling 217 extreme sportsmen -- from the fields of mountain biking, trekking and free climbing, canoyning, river rafting and deep sea diving, paragliding, parachuting, bungee jumping and survival training -- give information about their personal motives. What fascinates them? The attraction of risk? The search for sensation? Or the drop out of everyday life? And what comes afterwards? Does in the end the whole life become an extreme sport? Fact is: they live extremely, because they want to move beyond well-trodden paths. To escape the boredom of everyday life they are searching for the kick, the thrill, the no-limit experience. It's about calculated risk between altitude flight and deep sea adventure.

  14. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  15. Nuclear Plants in the Vicinity of Borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, Elmar.

    1979-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants in border areas is decided according to 'national criteria' which are governed by the cost/benefit principle, i.e. a comparison between investment and profit; human values are taken into consideration by transforming them into financial values according to the 'quantification' procedure. However ecology cannot be quantified as it is linked to the great complexity of the natural system. To harmonize technical criteria and ecological requirements, the jurist suggests a legal system of indemnity which takes into account both damage which has already occurred and the degree of probability of its occurrence. Thus a new criterion would be introduced in the decision-making process on plant siting: compensation costs for the national population and for the neighbouring countries would then be a factor in cost/benefit calculations. (NEA) [fr

  16. European Enlargement Across Rounds and Beyond Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enlargement has been an almost constant part of European integration history – going from an improvised exercise to the EU’s most developed foreign policy tool. However, neither the longevity nor the complexity of enlargement has been properly historicised. European Enlargement across Rounds...... and Beyond Borders offers three interdisciplinary, innovative, and indeed radical, new ways of understanding and analysing EC/EU enlargements: first, tracing Longue Durée developments; second, investigating enlargement Beyond the Road to Membership; and third, exploring the Entangled Exchanges and synergies...... scholars, should engage with it. This publication will be of key interest to scholars and students of modern European history and politics, the European integration process, EU studies, and more broadly multilateral international institutions, history, law and the social sciences....

  17. Cross border mobility of nurse educators: Case studies from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on cross border mobility of nurse educators and draw on Foucault's analysis to conceptualise the means by which cross border migration of nurse educators could be revisited. A case study design of seven nurse educators who had migrated and came back to their countries ...

  18. The Lessons of the Border War | Scholtz | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quarter of a century after the end of the Border War, the SANDF's institutional memory of the conflict is slowly fading. And yet there are several ... about war as well. Key words: Border War, SADF, SANDF, combined arms, reserve force, Operation Savannah, Operation Moduler, mobile warfare doctrine, military education ...

  19. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of... Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of Robinson... Border Protection to conduct the specific test or gauger service requested. Alternatively, inquires...

  20. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of... Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of SGS North... and Border Protection to conduct the specific test or gauger service requested. Alternatively...

  1. The Refugee Crisis, Non-Citizens, Border Politics and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    In the midst of the most serious refugee crisis since WWII, nation states are buttressing their borders. This paper explores the border politics of the nation state in response to the refugee crisis. Drawing on the work of Susan Sontag, Judith Butler and Imogen Tyler it considers the ways in which the imagery of the pain and suffering of Others is…

  2. Geology of the border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloten, van Roger

    1954-01-01

    The border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas is part of the mountainous country south of Parras in northeastern Mexico. It includes a thickness of about 2,600 meters of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks that were deposited along the northern border of the Mexican geosyncline along the southern

  3. On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak Mikhail

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess the potential of cross-border region development on the basis of theoretical and methodological materials. The study examines the Kaliningrad region and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article is focused on the modelling of interindustry balance and export/import functions of border territories.

  4. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR 192...

  5. Permeability of Czech-Polish Border Using by Selected Criteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Zyszkowska, K.; Batelková, Kateřina; Ciok, S.; Dolzblasz, K.; Kirchner, Karel; Krejčí, Tomáš; Raczyk, A.; Spaller, W.; Zapletalová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 51-65 ISSN 1842-5135 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : natural barrier * cross border co-operation * population pressure * border segments * Poland and Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://technicalgeography.org/pdf/1_2015/06_kolejka.pdf

  6. Cross-border insolvencies as a global economic problem | Stander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the continuing expansion of international trade and investment, there has been an increase in the occurrence of cross-border insolvencies. National insolvency laws have not kept pace with the trend, and there is a need to develop an efficient and fair system for the administration of cross-border insolvencies.

  7. Cross-Border Banking in Europe : What's Next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, F.; Beck, T.H.L.; Carletti, E.; Lane, P.; Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the role of banks in cross-border finance has become an urgent priority. Cross-border banks have played a central role in the dynamics of the global crisis of 2007-2009. First, European banks had a surprisingly large exposure to the US securitised asset markets, which arose to a

  8. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  9. CalpB modulates border cell migration in Drosophila egg chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kókai Endre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calpains are calcium regulated intracellular cysteine proteases implicated in a variety of physiological functions and pathological conditions. The Drosophila melanogaster genome contains only two genes, CalpA and CalpB coding for canonical, active calpain enzymes. The movement of the border cells in Drosophila egg chambers is a well characterized model of the eukaryotic cell migration. Using this genetically pliable model we can investigate the physiological role of calpains in cell motility. Results We demonstrate at the whole organism level that CalpB is implicated in cell migration, while the structurally related CalpA paralog can not fulfill the same function. The downregulation of the CalpB gene by mutations or RNA interference results in a delayed migration of the border cells in Drosophila egg chambers. This phenotype is significantly enhanced when the focal adhesion complex genes encoding for α-PS2 integrin ( if, β-PS integrin ( mys and talin ( rhea are silenced. The reduction of CalpB activity diminishes the release of integrins from the rear end of the border cells. The delayed migration and the reduced integrin release phenotypes can be suppressed by expressing wild-type talin-head in the border cells but not talin-headR367A, a mutant form which is not able to bind β-PS integrin. CalpB can cleave talin in vitro, and the two proteins coimmunoprecipitate from Drosophila extracts. Conclusions The physiological function of CalpB in border cell motility has been demonstrated in vivo. The genetic interaction between the CalpB and the if, mys, as well as rhea genes, the involvement of active talin head-domains in the process, and the fact that CalpB and talin interact with each other collectively suggest that the limited proteolytic cleavage of talin is one of the possible mechanisms through which CalpB regulates cell migration.

  10. Acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits among Hispanics in United States-Mexico border communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia J; Pagán, José A; Díaz, Violeta

    2010-09-01

    To explore the relationship between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits in the largely Hispanic populations living in underserved communities in the United States of America along the U.S.-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2006 to June 2008 using survey data from the Alliance for a Healthy Border, a program designed to reduce health disparities in the U.S.-Mexico border region by funding nutrition and physical activity education programs at 12 federally qualified community health centers in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. The survey included questions on acculturation, diet, exercise, and demographic factors and was completed by 2,381 Alliance program participants, of whom 95.3% were Hispanic and 45.4% were under the U.S. poverty level for 2007. Chi-square (χ2) and Student's t tests were used for bivariate comparisons between acculturation and dietary and physical activity measures. Linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to control for factors associated with nutrition and exercise. Based on univariate tests and confirmed by regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic and health variables, less acculturated survey respondents reported a significantly higher frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and healthier dietary habits than those who were more acculturated. Adjusted binary logistic regression confirmed that individuals with low language acculturation were less likely to engage in physical activity than those with moderate to high acculturation (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.95). Findings confirmed an association between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits and supported the hypothesis that acculturation in border community populations tends to decrease the practice of some healthy dietary habits while increasing exposure to and awareness of the importance of other healthy behaviors.

  11. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  12. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  13. Does smoke cross the border? Cigarette tax avoidance in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the impact on cigarette sales of the successive increases in cigarette prices in France from 2002 to 2004. Since the price differential between France and neighboring countries increased over the period in question, cross-border purchases became more financially attractive for smokers living near borders. Results from difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the decrease in cigarette sales observed in French border departments was around 20 % higher from 2004 to 2007 compared to non-border departments. The loss of fiscal revenue due to cross-border shopping since the tax increase amounts to 2 billion euros over the period 2002-2007. Our findings highlight the need for improved coordination of policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption across European Union countries.

  14. Fast and slow border traps in MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent lines of evidence are reviewed which show that near-interfacial oxide traps (border traps) that exchange charge with the Si can strongly affect the performance, radiation response, and long-term reliability of MOS devices. Observable effects of border traps include capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis, enhanced l/f noise, compensation of trapped holes, and increased thermally stimulated current in MOS capacitors. Effects of faster (switching times between ∼10 -6 s and ∼1 s) and slower (switching times greater than ∼1 s) border traps have been resolved via a dual-transistor technique. In conjunction with studies of MOS electrical response, electron paramagnetic resonance and spin dependent recombination studies suggest that E' defects (trivalent Si centers in SiO 2 associated with O vacancies) can function as border traps in MOS devices exposed to ionizing radiation or high-field stress. Hydrogen-related centers may also be border traps

  15. Cross-Border Tourism and its Significance for Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman LIVANDOVSCHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with cross-border tourism. It enhances the importance of cross-border cooperation in tourism. Cross-border cooperation is a form of international cooperation, along with interregional, transitional and trans-frontier cooperation. Cross-border regions often share the same historical and cultural traditions and attractive natural landscapes, such is the case of the Republic of Moldova and Romania. In both cases, cross-border regions can benefit from cooperation – cooperation can help create greater diversity and differentiation of the range of tourism and environmental products; create economies of scale and make promotion more effective, and can help better address specific problems or issues for tourism development.

  16. [The Swiss border veterinary service in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluep, J

    2018-01-01

    The first animal disease act of Switzerland was released in 1872. Its revision in 1886 brought the basis for establishing a border veterinary inspection service. This service was first reporting to the federal Ministry of Agriculture; after 1914, the newly created Federal Veterinary Office became responsible for it. The border checks were first limited to live biungulate animals and horses; later on they were extended to meat and meat products and finally to venison and fishery products. At the beginning, part-time veterinarians with own practice were engaged. As the traffic increased, full time border veterinary inspectors joined the team; these were mainly active at the most important border posts (like Basel, St. Margrethen, Buchs, Chiasso, Geneva, more recently the international airports). The border veterinary inspection service, including the relevant instruction of the personnel, was (and is) financed with weight depending fees which included until 1966 a fee intended for financing the efforts to control livestocks epidemics.

  17. Rethinking Borders in Japan: Internal, Cultural, and Geopolitical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyu Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Bondy. Voice, Silence, and Self: Negotiations of Buraku Identity in Contemporary Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 184 pp. $40 (cloth. Koichi Iwabuchi. Resilient Borders and Cultural Diversity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015. 137 pp. $75 (cloth/e-book. Akihiro Iwashita. Japan’s Border Issues: Pitfalls and Prospects. New York: Routledge, 2016. 144 pp. $160 (cloth. The books reviewed here address three different borders in present-day Japanese society: internal, cultural, and geopolitical. It is rare for three different authors to concurrently publish monographs on Japanese borders from three different angles. This may be a sign of increasing consciousness within Japan on the issues of diversity, multiethnicity, old and new forms of discrimination, and continuing border conflicts with neighboring countries...

  18. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  19. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  20. Symmetry or asymmetry? Cross-border openness of service providers in Polish-Czech and Polish-German border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołzbłasz Sylwia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry and/or asymmetry in terms of cross-border openness of service providers is examined in this article, for the cases of two border twin towns: Cieszyn/Český Těšín at the Polish-Czech border, and Gubin/Guben at the Polish-German border. To assess the level of openness of firms towards clients from the other side of the border, four trans-border categories were examined: neighbour’s language visible at store location; business offers in the language of the neighbour; the possibilities of payment in the neighbour’s currency; and the staff’s knowledge of the language. This enabled a comparison of both parts of the particular twin towns in relation to the character of cross-border openness, as well as an assessment of their symmetry/asymmetry. Comparisons of Gubin/Guben and Cieszyn/Český Těšín with respect to the analysed features were also carried out. The analysis shows significant variation in the level of cross-border openness towards clients from neighbouring countries. Whereas in the Polish-Czech town a relative symmetry was observed, in the Polish-German case, significant asymmetry was noted.

  1. Experiences in Regional Cross Border Co-operation in River Management. Comparing Three Cases at the Dutch–German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Verwijmeren, J.A.; Lulofs, K.; Feld, C.

    2010-01-01

    Cross border co-operation is increasingly viewed as an obvious and logical consequence of an integrated perspective on river management. Consequently, we would expect an increase of cross border co-operation and collaboration in EU member states, through joint planning, co-management or

  2. The Humanitarian Drone and the Borders: Unveiling the Rationales Underlying the Deployment of Drones in Border Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa; Custers, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In these days economic and political pressures push for the deployment of drones’ technology in civil and commercial domains. This chapter focuses in particular on the deployment of drones in the context of border surveillance. Border surveillance is a shared competence between the European Union,

  3. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  4. HPGe detector shielding adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnkova, L.; Rulik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Low-level background shielding of HPGe detectors is used mainly for environmental samples with very low content of radionuclides. National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO) in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. The detectors are placed in a room built from materials with low content of natural radionuclides and equipped with a double isolation of the floor against radon. Detectors themselves are placed in lead or steel shielding. Steel shielding with one of these detectors with relative efficiency of 100% was chosen to be rebuilt to achieve lower minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space and filled with nitrogen by means of evaporating liquid nitrogen. The additional lead and copper shielding, consequent reduction of the inner volume and supply of evaporated nitrogen, caused a decrease of the background count and accordingly MDA values as well. The effect of nitrogen evaporation on the net areas of peaks belonging to radon daughters is significant. The enhanced shielding adjustment has the biggest influence in low energy range, what can be seen in collected data. MDA values in energy range from 30 keV to 400 keV decreased to 0.65-0.85 of original value, in energy range from 400 keV to 2 MeV they fell to 0.70-0.97 of original value. (authors)

  5. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the danish-german border region using life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    The treatment of organic waste from household in the Danish-German border region is very diverse, the Danish area only uses incineration for the treatment while the German system includes combined biogas and composting, mechanical and biological treatment and incineration. Data on all parts...... of the organic waste treatment has been collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life...... cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions....

  6. Development of cross-border transmission lines in Poland and their significance for the Central East Europeam energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andruszkiewicz, Jerzy

    2010-09-15

    This publication presents the existing cross-border transmission lines connecting Poland with neighbouring countries and their use in the currently applied mechanisms for making available the transfer capacities. The prospects and the considered options of development in cross-border interconnections were presented, taking into account their role in the integration of the European market and of the trade relations with neighbouring counties other than members of the European Community. The role of the planned interconnections in solving the problems of central European countries connected with the implementation of European strategy that reduce CO2 emissions in the area of electricity generation was discussed.

  7. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  8. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  9. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  10. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish...... cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34......-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts...

  11. Generation of stable lipid raft microdomains in the enterocyte brush border by selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Michael Danielsen

    Full Text Available The small intestinal brush border has an unusually high proportion of glycolipids which promote the formation of lipid raft microdomains, stabilized by various cross-linking lectins. This unique membrane organization acts to provide physical and chemical stability to the membrane that faces multiple deleterious agents present in the gut lumen, such as bile salts, digestive enzymes of the pancreas, and a plethora of pathogens. In the present work, we studied the constitutive endocytosis from the brush border of cultured jejunal explants of the pig, and the results indicate that this process functions to enrich the contents of lipid raft components in the brush border. The lipophilic fluorescent marker FM, taken up into early endosomes in the terminal web region (TWEEs, was absent from detergent resistant membranes (DRMs, implying an association with non-raft membrane. Furthermore, neither major lipid raft-associated brush border enzymes nor glycolipids were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in subapical punctae resembling TWEEs. Finally, two model raft lipids, BODIPY-lactosylceramide and BODIPY-GM1, were not endocytosed except when cholera toxin subunit B (CTB was present. In conclusion, we propose that constitutive, selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane acts as a sorting mechanism to enrich the brush border contents of lipid raft components, such as glycolipids and the major digestive enzymes. This sorting may be energetically driven by changes in membrane curvature when molecules move from a microvillar surface to an endocytic invagination.

  12. Generation of stable lipid raft microdomains in the enterocyte brush border by selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2013-01-01

    The small intestinal brush border has an unusually high proportion of glycolipids which promote the formation of lipid raft microdomains, stabilized by various cross-linking lectins. This unique membrane organization acts to provide physical and chemical stability to the membrane that faces multiple deleterious agents present in the gut lumen, such as bile salts, digestive enzymes of the pancreas, and a plethora of pathogens. In the present work, we studied the constitutive endocytosis from the brush border of cultured jejunal explants of the pig, and the results indicate that this process functions to enrich the contents of lipid raft components in the brush border. The lipophilic fluorescent marker FM, taken up into early endosomes in the terminal web region (TWEEs), was absent from detergent resistant membranes (DRMs), implying an association with non-raft membrane. Furthermore, neither major lipid raft-associated brush border enzymes nor glycolipids were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in subapical punctae resembling TWEEs. Finally, two model raft lipids, BODIPY-lactosylceramide and BODIPY-GM1, were not endocytosed except when cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) was present. In conclusion, we propose that constitutive, selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane acts as a sorting mechanism to enrich the brush border contents of lipid raft components, such as glycolipids and the major digestive enzymes. This sorting may be energetically driven by changes in membrane curvature when molecules move from a microvillar surface to an endocytic invagination.

  13. The Neural Border: Induction, Specification and Maturation of the territory that generates Neural Crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Patrick; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2018-05-28

    The neural crest is induced at the edge between the neural plate and the nonneural ectoderm, in an area called the neural (plate) border, during gastrulation and neurulation. In recent years, many studies have explored how this domain is patterned, and how the neural crest is induced within this territory, that also participates to the prospective dorsal neural tube, the dorsalmost nonneural ectoderm, as well as placode derivatives in the anterior area. This review highlights the tissue interactions, the cell-cell signaling and the molecular mechanisms involved in this dynamic spatiotemporal patterning, resulting in the induction of the premigratory neural crest. Collectively, these studies allow building a complex neural border and early neural crest gene regulatory network, mostly composed by transcriptional regulations but also, more recently, including novel signaling interactions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Han.Blok@royalhaskoning.com

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  15. An open mind to closed borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallet, Ulrike; Lefeber, Bob

    2017-04-01

    One aspect of "Science in tomorrow's classroom" is teaching geography students the basic skills and knowledge to play an active role in society as citizens. Topics that frame the development of good citizenship are wide-ranged and include climate change, migration and integration as well as democracy and identity. Often these kinds of topics do not allow for right or wrong answers or classroom lectures; it is more important to encourage students to find and discuss arguments with which to underpin their opinion. In this way, civic education is very suitable for active learning. Active learning is described as a method of learning in which students are actively involved in the learning process through (group) discussion, experiments or games. By doing so, students are stimulated to engage in higher-order thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, which are inherent to becoming responsible, reflective and critical citizens as well as (future) scientists. It has also been shown that the use of active learning methods significantly increased the number of meaningful geographical relationships that students give in tests (Karkdijk, 2012). I, therefore, propose to use active learning to approach civic education in the classroom. Specifically, I used a "mystery" to engage students in active learning on the highly polarizing subject of migration. A mystery (Leat, 1990) is a didactic method that uses short bits of information to solve an intriguing question. A current polarizing subject in society and in the classroom is the migration from Northern Africa and the Middle East to Europe and the increasing number of terrorist attacks by individuals who have radicalised before, during or after their journey over the Mediterranean. In class, students were asked to solve this migration mystery: "Could the terrorist attack in Berlin have been stopped by closing the borders of the Mediterranean countries to migrants?" In order to solve this mystery and to find an

  16. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m 2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m 2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  17. The Cosmopolitanization of the EU’s Borders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Spruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries the political geography of Europe has been based around borders of its nation states. The ability of the nation state to control its territory has been essential to the practices of war and diplomacy, the legitimacy of governments, immigration policies and trade. But processes of globalization and EU integration have transformed the borders of the European nation state. While globalization theorists tend to posit an opening up of borders to global flows of capital, information and people, the changed nature of the border is itself often left unexamined and is assumed to have simply disappeared. But scholars and activists are now arguing that, rather than fading away, borders are proliferating in the globalized world and their functions spreading into many different areas of society. This article examines the transformation of the ‘classical’ border of the nation-state into its recent forms, using the work of theorists such as Balibar, Mezzadra, Rigo and Walters. It then examines how these theories have been applied in recent literature, and in particular Chris Rumford’s analysis of the European Neighbourhood policy and his argument that this represents a ‘cosmopolitanisation’ of European borders.

  18. Market Intergration and Border Effects in Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Versailles

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies border efects in Eastern Africa by exploiting a consumer price data set covering 4 out of 5 EAC member states, 39 cities and 24 goods over the period 2004-2008. The Law-of-One-Price (LOP) is tested by running level regressions on relative prices with city-pairs the unit of observation. Unsurprisingly, distance plays an important role in explaining relative price movements, both within and between countries. The border efect as measured by the coef?cient on a border dummy is...

  19. Border Collision Route to Quasiperiodicity: Numerical Investigation and Experimental Confirmation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Mosekilde, Erik; Maity, S.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical studies of higher-dimensional piecewise-smooth systems have recently shown how a torus can arise from a periodic cycle through a special type of border-collision bifurcation. The present article investigates this new route to quasiperiodicity in the two-dimensional piecewise-linear normal...... form map. We have obtained the chart of the dynamical modes for this map and showed that border-collision bifurcations can lead to the birth of a stable closed invariant curve associated with quasiperiodic or periodic dynamics. In the parameter regions leading to the existence of an invariant closed...... to quasiperiodicity through a border-collision bifurcation. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...

  20. Social and cultural influences among Mexican border entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Bretones, Francisco; Cappello, Héctor M; Garcia, Pedro A

    2009-06-01

    Social and cultural conditions (including U.S. border and inland influence, role models within the family, and educational background) which affect locus of control and achievement motivation among Mexican entrepreneurs were explored among 64 selected entrepreneurs in two Mexican towns, one on the Mexico-U.S. border, the other located inland. Analyses showed that the border subsample scored higher on External locus of control; however, in both subsamples the father was an important element in the locus of control variable and the entrepreneur status. No statistically significant mean difference was noted for achievement motivation. Practical applications and limitations are discussed.

  1. CHANGING BORDERS, RETHINKING SOVEREIGNTY: TOWARDS A RIGHT TO MIGRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Casas-Cortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The intervention of European Union border authorities in countries of Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe has shown how the European state “border” has been displaced from its national moorings and externalized across the territories of neighboring states. Our research examines the outsourcing of the southern European Union border, focusing on the case of Spain and its relationship with Morocco and countries of Western Africa. In this paper we describe the development and implementation of this strategy of migration management, signaling implications of border externalization from the point of geopolitics and legality, including a suggestive call to reclaim the legal tradition of the Right to Migrate.

  2. Satisfaction in border tourism: An analysis with structural equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jimber del Río

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Border tourism is the temporary displacement of people to the dividing line between two countries contiguous areas. This activity promotes the economic development of these geographical regions. The aim of this research is to analyze visitors from the Dominican Republic and Haiti border. We propose the results of an empirical study with structural equations that show correlations between the attitude factor towards the border tourism, the value factors perceived by the tourist, satisfaction and loyalty of the visitor in the destination place.

  3. Learning from Cross-Border Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni; Karpin, Isabel; Stuhmcke, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Drawing upon the preliminary findings of an Australian empirical project on cross-border reproduction (CBR), this article argues that regulators and policymakers could learn from the experiences of those who travel overseas in order to access fertility treatment and surrogacy. It makes four principal observations. First, the distinction between so-called ‘altruistic’ and ‘commercial’ gamete donation and surrogacy is increasingly unsustainable and is not experienced as meaningful by many participants in CBR. Secondly, the status of the law in CBR is profoundly equivocal; for participants it is often there and not there at the same time. Thirdly, self-sourced information, from the internet and more specifically social media such as Facebook, is now the principal source of information and peer support for reproductive travellers. Fourthly, and relatedly, domestic reproductive services providers are often sidestepped. If one of the goals of regulation is to minimise the risk of harm to participants, it is not clear that it is currently achieving this aim, and this article argues that any reforms will only work if they are more responsive to the reality of CBR. PMID:28073821

  4. Contributions for studies’ epistemology regarding international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Medina García

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an interpretative model to be used from an interdisciplinary perspective when undertaking international border studies. Inspired by the theory of social dynamic fields (Sztompka, 1995, this model is articulated in four basic dimensions: ideational, normative, materialist and agentive. The model is both dynamic and interactive; it presupposes the existence of multiple and complex relationships among the four field dimensions, as well as a certain degree of autonomy in each one. The model is also governed by two fundamental vectors: space and time. The spatial dimension refers to the physical and material base, as well as the territorial, and to other aspects such as the psychological apprehension of space and of imaginary space. It its temporal, or historical, dimension, we consider the model to be in constant evolution, on an oneness basis, to the extent that it can be studied as a social fact. We stress the need to construct an eclectic methodology in order to reach a balanced conjunction among various aspects: the tangible and intangible, quantitative and qualitative, interpretive and comprehensive singular and shared, functional and rational-critical.

  5. Learning from Cross-Border Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emily; Millbank, Jenni; Karpin, Isabel; Stuhmcke, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Drawing upon the preliminary findings of an Australian empirical project on cross-border reproduction (CBR), this article argues that regulators and policymakers could learn from the experiences of those who travel overseas in order to access fertility treatment and surrogacy. It makes four principal observations. First, the distinction between so-called 'altruistic' and 'commercial' gamete donation and surrogacy is increasingly unsustainable and is not experienced as meaningful by many participants in CBR. Secondly, the status of the law in CBR is profoundly equivocal; for participants it is often there and not there at the same time. Thirdly, self-sourced information, from the internet and more specifically social media such as Facebook, is now the principal source of information and peer support for reproductive travellers. Fourthly, and relatedly, domestic reproductive services providers are often sidestepped. If one of the goals of regulation is to minimise the risk of harm to participants, it is not clear that it is currently achieving this aim, and this article argues that any reforms will only work if they are more responsive to the reality of CBR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Extrahepatic biliary atresia in a border collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, C; Rothuizen, J; van Sluijs, F J; Hazewinkel, H A; van den Ingh, T S

    2000-01-01

    Progressive lameness and leg pain were the predominant clinical signs in a 17-week-old male border collie presented for examination. On clinical investigation, extrahepatic cholestasis in association with rickets due to inadequate vitamin D resorption was diagnosed. The dog was treated parenterally with vitamin D and a cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. At 25 days postsurgery the lameness had resolved and bone structure was radiographically normal. However, at six weeks postsurgery, the dog's condition deteriorated rapidly and euthanasia was finally performed at eight weeks postsurgery. At postmortem examination, Toxocara canis nematodes were found to have invaded the biliary system via the anastomosis between the gallbladder and duodenum, causing biliary and hepatic toxocariasis. The cause of the primary extrahepatic cholestasis was atresia of the common bile duct at the hepatic end. The liver tissue showed microscopic lesions of chronic extrahepatic cholestasis as well as acute inflammation associated with the nematode invasion. There was no postmortem evidence of bone lesions. Extrahepatic biliary atresia is extremely rare in animals and has not been described before in dogs. In contrast, it represents the most common cause of congenital cholestasis in children, occurring in approximately one per 10,000 to 15,000 live births.

  7. Sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerencser, G.A.; Cattey, M.A; Ahearn, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Purified brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas using differential centrifugation and Mg +2 precipitation techniques. Uptake of 0.1 mM 35 SO 4 -2 was stimulated by pre-loading vesicles with Cl - leading to a transient accumulation of isotope more than twice that at equilibrium. Pre-loading with HCO 3 - or gluconate had no effect on sulfate uptake. No stimulation of 35 SO 4 -2 was observed in the presence of inwardly directed Na + or tetramethylammonium + gradients. Uptake of the divalent anion was strongly stimulated by inwardly directed proton gradients (pH o i ) and markedly inhibited by outwardly directed proton gradients (pH o > pH i ). 35 SO 4 -2 /Cl - exchange was enhanced by imposing a transmembrane inside positive K + diffusion potential and inhibited by a membrane potential of the opposite polarity (K + /valinomycin). Results suggest the presence of a proton-dependent, electrogenic anion antiport mechanism in BBMV isolated from the crustacean hepatopancreas

  8. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.

  9. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, P; Constantinou, P; Roy, S; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators. (paper)

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Binational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Emily L.; Smith, Ruben; Rojas, Rosalba; Mirchandani, Gita G.; McDonald, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer mortality is high along the US–Mexico border. We describe the prevalence of a recent Papanicolaou screening test (Pap) among US and Mexican border women. We analyzed 2006 cross-sectional data from Mexico’s National Survey of Health and Nutrition and the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Women aged 20–77 years in 44 US border counties (n = 1,724) and 80 Mexican border municipios (n = 1,454) were studied. We computed weighted proportions for a Pap within the past year by age, education, employment, marital status, health insurance, health status, risk behaviors, and ethnicity and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for the US, Mexico, and the region overall. Sixty-five percent (95 %CI 60.3–68.6) of US women and 32 % (95 %CI 28.7–35.2) of Mexican women had a recent Pap. US residence (APR = 2.01, 95 %CI 1.74–2.33), marriage (APR = 1.31, 95 %CI 1.17–1.47) and insurance (APR = 1.38, 95 %CI 1.22–1.56) were positively associated with a Pap test. Among US women, insurance and marriage were associated (APR = 1.21, 95 %CI 1.05–1.38 and 1.33, 95 %CI 1.10–1.61, respectively), and women aged 20–34 years were about 25 % more likely to have received a test than older women. Insurance and marriage were also positively associated with Pap testing among Mexican women (APR = 1.39, 95 %CI 1.17–1.64 and 1.50; 95 %CI 1.23–1.82, respectively), as were lower levels of education (≤8th grade or 9th–12th grade versus some college) (APR = 1.74; 95 %CI 1.21–2.52 and 1.60; 95 %CI 1.03–2.49, respectively). Marriage and insurance were associated with a recent Pap test on both sides of the border. Binational insurance coverage increases and/or cost reductions might bolster testing among unmarried and uninsured women, leading to earlier cervical cancer diagnosis and potentially lower mortality. PMID:22965734

  11. Sources and transport of black carbon at the California-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, Christopher A.; Klapmeyer, Michael E.; Quadros, Marina E.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2013-05-01

    At international border areas that suffer from poor air quality, assessment of pollutant sources and transport across the border is important for designing effective air quality management strategies. As part of the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign at the US-Mexico border in San Diego and Tijuana, we measured black carbon (BC) concentrations at three locations in Mexico and one in the United States. The measurements were intended to support the following objectives: to characterize the spatial and temporal variability in BC, to estimate the BC emission inventory, to identify potential source areas of BC emissions, and to assess the cross-border transport of BC. Concentrations at Parque Morelos, the campaign's supersite, averaged 2.2 μg m-3 and reached a maximum value of 55.9 μg m-3 (1-min average). Sharp, regularly occurring peaks around midnight were suggestive of clandestine industrial activity. BC concentrations were more than two times higher, on average, in Tijuana compared to San Diego. BC and carbon monoxide (CO) were strongly correlated at the three sites in Mexico. The ΔBC/ΔCO ratio of 5.6 ± 0.5 μg m-3 ppm-1 in Tijuana, or 4.7 ± 0.5 μg m-3 ppm-1 when adjusted for seasonal temperature effects to represent an annual average, was comparable to that in other urban areas. Tijuana's emissions of BC were estimated to be 230-890 metric tons per year, 6-23% of those estimated for San Diego. Large uncertainties in this estimate stem mainly from uncertainties in the CO emission inventory, and the lower end of the estimate is more likely to be accurate. Patterns in concentrations and winds suggest that BC in Tijuana was usually of local origin. Under typical summertime conditions such as those observed during the study, transport from Tijuana into the US was common, crossing the border in a northeasterly direction, sometimes as far east as Imperial County at the eastern edge of California.

  12. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently growing up in an residential care environment, aged 13 to 21 (M = 16.23, SD = 1.643. The second group consisted of 214 adolescents growing up in a family, aged 15 to 20 (M = 17.07, SD = 1.070. We used a questionnaire Youth Self Report. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and MANOVA. Results: Results showed that adolescents in residential care exhibit higher average values in all adjustment problems. Also, in the context of diagnostic categories are the residential care adolescents more frequently in non-normal range (borderline and clinical, primarily in the border range. The greatest differences were reflected in the Thought problems and Rule-breaking behavior. MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect between groups of adolescents, Hotelling's T = .803, F(8, 490 = 49.202, p <.001, d = .445 (large effect. Univariate analysis further showed a significant effect for Withdrawn/depressed (p = .044, d = .089, small effect, Somatic complaints (p = .002, d = .139, medium effect, Social problems (p = 004, d = .127, a small effect, Thought problems (p <.001, d = .633, strong effect, Attention problems (p <.001, d = .320,strong effect, Rule-breaking behavior (p <.001 , d = .383, strong effect, and Aggressive behavior (p = 015, d = .110, small effect. Results for the dimension of Anxious/depressed were not significant (p = .159. Discussion: The results didn’t confirmed the assumption that more than 30% of residential care adolescents have adjustment

  13. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 ...We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  14. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  15. Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carrillo Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Portal brings together papers examining the intersection of health and borders. In this analysis health is understood not only as the absence of illness, but also as knowledge, as a right, and as the pursuit of identity and self-transformation. Similarly, borders here are used as both physical and mental constructs. The special issue represent a multidisciplinary effort that looks at health from a social science perspective through historical, socio-economic, and cultural approaches. It is also concerned with the health inequities across and within national borders, due to economic imperatives, changing technologies and environments. The articles in this special issue explore lessons learned and new ways of understanding health across time and borders, with specific reference to the cases of India, Australia, Hong Kong and China, Pakistan, and Thailand.

  16. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...... traders, and considered as re-export products: building materials, cereals and flour, textile, used clothing, used vehicles, cigarettes and oil....

  17. Borders in Education and Living- a Case of Trench Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Pernille

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the notion of border will be examined in a cultural life course perspective. I will investigate borders as psycho-cultural constructions created to enable and control meaning-making in the intersection between subjects engagements and concerns and collectively constructed and guiding meanings. An empirical analysis of one boy's life course in and between home, school and a Leisure Time Activity Center in the years 1st to 3rd grade demonstrates a systemic construction of borders involving him, his teachers and his parents and renders the boy to choose between becoming an engaged pupil or a dedicated son. As such, the analysis can illuminate processes of school - home interactions that work opposite of what is intended and become detrimental to children's life. In a cultural life course perspective borders show how life is maintained as meaningful and not only guide the present living but also serve as directional guides into the future.

  18. Status of mangroves along the countries bordering the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Distribution of mangroves in the countries bordering the Arabian Sea, including Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, is reviewed and their present status is discussed. The estimated area of mangrove vegetation is 1140 sq. km...

  19. Smuggling and cross border shopping of tobacco in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1995-05-27

    Governments have recently become concerned about cross border shopping and smuggling because it can decrease tax revenue. The tobacco industry predicted that, with the removal of border controls in the European Union, price differences between neighbouring countries would lead to a diversion of tobacco trade, legally and illegally, to countries with cheaper cigarettes. According to them this diversion would be through increased cross border shopping for personal consumption or through increased smuggling of cheap cigarettes from countries with low tax to countries with high tax, where cigarettes are more expensive. These arguments have been used to urge governments not to increase tax on tobacco products. The evidence suggests, however, that cross border shopping is not yet a problem in Europe and that smuggling is not of cheap cigarettes to expensive countries. Instead, more expensive "international" brands are smuggled into northern Europe and sold illegally on the streets of the cheaper countries of southern Europe.

  20. Dose distributions of pendulum fields in the field border plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, R.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations (program SIDOS-U2) and LiF measurements taken in a cylindric water phantom are used to investigate the isodose distributions of different pendulum irradiation methods (Co-60) in a plane which is parallel to the central ray plane and crosses the field borders at the depth of the axis. The dose values compared to the maximum values of the central ray plane are completely different for each pendulum method. In case of monoaxial pendulum methods around small angles, the maximum dose value found in the border plane is less than 50% of the dose in the central ray plane. The relative maximum of the border plane moves to tissues laying in a greater depth. In case of bi-axial methods, the maximum value of the border plane can be much more than 50% of the maximum dose measured in the central ray plane. (orig.) [de

  1. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1997-01-01

    that galectin-4 is indeed an intestinal brush border protein; we also localized galectin-4 throughout the cell, mainly associated with membraneous structures, including small vesicles, and to the rootlets of microvillar actin filaments. This was confirmed by subcellular fractionation, showing about half...... by a nonclassical pathway, and the brush border enzymes represent a novel class of natural ligands for a member of the galectin family. Newly synthesized galectin-4 is rapidly "trapped" by association with intracellular structures prior to its apical secretion, but once externalized, association with brush border......Detergent-insoluble complexes prepared from pig small intestine are highly enriched in several transmembrane brush border enzymes including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, indicating that they reside in a glycolipid-rich environment in vivo. In the present work galectin-4, an animal lectin...

  2. Time to Put the Military on the Border

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deforge, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    .... It is well documented that the U.S. Border Patrol is undermanned, under-equipped, and under-trained to deal with the increasing numbers of illegal immigrants, escalating violent gang activity, and in the increasing incidents...

  3. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available flights enter our airspace. To control/coordinate the border environment effectively requires a vast range of information sources, reconnaissance and surveillance sensors, a communications infrastructure and a hub where information can be collected...

  4. Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    .... Reported escalations in criminal activity and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some law makers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the Mexico-United States border region...

  5. Situational crime prevention and cross-border crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on

  6. Geopolitics in the Forest: A Border of Wilderness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, 1/2 (2016), s. 5-23 ISSN 1212-4923 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : borders * Białowieża Forest * identity * Europeanization * environmental movement Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  7. The asymmetry of tourist images for the international cross border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The asymmetry of tourist images for the international cross border three- ... of images promotion strategy, which is called “positioning” in Marketing. ... Keywords: tourism, tourist brand, Chita region, Mongolia, tourist and recreational activities ...

  8. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  9. Accurate tool height control by bearing gap adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der A.M.; Schellekens, P.H.J.; Jaartsveld, F.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Face turning of optical surfaces on precision lathes needs high precision tool height adjustment, which may be a difficult and time-consuming task. In this paper we present a new tool adjustment mechanism based on varying the bearing gap height of the hydrostatic bearings present in precision lathe

  10. The Structure of Borders in a Small World

    OpenAIRE

    Thiemann, Christian; Theis, Fabian; Grady, Daniel; Brune, Rafael; Brockmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, it is unclear if existing administrative subdivisions that typically evolved decades ago still reflect the most plausible organizational structure of today. The complexity of modern human communication, the eas...

  11. Transboundary data management for nuclear plants near national borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narrog, J.; Obrecht, R.

    1998-01-01

    Transboundary data management was decided in the EU in case of incidents and accidents. The information is sent by codified messages in accordance with the Convention Information Structure (CIS). Within the international collaboration regarding nuclear installations near national borders, fixed telephone and tele-copy connections are used. In addition to that an online data exchange between France and Germany is being installed. This facilitates and accelerates ascertaining the radiological situation for both partners across the national borders. (author)

  12. The SPS was the second cross-border accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the Golden Jubilee article in the issue 25/2004 (14 June) we should have written that the SPS was the first big cross-border accelerator. In fact, the SPS was not the first cross-border accelerator: that title goes to the PS Booster which became operational in 1972. The PS Booster passes beams to the PS and to the ISOLDE facility. We are sorry for the mistake and thank our vigilant readers.

  13. Border Biofuels Limited - maintaining a sense of balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief description is given of a renewable energy initiative to grow wood fuel in the Scottish and English border region. The aim is to develop a new rural industry based on wood fuel feeding a power plant in a central location in the Borders area. The financial arrangements to grow short rotation coppice are outlined as are the environmental impacts and energy balance. (UK)

  14. Using automatic identification system technology to improve maritime border security

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, Tedric R.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Our coastal waters are the United States’ most open and vulnerable borders. This vast maritime domain harbors critical threats from terrorism, criminal activities, and natural disasters. Maritime borders pose significant security challenges, as nefarious entities have used small boats to conduct illegal activities for years, and they continue to do so today. Illegal drugs, money, weapons, and migrants flow both directions across our ma...

  15. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished.

  16. The Treaty of Lisbon and the European Border Control Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Takle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The question raised in the article is how the new provisions of the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm programme concerning the EU’s asylum and migration policy might consolidate existing trends within the European border control regime. The regime is defined by a combination of three features: (i a harmonisation of categories among the EU/Schengen member states, (ii a growing use of new technology in networked databases and (iii an increasing sorting of individuals based on security concerns. Although none of these features is new, the combination gives a new impetus to the European border control regime. The article concludes that the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm programme consolidate and strengthen existing trends. This implies that policies on border control, asylum, immigration, judicial cooperation and police cooperation are consolidated in a broader approach to border control, and that there is a strengthening of EU foreign policy within the European border control regime. The boundaries between previously dispersed policy areas are blurred. The combination of different aspects of security and various levels of authority requires coordination of policies with substantially different goals, and goes beyond mere border control.

  17. A soft kinetic data structure for lesion border detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockara, Sinan; Mete, Mutlu; Yip, Vincent; Lee, Brendan; Aydin, Kemal

    2010-06-15

    The medical imaging and image processing techniques, ranging from microscopic to macroscopic, has become one of the main components of diagnostic procedures to assist dermatologists in their medical decision-making processes. Computer-aided segmentation and border detection on dermoscopic images is one of the core components of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions for skin cancer. Automated assessment tools for dermoscopic images have become an important research field mainly because of inter- and intra-observer variations in human interpretations. In this study, a novel approach-graph spanner-for automatic border detection in dermoscopic images is proposed. In this approach, a proximity graph representation of dermoscopic images in order to detect regions and borders in skin lesion is presented. Graph spanner approach is examined on a set of 100 dermoscopic images whose manually drawn borders by a dermatologist are used as the ground truth. Error rates, false positives and false negatives along with true positives and true negatives are quantified by digitally comparing results with manually determined borders from a dermatologist. The results show that the highest precision and recall rates obtained to determine lesion boundaries are 100%. However, accuracy of assessment averages out at 97.72% and borders errors' mean is 2.28% for whole dataset.

  18. A complete generalized adjustment criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.

    2015-01-01

    Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent

  19. Mapping and assessing the environmental impacts of border tactical infrastructure in the Sky Island Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline Patrick-Birdwell; Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jenny Neeley; Louise Misztal

    2013-01-01

    In this project we mapped the different types of border barriers, identified impacts of border infrastructure on public and private lands and conducted spatial analyses within the approximately 200 miles of international border in the Sky Island region. The Sky Island region, bisected by the U.S.-Mexico border, is critically important for its biodiversity and...

  20. 78 FR 35103 - Extension of Border Zone in the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., established in 1953, was intended to promote the economic stability of the border region by allowing for freer... having to obtain a Form I-94. Although the border zone was intended to promote the economic stability of... maintain security of the border while increasing economic activity in New Mexico's border region and...

  1. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  2. Cross-border migration and initiation of others into drug injecting in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafful, Claudia; Melo, Jason; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Rangel, Gudelia; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Werb, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Efforts to prevent injection drug use (IDU) are increasingly focusing on the role that people who inject drugs (PWID) play in facilitating the entry of others into this behaviour. This is particularly relevant in settings experiencing high levels of IDU, such as Mexico's northern border region, where cross-border migration, particularly through forced deportation, has been found to increase a range of health and social harms related to injecting. PWID enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Tijuana, Mexico, since 2011 were interviewed semi-annually, which solicited responses on their experiences initiating others into injecting. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted at the Preventing Injection by Modifying Existing Responses (PRIMER) baseline, with the dependent variable defined as reporting ever initiating others into injection. The primary independent variable was lifetime deportation from the USA to Mexico. Among 532 participants, 14% (n = 76) reported initiating others into injecting, the majority of participants reporting initiating acquaintances (74%, n = 56). In multivariable analyses, initiating others into injecting was independently associated with reporting living in the USA for 1-5 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-4.79, P = 0.01], and methamphetamine and heroin injection combined (AOR = 3.67; 95% CI 1.11-12.17, P = 0.03). Deportation was not independently associated with initiating others into injecting. The impact of migration needs to be considered within binational programming seeking to prevent the expansion of epidemics of injecting and HIV transmission among mobile populations residing in the Mexico-USA border region. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Police Victimization Among Persons Who Inject Drugs Along the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Zuniga, Maria Luisa; Perez, Ramona; Macera, Caroline A; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-09-01

    Problematic policing practices are an important driver of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the U.S.-Mexico border region. This study identifies factors associated with recent (i.e., past 6 months) police victimization (e.g., extortion, physical and sexual violence) in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. From 2011 to 2013, 733 PWID (62% male) were recruited in Tijuana and completed a structured questionnaire. Eligible participants were age 18 years or older, injected illicit drugs within the past month, and spoke Spanish or English. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified correlates of recent experiences of police victimization (e.g., bribes, unlawful confiscation, physical and sexual violence). Overall, 56% of PWID reported a recent police victimization experience in Tijuana. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, factors independently associated with recent police victimization included recent injection of methamphetamine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.62; 95% CI [1.18, 2.21]) and recently received injection assistance by a "hit doctor" (AOR = 1.56; 95% CI [1.03, 2.36]). Increased years lived in Tijuana (AOR = 0.98 per year; 95% CI [0.97, 0.99]) and initiating drug use at a later age (AOR = 0.96 per year; 95% CI [0.92, 0.99]) were inversely associated with recent police victimization. Physical drugusing markers may increase PWID susceptibility to police targeting and contribute to experiences of victimization. Interventions aimed at reducing police victimization events in the U.S.-Mexico border region should consider PWID's drug-using behaviors. Reducing problematic policing practices may be a crucial public health strategy to reduce HIV risk among PWID in this region.

  4. Food security in a world without borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    is through community nutrition programmes that encourage the full participation and co-operation of the entire community, maximise the utilisation of local resources, grasp the benefits of new technologies for productivity gains, involve multiple sectors and engage strong political commitment. The international community will be judged by its treatment of its most vulnerable members. The international community has repeatedly declared that it is dedicated to the eradication of poverty. Eliminating hunger and malnutrition is a vital first step. The political will to fight hunger and a firm commitment to invest in agriculture' and rural development are critical elements in any effort to achieve sustainable alleviation of hunger and poverty. This meeting and the WFS:FYL provide the additional impetus to meet the challenge of achieving food and nutritional security in a world without borders and free from hunger and malnutrition.

  5. Transboundary Groundwater Along the Canadian-American Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.

    2009-05-01

    Canada does not have obvious problems as a consequence of the intensive use of surface water or groundwater. Canada mostly struggles to keep the quality of its waters, in the highest standards, and to overcome the knowledge gaps of its groundwater resources. In assessing water resources, it has become obvious that both surface and groundwater resources are equally important. Because of this shift, Canada is interested in transboundary groundwater issues, both between provinces and internationally. There is no competition in Canada for groundwater resources between provinces or internationally. When an aquifer extends beneath the border of two jurisdictions, conflict may arise when one jurisdiction depletes groundwater resources that affect the quantity and quality of water available to the other jurisdiction. The most important cases of transboundary aquifers within Canada are located in the Prairie Provinces, but no competition has been reported. The equitable and "reasonable" use of shared waters is the most essential principle considered when negotiating a groundwater apportionment method. Other factors considered are: the priority use, the sustainable yield of the aquifer, and the joint apportionment of surface water and groundwater Over 20 million Canadians live in watersheds that cross the Canada-US border (over 17 million of them in the Great Lakes-St Lawrence watershed), and are therefore affected by American policies, or else affect American water quality. The International Joint Commission is one well-developed and valuable mechanism for coordinating policies between Canada and the United States. Other mechanisms include provisions under the North American Free Trade Agreement, supported by its environmental commission, which attempt to ensure that the Agreement's policies are consistent with environmental protection and conservation as well as strengthening the development and enforcement of environmental laws and regulations. Policies affecting

  6. Border dimension of Chilean foreign policies: Immobility and urgency of new dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovando Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article draws the priorities of border public policy that define the Chilean foreign policy. Through a theoretical framework from the rational–reflective approach of International Relations, we argue that despite of the increasing openness, internationalization of the country, and the emergence of new actors and subnational initiatives; the views and options between the actors of this new area and the definitions of foreign policy not always match. We propose the need to establish mechanisms that settle the positions among regional social–political actors, intermediate agencies and the central level.

  7. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder is a type of stress-related mental illness that can affect your feelings, thoughts and behaviors. Signs and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness ...

  8. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  9. Art and cartography as a critique of borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Ribeiro, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between art and cartography. The main objective is to analyze how contemporary art uses maps to criticize borders. Inspired by the arguments raised by the Critical Cartography against the false neutrality of maps, we emphasize the potential of artworks to communicate different insights about how we experience and live the contemporary space. In that sense, art plays an important role not only to discuss the articulation of power and knowledge in cartography, but also to propose other categories of thought. Considering that borders are one of the most relevant visual elements on a map, we propose the following question: how the intersection between art and cartography can improve the critical thinking about borders? By questioning borders, art underlines that physical world is characterized by liminal spaces, not by absolute or strict separations. We briefly analyzed some examples of artworks that deal with political issues regarding this topic. Our findings suggest that art could reveal the impact of imposing borders in a space, whose arbitrary delimitation reflects power relations.

  10. Being thought from beyond our borders: Towards ethical global citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to the challenge of global citizenship in an age of global crisis. Citizenship has to do with where one feels �at home�, namely the space that gifts identity and life. What kind of narrative is necessary to transform global space into a home from where we can go beyond our borders to embrace the other in multidisciplinary research or interfaith praxis? The different models for multidisciplinary research are made possible by the idea that research seeks that which is beyond its borders. This search could be a common space where the different traditions can accommodate one another, but it is not a home. The dominant discourse of this common space is to seek commonality and identities across borders while being aware of but ignoring differences � identity at the expense of differences. A home founded on identity at the expense of difference will always exclude. Theology can either be interpreted as thinking beyond the borders toward the Divine, or the Divine thinking us. The Exodus, the Incarnation and the Cross are all narratives of the Other crossing borders, liberating from boundaries, deconstructing the laws and norms that exclude. The religious traditions of these sacred narratives have something to offer, namely: to be thought by the Other, to receive life and (alien identity from the Other, the gift of a home which is continuously deconstructed by the home still to come, therefore always open for the Other.

  11. The role of immigration age on alcohol and drug use among border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Vaeth, Patrice A C

    2014-07-01

    To determine the age of immigration at which the marked increase in risk for alcohol- and drug-use problems in adulthood is observed among Mexican American adults residing in 2 distinct contexts: the U.S.-Mexico border, and cities not proximal to the border. We used 2 samples of Mexican American adults: specifically, 1,307 who resided along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 1,288 non-border adults who were interviewed as a part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey study. Survey logistic and Poisson regression methods were used to examine how immigration age during adolescence is related to alcohol- and drug-use behavior in adulthood. We found that participants who immigrate to the United States prior to age 14 have qualitatively different alcohol- and drug-related outcomes compared to those who immigrate later in life. Adults who immigrated at younger ages have alcohol- and drug-use patterns similar to those who were U.S.-born. Adults who immigrated at young ages and reside distal from the U.S.-Mexico border are at greater risk for alcohol and drug use than those who live in border contexts. Immigration from Mexico to the U.S. before age 14 results in alcohol- and drug-related behavior that mirrors the behavior of U.S.-born residents, and the alcohol- and drug-use effects were more pronounced among adults who did not reside proximal to the U.S.-Mexico border. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. A modified GHG intensity indicator: Toward a sustainable global economy based on a carbon border tax and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrahi Moghaddam, Reza; Farrahi Moghaddam, Fereydoun; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    It will be difficult to gain the agreement of all the actors on any proposal for climate change management, if universality and fairness are not considered. In this work, a universal measure of emissions to be applied at the international level is proposed, based on a modification of the Greenhouse Gas Intensity (GHG-INT) measure. It is hoped that the generality and low administrative cost of this measure, which we call the Modified Greenhouse Gas Intensity measure (MGHG-INT), will eliminate any need to classify nations. The core of the MGHG-INT is what we call the IHDI-adjusted Gross Domestic Product (IDHIGDP), based on the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). The IDHIGDP makes it possible to propose universal measures, such as MGHG-INT. We also propose a carbon border tax applicable at national borders, based on MGHG-INT and IDHIGDP. This carbon tax is supported by a proposed global Emissions Trading System (ETS). The proposed carbon tax is analyzed in a short-term scenario, where it is shown that it can result in a significant reduction in global emissions while keeping the economy growing at a positive rate. In addition to annual GHG emissions, cumulative GHG emissions over two decades are considered with almost the same results. - Highlights: ► An IHDI-adjusted GDP (IHDIGDP) is introduced to universally account the activities of nations. ► A modified GHG emission intensity (MGHG-INT) is introduced based on the IHDIGDP. ► Based on green and red scenarios, admissible emissions and RED percentage are introduced. ► The RED percentage is used to define a border carbon tax (BCT) and emission trading system. ► The MGHG-INT can provide a universal control on emissions while allowing high economical growth

  13. Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2014-09-01

    The rise of electronic games has driven both concerns and hopes regarding their potential to influence young people. Existing research identifies a series of isolated positive and negative effects, yet no research to date has examined the balance of these potential effects in a representative sample of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to explore how time spent playing electronic games accounts for significant variation in positive and negative psychosocial adjustment using a representative cohort of children aged 10 to 15 years. A large sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment and reported typical daily hours spent playing electronic games. Relations between different levels of engagement and indicators of positive and negative psychosocial adjustment were examined, controlling for participant age and gender and weighted for population representativeness. Low levels (3 hours daily) of game engagement was linked to key indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Low engagement was associated with higher life satisfaction and prosocial behavior and lower externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas the opposite was found for high levels of play. No effects were observed for moderate play levels when compared with non-players. The links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (Games consistently but not robustly associated with children's adjustment in both positive and negative ways, findings that inform policy-making as well as future avenues for research in the area. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Determination of the anatomic borders of the irradiation area for cervical and corporal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller-Kuhlmann, G.

    1980-01-01

    Intention of the present study was to refer the silhouettes of the irradiation field to anatomically definite osseous structures. For this examination the caudal, cranial and the lateral borders were marked by different methods and their position with respect to the corresponding osseous structures was detected. For documenting the soft-tissue structures the following techniques could be applied: lymphography, hysterosalpingography, vaginal contrasting and computerized tomography. The evaluation of the obtained results showed that the dorsal silhouette ranges between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae, that the lateral silhouette reaches the middle of the head of the femur and that the caudal one includes the obturator. The detection and definition of the target area for curative radiotherapy of corporal and cervical carcinomas can therefore renounce on the contrast representation of soft-tissue organs. On the contrary it is even possible to adjust the irradiation field with the therapy simulator under consideration of anatomically fixed osseous structures. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Cross-border issues that arise in conjunction with the execution of U.S.-Canadian natural gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    Development of the U.S.-Canadian natural gas market as it is today and the issues that may arise in cross-border transactions involving natural gas contracts between the two countries are reviewed. In this context, the paper reviews recent history of U.S.-Canadian trade relations culminating in the development of NAFTA, the U.S. regulatory and legislative framework surrounding cross-border natural gas transactions, and general U.S. foreign trade policy that may come into play at the U.S.- Canada border. The paper also examines certain issues arising in the U.S. commercial context that may be of interest to Canadian corporations, specifically the U.S. Uniform Commercial Code, state jurisdiction on the U.S. side of the border, state and federal tax concerns, and the mechanics and potential benefits for a Canadian parent company in forming a U.S.-based subsidiary to handle U.S.-Canada natural gas transactions. 71 refs

  16. State borders in ETRS89 coordinates – reality or fiction ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Poláček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Common unique ETRS89 coordinates of the state boundaries are crucial for cross-border data harmonization for international projects. In the frame of European Location Framework (ELF project Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (ČÚZK cooperates with Poland on egde-matching on the state border. During the preliminary phase of the project was some difficulty identified. If the state boundary is measured and administered in the national coordinate system, the accuracy of the transformation into the ETRS89 is influenced by discrepancies of the local trigonometric network, which results in two slightly different state boundaries. Final solution for Europe – international treaties on the state borders based on the ETRS89 coordinates – is necessary, but it will take years.

  17. Tracing of border trap behavior by noise analysis in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, K.A.A.; Shaalan, A.A.M.; Gomaa, E.I.

    2008-01-01

    The present state of art of this work is to study the electrical defects of the silicon- silicon dioxide interface created by gamma rays (Co 60 ) in submicron MOS devices used in telecommunication systems. We focus our investigation on a particular class of trapped charge located near the interface characterized as the border traps. The expected physical location and chemical structure of the traps were discussed. The low frequency 1/f noise measurement is used in the estimation of border trap densities before and after irradiation; the results are reported for n-MOS transistor exposed to doses (0.3, 0.5, 1 and 10 Mrad). The border trap population in the irradiated samples increased from 7.6*10 10 up to 1.03*10 11 eV -1 Cm -2

  18. Forecasting the electricity consumption of the Mexican border states maquiladoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.E.; Phelan, P.E. [Arizona State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tempe, AZ (United States); Mou, J.-I. [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Operation Planning Div., Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Bryan, H. [Arizona State Univ., School of Architecture, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The consumption of electricity by maquiladora industries in the Mexican border states is an important driver for determining future powerplant needs in that area. An industrial electricity forecasting model is developed for the border states' maquiladoras, and the outputs are compared with a reference forecasting model developed for the US industrial sector, for which considerably more data are available. This model enables the prediction of the effect of implementing various energy efficiency measures in the industrial sector. As an illustration, here the impact of implementing energy-efficient lighting and motors in the Mexican border states' maquiladoras was determined to be substantial. Without such energy efficiency measures, electricity consumption for these industries is predicted to rise by 64% from 2001 to 2010, but if these measures are implemented on a gradual basis over the same time period, electricity consumption is forecast to rise by only 36%. (Author)

  19. MATRIX FOR COOPERATION IN THE CROSS-BORDER AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela ȘLUSARCIUC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crossborder areas have no constitutional competences, therefore most of the times they are not part of the decision making process in the agreements in cross-border relationships. Although the states are the ones to decide the policies and the agreements based on their own legal rules, considering the shape of the new European Union, they should more and more accept the conditionality of a regional overstate structure linked only to some geographical parts of the countries. The present paper proposes a theoretical and intuitive frame for assessing the cross-border areas based on the factors that are influencing it, starting from a listing of them, secondly grouping them in separating and uniting, then finding the significant differences. The matrix of factors can be used for conflict resolution or for development of cross-border areas as long as it shows the points that will be a potential obstacle or a source for cooperation.

  20. Displaced Borders: The Written Traumatic Borderline between Pskov Province and Chechnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ristolainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the narrative construction of borders through an analysis of "non-professional writing" produced by the residents of Pskov. It discusses the construction of national borders and the symbolic meanings invested in them, with the empirical focus being placed on the symbolic Russian-Chechen border. The theoretical essence is the realization that due to the constructive and narrative na-tures of border production, the creation of a national borderline does not necessarily pre-suppose that the two sides share a geographical border. The article also addresses questions of traumatic memory and links border production with the concept of cultural trauma. By asking where Russia's borders currently located, this article provides an example of the cultural construction and symbolic displacement of the "national border", and a representation of how the national b/ordering processes differ when viewed from both "bottom up" and "top-down" perspectives in the contemporary Russian Federation.

  1. Factors Associated with Depression Among Mexican Americans Living in U.S.-Mexico Border and Non-Border Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A

    2016-08-01

    Factors associated with CES-D depression among Mexican Americans living on and off the U.S.-Mexico border are examined. Data are from two studies of Mexican American adults. The Border Survey conducted face-to-face interviews in urban U.S.-Mexico border counties of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N = 1307). The non-border HABLAS survey conducted face-to-face interviews in Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and Miami (N = 1288). Both surveys used a multistage cluster sample design with response rates of 67 and 76 %, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that border residence and higher perceived neighborhood collective efficacy were protective for depression among men. Among men, lower education, unemployment, increased weekly drinking, and poor health status were associated with depression. Among women, alcohol-related problems and poorer health status were also associated with depression. Further examinations of how neighborhood perceptions vary by gender and how these perceptions influence the likelihood of depression are warranted.

  2. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  3. Information Analysis Methodology for Border Security Deployment Prioritization and Post Deployment Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Paul M.; Maple, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Due to international commerce, cross-border conflicts, and corruption, a holistic, information driven, approach to border security is required to best understand how resources should be applied to affect sustainable improvements in border security. The ability to transport goods and people by land, sea, and air across international borders with relative ease for legitimate commercial purposes creates a challenging environment to detect illicit smuggling activities that destabilize national level border security. Smuggling activities operated for profit or smuggling operations driven by cross border conflicts where militant or terrorist organizations facilitate the transport of materials and or extremists to advance a cause add complexity to smuggling interdiction efforts. Border security efforts are further hampered when corruption thwarts interdiction efforts or reduces the effectiveness of technology deployed to enhance border security. These issues necessitate the implementation of a holistic approach to border security that leverages all available data. Large amounts of information found in hundreds of thousands of documents can be compiled to assess national or regional borders to identify variables that influence border security. Location data associated with border topics of interest may be extracted and plotted to better characterize the current border security environment for a given country or region. This baseline assessment enables further analysis, but also documents the initial state of border security that can be used to evaluate progress after border security improvements are made. Then, border security threats are prioritized via a systems analysis approach. Mitigation factors to address risks can be developed and evaluated against inhibiting factor such as corruption. This holistic approach to border security helps address the dynamic smuggling interdiction environment where illicit activities divert to a new location that provides less resistance

  4. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M.; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano; Hunt, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO 2 -tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  5. Cross-border mergers and acquisitions and European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Coeurdacier, Nicolas; de Santis, Roberto A.; Aviat, Antonin

    2009-01-01

    Cross-border mergers and acquisitions activities (M&As) sharply increased over the last two decades, partly as a result of financial liberalization policies, government policies and regional agreements. In this paper, we identify some of the main forces driving M&As, using a unique database on bilateral cross-border M&As at the sectoral level (in manufacturing and services) over the period 1985-2004. The key empirical findings are: (1) EMU helped the restructuring of capital within the same s...

  6. Border collisions inside the stability domain of a fixed point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avrutin, Viktor; Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2016-01-01

    a complicated interior structure formed by boundaries defined by persistence border collisions. We describe a simple approach that is based on symbolic dynamics and makes it possible to detect such boundaries numerically. Using this approach we describe several regions in the parameter space leading......Recent studies on a power electronic DC/AC converter (inverter) have demonstrated that such systems may undergo a transition from regular dynamics (associated with a globally attracting fixed point of a suitable stroboscopic map) to chaos through an irregular sequence of border-collision events...

  7. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether surface elements belong to a figure or the background and that this is influenced by attention. We furthermore suggest that there must be strong links between object recognition and figure-ground assignment in order to resolve the status of interior contours. Incorporation of these factors in neurocomputational models will further improve our understanding of surface reconstruction, figure-ground organization, and border-ownership.

  8. Brujeria and the U.S.-Mexico Border Outlaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Conover

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the death metal band Brujeria, their use of both traditional and contemporary outlaw imagery, and their connection to the narcocorrido, in order to examine the tenacity of the outlaw paradigm as an expression of resistance by subordinate groups in situations of social inequality. It deals with the contemporary figure of the outlaw in connection to the U.S.-Mexico border region, as influenced by outlaw traditions in the area, and as an expression of specific contemporary historical circumstances of that region, including Mexican economic crisis, globalization, and border conflicts surrounding immigration, drug trafficking, and labor.

  9. A Philosophical vs. a Psychological Perspective on Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2016-03-01

    This paper questions to what extent borders are to be understood from a philosophical or a psychological perspective. This is done by investigating the distinction between philosophy and psychology that comes up as a result of Immanuel Kant's investigation of the pure reason. Ontology is found as a demarcation criterion between the two fields in the sense that it is of crucial importance in philosophy, but not of certain interest from a psychological point of view. An investigation of three assumptions in the perspective of affective loading follows this up, which confirms the efficiency of borders in psychological meaning production.

  10. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past years, Denmark has become a destination for fertility travellers, in need for donated sperm. Today, treatment is possible no matter of marital status or sexuality. Furthermore, users of sperm donation can choose between anonymous and non-anonymous sperm, with either basic...... will analyze how women and their partners crossing the Danish border accounts for their donor choice, and their practices of choosing. I will be exploring the question: How are women and their partners accounting for choosing a sperm donor, crossing the (ethical) border to Denmark? The use of the term...

  11. Problems of state adjustment the telecommunications industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tregub Ilona Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the mechanism of state adjustment of the telecommunications industry companies, providing the additional mobile services (VAS-services, by determining the optimal rates of tax and non-tax payments to the budget. Method is based on the approach of A. Laffer, who showed the possibility of existence an optimal tax rate, which provides, on the one hand, the maximum flow of funds in the budget, on the other hand, preserves the incentives of entrepreneurship. In the present paper, we study the dependence of revenues to the Reserve Fund on the size of the contribution rate and the coefficient of profitability of enterprises providing VAS-services.

  12. Flow-based market coupling. A joint ETSO-EuroPEX proposal for cross-border congestion management and integration of electricity markets in Europe. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    ETSO and EuroPEX have previously published separate proposals for congestion management and market operation across borders in Europe. ETSO has described a 'vision' in which Transmission System Operators (TSOs) would support trade between a variety of different markets by taking explicit account of the physical flows of electricity between them ('flow-based modelling'). EuroPEX has described 'Decentralized Market Coupling' as a method to integrate regional energy markets with cross-border congestion management. In most respects the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals are consistent and complementary. In particular, both organisations agree that market-based congestion management mechanisms should be used at all borders wherever possible, and that they should be co-ordinated to take account of the interdependence of physical flows. Furthermore, both ETSO and EuroPEX recognize that integrated markets are in general more efficient than separate ones, but accept that coupling of regional markets is the most realistic way of achieving efficiency benefits in the short and medium term. The commonalty between the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals has been noted by the 'Florence' Regulators' Forum, which has therefore encouraged ETSO and EuroPEX to work together to develop joint proposals. They have responded by setting up a Joint Working Group, which has produced this report to describe its progress to date. Currently, there exists a wide variety of organisational structures and operational practices in Europe. Consequently, ETSO and EuroPEX agreed at an early stage that, although a joint vision of a flow-based market coupling (FMC) model should be developed, it was equally important to identify how the current arrangements could evolve towards it in a series of practical steps. The work is not yet complete. This is an interim report designed to expose ideas at an early stage to enable Regulators, Users and other interested parties to join the debate and provide feedback. In particular

  13. Flow-based market coupling. A joint ETSO-EuroPEX proposal for cross-border congestion management and integration of electricity markets in Europe. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    ETSO and EuroPEX have previously published separate proposals for congestion management and market operation across borders in Europe. ETSO has described a 'vision' in which Transmission System Operators (TSOs) would support trade between a variety of different markets by taking explicit account of the physical flows of electricity between them ('flow-based modelling'). EuroPEX has described 'Decentralized Market Coupling' as a method to integrate regional energy markets with cross-border congestion management. In most respects the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals are consistent and complementary. In particular, both organisations agree that market-based congestion management mechanisms should be used at all borders wherever possible, and that they should be co-ordinated to take account of the interdependence of physical flows. Furthermore, both ETSO and EuroPEX recognize that integrated markets are in general more efficient than separate ones, but accept that coupling of regional markets is the most realistic way of achieving efficiency benefits in the short and medium term. The commonalty between the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals has been noted by the 'Florence' Regulators' Forum, which has therefore encouraged ETSO and EuroPEX to work together to develop joint proposals. They have responded by setting up a Joint Working Group, which has produced this report to describe its progress to date. Currently, there exists a wide variety of organisational structures and operational practices in Europe. Consequently, ETSO and EuroPEX agreed at an early stage that, although a joint vision of a flow-based market coupling (FMC) model should be developed, it was equally important to identify how the current arrangements could evolve towards it in a series of practical steps. The work is not yet complete. This is an interim report designed to expose ideas at an early stage to enable Regulators, Users and other interested parties to join the

  14. Fiscal Adjustment in IMF-Supported Adjustment Programmes: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiscal adjustment is an essential element of macro-economic stability and economic growth. Given that economic growth is the most powerful weapon in the fight for higher living standards, poor growth performance in African countries, has been a challenge to economists, policy makers and international development ...

  15. Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2011-12-01

    Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.

  16. GPU Parallel Bundle Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Maoteng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with massive data in photogrammetry, we introduce the GPU parallel computing technology. The preconditioned conjugate gradient and inexact Newton method are also applied to decrease the iteration times while solving the normal equation. A brand new workflow of bundle adjustment is developed to utilize GPU parallel computing technology. Our method can avoid the storage and inversion of the big normal matrix, and compute the normal matrix in real time. The proposed method can not only largely decrease the memory requirement of normal matrix, but also largely improve the efficiency of bundle adjustment. It also achieves the same accuracy as the conventional method. Preliminary experiment results show that the bundle adjustment of a dataset with about 4500 images and 9 million image points can be done in only 1.5 minutes while achieving sub-pixel accuracy.

  17. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Anaya; Wael K Al-Delaimy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explo...

  18. Tuberculosis-diabetes epidemiology in the border and non-border regions of Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Bassent E; Garcia-Viveros, Moncerrato; Ramirez-Oropesa, Horacio; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2016-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a re-emerging risk factor for TB development and adverse TB outcomes. As a follow-up of our previous study in 1998-2004, we reassessed prevalence of DM and its associated factors among 8431 TB patients using surveillance data from 2006 to 2013 for the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, across the border with Texas. Prevalence of DM was 25.2%, with an increase of at least 2.8% over the study period. Newly discovered factors associated with TB-DM (versus no DM) were lower education and higher unemployment (p pulmonary (versus extra-pulmonary) and drug-resistant TB (1.9-, 3.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively). During treatment, TB-DM patients were more likely to be smear-positive, and less likely to die or abandon TB treatment. Thus, the increasing prevalence of DM among TB, and its association with low education, features of a more contagious TB, and drug resistance, highlight the need for design of TB management programs in DM patients, blood testing of all new TB patients for DM, and if positive for DM, testing for drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatitis A in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border: the role of international travel and food-borne exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michelle; Hopkins, Jackie; Farrington, Leigh; Gresham, Louise; Ginsberg, Michele; Bell, Beth P

    2004-07-01

    Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border historically have had among the highest hepatitis A rates in the United States, but risk factors have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border in San Diego County, California. In this case-control study, hepatitis A cases among Hispanic children who were younger than 18 years reported from June 1998 through August 2000 were matched by age group and exposure period to Hispanic children who were susceptible to HAV infection. Participants and their families were interviewed about demographic information and potential sources of HAV infection, including attending child care, food and waterborne exposures, cross-border and other international travel, and travel-related activities. Participants included 132 children with hepatitis A and 354 control subjects. The median age of study participants was 7 years (range: 1-17). Sixty-seven percent of case-patients traveled outside the United States during the incubation period, compared with 25% of the children without hepatitis A (odds ratio [OR]: 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-9.7); all children, except 1, had traveled to Mexico. In multivariate analysis, hepatitis A was associated with having eaten food from a taco stand or street food vendor (adjusted OR: 17.0; 95% CI: 4.1-71.1) and having eaten salad/lettuce (adjusted OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) during travel. Hepatitis A among Hispanic children who live in an urban area of the United States-Mexico border is associated with cross-border travel to Mexico and food-borne exposures during travel. Travelers to areas where hepatitis A is endemic should receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.

  20. Impact of cigarette price differences across the entire European Union on cross-border purchase of tobacco products among adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Blecher, Evan; Filippidis, Filippos T; Omaduvie, Uyoyo T; Vozikis, Athanassios; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the impact of cigarette price differences across the European Union (EU) on cross-border tobacco purchasing because of cheaper price among current cigarette smokers. Individual-level tobacco-related data (including cross-border tobacco purchasing behavior) were from the Special Eurobarometer 385 (V.77.1), a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years from 27 EU Member States during 2012. Country-specific weighted average prices (WAP) per 1000 cigarettes (as of 1 July 2012) were obtained from the European Commission, and divided by 50 to yield WAP per cigarette pack. The dispersion in EU cigarette prices was measured with the coefficient of variation. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to measure the relationship between EU-wide cigarette price differential and cross-border tobacco purchasing because of cheaper price among current cigarette smokers (n=6896). The coefficient of variation for cigarette WAP within the EU was 0.39 (mean price=€3.99/pack). Of all current cigarette smokers in the EU, 26.2% (27.5 million persons) engaged in a cross-border tobacco purchase within the past 12 months, of which 56.3% did so because of cheaper price in another country. EU-wide cigarette price differential was significantly associated with making a cross-border tobacco purchase because of cheaper price (adjusted OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.47). Reducing differences in cigarette tax and price within the EU, coupled with a stricter limitation on the quantity of cigarettes that it is possible to carry from one Member State to another, may help reduce cross-border tax avoidance strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Transcriptional Regulation in Ebola Virus: Effects of Gene Border Structure and Regulatory Elements on Gene Expression and Polymerase Scanning Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauburger, Kristina; Boehmann, Yannik; Krähling, Verena; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-02-15

    The highly pathogenic Ebola virus (EBOV) has a nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA genome containing seven genes. The viral genes either are separated by intergenic regions (IRs) of variable length or overlap. The structure of the EBOV gene overlaps is conserved throughout all filovirus genomes and is distinct from that of the overlaps found in other NNS RNA viruses. Here, we analyzed how diverse gene borders and noncoding regions surrounding the gene borders influence transcript levels and govern polymerase behavior during viral transcription. Transcription of overlapping genes in EBOV bicistronic minigenomes followed the stop-start mechanism, similar to that followed by IR-containing gene borders. When the gene overlaps were extended, the EBOV polymerase was able to scan the template in an upstream direction. This polymerase feature seems to be generally conserved among NNS RNA virus polymerases. Analysis of IR-containing gene borders showed that the IR sequence plays only a minor role in transcription regulation. Changes in IR length were generally well tolerated, but specific IR lengths led to a strong decrease in downstream gene expression. Correlation analysis revealed that these effects were largely independent of the surrounding gene borders. Each EBOV gene contains exceptionally long untranslated regions (UTRs) flanking the open reading frame. Our data suggest that the UTRs adjacent to the gene borders are the main regulators of transcript levels. A highly complex interplay between the different cis-acting elements to modulate transcription was revealed for specific combinations of IRs and UTRs, emphasizing the importance of the noncoding regions in EBOV gene expression control. Our data extend those from previous analyses investigating the implication of noncoding regions at the EBOV gene borders for gene expression control. We show that EBOV transcription is regulated in a highly complex yet not easily predictable manner by a set of interacting cis

  2. 8 CFR 212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 212.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY... valid on or after October 1, 2002, the non-biometric border crossing card portion of the document is not... contain a machine-readable biometric identifier, may be admitted on the basis of the nonimmigrant visa...

  3. The Idea of Open Borders: For and Against | Mekonnen | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What position one is likely to take concerning immigration depends upon one's general view about the nature of the state, what membership to a political community constitutes and about the legitimacy of state borders. This paper examines the discord of opinions that has marked recent discourses on immigration. After a ...

  4. How Neighbours Communicate: The Role of Language in Border Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonni Olsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the linguistic situation in the border region where Norway meets Russia in the north. The aim of the study was to investigate language use when contact is revitalised after a long period with closed borders. The Norwegian and Russian languages are very different in vocabulary and structure, which makes communication difficult. How are the two languages affected by extended contact and migration across the border? The study was carried out by the author and Marit Bjerkeng through interviews, a questionnaire and observation of the linguistic situations in two Norwegian communities. The results show an ongoing development where the neighbouring language is increasingly noticeable, and there is a clear link between attitudes, identity and language use. The role of public policy seems to play an important role for the developing linguistic situation, as the Barents region as a political concept introduced in the 1990s has led to cross-border contact within various fields and also inspired local language policy, contributing to cultural pride an

  5. Cross-border Mobility of the Companies in EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Prelič

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fr eedom of establishment, provided by the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, is a suitable legal basis for effective cross-border corporate restructuring of companies in European Union. There are some possible methods to exercise this freedom, specially regulated with secondary acts, like cross-border mergers and the establishment and economic operation in the legal form of Societas Europaea, whereas the cross-border transfer of the company (its seat shall be in the light of the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union admitted on the basis of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Companies therefore in their intention for cross-border mobility do not need to reconstruct by using the general provisions on establishment and liquidation of companies and through the way of singular succession. There are possibilities, regulated on the EU level, through which companies shall emigrate or spread their business activities to other Member States much simpler and with less cost on the basis of universal succession. The regulation of procedures and the advantages of the mentioned reconstruction methods will be analysed in this article.

  6. 76 FR 41993 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... mandatory retirement age); (2) early optional retirement eligibility; (3) enhanced annuity provisions (to... barred from reemployment in any position except a primary position after age 60. Service by a reemployed... Act provides early retirement and enhanced annuity benefits for customs and border protection officers...

  7. Border Crossing Knowledge Systems: A PNG Teacher's Autoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta, Medi

    2010-01-01

    Narratives have always been integral to Indigenous knowledge transfer. In this autoethnography the author shares her border crossings between her Indigenous knowledge systems and the often dominant Western knowledge system. Pertinent to these experiences are the stark contrasts that exist between the two knowledge systems and their educational…

  8. Problems concerned with scrap metal monitoring at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Since the early 1980's numerous incidents have been reported in which radioactive material or empty labelled containers for radioactive sources have been found in scrap metal. Apart from the potential health hazard to employees and the general public resulting costs for decontamination, shutdown of production and waste of products already amounted to multi-million dollar figures. Since the opening of the ''iron border'' in Europe, incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive sources across borders and contamination of scrap metal imported from the former ''Eastern Countries'' have considerably increased, as a result of the lack of a suitable radiation protection infrastructure in some of these countries. This initiated monitoring of scrap metal transports at the borders of several European countries, such as Austria, Finland, Germany and Italy. Up to now neither universally accepted clearance levels for scrap contamination, nor an agreed standardised procedure for its control exist, although the IAEA as well as the European Commission have proposed some recommendations. As a pragmatic solution for border monitoring it is suggested to apply, as practical clearance level, a dose rate on the outside of the vehicle in the order of 0,1 μSv/h, which is approximately equivalent to double natural environmental background. This dose rate would correspond to an activity concentration for 60 Co in the order of 1 kBq/kg and therefore be in a tolerable range, even in view of products coming in close contact with the public. (author)

  9. Rethinking borders in a mobile world: An alternative model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    national borders. The second section elaborates the fundamentals of an alternative model that is not reliant, as is classical spatial analysis, on points, lines and surfaces to represent movement. The article then presents three types of limits: the confines, the threshold and the horizon, which result...

  10. Rethinking borders in a mobile world: An alternative model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Retaillé, Denis

    national borders. The second section elaborates the fundamentals of an alternative model that is not reliant, as is classical spatial analysis, on points, lines and surfaces to represent movement. The article then presents three types of limits: the confines, the threshold and the horizon, which result...

  11. Border Pedagogy as a Conduit to Greater Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a study that was conducted in Malaysia, and at the borders of Chihuahua, Mexico, and Ontario, Canada, to compare the reactions of social studies teachers from Canada, Malaysia, and Mexico to the bombing of Iraq by the U.S. on March 20, 2003. The key objective of the investigations in all three countries was to uncover…

  12. Cross-border Insurance in Europe : Challenges for Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); J. Sass (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAt the start of Solvency II in January 2016, there is no overview of the insurance market in Europe. This paper develops a methodology to link various data sets on foreign branches and subsidiaries. The result is a new and comprehensive data set of cross-border insurance in Europe.

  13. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2018-01-01

    attempts to operationalize the varying types of proximity – in relation to CBIC – in the form of a questionnaire tested through pilot studies of two CBRs, at the Finnish–Swedish and Danish–German border, and for two contrasting service industries, namely knowledge-intensive business services and tourism...

  14. Neurodata Without Borders: Creating a Common Data Format for Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeters, Jeffery L; Godfrey, Keith; Young, Rob; Dang, Chinh; Friedsam, Claudia; Wark, Barry; Asari, Hiroki; Peron, Simon; Li, Nuo; Peyrache, Adrien; Denisov, Gennady; Siegle, Joshua H; Olsen, Shawn R; Martin, Christopher; Chun, Miyoung; Tripathy, Shreejoy; Blanche, Timothy J; Harris, Kenneth; Buzsáki, György; Koch, Christof; Meister, Markus; Svoboda, Karel; Sommer, Friedrich T

    2015-11-18

    The Neurodata Without Borders (NWB) initiative promotes data standardization in neuroscience to increase research reproducibility and opportunities. In the first NWB pilot project, neurophysiologists and software developers produced a common data format for recordings and metadata of cellular electrophysiology and optical imaging experiments. The format specification, application programming interfaces, and sample datasets have been released. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurodata Without Borders: Creating a Common Data Format for Neurophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Teeters, Jeffery L.; Godfrey, Keith; Young, Rob; Dang, Chinh; Friedsam, Claudia; Wark, Barry; Asari, Hiroki; Peron, Simon; Li, Nuo; Peyrache, Adrien; Denisov, Gennady; Siegle, Joshua H.; Olsen, Shawn R.; Martin, Christopher; Chun, Miyoung

    2015-01-01

    The Neurodata Without Borders (NWB) initiative promotes data standardization in neuroscience to increase research reproducibility and opportunities. In the first NWB pilot project, neurophysiologists and software developers produced a common data format for recordings and metadata of cellular electrophysiology and optical imaging experiments. The format specification, application programming interfaces, and sample datasets have been released.

  16. Implementing Problem Based Learning through Engineers without Borders Student Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Engineers Without Borders USA (EWB) is a nonprofit organization that partners student chapters with communities in fundamental need of potable water, clean air, sanitation, irrigation, energy, basic structures for schools and clinics, roads and bridges, etc. While EWB projects may vary in complexity, they are all realistic, ill-structured and…

  17. Borders in Nigeria’s Relations with Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolara Akinyemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Border incidences are sources of irritants in the relationships between Nigeria and Cameroun. Examples are not far-fetched from Bakassi Peninsula imbroglio leading to hostile relationship between the two countries, and subsequent ruling of Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroun by the International Court of Justice in 2002. Indeed, this also led to the revival of the Joint Cameroun-Nigeria Border Commission entrusted with the task of demarcation of the Land and Maritime boundaries between the two countries, as mandated by the 2002 judgment. However, the demarcation exercise has caused confusion and anxiety with the inhabitants of the Cross River State, Nigeria, resulting in the inability of the team to locate pillar 133A, thereby erecting a new pillar. This exercise is lacking in proper consideration of the effects on the people in the demarcation of the land boundary. Thus, the paper finds out that the demarcationof the Land boundary which the International Court of Justice perceived as the antidote to the border skirmishes between Nigeria and Cameroun is likely to generate to another border conflicts between the two countries. This is so because, the erecting of new pillars will lead to another claim of some parts of Nigeria to Cameroun. Hence, the demarcation of Land boundary if not properly checked may be an outcome of future skirmishes and chaos.

  18. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers and acquisitions in Europe. Thus, under the continuous economic recovery of the European countries and the other worldwide economies, the recovery of financial markets and the growth of corporate profits, we shall witness an intensive cross-border merger and acquisition activity in Europe. The expansion engine of these operations seems to be represented by the emerging economies. This research is based on a systematic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature and statistical data regarding the cross-border mergers and acquisitions that involve European companies in recent years. This paper is part of the doctoral thesis Mergers and acquisitions- strategies of growth and development of enterprises. European and national particularities, coordinated by professor Ph.D. Alina Bădulescu from University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics. The doctoral research is supported by The Sectorial Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, Contract POSDRU 59/1.5/S/1- Romanian researchers through modern and efficient doctoral programs.

  19. Border Crossing in the Classroom through Performed Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tara

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I share the ways I have used performed ethnography to explore the notion of border crossing in an undergraduate course called "Equity and Activism in Education." Performed ethnography involves turning the findings of ethnographic research into a play script. My students read two performed ethnographies, "Harriet's…

  20. Radioactivity in groundwater along the borders of Oman and UAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Alshamsi, D.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the quality and radioactivity of groundwater is vital as it represents valuable resource in arid regions. Here we present radioactivity level in groundwater collected from wells in a region along the border between Sultanate of Oman and United Arab Emirates (UAE). The aquifers...

  1. Shifting Institutional Boundaries through Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alberto; Tavares, Orlanda; Cardoso, Sónia; Sin, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border higher education (CBHE) has been changing the organizational boundaries of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African…

  2. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, D.; Self, M.W.; Roelfsema, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether

  3. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code

  4. Cross-Border Takeovers, Corruption, and Related Aspects of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Berns, S.

    We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance related factors such as political

  5. Bridging Borders: Toward a Pedagogy of Preparedness for Visiting Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzi, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    This analytical article largely draws on the experiences of visiting faculty teaching at post-secondary institutions overseas. What is largely understood in the literature is that visiting faculty need to navigate the sociocultural, professional, and contextual differences that shape the work context. Drawing on the theory of border pedagogy, this…

  6. Global Liquidity and Drivers of Cross-Border Bank Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerutti, E.; Claessens, S.; Ratnovski, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a definition of global liquidity consistent with its meaning as the "ease of financing" in international financial markets. Using a longer time series and broader sample of countries than in previous studies, it identifies global factors driving cross-border bank flows, alongside

  7. beyond the border war: new perspectives on southern africa's late ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    In the northern part of Namibia (then called South West Africa) the bush war (or ... they viewed as necessary cross-border-, deep penetration and/or pre-emptive .... The role which media and films can play and have played is illuminated ... Africa like Nazi-Germany years after the Second World War painfully entered this.

  8. The principle of territoriality and cross-border loss compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marres, O.

    2011-01-01

    Member States are free to define their income tax base. They may in principle disregard foreign-sourced income, resulting in the impossibility of cross-border loss compensation. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has accepted the principle of territoriality as a criterion for the division of the

  9. Leading Change with Slogans: Border University in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Leslie D.; Pacheco, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors problematize the use of slogans when it comes to leading major organizational change. Specifically, they outline the slogans that Border University leaders used to explain and justify the university's transition from a regional, primarily teaching-focused university to an aspiring nationally recognized, Tier One research…

  10. School Leadership Challenges along Kenya's Borabu-Sotik Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaya, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multi-case study carried out in southwestern Kenya along the border areas of Nyanza and Rift Valley province. The purpose of the research was to examine the challenges public secondary school principals faced in their leadership roles and suggest efforts they might adopt to minimize the effects of these…

  11. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Burmese women workers in Thai border factories are generally excluded from the benefits and protection that define citizenship entitlements. ... have little or no access to basic services, including health and education for themselves or their dependents. ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  12. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  13. beyond the border war: new perspectives on southern africa's late ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    Price: R 265.00 (SA): R273.00 ; Euros: 34.00 ; (R578.00 through Kalahari.net) ... they viewed as necessary cross-border-, deep penetration and/or pre-emptive .... transgressions with long term consequences which will evoke international law.

  14. Winning hearts and minds in the Namibian border war

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lieneke

    2010-08-13

    Aug 13, 2010 ... During the Namibian border war, South African counterinsurgency doctrine ... US Army General Staff in 1966 his book, The Art of Counter-Revolutionary War –. The Strategy of Counter-Insurgency, was published. .... of ability, management capabilities or work ethic, the white civil servant opted to do the job ...

  15. Cross-border Co-operation Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Long seen as artificial barriers inherited from decolonisation, West African borders now lie at the heart of policies designed to encourage regional trade and combat political instability. This rediscovery of the peripheries of the nation state has fostered a proliferation of institutional...

  16. Cross-Border Movements, Female Migration and Human Rights : a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine the relationship between migration, prostitution and trafficking with respect to cross-border movement of women between three South Asian countries: Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Researchers will. conduct an extensive review of the literature on female migration in the three countries;; examine ...

  17. Airline loyalty (programs) across borders : A geographic discontinuity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gerben; Behrens, Christiaan; van Ommeren, Jos

    2018-01-01

    We analyze brand loyalty advantages of national airlines in their domestic countries using geocoded data from a major international frequent flier program. We employ a geographic discontinuity design that estimates discontinuities in program activity at the national borders of the program's

  18. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp.

  19. Immunoelectrophoretic studies on pig intestinal brush border proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1977-01-01

    Brush borders were prepared from pig intestinal mucosa and the membrane proteins solubilized with either Triton X-100 or papain. Proteins, thus released, were used as antigens to raise antisera in rabbits. The immunoglobulin G fractions were isolated and shown by the double layer immunofluorescence...

  20. Kinematic adjustments to seismic recordings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, A.N.; Levii, N.V.; Volovik, U.M.

    1981-01-01

    The introduction of kinematic adjustments by adding the displaced blocks is studied theoretically and in test seismograms. The advantage to this method resulting from the weight variation in the trace is demonstrated together with its kinematic drawback. A variation on the displaced block addition method that does not involve realignment of the travel time curves and that has improved amplitude characteristics is proposed.