WorldWideScience

Sample records for borbera suggest advantages

  1. Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Educational Institutions: A Suggested Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey Norman

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a model of factors critical to establishing and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage for education-services enterprises in international markets. The model, which combines industrial economics, management theory, and services marketing, seeks to explain the strategic decision-making environment in which the education exporter…

  2. Confirmation Bias and the Open Access Advantage: Some Methodological Suggestions for the Davis Citation Study

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, Stevan

    2008-01-01

    Davis (2008) analyzes citations from 2004-2007 in 11 biomedical journals. 15% of authors paid to make them Open Access (OA). The outcome is a significant OA citation Advantage, but a small one (21%). The author infers that the OA advantage has been shrinking yearly, but the data suggest the opposite. Further analyses are necessary: (1) Not just author-choice (paid) OA but Free OA self-archiving needs to be taken into account rather than being counted as non-OA. (2) proportion of OA articles per journal per year needs to be reported and taken into account. (3) The Journal Impact Factor and the relation between the size of the OA Advantage article 'citation-bracket' need to be taken into account. (4) The sample-size for the highest-impact, largest-sample journal analyzed, PNAS, is restricted and excluded from some of the analyses. The full PNAS dataset is needed. (5) The interaction between OA and time, 2004-2007, is based on retrospective data from a June 2008 total cumulative citation count. The dates of both...

  3. EFL Students' Perceptions of a Blended Learning Environment: Advantages, Limitations and Suggestions for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zumor, Abdul Wahed Q.; Al Refaai, Ismail K.; Eddin, Eyhab A. Bader; Al-Rahman, Farouq H. Aziz

    2013-01-01

    This study explores King Khalid University English as Foreign Language (EFL) students' views regarding the advantages and limitations of merging the features of face-to-face language instruction and online language learning via the Blackboard learning management system in a new pedagogical approach called Blended Learning. The study also examines…

  4. WeChat Problems and Suggestions, the Advantages of Bank%微信银行优点、存在的问题及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓阳

    2015-01-01

    WeChat bank is the extension of mobile phone banking, through a new banking WeChat mobile phone bank access mode of port, but also following the online banking, telephone banking, mobile phone banking after the new financial services business. In this paper, 20 domestic banking financial institutions for WeChat banking were investigated, have launched WeChat service, 90% banks launched the bank WeChat. At present, WeChat banking services range from a single credit card service has also been expanded to set debit card, credit card business for the whole customers comprehensive service platform. The bank found WeChat advantages, the existing problems and puts forward some corresponding suggestions in the survey.%微信银行是手机银行的延伸,是通过微信端口接入手机银行模式的一种新兴银行业务,也是继网上银行、电话银行、手机银行之后的新的金融业务服务方式。本文对国内20家银行业金融机构开办的微信银行业务情况进行了调查,均已推出微信服务,90%的银行开通了微信银行。目前微信银行的服务范围也已从单一信用卡服务拓展为集借记卡、信用卡业务为一体的全客群综合服务平台。在调查中发现微信银行优点、存在的问题并提出相应的建议。

  5. Comparative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explain international tourism flows in terms of supply-side factors associated with its production in destination countries. Unlike demand-oriented analysis, the study suggests that there are parallels between tourism and international trade flows...... that are typically explained from the supply-side variables, the comparative advantage of the exporting countries. A simple model is proposed and tested. The results render strong support for the relevance of supply-side factors such as natural endowments, technology, and infrastructure in explaining international...... tourism flows....

  6. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  7. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can a

  8. Trade Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest trading nation,its largest exporter and second largest importer,China wields extensive influence on global trade and the world economy,China's advantages of course lie not only in the stable foreign trade policy decided by the recently held Central Economic Work Conference,but also in the strength and resilience of a broadbased and fast-growing economy.

  9. 天津外向型农业的优势、机遇及发展建议%Advantages, Opportunities and Development Suggestions of Export-oriented Agriculture in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付俊红

    2012-01-01

    天津外向型农业发展得益于科技的有力支撑、农业产业结构优化、稳步提高的农产品质量以及对外资的利用,但同时也存在农业资源禀赋缺乏、农业组织化程度低、科技投入相对不足、农产品出口额低等问题,结合当前面临的机遇与挑战,本文对天津外向型农业发展提出了三点建议:加大支持力度,调整扶持重点;增加科技投入,提高比较优势;培育龙头企业,打造品牌产品.%Tianjin's export-oriented agricultural development has benefited from the strong support of science and technology, agricultural industrial structure optimization, the steady improvement of the quality of agricultural products, as well as the utilization of foreign capital. But there are also some problems, which include a lack of agricultural resource endowment, the low degree of agriculture corporatization, the relative insufficiency of investment in science and technology, the agricultural product export amount is too low, and so on. Combined with the current opportunities and challenges, three suggestions for the development of Tianjin's export-oriented agriculture were put forward: enhancing support of government, adjusting support key; increasing investment in science and technology, enhancing the comparative advantage; cultivating leading enterprises, creating brand products.

  10. Multinationals without Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Motta, Massimo

    1996-01-01

    We propose a simple model to analyze the widespread idea that a necessary condition for firms to make foreign direct investments is that they have firm-specific advantages with respect to host country firms. We show that no such advantages are necessary to become multinationals. Further, firms might be induced to invest abroad to acquire new advantages, rather than exploiting existing ones. For this reason, foreign direct investment might occur even in the absence of exporting costs and lower...

  11. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  12. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen;

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  13. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  14. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    concepts on innovation and competitive advantage. Findings The company succeeded by the thorough application of a strategy that, through perfect alignment, allowed the company to reach a unique market position. However, as described in the case, it took a relatively long time and the company came close......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how Nespresso achieved competitive advantage through innovation by changing the rules of the game in its industry. Design/methodology/approach Nespresso was analyzed based on public available secondary data, in combination with related academic...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...

  15. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...

  16. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of factors that affect offshoring performance results. To do so, this paper focuses on the access to location-specific advantages, rather than solely on the properties of the offshoring company, its strategy or environment....... Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...... (getting or not getting access to them) is a more reliable predictor of offshoring success. Design/methodology/approach – Aset of hypotheses derived from the extant literature is tested on the data from a quantitative survey of 1,143 Scandinavian firms. Findings – The paper demonstrates that different...

  17. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  18. Advantages of magnification radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, K.

    1976-01-01

    Geometric arrangements and exposure conditions used in different magnification techniques are described and the following advantages of radiographic magnification technique are discussed: sharpness effect; noise effect; air gap effect; and visual effect. The magnification technique can be used in various diagnostic procedures as a means of improving the image quality of radiographs. (HLW)

  19. Advantages of Team Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John

    1973-01-01

    Describes a high school biology program which successfully utilizes team teaching. Outlines the advantages of team teaching and how it is used in the large group lecture-discussion situation, with small groups in the laboratory and on field trips. (JR)

  20. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  1. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Zaharia; Mirela Dogaru

    2011-01-01

    Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative...

  2. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....... sectors. The paper categorizes knowledge into ‘analytical’ (science based), ‘synthetic’ (engineering based) and ‘symbolic’ (arts based) in nature, with different requirements of ‘virtual’ and real proximity mixes. The implications of this are traced for evolving ‘platform policies’ that facilitate...

  3. A possible heterozygous advantage in muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, A E H

    2016-01-01

    In certain autosomal recessive disorders there is suggestive evidence that heterozygous carriers may have some selective advantage over normal homozygotes. These include, for example, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease and phenylketonuria. The best example so far, however, is that of significant heterozygous advantage in sickle-cell anaemia with increased resistance to falciparum malaria. PMID:27245530

  4. Creating corporate advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum. PMID:10179655

  5. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  6. A Conceptual Mapping Resource Advantage Theory, Competitive Advantage Theory, and Transient Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasanta PERANGINANGIN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Competitive advantage is the main purposed of the business entity focusing on market base view. Resource advantage theorists put their concern to empowering resources development with resources based view, in the other side needs to redefining competitive advantage. All the competitive advantage are transient, concluded the end of competitive advantage. Redefining competitive advantage by selling migration and shrewdness outward. This research to emphasize innovation capability rarely appears in the future.

  7. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  8. The Advantages of Stupidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Most people say being stupid will lead no where. They claim that it is the worst possible condition in which to spend one's life, and if possible, it should be com- pletely avoided. They would even suggest if the symp- toms of stupidity are caught in the early stages, it could easily be treated by a surgeon.

  9. The Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    literature. We use this occasion to consider potential relationships between these early Scandinavian contributions to the stakeholder concept with current practices of well-known Scandinavian companies. Through this we contend the evidence suggests relationships worthy of further considerations. We conclude......In this article we clarify the historical roots of stakeholder theory to establish that a much larger role was played by Scandinavian thinkers in its development than is currently acknowledged. We show that important contributions to the stakeholder concept were being made by Eric Rhenman and his...... Management: A Stakeholder Approach (Freeman, 1984). These important Scandinavian contributions include the first publication and description of the expression „stakeholder‟ in management literature accessible to scholars throughout the world and the introduction of the first stakeholder map to the management...

  10. Home advantage in professional tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professional tennis. Match-level data are used to measure home advantage. The test used is based on logit models, and consistent specification is addressed explicitly. Depending on the interpretation of home ...

  11. Home advantage in professional tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professiona

  12. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  13. Knowledge Resources and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Gomezelj Omerzel; Rune Ellemose Gulev

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses some definitions of knowledge as a potential source of competitive advantage. It reviews the literature pertaining to the assessment of knowledge assets. According to the resource-based view, which links the competitive advantage of organizations with resources and capabilities that are firm-specific, and difficult to imitate or substitute, a firm’s competitive advantage is built on a set of strategically relevant resources (Barney 1991; Grant 1991; Peteraf 1993). When fir...

  14. Advantages and Uses of AMTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2012-10-01

    Static conversion systems are gaining importance in recent times because of newer applications of electricity like in spacecraft, hybrid-electric vehicles, military uses and domestic purposes. Of the many new static energy conversion systems that are being considered, one is the Alkali Metal Thermal Electric Converter (AMTEC). It is a thermally regenerative, electrochemical device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical power. As the name suggests, this system uses an alkali metal in its process. The electrochemical process involved in the working of AMTEC is ionization of alkali metal atoms at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. The electrons produced as a result flow through the external load thus doing work, and finally recombine with the metal ions at the cathode. AMTECs convert the work done during the nearly isothermal expansion of metal vapor to produce a high current and low voltage electron flow. Due to its principle of working it has many inherent advantages over other conventional generators. These will be discussed briefly.

  15. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  16. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  17. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen; C. van Marrewijk

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  18. Dynamics of Chinese Comparative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  19. [Therapy and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness.

  20. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  1. Quality Competence: a Source of Sustained Competitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of quality management and competitive advantage, and explores the notion of strategic status of quality as a source of sustained competitive advantage. In addition, the paper presents a number of suggestions to the Chinese telecommunications industry on the development of quality competence in order to sustain an advantage over foreign competitors.

  2. Knowledge Resources and Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gomezelj Omerzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some definitions of knowledge as a potential sourceof competitive advantage. It reviews the literature pertaining to the assessmentof knowledge assets. According to the resource-based view,which links the competitive advantage of organizations with resourcesand capabilities that are firm-specific, and difficult to imitate or substitute,a firm’s competitive advantage is built on a set of strategicallyrelevant resources (Barney 1991; Grant 1991; Peteraf 1993. When firmshave access to similar resources, it is those companies that are able tomaximize the utilization of those resources that attain a competitiveadvantage. Among various strategic resources and capabilities that helpdetermine the extent of competitive advantages, a pivotal role is oftenassigned to knowledge – as both a resource in itself and an integratingfactor that makes other resources and capabilities effective – especiallyin complex and dynamic environments.

  3. ONLINE COMMERCE: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    OpenAIRE

    SNOPOK E.V.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the online commerce. Presents the advantages and disadvantages purchases on the Internet, considered the purpose and object of. online trading. Conclusions are made about possible directions of further improvement and development of this type of commerce.

  4. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  5. Bilingualism Gives a Cognitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing

    2013-01-01

    Recent researches have shown bilingualism has an influence on cognition, both negative and positive. This essay aims to discuss the cognitive disadvantages and advantages bilingualism brings, by emphasizing how it affect children ’s cognitive devel-opment. It will first briefly introduce the disadvantages such as a lower verbal fluency and vocabulary deficit, and then analyse the advantages on non-verbal cognition and attention controlling, a more sensitive metalinguistic awareness and a lower decline rate of cognitive processing.

  6. INNOVATION STRATEGIES AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Companies today operate in a very dynamic, uncertain and competitive environment. They compete in "nicety" that are so small but so important. Companies are trying to achieve competitive advantage in order to help them obtain a better and a stable position in the marketplace. The best way for companies to achieve a competitive advantage is through innovation. This paper addresses the meaning of innovation what does innovation present, types of innovation specifically discussing the right way ...

  7. Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Egger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

  8. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  9. The Open Access Citation Advantage: Quality Advantage Or Quality Bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjem, Chawki; Harnad, Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have now reported the positive correlation between Open Access (OA) self-archiving and citation counts ("OA Advantage," OAA). But does this OAA occur because (QB) authors are more likely to self-selectively self-archive articles that are more likely to be cited (self-selection "Quality Bias": QB)? or because (QA) articles that are self-archived are more likely to be cited ("Quality Advantage": QA)? The probable answer is both. Three studies [by (i) Kurtz and co-workers in astroph...

  10. Landscape-scale analyses suggest both nutrient and antipredator advantages to Serengeti herbivore hotspots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, T. Michael; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Eby, Stephanie; Ritchie, Mark; Grace, James B.; Olff, Han; Young, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanistic explanations of herbivore spatial distribution have focused largely on either resource-related (bottom-up) or predation-related (top-down) factors. We studied direct and indirect influences on the spatial distributions of Serengeti herbivore hotspots, defined as temporally stable areas i

  11. Home advantage in Greek football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  12. The selective advantage of crypsis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignieri, Sacha N; Larson, Joanna G; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2010-07-01

    The light color of mice that inhabit the sandy dunes of Florida's coast have served as a textbook example of adaptation for nearly a century, despite the fact that the selective advantage of crypsis has never been directly tested or quantified in nature. Using plasticine mouse models of light and dark color, we demonstrate a strong selective advantage for mice that match their local background substrate. Further our data suggest that stabilizing selection maintains color matching within a single habitat, as models that are both lighter and darker than their local environment are selected against. These results provide empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that visual hunting predators shape color patterning in Peromyscus mice and suggest a mechanism by which selection drives the pronounced color variation among populations. PMID:20163447

  13. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  14. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  15. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  16. Plasma treatment advantages for textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of plasma physics in industrial problems is rapidly increasing. On textile surfaces, three main effects can be obtained depending on the treatment conditions: the cleaning effect, the increase of microroughness (anti-pilling finishing of wool) and the production of radicals to obtain hydrophilic surfaces. Plasma polymerisation, that is the deposition of solid polymeric materials with desired properties on textile substrates, is under development. The advantage of such plasma treatments is that the modification turns out to ...

  17. Resource, innovation and competative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; rai, anu; dhakal, rajenda; omanaga, josphat

    2014-01-01

    The report shows insight into the two banking giants – Nordea Bank and Danske Bank operating in Denmark. The main aim of this report is to conduct an in depth study in how two leading banks are exploiting its resources to innovate. Furthermore, it also researches the role of innovation in gaining competitive advantage. The report is conducted within the periphery of the resources and innovation of Danske and Nordea bank. It is a qualitative research but follows deductive approach. Literature ...

  18. Digital Creativity: Advantages, Problems, Responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Velev, Velimir

    2004-01-01

    The paper focuses on the rapid development of the digital culture and the challenges it imposes to human creativity. It analyses e-learning, digital entertainment, digital art and the issues of creativity and improvisation. It also presents a classification of the levels in the creative structure including hardware and software tools; product developers; creators and end users. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the new digital culture and the responsibilities of all p...

  19. Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

    2004-01-01

    Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...

  20. Plasma treatment advantages for textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of...

  1. March 2013: Medicare Advantage update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayavong, Sarah; Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Key Data Findings. (1) From March 2012 to March 2013, rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by over 200,000 enrollees, to more than 1.9 million. (2) Preferred provider organization (PPO) plan enrollment increased to nearly one million enrollees, accounting for more than 51% of the rural MA market (up from 48% in March 2012). (3) Health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment continued to grow in 2013, with over 31% of the rural MA market, while private fee-for-service (PFFS) plan enrollment decreased to less than 10% of market share. (4) Despite recent changes to MA payment, rural MA enrollment continues to increase.

  2. Parenting Advantage in the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    What determines the value an MNC's headquarters adds to its own affiliates? In this paper, we shed light on this question by linking the embeddedness view of the multinational corporation to the literature on parenting advantage. We test our hypotheses on an original dataset of 124 manufacturing...... subsidiaries located in Europe. Our results indicate that the external embeddedness of the MNC is an antecedent to headquarters' value creation. We find that headquarters' investments into their own relationships with the subsidiaries' contexts are positively related to the value added by headquarters...

  3. Nuclear energy. Risk or advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is controversial. But what's all about really in the controversy? It's about more than safty or electricity prices. Nuclear energy is not only a technical or political question, but also a moral, a human. The discussion enter various rational and irrational arguments, beside straightforward arguments various misleading and mendacious exist. The present publication is comprehensively dedicated to the thema of nuclear energy - its pro and contra - and considers its risks and advantages. Thereby the sources of energy, the processes in the nuclear reactor, and the risk potentials (Harrisburg, Chernobyl, Fukushima) are illustratively and reproducibly presented. Extensively the text explains the forms of the radiation, its doses, and the tolerance of it. Also to the theme waste and final disposal an explaining chapter is dedicated and the question for the exit from nuclear energy elucidated. Finally the author appoints with the question ''How considers mankind nuclear energy world-wide'' the international comparison.

  4. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Our wellbeing depends as much on our personal success, as it does on the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation a very much needed trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remain elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly reach social dynamics that explains why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding that is due to over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utiliz...

  5. Smart Sensors: Advantages and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Paddy James

    For almost 50 years, silicon sensors have been on the market. There have been many examples of success stories for simple silicon sensors, such as the Hall plate and photo-diode. These have found mass-market applications. The development of micromachining techniques brought pressure sensors and accelerometers into the market and later the gyroscope. These have also achieved mass-market. The remaining issue is how far to integrate. Many of the devices on the market use a simple sensor with external electronics or read-out electronics in the same package (system-in-a-package). However, there are also many examples of fully integrated sensors (smart sensors) where the whole system is integrated into a single chip. If the application and the device technology permit this, there can be many advantages. A broader look at sensors shows a wealth of integrated devices. The critical issues are reliability and packaging if these devices are to find the applications. A number of silicon sensors and actuators have shown great commercial success, but still many more have to find their way out of the laboratory. This paper will examine the development of the technologies, some of the success stories and the opportunities for integrated Microsystems as well as the pitfalls.

  6. Towards a Stakeholder Perspective on Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Minyu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Competitive advantage and stakeholder management are two important research streams that have attractedmuch attention during the past few decades. Distinctive approaches to studies on competitive advantage exhibitdifferences in their assumptions, units of analysis, and strategic implications; however, none of them canindividually explain the whole concept of competitive advantage. Although competitive advantage is the coreissue of strategic management in which stakeholder management is rooted...

  7. Assertive behavior: advantages and perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheinov V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this information-analytical paper analyzes and summarizes the results of all available international research and assertiveness assertive behavior relating to the identification of their strengths and the perception of these phenomena in society. Are some suggestions for overcoming the problems detected.

  8. Referee bias contributes to home advantage in English Premiership football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Mark G

    2007-09-01

    Officiating bias is thought to contribute to home advantage. Recent research has shown that sports with subjective officiating tend to experience greater home advantage and that referees' decisions can be influenced by crowd noise, but little work has been done to examine whether individual referees vary in their home bias or whether biased decisions contribute to overall home advantage. We develop an ordinal regression model to determine whether various measures of home advantage are affected by the official for the match and by crowd size while controlling for team ability. We examine 5244 English Premier League (EPL) match results involving 50 referees and find that home bias differs between referees. Individual referees give significantly different levels of home advantage, measured as goal differential between the home and away teams, although the significance of this result depends on one referee with a particularly high home advantage (an outlier). Referees vary significantly and robustly in their yellow card and penalty differentials even excluding the outlier. These results confirm that referees are responsible for some of the observed home advantage in the EPL and suggest that home advantage is dependent on the subjective decisions of referees that vary between individuals. We hypothesize that individual referees respond differently to factors such as crowd noise and suggest further research looking at referees' psychological and behavioural responses to biased crowds.

  9. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them. PMID:10126157

  10. The environmental advantage in the competitive equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of environmental issues in the utility business has undergone a dramatic transition in the past few years and this new role is the basis for new definitions and new responses. Policies or products that protect the environment are now an advantage to those companies that properly capture environmental issues in their strategic planning process. This paper will focus on the underpinnings of this shift in the role of environmental protection in business and go beyond the issues of today to suggest some paradigms for the future. The current status of environmental concern is evident in the time and resources committed to environmental protection. Public officials take more proactive environmental positions; Corporations recognize environmental values in competitive equation; Citizens express willingness to pay for environmentally responsible services and products; Environmental issues tie business to the community; and Environmental planning tradeoffs are becoming more complex

  11. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Community Advantage Pilot Program (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). Pursuant to the authority provided to... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot Program. SUMMARY: On February 18, 2011, SBA published a...

  12. Comparative Advantage in the Asian Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Somsupa Nopprach

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze determinants of Asian countries' comparative advantage in the automotive industry. The effects of supporting industries, factor availability, factor intensity, transportation costs, and of the scale of foreign investment in the industry on the level of countries' comparative advantage are on focus. The results highlight the importance of strong supporting industries in raising a country's comparative advantage in the automotive industry. Furthermore, it is found th...

  13. Functional reactive paradigm advantages for Android development

    OpenAIRE

    SUTULA ALEXANDER

    2015-01-01

    This article describes conceptual difference between imperative, reactive paradigms and functional reactive style advantages in Android development. Solutions of imperative paradigm main problems are described.

  14. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  15. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radha Ranganathan,

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage. A product

  16. Synergetic effect of benchmarking competitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Tkachova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed the essence of synergistic competitive benchmarking. The classification of types of synergies is developed. It is determined the sources of synergies in conducting benchmarking of competitive advantages. It is proposed methodological framework definition of synergy in the formation of competitive advantage.

  17. Advantages of Group Work in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志真

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of group work in English teaching.It is argued that group work can be efficient in teaching English.This paper concludes that:1)group work is one of the greatest education reforms,2)group work has many advantages in English teaching.

  18. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  19. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  20. IT Infrastructure Construction: Based on Competitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J(U) Qing-jiang

    2006-01-01

    Information technology (IT) infrastructure is the foundation of information sharing, storage, and processing upon which the entire business depends and it changes not only inner organizational structures but also outer competitive conditions. An IT infrastructure that possesses elements unique to a particular organization and difficult to duplicate can produce competitive advantage. To achieve this advantage, not only the inner integration of technology,personnel and business process in a firm is needed, but also a platform for electronic commerce is required. The purpose of this study is to establish the whole concept framework for IT infrastructure, based on competitive advantage, and to propose ideas about the construction of IT infrastructure system.

  1. Competitive Advantage and the Existence of the Multinational Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a counterpoint to Hashai and Buckley's article ‘Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the multinational enterprise?’ We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind...... this are different and more diverse than the ones they propose. We suggest that much extant economic theory is, in fact, consistent with their view that firms may internationalize without owning or achieving competitive advantages, and we model various other ways in which imperfections can drive their overall result...

  2. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  3. Measuring Coding Intensity in Medicare Advantage - SUPP.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  4. AquAdvantage Salmon Genetically modified organism

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Saurí, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.

  5. The data sharing advantage in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dorch, S B F; Ellegaard, O

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for the existence of a citation advantage within astrophysics for papers that link to data. Using simple measures based on publication data from NASA Astrophysics Data System we find a citation advantage for papers with links to data receiving on the average significantly more citations per paper than papers without links to data. Furthermore, using INSPEC and Web of Science databases we investigate whether either papers of an experimental or theoretical nature display different citation behavior.

  6. RELATIVE COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE IN TRADE DYNAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Amalendu GUHA BIKA

    2005-01-01

    In the era and process of free trade globalisation the classical and neo-classical theories of comparative and competitive advantages have become short-termed because of new actors and devices in the modern techno-economic advancement. Hence, a new approach seems necessary, respectively the one of relative advantages that are related to economies of scale and marketability, as today, the macroeconomic concept is the concept of Multinational or Transnational, and no longer a national one. At t...

  7. Central Asia's comparative advantage in international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Lücke, Matthias; Rothert, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines a strategy for identifying the pattern of Central Asia’s comparative advantage in international trade, based on factor prices and transport costs, historical production patterns, and recent trends in the geographical and product composition of Central Asian trade. The paper focuses on Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, along with Azerbaijan and Mongolia. A country’s comparative advantage cannot be determined at the level of individual industries o...

  8. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-01-01

    Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which de...

  9. ENTERPRISE IRELAND: Design for Competitive Advantage Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A stimulating conference bringing together world leading experts on design to address the importance of brand development strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Peter Dee - Strategic Design and Marketing Consultant, specialised in the creation of brand development strategies for Enterprise Ireland’s Design Unit. Peter was responsible for the design and development of the the brand identity for the Enterprise Ireland Design for Competitive Advantage Conference in Dublin.

  10. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ion POPA; Cosmin DOBRIN; Doina POPESCU; Mircea DRAGHICI

    2011-01-01

    Competitive advantage, the invisible component of the strategy, has as its subbordinates visible components of the strategy (mission, objectives, strategic options, resources, time) According to the renowned specialist Michael Porter, a company’s competitive advantage ,in essence, implies ensuring a reduced cost or a product or service, that differentiates itstelf through its qualities from other products offered by others or by most competitiors. The action which doesn’t lead to one of the a...

  11. FARM BUSINESS GOALS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Christopher E.; Moss, Leeann E.; Hahn, David E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the relationship between both farm business goals and sources of competitive advantage, and various farm and producer characteristics using new primary data collected from a survey of Ohio farmers. Results show that most farmers do not recognize sources of competitive advantage and practice strategy implementation beyond reliance on longstanding paradigms for success within the context of government farm program support and the use of traditional risk manag...

  12. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Askari; Joydeep Chatterjee

    2003-01-01

    Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an ent...

  13. The Oilheat Manufacturers Associations Oilheat Advantages Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedden, R. [Oil Heat Management Services, Pawlet, VT (United States); Bately, J.E. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Oilheat Advantages Project is the Oilheat Manufacturers Association`s first project. It involves the creation and disseminaiton of the unified, well documented, compellingly packaged oilheat story. The project invovles three steps: the first step is to pull together all the existing data on the advantages of oilheat into a single, well documented engineering report. The second step will be to rewrite and package the technical document into a consumer piece and a scripted presentation supported with overheads, and to disseminate the information throughout the industry. The third step will be to fund new research to update existing information and discover new advantages of oilheat. This step will begin next year. The inforamtion will be packaged in the following formats: The Engineering Document. This will include all the technical information including the creditable third party sources for all the findings on the many advantages of oilheat; the Consumer Booklet. This summarizes all the findings in the Engineering Document in simple language with easy to understand illustrations and graphs; a series of single topic Statement Stuffers on each of the advantages; an Overhead Transparency-Supported Scripted Show that can be used by industry representatives for presentations to the general public, schools, civic groups, and service clubs; and the Periodic publication of updates to the Oilheat Advantages Study.

  14. The bilateral advantage for famous faces: interhemispheric communication or competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lyndsay M; Burton, A Mike

    2008-04-01

    The bilateral advantage for the perception of famous faces was investigated using a redundant target procedure. In experiment 1 we compared simultaneous presentation of stimuli (a) bilaterally and (b) one above the other in the central field. Results showed a redundancy advantage, but only when faces were presented bilaterally. This result lends support to the notion of interhemispheric communication using cross-hemisphere representations. Experiment 2 examined the nature of such communication by comparing bilateral presentation of identical face images, with bilateral presentation of different images of the same person. When asked to make a familiar/unfamiliar face judgement, participants showed evidence for a redundancy advantage under both bilateral conditions. This suggests that the nature of the information shared in interhemispheric communication is abstract, rather than being tied to superficial stimulus properties.

  15. Suggestions on photons and fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvargonzalez, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a configuration of photons consistent with a spin $\\hbar$, and a configuration of the fermions coherent with a spin $\\hbar/2$. These suggested configurations open the way to further analyses which lead to the following conclusions: - There cannot exist elementary particles of spin $\\hbar/2$ with a mass inferior to $1m_e$ or with a radius greater than $1l_e$. - The electrostatic force derives from the centrifugal forces inherent to the spin and are propagated by photons. - The derivation of the electrostatic force explains the existence of positive and negative charges and Coulomb's law. - The enormous differences between the centrifugal forces and the centripetal forces at the surface of the protons give rise to quantic fluctuations of space which generate the energy flows necessary for equilibrium. These energy flows can explain gravitation and the strong force. - The mass of the proton, $m_p$, and the mass of the neutron, $m_n$, must each have a concrete value required for the cohes...

  16. The Relational View of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    Collaborating with external partners on R&D and forming strategic partnership for R&D have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories. Though the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical...... they generate relational rents (interorganizational competitive advantage) from this alliance? Based on this case study, we will propose some implications for the R&D collaboration between Chinese and Scandinavian countries. Also, the case will help us to test and enrich the existing theories...... on interorganizational competitive advantage. At the end of the paper, based on existing theories and the case study result, we will propose our conceptual framework on researching R&D strategic alliance between Scandinavian and Chinese firms....

  17. General Conceptual View on Resource Advantage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Yalcin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to continue for an organization to exist it needs to finance itself for its own resource on the other hand service with considering consumers need and expectations by present them lowest price and highest quality also. Under these conditions these kind of organizations need to analyze the behaviour (nature of the rival organizations and position themselves accordingly in order to get advantage on the rival organizations. In this study, a general conceptual view on resource advantage theory is developed. Theory explains having the lowest cost resources than rival organisations geting advantage with organisation resources, market position, financial performance and evironmental factors. Theory is able to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the organisations and use to have strategic marketing decisions.

  18. RELATIVE COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE IN TRADE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu GUHA BIKA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era and process of free trade globalisation the classical and neo-classical theories of comparative and competitive advantages have become short-termed because of new actors and devices in the modern techno-economic advancement. Hence, a new approach seems necessary, respectively the one of relative advantages that are related to economies of scale and marketability, as today, the macroeconomic concept is the concept of Multinational or Transnational, and no longer a national one. At the same time, the micro-concept may be used as concept of an entire international economic sector or branch. Due to these new developments the relative advantages approach focuses more on cost-reduction functions of commodities and services and it plays an important role in both theoretical and practical investigation. The examples presented in the paper are built on three competing Asian countries: China, South Korea and post-emerged Japan.

  19. ELECTRONIC BANKING ADVANTAGES FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Dragos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is a fully automatic service for traditionally banking customers products based on information technology platforms. E-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts or making payments via e-channels. The advantages generated by this services have determined an accelerate developing of this industry over the entire world. This paper examines some of the advantages of electronic banking products together with the characteristic management issues generated by the implementation of this new channel for financial services delivery.

  20. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  1. A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the bilateral advantage). For example, reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented bilaterally rather than unilaterally, suggesting that independent resources enable tracking in the two visual fields. Motivated by similarities in the apparent capacity and neural subst...

  2. Asset Stocks and Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Comment

    OpenAIRE

    Jay B. Barney

    1989-01-01

    In their paper, Dierickx and Cool suggest that the strategic factor markets model developed in Barney (Barney, J. B. 1986a. Strategic factor markets: Expectations, luck, and business strategy. Management Sci. (October) 1231--1241.) cannot be applied in the analysis of sustained competitive advantages due to asset stocks accumulated over time. In this comment, it is shown that the discussion of asset stocks extends and complements, rather than limits, the strategic factor markets model. This i...

  3. Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smucny J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jason Smucny,1,3 Korey Wylie,3 Jason Tregellas1–31Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Research Science, Denver VA Medical, Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USABackground: When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening, healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed "right ear advantage". Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables. The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli.Methods: Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task.Results: A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.Keywords: schizophrenia, right ear advantage, dichotic, distraction

  4. Structural change in OECD comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Inklaar, Robert; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2013-01-01

    In the post-war period, the goods composition of trade in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries has changed considerably. We analyze the evolution of comparative advantage using a detailed trade data set and a new analytical tool: the Harmonic Mass index (HM index),

  5. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  6. Processing advantages for focused words in Korean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kember, H.; Choi, J.Y.; Cutler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Korean, focus is expressed in accentual phrasing. To ascertain whether words focused in this manner enjoy a processing advantage analogous to that conferred by focus as expressed in, e.g, English and Dutch, we devised sentences with target words in one of four conditions: prosodic focus, syntacti

  7. Business Intelligence Solutions for Gaining Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence is the process for increasing the competitive advantage of a company by intelligent use of available data in decision-making. Only a revolutionary Business Intelligence solution, like the proposed portal-based, can solve the complex issues faced when evaluating decision support applications and ensures the availability of any business-critical information.

  8. Business Intelligence Solutions for Gaining Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela I. MUNTEAN

    2007-01-01

    Business Intelligence is the process for increasing the competitive advantage of a company by intelligent use of available data in decision-making. Only a revolutionary Business Intelligence solution, like the proposed portal-based, can solve the complex issues faced when evaluating decision support applications and ensures the availability of any business-critical information.

  9. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  10. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立平

    2005-01-01

    The e-book has many advantages over a paperbased product. You can store lots of books on one computer—in fact your entire library could be stored on the top of your desk. E-books also allow you to mark your page with an electronic bookmark and jump straight to it when you open the book.

  11. Advantages of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chain reinforcement is a new revolutionary technology that opens possibilities of building load-bearing structures much cheaper and with several other advantages compared to traditional constructions of concrete and steel. Some benefits are: 1 Half price or less. 2...... for fire, earthquake, and explosions. This moves the limits for resource economic buildings....

  12. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立平

    2004-01-01

    The e-book has many advantages over a paper-based product. You .can store lots of books on one computer-in fact your entire library could be stored on the top of your desk. E-books also allow you to mark your page with an electronic bookmark and jump straight to it when you open the book.

  13. Comparative Advantage Not Cause of Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since adopting` the reform and opening-up policy in the late 1970s, China has constantly expanded its foreign trade by giving full play to its comparative advantage in production cost. However, nowadays, problems previously camouflaged by high GDP growth

  14. 76 FR 9626 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... target markets and maintain acceptable losses. SBA believes that an alternate distribution channel, of... Advantage'' to provide 7(a) loan guaranties to small businesses in underserved markets, including Veterans... underserved markets, access to 7(a) loan guaranties for loans of $250,000 or less. DATES: Effective Date:...

  15. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...'') (76 FR 9626). The CA Pilot Program was introduced to increase SBA-guaranteed loans to small businesses... financings that are approved by SBA. (76 FR 56262) In response to comments received on the CA Pilot Program... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  16. The evolutionary advantage of diploid sex

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, A.O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Martins, J. S. Sa

    2002-01-01

    We modify the Penna Model for biological aging, which is based on the mutation-accumulation theory, in order to verify if there would be any evolutionary advantage of triploid over diploid organisms. We show that this is not the case, and that usual sex is always better than that involving three individuals.

  17. STRATEGY FROM CONCEPTUALIZATION TO COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Catalin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show how important the process of defining strategy can be for a company in the economical context that we all face now days. This study shows that although the results after a company has defined its strategy can be seen in a longer or shorter period of time, the process is complex and needs managers that can foresee the future. And at the end of every strategy defining the final result should be competitive advantage, this competitive advantage that can bring a company in front of its main competitors, and if the company manages to stay in front of those competitors it can gain sustainable competitive advantage. In fact this should be the goal of every company: to try by all means, off course legal means, to do things better than other companies using the right strategy. Companies can use their capabilities and knowledge in these fields, a constant innovation process can help the society to undergo powerful changes. These changes can be firstly seen in the mentality, the behaviour and the process of knowledge. It is important for a company to understand its role in the modern society. Managers of important companies do their best to keep those respective companies at a level that can secure profit, but profit is not always the entire issue. It takes time in order for those innovations to reach the whole society, because companies are not willing to give information about their products, and keep this information to be able to have future profit. The role of competitive advantage can be seen in any field of activity, it provides the values that keep our society moving forward. Competitive advantage is needed in fields like: medicine, education or environmental protection. Companies have to innovate constantly in order to obtain this competitive advantage, but this competitive advantage can be present today and gone tomorrow, because the conditions on the market are changing at a very fast rate.In the past years

  18. Peran Strategic Entrepreneurship dalam membangun Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Dedy Handrimurtjahjo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategic entrepreneurship has emerged as a new concept in examining convergence in entrepreneurship studies (opportunity-seeking behavior and strategic management (advantage-seeking behavior. Studies in the area of strategic management have gradually exposed the relationship between strategic management and entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial strategy making; intrapreneurship; entrepreneurial strategic posture within organizations; entrepreneurial orientation; strategic management integration as a context for entrepreneurial actions; and entrepreneurship theory with strategic management and the resource-based view (RBV. A conceptual model of SE that has been developed by Ireland et al. suggested that a firm which linearly and sequentially: employs an entrepreneurial mindset to identify opportunities; manages resources strategically to tackle the opportunity; applies creativity and innovation; and generates a competitive advantage is strategic and entrepreneurship operation. Managers must maximize the pursuit of new business opportunities while simultaneously maximize the generation and application of temporary competitive advantages to sustainably create organizational value. This paper develops a conceptual framework that demonstrate the role of strategic entrepreneurship in building sustainable competitive advantage

  19. On the Biological Advantage of Chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Gilat, G

    1999-01-01

    The presence of chirality in the main molecules of life may well be not just a structural artifact, but of pure biological advantage. The possibility of the existence of a phenomenon of a special mode of interaction, labeled as "chiral interaction" (CI), for which structural chirality is a necessary condition, is the main reason for such an advantage. In order to demonstrate such a possibility, macroscopic chiral devices are introduced and presented as analogies for such an interaction. For this purpose it is important to make a clear distinction between geometric and physical chiralities, where the latter are capable to perform chiral interactions with various media. Apart from chirality, a few other structural elements are required. In particular, the presence of an interface that separates between the chiral device and the medium with which it is interacting. The physical chirality is build into this very interface where chiral interaction is taking place. On a molecular level, soluble proteins in particul...

  20. Sustainability in organizations: advantages and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Josende Paz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are currently seeking to adopt sustainable policies and practices, causing a greater search for and use of sustainable models. This article therefore aims to evaluate the advantages of using sustainability principles in organizations, as well as to detect the main difficulties in implementing a sustainable model, identifying the existence of the principles described by Oliveira et al. (2012 and other authors. Bibliographic research was used to understand the “state of the art” in relation to sustainability in organizations, and the data was collected from articles published in journals in the last eight years. The importance of sustainability to organizations, better financial performance, stimulus for innovation, better management and the involvement of stakeholders in their processes were all evident as advantages of using this methodology. Finally, the following challenges were identified: the need for an investigation into the organization’s maturity in the use of sustainable methods and preparation of human resources for organizational change.

  1. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value. PMID:25154124

  2. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES ENTERPRISES IN KOOPERATION RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mikitiuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Formation of new approaches to the definition of competitive advantage requires different ways to implement them according to market conditions. These paths can be cooperative relations entities that are implemented in the competitive advantage of enterprises in the new stage of development of a competitive society. The result of the interaction of small businesses with industrial and economic structures is the formation and development of such forms of cooperation entities as subcontracting, franchising, leasing, venture finance. The content of these forms is to integrate (interlacing of the functional areas of business including production of functional form is subcontracting relationships, forms of supply – franchising, industrial and financial shape – leasing as a form of innovative functional integration relations is venture financing.

  3. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  4. Natural circulation systems: advantages and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture briefly explains the principle of working of a natural circulation system, its various advantages and applications in nuclear and other industries. The major challenges to be overcome before the wide acceptance of natural circulation as the normal mode of coolant circulation in nuclear power reactors are briefly described. Classification of NCSs and the terminologies commonly encountered in natural circulation literature are also briefly explained. (author)

  5. Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful...... in the planning of accident prevention activities if focus is maintained on prevention of accidents and not on changing of the safety culture....

  6. Economic Development and "National Competitive Advantage"

    OpenAIRE

    J.T., Goode

    2002-01-01

    Despite the preponderance of economic theory and research which argues to the contrary, the notion that national economies stand in a fundamentally competitive relationship with one another remains surprisingly widespread. In recent years, some of the most influential impetus for this misperception has come from Michael Porter's conceptualization of "the competitive advantage of nations" in relation to economic development and date theory. It is argued that Porter neither proposes nor demonst...

  7. Women and nurse executives. Finally, some advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, J S

    1993-10-01

    How do chief nurse executives (CNEs) and chief executive officers (CEOs) compare on selected components of organizational socialization, and do differences exist between genders? To answer these questions, the author compared 127 male CEOs, 127 female CEOs, 232 female CNEs, and 117 male CNEs on their self-reported leadership styles, managerial values, and skills. The differences found between both genders and positions on all measures are largely advantageous to women and nurses in healthcare administration. PMID:8410326

  8. Finance, Comparative Advantage, and Resource Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Jaud, Melise; Kukenova, Madina; Strieborny, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that exported products exit the US market sooner if they violate the Heckscher-Ohlin notion of comparative advantage. Crucially, this pattern is stronger when exporting country has a well-developed banking system, measured by a high ratio of bank credit over the GDP. Banks thus push firms away from exports that are facing an uphill battle on a competitive foreign market du...

  9. Micromachining of electret materials, advantages and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, P.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for the micromachining of organic electret materials like Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene). The authors have used photolithography and plasma etching, by which electrets can be etched selectively. The advantages of micromachining electrets in such a way are numerous. Miniature sensors like microphones and pressure sensors, containing local areas using Teflon, have been realized in the authors' laboratories. The process can also be used for electret research. ...

  10. EMERGING IT TECHNOLOGIES - ADVANTAGES AND RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria STANCIU; BRAN Florin

    2012-01-01

    Companies are looking for new business models ensuring quality, effectiveness, efficiency and competitive advantages. IT-based business models implementing the most recent IT developments are considered the new vector in business innovation and key of success. Companies are aware that the IT specific risks can induce failure in achieving strategic objectives. Managing risks, of all kind, is the key of success. The risks must be monitored and the new threats arising from the new IT solutions m...

  11. Ethical Management – Competitive Advantage Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Violeta; Puiu, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims at emphasizing the importance of business ethics in long term competitive advantage. Ethics is the basis for human relationships. It is reflected in the quality of our relationships and all members of our society must understand the importance of ethics as it is the basis of a civilized nation. Business ethics is concerned with the study of ethical principles and rules in economic context; it offers a set of useful decision instruments for the company’s strategies, for solving ...

  12. The Employment Advantages of Skilled Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...

  13. Heterozygote advantage in Tay-Sachs carriers?

    OpenAIRE

    Spyropoulos, B; Moens, P B; Davidson, J.; Lowden, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Chi-square analyses of new data as well as data previously reported by Myrianthopoulos have shown that grandparents of Tay-Sachs carriers die from proportionally the same causes as grandparents of noncarriers. It is unlikely that there is any advantage to being a Tay-Sachs carrier insofar as resistance to tuberculosis is concerned. Our results are further evidence to support Fraikor's claim that the high carrier frequency of the allele in Ashkenazi Jews is probably caused by a combination of ...

  14. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in Pear

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime De Pablo Valenciano; Giancinti, Miguel A.; Juan Uribe

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the study of the comparative advantages and competitiveness in the global pear market. First, it will outline a clear distinction between these two concepts, followed by analysis. This paper provides a new index of competitiveness developed by our research based on the insights offered by a wide range of studies on this subject. The aim is to achieve a new line of analysis to improve and expand the possibilities of present day studies.

  15. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in Pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime de Pablo Valenciano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the study of the comparative advantages and competitiveness in the global pear market. First, it will outline a clear distinction between these two concepts, followed by analysis. This paper provides a new index of competitiveness developed by our research based on the insights offered by a wide range of studies on this subject. The aim is to achieve a new line of analysis to improve and expand the possibilities of present day studies.

  16. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-01-01

    Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them) in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the se...

  17. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the secondary education sector.

  18. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing globalization and internationalization bring huge changes to business environment, which has been changed from a lot of dispersed local markets to a single economic market. These changes make businessmen have to think about their international business strategies, such as outsourcing. This article will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing in the context of global manufacturing strategy in order to help managers handle it more effectively.

  19. Access to Credit and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Keuschnigg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Access to external funds is crucial for the entry and expansion of entrepreneurial firms and the sectors they predominantly arise in. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints, lead to entry of firms at the lower bound of the productivity distribution, and create an endogeno...

  20. Explicating Knowledge-based Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Moustaghfir

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Explaining how knowledge assets provide firms with a competitive advantage and show how organizational capabilities have the potential to produce long-term superior performance. Paper Category – Research Paper and Case Study. Design/Methodology/Approach – Systematic literature review and in-depth single case study. Findings – Knowledge assets through different learning mechanisms and effective knowledge management processes are bundled, linked, incorporated, converted, organized, an...

  1. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  2. Organizational Effectiveness: Social Capital and Competitive Advantage Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vini Wiratno Putri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at developing the model of organizational effectiveness in university through social capital and competitive advantage. The populations of this study are the head of study programs and the structural officials in some Universities in Semarang. In this case, We used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM in AMOS 21.0 program as the analysis tool. The result of the study and model analysis showed that even though the social capital had significant positive influenced to the competitive advantage in the university, the improvement of social capital and competitive advantage at university could not improve the university organizational effectiveness. Then, between two factors which influenced the competitive advantage (internal social capital and external social capital, it is obtained that external social capital got the dominant influenced factor to competitive advantage. The managerial implication suggested the policies should focus on improving the quality of cooperative relationships with external parties in the university. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membangun model efektifitas organisasi pada perguruan tinggi melalui modal sosial dan keunggulan bersaing. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah ketua program studi maupun pejabat struktural pada perguruan tinggi di Semarang. Alat analisis data yang digunakan adalah Structural Equation Modelling (SEM pada program AMOS 21.0.Hasil pengujian dan analisis model menunjukkan bahwa pada meskipun modal sosial memiliki pengaruh positif signifikan terhadap keunggulan berasingn pada perguruan tinggi namun peningkatan modal sosial dan keunggulan kompetitif pada perguruan tinggi belum mampu meningkatkan efektifitas organidsasi perguruan tinggi tersebut. Selanjutnya diantara kedua faktor yang mempengaruhi keunggulan bersaing (internal social capitaldan external social capital, didapatkan bahwa external social capital merupakan faktor yang paling dominan pengaruhnya terhadap keunggulan

  3. Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process.

  4. Developing a competitive advantage in the market for radiology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, R; Szafran, A J

    1988-01-01

    This article describes how managers of outpatient diagnostic radiology services can develop a competitive advantage by increasing the value of services to patients and referring physicians. A method is presented to identify changes to services that increase their value. The method requires the definition of the "value chains" of patients and referring physicians. Particular attention is paid to the use of information systems technology to suggest and implement service changes. A narrow range of health services was selected because the approach requires a detailed understanding of consumers and how they use services. The approach should, however, be examined carefully by managers seeking to develop a competitive advantage for a wide range of health services.

  5. The Binocular Advantage in Visuomotor Tasks Involving Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C. A. Read

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We compared performance on three manual-dexterity tasks under monocular and binocular viewing. The tasks were the standard Morrisby Fine Dexterity Test, using forceps to manipulate the items, a modified version of the Morrisby test using fingers, and a “buzz-wire” task in which subjects had to guide a wire hoop around a 3D track without bringing the hoop into contact with the track. In all three tasks, performance was better for binocular viewing. The extent of the binocular advantage in individuals did not correlate significantly with their stereoacuity measured on the Randot test. However, the extent of the binocular advantage depended strongly on the task. It was weak when fingers were used on the Morrisby task, stronger with forceps, and extremely strong on the buzz-wire task (fivefold increase in error rate with monocular viewing. We suggest that the 3D buzz-wire game is particularly suitable for assessing binocularly based dexterity.

  6. The binocular advantage in visuomotor tasks involving tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jenny C A; Begum, Shah Farzana; McDonald, Alice; Trowbridge, Jack

    2013-01-01

    We compared performance on three manual-dexterity tasks under monocular and binocular viewing. The tasks were the standard Morrisby Fine Dexterity Test, using forceps to manipulate the items, a modified version of the Morrisby test using fingers, and a "buzz-wire" task in which subjects had to guide a wire hoop around a 3D track without bringing the hoop into contact with the track. In all three tasks, performance was better for binocular viewing. The extent of the binocular advantage in individuals did not correlate significantly with their stereoacuity measured on the Randot test. However, the extent of the binocular advantage depended strongly on the task. It was weak when fingers were used on the Morrisby task, stronger with forceps, and extremely strong on the buzz-wire task (fivefold increase in error rate with monocular viewing). We suggest that the 3D buzz-wire game is particularly suitable for assessing binocularly based dexterity.

  7. Advantage of a lead swimmer in drafting

    CERN Document Server

    Westerweel, J; Pennings, P; Yilmaz, B

    2016-01-01

    We present results from model tests to investigate the effect of drafting in swimming, in particular for the lead swimmer. The drag for scaled-model passive swimmers was determined accurately at Froude numbers comparable to conditions for actual human swimmers. Several positions of a draft swimmer at different separations behind and alongside the lead swimmer were investigated. It was found that a lead swimmer can experience an advantage from a draft swimmer. Several other positions of the draft swimmer relative to the frontal wave generated by the lead swimmer were also considered. These results indicate favourable and undesirable positions during passing.

  8. An Assessment of Comparative Advantage of Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongani Edwin Mushanyuri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated whether Mauritius has comparative advantage in theproducts it exports in intra-SADC, intra-COMESA and global markets. There is aneed for Mauritius to improve its competitiveness through a combination of bothregional and national strategies via increasing investment in infrastructuraldevelopment, promotion of intra-regional trade and integration, improvingcapacity building, liberalization of the labour market and facilitating the access tobanking resources. The results showed that Mauritius has a revealed comparativeadvantage (RCA index of ≥1 in 529 product codes. The highest RCA index of1694.21 was found in live primates.

  9. Establishing a competitive advantage through quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R J

    1996-06-01

    The successful dentist of the future will establish a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace by recognising that patients undergoing dental treatment cannot see the result before purchase, and that they therefore look for signs of service quality to reduce uncertainty. Thus the successful dentist will implement a quality programme that recognises not only that quality is defined by meeting patients' needs and expectations, but also that quality service is fundamental to successful business strategy. Finally, the successful dentist of the future will realise that the pursuit of quality is a never-ending process which requires leadership by example.

  10. Using information networks for competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, R L

    1995-01-01

    Although the healthcare "information superhighway" has received considerable attention, the use of information technology to create a sustainable competitive advantage is not new to other industries. Economic survival in the new world of managed care may depend on a healthcare delivery system's ability to use network-based communications technologies to differentiate itself in the market, especially through cost savings and demonstration of desirable outcomes. The adaptability of these technologies can help position healthcare organizations to break the paradigms of the past and thrive in a market environment that stresses coordination, efficiency, and quality in various settings.

  11. Comparative Advantage Analysis of the Main Grain Crops in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the summarization of the status quo of the research both at home and abroad,the changing trend of the production of the main grain crops,covering the planting structure,seed structure and the trend of the per unit yields of garlic are analyzed.According to the comparative advantage theory,the comprehensive comparative advantages indices,which have been revised,can be used as the main research methods.By using the relevant data from 2000 to 2006,the scale comparative advantage,the efficient comparative advantage and the comprehensive comparative advantages of the main grain crops(wheat,millet,corn,soybean,rice and tuber crops)in each city of Henan Province are measured.The results show that among the main grain crops in Henan Province,only the wheat and the corn have comparative advantages;rice,corn,soybean and tuber crops all do not have the scale advantages;the wheat,millet and the potatoes have obvious efficiency advantages while rice,corn and soybean have relatively weak efficiency advantages;wheat and corn have comprehensive comparative advantages,while rich,millet,soy bean and potatoes do not have the comprehensive comparative advantages.Combining with the current specific situation of Henan Province,the general situation faced by the production of main grain crops in Henan Province is analyzed specifically.In the end,suggestions on adjusting the structure of the main grain crops are put forward.

  12. Advantages of digital imaging for radiological diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and limitations of radiological digital images in comparison with analogic ones are analyzed. We discuss three main topics: acquisition, post-procedure manipulation, and visualization, archive and communication. Digital acquisition with computed radiology systems present a global sensitivity very close to conventional film for diagnostic purposes. However, flat panel digital systems seems to achieve some advantages in particular clinical situations. A critical issue is the radiation dose-reduction that can be accomplished without reducing image quality nor diagnostic exactitude. The post-procedure manipulation allows, particularly in multiplanar modalities like CT or MR, to extract all implicit diagnostic information in the images: Main procedures are multiplanar and three-dimensional reformations, dynamic acquisitions, functional studies and image fusion. The use of PACS for visualization, archive and communication of images, improves the effectiveness and the efficiency of the workflow, allows a more comfortable diagnosis for the radiologist and gives way to improvements in the communication of images, allowing tele consulting and the tele radiology. (Author) 6 refs

  13. Rural Medicare Advantage Plan Payment in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Payment to Medicare Advantage (MA) plans was fundamentally altered in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). MA plans now operate under a new formula for county-level payment area benchmarks, and in 2012 began receiving quality-based bonus payments. The Medicare Advantage Quality Bonus Payment Demonstration expanded the bonus payments to most MA plans through 2014; however, with the end of the demonstration bonus payments has been reduced for intermediate quality MA plans. This brief examines the impact that these changes in MA baseline payment are having on MA plans and beneficiaries in rural and urban areas. Key Data Findings. (1) Payments to plans in rural areas were 3.9 percent smaller under ACA payment policies in 2015 than they would have been in the absence of the ACA. For plans in urban areas, the payments were 8.8 percent smaller than they would have been. These figures were determined using hypothetical pre-ACA and actual ACA-mandated benchmarks for 2015. (2) MA plans in rural areas received an average annual bonus payment of $326.77 per enrollee in 2014, but only $63.76 per enrollee in 2015, with the conclusion of the demonstration. (3) In 2014, 92 percent of rural MA beneficiaries were in a plan that received quality-based bonus payments under the demonstration, while in March 2015, 56 percent of rural MA beneficiaries were in a plan that was eligible for quality-based bonus payments.

  14. IMS IN SMES - REASONS, ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS ON IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Rajković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Appearance of a number of management systems with various and sometimes divergent demands, demands for revise of optimal strategy on implementation of these standards in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the attempt on their integration into integrated management system are suggested even more. Firstly question on choice and reasons for implementation of standards is raised. Management and employees expect benefits on the implementation and they pass and minimize the implementation barriers. Basic concept on integrated management system (IMS into SMEs and analyse on reasons, advantages and barriers at IMS implementation are presented in this paper.

  15. Concomitant vs. Comparative Advantages: Sufficient vs. Necessary Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaningam, Carl D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the concomitant advantages case in academic debate. Examines the distinction between concomitant and comparative advantages and the implications of this distinction for concomitant advantages as a form of argument. (PD)

  16. Advantages and Limitations of Different SDLC Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika D Amlani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Software engineering is the area which is constantly growing. It is very interesting subject to learn as all the software development industry based on this specified area. Now a days, there are lots of software development life cycle models available. According to the requirements, software industry people are using it as per their requirements. As there are lots of SDLC models, they are used according to their requirements. So, it is needed to know the requirements in which the SDLC models is used. This paper is about the pros and cons of some models. So, user can take the advantage of this paper to find the model best suitable for their need.

  17. The POP Program: the patient education advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, M; Mosher, C; Reesman, D

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, a preoperative education program was developed for total joint replacement patients in a small community hospital. The goals of the program were to increase educational opportunities for the joint replacement patients, prepare patients for hospitalization, plan for discharge needs, and increase efficiency of the orthopaedic program. Since 1992, approximately 600 patients have attended the education program. Outcomes have included positive responses from patients regarding their preparedness for surgery, increased participation in their plan of care, coordinated discharge planning, decreased length of stay, and progression across the continuum of care. A multidisciplinary approach to preparing patients for surgery allows for a comprehensive and efficient education program. Marketing of successful programs can enhance an institution's competitive advantage and help ensure the hospital's viability in the current health care arena.

  18. Rethinking Marketing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın KOÇAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When formal marketing thought developed in the early 1900s, dominant perspective of marketing was about taking things “to market”. After 1950 marketing thought moved to a “market to” orientation. This orientation reflects “product dominant logic”. After radical changes in information technology, knowledge asymmetry between firm and customer is decreased and customer becomes operant resource instead of a resource to be acted on. Therefore, new marketing paradigm has been emerged and main focus moved from “value in exchange” to “value in use” and customer becomes collaborative partner. Firm can only provide value proposition. New definition of marketing comprises “customer relationship”, “share holders”, and “value creation”. Apart from evolving of marketing thought, theories of competitive advantages have been also change form industry perspective to internal resource and dynamic capabilities.

  19. STRATEGIES FOR COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Azadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid and sustained development of electronic commerce, many companies doing e-business are still in the investment and brand-building phase and have yet to show a profit. However, as e-businesses shift their focus from  building a customer base to increasing revenue growth and profitability, they should reevaluate their current business strategies, if any, and develop strategies that provide a clear path to profitability. This study uses McCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter’s five competitive forces model to identify strategies for Internet companies that respond to the five competitive forces and thereby achieve a competitive advantage. The study provides significant new insights into the development and implementation of e-business strategies that contribute to increased profit.

  20. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  1. Review of Researches on Advantages of Intercropping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang-qian; HUANG Guo-qin; BIAN Xin-min; JIANG Xue-hai; ZHAO Qiguo

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a very effective cultivation method in the agricultural production with a long history. The use of intercropping to build a niche complementary crop community can not only enhance the stability of farmland ecosystem and the resistance of crop community to environmental stress but also reduce the damage of diseases, insect pests, environmental pollution and improve the efficiency of resource use to finally achieve high and stable yield of crop community. By collecting the intercropping researches at home and abroad, this thesis describes the impact of intercropping on crop nitrogen fixation and nitrogen transfer, accumulation and distribution of soil nitrate nitrogen, soil microorganism, crop diseases and insect pests, ventilation and light transmission, quality, yield and nutrient absorption, draws a conclusion on intercropping advantages and points out the sections requiring further study in the future.

  2. The advantages of a tapered whisker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Williams

    Full Text Available The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker, and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals.

  3. Take advantage of your insurance carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlow, S.M.

    1990-02-01

    The primary objective of the developer of an independent energy facility is to make a profit through the sale of electricity and steam. The most effective way to achieve this objective is to design, build and operate a facility in a way that maximizes its availability and efficiency without increasing expenses. A property carrier has a range of insurance products and engineering services designed not only to transfer risk but to increase availability and efficiency and reduce the cost of operating and maintaining a facility. The independent energy producer can benefit by taking full advantage of traditional and specialty insurance products as well as engineering services that are available today. There is a whole range of insurance products that apply during the various stages of pre-construction, construction, testing and commercial operation, and these are described.

  4. Home advantage in Turkish professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçkin, Aylin; Pollard, Richard

    2008-08-01

    Home advantage is known to play an important role in the outcome of professional soccer games and to vary considerably worldwide. In the Turkish Super League over the last 12 years, 61.5% of the total points gained have been won by the home team, a figure similar to the worldwide average and to the Premier League in England. It is lower (57.7%) for games played between teams from Istanbul and especially high for games involving teams from cities in the more remote and ethnically distinct parts of Turkey (Van and Diyarbakir). Match performance data show that although home teams in Turkey take 26% more shots at goal than away teams, the success rates for shots do not differ. For fouls and disciplinary cards, home and away teams do not differ significantly in Turkey, a finding that differs from games in England, perhaps due to less referee bias.

  5. Costs and advantages of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies on nuclear energy competitiveness show that considering only the economics this option is the most economic one to generate the base load electricity in most of the countries which do not have plenty of alternative fuels, being this advantage both for the actual prices formation and for their stability on the long term. Should we add the strategic and environmental benefits linked to: Kioto emissions limits, short and long term supply security, national wealth increase due to quality and price of the supply and enhancement of related enterprises, the goodness of nuclear energy to supply a significant share of the electricity demand in most of the countries is evident. For the investors to make decisions for this option, some conditions have to be assured: regulatory stability, favourable national energy policy and expectation for the future, predictable and proven licensing process and expectation for moderate interest rates in the long term. (Author)

  6. Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Howard; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics exactly coincides with the class computable quantum mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of randomness processing in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over classical stochastic physics, but a strictly larger class of problems which can be solved. Beyond new foundational insights into the nature and malleability of randomness, and the distinction between quantum and classical information, these results also offer the potential of developing classically intractable simulations with currently accessible quantum technologies. PMID:26381816

  7. The SSRIs: advantages, disadvantages and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R; Baldwin, D; Preskorn, S

    1995-01-01

    The highly specific mechanism of action of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) confers advantages on this group, relative to other classes of antidepressant, and thus represents a significant advance in the pharmacotherapy of depression. Whilst their clinical efficacy is equivalent to that of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), the SSRIs have a greatly reduced risk of toxicity in overdose and have been shown to be significantly better tolerated. Specifically, the SSRIs have a low incidence of anticholinergic effects and are essentially devoid of cardiotoxicity. This tolerability advantage may be of significance in improving compliance and hence cost-effectiveness of treatment, particularly in the long term. Despite a lack of sedative effect, there is evidence that SSRIs are more effective than TCAs in the treatment of depression with anxiety. In addition, the SSRIs have been shown to be effective in obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Although superior efficacy has not been demonstrated for any one of the SSRIs, the structural diversity of this group is reflected in emerging qualitative and quantitative differences in side effects and drug interaction potential. Many of these differential features reflect important variations in pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profiles, including dosage flexibility, washout times, dose-plasma level proportionality and age-related changes in plasma levels. Fluoxetine, for example, has a considerably longer half-life than other SSRIs and side effects and drug interactions may thus occur for an extended period following discontinuation of treatment. Significant differences in the potential for drug interactions in this group are related to their relative potency for inhibition of important liver drug-metabolising enzymes including CYPIID6, CYPIA2 and CYPIIIA4. Large comparative clinical trials of the different SSRIs have yet to be undertaken; however, the differences that have

  8. Decision-making in amnesia: do advantageous decisions require conscious knowledge of previous behavioural choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, Klemens; Krouzel, Claudine; Hofer, Helene; Müri, René; Perrig, Walter; Ptak, Radek

    2006-01-01

    Previous work has reported that in the Iowa gambling task (IGT) advantageous decisions may be taken before the advantageous strategy is known [Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1997). Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy. Science, 275, 1293-1295]. In order to test whether explicit memory is essential for the acquisition of a behavioural preference for advantageous choices, we measured behavioural performance and skin conductance responses (SCRs) in five patients with dense amnesia following damage to the basal forebrain and orbitofrontal cortex, six amnesic patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe or the diencephalon, and eight control subjects performing the IGT. Across 100 trials healthy participants acquired a preference for advantageous choices and generated large SCRs to high levels of punishment. In addition, their anticipatory SCRs to disadvantageous choices were larger than to advantageous choices. However, this dissociation occurred much later than the behavioural preference for advantageous alternatives. In contrast, though exhibiting discriminatory autonomic SCRs to different levels of punishment, 9 of 11 amnesic patients performed at chance and did not show differential anticipatory SCRs to advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Further, the magnitude of anticipatory SCRs did not correlate with behavioural performance. These results suggest that the acquisition of a behavioural preference--be it for advantageous or disadvantageous choices--depends on the memory of previous reinforcements encountered in the task, a capacity requiring intact explicit memory.

  9. Using integration technology as a strategic advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P A

    1993-08-01

    The underlying premise of the Managed Competition Act previously cited is that through managed competition providers will be forced to lower care costs while increasing the level of positive care outcomes. Because it may also be that tomorrow's hospitals will find a severe rationing of technology, what can they do to prepare? Most of the systems in place today already have built within them all the necessary potential to address this premise and technology requirement with no change, no conversion, no expense for new equipment and software, and no disruption in day-to-day operations, just a little re-engineering. Today, however, these systems are similar to a 20-mule team pulling in different directions: all the power is there, but the wagon remains motionless and totally unable to reach its objective. It takes a skilled wagonmaster to bring them together, to make the mules work as a cohesive unit, to make the power of 20 mules greater than the sum of 20 mules. So it is and will be for the hospital of tomorrow. System integration is no longer a question of whether but of when. Those hospitals that use it today as a strategic advantage will be in a better position tomorrow to use it as a competitive strategic advantage in an environment that will reward low cost and high positive care outcomes and will penalize those that cannot compete. The technology is already here and economically within reach of nearly every hospital, just waiting to be used. The question that must nag all of us who want to make the health care system of America better is, Why not make the when now? Rich Helppie, president of Superior Consultant Company, summarized the solution well: The old ways will not give way to the new overnight. The re-engineering process in healthcare must evolve. Compared to the last 20 years, however, such evolution may appear to be a massive, forthright, complete, comprehensive, drastic and rapid revolution. Survival is the name of the game, and for healthcare

  10. Cutting Porter's last diamond: competitive and comparative (dis)advantages in the Dutch flower industry. Which lesson for Italian SMEs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Tavoletti; Robbin te Velde

    2007-01-01

    The Dutch are the world's leaders in the ower business despite they seem to lack comparative advantage in the traditional sense. Comparative advantages paid a role in the history of the Dutch ower industry and they still have a role today. Based on a critic of Porter's theories, the investigation suggests that the exploitation of comparative advantages is allowed only to those rms and industries that already possess a competitive advantage, based on technology, logistics infrastructure, innov...

  11. BILATERAL COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES: INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Wiwin Setyari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This studytried tolook more closely at market integration, through export prices channel, inIndonesiaandMalaysia. Severalpreviousstudiestendtorejectthe existence oflawofoneprice(LOP. The law of one price (LOP states that price a given product should be the same in different parts of the world if valued in common currency. However, empirical studies uniformly shows LOP does not describe most markets. Someimportantfactorsthat are consideredinstrumentalin this regardaretransportation costsandprice stickiness. However, there isone characteristicthat is oftenoverlookedin the discussion ofLOP, namelychanges incomparative advantage. The specific objectiveofthispaperis to look atcomparative advantagecorrelationbetween the two countriesandtheir effect onpriceconvergence. Correlationof both selected commodities –using therankspearman's test -indicates the nature ofthemutualsubstitutionof productsthatcarrythe possibility of"price competition" so thatthe pricepointtoconvergeto one another. Tests on theexportprice ofsomeselected productsinboth countriesindicatedthe occurrence ofpriceconvergence, seen from thetwoanalytical techniques: σconvergenceandco-integrationusingJohansen's test. This conclusion is generated by attempted to control the "identical assumption" is to examines prices for similar products (homogeneous using SITC 3-digit, which is produced from the "same" or close locations, with the export destination to the same trading partner

  12. Competitive advantages of Caedibacter-infected Paramecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jürgen; Czubatinski, Lars; Wegmann, Silke; Hubner, Markus; Alter, Margret; Albrecht, Petra

    2002-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria of the genus Caedibacter limit the reproduction of their host, the freshwater ciliate Paramecium. Reproduction rates of infected strains of paramecia were significantly lower than those of genetically identical strains that had lost their parasites after treatment with an antibiotic. Interference competition occurs when infected paramecia release a toxic form of the parasitic bacterium that kills uninfected paramecia. In mixed cultures of infected and uninfected strains of either P tetraurelia or of P novaurelia, the infected strains outcompeted the uninfected strains. Infection of new host paramecia seems to be rare. Infection of new hosts was not observed in either mixtures of infected with uninfected strains, or after incubation of paramecia with isolated parasites. The competitive advantages of the host paramecia, in combination with their vegetative reproduction, makes infection of new hosts by the bacterial parasites unnecessary, and could be responsible for the continued existence of "killer paramecia" in nature. Caedibacter parasites are not a defensive adaptation. Feeding rates and reproduction of the predators Didinium nasutum (Ciliophora) and Amoeba proteus (Amoebozoa, Gymnamoebia) were not influenced by whether or not their paramecia prey were infected. Infection of the predators frequently occurred when they preyed on infected paramecia. Caedibacter-infected predators may influence competition between Paramecium strains by release of toxic parasites into the environment that are harmful to uninfected strains.

  13. Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

  14. Advantages and limitations of peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Goršak, Karmen Pižorn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines current theoretical work and research findings regarding the effectiveness of peer assessment. The main purpose of the article is to define peer asses sment and its subcategory peer feedback and to present the advantages and limitations of peer assessment derived from different research findings. In addition, conditions and strategies to successfully guarantee the benefits of peer assessment are presented.The main research studies, mentioned in this article, have been carried out in different disciplines in higher education programmes and their findings reveal positive students’ and teachers’ attitude to peer assessment as well as high correlation between peers’ and te achers’ grades. The main results of the studies show a positive effect of peer assessment on student’s active role in the process of learning and assessment, the development of social and professional skills, student’s autonomy, critical thinking, peer and selfassessment skills. Recommendations for implementing peer assessment within foreign language tea ching, as well as implications for future research work are provided. 

  15. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development.

  16. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238

  17. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development. PMID:15702597

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE HEALTH LAW: OVERVIEW AND SUGGESTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Daolu

    2014-07-01

    Health law is a rapidly developing law specialty in China. This article examines the current overall framework and evolution of Chinese health law, as a background to an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of this legal regime. Research suggests that: 1) The independent status of Chinese health law as jurisprudence and a specialty ought to be assured altogether; 2) The convergence between health law and other laws should be strengthened; 3) The current Chinese health law framework ought to be completed. This suggests the necessity to find ways to improve the independence of health law in China by eliminating the convergence and completing the legal framework.

  19. The College Advantage: Weathering the Economic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Jayasundera, Tamara; Cheah, Ban

    2012-01-01

    The rising cost of college education and high unemployment levels among recent college graduates are raising the question "Is college worth its cost?" in the minds of many Americans. A recent study published by the Associated Press found that one out of every two recent college graduates is jobless or underemployed, suggesting maybe college isn't…

  20. Features of formation of competitive advantages: a strategic dimension

    OpenAIRE

    O.Р. Pashchenko

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the features of formation of competitive advantages, the depth of theoretical and methodological basis for the formation of competitive advantages at an enterprise. The author has reviewed the approaches to the formation of stable and long-term competitive advantages. The author has also overviewed the requirements which are to be met by competitive advantages of a company and the factors that affect the possibility of competitive advantages. The author develops her ow...

  1. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved.

  2. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors.

  3. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors. PMID:17348173

  4. National and International Library Collaboration: Necessity, Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Mark

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of cooperation between research library associations can be demonstrated quite clearly. Where cooperation becomes essential is where there is a common cause to champion or an initiative to pursue for the common good. Thanks in part to the power of information communications technology, research is becoming increasingly international in scope. The members of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research teams are frequently drawn from across the world. Correspondingly, scholarly publishing (especially in medicine and the sciences is dominated by a few multinational publishers. In this context, issues that play a vital role in global scholarly communication - such as copyright, journal pricing, the managing of datasets, digital preservation and open access - are issues for the research library community everywhere in the world. Certainly there are many challenges at the local or regional level. However there are definite roles that research library associations can play most effectively at the national or international level. It is clear that by sharing expertise, building partnerships and alliances, it is possible to address common issues much more effectively than when working alone. What is special is that potentially the most powerful form of cooperation is advocacy at the national and international levels. It is essential for research library associations to work together at the political level to move their agenda forward. Examples are lobbying about copyright legislation (nationally, or within the EC or at WIPO; or promoting the cause of Open Access. The unique value of LIBER is to provide a forum and a platform for European research library associations to explore and benefit from cooperation and their shared strength.

  5. Fluorescence advantages with microscopic spatiotemporal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debabrata; Roy, Debjit; De, Arijit K.

    2013-03-01

    We present a clever design concept of using femtosecond laser pulses in microscopy by selective excitation or de-excitation of one fluorophore over the other overlapping one. Using either a simple pair of femtosecond pulses with variable delay or using a train of laser pulses at 20-50 Giga-Hertz excitation, we show controlled fluorescence excitation or suppression of one of the fluorophores with respect to the other through wave-packet interference, an effect that prevails even after the fluorophore coherence timescale. Such an approach can be used both under the single-photon excitation as well as in the multi-photon excitation conditions resulting in effective higher spatial resolution. Such high spatial resolution advantage with broadband-pulsed excitation is of immense benefit to multi-photon microscopy and can also be an effective detection scheme for trapped nanoparticles with near-infrared light. Such sub-diffraction limit trapping of nanoparticles is challenging and a two-photon fluorescence diagnostics allows a direct observation of a single nanoparticle in a femtosecond high-repetition rate laser trap, which promises new directions to spectroscopy at the single molecule level in solution. The gigantic peak power of femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rate, even at low average powers, provide huge instantaneous gradient force that most effectively result in a stable optical trap for spatial control at sub-diffraction limit. Such studies have also enabled us to explore simultaneous control of internal and external degrees of freedom that require coupling of various control parameters to result in spatiotemporal control, which promises to be a versatile tool for the microscopic world.

  6. Construction and harmonious development of urban-rural comparing financial systems based on comparative advantages theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There exist differences between urban-rural financial systems. Generally, the development of urban financial industry has absolute advantages compared with rural financial industry. According to the Matthew Effect, the financial resources will flow into cities for higher benefit, so rural areas are unable to obtain absolute advantages. However, relative advantage theory of the comparative advantage theory provides an important way to observe respective advantage of both city and country. Therefore, there are comparative advantages for the development of financial industry in both urban and rural areas, The respective comparative advantages of urban-rural financial systems will supply greater efficiency than that in current dual pattern condition. Closely connected with China's financial development and reform and the fact of the recreation of urban-rural financial system, this paper tries to explain the comparative advantage of the urban-rural financial systems. The analysis of the comparative advantage between urban and rural finance is the clue for the boundary between urban-rural financial systems. This paper analyzes the current situation of urban.-rural financial system. Then it proposes some views and suggestions on how to develop and maintain these two systems as well as how to promote their coordinative development.

  7. Propagating quantum coherence for a biological advantage

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Stephan; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic antennas need to efficiently transfer absorbed energy through chains of pigment molecules to reaction centers, where excitations induce charge separation. Experimental evidence shows that a variety of photosynthetic systems can preserve quantum beats in this energy transfer process, even at room temperature. However, whether this quantum coherence arises in vivo and whether it has any biological function have remained unclear. Here we present a theoretical model which suggests that the creation and recreation of coherence under natural conditions is ubiquitous. Our model allows us to demonstrate a quantum coherent ratchet effect, in a design based on an energy transfer pathway in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex of the green sulfur bacteria. These results suggest a biological role for coherent oscillations in spatially directing energy transfer.

  8. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND E-BUSINESS STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Vrček, Neven; Brumec, Josip; Kermek, Dragutin

    2002-01-01

    Frequent changes of modern technologies combined with speed and continuous evolution of electronic business present significant problem for the enterprise. Such fast flow of changes suggests business concepts almost contradictory with strategic approach to management and information system development. The proponents of this business philosophy argue that strategic approach is not suitable in modern, fast changing, conditions. The most important attribute they give to the new enterprise is ag...

  9. REVIEW KEY FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES OF USB

    OpenAIRE

    Здищук, С.

    2009-01-01

    Эта обзорная статья в краткой форме показывает нам главные преимущества USB порта над другими системными портами и шинами в качестве базовой платформы разработки периферических устройств и приложений для работы с ними. Также она может служить базовым источником для непрофессиональных разработчиков, которые хотят улучшить свои знания о USBThis overview article shows us in short form main advantages of the USB over other system ports and buses as the base platform for peripheral development. Al...

  10. FROM COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE TO DIFFERENTIAL ADVANTAGE. FOR A NEW MODEL OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    PHILIPPE DUEZ

    2012-01-01

    The Porter’s model of competitive advantage has deeply influence the strategic management point of view of the last decades. The strategic management thought is itself greatly renewed during the ninety years for giving an answer to the environment’s transformations. The survey of the different views and of their epistemologies’ limits will permit us to purpose our model. We start from the school of economic proximity to show the new paradigm of the strategic management thought. To have the pr...

  11. Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy.

  12. Football supporters' perceptions of their role in the home advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Sandy; Wakelin, Delia; Lewis, Matthew

    2005-04-01

    Football fans' views on their role in the home advantage were obtained by placing links to an internet questionnaire on supporters' websites. Altogether, 461 fans from clubs which had been promoted, relegated or unchanged in the past season of the English football leagues rated crowd support as significantly more influential than familiarity, travel, territoriality and referee bias in contributing to the home advantage. Fans felt responsible for inspiring their team to victory, took credit for distracting opponents, and believed that they could influence officials into making decisions in their team's favour. However, they did not accept personal blame for poor results. No effects for gender, age or the team's outcome in the promotion/relegation battle emerged, though season ticket holders were more extreme in their feelings of responsibility overall. Furthermore, it was suggested that mechanisms such as the perception of being superior to rivals can encourage fans to retain their allegiance to their teams, even when outcomes are disappointing. Indeed, affiliation may become so incorporated into self-identity that supporters may not have the option of abandoning their team, but instead perceive a reciprocal relationship in which both they and the team are expected to do their best to achieve success. PMID:16089181

  13. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  14. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon-Jung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheon [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kwang Yeon [Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gladyshev, Vadim N. [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: hykim@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-12

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. {sup 75}Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher K{sub m} than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. - Highlights: • The first characterization of a selenoprotein Trx is presented. • The selenoenzyme Trx exhibits 10-fold higher catalytic activity than Cys homologues. • Se utilization in Trx is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by Sec residue.

  15. Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest

    CERN Document Server

    Bialczak, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Google Suggest is a service incorporated within Google Web Search which was created to help user find the right search phrase by proposing the autocompleting popular phrases while typing. The paper presents a new network steganography method called StegSuggest which utilizes suggestions generated by Google Suggest as a hidden data carrier. The detailed description of the method's idea is backed up with the analysis of the network traffic generated by the Google Suggest to prove its feasibility. The traffic analysis was also performed to discover the occurrence of two TCP options: Window Scale and Timestamp which StegSuggest uses to operate. Estimation of method steganographic bandwidth proves that it is possible to insert 100 bits of steganogram into every suggestions list sent by Google Suggest service.

  16. THE MAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES AT THE RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Ustenko, M.

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the problem of developing the competitive advantages at the railway transport. Practical recommendations concerning the formation of the competitive advantages at the railway transport are work out.

  17. Home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This study examined whether the home advantage varies for open-air, domed, or retractable-roof baseball stadia, and whether having the roof open or closed affects the home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia. Data from Major League Baseball (MLB) games played between 2001 and 2009 were analyzed for whether or not the presence of a home-advantage was dependent on the type of home stadium used. Home advantage was robust for all three types of stadia. A significant effect of stadium type on home advantage was found, with a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to open-air stadia, replicating a previous study. There was a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to retractable-roof stadia. No other differences in the home advantage were found; results are discussed in terms of familiarity with the facility.

  18. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Roel W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional sugg

  19. Cognitive Functioning and Choice between Traditional Medicare and Medicare Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, J Michael; Afendulis, Christopher C.; McGuire, Thomas G.; Landon, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed national survey and linked Medicare enrollment data from 2004–2007 to examine the effects of expanded choice and benefits in Medicare Advantage on enrollment in Medicare Advantage or traditional Medicare. The availability of more plans was associated with increased Medicare Advantage enrollment when the number of options was small but decreased Medicare Advantage enrollment when the number became sufficiently high. Beneficiaries with low cognitive functioning were less responsive ...

  20. Home advantage in speed skating : Evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, RH

    2005-01-01

    Home advantage is a well-documented phenomenon in many sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home advantag

  1. Discover Advantages, Develop Advantages and Exploit Advantage%发现优势 发展优势 发挥优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克勤

    2012-01-01

    To discover advantage begins with the identification of TALENTS which is a source of talents:right deep in mind;to develop advantages is that identify and discover the advantages of learning around knowledge and skills;to exploit advantages to full means focusing on the creation of the environment and management advantages.%发现优势,始于识别talents,talents的源泉:头脑深处;发展优势,在于围绕识别和发现的优势进行知识和技能的学习;发挥优势,重在创造环境和管理优势。

  2. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

  3. A Cram of E-Learning Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, following the exponential development of ICT, the classical method of learning has undergone numerous changes. The emergence of the Internet has accelerated these changes due to its capacity to offer multiple possibilities of access to information, instruction, all based on dynamic technologies, transparency and open dialogue. It can be well said that the Internet is turning into an arbiter for the access to education and culture, while eLearning is a new form of education that suggests itself as an alternative with a view to the needs of continuing training and knowledge. The most widely known results of this change are obvious in two learning models mediated by ICT: eLearning and Computer-assisted learning. As well as the classical models, these models imply an efficient learning process based on well-grounded cooperation and communication activities. Moreover, these models require appropriate technology and equipment. It is also important for the eLearners to have knowledge of the new technologies. The great advantage of eLearning is the abolition of formal barriers by eliminating distances, by introducing temporal flexibility and the creation of a new type of student-teacher relationship. The authors have asked the question whether the greatest advantages of this new way of learning and refreshing will still hold for those of a higher educational and financial status, thus deepening unequal opportunity of chances. A team of members of the teaching staff of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi (UAIC and the Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest (ASE have carried out a survey among the students of the two institutions regarding the students' perceptions, expectations and attitudes related to eLearning and the identifi-cation of the profile of the student with access to this form of education. The paper presents some of the most important findings of this research.

  4. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  5. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before e

  6. Induction Technique: Beyond Simple Response to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    The hypnotic induction is intended to induce hypnosis. This implies that what is sought is intended to go beyond what might be wrought by mere suggestion, expectancy, and social influence. The experimentally controlled research showing that the induction makes a difference and how small changes in wording of suggestions can produce orthogonal responses is briefly reviewed. This article explains the principles of induction and three critical phases of hypnotic induction in detail. An arm levitation scripted protocol demonstrating how to respond to the patient using the three phases to maximize responses to hypnotic suggestions is presented. PMID:27586048

  7. Influence of ball type on home advantage in French professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosseville, Fabrice E M

    2007-04-01

    The home advantage has been consistently found in soccer matches, but conclusive evidence of the origin of this home advantage has yet to be identified. One factor often thought to contribute is familiarity with a local facility. The present study examined home advantage in the French professional soccer male championships (20 teams in each Ligue 1 and 2) and explored the influence of soccer ball type on this phenomenon. Whether it is knowing how a soccer ball rolls on a particular grass surface or some other aspect, the home team can react to the situation better if they know from experience what is likely to happen. The results suggest that type of soccer ball may have an influence on home advantage. Confounding factors are discussed.

  8. Suggestions for Preview in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Na

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors which affect the efficiency of learning English,preview stands out as an increasingly significant one in English studying.Some constructive suggestions about the preview are given to apply in the preview of English.

  9. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may pose a significant risk to kidney health ...

  10. Suggestions for Preview in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Na

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors which affect the efficiency of learning English, preview stands out as an increasingly significant one in English studying.Some constructive suggestions about the preview are given to apply in the preview of English.

  11. Suggestions for Customer Strategy Updates : Finnish Customs

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisto, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    The case organization Finnish Customs wanted to be provided with new suggestions for their customer strategy updates. The first objective of this study was to study how the needs of the partnership and key customers are met in the customer strategy and provide suggestions for improvements. Another objective was to research the legislation influencing the customer strategy development. The customer strategy was created in 2004 and it was combined with other strategies in 2013. The customer...

  12. EXTERNAL SOURCES OF URBAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tao-fang; GU Chao-lin; CHEN Xiu-ying

    2005-01-01

    Urban competition refers to capacities of cities for attracting, capturing, controlling, dominating and transforming certain resources during urban development, and capacities for wealth creating, life-standard improving and sustainable development maintenance. This paper first analyzes the external sources of urban competitive advantages: the global network-based advantages and the location-based ones. Then with the aid of method of principal component analysis in SPSS 10.0 for Windows, the Chinese urban global and local competitive advantages are explored. The finding is that the global network-and location-based advantages are remarkable for the cities in the eastern China. While for those in the western and the middle regions, affected by much lower regional competitive advantages and lower degrees of urban-regional integration, the urban competitive advantages are deeply influenced and weakened.

  13. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  14. Competitive Advantage in Tourism of Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akarapong Untong

    2013-01-01

    The competitive advantage in tourism of the countries in Southeast Asia was assessed by using coverage ratio and revealed comparative advantage (RCA). Static and dynamic analyses were applied to the data of tourism services export during 2002-2010. The results show that Cambodia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam had competitive advantages, i.e. these countries gain the surpluses more than that of the region’s. Thailand had the highest specialization in Southeast Asia but declining. M...

  15. INFORMATION ADVANTAGE IN STACKELBERG DUOPOLY UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jin

    2007-01-01

    We consider a Stackelberg model under demand slope uncertainty in an environment where the follower owns information advantage. Specifically, we show that the second mover obtains higher expected profit than the first mover when the leader only knows the prior beliefs and the follower gains the posterior probabilities. This result tells us that the leadership advantage is dominated by the information advantage when demand fluctuation is important.

  16. Generating Relational Competitive Advantage from Strategic Technological Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2012-01-01

    Collaborating with external partners on strategic technological partnerships (STPs) have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories on competitive advantage. Under the relational view, the competitive advantage is jointly generated by alliance firms. Though ...... appropriation. In order to avoid opportunism and learning races, the success of an STP requires an integration and interaction among three ways of governance: economic investments or hostage, legal contract and trustful social relationships.......Collaborating with external partners on strategic technological partnerships (STPs) have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories on competitive advantage. Under the relational view, the competitive advantage is jointly generated by alliance firms. Though...

  17. Advantages of neutron scattering for biological structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and disadvantages of neutron scattering for protein crystallography, scattering from oriented systems, and solution scattering are summarized. Techniques for minimizing the disadvantages are indicated

  18. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p < 0.001). Social compliance and source monitoring errors contribute to patterns of suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). PMID:27404406

  19. Are survival processing memory advantages based on ancestral priorities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C; McCabe, David P

    2011-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that our memory systems are especially tuned to process information according to its survival relevance, and that inducing problems of "ancestral priorities" faced by our ancestors should lead to optimal recall performance (Nairne & Pandeirada, Cognitive Psychology, 2010). The present study investigated the specificity of this idea by comparing an ancestor-consistent scenario and a modern survival scenario that involved threats that were encountered by human ancestors (e.g., predators) or threats from fictitious creatures (i.e., zombies). Participants read one of four survival scenarios in which the environment and the explicit threat were either consistent or inconsistent with ancestrally based problems (i.e., grasslands-predators, grasslands-zombies, city-attackers, city-zombies), or they rated words for pleasantness. After rating words based on their survival relevance (or pleasantness), the participants performed a free recall task. All survival scenarios led to better recall than did pleasantness ratings, but recall was greater when zombies were the threat, as compared to predators or attackers. Recall did not differ for the modern (i.e., city) and ancestral (i.e., grasslands) scenarios. These recall differences persisted when valence and arousal ratings for the scenarios were statistically controlled as well. These data challenge the specificity of ancestral priorities in survival-processing advantages in memory. PMID:21327372

  20. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W. Howard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary’s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]. The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS. Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease. Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration.

  1. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  2. Suggestions on Training MTI Translators and Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of the current state of training MTI translators and interpreters.After analyzing the problems that exist in course of the training,the author,as a student of MTI,puts forth some suggestions to improve the MTI training in colleges and universities to train practical translators and interpreters from the point of view of learning.

  3. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  4. Teaching Software Engineering: Problems and Suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Shata

    2011-01-01

    Teaching Software Engineering is a challenging task. This paper presents some problems encountered during teaching the course of software engineering to computer science and computer engineering students for few offerings. We present problems encountered and which are related to its title and contents and present suggested solutions.

  5. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  6. Suggested Universals in the Ontogenesis of Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobin, Dan I.

    This paper represents a preliminary attempt to determine universals of grammatical development in children. On the basis of language acquisition data, a limited number of findings are presented in the form of suggested developmental universals. These universals are grouped according to the psychological variables which may determine them, in the…

  7. Three Suggestions to Improve Medical English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佳丽

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of ESP,medical English teaching has an important impact on both English teachers and medical students.A good medical English teaching can help the medical students to improve themselves smoothly and easily in the medical area.In this article,three suggestions were provided for the medical English teachers to improve their English teaching in medical field.

  8. Rewarding Useful Suggestions in an Organizational Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Vidic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Do organizational unit leaders reward useful suggestions? How does the rewarding of useful employee suggestions encourage creativity and effectiveness? Purpose: On the basis of group conversations through focus groups, to determine whether rewarding effects the creativity and performance of employees. Method: Quantitative method using focus groups. Results: The results of the research study showed that the organizational unit appropriately rewards useful suggestions and that this has an impact on employee creativity and efficiency. In addition, the massive inventive activity is a system that effectively influences the success of business. Organization: Massive inventive activity has become a system in which increasingly more employees from different organizational units are becoming a part of. An important role is by managers, who are responsible for creating a positive atmosphere and encourage employees into innovative thinking, performance, and rewarding of useful suggestions. Society: The research shows that this is part of the organizational culture and that it is necessary to transfer to new employees. Originality: This is the first such research in our organizational unit. Limitations/Future Research: The research study was conducted in only one organizational unit of the company.

  9. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  10. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  11. Teaching Software Engineering: Problems and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Software Engineering is a challenging task. This paper presents some problems encountered during teaching the course of software engineering to computer science and computer engineering students for few offerings. We present problems encountered and which are related to its title and contents and present suggested solutions.

  12. Comparative Advantage, Relative Wages, and the Accumulation of Human Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulings, Coen N.

    2005-01-01

    I apply Ricardo's principle of comparative advantage to a theory of factor substitutability in a model with a continuum of worker and job types. Highly skilled workers have a comparative advantage in complex jobs. The model satisfies the distance-dependent elasticity of substitution (DIDES) characteristic: substitutability between types declines…

  13. Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Terry Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

  14. Home advantage in speed skating : evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2003-01-01

    Home advantage is a well documented phenomena in many types of sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home

  15. US Banks, Competitive Advantage, and the Volcker Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Dolde, Walter

    2013-01-01

    1. Porter strategic competitive analysis 2. A Porter analysis of the competitive advantage of banks in business lending and proprietary trading 3. Summary, competitive advantage of banks in business lending and proprietary trading 4. JPMorgan’s “London Whale” speculation 5. A common misapprehension about hedged positions in corporate debt 6. Conclusion

  16. Polysemy Advantage with Abstract but Not Concrete Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Bernadet; Cleland, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    It is a robust finding that ambiguous words are recognized faster than unambiguous words. More recent studies (e.g., Rodd et al. in "J Mem Lang" 46:245-266, 2002) now indicate that this "ambiguity advantage" may in reality be a "polysemy advantage": caused by related senses (polysemy) rather than unrelated meanings…

  17. Home advantage in the Six Nations Rugby Union tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sion; Reeves, Colin; Bell, Andrew

    2008-02-01

    This study examined whether home advantage occurred in the Six Nations Rugby Union tournament. Data were gathered using the final championship standings from the tournament's inception in 2000 to the recently completed 2007 season. Home advantage for each championship season was defined as the number of points won by teams playing at home, expressed as a percentage of all points gained either at home or away. An analysis of home advantage for each of eight seasons of competition ranged from 53% (2005) to 70% (2006). There was an overall statistically significant home advantage of 61% for 120 matches played in the Six Nations tournament between 2000 and 2007. Also analysed were the percentage of points won at home by each country. Again, evidence supported home advantage amongst all competing nations regardless of the team's quality.

  18. STRATEGY OF MAIZE'S CONCENTRATING TO ADVANTAGE AREAS IN JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui-ming; GU Li-li

    2003-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the main grain-producing provinces of China, which has dominant position in maize production, by the view of its advantages in policy, location, breed and market. And after entering WTO,some measures have been taken to enhance maize competitive ability. But there are some difficulties in concentrating production to maize advantaged areas. This paper expounds the basis that Jilin Province becomes the advantage area of maize, analyzes the problems and puts forward the supporting policy. Some strategic measures are proposed,as developing comparable advantages, carrying out the strategy of un-equilibrium development and cultivating advantaged product areas of maize to rapidly improve the international competitive ability and productivity of maize in Jilin Province, cast the agricultural predicament off and promote the agricultural development into a new stage.

  19. R as a Lingua Franca: Advantages of Using R for Quantitative Research in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Atsushi; Plonsky, Luke

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we suggest that using R, a statistical software environment, is advantageous for quantitative researchers in applied linguistics. We first provide a brief overview of the reasons why R is popular among researchers in other fields and why we recommend its use for analyses in applied linguistics. In order to illustrate these…

  20. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  1. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice. PMID:2640034

  2. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  3. Reducing suggestibility in child witness interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Memon, Amina; Holley, Angela; Wark, Linsey; Bull, Ray; Koehnken, Guenter

    1996-01-01

    This study set out to test the prediction that a Cognitive Interview may increase resistance to subsequent misleading suggestions in child witness interviews. The misleading information was presented in the form of questions both prior to, and after, a cognitive or structured interview to 8 and 9 year old witnesses to a video-taped event. Use of the cognitive interview resulted in more correct responses to post-interview questions than did the structured interview eventhough there was not qui...

  4. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos S. Efraimidis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a system that comprises important architectural and operational innovations. The system is designed to process sensitive personal data, such as location traces, browsing history and web searches (query logs, to automatically infer user preferences and build corresponding POI-based user profiles. These profiles are then used by a contextual suggestion engine to anticipate user choices and make POI recommendations for tourists. Privacy leaks are minimized by implementing an important part of the system functionality at the user side, either as a mobile app or as a client-side web application, and by taking additional precautions, like data generalization, wherever necessary. As a proof of concept, we present a prototype that implements the aforementioned mechanisms on the Android platform accompanied with certain web applications. Even though the current prototype focuses only on location data, the results from the evaluation of the contextual suggestion algorithms and the user experience feedback from volunteers who used the prototype are very positive.

  5. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  6. Suggestions about Taxi Service in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2006-01-01

    @@ No matter what kinds1 of work we are engaged in, we usually play the role of the customers2 in life. Maybe we offer service to our clients, but at the same time, we get service from other people. So, to the society3, it is very important of the level of the service occupations4. In this essay, I want to talk about the service of the taxi in Beijing5. Because there are some problems in this service occupation, I will give three suggestions to these problems6.

  7. 把大学生的学业优势转化为就业优势%Transformation of College Students' Scholastic Advantage into Employment Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶国英

    2011-01-01

    我国大学生尤其是女大学生面临着"学业优势,就业劣势"的困境。导致这个问题出现的原因很多,其中的一个重要原因,就是我国目前的高等教育不能有效促进大学生把学业优势转化为就业优势。高校应通过提高教育质量来促进大学生把学业优势转化为就业优势。首先,要帮助和促进大学生建立符合未来经济社会发展需要的就业优势,这是高等教育必须积极履行的社会责任,也是评价高等教育质量水平的一个重要标志。其次,要帮助大学生建立实际的学业优势,即大学生必须具备服务经济、社会且有助于提升其就业竞争能力的实际知识水平和能力。再次,女大学生是未来知识型劳动力大军的重要组成部分,与男性大学生相比,更难把自身的学业优势转化为就业优势。因此,推进社会性别公平是大学生把学业优势转化为就业优势的重要内容。%"Having scholastic advantage while being disadvantageous in employment competition" is a com- mon dilemma for college students in China, especially for female ones. This problem occurs for many reasons, but one important reason is that China's current higher education system fails to effectively help students transform their scholastic advantage into employment advantage. This article inquires how universi- ties enhance the ,quality of education in order to help students to transform their scholastic advantage into employment advantage. First, this article suggests that equipping students with employment advantage which answers for the needs of the development of economy and society is the social responsibility of higher education and a key indicator for the quality of higher education. However, this does not merely mean that the universities should ensure the immediate employment of their graduates. Second, this article highlights the concept of "real scholastic advantage", that is, the real knowledge

  8. Competitive advantage for differentiation of Pereira International Free Trade Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Echeverri Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The best way to know if a company is at the heart of success is by determining its competitive advantage. For Pereira International Free Trade Zone, foreign trade platform and recent project implementation, it is important to identify its competitive advantage, so it can develop strategies for entering and staying in the market. In this research, an analysis of the five forces industry free zones was performed, the value chain of the Pereira International Free Trade Zone was defined, finally the factors that influence their competitive advantage was determined.

  9. Seeking the competitive advantage: it's more than cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, S F

    1999-01-01

    Most organizations focus considerable time and energy on reducing operating costs as a way to attain marketplace advantage. This strategy was not inappropriate in the past. To be competitive in the future, however, focus must be placed on other issues, not just cost reduction. The near future will be dominated by service industries, knowledge management, and virtual partnerships, with production optimization and flexibility, innovation, and strong partnerships defining those organizations that attain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage will reside in clarifying the vision and strategic plan, reviewing and redesigning work processes to optimize resources and value-added work, and creating change-ready environments and empowered workforces. PMID:10557880

  10. Knowledge And Knowledge Management As A Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bratić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business environment with high turbulence and complexity, an organization’s force to create and sustain competitive advantage lies in what it knows not what it owns. Establishment of a knowledge management in organization will ensure sustainable competitive advantage because the intellectual capital has become the primary bases of core competencies and the key to superior performance. The transition from industrial to knowledge society, effective use of knowledge is one of the deciding factors in the struggle for competitiveness because it will ensure the rationality, efficiency and flexibility in operations, and only through the realization of those graphics company can gain a competitive advantage on the market.

  11. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  12. 78 FR 69878 - First Advantage Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Tapfin, Staffworks, Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration First Advantage Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From... Staffing, St. Petersburg, Florida; First Advantage Corporation, Charlotte, North Carolina, First Advantage Corporation, Bolingbrook, Illinois; First Advantage Corporation, Dallas, Texas; First Advantage...

  13. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  14. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-10-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  15. On advantages and limitations of computer-assisted language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲

    2008-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is used increasingly in foreign language teaching. Compared with the traditional teaching method, computer-assisted language learning has unparallel advantages, but in fact it does have some limitations in some aspects.

  16. Medicare Advantage 2011 Data Spotlight: Plan Availability and Premiums

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha Gold; Gretchen Jacobson; Anthony Damico; Tricia Neuman

    2010-01-01

    This new data spotlight reviews changes to Medicare Advantage plans and examines trends in plan participation, premiums, and certain benefits. Overall, enrollees can expect modest changes in 2011. On average, beneficiaries will be able to choose from among 24 plans.

  17. Measuring Coding Intensity in the Medicare Advantage Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  18. Medicare Advantage-Part D Contract and Enrollment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Advantage (MA) - Part D Contract and Enrollment Data section serves as a centralized repository for publicly available data on contracts and plans,...

  19. Thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors under Danish weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon;

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have been carried out with the aim to elucidate the thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors for different weather conditions in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (55.8°N), and for the weather conditions in Sisimiut, Greenland (66.9°N), just north of the arctic circle....... The weather data used for Sisimiut are based on a Test Reference Year, TRY weather data file. The thermal advantages of different tracking strategies is investigated for two flat plate solar collectors with different efficiencies, operated at different temperature levels. The investigations show...... that the advantage of full tracking is in the range 40% – 90% depending on the solar collector and the operation conditions. The advantage is higher for a low efficient solar collector than for a high efficient solar collector and higher for high solar collector temperatures than for low solar collector temperatures...

  20. ORGANIZATIONAL AMBIDEXTERITY AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: TOWARD A RESEARCH MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe PREDA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambidextrous organizations have the ability to compete in mature markets and to develop new products and services for emerging markets simultaneously. Competing in mature markets involves cost reduction, increase ofthe efficiency andthe adoption of incremental innovations that are exploitative in their nature. The development of radical new products and services for emerging markets can be achieved through exploratory innovation. The high levels of exploratory and exploitative innovation simultaneously within the same organization can lead to competitive advantage. In this paper, we present the hypotheses of research model to be tested in a future empirical study focused on the link between the capability of ambidextrous organization and their competitive advantage. Based on innovation and competitive advantage theories, we expect that exploratory innovation and exploitative innovation capabilities will sustain the competitive advantage of the organization.

  1. Creating First-Mover Advantages: The Case of Samsung Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Jang-Sup SHIN; Jang, Sung-Won

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of first-mover advantages by examining the case of Samsung Electronics, a firm which has maintained and strengthened the technological leadership in the DRAM industry since 1992. The focus is on endogeneity of first-mover advantages under changing technological and competitive environments, part of which are also shaped by the technology leader. The paper also discusses general implications of this case study for strategy and organization for innovation.

  2. The Cluster Policy Paradox: Externalities vs. Comparative Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Argentino Pessoa

    2011-01-01

    The literature on clustering has highlighted several advantages of industrial agglomerations. Persons and firms benefit from the production and innovation activities of neighbouring companies in the same and related industries. Considering such benefits, Michael Porter states that clustering is an important way for firms fulfilling their competitive advantages and for rising regional and national competitiveness. This justification has increasingly driven regional policy towards the cluster p...

  3. Managing Sustainability for Competitive Advantage: Evidence From the Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, I.; Alcaraz, J.M.; Susaeta, L.; Suarez, E.; Pin , José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The hospitality industry "is in the midst of a sustainability awakening" (Prairie, 2012). Many hospitality managers seem to be willing to adopt sustainability practices in order to obtain a competitive advantage. In this paper we use Barney's VRIO framework (value, rareness, imitability, and organization) to examine the role of resources or capabilities in developing and maintaining competitive advantage through the development of sustainability practices in the hospitality industry. The arti...

  4. An exploration of competitive advantage in the plasterboard industry

    OpenAIRE

    Colley, John Graham

    2011-01-01

    There is a widespread presumption in the strategy literature that firms enjoying a competitive advantage in commodity-producing industries do so as a result of following cost leadership strategies. This thesis as monograph re-evaluates that presumption by a detailed exploration of the bases for competitive advantage in the plasterboard industry, one of the most important materials used by the construction industry. It explores price and non-price based methods of competition, plant scale econ...

  5. A Bilingual Advantage in Young Adults: Unfounded or Undetectable

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that a bilingual cognitive advantage in young adults manifests inconsistently. The objective of the present study was to investigate the existence of a bilingual advantage in this age group, whilst looking at factors which may influence its detectability and thus contribute to explaining the variability in previous research. In order to ensure that all bilinguals had spent a period of time speaking their second language in its natural environment, bilingual exchange student...

  6. HOW MUCH FAVORABLE SELECTION IS LEFT IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE?

    OpenAIRE

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; Mary Price; J. Michael McWilliams; John Hsu; Thomas McGuire

    2015-01-01

    The health economics literature contains two models of selection, one with endogenous plan characteristics to attract good risks and one with fixed plan characteristics; neither model contains a regulator. Medicare Advantage, a principal example of selection in the literature, is, however, subject to anti-selection regulations. Because selection causes economic inefficiency and because the historically favorable selection into Medicare Advantage plans increased government cost, the effectiven...

  7. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival

    OpenAIRE

    JörgSoppa

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutat...

  8. Competitive advantage for differentiation of Pereira International Free Trade Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Andrea Echeverri Gutiérrez; Sara María Gómez Caicedo

    2014-01-01

    The best way to know if a company is at the heart of success is by determining its competitive advantage. For Pereira International Free Trade Zone, foreign trade platform and recent project implementation, it is important to identify its competitive advantage, so it can develop strategies for entering and staying in the market. In this research, an analysis of the five forces industry free zones was performed, the value chain of the Pereira International Free Trade Zone was defined, finally ...

  9. The determinants of competitive advantage: a critical appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C Allan

    1991-01-01

    The thesis deals with the means whereby a firm can gain a competitive advantage over its rivals. After considering how this issue is dealt with in the management literature, the thesis focuses on two possible routes to competitive advantage. The first is largely internal to the firm, and concerns the design of managerial contracts to provide managers with the incentives to act in the best interests of shareholders. The second route is external, involving strategic mark...

  10. What is Össur's strategy for competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Krrutaj, Zija, 1986-

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find the effect of strategic acquisition and strategy of internal growth in overall company performance and determine how these two strategies help companies achieve competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is a phenomenon which gives the company the status of superior performer vis-a-vis its competitors, enables the company to operate more efficiently, provides the company’s environment with better outcome and keeps its stakeholders motivated, satisfied an...

  11. Consumer Insight as Competitive Advantage Using Big Data and Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2015-01-01

    Digital revolution serves as a competitive advantage to businesses that are able to analyze consumer behavior in order to gain insights for their strategic advantage. After the advent of Internet, the past two decades witnessed generation of vast amount of business data. The amount of data is so huge that traditional database management system approaches falls short of managing and analyzing this data. This paper explores the characteristics of this phenomenon called Big Data together with An...

  12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Kazakh Students in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木拉提.克扎衣别克; Nazigul Talipbai; Bahytgul Kizaibek

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the advantages and disadvantages for English learners among Kazakh students in Xinjiang are discussed.The main advantages given them are the consistency of Kazakh alphabet with English alphabet; the cognate words shared by these two language; and the positive impact of Kazakh rich vocabulary resource on language learning.Disadvantages mainly include linguistic differences between the two language as well as the lack of appropriate text books for Kazakh students.

  13. Competitive Advantage through Innovation:The case of Nespresso

    OpenAIRE

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to describe how Nespresso achieved competitive advantage through innovation by changing the rules of the game in its industry.Design/methodology/approachNespresso was analyzed based on public available secondary data, in combination with related academic concepts on innovation and competitive advantage.FindingsThe company succeeded by the thorough application of a strategy that, through perfect alignment, allowed the company to reach a unique market positio...

  14. Second-mover advantage and price leadership in Bertrand duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Rabah; Stepanova, Anna

    2004-01-01

    We consider the issue of first versus second-mover advantage in differentiated-product Bertrand duopoly with general demand and asymmetric linear costs. We generalize existing results for all possible combinations where prices are either strategic substitutes and/or complements, dispensing with common extraneous assumptions. We show that a firmwith a sufficiently large cost lead over its rival has a first mover advantage. For the linear version of the model, we invoke a naturalendogenous timi...

  15. Second-mover advantage and price leadership in Bertrand oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Rabah; Stepanova, Anna

    2004-01-01

    We consider the issue of first versus second-mover advantage in differentiated-product Bertrand duopoly with general demand and asymmetric linear costs. We generalize existing results for all possible combinations where prices are either strategic substitutes and/or complements, dispensing with common extraneous assumptions. We show that a firmwith a sufficiently large cost lead over its rival has a first mover advantage. For the linear version of the model, we invoke a natural endogenous ...

  16. Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Hospitals Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Devlin, Aileen M; Kessler, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    There is ongoing debate about how prices paid to providers by Medicare Advantage plans compare to prices paid by fee-for-service Medicare. We used data from Medicare and the Health Care Cost Institute to identify the prices paid for hospital services by fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, Medicare Advantage plans, and commercial insurers in 2009 and 2012. We calculated the average price per admission, and its trend over time, in each of the three types of insurance for fixed baskets of hospital admissions across metropolitan areas. After accounting for differences in hospital networks, geographic areas, and case-mix between Medicare Advantage and FFS Medicare, we found that Medicare Advantage plans paid 5.6 percent less for hospital services than FFS Medicare did. Without taking into account the narrower networks of Medicare Advantage, the program paid 8.0 percent less than FFS Medicare. We also found that the rates paid by commercial plans were much higher than those of either Medicare Advantage or FFS Medicare, and growing. At least some of this difference comes from the much higher prices that commercial plans pay for profitable service lines. PMID:27503970

  17. Comparative Advantage: Theory, Empirical Measures And Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri WIDODO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three main parts i.e. theory, analytical tool and case studies of comparative advantage. Firstly, we review the theory and various empirical measures of comparative advantage. We would argue that for the catching-up economies, like ASEAN countries, the meaning of “leading exported products” could be examined from the two points of view i.e. international competitiveness and country’s trade balance. Secondly, we combine two indexes of comparative advantage, i.e. Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA index by Dalum et al. (1998 and Laursen (1998, and Trade Balance Index (TBI by Lafay (1992, which represent well the two points of view, to propose an analytical tool, namely “products mapping”. Thirdly, this analytical tool is applied to analyze exported products (defined as 3-digit SITC Revision 2 of the ASEAN countries. This paper concludes that in the cases of ASEAN countries, the higher the comparative advantage for a specific product, the higher the possibility of the country as a net-exporter becomes. This finding strongly supports the theory of comparative advantage.

  18. Is Financial Development Another Source of Comparative Advantage? Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Bao; Jiayu Yang

    2009-01-01

    Using panel data for 29 provinces in China during 1990-2004, the present paper attempts to explore a possible link between financial development and China' s foreign trade. Three measures of comparative advantage in manufactured goods have been applied in our study, including Balassa's revealed coraparative advantage, the net manufactured export index, and the Michaely index. We also use four indicators of financial development to identify the different fimctions of regional financial development, and to determine both size and efficiency features of financial institutions. The estimation results suggest that besides factor endowments, foreign firms and infrastructure, financial development has a quantitatively large and robust effect on China' s manufactured goods trade. Therefore, further reform of China' s financial system should be encouraged to fully exploit the comparative advantage of China's foreign trade.

  19. Competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage: effect of benchmark changes on plan bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    Bidding has been proposed to replace or complement the administered prices that Medicare pays to hospitals and health plans. In 2006, the Medicare Advantage program implemented a competitive bidding system to determine plan payments. In perfectly competitive models, plans bid their costs and thus bids are insensitive to the benchmark. Under many other models of competition, bids respond to changes in the benchmark. We conceptualize the bidding system and use an instrumental variable approach to study the effect of benchmark changes on bids. We use 2006-2010 plan payment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, published county benchmarks, actual realized fee-for-service costs, and Medicare Advantage enrollment. We find that a $1 increase in the benchmark leads to about a $0.53 increase in bids, suggesting that plans in the Medicare Advantage market have meaningful market power.

  20. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  1. Tag Correspondence Model for User Tag Suggestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂存超; 刘知远; 孙茂松

    2015-01-01

    Some microblog services encourage users to annotate themselves with multiple tags, indicating their attributes and interests. User tags play an important role for personalized recommendation and information retrieval. In order to better understand the semantics of user tags, we propose Tag Correspondence Model (TCM) to identify complex correspondences of tags from the rich context of microblog users. The correspondence of a tag is referred to as a unique element in the context which is semantically correlated with this tag. In TCM, we divide the context of a microblog user into various sources (such as short messages, user profile, and neighbors). With a collection of users with annotated tags, TCM can automatically learn the correspondences of user tags from multiple sources. With the learned correspondences, we are able to interpret implicit semantics of tags. Moreover, for the users who have not annotated any tags, TCM can suggest tags according to users’ context information. Extensive experiments on a real-world dataset demonstrate that our method can effciently identify correspondences of tags, which may eventually represent semantic meanings of tags.

  2. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  3. Comparative Advantage In The Southern Africa Customs Union (Sacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleans Mzumara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors sought to find out whether the Southern African Customs Union (SACU possesses comparative advantage. They found that South Africa has comparative advantage in the production of 727 product lines, Botswana in 268 product lines, Swaziland 243 product lines, Namibia 213 product lines and Lesotho 85 product lines. They also found that the highest degree of specialization in a particular product was observed in Lesotho in the production of cartridges for rivet with an average RCA index of 19215. The authors concluded that SACU has comparative advantage although such comparative advantage has a narrow base for a customs union (CU. Further it was concluded that due to imposition of the common external tariff (CET in SACU and a narrow base of the products in which it has comparative advantage, it may be experiencing trade diversion rather than trade creation by replacing low cost producers outside SACU in favour of intra-SACU high cost producers. That South Africa, although not the least producer, is unfairly benefiting due to the imposition of CET which prevents other countries from exporting their products to Botswana, Swaziland, Namibia and Lesotho under the same conditions.  These countries are, therefore, disadvantaged. For this reason, the authors advocate communication at policy level, to facilitate expansion of SACU as means of narrowing trade diversion.

  4. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments. PMID:24982654

  5. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  6. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin eZerulla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranii, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance towards X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments.

  7. Competitive Advantage and its Sources in an Evolving Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridis, Apostolos D.

    2009-08-01

    In a continuously altered and evolving Market, as is the food manufacturing market, the main and long-lasting objective of firm that is the maximization of its wealth and consequently the continuous remaining in profit regions, appears that it is possible to be achieved via the obtainment and maintenance of diachronically long-term competitive advantage, which it will render the firm unique or leader force in a inexorable competition that is continuously extended in a globalized market. Various definitions and different regards are developed in regard to the competitive advantage and the way with which a firm it is possible, acquiring it, to star in the market in which it is activated. As result of sustainable competitive advantage in a firm comes the above the average performance. Abundance of resources and competences that are proposed as sources of competitive advantage in the resource-based view literature exists, while they are added continuously new based on empiric studies. In any case, it appears to suffer hierarchy of sources of competitive advantage, with regard to sustainability of these.

  8. Exposure-Based Cat Modeling, Available data, Advantages, & Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gero; Hosoe, Taro; Schrah, Mike; Saito, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of exposure data for cat-modeling and considers concepts of scale as well as the completeness of data and data scoring using field/model examples. Catastrophe modeling based on exposure data has been considered the panacea for insurance-related cat modeling since the late 1980's. Reasons for this include: • The ability to extend risk modeling to consider data beyond historical losses, • Usability across many relevant scales, • Flexibility in addressing complex structures and policy conditions, and • Ability to assess dependence of risk results on exposure-attributes and exposure-modifiers, such as lines of business, occupancy types, and mitigation features, at any given scale. In order to calculate related risk, monetary exposure is correlated to vulnerabilities that have been calibrated with historical results, plausibility concepts, and/or physical modeling. While exposure based modeling is widely adopted, we also need to be aware of its limitations which include: • Boundaries in our understanding of the distribution of exposure, • Spatial interdependence of exposure patterns and the time-dependence of exposure, • Incomplete availability of loss information to calibrate relevant exposure attributes/structure with related vulnerabilities and losses, • The scale-dependence of vulnerability, • Potential for missing or incomplete communication of assumptions made during model calibration, • Inefficiencies in the aggregation or disaggregation of vulnerabilities, and • Factors which can influence losses other than exposure, vulnerability, and hazard. Although we might assume that the higher the resolution the better, regional model calibration is often limited to lower than street level resolution with higher resolution being achieved by disaggregating results using topographic/roughness features with often loosely constrained and/or varying effects on losses. This suggests that higher accuracy

  9. Determining Comparative Advantages of Corn in Optimal Cultivation Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Abedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate comparativeadvantages of corn in comparison with other competitorcrops. To do so, Linear Programming, to 2004-2005 data relatedto classic index (DRC in Kermanshah province was applied.Results showed that corn has comparative advantages in allregions of Kermanshah province while in optimal cultivationpattern of 37.5 percentages of regions in existence of rotationand 50 percentages of regions in lack of rotation, corn acreagehas been increased. In addition, comparing optimal cultivationpattern resulted from linear programming models with cropsranking based on comparative advantage indices indicated that,resources availability and limitations, tradable and non-tradableinputs costs and yield will lead to shift in production’s comparativeadvantage from one crop to another. Factors such as supportingpolicies and rotation might also have effects on comparative advantages and optimal cultivating pattern.

  10. A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Ljungberg

    Full Text Available Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178 between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  11. Advantages of Catalysis in Self-Assembled Molecular Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catti, Lorenzo; Zhang, Qi; Tiefenbacher, Konrad

    2016-06-27

    Control over the local chemical environment of a molecule can be achieved by encapsulation in supramolecular host systems. In supramolecular catalysis, this control is used to gain advantages over classical homogeneous catalysis in bulk solution. Two of the main advantages concern influencing reactions in terms of substrate and product selectivity. Due to size and/or shape recognition, substrate selective conversion can be realized. Additionally, noncovalent interactions with the host environment facilitate alternative reaction pathways and can yield unusual products. This Concept article discusses and highlights literature examples utilizing self-assembled molecular capsules to achieve catalytic transformations displaying a high degree of substrate and/or product selectivity. Furthermore, the advantage of supramolecular hosts in multicatalyst tandem reactions is covered. PMID:27150251

  12. Neuroanatomical Evidence in Support of the Bilingual Advantage Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olulade, O A; Jamal, N I; Koo, D S; Perfetti, C A; LaSasso, C; Eden, G F

    2016-07-01

    The "bilingual advantage" theory stipulates that constant selection and suppression between 2 languages results in enhanced executive control (EC). Behavioral studies of EC in bilinguals have employed wide-ranging tasks and report some conflicting results. To avoid concerns about tasks, we employed a different approach, measuring gray matter volume (GMV) in adult bilinguals, reasoning that any EC-associated benefits should manifest as relatively greater frontal GMV. Indeed, Spanish-English-speaking bilinguals exhibited greater bilateral frontal GMV compared with English-speaking monolinguals. Was this observation attributable to the constant selection and inhibition of 2 spoken languages? To answer this question, we drew on bimodal bilinguals of American Sign Language (ASL) and English who, unlike unimodal bilinguals, can simultaneously use both languages and have been shown not to possess the EC advantage. In this group, there was no greater GMV when compared with monolinguals. Together these results provide neuroanatomical evidence in support of the bilingual advantage theory. PMID:26184647

  13. Determinants of competitive advantage in the cruise industry of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Logunova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article are determined the competitive advantages that form the potential of Ukraine in the cruise industry on the basis of theoretical assumptions Porter. Estimated that this sector of the economy has a strong innovative capacity, which is the basis for national competitive advantage. The main determinants of competitive advantage of cruise industry, which include: the conditions for the factors, the state of demand, related and supporting industries, strategy, structure and rivalry between firms. In the overall system determinants added her binders, indirectly determining the impact of cruise business: public authorities, transnational corporations (cruise operators, local government, and educational structures. As part of the effective operation of system its key components are identified, that form a definite chain of elements which are closely interrelated

  14. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in Chinese Agricultural Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products, in relation to the rest of the world, based on the index of revealed comparative advantage, using lots of data during period of 1980 to 2000. The index is useful in identifying the demarcation between comparative advantage and comparative disadvantage, though a problem exits when using it. China is shown to have a comparative advantage in a range of agricultural products, including edible vegetables and tea. This complements the findings of those studies that have used price and cost based on approaches in identifying competitiveness in agricultural products. Results indicated that the RCA values had been weakening over the 21-year period. These have vastly different implication for the future reform in China's agriculture.

  15. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  16. Advantages of using CFRP cables in orthogonally loaded cable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Zwingmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP is an advanced composite material with advantages of high strength and light weight, giving it great potential to be a new, reliable cable material. Ideal structures for CFRP cables are orthogonally loaded cable structures, where cables are loaded orthogonally or approximately orthogonally by external loads. Using CFRP cables in such structures, e.g. cable roofs and cable facades, has advantages over traditional steel cable structures. In order to demonstrate this point, two typical orthogonally loaded cable structures, i.e. a CFRP spoked wheel cable roof and a CFRP cable net façade, were investigated in a case study. Their mechanical properties and economies are compared with that of the steel counterparts. Results show that CFRP cables can effectively improve the mechanical and economical performances of orthogonally loaded cable structures; furthermore, the advantages of applying CFRP cables for cable net facade are more obvious than that for spoked wheel cable roof.

  17. 活用"优势"%Use your advantages well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘磐

    2001-01-01

    @@ 国际贸易的奠基人、古典经济学家大卫(comparative advantage)"一词,他说假设A国制造汽车方面强于B国,而B国在制造面包方面强于A国,则国际贸易产生了,两国都会在汽车和面包贸易中获利,这是"绝对优势(Absolute advantage)"但是,如果一国不善于制造任何东西那还能做起贸易来吗?

  18. Competitive Advantage in Intercollegiate Athletics: Role of Intangible Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Doyeon; Chelladurai, Packianathan

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the dynamics of competitive advantages in intercollegiate athletics by investigating the contribution of intangible resources (i.e., athletic and academic reputations) on the generation of more tangible resources (i.e., human and financial resources), which in turn influence the athletic performance (i.e., winning record) and academic performance (i.e., graduation rates), and gender equity. The research was based entirely on archival data of 324 NCAA Division I member institutions. The results of the SEM supported the study's basic arguments that tangible resources are the sources of competitive advantages in Division I intercollegiate athletics, and that intangible resources contribute to the generation of tangible resources.

  19. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2016-03-01

    We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.

  20. Medicare Advantage 2010 Data Spotlight: Benefits and Cost-Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha Gold; Maria Hudson; Gretchen Jacobson; Tricia Neuman

    2010-01-01

    This data spotlight examines trends in benefits and cost-sharing for Medicare Advantage plans in 2010, including the wide variations found across plans and the rapid increase in cost sharing requirements for some benefits, including stays in skilled nursing facilities. It also examines the annual limits on out-of-pocket spending set by most Medicare Advantage plans and the availability of coverage for drugs in the Medicare drug benefit’s coverage gap, or “doughnut hole.â€

  1. Competitive advantage: an analytical framework based on entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhibiao

    2006-01-01

    This article observes and studies the role and effect of entrepreneurship within the theoretical framework of resource-based view(RBV).It advances competitive advantage theory based on entrepreneurship by proving the distinctiveness of entrepreneurship. Distinctive cognition competence of entrepreneurs provides them with personal specific assets,which determines both the competence to explore new business opportunities and the competence to integrate resources for risk activities.The characteristics of such intangible resource as entrepreneurship,such as its distinctiveness,limitedness of competition,and incomplete mobility of factors,are the most important sources of competitive advantage of enterprises in the strategic management theory of RBV.

  2. Development of Oilfield Chemicals Based on Advantages in Petrochemical Feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xieqing; Peng Pu

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the routes for development of oilfield chemicals by making use of the feedstock advantages of the petrochemical industry. The diversification of oilfield chemicals has re sulted in thousand product grades. Because there are hundred domestic producers of oilfield chemicals,mostly medium and small producers, the fluctuations of feedstock prices and product quality cannot be conducive to the application and development of oilfield chemicals. This article illustrates the feasibility of oilfield chemical production by state-run medium and large petrochemical enterprises by allowing full play to their own advantages in petrochemical feedstocks.

  3. Strategic Planning and Competitive Advantage of ICT Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Zachary B. Awino

    2013-01-01

    The Paper is the research findings on the role of strategic planning and competitive advantage of ICT Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya. Literature suggests that the contemporary business environment in which organisations operate is increasingly becoming uncertain and unpredictable. Significant changes are mostly driven by technological changes, globalisation and trade liberalisation. As a result, like large enterprises, SMEs are facing new and unexpected challenges that threaten their c...

  4. Demonstration of a foraging advantage for trichromatic marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) dependent on food colour.

    OpenAIRE

    Caine, N G; Mundy, N. I.

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that the major advantage of trichromatic over dichromatic colour vision in primates is enhanced detection of red/yellow food items such as fruit against the dappled foliage of the forest. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the foraging ability of dichromatic and trichromatic Geoffroy's marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) for orange- and green-coloured cereal balls (Kix) in a naturalized captive setting. Trichromatic marmosets found a significantly greater number of ora...

  5. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIZATION OF DIPLOMACY IN THE CONDITIONS OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Plavšin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper it is presented how new technologies influence democratization of diplomacy. Primarily, the advantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are explained. It is shown how increasing influence of non state players decreases the monopoly of state players. It is suggested that media and social network are catalysts of democracy. On the other hand, negative effects of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are analyzed. Th...

  6. Enrollment in Medicare Advantage Plans in Miami-Dade County: Evidence of Status Quo Bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaiko, Anna D.; Afendulis, Christopher C.; Frank, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from behavioral economics reveals that decision-making in health care settings can be affected by circumstances and choice architecture. This paper conducts an analysis of choice of private Medicare plans (Medicare Advantage plans) in Miami-Dade County. We provide a detailed description of the choice of MA plans available in Miami over much of the program's history and the composition of Medicare beneficiaries in Miami over the 2000s. Our analysis suggests that first becoming eligibl...

  7. A bilateral advantage for maintaining objects in visual short term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, JL; Delvenne, JFCM

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that attentional pre-cues can subsequently influence the transfer of information into visual short term memory (VSTM) (Schmidt, B., Vogel, E., Woodman, G., & Luck, S. (2002). Voluntary and automatic attentional control of visual working memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 64(5), 754–763). However, studies also suggest that those effects are constrained by the hemifield alignment of the pre-cues (Holt, J. L., & Delvenne, J.-F. (2014). A bilateral advantage in controlling acc...

  8. Hiring & Retaining More Women: The Advantages to Law Enforcement Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsway, Kimberly A.

    Hiring and retaining more women provides numerous important advantages to law enforcement agencies. Research conducted in the United States and internationally has clearly documented that following facts: (1) female officers are as competent as their male counterparts and even excel in certain areas of police performance; (2) female officers are…

  9. Beijing-Outstanding Advantages to Develop ABP Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Geographical advantage. Beijing is the capital city of China,the center of politics, culture, science and technology, information and international communication. The national macro-decision making and regulatory sectors are located in Beijing. At the same time, the transportation volume of aviation and railway has been listed No. 1 in China.No other city can compare to Beijing.

  10. Empirical Relevance of the Hillman Condition and Comparative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the empirical violation of the Hillman condition, a necessary and sufficient condition for the correspondence between comparative advantage and pre-trade relative prices. Our comprehensive data set allows us to investigate the Hillman condition for virtually all countries of t

  11. A microbial model of economic trading and comparative advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart, Peter J; Simpson, Zachary B; Ellington, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The economic theory of comparative advantage postulates that beneficial trading relationships can be arrived at by two self-interested entities producing the same goods as long as they have opposing relative efficiencies in producing those goods. The theory predicts that upon entering trade, in order to maximize consumption both entities will specialize in producing the good they can produce at higher efficiency, that the weaker entity will specialize more completely than the stronger entity, and that both will be able to consume more goods as a result of trade than either would be able to alone. We extend this theory to the realm of unicellular organisms by developing mathematical models of genetic circuits that allow trading of a common good (specifically, signaling molecules) required for growth in bacteria in order to demonstrate comparative advantage interactions. In Conception 1, the experimenter controls production rates via exogenous inducers, allowing exploration of the parameter space of specialization. In Conception 2, the circuits self-regulate via feedback mechanisms. Our models indicate that these genetic circuits can demonstrate comparative advantage, and that cooperation in such a manner is particularly favored under stringent external conditions and when the cost of production is not overly high. Further work could involve implementing the models in living bacteria and searching for naturally occurring cooperative relationships between bacteria that conform to the principles of comparative advantage.

  12. Comparative Advantage, the Rank-size Rule, and Zipf's Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractUsing a comprehensive international trade data set we investigate empirical regularities (known as Zipf’s Law or the rank-size rule) for the distribution of the interaction between countries as measured by revealed comparative advantage. Using the recently developed estimator by Gabaix a

  13. Strategic Mergers of Strong Institutions to Enhance Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Grant; Harman, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Strategic mergers are formal combinations or amalgamations of higher education institutions with the aim of enhancing competitive advantage, or merging for "mutual growth". Recently, in a number of countries, there has been a decided shift from mergers initiated by governments, and dealing mainly with "problem" cases, towards…

  14. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Anne E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors sought to determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12 and 38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5 years, better…

  15. Advantages of Laser Polarimetry Applied to Tequila Industrial Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajer, V.; Rodriguez, C.; Flores, R.; Naranjo, S.; Cossio, G.; Lopez, J.

    2002-03-01

    The development of a polarimetric method for crude and cooked agave juice quality control not only by direct polarimetric measurement also by means of laser polarimeter LASERPOL 101M used as a liquid chromatographic detector is presented. The viability and advantage of this method for raw material quality control and during Tequila industrial process is shown.

  16. Competitive Advantage and the Existence of the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This paper provides a counterpoint to Buckley and Hashai’s paper “Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the Multinational Enterprise?”. We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind...

  17. Private pension system in Ukraine: its advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Kondrat, Iryna; Malets, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the new reform of the pension system - the private pension system. There are defined the main advantages and disadvantages in choosing a funded pension system, as well as the dynamics of changes in key indicators of private pension funds is analyzed.

  18. Tangential finger forces use mechanical advantage during static grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Gregory P; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2012-02-01

    When grasping and manipulating objects, the central controller utilizes the mechanical advantage of the normal forces of the fingers for torque production. Whether the same is valid for tangential forces is unknown. The main purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of finger tangential forces and the use of mechanical advantage as a control mechanism when dealing with objects of nonuniform finger positioning. A complementary goal was to explore the interaction of mechanical advantage (moment arm) and the role a finger has as a torque agonist/antagonist with respect to external torques (±0.4 N m). Five 6-df force/torque transducers measured finger forces while subjects held a prism handle (6 cm width × 9 cm height) with and without a single finger displaced 2 cm (handle width). The effect of increasing the tangential moment arm was significant (p forces (in >70% of trials) and hence creating greater moments. Thus, the data provides evidence that the grasping system as a rule utilizes mechanical advantage for generating tangential forces. The increase in tangential force was independent of whether the finger was acting as a torque agonist or antagonist, revealing their effects to be additive.

  19. The Survival Advantage: Underlying Mechanisms and Extant Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Kazanas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have begun to investigate the function of memory in our evolutionary history. According to Nairne and colleagues (e.g., Nairne, Pandeirada, and Thompson, 2008; Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada, 2007, the best mnemonic strategy for learning lists of unrelated words may be one that addresses the same problems that our Pleistocene ancestors faced: fitness-relevant problems including securing food and water, as well as protecting themselves from predators. Survival processing has been shown to promote better recall and recognition memory than many well-known mnemonic strategies (e.g., pleasantness ratings, imagery, generation, etc.. However, the survival advantage does not extend to all types of stimuli and tasks. The current review presents research that has replicated Nairne et al.'s (2007 original findings, in addition to the research designs that fail to replicate the survival advantage. In other words, there are specific manipulations in which survival processing does not appear to benefit memory any more than other strategies. Potential mechanisms for the survival advantage are described, with an emphasis on those that are the most plausible. These proximate mechanisms outline the memory processes that may contribute to the advantage, although the ultimate mechanism may be the congruity between the survival scenario and Pleistocene problem-solving.

  20. Quantum and classical advantage distillation are not equivalent

    CERN Document Server

    Kaszlikowski, D; Kwek, L C; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Yang, Lim Jenn; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2003-01-01

    We report that, for the generation of a secure cryptographic key from correlations established through a noisy quantum channel, the quantum and classical advantage distillation procedures are not equivalent, when coherent eavesdropping attacks are duly taken into account. The quantum procedure can tolerate markedly more noise in the channel than the classical procedure.

  1. On advantages and limitations of computer-assisted language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲

    2008-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning(CALL)is used increasingly in foreign language teaching.Compared with the traditional teaching method,computer-assisted language learning has unparallel advantages,but in fact it does have some limitations in some aspects.

  2. Congruent Knowledge Management Behaviors as Discriminate Sources of Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnier-Watanabe, Remy; Senoo, Dai

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: While knowledge management has been shown to be a strategic source of competitive advantage, processes designed to enhance the productivity of knowledge do not, however, equally contribute to the organization's capabilities. Consequently, this research aims to focus on the relationship between each mode of the knowledge management process…

  3. Evolutionary Economics, Endogenous Growth Models, and Resource-Advantage Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shelby D. Hunt

    1997-01-01

    The gap between evolutionary and neoclassical economics remains large. This article proposed that the gap can be narrowed by evolutionary economies developing process theories that can provide evolutionary theoretical foundations for formal models in the neoclassical equilibrium tradition. This article argues that a process of competitions labeled "resource-advantage theory," can provide an evolutionary, theoretical foundation for formal models of endogenous economic growth.

  4. Online Data Collection in Academic Research: Advantages and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Samuel; Dal, Michael; Matthiasdottir, Asrun

    2007-01-01

    Online data collection in academic research might be replacing paper-and-pencil surveys or questionnaires in the near future. This paper discusses the advantages and limitations of online data collection, with particular reference to the conduct of two qualitative studies involving upper secondary school teachers and students in Iceland in 2002.…

  5. Analytical advantages of multivariate data processing. One, two, three, infinity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2008-08-01

    Multidimensional data are being abundantly produced by modern analytical instrumentation, calling for new and powerful data-processing techniques. Research in the last two decades has resulted in the development of a multitude of different processing algorithms, each equipped with its own sophisticated artillery. Analysts have slowly discovered that this body of knowledge can be appropriately classified, and that common aspects pervade all these seemingly different ways of analyzing data. As a result, going from univariate data (a single datum per sample, employed in the well-known classical univariate calibration) to multivariate data (data arrays per sample of increasingly complex structure and number of dimensions) is known to provide a gain in sensitivity and selectivity, combined with analytical advantages which cannot be overestimated. The first-order advantage, achieved using vector sample data, allows analysts to flag new samples which cannot be adequately modeled with the current calibration set. The second-order advantage, achieved with second- (or higher-) order sample data, allows one not only to mark new samples containing components which do not occur in the calibration phase but also to model their contribution to the overall signal, and most importantly, to accurately quantitate the calibrated analyte(s). No additional analytical advantages appear to be known for third-order data processing. Future research may permit, among other interesting issues, to assess if this "1, 2, 3, infinity" situation of multivariate calibration is really true. PMID:18613646

  6. Peran Strategic Entrepreneurship dalam membangun Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Agustinus Dedy Handrimurtjahjo

    2014-01-01

    Strategic entrepreneurship has emerged as a new concept in examining convergence in entrepreneurship studies (opportunity-seeking behavior) and strategic management (advantage-seeking behavior). Studies in the area of strategic management have gradually exposed the relationship between strategic management and entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial strategy making; intrapreneurship; entrepreneurial strategic posture within organizations; entrepreneurial orientation; strategic management integratio...

  7. Multidimensional epistasis and the transitory advantage of sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nowak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying the benefits of sex and recombination is a long-standing problem in evolutionary theory. In particular, contradictory claims have been made about the existence of a benefit of recombination on high dimensional fitness landscapes in the presence of sign epistasis. Here we present a comparative numerical study of sexual and asexual evolutionary dynamics of haploids on tunably rugged model landscapes under strong selection, paying special attention to the temporal development of the evolutionary advantage of recombination and the link between population diversity and the rate of adaptation. We show that the adaptive advantage of recombination on static rugged landscapes is strictly transitory. At early times, an advantage of recombination arises through the possibility to combine individually occurring beneficial mutations, but this effect is reversed at longer times by the much more efficient trapping of recombining populations at local fitness peaks. These findings are explained by means of well-established results for a setup with only two loci. In accordance with the Red Queen hypothesis the transitory advantage can be prolonged indefinitely in fluctuating environments, and it is maximal when the environment fluctuates on the same time scale on which trapping at local optima typically occurs.

  8. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway.

  9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Student Loans Repayment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua

    2010-01-01

    It is a difficulty problem to choice repayment patterns of student loan. "Conventional mortgage-type loan" and "Income contingent loan" has been performed in many countries. These loan repayment manners have their own characteristics. In this paper, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and would provide policy choice…

  10. A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the "bilateral advantage"). For example, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2005) reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented…

  11. Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Christopher D.; Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les

    2011-01-01

    With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and…

  12. Standardized phenotyping: advantages to horticulture, introduction to the workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article introduces a workshop on standardized phenotyping and the advantages it provides for horticultural crops. The workshop was held at the 2009 American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference in St. Louis, MO, and was organized by the Genetics and Germplasm Working Group. The o...

  13. LAPAROSCOPIC ADVANTAGE IN MANAGEMENT OF CYSTIC OVARIAN MASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina David

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to spotlight the advantages of using laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of ovarian cysts, by comparing the results obtained on two groups of patients: the first group of 165 patients treated by conventional surgery (laparotomy and the second group of 44 patients laparoscopicaly treated. The patients were hospitalized, diagnosed and treated in the 2-nd Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology and in the 1-st Clinic of General Surgery in Iassy. More conservative surgical techniques were performed by laparoscopic surgery than by conventional surgery. We found a lower incidence of intra- and postlaparoscopic surgery complications than intra- and postlaparotomy. The postoperative hospitalization was shorter after laparoscopy than after laparotomy. The functional prognosis (menstrual function and fertility was favorable in the laparoscopicaly treated patients. In conclusions, laparoscopic surgery has unchallenged advantages in the treatment of ovarian cysts, especially in young women.

  14. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...... is equivalent to increased mobility of employment acrosscountries and thus a change in the trade-off between wages and employment faced by wagesetters. While the effects of product market integration on the trade-off between wages andemployment in general is ambiguous, it is shown that product market...... integration works like ageneral improvement in productivity via the specialization it allows through trade.Unambiguously, real wages and employment and welfare improve upon reductions in tradefrictions, and therefore workers are better off irrespective of whether the market power ofunions is enhanced or muted...

  15. First Mover Advantages in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Businesses entering early into new markets are believed to attain crucial competitive advantages over later entrants. However, this contention receives only mixed support in the empirical literature, in part because performance is measured in different ways. We reexamine the performance difference...... expectations and relative to industry standards. We find that market share is strongly related to order of entry, but we did not find a positive relationship between order of entry and perceived performance. We found general support for early mover advantages in Hungary and Poland but a strongly negative...... between early movers and followers entering new geographical markets based on a sample of foreign entrants in Poland, Hungary and Lithuania. We contrast market share with two other measures of firm performance that are based on the managers' perception of their own performance relative to their own prior...

  16. Working the System: School counselors aligning to advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Braube Stillman, Ed.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, based in the substantive area of school counselors, was conducted using classical grounded theory, an inductive, systemic method of data collection and analysis. The core variable, or the school counselors’ main concern and how they were resolving it, emerged as the need to develop and implement a comprehensive program within the complex ecology of a school. Working the system: Aligning to advantage was discovered to be the school counselors’ resolving process. The data revealed that as school counselors work the system, they engage in strategic actions of aligning to advantage themselves, others, and/or the overall system. Working the system comprises three stages: accessing, engaging, and sustaining, each associated with aligning behaviors, which have personal, interpersonal, and structural dimensions. The theory is useful to school counselors and other leaders engaged in systemic change in complex ecological systems.

  17. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-29

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  18. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  19. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Sears

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, the structure of the environment is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact structural heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics and producing competitive advantages. Applying a generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between a competition's structure and its scoring dynamics. Despite wide structural variations, we find the same three-phase pattern in the tempo of events observed in many sports. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. The most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data...

  20. Network operations support systems as a competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Andrew K. L.

    2005-01-01

    The overall purpose of this paper is to perfom an analysis of TELUS and to examine if Network Operation Support Systems (OSS) can provide TELUS with a sustainable competitive advantage. The paper begins with the first three chapter exploring overviews of the components of the Canadian Telecommunications services industry, TELUS and its products, and the markets and revenues. The next chapter is an industry analysis of the industry landscape and its players. Michael Porter's Five Forces model ...

  1. Sustaining competitive advantage in the UK's rail spares overhaul market

    OpenAIRE

    Fyson, Nick

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation sets out to investigate how Bombardier can develop and sustain competitive advantage within the UK spares overhaul market. This is an important market to the company. Bombardier has positioned itself as a full service provider to the rail industry. Without the ability to compete in the overhaul market, it can no longer sustain this proposition. Two components and three strategic models have been selected to analyse the market and to develop strategic options. Bogies and en...

  2. The Competitive Advantage for the New Millennium : Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    McCampbell, Atefeh Sadri (Florida Institute of Technology); Clare, Linda M. (University of Maryland); Gitters, Scott Howard (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2000-01-01

    The paper defines the newly emerging concept of knowledge management. The topics presented include: principles and practices of knowledge management and the competitive advantage gained by industries employing this discipline. The technical applications and tools currently utilized within this discipline will also be discussed. A survey was conducted to quantify the level of corporate awareness of knowledge management, the effectiveness of knowledge management practices on leveraging intellec...

  3. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  4. Virtual online consultations: advantages and limitations (VOCAL) study.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, T.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Wherton, J; Shaw, S; Byrne, E; Campbell-Richards, D; Bhattacharya, S.; Hanson, P; Ramoutar, S; Gutteridge, C; Hodkinson, I.; Collard, A; Morris, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Remote video consultations between clinician and patient are technically possible and increasingly acceptable. They are being introduced in some settings alongside (and occasionally replacing) face-to-face or telephone consultations. Methods To explore the advantages and limitations of video consultations, we will conduct in-depth qualitative studies of real consultations (microlevel) embedded in an organisational case study (mesolevel), taking account of national context (macrol...

  5. America's secret competitive advantage is a dirty secret

    OpenAIRE

    Sreedharan, Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    Michael E Porter, a leading management thinker, identifies seven uniquely American competitive advantages to explain the country’s pre-eminence. He points to America’s environment for entrepreneurship, its science, technology, and innovation machine, its institutions for higher learning, its strong commitment to competition and free markets, its efficient capital markets (especially for risk capital), and its fundamental dynamism and resilience that embraces a willingness to restructure and t...

  6. Increase of campaign attractiveness and taking advantage of online trends

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This document is based on a master’s thesis work project conducted by Nova SBE students to help the leading Portuguese telecom provider MEO increase its digital campaign’s attractiveness and to take better advantage of the new online trends. Recommendations are given based on primary research in the form of a focus group and a survey questionnaire launched online. Subjects such as digital marketing channels, high-impact digital advertisement formats, campaign content and the emergence of new ...

  7. Voluntary co-determination produces sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Osterloh, Margit; Frey, Bruno S.; Zeitoun, Hossam

    2010-01-01

    The importance of firm-specific knowledge for a company’s sustainable competitive advantage is well established in the knowledge-based theory of the firm. However, the impact of corporate governance design on firm-specific knowledge investments is underexplored. We assess existing co-determination systems in Europe and their impact on firm performance; then we discuss voluntary co-determination as a new corporate governance design that fosters firm-specific knowledge investments, intrinsic wo...

  8. The advantage of international fiscal cooperation under alternative monetary regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    We consider the strategic interplay between international monetary and fiscal cooperation in a world of interdependent economies. Motivated by the ongoing discussion of monetary unification of Europe, focus is on monetary cooperation, and in particular how its performance is altered by the...... introduction of fiscal (tax) cooperation. Our main result is that fiscal cooperation may be disadvantageous when monetary cooperation lacks credibility with private sectors. On the other hand, fiscal cooperation under a rule based monetary regime is always advantageous...

  9. ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

  10. ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

  11. The Nomadisation of worklife : advantages and disadvantages of mobile telework

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    In this dissertation I have focused on mobile telework. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this mode of teleworking compared to îtraditionalî home-based telework? I have seen this both from an employer and an employee perspective. The methods I used are a) a review of relevant telework literature, and b) qualitative interviews with sixteen mobile teleworkers employed by five different sales-oriented organisations. Very little academic research is done on mobile telework in particula...

  12. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sears Merritt; Aaron Clauset

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, the structure of the environment is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact structural heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics and producing competitive advantages. Applying a generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between a competition's structure and its scoring dynamics. Despite wi...

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility and the Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Miron; Monica Petcu; Iulia Maria Sobolevschi

    2011-01-01

    Being currently under the pressure of the various imbalances induced in the natural and social environment and faced with the deficiency of its own incremental growth, the economic system – which is exclusively focused on the economic performance – is currently going through a stage of global structural changes meant to connect it to the simple values of the community, society and even humanity as a requirement for its survival and development through the sustainable competitive advantage. Ta...

  14. Achieving competitive advantage through empowering employees: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Safari Kahreh; Heidar Ahmadi; Asgar Hashemi

    2011-01-01

    While discussion of employee empowerment has been prevalent in the popular literature for many years, theoretical research on psychological empowerment has been appearing only recently in scholarly journals. Empowerment is a concept that links individual strengths and competencies, natural helping systems and proactive behaviour to social policy and social change. This paper aims to illustrate the role of empowering employees on the gaining competitive advantage. For this purpose, a novel and...

  15. Issues and advantages of using agile and incremental practices

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kai; Wohlin, Claes

    2008-01-01

    The importance of agile methods increased in recent years due to the need of being more flexible due to unstable requirements and high competitive pressure. Therefore, recent empirical studies have been conducted identifying a number of issues and advantages of incremental and agile methods. However, the majority of studies focused on one model (Extreme Programming) and small projects. Thus, in order to draw more general conclusions there is a need to also study large scale implementations of...

  16. Advantages and disadvantages of advertising and promotion in the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Dudnikova, A. V.; Дудникова, А. В.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, advertising plays an important role in the promotion and advancement of any brand, product or service. Advertising influences on the image and style of life. Internet is a tool which is used for creation of advertising. It represents an ideal opportunity for the development of communication with consumers in an electronic environment. Online advertising is used by companies worldwide for promotion their products and services. Features, advantages and disadvantages of the Internet - ...

  17. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi; Reza Aghamousa; Fataneh Alizadeh Meshkani

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate th...

  18. Wine cluster strategic resources, firm value creation and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Fensterseifer, Jaime E.; Rastoin, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse, from a multidisciplinary perspective, the potential contribution of cluster generated resources to competitive advantage of firms located in it, the focus being on the cluster resources role in firm value creation. Towards this aim, potentially strategic cluster resources were identified from the extant cluster literature, classified in five categories and then adapted to the specificities of the wine business. The resulting wine cluster ...

  19. Strategic Advantage and the Optimal Exercise of Entry Options

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Enrico C; Rossetto, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the timing and the valuation of strategic investment aimed at enhancing entry opportunities in related market segments. As demand is uncertain, entry options should be exercised at the optimal time, trading off the market share gain against the option to wait until more information is revealed, while anticipating competitors' entry behaviour. When the strategic investment grants a strong competitive advantage, the innovator can optimally choose the timing of entry; in case of w...

  20. Organizational design, quality management and competitive advantage in hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira-Moliner, Jorge; Pertusa-Ortega, Eva; Tarí Guilló, Juan José; López Gamero, María Dolores; Molina-Azorín, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between practices of quality management (QM) and the characteristics of organizational design, and QM and competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a partial least squares approach to test these relationships in 350 hotels in Spain. Findings – The findings show that QM influences specialization, formalization and interdepartmental interactions, and that QM practices influence both cost and differentiation...

  1. Gaining Competitive Advantage in The European Pharmaeutical Generics Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos, Roberta; Allam, Dina; Murphy, John; Del Corral, Jose Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the necessary elements of competitive advantage for a global pharmaceutical company as it embarks on its launch into 16 European generics market. The academic base explores five of Vargo and Lusch’s Service Dominant-logic foundational premises and the actions that must be taken for the company to move from a market to relational exchange level. The project is divided into two key deliverables, the first one being an environmental scanning to understand ...

  2. Sustainability and strategic competitive advantage: an exploratory and bibliometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrita Dantas Gabriele; Fernanda Tavares Treinta; José Rodrigues de Farias Filho; Maurício Corrêa de Souza; Pâmela Botelho Tschaffon; Sonia Regina Brantes

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to conduct a bibliometric analysis to understand the state of the art of academic research that relates to sustainability strategy and competitive advantage. For this, the article seeks to identify what is produced, released and knowledge generated by the scientific community related to the subject, and analyzing key trends, through a quantitative analysis of the evolution of scientific literature on the themes, vehicles publishing, centers research, leading researchers and re...

  3. Gender, Comparative Advantage and Labor Market Activity in Immigrant Families

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Thomas F. Crossley

    2001-01-01

    The family investment hypothesis predicts that credit-constrained immigrant families adopt a household strategy for financing post-migration human capital investment in which the partner with labor market comparative advantage engages in investment activities and the other partner undertakes labor market activities which finance current consumption. We assess this hypothesis by focusing on two issues: first, the extent to which the specialization in the investing versus financing role is base...

  4. Flexibility as the source of supply chain competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Chukhray, N. І.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the competition reorientation for markets among individual business entities on competition between supply chains. The supply chains as open dynamic economic systems are considered. The evolution stages of key sources of competitive advantages formation and their meaning are revealed in the article. The areticle also includes the description of the main sources of supply chains competitiveness in contemporary market conditions. The influence of th...

  5. Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

    2005-02-01

    The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

  6. Interconnected firms’ relationships as a source of a competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iga Rudawska

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mainstream economy poses the opinion that a competitive advantage lies in resources, and,consequently - in competences as well - being a share of a single company and remaining underits sole control. Recently, some researchers (e.g. Castaldo, 2007; Lavie, 2006 have revised thatapproach and tend to emphasise the role of other sources of competitive advantage in businessstrategy, which embrace new, intangible assets. Such assets are being born and developed onlywithin the inter-firm relationships built in network environment. Thus, the presented paperfocuses on relational-based approach towards gaining relational rent. It aims at discussing thesources of an appropriated relational rent and, presenting - after Lavie, a new types of rentextracted from alliance networks. Next, the author presents some empirical evidence fromhealthcare market in Poland. Inter-organizational relations represent the central level of analysisof the achievement of relational competitive advantage. Empirical results indicate the crucial roleof trust and commitment in the market relationships. They are the key success factors whichenable the service providers to build a differentiated market position. The researchedorganizations pose effective communication between the parties of the relationship and thesatisfaction resulting from the mutual respect and recognition as the components of valueofferings.

  7. Technology Survey Assistance Tool Focusing on Their Advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Risa; Takeuchi, Hironori; Watanabe, Hideo; Nasukawa, Tetsuya

    It is important for R&D managers, consultants, and other people seeking broad knowledge in technology fields to survey technical literature such as research papers, white papers, and technology news articles. One of the important kinds of information for those people regards the effectiveness of new technologies in their own businesses. General search engines are good at selecting documents revealing the details of a specific technology or a technology field, but it is hard to obtain useful information about how a technology will apply to individual business cases from such search results. There is a need for a technology survey assistance tool that helps users find technologies with suitable capabilities. In this paper, two technical tasks were tackled to develop the prototype of this assistance tool: Extraction of advantage phrases and scoring for the advantage phrases to find novel applications in the target technology field. We describe a new method to identify advantage phrases in technical documents and our scoring function that gives higher scores to novel applications of the technology. The results of evaluations showed our phrase identification method with only a few phrasal patterns performs almost as well as human annotators, and the proposed scoring conforms better to the decisions made by professionals than random sort.

  8. Supply chain management and relational competitive advantage in footwear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Emerenciano Viana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the supply chain management contribution to competitive advantage for companies in the footwear industry, with a primary focus on the inter-organizational relationship analysis. It was used an analysis model developed by Viana (2010, whose main theoretical support is given by relational view (DYER; SINGH, 1998. It is an interpretive multiple case study, including two companies that operate in Ceará State. The data analysis procedure used the constant comparison method, with the Atlas/ti software assistance. In general, it is realized that in the buyers-suppliers relationships prevails the partnership and the main assumptions of supply chain management are applied, which contributes for the relational competitive advantage. In the relationships between enterprises and the government and development institutions, tax incentives are the main resource accessed, which contribute for temporary competitive advantage over competitors that do not have production facilities in the Northeast region as well as lead to a competitive parity situation to competitors that have production facilities in the Northeast region and to the external market competitors.

  9. 试论企业信息优势与竞争优势的建立%Preliminary Discussion on Establishing Information Advantages and Competitive Advantages in Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐欣娅

    2003-01-01

    The paper first explains the necessity and importance for enterprises to establish information advantages and competitive advantages, and then gives a detailed description of ERP, competitive archives for enterprises, special-ized intelligence, diversion from information advantages to competitive advantages and so on.

  10. Structure of Comparative Advantage of China and India: Global and Regional Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amita Batra

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent of competition between China and India in the world and ASEAN markets. The analysis is undertaken using the concept of revealed comparative advantage, relative market shares, long-term trend analysis and statistical tests of convergence. In the context of the ASEAN market the evaluation of competition between India and China has been undertaken with special reference to the prior implementation of the ASEAN-China Free Trade Area relative to the ASEAN-India Free Trade Area. The results suggest that threat perceptions at the product level might currently prevail for both economies from each other across all sectors in both markets even though the intensity of the competitive threat varies across products. However, long-term trend analysis shows that the patterns of comparative advantage of India and China are evolving along divergent paths and, therefore, competition between the two economies might not be a major issue.

  11. A foraging advantage for dichromatic marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) at low light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Nancy G; Osorio, Daniel; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2010-02-23

    Most New World monkey species have both dichromatic and trichromatic individuals present in the same population. The selective forces acting to maintain the variation are hotly debated and are relevant to the evolution of the 'routine' trichromatic colour vision found in catarrhine primates. While trichromats have a foraging advantage for red food compared with dichromats, visual tasks which dichromats perform better have received less attention. Here we examine the effects of light intensity on foraging success among marmosets. We find that dichromats outperform trichomats when foraging in shade, but not in sun. The simplest explanation is that dichromats pay more attention to achromatic cues than trichromats. However, dichromats did not show a preference for foraging in shade compared with trichromats. Our results reveal several interesting parallels with a recent study in capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), and suggest that dichromat advantage for certain tasks contributes to maintenance of the colour vision polymorphism. PMID:19740895

  12. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIZATION OF DIPLOMACY IN THE CONDITIONS OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Plavšin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented how new technologies influence democratization of diplomacy. Primarily, the advantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are explained. It is shown how increasing influence of non state players decreases the monopoly of state players. It is suggested that media and social network are catalysts of democracy. On the other hand, negative effects of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are analyzed. The new technology as potential source of propaganda and vulgarization is described. Finally, although there are disadvantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies, it is concluded the advantages surpass the disadvantages. The new technologies raise the democratization of diplomacy for a general well-fair and have a tendency to reduce hard power and to strengthen soft power.

  13. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF A FRANCHISEE IN THE SOFTWARE MARKET: THE CASE OF TOTVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelson Obregão Matoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In highly competitive technology markets, such as the market in which Enterprise Resource Management (ERP service providers do business, it has become of fundamental importance to understand the factors that create competitive advantages. This paper presents the support from the theoretical frameworks offered by the Resource-based View (RBV and the Market-based View (MBV to attempt to explain the competitive advantage held by Totvs Curitiba, a franchise of Totvs, which in turn is a Brazilian company that is a market leader in ERP service provision. In methodological terms, this is a Case Study for which data was collected during interviews and by observation and review of secondary documentary sources. The results suggest that the franchise's market-leading position was built on a relationship, which is identifiable in the results of this study, between the strategies adopted, resources controlled and competences developed.

  14. Know the risk, take the win: how executive functions and probability processing influence advantageous decision making under risk conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Schiebener, Johannes; Pertl, Marie-Theres; Delazer, Margarete

    2014-01-01

    Recent models on decision making under risk conditions have suggested that numerical abilities are important ingredients of advantageous decision-making performance, but empirical evidence is still limited. The results of our first study show that logical reasoning and basic mental calculation capacities predict ratio processing and that ratio processing predicts decision making under risk. In the second study, logical reasoning together with executive functions predicted probability processing (numeracy and probability knowledge), and probability processing predicted decision making under risk. These findings suggest that increasing an individual's understanding of ratios and probabilities should lead to more advantageous decisions under risk conditions. PMID:25252799

  15. Advantages and pitfalls of South Africa-Angola strategic alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Vogel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Owing to a shortage of South African research focusing on international strategic alliances, this study aimed to determine whether the advantages and pitfalls of international strategic alliances referred to in international business publications are also applicable to South African international strategic alliances. Design/Methodology/Approach: This was a formal, empirical study that targeted the 163 South African enterprises which were members of the South African-Angolan Chamber of Commerce in 2005 and 2006. Findings: The results identified joint ventures as the most prominent mode of entry when expanding into developing countries and, with few exceptions, the findings support the advantages and pitfalls of international strategic alliances identified in other international publications. Value of the research: A great deal of international management research over the years has been focused on the importance of strategic alliances as a mode of entry, as well as on the pitfalls experienced by alliance partners, particularly in developed countries. However, the lack of such research in Africa in general and South Africa in particular means that South African enterprises must base their entry mode selection on non-South African research findings, and although this sample size was small, the lack of other Africa-specific research makes this research significant. Implications: With South Africa being the largest source of FDI into the rest of Africa, the findings of this paper show that South African enterprises can attain the advantages associated with international strategic alliances when using this mode of entry into Africa. In terms of pitfalls, the findings highlight the need for multinational enterprises to pay specific attention to the role of governments when forming strategic alliances.

  16. Future generations of CANDU: advantages and development with passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) advances water reactor and CANDLT technology using an evolutionary development strategy. This strategy ensures that innovations are based firmly on current experience and keeps our development programs focused on one reactor concept, reducing risks, development costs, and product development cycle times. It also assures our customers that our products will never become obsolete or unsupported, and the continuous line of water reactor development is secure and supported into the future. Using the channel reactor advantage of modularity, the subdivided core has the advantage of passive safety by heat removal to the low- pressure moderator. With continuous improvements, the Advanced CANDU Reactor TM (ACR-1000TM) concept will likely remain highly competitive for a number of years and leads naturally to the next phase of CANDU development, namely the Generation IV CANDU -SCWR concept. This is conventional water technology, since supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Significant cost, safety, and performance advantages would result from the CANDU-SCWR concept, plus the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small and large electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen. In CANDU-SCWR, novel developments are included in the primary circuit layout and channel design. The R and D in Canada is integrated with the Generation IV international Forum (GIF) plans, and has started on examining replaceable insulating liners that would ensure channel life, and on providing completely passive reactor decay heat removal directly to the moderator heat sink without forced cooling. In the interests of sustainability, hydrogen production by a CANDU- SCWR is also be included as part of the system requirements, where the methods for hydrogen production will depend on the outlet temperature of the reactor

  17. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIEKHOVA L. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the presented research is to explore the potential of international energy management standards to increase competitiveness of industrial enterprises under conditions of Ukrainian transitional economy. The study had the following objectives: to trace the evolution of fundamental energy efficiency standards; to discuss experience in their use in various countries; to identify factors that are key to achieving competitive advantage under the implementation ISO 50001. Methodology. This article presents a historical overview of the standardisation of principles and approaches for the purpose of the energy-efficient management. The research was carried out by studying the international documents, voluntary standards and national practices in the field of energy efficiency. Conclusions. The study examines the experiences of different countries in the field of energy management systems. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the ISO 50001 with the other basic standards for the organisation of management. The system approach enables to identify the main factors and their impact on capacity to achieve competitive advantages, which are possible to obtain after certification to ISO 50001. Originality. The study reviewed and analysed the energy management penetration within its dynamics at time and country level. After analysing the statistical data and the results of the interviews, the authors identified 20 key factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises that are certified to ISO 50001. All of these factors were divided into four groups, two groups represent external environment – opportunities and threats, and two groups – internal capacity – strengths and weaknesses of enterprises. Practical value. The proposed system of factors may be useful for the planning of actions towards strengthening the capacity of energy management systems in the context of the formation competitive advantages on the industrial

  18. Intrinsic Radiation in Lutetium Based PET Detector: Advantages and Disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Qingyang

    2015-01-01

    Lutetium (Lu) based scintillators such as LSO and LYSO, are widely used in modern PET detectors due to their high stopping power for 511 keV gamma rays, high light yield and short decay time. However, 2.6% of naturally occurring Lu is 176Lu, a long-lived radioactive element including a beta decay and three major simultaneous gamma decays. This phenomenon introduces random events to PET systems that affects the system performance. On the other hand, the advantages of intrinsic radiation of 176...

  19. Managerial attitudes, strategic intent, environmental initiatives and competitive advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes Rodríguez, Juan Felipe; Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    To stay at the competitive forefront successful firms have for quite a while addressed environmental issues as part of their strategy. The competitive 'imperative' is however not restricted to large enterprises entirely. This paper reports empirical findings from a series of identical surveys...... performed regularly since 1999. The purpose has been to track and analyse the development of the strategic responses of SMEs in Denmark. Furthermore, identification of potential shifts in the influence of motivators and the impact on competitive advantage has also been focused. In so doing, evidence...

  20. Medicare advantage plans at a crossroads--yet again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A; Dowd, Bryan E

    2009-01-01

    Since risk-taking, private health insurance plans were introduced into Medicare twenty-five years ago, policymakers have disagreed on these plans' fundamental purposes. Articulated objectives, which include improving quality, reducing government spending, providing additional benefits (without expanding the entitlement), increasing choices for beneficiaries, and providing benchmark competition for traditional Medicare, are plausible but sometimes conflicting. The program's history demonstrates continuous shifts in emphasis on these objectives. We enumerate the differing advantages of public and private plans in Medicare and argue that policymakers should focus their efforts on leveling the public-private playing field, thereby dealing forthrightly with the reality of growing fiscal problems.

  1. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  2. THE ROLE OF THE BRAND IN BRINGING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Apostu

    2007-01-01

    No product, service or company can keep, in our days, competitive advantages on long terms. Technology, globalisation and the access at information make like every product or service can be retorted in a very short time. The only real good that a company owns is that good from the consumer’s mind. The only real good is the brand. The brand can also be named the marketing’s heart. Marketers say that using the brand is the art and the key of marketing.

  3. Advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Riyanto, Puguh; Subchan, Prasetyowati; Lelyana, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is the commonest skin disorder, whereas soybean isoflavone had been proved as antiandrogen that is it can inhibit the enzyme 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase,17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 5α-reductase. The purpose of this study is to prove the advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on AV. Methods: this study is a clinical study using randomized pretest-posttest control group design. This study is a study with 40 samples randomized into 2 groups, i...

  4. Does China Still Have a Labor Cost Advantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Ceglowski, Janet; Golub, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In recent years wages in China have been rising and the yuan has appreciated, potentially eroding China's cost advantage in manufactures. This paper explores the evolution of China's relative unit labor costs in manufacturing over 1998-2009. Between 1998 and 2003 China's unit labor costs fell, but since 2003 they have increased both absolutely and relative to US unit labor costs. Much of the rise in China's relative unit labor costs can be traced to a real appreciation of the yuan against the...

  5. Analysis of the Variation in Efficiency of Medicare Advantage Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha Gold; Maria Cupples Hudson

    2013-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act has altered payment policy for private Medicare Advantage (MA) plans, with the goal of lowering costs to bring them closer to the costs of traditional Medicare. Using new information on 2009 MA costs, an issue brief compares plans’ estimates of per capita costs for providing Parts A and B benefits to their enrollees, on a risk-adjusted basis, against government data on the same costs for traditional Medicare program beneficiaries in the same county. On average, risk-...

  6. Quantifying the Efficiency Advantages of High Viscosity Index Hydraulic Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian D. Neveu; Michael D. Zink; Alex Tsay

    2006-01-01

    By providing higher in- use viscosity at elevated operating temperatures, hydraulic fluids with high viscosity index improve the efficiency of the hydraulic system. For mobile hydraulic equipment this efficiency can be quantified as an increase in fuel economy. This paper reviews the research that demonstrates these efficiency advantages in gear, vane and piston pumps and presents a method for predicting the overall fuel economy for a fleet of hydraulic equipment in opquipment operator to easily improve the performance of the system and reduce fuel consumption.

  7. MANAJEMEN KINERJA DALAM MENINGKATKAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE PADA LEMBAGA PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Baharun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Entering the era of globalization , the Islamic educational institutions have a huge responsibility in responding to various demands of society , especially in improving the quality of education by improving the quality of human resources in it . Performance management is one of the alternatives that can be used by Islamic educational institutions to improve the quality of human resources in order to achieve its objective of institutional accordance with market demand. Through performance management applied to the Islamic education institutions, is expected to create a climate and atmosphere -oriented organization of quality (quality culture and has keungulan compete ( competitive advantage with other educational institutions .

  8. Protontherapy versus carbon ion therapy advantages, disadvantages and similarities

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.

  9. Biocatalysis in ionic liquids - advantages beyond green technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongsoon; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2003-08-01

    In recent years researchers have started to explore a particular class of organic solvents called room temperature ionic liquids - or simply ionic liquids - to identify their unique advantages for biocatalysis. Because they lack vapour pressure, ionic liquids hold potential as green solvents. Furthermore, unlike organic solvents of comparable polarity, they often do not inactivate enzymes, which simplifies reactions involving polar substrates such as sugars. Biocatalytic reactions in ionic liquids have also shown higher selectivity, faster rates and greater enzyme stability; however, these solvents present other challenges, among them difficulties in purifying ionic liquids and controlling water activity and pH, higher viscosity and problems with product isolation.

  10. Advantage of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy for the Study of Polyelectrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鹏翔; 宫永宽; 王生勤; 赵江

    2012-01-01

    The advantage of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study single chain behavior of polyelectrolytes has been demonstrated by checking the coil-to-globule transition ofpoly 2-vinylpyridine with the change ofpH value in aqueous solution. The ultra-high sensitivity of FCS allows measurement at extreme dilution where the effect of electrostatic interaction between the chains is greatly suppressed. The results exposed first-order conformation tran- sition of P2VP as detected by FCS while inter-chain aggregation occurred in the experiments of dynamic light scat- tering.

  11. Leveraging the first mover advantage: proprietary technologies versus cost leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Coeurderoy, Régis; Durand, Rodolphe

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop the ‘pioneer effect’ view of a firm’s market share. It provides and tests a model explaining that the efficiency of firms’ strategic choices after entry is linked with the order of entry to gain market share. On a cross-sectional data set of French companies in the manufacturing industry, the results support the persistence of a first mover advantage among survivors. Furthermore, it is shown that the development of proprietary t...

  12. Bilingual advantage language, literacy and the US labor market

    CERN Document Server

    Callahan, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    The Bilingual Advantage draws together researchers from education, economics, sociology, anthropology and linguistics to examine the economic and employment benefits of bilingualism in the US labor market, countering past research that shows no such benefits exist. Collectively, the authors draw on novel methodological approaches and new data to examine the economics of bilingualism for the new generation of bilinguals entering a digital-age globalized workforce. The authors also pay considerable attention to how to best capture measures of bilingualism and biliteracy, given the constraints of

  13. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Assessment in Higher Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya-tao

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is always considered to be an important component in the field of higher vocational education. It serves the purpose of evaluating students’achievement and supporting learning and teaching. Assessment plays a key role by relating the in-structional activities to increase students’capabilities. The purpose aims to consider the notion of assessment as a prerequisite and will attempt to explore certain strengths and weaknesses of assessment associated with higher vocational education. Some different types and techniques of assessment in higher vocational education alongside their advantages and disadvantages will also be ex-plored.

  14. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF TRANSPORT LOGISTICS OF THE REGIONAL GRAIN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov V. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the place of transport logistics in the system of specialization of the region, territorial labor division and the grain business export potential. It examines the competitive advantages in relation to territorial and environmental factors, production, business, and grain market, the role of these factors in raising the economic efficiency of grain business, taking into account rapidly changing conditions in domestic and global markets. It gives details of the competitive advantages of the port transit segment of the Krasnodar region on the grain major sea carriers example. Effective use of the strong sides of land and sea components of the grain transit will help to further successful integration of the region grain business into the global economics system, it will increase the regional grain production competitiveness. The grain transit schemes improving process should be built taking into account optimization of the delivery channels, excluding parasitic mediators, motivate all participants on the final result according to the criterion of profit which is received not due to the increase in tariff rates, but by providing diverse services, enhancing productivity, introducing of specialization and specific transport costs reducing. It is also proposed to reduce transport costs during the grain transit to domestic and foreign markets due to the capabilities of specialized logistical centers, to organize transport corridors for the grain delivery on their base

  15. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS OF TISSUE MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY ON CANCER RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜平; 苏丹; 程琪辉

    2003-01-01

    S To provide evidences for exploiting tissue microarray (TMA) technology, we reviewed advantages and applications of TMA on tumor research. TMA has many advantages, including (1) section from TMA blocks can be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of up to 1,000 different tumors at DNA, RNA or protein level; (2) TMA is highly representative of their donor tissues; (3) TMA can improve conservation of tissue resources and experimental reagents, improve internal experimental control, and increase sample numbers per experiment, and can be used for large-scale, massively parallel in situ analysis; (4) TMA facilitates rapid translation of molecular discoveries to clinical applications. TMA has been applied to tumor research, such as glioma, breast tumor, lung cancer and so on. The development of novel biochip technologies has opened up new possibilities for the high-throughput molecular profiling of human tumors. Novel molecular markers emerging from high-throughput expression surveys could be analyzed on tumor TMA. It is anticipated that TMA, a new member of biochip, will soon become a widely used tool for all types of tissue-based research. TMA will lead to a significant acceleration of the transition of basic research findings into clinical applications.

  16. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89

  17. Endoscopic treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor:Advantages and hurdles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung Hun Kim

    2015-01-01

    One of the most prominent characteristics ofgastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is theirunpredictable and variable behavior. GISTs arenot classified as "benign" or "malignant" but arerather stratified by their associated clinical risk ofmalignancy as determined by tumor size, location,and number of mitoses identified during surgicalhistology. The difficulty in assessing the malignantpotential and prognoses of GISTs as well as theincreasing incidence of "incidental GISTs" presentschallenges to gastroenterologists. Recently, endoscopicenucleation has been actively performed as both adiagnostic and therapeutic intervention for GISTs.Endoscopic enucleation has several advantages,including keeping the stomach intact after the removalof GISTs, a relatively short hospital stay, a conscioussedation procedure, relatively low cost, and fewerhuman resources required compared with surgery.However, a low complete resection rate and the risk ofperforation could reduce the overall advantages of thisprocedure. Endoscopic full-thickness resection appearsto achieve a very high R0 resection rate. However, thistechnique absolutely requires a very skilled operator.Moreover, there is a risk of peritoneal seeding dueto large active perforation. Laparoscopy endoscopycollaborations have been applied for more stableand pathologically acceptable management. Thesecollaborative procedures have produced excellentoutcomes. Many procedures have been developed andattempted because they were technically possible.However, we should first consider the theoretical basisfor each technique. Until the efficacy and safety ofsole endoscopic access are proved, the laparoscopyendoscopy collaborative procedure appears to be anappropriate method for minimally destructive GISTsurgery.

  18. Knowledge in Value Creation Process for Increasing Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika ŠRAMOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare companies by using value creation model and to determine knowledge in these processes. The framework for the value creation process shows problems of case companies in different phases of this process. Knowledge is compared in each of the individual phases of the process and its role in different types of companies. There is identified role of knowledge for increasing competitive advantage. The methodology involves case study from which data are derived and analyzed. The analysis shows that the framework for the value creation process can be used as an analytical tool for value overview in different phases and there is a need for different approaches to improve business and create new value for customers. Based on the analyzed problems, proposed recommendations for improvement are made. These recommendations are based on providing value innovation for customers (end users of software product. Value innovation of software product is considered as crucial for improvement of the companies in machinery industry. Company A has created new value through remote service. This remote service provides several advantages. Customers can prevent problems in machines by implementing software product which is still analyzing and evaluating data from machines. Company B and C were not able to create major value innovation for several years.

  19. The introvert advantage how to thrive in an extrovert world

    CERN Document Server

    Laney, Marti Olsen

    2002-01-01

    At least one out of four people prefers to avoid the limelight, tends to listen more than they speak, feels alone in large groups, and requires lots of private time to restore their energy. They're introverts, and here is the book to help them boost their confidence while learning strategies for successfully living in an extrovert world. After dispelling common myths about introverts-they're not necessarily shy, aloof, or antisocial--The Introvert Advantage explains the real issues. Introverts are hardwired from birth to focus inward, so outside stimulation-chitchat, phone calls, parties, office meetings-can easily become "too much." The Introvert Advantage dispels introverts' belief that something is wrong with them and instead helps them recognize their inner strengths-their analytical skills, ability to think outside the box, and strong powers of concentration. It helps readers understand introversion and shows them how to determine where they fall on the introvert/extrovert continuum. It provides tools ...

  20. Green synthesis of nanoparticles: Their advantages and disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Khadeeja; Banse, Viktoria; Ledwani, Lalita

    2016-04-01

    The nanotechnology and biomedical sciences opens the possibility for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the molecular and cellular level. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that connects nanotechnology with plants. Novel methods of ideally synthesizing NPs are thus thought that are formed at ambient temperatures, neutral pH, low costs and environmentally friendly fashion. Keeping these goals in view nanomaterials have been synthesized using various routes. Among the biological alternatives, plants and plant extracts seem to be the best option. Plants are nature's "chemical factories". They are cost efficient and require low maintenance. The advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology can be easily enumerated. This study attempts to review the diversity of the field, starting with the history of nanotechnology, the properties of the nanoparticle, various strategies of synthesis, the many advantages and disadvantages of different methods and its application.

  1. Detection advantages of spatial oversampling in imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jerry A.; Caulfield, John T.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2013-09-01

    Cyan Systems has recently developed an approach to focal plane assembly (FPA) architecture which represent a significant advancement in information extraction from the data as it is being collected. This approach utilizes sub-pixels which achieve a high degree of oversampling of the sensors Point Spread Function (PSF), well beyond the Nyquist limit for a critically sampled sensor. The data contained in an oversampled image has the obvious advantage of readily discriminating between focal plane and object generated artifacts as the first step in false alarm rejection. This effect is particularly useful at identification of radiation events. However there are further advantages that can be exploited through nearest neighbor subpixel correlation, and pooling that achieves significant noise reduction and therefore improved sensitivity. In Cyan's architecture these processes are accomplished for the first time at the input to the preamp in the ROIC. This approach not only allows improved fidelity in imaging, but further reduces false alarm rates, improves detection ranges, and demonstrates an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. The small pixels that enable this approach also ensure improved radiation hardness reducing the capture cross section. The architecture has been modeled and simulations run which illustrate the dramatic improvements possible.

  2. Single incision pediatric endoscopic surgery: advantages of relatively large incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe Single Incision Pediatric Endoscopic Surgery (SIPES) performed on children with various diagnoses, emphasizing its advantages. Study Design: An observational case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from January 2011 to November 2014. Methodology: A review of patient charts was conducted in which SIPES was preferred as the surgical procedure. Patient demographics, operative details, operative time, clinical outcomes, postoperative pain and cosmesis were analyzed. Results: SIPES was performed on 45 patients (21 girls, 24 boys). Thirty-three appendectomies, 5 varicocelectomies, 3 oophorectomies, 2 ovarian and one paratubal cyst excision, and one fallopian tube excision were performed. All except one procedures were performed through our standard 2cm umbilical vertical or smile incision. In 18 cases, abdominal irrigation/aspiration was easily performed through the existing larger incision, as is done with open surgical technique. None of the patients had early postoperative shoulder/back pain since complete disinflation of CO/sub 2/ could be ensured. All of the patients/parents were satisfied with the cosmesis. Conclusion: SIPES has the advantages of limiting the surgical scar to within the umbilicus and providing easy disinflation of CO/sub 2/, allowing intraabdominal cleaning and extraction of large volume tissue samples through a single large umbilical incision. (author)

  3. Systems neuroscience in Drosophila: Conceptual and technical advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, H

    2015-06-18

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is ideally suited for investigating the neural circuit basis of behavior. Due to the simplicity and genetic tractability of the fly brain, neurons and circuits are identifiable across animals. Additionally, a large set of transgenic lines has been developed with the aim of specifically labeling small subsets of neurons and manipulating them in sophisticated ways. Electrophysiology and imaging can be applied in behaving individuals to examine the computations performed by each neuron, and even the entire population of relevant neurons in a particular region, because of the small size of the brain. Moreover, a rich repertoire of behaviors that can be studied is expanding to include those requiring cognitive abilities. Thus, the fly brain is an attractive system in which to explore both computations and mechanisms underlying behavior at levels spanning from genes through neurons to circuits. This review summarizes the advantages Drosophila offers in achieving this objective. A recent neurophysiology study on olfactory behavior is also introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness of these advantages.

  4. An Individual-Based Diploid Model Predicts Limited Conditions Under Which Stochastic Gene Expression Becomes Advantageous

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka

    2015-11-24

    Recent studies suggest the existence of a stochasticity in gene expression (SGE) in many organisms, and its non-negligible effect on their phenotype and fitness. To date, however, how SGE affects the key parameters of population genetics are not well understood. SGE can increase the phenotypic variation and act as a load for individuals, if they are at the adaptive optimum in a stable environment. On the other hand, part of the phenotypic variation caused by SGE might become advantageous if individuals at the adaptive optimum become genetically less-adaptive, for example due to an environmental change. Furthermore, SGE of unimportant genes might have little or no fitness consequences. Thus, SGE can be advantageous, disadvantageous, or selectively neutral depending on its context. In addition, there might be a genetic basis that regulates magnitude of SGE, which is often referred to as “modifier genes,” but little is known about the conditions under which such an SGE-modifier gene evolves. In the present study, we conducted individual-based computer simulations to examine these conditions in a diploid model. In the simulations, we considered a single locus that determines organismal fitness for simplicity, and that SGE on the locus creates fitness variation in a stochastic manner. We also considered another locus that modifies the magnitude of SGE. Our results suggested that SGE was always deleterious in stable environments and increased the fixation probability of deleterious mutations in this model. Even under frequently changing environmental conditions, only very strong natural selection made SGE adaptive. These results suggest that the evolution of SGE-modifier genes requires strict balance among the strength of natural selection, magnitude of SGE, and frequency of environmental changes. However, the degree of dominance affected the condition under which SGE becomes advantageous, indicating a better opportunity for the evolution of SGE in different genetic

  5. Never too late? An advantage on tests of auditory attention extends to late bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hieronymus Bak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies, using predominantly visual tasks, indicate that early bilinguals outperform monolinguals on attention tests. It remains less clear whether such advantages extend to those bilinguals who have acquired their second language later in life.We examined this question in 38 monolingual and 60 bilingual university students. The bilingual group was further subdivided into early childhood, late childhood and early adulthood bilinguals. The assessment consisted of five subtests from the clinically validated Test of Everyday Attention (TEA. Overall, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on auditory attention tests, but not on visual search tasks. The latter observation suggests that the differences between bilinguals and monolinguals are specific and not due to a generally higher cognitive performance in bilinguals.Within the bilingual group, early childhood bilinguals showed a larger advantage on attention switching, late childhood/early adulthood bilinguals on selective attention. We conclude that the bilingual advantage extends into the auditory domain and is not confined to childhood bilinguals, although its scope might be slightly different in early and late bilinguals.

  6. A Twin Protection Effect? Explaining Twin Survival Advantages with a Two-Process Mortality Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrow, David J; Anderson, James J

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies that focus on the correlation in age-at-death between twin pairs have yielded important insights into the heritability and role of genetic factors in determining lifespan, but less attention is paid to the biological and social role of zygosity itself in determining survival across the entire life course. Using data from the Danish Twin Registry and the Human Mortality Database, we show that monozygotic twins have greater cumulative survival proportions at nearly every age compared to dizygotic twins and the Danish general population. We examine this survival advantage by fitting these data with a two-process mortality model that partitions survivorship patterns into extrinsic and intrinsic mortality processes roughly corresponding to acute, environmental and chronic, biological origins. We find intrinsic processes confer a survival advantage at older ages for males, while at younger ages, all monozygotic twins show a health protection effect against extrinsic death akin to a marriage protection effect. While existing research suggests an increasingly important role for genetic factors at very advanced ages, we conclude that the social closeness of monozygotic twins is a plausible driver of the survival advantage at ages <65.

  7. Loss of DNA mismatch repair imparts a selective advantage in planarian adult stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P Hollenbach

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (LS leads to an increased risk of early-onset colorectal and other types of cancer and is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Loss of MMR function results in a mutator phenotype that likely underlies its role in tumorigenesis. However, loss of MMR also results in the elimination of a DNA damage-induced checkpoint/apoptosis activation barrier that may allow damaged cells to grow unchecked. A fundamental question is whether loss of MMR provides pre-cancerous stem cells an immediate selective advantage in addition to establishing a mutator phenotype. To test this hypothesis in an in vivo system, we utilized the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea which contains a significant population of identifiable adult stem cells. We identified a planarian homolog of human MSH2, a MMR gene which is mutated in 38% of LS cases. The planarian Smed-msh2 is expressed in stem cells and some progeny. We depleted Smed-msh2 mRNA levels by RNA-interference and found a striking survival advantage in these animals treated with a cytotoxic DNA alkylating agent compared to control animals. We demonstrated that this tolerance to DNA damage is due to the survival of mitotically active, MMR-deficient stem cells. Our results suggest that loss of MMR provides an in vivo survival advantage to the stem cell population in the presence of DNA damage that may have implications for tumorigenesis.

  8. Loss of DNA mismatch repair imparts a selective advantage in planarian adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, Jessica P; Resch, Alissa M; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Graveley, Brenton R; Heinen, Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) leads to an increased risk of early-onset colorectal and other types of cancer and is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Loss of MMR function results in a mutator phenotype that likely underlies its role in tumorigenesis. However, loss of MMR also results in the elimination of a DNA damage-induced checkpoint/apoptosis activation barrier that may allow damaged cells to grow unchecked. A fundamental question is whether loss of MMR provides pre-cancerous stem cells an immediate selective advantage in addition to establishing a mutator phenotype. To test this hypothesis in an in vivo system, we utilized the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea which contains a significant population of identifiable adult stem cells. We identified a planarian homolog of human MSH2, a MMR gene which is mutated in 38% of LS cases. The planarian Smed-msh2 is expressed in stem cells and some progeny. We depleted Smed-msh2 mRNA levels by RNA-interference and found a striking survival advantage in these animals treated with a cytotoxic DNA alkylating agent compared to control animals. We demonstrated that this tolerance to DNA damage is due to the survival of mitotically active, MMR-deficient stem cells. Our results suggest that loss of MMR provides an in vivo survival advantage to the stem cell population in the presence of DNA damage that may have implications for tumorigenesis. PMID:21747960

  9. Developing business advantages from the technological possibilities of enterprise information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Anaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly implementing Enterprise Information Systems (EIS, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems in particular. Despite the notable studies on the advantages of an EIS, many organizations are not satisfied with the benefits or advantages gained. At the same time, it is assumed that such systems with increasing innovations and technological enhancements would generate abundant business advantages, if organizations exploited these opportunities. The investigation in this work drew on the sociomateriality perspective, using imbrication notion, and focused on a telecomm case study to examine how organizations can exploit the technological possibilities of an EIS to create business benefits. The study findings suggest that business benefits can be achieved when the EIS as a technical system is interwoven with the organizational work in which both dynamically change in practice (not from the technical features of the system, when the system provides interesting and beneficial technological possibilities that attract organizations, and when the firm has the organizational capabilities to translate these possibilities into real business benefits.

  10. Enrollment in Medicare Advantage plans in Miami-Dade County: evidence of status quo bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Afendulis, Christopher C; Frank, Richard G

    2013-08-01

    Evidence from behavioral economics reveals that decision-making in health care settings can be affected by circumstances and choice architecture. This paper conducts an analysis of choice of private Medicare plans (Medicare Advantage plans) in Miami-Dade County. We provide a detailed description of the choice of MA plans available in Miami over much of the program's history. Our analysis suggests that first becoming eligible for Medicare is the key transition point for MA, and that there is significant status quo bias in the MA market. Policy that regulates the MA market should anticipate, monitor and account for this consumer behavior.

  11. The cognate advantage in bilingual aphasia: Now you see it, now you don't.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hughes

    2015-05-01

    administered in each language. Each task included 80 items, matched across languages for frequency, word length and number of cognate items; both naming and translation probed the same words. Results and discussion: As can be seen in the Figure, the effect of cognate status was highly variable across participants, languages and tasks. Only one participant showed a robust advantage in the 4 conditions. Overall, there was little evidence for cognate facilitation in the translation task, with 4 patients even showing an inhibitory effect of cognateness. This study on an unselected group of participants suggests that cognateness effects may partly reflect a publication bias and that a full understanding of the effects of cognate status will require future investigation.

  12. Home advantage in high-level volleyball varies according to set number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Palao Andrés, José Manuel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the probability of winning each Volleyball set according to game location (home, away). Archival data was obtained from 275 sets in the 2005 Men's Senior World League and 65,949 actions were analysed. Set result (win, loss), game location (home, away), set number (first, second, third, fourth and fifth) and performance indicators (serve, reception, set, attack, dig and block) were the variables considered in this study. In a first moment, performance indicators were used in a logistic model of set result, by binary logistic regression analysis. After finding the adjusted logistic model, the log-odds of winning the set were analysed according to game location and set number. The results showed that winning a set is significantly related to performance indicators (Chisquare(18)=660.97, pteams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams, regardless of the set number. Home teams have more advantage at the beginning of the game (first set) and in the two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets), probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects. Different game actions explain these advantages and showed that to win the first set is more important to take risk, through a better performance in the attack and block, and to win the final set is important to manage the risk through a better performance on the reception. These results may suggest intra-game variation in home advantage and can be most useful to better prepare and direct the competition. Key pointsHome teams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams.Home teams have higher performance in reception, set and attack in the total of the sets.The advantage of home teams is more pronounced at the beginning of the game (first set) and in two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets) suggesting intra-game variation in home advantage.Analysis by sets showed that home teams have a better performance in the attack and

  13. The Advantage of Playing Home in NBA: Microscopic, Team-Specific and Evolving Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V; Mukherjee, Satyam; Zeng, Xiao Han T

    2016-01-01

    The idea that the success rate of a team increases when playing home is broadly accepted and documented for a wide variety of sports. Investigations on the so-called "home advantage phenomenon" date back to the 70's and ever since has attracted the attention of scholars and sport enthusiasts. These studies have been mainly focused on identifying the phenomenon and trying to correlate it with external factors such as crowd noise and referee bias. Much less is known about the effects of home advantage in the "microscopic" dynamics of the game (within the game) or possible team-specific and evolving features of this phenomenon. Here we present a detailed study of these previous features in the National Basketball Association (NBA). By analyzing play-by-play events of more than sixteen thousand games that span thirteen NBA seasons, we have found that home advantage affects the microscopic dynamics of the game by increasing the scoring rates and decreasing the time intervals between scores of teams playing home. We verified that these two features are different among the NBA teams, for instance, the scoring rate of the Cleveland Cavaliers team is increased ≈0.16 points per minute (on average the seasons 2004-05 to 2013-14) when playing home, whereas for the New Jersey Nets (now the Brooklyn Nets) this rate increases in only ≈0.04 points per minute. We further observed that these microscopic features have evolved over time in a non-trivial manner when analyzing the results team-by-team. However, after averaging over all teams some regularities emerge; in particular, we noticed that the average differences in the scoring rates and in the characteristic times (related to the time intervals between scores) have slightly decreased over time, suggesting a weakening of the phenomenon. This study thus adds evidence of the home advantage phenomenon and contributes to a deeper understanding of this effect over the course of games. PMID:27015636

  14. Revisiting the Hispanic mortality advantage in the United States: the role of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    More than three decades of health disparities research in the United States has consistently found lower adult mortality risks among Hispanics than their non-Hispanic white counterparts, despite lower socioeconomic status among Hispanics. Explanations for the "Hispanic Paradox" include selective migration and cultural factors, though neither has received convincing support. This paper uses a large nationally representative survey of health and smoking behavior to examine whether smoking can explain life expectancy advantage of Hispanics over US-born non-Hispanics whites, with special attention to individuals of Mexican origin. It tests the selective migration hypothesis using data on smoking among Mexico-to-US migrants in Mexico and the United States. Both US-born and foreign-born Mexican-Americans exhibit a life expectancy advantage vis-à-vis whites. All other Hispanics only show a longevity advantage among the foreign-born, while those born in the United States are disadvantaged relative to whites. Smoking-attributable mortality explains the majority of the advantage for Mexican-Americans, with more than 60% of the gap deriving from lower rates of smoking among Mexican-Americans. There is no evidence of selective migration with respect to smoking; Mexicans who migrate to the US smoke at similar rates to Mexicans who remain in Mexico, with both groups smoking substantially less than non-Hispanic whites in the US. The results suggest that more research is needed to effectively explain the low burden of smoking among Mexican-Americans in the United States. PMID:23453311

  15. Enhanced cognitive and perceptual processing: a computational basis for the musician advantage in speech learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayda, Kirsten E; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-01-01

    Long-term music training can positively impact speech processing. A recent framework developed to explain such cross-domain plasticity posits that music training-related advantages in speech processing are due to shared cognitive and perceptual processes between music and speech. Although perceptual and cognitive processing advantages due to music training have been independently demonstrated, to date no study has examined perceptual and cognitive processing within the context of a single task. The present study examines the impact of long-term music training on speech learning from a rigorous, computational perspective derived from signal detection theory. Our computational models provide independent estimates of cognitive and perceptual processing in native English-speaking musicians (n = 15, mean age = 25 years) and non-musicians (n = 15, mean age = 23 years) learning to categorize non-native lexical pitch patterns (Mandarin tones). Musicians outperformed non-musicians in this task. Model-based analyses suggested that musicians shifted from simple unidimensional decision strategies to more optimal multidimensional (MD) decision strategies sooner than non-musicians. In addition, musicians used optimal decisional strategies more often than non-musicians. However, musicians and non-musicians who used MD strategies showed no difference in performance. We estimated parameters that quantify the magnitude of perceptual variability along two dimensions that are critical for tone categorization: pitch height and pitch direction. Both musicians and non-musicians showed a decrease in perceptual variability along the pitch height dimension, but only musicians showed a significant reduction in perceptual variability along the pitch direction dimension. Notably, these advantages persisted during a generalization phase, when no feedback was provided. These results provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying the musician advantage observed in non-native speech learning

  16. The Advantage of Playing Home in NBA: Microscopic, Team-Specific and Evolving Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo V Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The idea that the success rate of a team increases when playing home is broadly accepted and documented for a wide variety of sports. Investigations on the so-called "home advantage phenomenon" date back to the 70's and ever since has attracted the attention of scholars and sport enthusiasts. These studies have been mainly focused on identifying the phenomenon and trying to correlate it with external factors such as crowd noise and referee bias. Much less is known about the effects of home advantage in the "microscopic" dynamics of the game (within the game or possible team-specific and evolving features of this phenomenon. Here we present a detailed study of these previous features in the National Basketball Association (NBA. By analyzing play-by-play events of more than sixteen thousand games that span thirteen NBA seasons, we have found that home advantage affects the microscopic dynamics of the game by increasing the scoring rates and decreasing the time intervals between scores of teams playing home. We verified that these two features are different among the NBA teams, for instance, the scoring rate of the Cleveland Cavaliers team is increased ≈0.16 points per minute (on average the seasons 2004-05 to 2013-14 when playing home, whereas for the New Jersey Nets (now the Brooklyn Nets this rate increases in only ≈0.04 points per minute. We further observed that these microscopic features have evolved over time in a non-trivial manner when analyzing the results team-by-team. However, after averaging over all teams some regularities emerge; in particular, we noticed that the average differences in the scoring rates and in the characteristic times (related to the time intervals between scores have slightly decreased over time, suggesting a weakening of the phenomenon. This study thus adds evidence of the home advantage phenomenon and contributes to a deeper understanding of this effect over the course of games.

  17. The Advantage of Playing Home in NBA: Microscopic, Team-Specific and Evolving Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V; Mukherjee, Satyam; Zeng, Xiao Han T

    2016-01-01

    The idea that the success rate of a team increases when playing home is broadly accepted and documented for a wide variety of sports. Investigations on the so-called "home advantage phenomenon" date back to the 70's and ever since has attracted the attention of scholars and sport enthusiasts. These studies have been mainly focused on identifying the phenomenon and trying to correlate it with external factors such as crowd noise and referee bias. Much less is known about the effects of home advantage in the "microscopic" dynamics of the game (within the game) or possible team-specific and evolving features of this phenomenon. Here we present a detailed study of these previous features in the National Basketball Association (NBA). By analyzing play-by-play events of more than sixteen thousand games that span thirteen NBA seasons, we have found that home advantage affects the microscopic dynamics of the game by increasing the scoring rates and decreasing the time intervals between scores of teams playing home. We verified that these two features are different among the NBA teams, for instance, the scoring rate of the Cleveland Cavaliers team is increased ≈0.16 points per minute (on average the seasons 2004-05 to 2013-14) when playing home, whereas for the New Jersey Nets (now the Brooklyn Nets) this rate increases in only ≈0.04 points per minute. We further observed that these microscopic features have evolved over time in a non-trivial manner when analyzing the results team-by-team. However, after averaging over all teams some regularities emerge; in particular, we noticed that the average differences in the scoring rates and in the characteristic times (related to the time intervals between scores) have slightly decreased over time, suggesting a weakening of the phenomenon. This study thus adds evidence of the home advantage phenomenon and contributes to a deeper understanding of this effect over the course of games.

  18. Enhanced cognitive and perceptual processing: A computational basis for the musician advantage in speech learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten eSmayda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term music training can positively impact speech processing. A recent framework developed to explain such cross-domain plasticity posits that music training-related advantages in speech processing are due to shared cognitive and perceptual processes between music and speech. Although perceptual and cognitive processing advantages due to music training have been independently demonstrated, to date no study has examined perceptual and cognitive processing within the context of a single task. The present study examines the impact of long-term music training on speech learning from a rigorous, computational perspective derived from signal detection theory. Our computational models provide independent estimates of cognitive and perceptual processing in native English-speaking musicians (n=15, mean age= 25 years and non-musicians (n=15, mean age= 23 years learning to categorize non-native lexical pitch patterns (Mandarin tones. Musicians outperformed non-musicians in this task. Model-based analyses suggested that musicians shifted from simple unidimensional decision strategies to more optimal multidimensional decision strategies sooner than non-musicians. In addition, musicians used optimal decisional strategies more often than non-musicians. However, musicians and non-musicians who used multidimensional strategies showed no difference in performance. We estimated parameters that quantify the magnitude of perceptual variability along two dimensions that are critical for tone categorization: pitch height and pitch direction. Both musicians and non-musicians showed a decrease in perceptual variability along the pitch height dimension, but only musicians showed a significant reduction in perceptual variability along the pitch direction dimension. Notably, these advantages persisted during a generalization phase, when no feedback was provided. These results provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying the musician advantage observed in non

  19. Intrinsic Radiation in Lutetium Based PET Detector: Advantages and Disadvantages

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Qingyang

    2015-01-01

    Lutetium (Lu) based scintillators such as LSO and LYSO, are widely used in modern PET detectors due to their high stopping power for 511 keV gamma rays, high light yield and short decay time. However, 2.6% of naturally occurring Lu is 176Lu, a long-lived radioactive element including a beta decay and three major simultaneous gamma decays. This phenomenon introduces random events to PET systems that affects the system performance. On the other hand, the advantages of intrinsic radiation of 176Lu (IRL) continues to be exploited. In this paper, research literatures about IRL in PET detectors are reviewed. Details about the adverse effects of IRL to PET and their solutions, as well as the useful applications are presented and discussed.

  20. Advantages of a polycentric approach to climate change policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2015-02-01

    Lack of progress in global climate negotiations has led scholars to reconsider polycentric approaches to climate policy. Several examples of subglobal mechanisms to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions have been touted, but it remains unclear why they might achieve better climate outcomes than global negotiations alone. Decades of work conducted by researchers associated with the Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University have emphasized two chief advantages of polycentric approaches over monocentric ones: they provide more opportunities for experimentation and learning to improve policies over time, and they increase communications and interactions -- formal and informal, bilateral and multilateral -- among parties to help build the mutual trust needed for increased cooperation. A wealth of theoretical, empirical and experimental evidence supports the polycentric approach.

  1. Advantages of nonclassical pointer states in postselected weak measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Turek, Yusuf; Shikano, Yutaka; Sun, Chang-Pu; Al-Amri, M

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, within the weak measurement theory, the advantages of non-classical pointer states over semi-classical ones for coherent, squeezed vacuum, and Schr\\"{o}inger cat states. These states are utilized as pointer state for the system operator $\\hat{A}$ with property $\\hat{A}^{2}=\\hat{I}$, where $\\hat{I}$ represents the identity operator. We calculate the ratio between the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of non-postselected and postselected weak measurements. The latter is used to find the quantum Fisher information for the above pointer states. The average shifts for those pointer states with arbitrary interaction strength are investigated in detail. One key result is that we find the postselected weak measurement scheme for non-classical pointer states to be superior to semi-classical ones. This can improve the precision of measurement process.

  2. Organic proxies in speleothems - New developments, advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Alison J.; Hartland, Adam; Baker, Andy

    2016-10-01

    Research into organic matter in speleothems has progressed recently to encompass new analytical approaches and applications, which offer increased potential in areas such as palaeo-temperature reconstruction and high-resolution palaeo-environmental records from the Quaternary. Here we review three major areas of relevance for future work in the field - the origin, transport and transformation of the organic matter which is ultimately preserved in speleothems; the types of proxies currently available for use or in development, and their advantages and issues; and the recently developed prospect of high-resolution organic matter records derived from the analysis of organic/trace elements complexes. The continuing extension of work in these research areas offers excellent potential for organic speleothem proxies to grow as a valuable tool in palaeoenvironmental research.

  3. Metabolic engineering of microbial competitive advantage for industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Joe; Lam, Felix H; Hamilton, Maureen; Consiglio, Andrew; MacEwen, Kyle; Brevnova, Elena E; Greenhagen, Emily; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; van Dijken, Hans; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source. We additionally engineered the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica to assimilate nitrogen from cyanamide and phosphorus from potassium phosphite, and they outcompeted contaminating strains in several low-cost feedstocks. Supplying essential growth nutrients through xenobiotic or ecologically rare chemicals provides microbial competitive advantage with minimal external risks, given that engineered biocatalysts only have improved fitness within the customized fermentation environment.

  4. Advantages and Challenges of a Type-3 PLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Monfared, Mohammad; Freijedo, Francisco D.;

    2013-01-01

    electronics and power systems, which are focused on in this paper, the PLLs typically employ a proportional-integral controller as the loop filter, resulting in a type-2 control system (a control system of type-N has N poles at the origin in its open-loop transfer function). Recently, some attempts have been...... made to design type-3 PLLs, either by employing a specific second-order controller as the loop filter, or by implementing two parallel tracking paths for the PLL. For this type of PLLs, however, the advantages and limitations are not clear at all, as the results reported in different literature...... are contradictory, and there is no detailed knowledge about their stability and dynamic characteristics. In this paper, different approaches to realize a type-3 PLL are examined first. Then, a detailed study of dynamics and analysis of stability, followed by comprehensive parameters design guidelines for a typical...

  5. Does Medicare Advantage Cost Less Than Traditional Medicare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biles, Brian; Casillas, Giselle; Guterman, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The costs of providing benefits to enrollees in private Medicare Advantage (MA) plans are slightly less, on average, than what traditional Medicare spends per beneficiary in the same county. However, MA plans that are able to keep their costs comparatively low are concen­trated in a fairly small number of U.S. counties. In the 25 counties where the cost differences between MA plans and traditional Medicare are largest, MA plans spent a total of $5.2 billion less than what traditional Medicare would have been expected to spend on the same benefi­ciaries, with health maintenance organizations (HMOs) accounting for all of that difference. In the rest of the country, MA plans spent $4.8 billion above the expected costs under tradi­tional Medicare. Broad determinations about the relative efficiency of MA plans and traditional Medicare can therefore be misleading, as they fail to take into account local conditions and individual plans' performance.

  6. Some advantages of methane in an aircraft gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. W.; Glassman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Liquid methane, which can be manufactured from any of the hydrocarbon sources such as coal, shale biomass, and organic waste considered as a petroleum replacement for aircraft fuels. A simple cycle analysis is carried out for a turboprop engine flying a Mach 0.8 and 10, 688 meters (35,000 ft.) altitude. Cycle performance comparisions are rendered for four cases in which the turbine cooling air is cooled or not cooled by the methane fuel. The advantages and disadvantages of involving the fuel in the turbine cooling system are discussed. Methane combustion characteristics are appreciably different from Jet A and will require different combustor designs. Although a number of similar difficult technical problems exist, a highly fuel efficient turboprop engine burning methane appear to be feasible.

  7. Metabolic engineering of microbial competitive advantage for industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Joe; Lam, Felix H; Hamilton, Maureen; Consiglio, Andrew; MacEwen, Kyle; Brevnova, Elena E; Greenhagen, Emily; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; van Dijken, Hans; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source. We additionally engineered the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica to assimilate nitrogen from cyanamide and phosphorus from potassium phosphite, and they outcompeted contaminating strains in several low-cost feedstocks. Supplying essential growth nutrients through xenobiotic or ecologically rare chemicals provides microbial competitive advantage with minimal external risks, given that engineered biocatalysts only have improved fitness within the customized fermentation environment. PMID:27493184

  8. Implement the medical group revenue function. Create competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, C

    1998-01-01

    This article shows medical groups how they can employ new financial management and information technology techniques to safeguard their revenue and income streams. These managerial techniques stem from the application of the medical group revenue function, which is defined herein. This article also describes how the medical group revenue function can be used to create value by employing a database and a decision support system. Finally, the article describes how the decision support system can be used to create competitive advantage. Through the wise use of internally generated information, medical groups can negotiate better contract terms, improve their operations, cut their costs, embark on capital investment programs and improve market share. As medical groups gain market power by improving in these areas, they will be more attractive to potential strategic allies, payers and investment bankers. PMID:10181647

  9. Environmental advantages to the utilization of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, P. [EGS Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a technically-proven, cost effective source of electrical and thermal energy that has been utilized for many decades. recent estimates indicate that over 6700 MWe and 8200 MWt are currently developed throughout the world. This paper discusses the specific environmental advantages to the development of geothermal electrical power and direct use projects and demonstrates how environmental impacts can be easily mitigated using existing technologies. In the areas of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} emissions, land disturbance per MWe and disposal of waste products, geothermal energy has significantly fewer impacts than most other energy sources, particularly conventional fossil and nuclear fuels. Examples are sited where goethermal developments have occurred in pristine areas with no significant impacts and even offering the opportunity for improving environmental conditions. (author)

  10. Advantages of adopting the operational definition of weight

    CERN Document Server

    Figueiredo, J M L

    2005-01-01

    With rare exceptions, in high school and college/university physics courses literature and in journals of physics, the weight is defined as a gravitational force or an exclusive consequence of it. These definitions lack logic from the perspective of present knowledge and can be misleading. The operational definition of weight of a body as the force the body exerts on its support or suspender can eliminate the ambiguities associated to "true weight", "apparent weight", "state of weightlessness", "zero weight", "zero gravity", "microgravity", "vertical", "up" and "down". Nevertheless, the concept of weight of a body is not fundamental in Physics and its exclusion from the physics vocabulary will eliminate some of former concepts or their ambiguousness with evident benefit for physics teaching and learning. This paper discusses weight of a body concepts and presents several examples that show the advantages of avoiding its use or adopting the above-mentioned operational definition. It is believed that this will ...

  11. The Female Stroke Survival Advantage: Relation to Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    Background: Age-related hormonal factors are thought to be related to the gender gap in longevity. Testing the hypothesis that survival is best in young premenopausal women we studied the effect of age on 1-week mortality in stroke patients. Methods: A registry was started in 2001 with the aim...... logistic regression. Results: The probability of death within 1 week adjusted for stroke severity, stroke type and risk factors was highly age-dependent in both men and women. Up to the age of 50 years, the 1-week female/male mortality rates paralleled being slightly (15%) but insignificantly better...... in women. While mortality increased almost linearly in women over the entire age range, it increased steeply in men from the age of 50 and at the age of 80 years survival was 80% better in women. Conclusion: The female stroke survival advantage applies to all ages. It increases with age due to a steeply...

  12. IT OUTSOURCING: METHODOLOGY FOR SUPPLIER SELECTION CRITERIA FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alexandre Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two criteria are usually adopted to select the provider of IT: lower prices or better service qualification of the supplier. This article proposes a strategic approach: the company should hire the provider that best leverage their competitive advantages. This approach implied the need to develop a methodology. To support it, the authors analyzed four models, Porter, RBV (Resource-Based View, Balanced Scorecard and the Weapons and Field Competition. Preferred the latter to be the most complete, qualiquantitative technique and able to accurately align the goals of the IT service firm's to competitive contracting strategy. The methodology was developed and applied to an insurance company and in face of the excellent results, decided to write this article to disclose it.

  13. Transrectal ultrasonography of anorectal disease: advantages and disadvantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) has been widely accepted as a popular imaging modality for Epub ahead of print evaluating the lower rectum, anal sphincters, and pelvic floor in patients with various anorectal diseases. It provides excellent visualization of the layers of the rectal wall and of the anatomy of the anal canal. TRUS is an accurate tool for the staging of primary rectal cancer, especially for early stages. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a modality complementary to TRUS with advantages for evaluating the mesorectum, external sphincter, and deep pelvic inflammation, three-dimensional ultrasonography improves the detection and characterization of perianal fistulas and therefore plays a crucial role in optimal treatment planning. The operator should be familiar with the anatomy of the rectum and pelvic structures relevant to the preoperative evaluation of rectal cancer and other anal canal diseases, and should have technical proficiency in the use of TRUS combined with an awareness of its limitations compared to magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Comparative advantages of AP1000 passive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing need of nuclear power, almost all countries who want to build new nuclear power plant take the generation Ⅲ technology as their first choice. The main reason is that the safety of generation Ⅲ technology has been improved greatly than generation Ⅱ and Ⅱ + technology. The passive safety technology is introduced by AP1000 and it is one of the best in generation Ⅲ technologies. The representative passive containment cooling system of AP1000 and containment spray system of generation Ⅱ nuclear power plant were compared in the paper and analyzed using probabilistic safety assessment method. The reasons of passive safety system possessing comparative advantages were obtained by the concrete calculation. (authors)

  15. Review of Information Technology Effect on Competitive Advantage- Strategic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poolad Daneshvar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Each organisation is aware of the special effects, benefits and implication of Information technology (IT in business performance and also its capacity in building sustainable competitive advantages. In business, IT is used through the value chains of activities which help the organisation to optimize and control functions of operationsfor easy decision making. Also, the use of IT as a competitive weapon has become a popular instrument to influence on a particular organisational performance and the processes that will allow a smooth coordination of technology and corporate as well as business strategies. This article attempts to integrate them in as a more comprehensive viewpoint ,then turns to the major research issues in understanding the impact of information technology on competitive strategy and mention the importance of alignment of IT/IS and business strategies of organisations as a key issue for managers to formulate the organisational business and IT/IS strategies.

  16. Competitive Advantages Through it Innovation Adoption by Smes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moghavvemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—This paper seeks to explain the impact of IT innovation on competitive advantage; the barriers and the benefits companies gain from adopting and using these innovations and propose a model with which it is possible to measure determinants of IT innovation adoption among SMEs. Design/methodology/approach—This paper presents conceptual consideration on the role of SMEs in the Malaysian economy and the effect of government policy in encouraging companies to adopt IT innovation. The proposed research framework will be empirically validated using survey data. This study is an ongoing research, in the existing stage a theoretical argument is developed and methodology is in the process of being tested through regression analysis. Findings—Conclusions are drawn on the status of Malaysian SMEs to adopt IT innovation. We added attitude and self-efficacy to the Innovation Diffusion Theory to suit it to the individual situation. Therefore a novel approach is needed in order to study and understand it. Research limitations/implications—The paper represents work in progress. Practical implications – This paper present the theoretical framework for further study of IT innovation adoption among Malaysia SMEs. Originality/Value—The Information Technology concept is considered a powerful competitive weapon in the modern economy. This study used Innovation Diffusion Theory as the base theory, and added attitude and self efficacy as determinants to measure the individual’s perception toward innovation adoption. Individual self-efficacy and attitude toward innovation adoption shape beliefs and perceptions toward innovation, leading them to adopt or reject an innovation. Adding these factors to Innovation Diffusion Theory will narrow the breadth of the theory and possibilities to frame a single study which allows examination of the individual and technological dimension toward technology adoption. Keywords: IT innovation adoption, competitive

  17. Competitive Advantages Through it Innovation Adoption by Smes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moghavvemi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—This paper seeks to explain the impact of IT innovation on competitive advantage; the barriers and the benefits companies gain from adopting and using these innovations and propose a model with which it is possible to measure determinants of IT innovation adoption among SMEs.Design/methodology/approach—This paper presents conceptual consideration on the role of SMEs in the Malaysian economy and the effect of government policy in encouraging companies to adopt IT innovation. The proposed research framework will be empirically validated using survey data. This study is an ongoing research, in the existing stage a theoretical argument is developed and methodology is in the process of being tested through regression analysis.Findings—Conclusions are drawn on the status of Malaysian SMEs to adopt IT innovation. We added attitude and self-efficacy to the Innovation Diffusion Theory to suit it to the individual situation. Therefore a novel approach is needed in order to study and understand it.Research limitations/implications—The paper represents work in progress.Practical implications – This paper present the theoretical framework for further study of IT innovation adoption among Malaysia SMEs.Originality/Value—The Information Technology concept is considered a powerful competitive weapon in the modern economy. This study used Innovation Diffusion Theory as the base theory, and added attitude and self efficacy as determinants to measure the individual’s perception toward innovation adoption. Individual self-efficacy and attitude toward innovation adoption shape beliefs and perceptions toward innovation, leading them to adopt or reject an innovation. Adding these factors to Innovation Diffusion Theory will narrow the breadth of the theory and possibilities to frame a single study which allows examination of the individual and technological dimension toward technology adoption.Keywords: IT innovation adoption, competitive

  18. The effect of resource based view on sustainable capability advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is important to achieve and to sustain an organization’s competitive advantage in complex environments. This paper evaluates different concepts that have led to such benefits. The study sheds light on resource based view (RBV and its role to reach sustainable competitive advantage (SCA within banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires were returned while a number of valid and usable questionnaires were 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (RBV questionnaire 0.934, SCA questionnaire 0.843. The study utilized structural equation modelling, and a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and they tested the integrated model of MKM and SCA. Statistical support was found for the hypothesized relationships. Moreover it has been shown that RBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the financial centered. The findings offer valuable insights on the generalizability of MKM in a research setting. Structural equation modeling has been implemented and the study also used freedman test to rank the factors and the results show that communication was the most important factor (4.41, followed by process (4.03, knowledge implementation (2.79, decision making (2.54 and human resources (1.22 was the last important factor.

  19. The unconscious thought advantage: Further replication failures from a search for confirmatory evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Nieuwenstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the deliberation without attention (DWA hypothesis, people facing a difficult choice will make a better decision after a period of distraction than after an equally long period of conscious deliberation, an effect referred to as the unconscious thought advantage (UTA. The status of the DWA hypothesis is controversial, as many studies have tried but failed to replicate the UTA. Here, we report a series of experiments that sought to identify the conditions under which the UTA can be replicated. Our starting point was a recent meta-analysis that identified the conditions under which the UTA was strongest in previous studies. Using a within-subjects design and a task that met each of these conditions, we failed to replicate the UTA. Based on closer inspection of previous methods and findings, we then examined some additional factors that could be important for replicating the UTA, including mental fatigue and choice complexity. This was to no avail, as the results revealed only a significant conscious thought advantage, when choice complexity was increased relative to the first experiment. We subsequently conducted exploratory analyses on the data across experiments and found that male subjects showed a significant conscious thought advantage while female subjects showed a trend towards an UTA. Taken together, our results suggest that replication of the UTA may depend more on characteristics of the sample than on the characteristics of the task, and they suggest that gender could be a source of variance in the outcomes of previous studies using a between-subjects design.

  20. Processing advantages for consonance: A comparison between rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Bojorque, Paola; Toro, Juan M

    2016-05-01

    Consonance is a salient perceptual feature in harmonic music associated with pleasantness. Besides being deeply rooted in how we experience music, research suggests consonant intervals are more easily processed than dissonant intervals. In the present work we explore from a comparative perspective if such processing advantage extends to more complex tasks such as the detection of abstract rules. We ran experiments on rule learning over consonant and dissonant intervals with nonhuman animals and human participants. Results show differences across species regarding the extent to which they benefit from differences in consonance. Animals learn abstract rules with the same ease independently of whether they are implemented over consonant intervals (Experiment 1), dissonant intervals (Experiment 2), or over a combination of them (Experiment 3). Humans, on the contrary, learn an abstract rule better when it is implemented over consonant (Experiment 4) than over dissonant intervals (Experiment 5). Moreover, their performance improves when there is a mapping between abstract categories defining a rule and consonant and dissonant intervals (Experiments 6 and 7). Results suggest that for humans, consonance might be used as a perceptual anchor for other cognitive processes as to facilitate the detection of abstract patterns. Lacking extensive experience with harmonic stimuli, nonhuman animals tested here do not seem to benefit from a processing advantage for consonant intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078078

  1. Advantage of dose fractionation in monoclonal antibody-targeted radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) B72.3 IgG was radiolabeled with 131I and administered to female athymic NCr-nu mice bearing the LS-174T human colon adenocarcinoma xenograft to determine if fractionation of MAb dose had any advantage in tumor therapy. In the LS-174T xenograft, only approximately 30%-60% of tumor cells express the B72.3-reactive TAG-72 antigen. The LS-174T xenograft was used to reflect the heterogeneity of the TAG-72 antigen often seen in biopsy specimens from patients. In contrast to a single 600-muCi dose of 131I-B72.3 IgG where 60% of the animals died from toxic effects, two 300-muCi doses of 131I-B72.3 IgG reduced or eliminated tumor growth in 90% of mice, with only 10% of the animals dying from toxic effects. Dose fractionation even permitted escalation of the dose to three doses of 300 muCi of 131I-B72.3 IgG, resulting in even more extensive tumor reduction or elimination and minimal toxic effects. The use of an isotype-matched control MAb revealed a nonspecific component to tumor growth retardation, but the use of the specific B72.3 IgG demonstrated a much greater therapeutic effect. Tumors that had escaped MAb therapy were analyzed for expression of the B72.3-reactive TAG-72 antigen with the use of the immunoperoxidase method; they were shown to have the same antigenic phenotype as the untreated tumors. We verified tumor elimination by killing the test animals after a 7-week observation period and performing histologic examination of tumor sites. We also monitored toxic effects by histologic examination of numerous organs. These studies thus demonstrate the advantage of dose fractionation of a radiolabeled MAb for tumor therapy. We anticipate that the concept of dose fractionation can be practically applied in radioimmunotherapeutic clinical trials with the development and use of recombinant-chimeric MAbs and modified constructs

  2. Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System: the Theoretical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Giedrė Raišienė

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the paper is to discuss the potential benefits and to highlight the drawbacks of integrated management system for organizations that seek to improve management process.Methodology. Methods of the research were used: analysis of a scientific and special literature that presents the requirements, models and results of integrated management systems studies, and analysis of statistical data to assess actuality of integrated management systems for enterprises in Lithuania.Findings. Summarizing research findings, it should be stated that the implementation of management system integration should be based on provision of social responsibility and holistic approach to the organization. It requires the long-term united efforts of leaders in a strategic hierarchical level and high organizational maturity to ensure the fluency of the running stages of planning management system integration, preparing documentations, implementing and realizing integrated management system. Also it is necessary to purify the conception of integrated management system in organizational context. Theoretical analysis of integrated management systems show, that all of the management systems can not be well integrated in principle. They can only be partly integrated and coordinated. A need to question the level of integration of managementsystems is very important as in scientific discourse as in practice. It is important to mark, that the number of organizations, that seek to optimize management processes by implementing the integrated management systems is rapidly increasing in Lithuania, too. It shows that benefit associated with integration of management systems is apprehensible in Lithuania. Advantages of integrated management systems can certainly become even stronger if scientists and practicians join their forces in search of methods of organizational management development.Research limitations. The research limitations related to a lack of integrated

  3. Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System: the Theoretical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Giedrė Raišienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the paper is to discuss the potential benefits and to highlight the drawbacks of integrated management system for organizations that seek to improve management process.Methodology. Methods of the research were used: analysis of a scientific and special literature that presents the requirements, models and results of integrated management systems studies, and analysis of statistical data to assess actuality of integrated management systems for enterprises in Lithuania.Findings. Summarizing research findings, it should be stated that the implementation of management system integration should be based on provision of social responsibility and holistic approach to the organization. It requires the long-term united efforts of leaders in a strategic hierarchical level and high organizational maturity to ensure the fluency of the running stages of planning management system integration, preparing documentations, implementing and realizing integrated management system. Also it is necessary to purify the conception of integrated management system in organizational context. Theoretical analysis of integrated management systems show, that all of the management systems can not be well integrated in principle. They can only be partly integrated and coordinated. A need to question the level of integration of management systems is very important as in scientific discourse as in practice. It is important to mark, that the number of organizations, that seek to optimize management processes by implementing the integrated management systems is rapidly increasing in Lithuania, too. It shows that benefit associated with integration of management systems is apprehensible in Lithuania. Advantages of integrated management systems can certainly become even stronger if scientists and practicians join their forces in search of methods of organizational management development.Research limitations. The research limitations related to a lack of

  4. Comparative advantage strategy for rapid pollution mitigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Due to its sheer size and growth trend, no other country is facing more daunting challenges than China in reducing its pollutant emissions. A critical but inadequately addressed question is how rapidly China could feasibly achieve such mitigation. The stake is high not only about how much worse China's environmental quality could become but also about how the world can prevent catastrophic climate change. Through examining sulfur dioxide (SO2) mitigation in coal-fired power plants and wind energy development for carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, this article proposes a comparative advantage strategy for overcoming high barriers to fast pollution mitigation. On the demand side, China could first make progress in the deployment of more pollution control facilities and then improve their operational performance. The resulting low technological market entry barriers could help to build enough industrial capacity to meet the huge demand with prices under control. The strategy in the current practice could be improved to establish not only a large supply industry but also a strong one to enable other countries to move more rapidly in pollution mitigation.

  5. On the Shallow Processing (Dis)Advantage: Grammar and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koornneef, Arnout; Reuland, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In the psycholinguistic literature it has been proposed that readers and listeners often adopt a “good-enough” processing strategy in which a “shallow” representation of an utterance driven by (top-down) extra-grammatical processes has a processing advantage over a “deep” (bottom-up) grammatically-driven representation of that same utterance. In the current contribution we claim, both on theoretical and experimental grounds, that this proposal is overly simplistic. Most importantly, in the domain of anaphora there is now an accumulating body of evidence showing that the anaphoric dependencies between (reflexive) pronominals and their antecedents are subject to an economy hierarchy. In this economy hierarchy, deriving anaphoric dependencies by deep—grammatical—operations requires less processing costs than doing so by shallow—extra-grammatical—operations. In addition, in case of ambiguity when both a shallow and a deep derivation are available to the parser, the latter is actually preferred. This, we argue, contradicts the basic assumptions of the shallow–deep dichotomy and, hence, a rethinking of the good-enough processing framework is warranted. PMID:26903897

  6. Advantages and challenges of dissimilar materials in automotive lightweight construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberpals, Jan-Philipp; Schmidt, Philipp A.; Böhm, Daniel; Müller, Steffen

    2015-03-01

    The core of future automotive lightweight materials is the joining technology of various material mixes. The type of joining will be essential, particularly in electrified propulsion systems, especially as an improved electrical energy transmission leads to a higher total efficiency of the vehicle. The most evident parts to start the optimization process are the traction battery, the electrical performance modules and the engines. Consequently aluminum plays a very central role for lightweight construction applications. However, the physical-technical requirements of components often require the combination with other materials. Thus the joining of mixed material connections is an essential key technology for many of the current developments, for example in the areas E-Mobility, solar energy and lightweight construction. Due to these advantages mixed material joints are already established in the automotive industry and laser beam remote welding is now a focus technology for mixed material connections. The secret of the laser welding process with mixed materials lies within the different areas of the melting phase diagram depending on the mixing ratio and the cooling down rate. According to that areas with unwanted, prim, intermetallic phases arise in the fusion zone. Therefore, laser welding of mixed material connections can currently only be used with additional filler in the automotive industry.

  7. Medicare Advantage update: benefits, enrollment, and payments after the ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the Medicare program paid private health plans $136 billion to cover about 13 million beneficiaries who received Part A and B benefits through the Medicare Advantage (MA) program rather than traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare. Private plans have been a part of the program since the 1970s. Debate about the policy goals--Should they cost less per beneficiary than FFS Medicare? Should they be available to all beneficiaries? Should they be able to offer additional benefits?--has long accompanied Medicare's private plan option.This debate is reflected in the history of Medicare payment policy,and policy decisions over the years have affected plans' willingness to participate and beneficiaries' enrollment at different periods of the program. Recently, evidence that the Medicare program was paying more per beneficiary in MA relative to what would have been spent under FFS Medicare prompted policymakers to reduce MA payments in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). So far, plans continue to participate in MA and enrollment continues to grow, but payment reductions in 2012 through 2014 have been partially offset by payments made to plans through the quality bonus payment demonstration.This brief contains recent data on plan enrollment, availability, and benefits and discusses MA plan payment policy, including changes to MA payment made in the ACA and their actual and projected effects.

  8. Hospital Acquired Infections: Advantages of a Computerized Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Mada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the advantages of a computerized surveillance system to detect Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI.Methods: All HAI reported to the Timis County branch of the Romanian National Health Insurance and the Public Health Authority during the year 2007 were collected and assessed for validity.Data sources: International data were used to estimate the true HAI rate. Electronic records from the microbiology lab were used to predict the rate of HAI. Advanced models using DRG data and pharmacy order forms were not possible due to lack of this data.Results: Only 10 out off 17 hospitals in Timis County reported the number of HAI. There were 529 cases during 2007, corresponding to <0.4 cases / 100 hospital admissions compared to 4.5 – 9.1 cases / 100 admissions in the medical literature. We estimated a true number of 6,000 HAI in Timis County during 2007. 29 MRSA and another 88 ceftazidime resistant strains were isolated during July 2007 in one of the hospitals. The total of 117 potential HAI comes close to the 150 HAI predicted for that hospital. Conclusions: Romanian hospitals report less than 10% of the HAI. Available electronic data can be used to estimate the true rate of HAI.

  9. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2006-07-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  10. Sustainability and strategic competitive advantage: an exploratory and bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrita Dantas Gabriele

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to conduct a bibliometric analysis to understand the state of the art of academic research that relates to sustainability strategy and competitive advantage. For this, the article seeks to identify what is produced, released and knowledge generated by the scientific community related to the subject, and analyzing key trends, through a quantitative analysis of the evolution of scientific literature on the themes, vehicles publishing, centers research, leading researchers and research networks. Initially we constructed a tree of keywords in order to quest the search engines and publications on the subject and later, do the processing and analysis software with the support of EndNote ®, RefViz ® and Excel ®.Through research, we found that there was a recent increase of publications on the subject of this article, especially since 2000, and the areas of science that most published on the subject are represented by the Triple Bottom Line (environmental, social and economic, pointing out that sustainability is currently having a bias much more proactive instead of reactive. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify countries that have the highest rate of development, like the HDI and GINI index, are the pioneers in publishing this issue.

  11. First mover advantage in launch of platform based variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Singh, Kashi N

    2015-01-01

    Product choice and pricing are critical decisions taken by firms while launching new products. Firms need to consider the effect of competition while taking the above decisions. Extensive literature is available for pricing, positioning and launch sequence determination of differentiated products...... approach generates interesting insights on the competitive behavior of firms and shows that leaders can indeed enjoy first-mover advantage under certain conditions. Key Words: choice of product line, pricing, static and dynamic games, upper bound on prices......Product choice and pricing are critical decisions taken by firms while launching new products. Firms need to consider the effect of competition while taking the above decisions. Extensive literature is available for pricing, positioning and launch sequence determination of differentiated products...... under competition. But, there is need to understand the leader-follower behaviour of firms with differentiated products. The classical game theoretic models do not consider bounds on prices. Hence, applying these models for product choice and pricing decisions in a real-life industrial setting may...

  12. NETWORKS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL - IMPORTANT ADVANTAGES FOR ENTREPRENEURS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela CORODEANU AGHEORGHIESEI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the business field, the social networks based on ties of trust are an attribute of organizations with strong organizational culture where the social status is important. These networks are the source of social capital.Given the role of tourism industry in the development community, especially since 1990, according david a. Fennell (2003 the social capital can exist at the micro levelwith reference to social network sites that exist in the very strong social arrangements, at the meso-level with people throughout the community and at themacro level from an inter-community perspective. This article stresses the importance of network design and the social capital in support of sustainable tourism and how the partnerships between business, local and government authorities and bodies responsible for tourism development and default community may be an important active for an industry that brings many advantages in economic and social development in all areas of the world.

  13. Advantage of four-electrode over two-electrode defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J; Šimić, A; Laroze, D; Elorza, J

    2015-12-01

    Defibrillation is the standard clinical treatment used to stop ventricular fibrillation. An electrical device delivers a controlled amount of electrical energy via a pair of electrodes in order to reestablish a normal heart rate. We propose a technique that is a combination of biphasic shocks applied with a four-electrode system rather than the standard two-electrode system. We use a numerical model of a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue in order to test and evaluate the benefit of this technique. We compare three different shock protocols, namely a monophasic and two types of biphasic shocks. The results obtained by using a four-electrode system are compared quantitatively with those obtained with the standard two-electrode system. We find that a huge reduction in defibrillation threshold is achieved with the four-electrode system. For the most efficient protocol (asymmetric biphasic), we obtain a reduction in excess of 80% in the energy required for a defibrillation success rate of 90%. The mechanisms of successful defibrillation are also analyzed. This reveals that the advantage of asymmetric biphasic shocks with four electrodes lies in the duration of the cathodal and anodal phase of the shock. PMID:26764786

  14. Flow mediated endothelium function: advantages of an automatic measuring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Yamila; Casciaro, Mariano E.; José Urcola y, Maria; Craiem, Damian

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this work is to show the advantages of a non invasive automated method for measuring flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the forearm. This dilation takes place in answer to a shear tension generated by the increase of blood flow, sensed by the endothelium, after the liberation of an occlusion sustained in the time. The method consists of three stages: the continuous acquisition of images of the brachial artery using ultrasound techniques, the pulse to pulse measurement of the vessel's diameter by means of a border detection algorithm, and the later analysis of the results. By means of this technique one cannot only obtain the maximum dilation percentage (FMD%), but a continuous diameter curve that allows to evaluate other relevant aspects such as dilation speed, dilation sustain in time and general maneuver performance. The simplicity of this method, robustness of the technique and accessibility of the required elements makes it a viable alternative of great clinical value for diagnosis in the early detection of numerous cardiovascular pathologies.

  15. Flow mediated endothelium function: advantages of an automatic measuring technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Yamila; Casciaro, Mariano E; Urcola y, Maria Jose; Craiem, Damian [Universidad Favaloro, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturelles (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this work is to show the advantages of a non invasive automated method for measuring flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the forearm. This dilation takes place in answer to a shear tension generated by the increase of blood flow, sensed by the endothelium, after the liberation of an occlusion sustained in the time. The method consists of three stages: the continuous acquisition of images of the brachial artery using ultrasound techniques, the pulse to pulse measurement of the vessel's diameter by means of a border detection algorithm, and the later analysis of the results. By means of this technique one cannot only obtain the maximum dilation percentage (FMD%), but a continuous diameter curve that allows to evaluate other relevant aspects such as dilation speed, dilation sustain in time and general maneuver performance. The simplicity of this method, robustness of the technique and accessibility of the required elements makes it a viable alternative of great clinical value for diagnosis in the early detection of numerous cardiovascular pathologies.

  16. Making Medicare advantage a middle-class program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas G

    2013-03-01

    This paper studies the role of Medicare's premium policy in sorting beneficiaries between traditional Medicare (TM) and managed care plans in the Medicare advantage (MA) program. Beneficiaries vary in their demand for care. TM fully accommodates demand but creates a moral hazard inefficiency. MA rations care but disregards some elements of the demand. We describe an efficient assignment of beneficiaries to these two options, and argue that efficiency requires an MA program oriented to serve the large middle part of the distribution of demand: the "middle class." Current Medicare policy of a "single premium" for MA plans cannot achieve efficient sorting. We characterize the demand-based premium policy that can implement the efficient assignment of enrollees to plans. If only a single premium is feasible, the second-best policy involves too many of the low-demand individuals in MA and a too low level of services relative to the first best. We identify approaches to using premium policy to revitalize MA and improve the efficiency of Medicare.

  17. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis.

  18. Advantage of four-electrode over two-electrode defibrillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Šimić, A.; Laroze, D.; Elorza, J.

    2015-12-01

    Defibrillation is the standard clinical treatment used to stop ventricular fibrillation. An electrical device delivers a controlled amount of electrical energy via a pair of electrodes in order to reestablish a normal heart rate. We propose a technique that is a combination of biphasic shocks applied with a four-electrode system rather than the standard two-electrode system. We use a numerical model of a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue in order to test and evaluate the benefit of this technique. We compare three different shock protocols, namely a monophasic and two types of biphasic shocks. The results obtained by using a four-electrode system are compared quantitatively with those obtained with the standard two-electrode system. We find that a huge reduction in defibrillation threshold is achieved with the four-electrode system. For the most efficient protocol (asymmetric biphasic), we obtain a reduction in excess of 80% in the energy required for a defibrillation success rate of 90%. The mechanisms of successful defibrillation are also analyzed. This reveals that the advantage of asymmetric biphasic shocks with four electrodes lies in the duration of the cathodal and anodal phase of the shock.

  19. Principles and advantages of robotics in urologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Antonio; Vallancien, Guy

    2003-04-01

    Although the available minimally invasive surgical techniques (ie, laparoscopy) have clear advantages, these procedures continue to cause problems for patients. Surgical tools are limited by set axes of movement, restricting the degree of freedom available to the surgeon. In addition, depth perception is lost with the use of two-dimensional viewing systems. As surgeons view a "virtual" target on a television screen, they are hampered by decreased sensory input and a concurrent loss of dexterity. The development of robotic assistance systems in recent years could be the key to overcoming these difficulties. Using robotic systems, surgeons can experience a more natural and ergonomic surgical "feel." Surgical assistance, dexterity and precision enhancement, systems networking, and image-guided therapy are among the benefits offered by surgical robots. In return, the surgeon gains a shorter learning curve, reduced fatigue, and the opportunity to perform complex procedures that would be difficult using conventional laparoscopy. With the development of image-guided technology, robotic systems will become useful tools for surgical training and simulation. Remote surgery is not a routine procedure, but several teams are working on this and experiencing good results. However, economic concerns are the major drawbacks of these systems; before remote surgery becomes routinely feasible, the clinical benefits must be balanced with high investment and running costs.

  20. Home advantage and referee bias in European football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumas, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage is well documented in a wide range of team sports including association football (soccer). Home team crowd support has been shown to be a likely causal factor and its influence on referee decision-making appears to play a significant role. Match data from the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League and Europa League were used to investigate referee bias in terms of the association between match location (home vs. away) and disciplinary sanctions used by football referees. The adjusted mean number of yellow cards received by home and away teams and the ratios of these means were estimated from Poisson regression models. After controlling for within-match measures of attacking dominance referees in the Champions League and Europa League issued 25% (pteams than to home teams. The higher level of home team bias in the Champions League appeared to be mainly due to higher crowd densities. In a combined analysis of both UEFA leagues the magnitude of referee bias increased with increasing crowd density (pteam performance may over-estimate the extent of referee bias in terms of the number of disciplinary sanctions used.

  1. Decision support and data warehousing tools boost competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, B H

    1998-01-01

    The ability to communicate across the care continuum is fast becoming an integral component of the successful health enterprise. As integrated delivery systems are formed and patient care delivery is restructured, health care professionals must be able to distribute, access, and evaluate information across departments and care settings. The Aberdeen Group, a computer and communications research and consulting organization, believes that "the single biggest challenge for next-generation health care providers is to improve on how they consolidate and manage information across the continuum of care. This involves building a strategic warehouse of clinical and financial information that can be shared and leveraged by health care professionals, regardless of the location or type of care setting" (Aberdeen Group, Inc., 1997). The value and importance of data and systems integration are growing. Organizations that create a strategy and implement DSS tools to provide decision-makers with the critical information they need to face the competition and maintain quality and costs will have the advantage. PMID:9592525

  2. Hydrodynamic flows can induce selective advantages among species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesser, Francesca; Benzi, Roberto; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Nelson, David R.; Perlekar, Prasad; Toschi, Federico

    2013-11-01

    Evolutionary forces such as genetic drift, selection, mutation and spatial diffusion act to change the genetic composition of populations. Such problems can be modeled as a system of binary reactions between competing individuals, involving births and deaths, and progressing at specific rates. An inhomogeneous or time-dependent spatial structure has the effect of modulating the interaction between individuals. To explore this problem further, we consider the dynamics and evolution of genetically diverse populations in a fluid environment where a flow field transports individuals in combination with birth and death processes, thus driving genetic inhomogeneities. An individual-based model in continuous space with spatial diffusion implements stochastic demographic rules for a fluctuating population size and introduces the advection of simple realistic flow fields. The system is analyzed in terms of fixation probabilities and fixation times as well as the behavior of spatial correlations. Provided organismic reproduction times are faster than the characteristic time scales of the flow, fluid ecosystems can by themselves induce spatially non-homogeneous selective advantages.

  3. Advantages of high temperature operation of an imaging bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An imaging bolometer is a new type bolometer which uses a large and thin gold foil which absorbs the incident radiation from the plasma and an IR camera to provide images of the temperature distribution within the foil which corresponds to the plasma radiation. Several theoretically predicted advantages of high temperature operation of an imaging bolometer, such are InSb sensors features, black body radiation intensity, noise equivalent power and others should increase the overall sensitivity. A series of experiments were made to prove this principle. The copper frame which supports the gold foil was heated by 4 vacuum compatible ceramic heaters up to 345degC. For simulating the local foil heating due to plasma radiation we used He-Ne laser. The laser beam was exposed on the foil only for several seconds for each frame temperature step. Also two thermocouples were used to measure the frame temperature. It was experimentally shown that the resulting sensitivity increases with the foil temperature. The sensitivity was measured as a weighted difference in mean signal intensity within a line crossing a laser beam point on the foil for switched off and switch on laser at different frame temperatures. (author)

  4. Advantages and Applications of CAR-Expressing Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eGlienke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to donor T cells, natural killer (NK cells are known to mediate anti-cancer effects without the risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. In order to improve cytotoxicity against resistant cancer cells, auspicious efforts have been made with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR expressing T- and NK cells. These CAR-modified cells express antigen receptors against tumor-associated surface antigens, thus redirecting the effector cells and enhancing tumor-specific immunosurveillance. However, many cancer antigens are also expressed on healthy tissues, potentially leading to off tumor/ on target toxicity by CAR-engineered cells. In order to control such potentially severe side effects, the insertion of suicide genes into CAR-modified effectors can provide a means for efficient depletion of these cells. While CAR-expressing T cells have entered successfully clinical trials, experience with CAR-engineered NK cells is mainly restricted to pre-clinical investigations and predominantly to NK cell lines. In this review we summarize the data on CAR expressing NK cells focusing on the possible advantage using these short-lived effector cells and discuss the necessity of suicide switches. Furthermore, we address the compliance of such modified NK cells with regulatory requirements as a new field in cellular immunotherapy.

  5. [Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing hospital microbiological testings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, laws and ordinances were enforced to relax the regulation of the clinical laboratory setting in hospitals by revising the law of medical institutions in 2001. For this reason, outsourcing hospital microbiological testing, particularly by medium- or small-sized hospitals, was encouraged. The advantage of outsourcing microbiological testing is promotion of an efficient hospital management by cost saving. In contrast, the disadvantages are as follows: deterioration of specimen quality by extension of transportation time, delay in reporting by an independent laboratory compared with that by a hospital-based laboratory; this report is generally obtained within 1 or 2 days, difficulty and lack of communication between the laboratory staff and physician, and deterioration of the value of the microbiology report and the quality of the infection control system in a hospital. In addition to performing profit-related maintenance, independent laboratories should strive hard to maintain the same quality as that of a laboratory registered in a hospital. Furthermore, the new role of independent laboratories demands them to have a system allowing instant communication of information regarding the crisis control of infectious diseases to a hospital.

  6. Does Medicare Advantage Cost Less Than Traditional Medicare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biles, Brian; Casillas, Giselle; Guterman, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The costs of providing benefits to enrollees in private Medicare Advantage (MA) plans are slightly less, on average, than what traditional Medicare spends per beneficiary in the same county. However, MA plans that are able to keep their costs comparatively low are concen­trated in a fairly small number of U.S. counties. In the 25 counties where the cost differences between MA plans and traditional Medicare are largest, MA plans spent a total of $5.2 billion less than what traditional Medicare would have been expected to spend on the same benefi­ciaries, with health maintenance organizations (HMOs) accounting for all of that difference. In the rest of the country, MA plans spent $4.8 billion above the expected costs under tradi­tional Medicare. Broad determinations about the relative efficiency of MA plans and traditional Medicare can therefore be misleading, as they fail to take into account local conditions and individual plans' performance. PMID:26934756

  7. Safety advantage of endocut mode over endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirotada Akiho; Masahiro Matsumoto; Shingo Endo; Kazuhiko Nakamura; Yorinobu Sumida; Kazuya Akahoshi; Atsuhiko Murata; Jiro Ouchi; Yasuaki Motomura; Taisuke Toyomasu; Mitsuhide Kimura; Masaru Kubokawa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether an automatically controlled cut system (endocut mode) could reduce the complication rate of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST)and serum hyperamylasemia after EST compared to the conventional blended cut mode.METHODS: From January 2001 to October 2003, 134patients with choledocholithiasis were assigned to either endocut mode group or conventional blended cut mode group at the time of sphincterotomy. The two groups were retrospectively compared for the complications after EST and serum amylase level before and 24 h after the procedure.RESULTS: Of the 134 patients treated, 79 were assigned to conventional blended cut mode group and 55 to endocut mode group. There was no significant difference in age, sex, and serum amylase level before EST between the two groups. Complications were found in 5 patients of the endocut mode group (9%):hyperamylasemia (5 times higher than normal) in 4 and moderate pancreatitis in 1. Complications were found in 13 patients of the conventional blended cut mode group (16%): hyperamylasemia in 12 and moderate pancreatitis in 1. Serum amylase levels were elevated in both groups 24 h after EST (P<0.02). The average serum amylase level 24 h after EST in the conventional blended cut mode group was significantly higher than that in the endocut mode group (P< 0.05).CONCLUSION: Endocut mode offers a safety advantage over conventional blended cut mode for pancreatitis after EST by reducing hyperamylasemia.

  8. Supplier relationship management leverages intellectual capital for increased competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how supplier relationship management (SRM enables the capture and creation of intellectual capital, thereby attaining and sustaining a strategic competitive advantage and increasing supply chain profitability. In order to achieve this purpose, a large part of the article is devoted to exploring the relatively new and unknown field of SRM. It is shown that an organisation must possess a thorough understanding of good supplier characteristics and of the drivers, benefits and requirements for the successful implementation of SRM, in order to enable that organisation to leverage their supplier relationships to ensure the capture of supplier expertise, patents, experiences etc. (i.e. their intellectual capital. The article then explores how the integration of technology in SRM applications can improve the efficiency of supplier collaboration and intellectual capital capture and creation. It is then demonstrated how efficient and collaborative supplier relationships improve supply chain profitability and competitiveness. Lastly, the article explores the implementation pitfalls and trends of SRM that must be constantly considered and monitored by an organisation in order to continually capture and create intellectual capital and reap the full benefits of SRM. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that SRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater supply chain efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the mutual unlocking, sharing and leveraging of intellectual capital.

  9. Individual differences in holistic processing predict the own-race advantage in recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Degutis

    Full Text Available Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE. One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task. We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance. First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces, particularly the eye region. Notably, using regression, we showed a significant association between the own-race advantage in recognition memory and the own-race advantage in holistic processing and that these associations were weaker when examining the other-race decrement. We also demonstrated that performance on own- and other-race faces across all of our tasks was highly correlated, suggesting that the differences we found between own- and other-race faces are quantitative rather than qualitative. Together, this suggests that own- and other-race faces recruit largely similar mechanisms, that own-race faces more thoroughly engage holistic processing, and that this greater engagement of

  10. Country of origin image attributes as a source of competitive advantage: study in international brazilian fashion industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassi Sutter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to understand which attributes of the country of origin image are source of international competitive advantage in the context of Brazilian fashion. From the theoretical framework related to competitive advantage, country of origin image, Brazilianness and their attributes in fashion, we conducted exploratory research with a qualitative approach. The results suggest that the image of Brazil is understood by the international fashion market in accordance with the attributes of the literature. However (i in fashion, market still does not have a steady concept on the image of Brazil, (ii Brazilianness attributes in fashion can be a source of competitive advantage in international trades if they are communicated, promoted and understood by the international market; finally, (iii among the eight Brazilianness trendy attributes identified in the literature, four were highlighted as differentiators: shape and volumes, colors, prints and lifestyle.

  11. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may ei

  12. The Western Tradition of Suggestion and Lozanov's Suggestology/Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    It is argued that while Georgi Lozanov's suggestology and suggestopedic methods are informed by work in the field of suggestion in the former Soviet bloc, his work has also been influenced by work on suggestion in the west, particularly in France, where suggestion is a more controversial technique. For Lozanov, suggestion is a normal phenomenon…

  13. Women, Sports, and Science: Do Female Athletes Have an Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Kraus, Rebecca S.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes data from a longitudinal study of high school youth to suggest that involvement in sports often has a strong and positive association with young womens' success in high school science. Associates participation in cheerleading with negative results. Summarizes both the functionalist and conflict theories regarding the purpose of sports.…

  14. Taking Advantage of Murder and Mayhem for Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, G. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Suggests the use of key historical antisocial acts to teach social studies concepts as a means of arousing the interest of adolescents. Recommends overcoming initial sensationalism by shifting emphasis to more appropriate interests. Includes discussion of the Abraham Lincoln and John F. Kennedy assassinations and the Rosenberg spy case. Suggests…

  15. Sources of competitive advantage and business performance in the European meat processing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Strandskov, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    1. The aim of the paper is to investigate the relative importance of three sets of sources of competitive advantages on business performance in a specific industry context, ie the European meat processing industry. The three sets of competitive sources are Firm Specific Advantages (FSAs), Localizational Specific Advantages (LSAs) and Relationship Specific Advantages (RSAs). Based on a literature study, each set of competitive advantages is briefly described in terms of their theoretical antec...

  16. Sources of competitive advantages and business performance within the European meat processing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Strandskov, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    1. The aim of the paper is to investigate the relative importance of three sets of sources of competitive advantages on business performance in a specific industry context, ie the European meat processing industry. The three sets of competitive sources are Firm Specific Advantages (FSAs), Localizational Specific Advantages (LSAs) and Relationship Specific Advantages (RSAs). Based on a literature study, each set of competitive advantages is briefly described in terms of their theoretical antec...

  17. The Spillover Effects of Medicare Managed Care: Medicare Advantage and Hospital Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Baicker; Michael Chernew; Jacob Robbins

    2013-01-01

    More than a quarter of Medicare beneficiaries are enrolled in Medicare Advantage, which was created in large part to improve the efficiency of health care delivery by promoting competition among private managed care plans. This paper explores the spillover effects of the Medicare Advantage program on the traditional Medicare program and other patients, taking advantage of changes in Medicare Advantage payment policy to isolate exogenous increases in Medicare Advantage enrollment and trace out...

  18. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  19. Advantages of efficiency-aware smart charging strategies for PEVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We analyze smart variable-rate-based charging strategies for electric vehicles. ► We consider the impact of the charging rate on the charging efficiency. ► Accounting for charging efficiency variations allows improving system performance. ► The study defines useful guidelines to develop smart battery chargers. - Abstract: Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) diffusion is expected to grow considerably over the next few years. Aiming to overcome severe grid overload problems caused by a large PEV penetration, utilities and vehicle manufactures are involved in the effort of developing ad hoc charging systems interacting in real-time with smart grids in order to implement smart energy dispatching strategies for PEVs. Strategies which take advantage of varying the charging rate during the charging process appear the most effective solution to guarantee both a full exploitation of the grid capacity and suitable degrees of user satisfaction. This work demonstrates that the actual effectiveness of variable-rate-based dispatching strategies significantly depends on the energy efficiency of the battery charging process, which is in turn strongly related to the charging rate used. Simulation results for a realistic situation show that smart efficiency-aware dispatching strategies, which take into account the actual dependence between the charging efficiency and the charging rate, allow significant improvements in both the user satisfaction and the utility profit compared with non-efficiency-aware strategies. The results of the analysis performed give useful guidelines for the development of smart-grid management policies and for the design of next-generation PEVs battery chargers and charging stations.

  20. Shielding synchrotron light sources: Advantages of circular shield walls tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.

    2016-08-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produce significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than lower energy injection and ramped operations. High energy neutrons produced in the forward direction from thin target beam losses are a major component of the dose rate outside the shield walls of the tunnel. The convention has been to provide thicker 90° ratchet walls to reduce this dose to the beam line users. We present an alternate circular shield wall design, which naturally and cost effectively increases the path length for this forward radiation in the shield wall and thereby substantially decreasing the dose rate for these beam losses. This shield wall design will greatly reduce the dose rate to the users working near the front end optical components but will challenge the beam line designers to effectively utilize the longer length of beam line penetration in the shield wall. Additional advantages of the circular shield wall tunnel are that it's simpler to construct, allows greater access to the insertion devices and the upstream in tunnel beam line components, as well as reducing the volume of concrete and therefore the cost of the shield wall.

  1. Advantages of GPU technology in DFT calculations of intercalated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešić, J.; Gajić, R.

    2014-09-01

    Over the past few years, the expansion of general-purpose graphic-processing unit (GPGPU) technology has had a great impact on computational science. GPGPU is the utilization of a graphics-processing unit (GPU) to perform calculations in applications usually handled by the central processing unit (CPU). Use of GPGPUs as a way to increase computational power in the material sciences has significantly decreased computational costs in already highly demanding calculations. A level of the acceleration and parallelization depends on the problem itself. Some problems can benefit from GPU acceleration and parallelization, such as the finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FTDT) and density-functional theory (DFT), while others cannot take advantage of these modern technologies. A number of GPU-supported applications had emerged in the past several years (www.nvidia.com/object/gpu-applications.html). Quantum Espresso (QE) is reported as an integrated suite of open source computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling at the nano-scale. It is based on DFT, the use of a plane-waves basis and a pseudopotential approach. Since the QE 5.0 version, it has been implemented as a plug-in component for standard QE packages that allows exploiting the capabilities of Nvidia GPU graphic cards (www.qe-forge.org/gf/proj). In this study, we have examined the impact of the usage of GPU acceleration and parallelization on the numerical performance of DFT calculations. Graphene has been attracting attention worldwide and has already shown some remarkable properties. We have studied an intercalated graphene, using the QE package PHonon, which employs GPU. The term ‘intercalation’ refers to a process whereby foreign adatoms are inserted onto a graphene lattice. In addition, by intercalating different atoms between graphene layers, it is possible to tune their physical properties. Our experiments have shown there are benefits from using GPUs, and we reached an

  2. Coarse-grid-CFD. An advantageous alternative to subchannel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1960th to 80th when current GEN II reactor technology was developed, the only possible approach was to use one-dimensional subchannel analysis to compute the flow inside a fuel bundle so that the subchannel scale could be resolved. For simulations of the whole reactor core either system codes or homogenization were employed. In system codes resolution of individual assemblies was the state of the art. Homogenization used porous media equations simulations and averaged the thermohydraulics on reactor core scale. Current potent computing power allows using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate individual fuel assemblies. Yet the large number of fuel assemblies within the core forbids exploiting CFD for core wide simulation. We propose to combine ideas of subchannel analysis and CFD to develop a new methodology which takes advantage of the fast development of commercial CFD software and the efficiency of subchannel analysis. In this methodology was first applied to simulate a wire-wrap fuel bundle of the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). Computations using an inviscid Euler solver on an extremely coarse grid were tuned to predict the true thermohydraulics by adding volumetric forces. These forces represent the non-resolved sub-grid physics. The volumetric forces cannot be measured directly. However, they can be accessed from detailed CFD simulations resolving all relevant physics. Parameterization of these subgrid forces can be realized analogous to models in subchannel codes. In the present work we extend the methodology to the open source solver OpenFOAM and a specific hexagonal fuel assembly which is studied in the framework of liquid metal cooled GEN IV reactor concepts. (orig.)

  3. Mispricing in the Medicare Advantage Risk Adjustment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen PhD, MBA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS implemented hierarchical condition category (HCC models in 2004 to adjust payments to Medicare Advantage (MA plans to reflect enrollees’ expected health care costs. We use Verisk Health’s diagnostic cost group (DxCG Medicare models, refined “descendants” of the same HCC framework with 189 comprehensive clinical categories available to CMS in 2004, to reveal 2 mispricing errors resulting from CMS’ implementation. One comes from ignoring all diagnostic information for “new enrollees” (those with less than 12 months of prior claims. Another comes from continuing to use the simplified models that were originally adopted in response to assertions from some capitated health plans that submitting the claims-like data that facilitate richer models was too burdensome. Even the main CMS model being used in 2014 recognizes only 79 condition categories, excluding many diagnoses and merging conditions with somewhat heterogeneous costs. Omitted conditions are typically lower cost or “vague” and not easily audited from simplified data submissions. In contrast, DxCG Medicare models use a comprehensive, 394-HCC classification system. Applying both models to Medicare’s 2010-2011 fee-for-service 5% sample, we find mispricing and lower predictive accuracy for the CMS implementation. For example, in 2010, 13% of beneficiaries had at least 1 higher cost DxCG-recognized condition but no CMS-recognized condition; their 2011 actual costs averaged US$6628, almost one-third more than the CMS model prediction. As MA plans must now supply encounter data, CMS should consider using more refined and comprehensive (DxCG-like models.

  4. Development of Nuclear Energy in Ukraine. Necessity, Advantages and Disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to current projections of economic development of Ukraine, domestic consumption of electricity will grow from the present level of 190 billion kWh / year to about 280 billion kWh / year in 2030, which determines the prospects of the electricity industry development. Alternative ''green'' energy sources - solar, wind and small hydropower can develop only within a commercially reasonable considering temporary ''green'' tariff, which is far above the rates for traditional sources. According to prognoses the share of ''green'' energy sources in Ukraine in 2030 will not exceed 10-15% regardless of their environmental appeal. The updated nuclear energy development strategy by 2030 will save the share of nuclear electricity generation at the achieved level about half of total domestic electricity production. Development of nuclear power generation in the period to 2030 provides: increase the safety of the operating NPP; efficiency increase of existing nuclear power plants (up to 85% in terms of the basic mode of operation); continued of NPP units operation for 20 years over time, provided the original design; completion of the units 3,4 Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant in 2017; construction and commissioning prior to 2027 three new nuclear power units the total capacity to 3.5 GW on new NPP site; beginning in 2022-2029 years construction of new nuclear reactors at sites of existing nuclear power plants to replace existing units that will be decommissioned after 2030; implementation of the units preparation to decommissioning after an additional period of operation; improvement of infrastructure support and development of nuclear power generation. In the article analyzes the necessity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy in Ukraine in the Updated Energy Strategy of Ukraine until 2030.(author).

  5. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Ribeiro, Bruno; Towsley, Don

    2015-11-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions.

  6. FAIR VALUE IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Škoda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many demands coming from all over the world to establish or to secure the possibility of comparability of the information provided in financial statements, and to make this information as reliable and accurate as possible, and therefore making it useful and beneficial for anyone who uses them. These requests demand adjustment of the content of accounted data in every single country, which might have its own accounting standards, to international norms of accounting. Substantial form of the synchronization or unification that attempts to harmonize accounting is the International Accounting Standards / International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS, which are mainly focusing on financial statements, and seeking the solutions for problems connected with it. Financial statements, being one of the main concerns of the IAS/IFRS that should lead to a better comparability, higher predication and also to achieve higher utility for users, is getting more and more important. One of the tools that should help achieve these demands in financial statements is called “Fair value”. Despite the intents and plans, however it is still quite difficult to establish, whether its contribution to the improvement of accounting standards is really beneficial. Main aim of this paper is to examine and depict the advantages and disadvantages connected to the fair value, providing the reader with objective information and thorough insight into the problems and benefits of fair value.Partial objectives of this paper are to define the concept of fair value, to provide information about theoretical background and evolution of fair value and to examine and describe the possible future development of fair value.

  7. Development of a Resource Allocation Model Using Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwon Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, during decision making or negotiations, the investor and the investee may often have different opinions which result in conflicts. So, an objective standard to mitigate potential conflicts between investors and investees should be provided since it is highly important that rational decisions must be made when choosing investments from various options. However, the models currently used come with some problems for several reasons, for instance, the arbitrariness of the evaluator, the difficulty in understanding the relationships that exist among the various investment options (that is, alternatives to investments, inconsistency in priorities, and simply providing selection criteria without detailing the proportion of investment in each option or evaluating only a single investment option at a time without considering all options. Thus, in this research, we present a project selection model which can enable reasonable resource allocation or determination of return rates by considering the core competencies for various investment options. Here, core competency is based on both performance and ability to create a competitive advantage. For this, we deduce issue-specific structural power indicators and analyze quantitatively the resource allocation results based on negotiation power. Through this, it is possible to examine whether the proposed project selection model considers core competencies or not by comparing several project selection models currently used. Furthermore, the proposed model can be used on its own, or in combination with other methods. Consequently, the presented model can be used as a quantitative criterion for determining behavioral tactics, and also can be used to mitigate potential conflicts between the investor and the investee who are considering idiosyncratic investments, determined by an interplay between power and core competency.

  8. The advantages of a rolling foot in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Peter G; Collins, Steven H; Kuo, Arthur D

    2006-10-01

    The plantigrade human foot rolls over the ground during each walking step, roughly analogous to a wheel. The center of pressure progresses on the ground like a wheel of radius 0.3 L (leg length). We examined the effect of varying foot curvature on the mechanics and energetics of walking. We controlled curvature by attaching rigid arc shapes of various radii to the bottoms of rigid boots restricting ankle motion. We measured mechanical work performed on the center of mass (COM), and net metabolic rate, in human subjects (N=10) walking with seven arc radii from 0.02-0.40 m. Simple models of dynamic walking predict that redirection of COM velocity requires step-to-step transition work, decreasing quadratically with arc radius. Metabolic cost would be expected to change in proportion to mechanical work. We measured the average rate of negative work performed on the COM, and found that it followed the trend well (r2=0.95), with 2.37 times as much work for small radii as for large. Net metabolic rate (subtracting quiet standing) also decreased with increasing arc radius to a minimum at 0.3 L, with a slight increase thereafter. Maximum net metabolic rate was 6.25 W kg(-1) (for small-radius arc feet), about 59% greater than the minimum rate of 3.93 W kg(-1), which in turn was about 45% greater than the rate in normal walking. Metabolic rate was fit reasonably well (r2=0.86) by a quadratic curve, but exceeded that expected from COM work for extreme arc sizes. Other factors appear to increase metabolic cost for walking on very small and very large arc feet. These factors may include effort expended to stabilize the joints (especially the knee) or to maintain balance. Rolling feet with curvature 0.3 L appear energetically advantageous for plantigrade walking, partially due to decreased work for step-to-step transitions.

  9. Analysis Of Medicare Advantage HMOs compared with traditional Medicare shows lower use of many services during 2003-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Bruce E; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Saunders, Robert C; Pawlson, L Gregory; Newhouse, Joseph P; Ayanian, John Z

    2012-12-01

    Enrollment in Medicare Advantage, the managed care program for Medicare beneficiaries, has grown rapidly, from 4.6 million enrollees in 2003 to 12.8 million by 2012, or 27 percent of all current Medicare beneficiaries. We analyzed utilization patterns of enrollees in Medicare Advantage health maintenance organization (HMO) plans compared to matched samples of people in traditional Medicare during 2003-09, to ascertain whether the HMO enrollees demonstrated different levels of use of services, which can be a hallmark of more integrated care. We found that utilization rates in some major categories, including emergency departments and ambulatory surgery or procedures, generally were 20-30 percent lower in Medicare Advantage HMOs in all years. Medicare Advantage HMO enrollees initially had lower rates of ambulatory visits and hospitalizations, although these rates converged by 2008; they also received about 10 percent fewer hip or knee replacements. In contrast, HMO enrollees underwent more coronary bypass surgery than patients in traditional Medicare. These findings suggest that overall, Medicare Advantage HMO enrollees might use fewer services and be experiencing more appropriate use of services than enrollees in traditional Medicare.

  10. Effects of shading on relative competitive advantage of three species of Sphagnum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Z. Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (1 Sphagnum is an important genus of bryophytes holding 10–15 % of the terrestrial carbon stock. With climate change a drier surface may increase the abundance of vascular plants on peatlands, so shading of Sphagnum may increase. Here we describe growth cabinet experiments to reveal the effects of shading on interactions among mixtures of three species: S. capillifolium, S. palustre (hummock species, and S. fallax (a hollow species. We measured the six traits: growth in length, growth as increase in dry mass, side-shoot production, nitrogen and carbon proportion of the capitulum dry mass, and C:N ratio in the capitulum. (2 Shading had no effect on biomass production or side-shoot production but increased height increment in all three species. It also increased the C and N proportions of total dry mass but decreased C:N ratio in the capitula. (3 Neighbours of a different species reduced biomass and side-shoot production in the two hummock species but had no effect on the hollow species. (4 All three species showed interaction between shading and neighbour in two or more plant traits. S. fallax showed competitive advantage over S. palustre in no-shading treatments and over S. capillifolium in moderate shading treatments. In addition, under deep shading, S. fallax showed a competitive advantage over both hummock species. A clear competitive hierarchy S. fallax>S. capillifolium>S. palustre emerged which was consistent with the hierarchy of side-shoot production. (5 The results suggest that all the species appear to tolerate deep shade (for a few months at least. In a shaded environment, especially under deeply shaded conditions, S. fallax retains its dominance in hollow habitats (if water availability is guaranteed by virtue of its advantage in side-shoot production. (6 If shading increases then the abundance of different Sphagnum species is likely to change.

  11. HOME ADVANTAGE IN HIGH-LEVEL VOLLEYBALL VARIES ACCORDING TO SET NUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marcelino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the probability of winning each Volleyball set according to game location (home, away. Archival data was obtained from 275 sets in the 2005 Men's Senior World League and 65,949 actions were analysed. Set result (win, loss, game location (home, away, set number (first, second, third, fourth and fifth and performance indicators (serve, reception, set, attack, dig and block were the variables considered in this study. In a first moment, performance indicators were used in a logistic model of set result, by binary logistic regression analysis. After finding the adjusted logistic model, the log-odds of winning the set were analysed according to game location and set number. The results showed that winning a set is significantly related to performance indicators (Chi-square(18=660.97, p<0.01. Analyses of log-odds of winning a set demonstrate that home teams always have more probability of winning the game than away teams, regardless of the set number. Home teams have more advantage at the beginning of the game (first set and in the two last sets of the game (fourth and fifth sets, probably due to facilities familiarity and crowd effects. Different game actions explain these advantages and showed that to win the first set is more important to take risk, through a better performance in the attack and block, and to win the final set is important to manage the risk through a better performance on the reception. These results may suggest intra-game variation in home advantage and can be most useful to better prepare and direct the competition

  12. Fiber-optic parametric amplifiers: Their advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Fatih

    Fiber-optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) can be used in lightwave systems for several signal-processing applications including optical amplification, phase conjugation, and wavelength conversion. In principle, FOPAs can provide high gain uniform over a wide wavelength range (> 100 nm). What is more, FOPAs add little noise to the amplified signal. FOPAs can have noise figure as low as 0 dB when operated in the phase-sensitive mode and 3 dB in the phase insensitive mode. However, in practice, these advantages of FOPAs are compromised. In this work, I investigate several factors that limit the performance of FOPAs, and propose practical schemes to minimize those limitations. FOPAs can provide a relatively large gain bandwidth because the gain spectrum of FOPAs is not determined by material resonances but by the phase-matching condition. For the same reason, FOPAs are very sensitive to perturbations stemming from fiber irregularities. One such irregularity is that fiber dispersion varies randomly along the fiber length. My numerical modeling showed that, because of such variations, FOPA gain spectrum cannot maintain its flatness and also that FOPA gain profile changes from one fiber to the other. Using stochastic methods, an analytic theory is developed that can predict an "average gain spectrum." This analytic theory can be used to show that flatness of FOPA gain is recovered at the expense of reducing the gain bandwidth. Another fiber irregularity that affects FOPA gain spectrum is the residual birefringence. During the fiber-drawing process, the cross section of fiber core inevitably deviates from perfect circular symmetry. As a result, all non-polarization maintaining fibers exhibit residual birefringence. Both the magnitude of birefringence and the direction of its principal axis vary along the fiber length as well as in time. Because of residual birefringence, state of polarizations of the propagating fields change randomly also. Since the underlying four

  13. A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.

    2006-10-01

    A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with

  14. Variations on the bilingual advantage? Links of Chinese and English proficiency to Chinese American children’s self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined whether bilingualism-related advantages in self-regulation could be observed: a among Chinese American immigrant children with varying levels of Chinese and English proficiencies, and b across different domains of self-regulation in laboratory, home, and classroom contexts. A socioeconomically diverse sample of first- and second-generation Chinese American immigrant children between ages 7 and 10 (n = 223 was administered assessments of Chinese and English language proficiencies and a multi-method, multi-informant battery of self-regulation measures. Multiple regression analyses suggested that controlling for covariates (child age, gender, and SES, children’s bilingualism-related advantages were limited to higher performance only on computerized tasks of cognitive flexibility, and only among children with higher degrees of fluency in both Chinese and English. By contrast, proficiencies in one language (either Chinese or English were uniquely and positively associated with other domains of self-regulation, including parent and teacher-reported effortful control. These results suggest that the bilingual advantage for self-regulation may be observed as a continuous variable among immigrant children with varying levels of bilingual fluency; however, this advantage may not extend across all domains and contexts of self-regulation.

  15. No evidence for bilingual cognitive advantages: A test of four hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bastian, Claudia C; Souza, Alessandra S; Gade, Miriam

    2016-02-01

    The question whether being bilingual yields cognitive benefits is highly controversial with prior studies providing inconsistent results. Failures to replicate the bilingual advantage have been attributed to methodological factors such as comparing dichotomous groups and measuring cognitive abilities separately with single tasks. Therefore, the authors evaluated the 4 most prominent hypotheses of bilingual advantages for inhibitory control, conflict monitoring, shifting, and general cognitive performance by assessing bilingualism on 3 continuous dimensions (age of acquisition, proficiency, and usage) in a sample of 118 young adults and relating it to 9 cognitive abilities each measured by multiple tasks. Linear mixed-effects models accounting for multiple sources of variance simultaneously and controlling for parents' education as an index of socioeconomic status revealed no evidence for any of the 4 hypotheses. Hence, the authors' results suggest that bilingual benefits are not as broad and as robust as has been previously claimed. Instead, earlier effects were possibly due to task-specific effects in selective and often small samples.

  16. Agreement Between HEDIS Performance Assessments in the VA and Medicare Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal N. Trivedi MD, MPH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicare Advantage (MA plans and the Veterans Affairs (VA health care system assess quality of care using standardized Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS performance measures. Little is known, however, about the relative accuracy of quality indicators for persons receiving care in more than one health care system. Among Veterans dually enrolled in an MA plan, we examined the agreement between MA and VA HEDIS assessments. Our study tested the hypothesis that private health plans underreport quality of care relative to a fully integrated delivery system utilizing a comprehensive electronic health record. Despite assessing the same individuals using identical measure specifications, reported VA performance was significantly better than reported MA performance for all 12 HEDIS measures. The VA’s performance advantage ranged from 9.8% (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] < 7.0% in diabetes to 54.7% (blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg in diabetes. The overall agreement between VA and MA HEDIS assessments ranged from 38.5% to 62.6%. Performance rates derived from VA and MA aggregate data were 1.6% to 14.3% higher than those reported by VA alone. This analysis suggests that neither MA plans nor the VA fully capture quality of care information for dually enrolled persons. However, the VA’s system-wide electronic health record may allow for more complete capture of quality information across multiple providers and settings.

  17. A detection advantage for facial threat in the absence of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasteen, Jonathon R; Sasson, Noah J; Pinkham, Amy E

    2015-12-01

    Quickly and accurately perceiving the potential for aggression in others is adaptive and beneficial for self-protection. Superior detection of facial threat is demonstrated by studies in which transient threat indices (i.e., angry expressions) are identified more efficiently than are transient approach indices (i.e., happy expressions). Not all signs of facial threat are temporary, however: Persistent, biologically based craniofacial attributes (e.g., low eyebrow ridge) are also associated with a perceived propensity for aggression. It remains unclear whether such static properties of the face elicit comparable attentional biases. We used a novel visual search task of faces for the present study that lacked explicit displays of emotion, but varied on perceived threat via manipulated craniofacial structure. A search advantage for threatening facial elements surfaced, suggesting that efficient detection of threat is not limited to the perception of anger, but rather extends to more latent facial signals of aggressive potential. Although all stimuli were primarily identified as emotionally neutral, thus confirming that the effect does not require emotional content, individual variation in the perception of structurally threatening faces as angry was associated with a greater detection advantage. These results indicate that attributing anger to objectively emotionless faces may serve as a mechanism for their heightened salience and influence important facets of social perception and interaction.

  18. Thinking on Promoting International Trade Competitive Advantage of Agricultural Products in Guangxi Based on CAFTA Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the status quo and the existing problems of international trade development of agricultural products in Guangxi based on CAFTA framework as follows: the international trade of agricultural products in Guangxi shows a trend of rapid growth, but the structure of export products is simple; the distribution of export market is irrational; the export goods are mainly the resources-intensive goods and labor-intensive goods, with low added value of goods; the brand of agricultural products lacks strong overall international competitiveness. In the context of CAFTA framework, in order to foster the international trade competitive advantage of agricultural products in Guangxi, corresponding suggestions are put forward as follows: the structure of export market should change from the current simple status to diversified trend; the structure of export goods should gradually change from the current factor endowment to the orientation of international market demand; the agricultural production should change from the traditional agricultural products to advantageous complementary characteristic agricultural products; the trade structure should change from the land-intensive agricultural products to labor-intensive and technology-intensive agricultural products; the structure of merchandise trade should change from low-price vicious competition to high added-value competition; the governmental function should change from traditional one-way-direction-oriented function to modern integrated-service-and-supervision-oriented function that meets the requirements of export.

  19. Intrinsic survival advantage of social insect queens depends on reproductive activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, O; Königseder, F; Heinze, J; Schrempf, A

    2015-12-01

    The central trade-off between reproduction and longevity dominates most species' life history. However, no mortality cost of reproduction is apparent in eusocial species, particularly social insects in the order Hymenoptera: one or a few individuals (typically referred to as queens) in a group specialize on reproduction and are generally longer lived than all other group members (typically referred to as workers), despite having the same genome. However, it is unclear whether this survival advantage is due to social facilitation by the group or an intrinsic, individual property. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the correlation between reproduction and longevity is due to a direct mechanistic link or an indirect consequence of the social role of the reproductives. To begin addressing these questions, we performed a comparison of queen and worker longevity in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior under social isolation conditions. Survival of single queens and workers was compared under laboratory conditions, monitoring and controlling for brood production. Our results indicate that there is no intrinsic survival advantage of queens relative to workers unless individuals are becoming reproductively active. This interactive effect of caste and reproduction on life expectancy outside of the normal social context suggests that the positive correlation between reproduction and longevity in social insect queens is due to a direct link that can activate intrinsic survival mechanisms to ensure queen longevity. PMID:26348543

  20. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160159.html Pregnancy Problems More Likely With Baby Boys, Study Suggests Gender-related differences seem to start ... are more likely when women are carrying baby boys, new research suggests. After analyzing more than half ...