Bootstrap Sequential Determination of the Co-integration Rank in VAR Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guiseppe, Cavaliere; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert
empirical rejection frequencies often very much in excess of the nominal level. As a consequence, bootstrap versions of these tests have been developed. To be useful, however, sequential procedures for determining the co-integrating rank based on these bootstrap tests need to be consistent, in the sense...... we fill this gap in the literature by proposing a bootstrap sequential algorithm which we demonstrate delivers consistent cointegration rank estimation for general I(1) processes. Finite sample Monte Carlo simulations show the proposed procedure performs well in practice....
Bootstrap Sequential Determination of the Co-integration Rank in VAR Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A. M. Robert
empirical rejection frequencies often very much in excess of the nominal level. As a consequence, bootstrap versions of these tests have been developed. To be useful, however, sequential procedures for determining the co-integrating rank based on these bootstrap tests need to be consistent, in the sense...... that the probability of selecting a rank smaller than (equal to) the true co-integrating rank will converge to zero (one minus the marginal significance level), as the sample size diverges, for general I(1) processes. No such likelihood-based procedure is currently known to be available. In this paper...... we fill this gap in the literature by proposing a bootstrap sequential algorithm which we demonstrate delivers consistent cointegration rank estimation for general I(1) processes. Finite sample Monte Carlo simulations show the proposed procedure performs well in practice....
Bootstrap determination of the cointegration rank in heteroskedastic VAR models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavaliere, Guiseppe; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert
2014-01-01
In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio (PLR) co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying vector autoregressive (VAR) model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an independent and individual distributed (i.i.d.) bootstrap resampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co......-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap resampling scheme, when time-varying behavior is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We...
Bootstrap Determination of the Co-Integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A. M. Robert
In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we...... investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically...
Bootstrap Determination of the Co-integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A.M.Robert
In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we...... investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically...
Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Hristopulos, Dionissios
2015-04-01
Space-time geostatistical approaches can improve the reliability of dynamic groundwater level models in areas with limited spatial and temporal data. Space-time residual Kriging (STRK) is a reliable method for spatiotemporal interpolation that can incorporate auxiliary information. The method usually leads to an underestimation of the prediction uncertainty. The uncertainty of spatiotemporal models is usually estimated by determining the space-time Kriging variance or by means of cross validation analysis. For de-trended data the former is not usually applied when complex spatiotemporal trend functions are assigned. A Bayesian approach based on the bootstrap idea and sequential Gaussian simulation are employed to determine the uncertainty of the spatiotemporal model (trend and covariance) parameters. These stochastic modelling approaches produce multiple realizations, rank the prediction results on the basis of specified criteria and capture the range of the uncertainty. The correlation of the spatiotemporal residuals is modeled using a non-separable space-time variogram based on the Spartan covariance family (Hristopulos and Elogne 2007, Varouchakis and Hristopulos 2013). We apply these simulation methods to investigate the uncertainty of groundwater level variations. The available dataset consists of bi-annual (dry and wet hydrological period) groundwater level measurements in 15 monitoring locations for the time period 1981 to 2010. The space-time trend function is approximated using a physical law that governs the groundwater flow in the aquifer in the presence of pumping. The main objective of this research is to compare the performance of two simulation methods for prediction uncertainty estimation. In addition, we investigate the performance of the Spartan spatiotemporal covariance function for spatiotemporal geostatistical analysis. Hristopulos, D.T. and Elogne, S.N. 2007. Analytic properties and covariance functions for a new class of generalized Gibbs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niehof, Jonathan T.; Morley, Steven K.
2012-01-01
We review and develop techniques to determine associations between series of discrete events. The bootstrap, a nonparametric statistical method, allows the determination of the significance of associations with minimal assumptions about the underlying processes. We find the key requirement for this method: one of the series must be widely spaced in time to guarantee the theoretical applicability of the bootstrap. If this condition is met, the calculated significance passes a reasonableness test. We conclude with some potential future extensions and caveats on the applicability of these methods. The techniques presented have been implemented in a Python-based software toolkit.
Bootstrap, Wild Bootstrap and Generalized Bootstrap
Mammen, Enno
1995-01-01
Some modifications and generalizations of the bootstrap procedurehave been proposed. In this note we will consider the wild bootstrap and the generalized bootstrap and we will give two arguments why it makes sense touse these modifications instead of the original bootstrap. The firstargument is that there exist examples where generalized and wild bootstrapwork, but where the original bootstrap fails and breaks down. The secondargument will be based on higher order considerations. We will show...
Dynamics of bootstrap percolation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Prabodh Shukla
2008-08-01
Bootstrap percolation transition may be first order or second order, or it may have a mixed character where a first-order drop in the order parameter is preceded by critical fluctuations. Recent studies have indicated that the mixed transition is characterized by power-law avalanches, while the continuous transition is characterized by truncated avalanches in a related sequential bootstrap process. We explain this behaviour on the basis of an analytical and numerical study of the avalanche distributions on a Bethe lattice.
Niska, Christoffer
2014-01-01
Practical and instruction-based, this concise book will take you from understanding what Bootstrap is, to creating your own Bootstrap theme in no time! If you are an intermediate front-end developer or designer who wants to learn the secrets of Bootstrap, this book is perfect for you.
Bootstrapping heteroskedastic regression models: wild bootstrap vs. pairs bootstrap
Flachaire, Emmanuel
2005-01-01
International audience In regression models, appropriate bootstrap methods for inference robust to heteroskedasticity of unknown form are the wild bootstrap and the pairs bootstrap. The finite sample performance of a heteroskedastic-robust test is investigated with Monte Carlo experiments. The simulation results suggest that one specific version of the wild bootstrap outperforms the other versions of the wild bootstrap and of the pairs bootstrap. It is the only one for which the bootstrap ...
Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Serone, Marco
2016-01-01
We study the numerical bounds obtained using a conformal-bootstrap method - advocated in ref. [1] but never implemented so far - where different points in the plane of conformal cross ratios $z$ and $\\bar z$ are sampled. In contrast to the most used method based on derivatives evaluated at the symmetric point $z=\\bar z =1/2$, we can consistently "integrate out" higher-dimensional operators and get a reduced simpler, and faster to solve, set of bootstrap equations. We test this "effective" bootstrap by studying the 3D Ising and $O(n)$ vector models and bounds on generic 4D CFTs, for which extensive results are already available in the literature. We also determine the scaling dimensions of certain scalar operators in the $O(n)$ vector models, with $n=2,3,4$, which have not yet been computed using bootstrap techniques.
Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; von Harling, Benedict; Serone, Marco
2016-09-01
We study the numerical bounds obtained using a conformal-bootstrap method — advocated in ref. [1] but never implemented so far — where different points in the plane of conformal cross ratios z and overline{z} are sampled. In contrast to the most used method based on derivatives evaluated at the symmetric point z=overline{z}=1/2 , we can consistently "integrate out" higher-dimensional operators and get a reduced simpler, and faster to solve, set of bootstrap equations. We test this "effective" bootstrap by studying the 3D Ising and O( n) vector models and bounds on generic 4D CFTs, for which extensive results are already available in the literature. We also determine the scaling dimensions of certain scalar operators in the O( n) vector models, with n = 2, 3, 4, which have not yet been computed using bootstrap techniques.
Survey bootstrap and bootstrap weights
Stas Kolenikov
2008-01-01
In this presentation, I will review the bootstrap for complex surveys with designs featuring stratification, clustering, and unequal probability weights. I will present the Stata module bsweights, which creates the bootstrap weights for designs specified through and supported by svy. I will also provide simple demonstrations highlighting the use of the procedure and its syntax. I will discuss various tuning parameters and their impact on the performance of the procedure, and I will give argum...
Wild Bootstrap Versus Moment-Oriented Bootstrap
Sommerfeld, Volker
1997-01-01
We investigate the relative merits of a “moment-oriented” bootstrap method of Bunke (1997) in comparison with the classical wild bootstrap of Wu (1986) in nonparametric heteroscedastic regression situations. The “moment-oriented” bootstrap is a wild bootstrap based on local estimators of higher order error moments that are smoothed by kernel smoothers. In this paper we perform an asymptotic comparison of these two dierent bootstrap procedures. We show that the moment-oriented bootstrap is in ...
Bengoubou-Valerius, Mendy,; Gibert, Dominique
2013-01-01
We consider some practical issues of the determination of the b-value of sequences of magnitudes with the bootstrap method for short series of length L and various quantization levels Dm of the magnitude. Preliminary Monte Carlo tests performed with Dm ¼ 0 demonstrate the superiority of the maximum likelihood estimator bMLE, and the inconsistency of the, yet often used, bLR estimator defined as the least-squares slope of the experimental Gutenberg-Richter curve. The Monte Carlo tests are also...
Bhaumik, Snig
2015-01-01
If you are a web developer who designs and develops websites and pages using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, but have very little familiarity with Bootstrap, this is the book for you. Previous experience with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript will be helpful, while knowledge of jQuery would be an extra advantage.
Pfiffner, H. J.
1969-01-01
Circuit can sample a number of transducers in sequence without drawing from them. This bootstrap unloader uses a differential amplifier with one input connected to a circuit which is the equivalent of the circuit to be unloaded, and the other input delivering the proper unloading currents.
A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models
Callot, Laurent
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a sequential procedure to determine the common cointegration rank of panels of cointegrated VARs. It shows how a panel of cointegrated VARs can be transformed in a set of independent individual models. The likelihood function of the transformed panel is the sum of the likelihood functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From th...
Beran, Rudolf
1994-01-01
This essay is organized around the theoretical and computationalproblem of constructing bootstrap confidence sets, with forays into relatedtopics. The seven section headings are: Introduction; The Bootstrap World;Bootstrap Confidence Sets; Computing Bootstrap Confidence Sets; Quality ofBootstrap Confidence Sets; Iterated and Two-step Boostrap; Further Resources.
MacKinnon, James G.
2007-01-01
This paper surveys bootstrap and Monte Carlo methods for testing hypotheses in econometrics. Several different ways of computing bootstrap P values are discussed, including the double bootstrap and the fast double bootstrap. It is emphasized that there are many different procedures for generating bootstrap samples for regression models and other types of model. As an illustration, a simulation experiment examines the performance of several methods of bootstrapping the supF test for structural...
Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David
2016-06-01
The conformal bootstrap was proposed in the 1970s as a strategy for calculating the properties of second-order phase transitions. After spectacular success elucidating two-dimensional systems, little progress was made on systems in higher dimensions until a recent renaissance beginning in 2008. We report on some of the main results and ideas from this renaissance, focusing on new determinations of critical exponents and correlation functions in the three-dimensional Ising and O(N) models.
Magno, Alexandre
2013-01-01
A practical, step-by-step tutorial on developing websites for mobile using Bootstrap.This book is for anyone who wants to get acquainted with the new features available in Bootstrap 3 and who wants to develop websites with the mobile-first feature of Bootstrap. The reader should have a basic knowledge of Bootstrap as a frontend framework.
Sequential determination of actinides in a variety of matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A large number of analytical procedures for the actinides have been published, each catering for a specific need. Due to the bioassay programme in our laboratory, a need arose for a method to determine natural (Th and U) and anthropogenic actinides (Np, Pu and Am/Cm) together in a variety of samples. The method would have to be suitable for routine application: simple, inexpensive, rapid and robust. In some cases, the amount of material available is not sufficient for the determination of separate groups of actinides, and a sequential separation and measurement of the analytes would therefore be required. The types of matrices vary from aqueous samples to radiological surveillance (urine and faeces) to environmental studies (soil, sediment and fish), but the separation procedure should be able to service all of these. The working range of the method would have to cater for lower levels of the transuranium actinides in particular sample types containing higher levels of the natural actinides (U and Th). The first analytical problem to be discussed, is how to get the different sample types into the same loading solution required by a single separation approach. This entails sample dissolution or decomposition in some cases, and pre-concentration or pre-separation in others. A separation scheme is presented for the clean separation of all the actinides in a form suitable for alpha spectrometry. The development of a single column separation of the analytes of interest are looked at, as well as observations made during the development of the separation scheme, such as concentration effects. Results for test samples and certified reference materials are be presented. (author)
Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł
2011-06-15
An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. PMID:21641455
Bootstrap Methods in Econometrics
MacKinnon, James G.
2006-01-01
There are many bootstrap methods that can be used for econometric analysis. In certain circumstances, such as regression models with independent and identically distributed error terms, appropriately chosen bootstrap methods generally work very well. However, there are many other cases, such as regression models with dependent errors, in which bootstrap methods do not always work well. This paper discusses a large number of bootstrap methods that can be useful in econometrics. Applications to...
Mitterpach, Róbert
2012-01-01
Aim of this thesis is to introduce the reader to the basic bootstrap techniques used in econometrics, to present their variations and importance. Results of the ordinary least squares model, residual bootstrap and case resampling bootstrap will be presented and compared on cross-sectional data and time series from small numbered random subsample from the available data. Bootstrap was shown to improve numerical performance of ordinary least squares model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Xuezhu; Hansen, Elo Harald
1996-01-01
A sequential injection analysis system is described that incorporates a nylon tubular reactor containing immobilised glucose oxidase, allowing determination of D-glucose by means of subsequent luminol chemiluminescence detection of the hydrogen peroxide generated in the enzymatic reaction...
Nonparametric bootstrap prediction
Fushiki, Tadayoshi; Komaki, Fumiyasu; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2005-01-01
Ensemble learning has recently been intensively studied in the field of machine learning. `Bagging' is a method of ensemble learning and uses bootstrap data to construct various predictors. The required prediction is then obtained by averaging the predictors. Harris proposed using this technique with the parametric bootstrap predictive distribution to construct predictive distributions, and showed that the parametric bootstrap predictive distribution gives asymptotically better prediction tha...
Collier, Scott; Yin, Xi
2016-01-01
We constrain the spectrum of two-dimensional unitary, compact conformal field theories with central charge c > 1 using modular bootstrap. Upper bounds on the gap in the dimension of primary operators of any spin, as well as in the dimension of scalar primaries, are computed numerically as functions of the central charge using semi-definite programming. Our bounds refine those of Hellerman and Friedan-Keller, and are in some cases saturated by known CFTs. In particular, we show that unitary CFTs with c < 8 must admit relevant deformations, and that a nontrivial bound on the gap of scalar primaries exists for c < 25. We also study bounds on the dimension gap in the presence of twist gaps, bounds on the degeneracy of operators, and demonstrate how "extremal spectra" which maximize the degeneracy at the gap can be determined numerically.
Ganesh, S; Khan, Fahmida; Ahmed, M K; Pandey, S K
2011-08-15
A simple potentiometric method for the determination of free acidity in presence of hydrolysable ions and sequential determination of hydrazine is developed and described. Both free acid and hydrazine are estimated from the same aliquot. In this method, free acid is titrated with standard sodium carbonate solution after the metal ions in solutions are masked with EDTA. Once the end point for the free acid is determined at pH 3.0, an aliquot of formaldehyde is added to liberate the acid equivalent to hydrazine which is then titrated with the same standard sodium carbonate solution using an automatic titration system. The described method is simple, accurate and reproducible. This method is especially applicable to all ranges of nitric acid and heavy metal ion concentration relevant to Purex process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing. The overall recovery of nitric acid is 98.9% with 1.2% relative standard deviation. Hydrazine content has also been determined in the same aliquot with a recovery of nitric acid is 99% with 2% relative standard deviation. The major advantage of the method is that generation of corrosive analytical wastes containing oxalate or sulphate is avoided. Valuable metals like uranium and plutonium can easily be recovered from analytical waste before final disposal. PMID:21726724
Sequential extraction separation for determination of technetium-99 in radwastes by ICP-MS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An approach based on sequential extraction separation and the subsequent ICP-MS measurement was introduced to determine 99Tc in radioactive wastes. The radwastes were firstly alkaline-fused and the 99Tc was separated by a sequential solvent extraction prior to ICP-MS measurement. NaDDC was selected as a chelation reagent in the solvent extraction processes. The influence of HCl and matrix concentration on the recovery yield and the effectiveness of removing isobar and unwanted radionuclides, such as 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co and 110mAg, were evaluated. The designed sequential extraction procedure was optimized by an extraction experiment. The proposed technique is proven to be a simple and practical alternative for 99Tc determination in low-level radioactive wastes; chemical separation of 99Tc can be simplified and preconcentration such as precipitation and/or ion exchange, before the solvent extraction, can be excluded. (author)
A model study in hadron statistical bootstrap
Hagedorn, Rolf
1973-01-01
In the framework of the statistical bootstrap the decay of a fireball is considered as an exact inverse of its statistical composition. This assumption leads to a bootstrap formulated in terms of integral equations for all kinds of distributions of the fireball's decay products. Solutions of the equations are obtained in terms of power series and of K-transforms and determine in the general case their asymptotic behaviour for large fireball mass. Relations to a thermodynamical description are established and illustrated by effective temperatures. The approach to the asymptotic limits is easy to investigate in a simplified linear bootstrap where the K-transforms can be more explicitly calculated. (30 refs).
Oliveira, Sara M.; Lopes, Teresa I. M. S.; Rangel, António O. S. S.
2007-01-01
A sequential injection system for the determination of nitrate (NO3 2) in vegetables was developed to automate this determination, allowing for substantially reduced reagent consumption and generated waste using low-cost equipment. After extraction with water and filtration, the extracted nitrate is reduced inline to nitrite in a copperized cadmium (Cd) column and determined as nitrite. According to the Griess–Ilosvay reaction, nitrate is diazotized with sulfanilamide and coupled wit...
Bootstrap percolation with inhibition
Einarsson, Hafsteinn; Lengler, Johannes; Panagiotou, Konstantinos; Mousset, Frank; Steger, Angelika
2014-01-01
Bootstrap percolation is a prominent framework for studying the spreading of activity on a graph. We begin with an initial set of active vertices. The process then proceeds in rounds, and further vertices become active as soon as they have a certain number of active neighbors. A recurring feature in bootstrap percolation theory is an `all-or-nothing' phenomenon: either the size of the starting set is so small that the process stops very soon, or it percolates (almost) completely. Motivated by...
Wild cluster bootstrap confidence intervals
MacKinnon, James G.
2014-01-01
Confidence intervals based on cluster-robust covariance matrices can be constructed in many ways. In addition to conventional intervals obtained by inverting Wald (t) tests, the paper studies intervals obtained by inverting LM tests, studentized bootstrap intervals based on the wild cluster bootstrap, and restricted bootstrap intervals obtained by inverting bootstrap Wald and LM tests. It also studies the choice of an auxiliary distribution for the wild bootstrap, a modified covariance matrix...
Breakdown theory for bootstrap quantiles
Singh, Kesar
1998-01-01
A general formula for computing the breakdown point in robustness for the $t$th bootstrap quantile of a statistic $T_n$ is obtained. The answer depends on $t$ and the breakdown point of $T_n$. Since the bootstrap quantiles are vital ingredients of bootstrap confidence intervals, the theory has implications pertaining to robustness of bootstrap confidence intervals. For certain $L$ and $M$ estimators, a robustification of bootstrap is suggested via the notion of Winsorization.
Noel, James D; Biswas, Pratim; Giammar, Daniel E
2007-07-01
Leaching of mercury from coal combustion byproducts is a concern because of the toxicity of mercury. Leachability of mercury can be assessed by using sequential extraction procedures. Sequential extraction procedures are commonly used to determine the speciation and mobility of trace metals in solid samples and are designed to differentiate among metals bound by different mechanisms and to different solid phases. This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acid-soluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto
A test of sequential extractions for determining metal speciation in sewage sludge-amended soils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sequential extraction procedures are widely used to estimate the quantity of trace metals bound to different solid fractions in contaminated soils. However, reliability of speciation of trace metals by these procedures remains largely unexamined. In the present study, the selectivity of each extraction step was tested by observing the effect of reversing the extraction order in the procedure. Two different sequential extraction methods and their reversed modes were used for metal fractionation in sewage sludge-amended soils. Significantly increased amounts of extractable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) were evident in the sludge-amended soils compared to control soil by all extraction schemes; however, the amounts of metals extracted by each step were strongly dependent on the order of extraction, the type of reagents and the nature of the individual metals. Caution is advised in deducing the forms of soil metals from sequential extraction results from metal-contaminated soils. - Sequential extraction methods are of questionable accuracy for determining the chemical forms of certain trace metals in soils
Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S
2004-08-01
A sequential injection methodology for the spectrophotometric determination of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in water samples is proposed. A single manifold is used for the determination of the three analytes, and the same protocol sequence allows the sequential determination of calcium and magnesium (the sum corresponds to the water hardness). The determination of both metals is based on their reaction with cresolphtalein complexone; mutual interference is minimized by using 8-hydroxyquinoline for the determination of calcium and ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for the determination of magnesium. Alkalinity determination is based on a reaction with acetic acid, and corresponding color change of Bromcresol Green. Working ranges of 0.5 - 5 mg dm(-3) for Ca, 0.5 - 10 mg dm(-3) for Mg, and 10 - 100 mg HCO3- dm(-3), for alkalinity have been achieved. The results for water samples were comparable to those of the reference methods and to a certified reference water sample. RSDs lower than 5% were obtained, a low reagent consumption and a reduced volume of effluent have been accomplished. The determination rate for calcium and magnesium is 80 h(-1), corresponding to 40 h(-1) per element, while 65 determinations of alkalinity per hour could be carried out.
Temperature Corrected Bootstrap Algorithm
Comiso, Joey C.; Zwally, H. Jay
1997-01-01
A temperature corrected Bootstrap Algorithm has been developed using Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data in preparation to the upcoming AMSR instrument aboard ADEOS and EOS-PM. The procedure first calculates the effective surface emissivity using emissivities of ice and water at 6 GHz and a mixing formulation that utilizes ice concentrations derived using the current Bootstrap algorithm but using brightness temperatures from 6 GHz and 37 GHz channels. These effective emissivities are then used to calculate surface ice which in turn are used to convert the 18 GHz and 37 GHz brightness temperatures to emissivities. Ice concentrations are then derived using the same technique as with the Bootstrap algorithm but using emissivities instead of brightness temperatures. The results show significant improvement in the area where ice temperature is expected to vary considerably such as near the continental areas in the Antarctic, where the ice temperature is colder than average, and in marginal ice zones.
Rejon-Barrera, Fernando
2015-01-01
We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.
Introduction to the Bootstrap World
Boos, Dennis D.
2003-01-01
The bootstrap has made a fundamental impact on how we carry out statistical inference in problems without analytic solutions. This fact is illustrated with examples and comments that emphasize the parametric bootstrap and hypothesis testing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two separation methods for the sequential determination of Am and Pu radionuclides are presented and the results obtained are compared. Analysis involves leaching the sample with concentrated nitric acid (HNO3), followed by radiochemical separation using extraction chromatographic resins (UTEVA, TRU) and anion exchange. Sources for alpha spectrometry were prepared by micro-precipitation on neodymium fluoride (NdF3). The chemical recoveries were determined using 242Pu and 243Am tracers. The methods were tested on reference materials and on two sediments. All the results were in good agreement with the reference values. The evaluation of uncertainty is also included
Toral, M Inés; Paine, Maximiliano; Leyton, Patricio; Richter, Pablo
2004-01-01
A new method for the sequential determination of attapulgite and nifuroxazide in pharmaceutical formulations by first- and second-derivative spectrophotometry, respectively, has been developed. In order to obtain the optimal conditions for nifuroxazide stability, studies of solvent, light, and temperature effects were performed. The results show that a previous hydrolysis of 2 h in 1.0 x 10(-1)M NaOH solution is necessary in order to obtain stable compounds for analytical purposes. Subsequently, the first- and second-derivative spectra were evaluated directly in the same samples. The sequential determination of the drugs can be performed using the zero-crossing method; the attapulgite determination was carried out using the first derivative at 278.0 nm and the nifuroxazide determination, using the second derivative at 282.0 nm. The determination ranges were 5.7 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-4) and 3.7 x 10(-8) -1.2 x 10(-4)M for attapulgite and nifuroxazide, respectively. Repeatability (relative standard deviation) values of 1.2 and 3.0% were observed for attapulgite and nifuroxazide, respectively. The ingredients commonly found in commercial pharmaceutical formulations do not interfere. The proposed method was applied to the determination of these drugs in tablets. Further, infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies were carried out in order to obtain knowledge of the decomposition products of nifuroxazide. PMID:15675443
Generalized bootstrap for estimating equations
Chatterjee, Snigdhansu; Bose, Arup
2005-01-01
We introduce a generalized bootstrap technique for estimators obtained by solving estimating equations. Some special cases of this generalized bootstrap are the classical bootstrap of Efron, the delete-d jackknife and variations of the Bayesian bootstrap. The use of the proposed technique is discussed in some examples. Distributional consistency of the method is established and an asymptotic representation of the resampling variance estimator is obtained.
The Local Fractional Bootstrap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger;
We introduce a bootstrap procedure for high-frequency statistics of Brownian semistationary processes. More specifically, we focus on a hypothesis test on the roughness of sample paths of Brownian semistationary processes, which uses an estimator based on a ratio of realized power variations. Our...... to two empirical data sets: we assess the roughness of a time series of high-frequency asset prices and we test the validity of Kolmogorov's scaling law in atmospheric turbulence data.......We introduce a bootstrap procedure for high-frequency statistics of Brownian semistationary processes. More specifically, we focus on a hypothesis test on the roughness of sample paths of Brownian semistationary processes, which uses an estimator based on a ratio of realized power variations. Our...... and in simulations we observe that the bootstrap-based hypothesis test provides considerable finite-sample improvements over an existing test that is based on a central limit theorem. This is important when studying the roughness properties of time series data; we illustrate this by applying the bootstrap method...
Il bootstrap. Un'applicazione informatica per un problema di ricampionamento
Morana, Maria Teresa; Porcu, Mariano
2002-01-01
The aim of this paper is to give a simple introduction to the bootstrap techniques showing a basic computer algorithm. The algorithm displays, step by step, how to determinate a bootstrap confidence interval.
Bootstrap Percolation on Random Geometric Graphs
Bradonjić, Milan
2012-01-01
Bootstrap percolation has been used effectively to model phenomena as diverse as emergence of magnetism in materials, spread of infection, diffusion of software viruses in computer networks, adoption of new technologies, and emergence of collective action and cultural fads in human societies. It is defined on an (arbitrary) network of interacting agents whose state is determined by the state of their neighbors according to a threshold rule. In a typical setting, bootstrap percolation starts by random and independent "activation" of nodes with a fixed probability $p$, followed by a deterministic process for additional activations based on the density of active nodes in each neighborhood ($\\th$ activated nodes). Here, we study bootstrap percolation on random geometric graphs in the regime when the latter are (almost surely) connected. Random geometric graphs provide an appropriate model in settings where the neighborhood structure of each node is determined by geographical distance, as in wireless {\\it ad hoc} ...
Bootstrap and Wild Bootstrap for High Dimensional Linear Models
Mammen, Enno
1993-01-01
In this paper two bootstrap procedures are considered for the estimation of the distribution of linear contrasts and of F-test statistics in high dimensional linear models. An asymptotic approach will be chosen where the dimension p of the model may increase for sample size $n\\rightarrow\\infty$. The range of validity will be compared for the normal approximation and for the bootstrap procedures. Furthermore, it will be argued that the rates of convergence are different for the bootstrap proce...
Automated IR determination of petroleum products in water based on sequential injection analysis.
Falkova, Marina; Vakh, Christina; Shishov, Andrey; Zubakina, Ekaterina; Moskvin, Aleksey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey
2016-02-01
The simple and easy performed automated method for the IR determination of petroleum products (PP) in water using extraction-chromatographic cartridges has been developed. The method assumes two stages: on-site extraction of PP during a sampling by using extraction-chromatographic cartridges and subsequent determination of the extracted PP using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with IR detection. The appropriate experimental conditions for extraction of the dissolved in water PP and for automated SIA procedure were investigated. The calibration plot constructed using the developed procedure was linear in the range of 3-200 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD), calculated from a blank test based on 3σ was 1 µg L(-1). The sample volume was 1L. The system throughput was found to be 12 h(-1). PMID:26653498
The wild tapered block bootstrap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hounyo, Ulrich
In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...
Bo E. Honoré; Hu, Luojia
2015-01-01
The bootstrap is a convenient tool for calculating standard errors of the parameters of complicated econometric models. Unfortunately, the fact that these models are complicated often makes the bootstrap extremely slow or even practically infeasible. This paper proposes an alternative to the bootstrap that relies only on the estimation of one-dimensional parameters. The paper contains no new difficult math. But we believe that it can be useful.
Detrending bootstrap unit root tests
Smeekes, S.
2009-01-01
The role of detrending in bootstrap unit root tests is investigated. When bootstrapping, detrending must not only be done for the construction of the test statistic, but also in the first step of the bootstrap algorithm. It is argued that the two points should be treated separately. Asymptotic validity of sieve bootstrap ADF unit root tests is shown for test statistics based on full sample and recursive OLS and GLS detrending. It is also shown that the detrending method in the first step of t...
Chester, Shai M
2016-01-01
We initiate the conformal bootstrap study of Quantum Electrodynamics in $2+1$ space-time dimensions (QED$_{3}$) with $N$ flavors of charged fermions by focusing on the 4-point function of four monopole operators with the lowest unit of topological charge. We obtain upper bounds on the scaling dimension of the doubly-charged monopole operator, with and without assuming other gaps in the operator spectrum. Intriguingly, we find a (gap-dependent) kink in these bounds that comes reasonably close to the large $N$ extrapolation of the scaling dimensions of the singly-charged and doubly-charged monopole operators down to $N=4$ and $N=6$.
Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran
2016-03-01
We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The fractionation of the eight metals Pb, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, Mn, Fe and Cd in Yarmouk River were determined by applying a sequential extraction procedure. The potential environmental impacts of the metals estimated through the five extraction categories, that's exchangeable, bound to carbonate, bound to Fe/Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and the residual. The results show that the sediments of the Yarmouk River would be moderately to heavily polluted fluvial systems in the region. The observed metal distribution patterns in the different sediment fractions, however, indicated that the major proportions of most metals seemed to be associated with the residual fraction which consists essentially of detrital silicate minerals, resistant sulfides, and a small quantity of refractory organic material that could therefore be classified to be of geochemical origin. (Author's) 14 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs
Bootstrapping structured page segmentation
Ma, Huanfeng; Doermann, David S.
2003-01-01
In this paper, we present an approach to the bootstrap learning of a page segmentation model. The idea evolves from attempts to segment dictionaries that often have a consistent page structure, and is extended to the segmentation of more general structured documents. In cases of highly regular structure, the layout can be learned from examples of only a few pages. The system is first trained using a small number of samples, and a larger test set is processed based on the training result. After making corrections to a selected subset of the test set, these corrected samples are combined with the original training samples to generate bootstrap samples. The newly created samples are used to retrain the system, refine the learned features and resegment the test samples. This procedure is applied iteratively until the learned parameters are stable. Using this approach, we do not need to initially provide a large set of training samples. We have applied this segmentation to many structured documents such as dictionaries, phone books, spoken language transcripts, and obtained satisfying segmentation performance.
On sieve bootstrap prediction intervals.
Andrés M. Alonso; Peña, Daniel; Romo Urroz, Juan
2003-01-01
In this paper we consider a sieve bootstrap method for constructing nonparametric prediction intervals for a general class of linear processes. We show that the sieve bootstrap provides consistent estimators of the conditional distribution of future values given the observed data.
Ultrafast Approximation for Phylogenetic Bootstrap
Bui Quang Minh, [No Value; Nguyen, Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt
2013-01-01
Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and
Explorations in Statistics: the Bootstrap
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2009-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fourth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the bootstrap. The bootstrap gives us an empirical approach to estimate the theoretical variability among possible values of a sample statistic such as the…
Second Thoughts on the Bootstrap
Efron, Bradley
2003-01-01
This brief review article is appearing in the issue of Statistical Science that marks the 25th anniversary of the bootstrap. It concerns some of the theoretical and methodological aspects of the bootstrap and how they might influence future work in statistics.
Applications of the Fast Double Bootstrap
MacKinnon, James G.
2006-01-01
The fast double bootstrap, or FDB, is a procedure for calculating bootstrap P values that is much more computationally efficient than the double bootstrap itself. In many cases, it can provide more accurate results than ordinary bootstrap tests. For the fast double bootstrap to be valid, the test statistic must be asymptotically independent of the random parts of the bootstrap data generating process. This paper presents simulation evidence on the performance of FDB tests in three cases of in...
Breakdown Point Theory for Implied Probability Bootstrap
Lorenzo Camponovo; Taisuke Otsu
2011-01-01
This paper studies robustness of bootstrap inference methods under moment conditions. In particular, we compare the uniform weight and implied probability bootstraps by analyzing behaviors of the bootstrap quantiles when outliers take arbitrarily large values, and derive the breakdown points for those bootstrap quantiles. The breakdown point properties characterize the situation where the implied probability bootstrap is more robust than the uniform weight bootstrap against outliers. Simulati...
Fertility determinants in Indonesia: a sequential analysis of the proximate determinants.
Ananta, A; Lim, T; Molyneaux, J W; Kantner, A
1992-06-01
Data drom the Indonesian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey in 1987 was used to examine the extent to which socioeconomic factors affect the direct association between proximate determinants and fertility. The Bongaarts framework was applied to individual level data on married women who had at least on birth between 1982 and 1987. The fertility measure was the probability of having a birth in the last 12 months before the survey. Proximate determinants were breast feeding, fertile period (non-amenorrhea), sexual exposure, and contraceptive use. Socioeconomic variables were husband's education, wife's education, husband's occupation, religion, urban/rural status, and region of residence. The logit regression analysis is controlled by the age of the respondent and number of children ever born at the time of the survey. There is a possibility that socioeconomic variables may have a direct impact on fertility and the logit framework does not model perfectly the true stochastic model. Thus, a regression is specified in which the probability of experiencing a birth is regressed on both proximate determinants and socioeconomic determinants and on socioeconomic determinants alone. Results show that fertility is lower when the duration of breast feeding and level of contraceptive use is higher. Fertility is higher when the length of the fertile period and sexual exposure is higher. Education showed no significant impact on duration of breast feeding, but when both parents' education is considered, women's lack of education is related to having longer fertile periods (an average of 64 months). When the wife's education is considered alone, women with no schooling and less education have 56-44 more months of sexual exposure. The husband's education considered alone followed the same pattern. As level of parents' education rose, the probability of contraception increased. Women have shorter fertile periods when husbands are farmers. Religion explains duration of breast feeding
Pragourpun, Kraivinee; Sakee, Uthai; Fernandez, Carlos; Kruanetr, Senee
2015-05-01
We present for the first time the use of deferiprone as a non-toxic complexing agent for the determination of iron by sequential injection analysis in pharmaceuticals and food samples. The method was based on the reaction of Fe(III) and deferiprone in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 to give a Fe(III)-deferiprone complex, which showed a maximum absorption at 460 nm. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity range for iron determination was found over the range of 0.05-3.0 μg mL-1 with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9993. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.032 μg mL-1 and 0.055 μg mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the method was less than 5.0% (n = 11), and the percentage recovery was found in the range of 96.0-104.0%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of Fe(III) in pharmaceuticals, water and food samples with a sampling rate of 60 h-1.
Visual detection and sequential injection determination of aluminium using a cinnamoyl derivative.
Elečková, Lenka; Alexovič, Michal; Kuchár, Juraj; Balogh, Ioseph S; Andruch, Vasil
2015-02-01
A cinnamoyl derivative, 3-[4-(dimethylamino)cinnamoyl]-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3,4-2H-pyran-2-one, was used as a ligand for the determination of aluminium. Upon the addition of an acetonitrile solution of the ligand to an aqueous solution containing Al(III) and a buffer solution at pH 8, a marked change in colour from yellow to orange is observed. The colour intensity is proportional to the concentration of Al(III); thus, the 'naked-eye' detection of aluminium is possible. The reaction is also applied for sequential injection determination of aluminium. Beer׳s law is obeyed in the range from 0.055 to 0.66 mg L(-1) of Al(III). The limit of detection, calculated as three times the standard deviation of the blank test (n=10), was found to be 4 μg L(-1) for Al(III). The method was applied for the determination of aluminium in spiked water samples and pharmaceutical preparations.
Calibration of parallel kinematic devices using sequential determination of kinematic parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
JOKIEL JR.,BERNHARD; BIEG,LOTHAR F.; ZIEGERT,JOHN C.
2000-04-06
In PKM Machines, the Cartesian position and orientation of the tool point carried on the platform is obtained from a kinematic model of the particular machine. Accurate positioning of these machines relies on the accurate knowledge of the parameters of the kinematic model unique to the particular machine. The parameters in the kinematic model include the spatial locations of the joint centers on the machine base and moving platform, the initial strut lengths, and the strut displacements. The strut displacements are readily obtained from sensors on the machine. However, the remaining kinematic parameters (joint center locations, and initial strut lengths) are difficult to determine when these machines are in their fully assembled state. The size and complexity of these machines generally makes it difficult and somewhat undesirable to determine the remaining kinematic parameters by direct inspection such as in a coordinate measuring machine. In order for PKMs to be useful for precision positioning applications, techniques must be developed to quickly calibrate the machine by determining the kinematic parameters without disassembly of the machine. A number of authors have reported techniques for calibration of PKMs (Soons, Masory, Zhuang et. al., Ropponen). In two other papers, the authors have reported on work recently completed by the University of Florida and Sandia National Laboratories on calibration of PKMs, which describes a new technique to sequentially determine the kinematic parameters of an assembled parallel kinematic device. The technique described is intended to be used with a spatial coordinate measuring device such as a portable articulated CMM measuring arm (Romer, Faro, etc.), a Laser Ball Bar (LBB), or a laser tracker (SMX< API, etc.). The material to be presented is as follows: (1) methods to identify the kinematic parameters of 6--6 variant Stewart platform manipulators including joint center locations relative to the workable and spindle nose
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
On the basis of oxidative decoloration of bromopyrogallol red(BPR) with H2O2, catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase(HRP), and the sequential injection renewable surface technique(SI-RST), a highly sensitive optical-fiber sensor spectrophotometric method for the enzymatic determination of hydrogen peroxide was proposed. By coupling with a glucose oxidase(GOD) -catalyzed reaction, the method was used to determine glucose in human serum. The considerations in system and flow cell design, and factors that influence the determination performance are discussed. With 100 μL of sample loaded and 0. 6 mg of bead trapped, the linear response range from 5.0 × 10-8 to 5. 2 × 10-6mol/L BPR with a detection limit(3σ) of 2. 5 × 10 -8 mol/L BPR, and a precision of 1.1% RSD(n = 11) and a throughput of a 80 samples per hour can be achieved. Under the conditions of a 8. 7 × 10-6 mol/L BPR substrate,0.04 unit/mL HRP, 600 s reaction time and a reaction temperature of 37 ℃, the linear response range for H2O2 was from 5.0 × 10-8 to 7.0 × 10-6 mol/L with a detection limit(3σ) of 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L and a precision of 3.7% RSD(n=11). The linear response range by coupling with a GOD-catalyzed reaction was from 1.0 ×10-7 to 1.0 × 10-5mol/L. The method was directly applied to determine glucose in human serum. Glucose contents obtained by the proposed procedure were compared with those obtained by using the phenol-4-AAP method, the error was found to be less than 3%.
Lima, M.J. Reis; Fernandes, Sílvia M.V.; Rangel, António O.S.S.
2006-01-01
A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system for the spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in dairy samples was developed. A test portion was aspirated into a carrier solution containing ethylendiaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and ammonium buffer, which flowed into a copperized cadmium reduction column installed in-line for the determination of the nitrate plus nitrite contents of samples. For the nitrite determination, another test portion of sample was aspirated and directly sen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The study of the chemical forms of heavy metals in sediments (Solid Speciation) was done by sequential extractions. A process of 3 stages sequential extraction from Almendares River sediments was applied, to determine the specification of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn following a protocol proposed by the Bureau Community of Reference (BCR) The relation between the percentage of metal extracted in each fraction and the contents of carbonates, manganese and iron oxides, and organic matter and silice is studied. The extracts were analyzed by flame AAE. No any matrix interference were observed
Miró, Manuel; Gómez, Enrique; Estela, José Manuel; Casas, Montserrat; Cerdà, Victor
2002-02-15
A sequential injection procedure involving a flow-reversal wetting-film extraction method for the determination of the radionuclide 90Sr has been developed. The methodology is based on the coating of the inner walls of an open tubular reactor with a film prepared from a 0.14 M 4,4'(5')-bis(tert-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 (BCHC) solution in 1-octanol, which allows the selective isolation of strontium from the sample matrix. Selection of the optimum extractant diluent attending its physical properties, investigation of the extraction kinetics features, and choice of the proper elution procedure are discussed in detail in this paper. The noteworthy aspects of using a wetting-film phase instead of a solid-phase material described to date in the literature are the reduction of crown ether consumption and the simplification of both the operational sequence and the automation of the extractant-phase renewal between consecutive samples, which is of interest to avoid analyte carryover and reduction of the resin capacity factor caused by irreversible interferences. The proposed method has been successfully applied to different spiked environmental samples (water, milk, and soil), with 90Sr total activities ranging between 0.07 and 0.30 Bq, measured using a low-background proportional counter. The standard deviation of the automated analytical separation procedure is lower than 3% (n = 10), and the 90Sr isolation process under the studied conditions may be carried out with a yield up to 80%.
Amperometric Biosensor for Oxalate Determination in Urine Using Sequential Injection Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrique Barrado
2012-07-01
Full Text Available An amperometric flow biosensor for oxalate determination in urine samples after enzymatic reaction with oxalate oxidase immobilized on a modified magnetic solid is described. The solid was magnetically retained on the electrode surface of an electrode modified with Fe (III-tris-(2-thiopyridone borate placed into a sequential injection system preceding the amperometric detector. The variables involved in the system such as flow rate, aspired volumes (modified magnetic suspension and sample and reaction coil length were evaluated using a Taguchi parameter design. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of oxalate was linear between 3.0–50.0 mg·L^{−1}, with a limit of detection of 1.0 mg·L^{−1}. The repeatability for a 30.0 mg·L^{−1} oxalate solution was 0.7%. The method was validated by comparing the obtained results to those provided by the spectrophotometric method; no significant differences were observed.
Li, Songqing; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Jiaheng; Li, Yubo; Peng, Bing; Gao, Haixiang; Zhou, Wenfeng
2012-12-01
A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method followed by HPLC analysis, termed sequential DLLME, was developed for the preconcentration and determination of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides (i.e. haloxyfop-R-methyl, cyhalofop-butyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and fluazifop-P-butyl) in aqueous samples. The method is based on the combination of ultrasound-assisted DLLME with in situ ionic liquid (IL) DLLME into one extraction procedure and achieved better performance than widely used DLLME procedures. Chlorobenzene was used as the extraction solvent during the first extraction. Hydrophilic IL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was used as a dispersive solvent during the first extraction and as an extraction solvent during the second extraction after an in situ chloride exchange by bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized with the design of experiments using MINITAB® 16 software. Under the optimized conditions, the extractions resulted in analyte recoveries of 78-91%. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves ranged from 0.9994 to 0.9997 at concentrations of 10-300, 15-300, and 20-300 μg L(-1). The relative SDs (n = 5) ranged from 2.9 to 5.4%. The LODs for the four herbicides were between 1.50 and 6.12 μg L(-1). PMID:23109344
Bootstrapping Realized Multivariate Volatility Measures.
Donovon, Prosper; Goncalves, Silvia; Meddahi, Nour
2013-01-01
We study bootstrap methods for statistics that are a function of multivariate high frequency returns such as realized regression coefficients and realized covariances and correlations. For these measures of covariation, the Monte Carlo simulation results of Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (2004) show that finite sample distortions associated with their feasible asymptotic theory approach may arise if sampling is not too frequent. This motivates our use of the bootstrap as an altern...
Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Shu Hou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700 GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.
Bootstrapping Time Dilation Decoherence
Gooding, Cisco; Unruh, William G.
2015-10-01
We present a general relativistic model of a spherical shell of matter with a perfect fluid on its surface coupled to an internal oscillator, which generalizes a model recently introduced by the authors to construct a self-gravitating interferometer (Gooding and Unruh in Phys Rev D 90:044071, 2014). The internal oscillator evolution is defined with respect to the local proper time of the shell, allowing the oscillator to serve as a local clock that ticks differently depending on the shell's position and momentum. A Hamiltonian reduction is performed on the system, and an approximate quantum description is given to the reduced phase space. If we focus only on the external dynamics, we must trace out the clock degree of freedom, and this results in a form of intrinsic decoherence that shares some features with a proposed "universal" decoherence mechanism attributed to gravitational time dilation (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015). We note that the proposed decoherence remains present in the (gravity-free) limit of flat spacetime, emphasizing that the effect can be attributed entirely to proper time differences, and thus is not necessarily related to gravity. Whereas the effect described in (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015) vanishes in the absence of an external gravitational field, our approach bootstraps the gravitational contribution to the time dilation decoherence by including self-interaction, yielding a fundamentally gravitational intrinsic decoherence effect.
Extremal bootstrapping: go with the flow
El-Showk, Sheer
2016-01-01
The extremal functional method determines approximate solutions to the constraints of crossing symmetry, which saturate bounds on the space of unitary CFTs. We show that such solutions are characterized by extremality conditions, which may be used to flow continuously along the boundaries of parameter space. Along the flow there is generically no further need for optimization, which dramatically reduces computational requirements, bringing calculations from the realm of computing clusters to laptops. Conceptually, extremality sheds light on possible ways to bootstrap without positivity, extending the method to non-unitary theories, and implies that theories saturating bounds, and especially those sitting at kinks, have unusually sparse spectra. We discuss several applications, including the first high-precision bootstrap of a non-unitary CFT.
Filter and modified stepwedge bootstrap sensitometry in medical radiography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, Akira
1988-05-01
Two new bootstrap methods for determining characteristic curves of radiographic screen/film systems are presented : filter bootstrap sensitometry and modified stepwedge bootstrap sensitometry. Both are intensity-scale sensitometries since the radiation intensity can be varied through use of a combination of inverse square and metal filters. Characteristic curves obtained by these methods are compared with those from screen/film systems using inverse square sensitometry as a reference standard of accuracy. The precision of all three methods is better than +- 2 % with agreement among generally being within 3 % over the useful density range. By these bootstrap methods, it is possible to obtain characteristic curves agreeing well with those using the inverse square method for a relatively short distance, and make radiographic sensitometry practical and convenient at most medical institutions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Sequential chemical extraction procedure has been widely used to partition particulate trace metals into various fractions and to describe the distribution and the statue of trace metals in geo-environment. One sequential chemical extraction procedure was employed here to partition various fractions of Mn in soils. The experiment was designed with quality controlling concept in order to show sampling and analytical error. Experimental results obtained on duplicate analysis of all soil samples demonstrated that the precision was less than 10% (at 95% confidence level). The accuracy was estimated by comparing the accepted total concentration of Mn in standard reference materials (SRMs) with the measured sum of the individual fractions. The recovery of Mn from SRM1 and SRM2 was 94.1% and 98.4% , respectively. The detection limit, accuracy and precision of the sequential chemical extraction procedure were discussed in detailed. All the results suggest that the trueness of the analytical method is satisfactory.
Rossi, Elena; Mitnitski, Arnold; Feldman, Anatol G
2002-01-15
studies, together with the present finding that the trunk only begins to contribute to the hand displacement at peak hand velocity, imply that the central commands that determine the contributions of the arm and the trunk to the transport of the hand are generated sequentially, even though the arm and trunk move in parallel. PMID:11790827
Double-bootstrap methods that use a single double-bootstrap simulation
Chang, Jinyuan; Hall, Peter
2014-01-01
We show that, when the double bootstrap is used to improve performance of bootstrap methods for bias correction, techniques based on using a single double-bootstrap sample for each single-bootstrap sample can be particularly effective. In particular, they produce third-order accuracy for much less computational expense than is required by conventional double-bootstrap methods. However, this improved level of performance is not available for the single double-bootstrap methods that have been s...
Bootstrap planning: Theory and application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, P.C.
1994-02-01
We identify a general framework for weak planning called bootstrap planning, which is defined as global planning using only a local planner along with some memory for learning intermediate subgoals. We present a family of algorithms for bootstrap planning, and provide some initial theory on their performance. In our theoretical analysis, we develop a random digraph problem model and use it to make some performance predictions and comparisons of these algorithms. We also use it to provide some techniques for approximating the optimal resource bound on the local planner to achieve the best global planner. We validate our theoretical results with empirical demonstration on the 15-puzzle. We show how to reduce the planning cost of a global planner by 2 orders of magnitude using bootstrap planning. We also demonstrate a natural but not widely recognized connection between search costs and the lognormal distribution.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONGDe－ming; FANGChun－sheng; 等
2002-01-01
Sequential chemical extraction procedure has been widely used to partition particulate trace metals into vari-ous fractions and to describe the distribution and the statue of trace metals in geo-environment.One sequential chemical extraction procedure was employed here to partition various fractions of Mn in soils.The experiment was designed with quality controlling concept in order to show sampling and analytical error.Experimental results obtained on duplicate analy-sis of all soil samples demonstrated that the precision was less than 10%(at 95% confidence level).The accuracy was estimated by comparing the accepted total concentration of Mn in standard reference materials (SRMs) with the measured sum of the individual fractions.The recovery of Mn from SRM1 and SRM2 was 94.1% and 98.4%,respectively.The detection limit,accuracy and precision of the sequential chemical extraction procedure were discussed in detailed.All the results suggest that the trueness of the analytical method is satisfactory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A radiochemical sequential extraction procedure has been developed in our laboratory to determine 226Ra and 234,238U by alpha spectrometry in environmental samples. This method has been validated for both radionuclides by comparing in selected samples the values obtained through its application with the results obtained by applying alternative procedures. Recoveries obtained, counting periods applied and background levels found in the alpha spectra give suitable detection limits to allow the Ra and U determination in operational forms defined in riverbed contaminated sediments. Results obtained in these speciation studies show that 226Ra and 234,238U contamination tend to be associated to precipitated forms of the sediments. (author)
Bootstrap bias-adjusted GMM estimators
Ramalho, Joaquim J.S.
2005-01-01
The ability of six alternative bootstrap methods to reduce the bias of GMM parameter estimates is examined in an instrumental variable framework using Monte Carlo analysis. Promising results were found for the two bootstrap estimators suggested in the paper.
Analytical bootstrap methods for censored data
Alan D. Hutson
2002-01-01
Analytic bootstrap estimators for the moments of survival quantities are derived. By using these expressions recommendations can be made as to the appropriateness of bootstrap estimation under censored data conditions.
Bootstrap data methodology for sequential hybrid model building
Volponi, Allan J. (Inventor); Brotherton, Thomas (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A method for modeling engine operation comprising the steps of: 1. collecting a first plurality of sensory data, 2. partitioning a flight envelope into a plurality of sub-regions, 3. assigning the first plurality of sensory data into the plurality of sub-regions, 4. generating an empirical model of at least one of the plurality of sub-regions, 5. generating a statistical summary model for at least one of the plurality of sub-regions, 6. collecting an additional plurality of sensory data, 7. partitioning the second plurality of sensory data into the plurality of sub-regions, 8. generating a plurality of pseudo-data using the empirical model, and 9. concatenating the plurality of pseudo-data and the additional plurality of sensory data to generate an updated empirical model and an updated statistical summary model for at least one of the plurality of sub-regions.
Improving the Reliability of Bootstrap Tests
Russell Davidson; MacKinnon, James G.
2000-01-01
We first propose procedures for estimating the rejection probabilities for bootstrap tests in Monte Carlo experiments without actually computing a bootstrap test for each replication. These procedures are only about twice as expensive as estimating rejection probabilities for asymptotic tersts. We then propose procedures for computing modified bootstrap P values that will often be more accurate than ordinary ones. These procedures are closely related to the double bootstrap, but they are far ...
Unsupervised model compression for multilayer bootstrap networks
ZHANG, XIAO-LEI
2015-01-01
Recently, multilayer bootstrap network (MBN) has demonstrated promising performance in unsupervised dimensionality reduction. It can learn compact representations in standard data sets, i.e. MNIST and RCV1. However, as a bootstrap method, the prediction complexity of MBN is high. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised model compression framework for this general problem of unsupervised bootstrap methods. The framework compresses a large unsupervised bootstrap model into a small model by ta...
The bootstrap and edgeworth expansion
Hall, Peter
1992-01-01
This monograph addresses two quite different topics, in the belief that each can shed light on the other. Firstly, it lays the foundation for a particular view of the bootstrap. Secondly, it gives an account of Edgeworth expansion. Chapter 1 is about the bootstrap, witih almost no mention of Edgeworth expansion; Chapter 2 is about Edgeworth expansion, with scarcely a word about the bootstrap; and Chapters 3 and 4 bring these two themes together, using Edgeworth expansion to explore and develop the properites of the bootstrap. The book is aimed a a graduate level audience who has some exposure to the methods of theoretical statistics. However, technical details are delayed until the last chapter (entitled "Details of Mathematical Rogour"), and so a mathematically able reader without knowledge of the rigorous theory of probability will have no trouble understanding the first four-fifths of the book. The book simultaneously fills two gaps in the literature; it provides a very readable graduate level account of t...
Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in green leafy vegetables during storage
Santos, Joana; Mendiola, J. A.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ibáñez, Elena; Herrero, Miguel
2012-01-01
The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC–MS/MS and LC–DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the corre...
On the Asymptotic Accuracy of Efron's Bootstrap
Singh, Kesar
1981-01-01
In the non-lattice case it is shown that the bootstrap approximation of the distribution of the standardized sample mean is asymptotically more accurate than approximation by the limiting normal distribution. The exact convergence rate of the bootstrap approximation of the distributions of sample quantiles is obtained. A few other convergence rates regarding the bootstrap method are also studied.
Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin
2013-01-01
The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…
A bootstrap approach to bump hunting
Silverman, B. W.
1982-01-01
An important question in cluster analysis and pattern recognition is the determination of the number of clusters into which a given population should be divided. Frequently, particularly when certain specific clustering methods are being used, the number of clusters is taken to be equal to the number of modes, or local maxima, in the probability density function underlying the given data set. The use of kernal density estimates in mode estimation is discussed. The test statistic to be used is defined and a bootstrap technique for assessing significance is given. An illustrative application is followed by an examination of the asymptotic behavior of the test statistic.
Evaluating Neural Network Predictors by Bootstrapping
Blake LeBaron; Andreas S. Weigend
1994-01-01
We present a new method, inspired by the bootstrap, whose goal it is to determine the quality and reliability of a neural network predictor. Our method leads to more robust forecasting along with a large amount of statistical information on forecast performance that we exploit. We exhibit the method in the context of multi-variate time series prediction on financial data from the New York Stock Exchange. It turns out that the variation due to different resamplings (i.e., splits between traini...
Determination of sequential extracted uranium speciation in geological samples with HR-ICP-MS method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a method of determing uranium speciation in geological samples by means of sequential extraction procedure with HR-ICP-MS and its application to sandstone uranium exploration. The extraction chemical procedure is modified from Tessier, uranium in sample is classified into five speclarion: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to sulfide-organic matter, and residual. The uranium is extracted respectively and the extractants are measured by the high-resolution inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) with high sensitivity and low background. The extraction procedure has been proved to be satisfactory by means of national reference standard materials, international reference standard materials, and artificial uranium mine sample. Experiment results obtained on replicate samples demonstrate that the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the sequential extraction procedure followed by HR-ICP-MS is 2.6 % for bound to carbonates, 4.0% for bound to sulfide -organic matter, 6.0% for residual, 6.1% bound to Fe-Mn oxides, and 26% for exchangeable fraction. The ratio of uranium in bound to uranium carbonates in residual can be used to indicated the probability of buried uranium deposit. (authors)
Lee, Jin-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Ahn, Byung-Koo
2015-06-01
The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of thallium in soils collected near suspected areas such as cement plants, active and closed mines, and smelters and to examine the extraction of thallium in the soils using 19 single chemical and sequential chemical extraction procedures. Thallium concentrations in soils near cement plants were distributed between 1.20 and 12.91 mg kg(-1). However, soils near mines and smelters contained relatively low thallium concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1.09 mg kg(-1). Thallium extractability with 19 single chemical extractants from selected soils near cement plants ranged from 0.10% to 8.20% of the total thallium concentration. In particular, 1.0 M NH4Cl, 1.0 M (NH4)2SO4, and 1.0 M CH3COONH4 extracted more thallium than other extractants. Sequential fractionation results of thallium from different soils such as industrially and artificially contaminated soils varied with the soil properties, especially soil pH and the duration of thallium contamination. PMID:25836266
Feti, Andreea; Dudele, Aiga
2012-01-01
Bootstrapping plays a vital role in the life of small and medium-sized enter-prises. By providing a large variety of financing alternatives bootstrapping ensures the existence of entrepreneurship, even though, too less attention is paid to bootstrapping in the specific literature. Therefore, the master thesis strives to eliminate the gaps in the theory by bringing new insights in the field of bootstrapping.The purpose of the master thesis is to investigate the usage of boot-strapping methods ...
TOKALIOĞLU, Şerife; BİROL, Şenol KARTAL and Gökhan
2003-01-01
A sequential extraction procedure, a three-step protocol proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme (SM & T--formerly BCR) of the European Union, was applied to soil samples for the determination of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). This procedure provides measurements of extractable metals from media such as acetic acid (0.11 mol L-1), hydroxylammonium chloride (0.1 mol L-1) and hydrogen peroxide (8.8 mol L-1) plus ammonium acetate (1 mol L - 1), ...
Chain ladder method: Bayesian bootstrap versus classical bootstrap
Peters, Gareth W.; Mario V. W\\"uthrich; Shevchenko, Pavel V.
2010-01-01
The intention of this paper is to estimate a Bayesian distribution-free chain ladder (DFCL) model using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) methodology. We demonstrate how to estimate quantities of interest in claims reserving and compare the estimates to those obtained from classical and credibility approaches. In this context, a novel numerical procedure utilising Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), ABC and a Bayesian bootstrap procedure was developed in a truly distribution-free setting. T...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Elo Harald
in flow injection (FI) or sequential injection (SI) systems, which, in addition to reducing sample and reagent consumption, allow all manipulations to be made on-line under enclosed and strictly controlled conditions, thereby minimizing the risk for contamination from the environment. Various separation...... increased flow resistance. This can, however, to a large extent be alleviated by using countercurrent flow. Besides, the surface properties of the resin might be irreversibly changed after having been subjected to a large number of samples, either due to contamination, deactivation, or even loss of its...... these problems might be readily overcome by using an approach where the ion-exchange material is discarded and renewed after each measuring cycle. Based on the so-called lab-on-valve SI-system, which in its design only consumes very minute amounts of ion-exchange material, the cost per assay is amply compensated...
Ezoe, Kentaro; Ohyama, Seiichi; Hashem, Md Abul; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei
2016-02-01
After the Fukushima disaster, power generation from nuclear power plants in Japan was completely stopped and old coal-based power plants were re-commissioned to compensate for the decrease in power generation capacity. Although coal is a relatively inexpensive fuel for power generation, it contains high levels (mgkg(-1)) of selenium, which could contaminate the wastewater from thermal power plants. In this work, an automated selenium monitoring system was developed based on sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection. This method could be applied to control of wastewater contamination. In this method, selenium is vaporized as H2Se, which reacts with ozone to produce chemiluminescence. However, interference from arsenic is of concern because the ozone-induced chemiluminescence intensity of H2Se is much lower than that of AsH3. This problem was successfully addressed by vaporizing arsenic and selenium individually in a sequential procedure using a syringe pump equipped with an eight-port selection valve and hot and cold reactors. Oxidative decomposition of organoselenium compounds and pre-reduction of the selenium were performed in the hot reactor, and vapor generation of arsenic and selenium were performed separately in the cold reactor. Sample transfers between the reactors were carried out by a pneumatic air operation by switching with three-way solenoid valves. The detection limit for selenium was 0.008 mg L(-1) and calibration curve was linear up to 1.0 mg L(-1), which provided suitable performance for controlling selenium in wastewater to around the allowable limit (0.1 mg L(-1)). This system consumes few chemicals and is stable for more than a month without any maintenance. Wastewater samples from thermal power plants were collected, and data obtained by the proposed method were compared with those from batchwise water treatment followed by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. PMID:26653491
Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap
Kabat, Daniel
2016-01-01
We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N^2. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the "bulk bootstrap." We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions deter...
Bootstrapping N=2 chiral correlators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemos, Madalena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Liendo, Pedro [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). IMIP
2015-12-15
We apply the numerical bootstrap program to chiral operators in four-dimensional N=2 SCFTs. In the first part of this work we study four-point functions in which all fields have the same conformal dimension. We give special emphasis to bootstrapping a specific theory: the simplest Argyres-Douglas fixed point with no flavor symmetry. In the second part we generalize our setup and consider correlators of fields with unequal dimension. This is an example of a mixed correlator and allows us to probe new regions in the parameter space of N=2 SCFTs. In particular, our results put constraints on relations in the Coulomb branch chiral ring and on the curvature of the Zamolodchikov metric.
Horn, D.
2015-03-01
The quark model emerged from the Gell-Mann-Ne'eman flavor SU(3) symmetry. Its development, in the context of strong interactions, took place in a heuristic theoretical framework, referred to as the Bootstrap Era. Setting the background for the dominant ideas in strong interaction of the early 1960s, we outline some aspects of the constituent quark model. An independent theoretical development was the emergence of hadron duality in 1967, leading to a realization of the Bootstrap idea by relating hadron resonances (in the s-channel) with Regge pole trajectories (in t- and u-channels). The synthesis of duality with the quark-model has been achieved by duality diagrams, serving as a conceptual framework for discussing many aspects of hadron dynamics toward the end of the 1960s.
On a generalized bootstrap principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The S-matrices for non-simply-laced affine Toda field theories are considered in the context of a generalized bootstrap principle. The S-matrices, and in particular their poles, depend on a parameter whose range lies between the Coxeter numbers of dual pairs of the corresponding non-simply-laced algebras. It is proposed that only odd order poles in the physical strip with positive coefficients throughout this range should participate in the bootstrap. All other singularities have an explanation in principle in terms of a generalized Coleman-Thun mechanism. Besides the S-matrices introduced by Delius, Grisaru and Zanon, the missing case (F4(1), e6(2)), is also considered and provides many interesting examples of pole generation. (author)
Bootstrap Current in Spherical Tokamaks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王中天; 王龙
2003-01-01
Variational principle for the neoclassical theory has been developed by including amomentum restoring term in the electron-electron collisional operator, which gives an additionalfree parameter maximizing the heat production rate. All transport coefficients are obtained in-cluding the bootstrap current. The essential feature of the study is that the aspect ratio affects thefunction of the electron-electron collision operator through a geometrical factor. When the aspectratio approaches to unity, the fraction of circulating particles goes to zero and the contribution toparticle flux from the electron-electron collision vanishes. The resulting diffusion coefficient is inrough agreement with Hazeltine. When the aspect ratio approaches to infinity, the results are inagreement with Rosenbluth. The formalism gives the two extreme cases a connection. The theoryis particularly important for the calculation of bootstrap current in spherical tokamaks and thepresent tokamaks, in which the square root of the inverse aspect ratio, in general, is not small.
Conformal Bootstrap in Mellin Space
Gopakumar, Rajesh; Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda
2016-01-01
We propose a new approach towards analytically solving for the dynamical content of Conformal Field Theories (CFTs) using the bootstrap philosophy. This combines the original bootstrap idea of Polyakov with the modern technology of the Mellin representation of CFT amplitudes. We employ exchange Witten diagrams with built in crossing symmetry as our basic building blocks rather than the conventional conformal blocks in a particular channel. Demanding consistency with the operator product expansion (OPE) implies an infinite set of constraints on operator dimensions and OPE coefficients. We illustrate the power of this method in the epsilon expansion of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point by computing operator dimensions and, strikingly, OPE coefficients to higher orders in epsilon than currently available using other analytic techniques (including Feynman diagram calculations). Our results enable us to get a somewhat better agreement of certain observables in the 3d Ising model, with the precise numerical values that...
No unitary bootstrap for the fractal Ising model
Golden, John
2015-01-01
We consider the conformal bootstrap for spacetime dimension $1
Conformal Bootstrap in Embedding Space
Fortin, Jean-François
2016-01-01
It is shown how to obtain conformal blocks from embedding space with the help of the operator product expansion. The minimal conformal block originates from scalar exchange in a four-point correlation functions of four scalars. All remaining conformal blocks are simple derivatives of the minimal conformal block. With the help of the orthogonality properties of the conformal blocks, the analytic conformal bootstrap can be implemented directly in embedding space, leading to a Jacobi-like definition of conformal field theories.
Conformal bootstrap in embedding space
Fortin, Jean-François; Skiba, Witold
2016-05-01
It is shown how to obtain conformal blocks from embedding space with the help of the operator product expansion. The minimal conformal block originates from scalar exchange in a four-point correlation function of four scalars. All remaining conformal blocks are simple derivatives of the minimal conformal block. With the help of the orthogonality properties of the conformal blocks, the analytic conformal bootstrap can be implemented directly in embedding space, leading to a Jacobi-like definition of conformal field theories.
Bootstrapping High Dimensional Time Series
Zhang, Xianyang; Cheng, Guang
2014-01-01
This article studies bootstrap inference for high dimensional weakly dependent time series in a general framework of approximately linear statistics. The following high dimensional applications are covered: (1) uniform confidence band for mean vector; (2) specification testing on the second order property of time series such as white noise testing and bandedness testing of covariance matrix; (3) specification testing on the spectral property of time series. In theory, we first derive a Gaussi...
Kilovoltage bootstrap sensitometry.
Yester, M V; Barnes, G T; King, M A
1980-09-01
A new method for determining the sensitometric curve of radiographic film/screen combinations is described. The approach employs kVp variation at several mAs values to provide the necessary range of exposures. The method is simple and easy to perform and is presented along with experimental data for illustration. The sources and relative magnitude of errors associated with the technique are also discussed. PMID:7403562
Modified Bootstrap Sensitometry In Radiography
Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen
1981-04-01
A new modified bootstrap approach to sensitometry is presented which provides H and D curves that show almost exact agreement with those obtained using conventional methods. Two bootstrap techniques are described; both involve a combination of inverse-square and stepped-wedge modulation of the radiation field and provide intensity-scale sensitometric curves as appropriate for medical radiography. H and D curves obtained with these modified techniques are compared with those obtained for screen-film combinations using inverse-square sensitometry as well as with those obtained for direct x-ray film using time-scale sensitometry. The stepped wedge of the Wisconsin X-Ray Test Cassette was used in the bootstrap approach since it provides sufficient exposure latitude to encompass the useful density range of medical x-ray film. This approach makes radiographic sensitometry quick and convenient, allowing accurate characteristic curves to be obtained for any screen-film cassette using standard diagnostic x-ray equipment.
Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhao, Cheng; Li, Gongke
2016-07-01
Achieving reproducible signals is a key point to improve the analytical precision and accuracy of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique and further expand the application scope of SERS for on-site and rapid analysis of real sample with complex matrice. In this work, a novel Au@hydroxyl-functionalized polystyrene (Au@PS-OH) substrate was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization and chemical assembly method, which possessed promised potential for the rapid and sequential analysis of multisamples coupling with SERS technique. Au@PS-OH substrate with regular nanoarrayed morphology possessed excellent anti-agglomeration capability even for testing solutions with strong basicity or acidity, mechanic and chemical stability due to the large amount of Au nanoparticles homogeneously and stably fixed on substrate surface. Moreover, excellent hydrophobicity of Au@PS-OH substrate could keep testing droplets of multiple samples stable and uniform spherical shape with similar contact angles to substrate, which guaranteed the reproducible SERS light paths and SERS signals during real sequential analysis. Then, an Au@PS-OH based SERS analytical method was developed and practically applied for the sequential determination of trace 4-aminoazobenzene in various textiles. It was satisfactory that the contents of trace 4-aminoazobenzene in black woolen, green woolen and yellow fiber cloth could be actually found and calculated to be 106.4, 120.9 and 140.8mg/kg with good recoveries of 76.0-118.9% and relative standard deviations of 1.6-5.1%. It is expected that this SERS method is suitable for on-site and rapid analysis of multiple samples in a short period.
Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhao, Cheng; Li, Gongke
2016-07-01
Achieving reproducible signals is a key point to improve the analytical precision and accuracy of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique and further expand the application scope of SERS for on-site and rapid analysis of real sample with complex matrice. In this work, a novel Au@hydroxyl-functionalized polystyrene (Au@PS-OH) substrate was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization and chemical assembly method, which possessed promised potential for the rapid and sequential analysis of multisamples coupling with SERS technique. Au@PS-OH substrate with regular nanoarrayed morphology possessed excellent anti-agglomeration capability even for testing solutions with strong basicity or acidity, mechanic and chemical stability due to the large amount of Au nanoparticles homogeneously and stably fixed on substrate surface. Moreover, excellent hydrophobicity of Au@PS-OH substrate could keep testing droplets of multiple samples stable and uniform spherical shape with similar contact angles to substrate, which guaranteed the reproducible SERS light paths and SERS signals during real sequential analysis. Then, an Au@PS-OH based SERS analytical method was developed and practically applied for the sequential determination of trace 4-aminoazobenzene in various textiles. It was satisfactory that the contents of trace 4-aminoazobenzene in black woolen, green woolen and yellow fiber cloth could be actually found and calculated to be 106.4, 120.9 and 140.8mg/kg with good recoveries of 76.0-118.9% and relative standard deviations of 1.6-5.1%. It is expected that this SERS method is suitable for on-site and rapid analysis of multiple samples in a short period. PMID:27154685
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per;
2013-01-01
An analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of ultratrace level plutonium (Pu) and neptunium (Np) using iron hydroxide coprecipitation in combination with automated sequential injection extraction chromatography separation and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement...... show that preboiling and aging are important for obtaining high chemical yields for both Pu and Np, which is possibly related to the aggregation and adsorption behavior of organic substances contained in urine. Although the optimal condition for Np and Pu simultaneous determination requires 5-day aging...... time, an immediate coprecipitation without preboiling and aging could also provide fairly satisfactory chemical yields for both Np and Pu (50-60%) with high sample throughput (4 h/sample). Within the developed method, (242)Pu was exploited as chemical yield tracer for both Pu and Np isotopes. (242)Pu...
The wild bootstrap for multilevel models
Modugno, Lucia; Giannerini, Simone
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the performance of the most popular bootstrap schemes for multilevel data. Also, we propose a modified version of the wild bootstrap procedure for hierarchical data structures. The wild bootstrap does not require homoscedasticity or assumptions on the distribution of the error processes. Hence, it is a valuable tool for robust inference in a multilevel framework. We assess the finite size performances of the schemes through a Monte Carlo study. The results show that for...
Theoretical comparisons of block bootstrap methods
Lahiri, S. N.
1999-01-01
In this paper, we compare the asymptotic behavior of some common block bootstrap methods based on nonrandom as well as random block lengths. It is shown that, asymptotically, bootstrap estimators derived using any of the methods considered in the paper have the same amount of bias to the first order. However, the variances of these bootstrap estimators may be different even in the first order. Expansions for the bias, the variance and the mean-squared error of different bloc...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter;
2013-01-01
An automated analytical method implemented in a novel dual-column tandem sequential injection (SI) system was developed for simultaneous determination of 236U, 237Np, 239Pu, and 240Pu in seawater samples. A combination of TEVA and UTEVA extraction chromatography was exploited to separate and purify...... target analytes, whereupon plutonium and neptunium were simultaneously isolated and purified on TEVA, while uranium was collected on UTEVA. The separation behavior of U, Np, and Pu on TEVA–UTEVA columns was investigated in detail in order to achieve high chemical yields and complete purification...... for the radionuclides of interest. 242Pu was used as a chemical yield tracer for both plutonium and neptunium. 238U was quantified in the sample before the separation for deducing the 236U concentration from the measured 236U/238U atomic ratio in the separated uranium target using accelerator mass spectrometry...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A sequential extraction technique was developed allowing the extraction and purification of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium radionuclides from the same sample. Environmental materials such as water, soil, biological materials, can be analyzed for those radionuclides without matrix interferences in the quality of radioelement purification and in the radiochemical yield. The use of isotopic tracers (232U, 229Th, 224Ra, 209Po and stable lead carrier) added to the sample at the beginning of the chemical procedure enables an accurate control of the radiochemical yield for each radioelement. The ion extraction procedure, applied after either complete dissolution of the solid sample with mineral acids or dissolution of MnO2 precipitate for aqueous samples, includes the use of commercially available columns from Eichrom and laboratory prepared anionic and cationic columns, in a total of three chromatography columns. All radioelements are purified and electroplated on stainless steel discs except for polonium which is spontaneously plated on a silver disc. The discs are measured using high resolution silicon surface barrier detectors. 210Pb, a beta emitter, can be measured either through the beta emission of 210Bi, or stored for a few months and determined by alpha spectrometry through the in-growth of 210Po. This sequential extraction chromatography technique was tested and validated by analysis of certified reference materials from IAEA (soil, marine sediment, and fish). Reproducibility was tested through repeated analysis of the same homogeneous material (water sample). Performance, when applied to samples with different matrix, was tested analyzing cabbage, potatoes, fish filet, meat, water, urine, soils and sediments with high yield of recovery and complete separation of radioelements. Precision was tested also through participation in analytical inter laboratory world wide comparisons analysing blind samples (round robin tests) organized by the IAEA and
Statistical bootstrap model and annihilations
Möhring, H J
1974-01-01
The statistical bootstrap model (SBM) describes the decay of single, high mass, hadronic states (fireballs, clusters) into stable particles. Coupling constants B, one for each isospin multiplet of stable particles, are the only free parameter of the model. They are related to the maximum temperature parameter T/sub 0/. The various versions of the SMB can be classified into two groups: full statistical bootstrap models and linear ones. The main results of the model are the following: i) All momentum spectra are isotropic; especially the exclusive ones are described by invariant phase space. The inclusive and semi-inclusive single-particle distributions are asymptotically of pure exponential shape; the slope is governed by T /sub 0/ only. ii) The model parameter B for pions has been obtained by fitting the multiplicity distribution in pp and pn at rest, and corresponds to T/sub 0/=0.167 GeV in the full SBM with exotics. The average pi /sup -/ multiplicity for the linear and the full SBM (both with exotics) is c...
Bootstrap percolation on spatial networks
Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Yanqing
2015-10-01
Bootstrap percolation is a general representation of some networked activation process, which has found applications in explaining many important social phenomena, such as the propagation of information. Inspired by some recent findings on spatial structure of online social networks, here we study bootstrap percolation on undirected spatial networks, with the probability density function of long-range links’ lengths being a power law with tunable exponent. Setting the size of the giant active component as the order parameter, we find a parameter-dependent critical value for the power-law exponent, above which there is a double phase transition, mixed of a second-order phase transition and a hybrid phase transition with two varying critical points, otherwise there is only a second-order phase transition. We further find a parameter-independent critical value around -1, about which the two critical points for the double phase transition are almost constant. To our surprise, this critical value -1 is just equal or very close to the values of many real online social networks, including LiveJournal, HP Labs email network, Belgian mobile phone network, etc. This work helps us in better understanding the self-organization of spatial structure of online social networks, in terms of the effective function for information spreading.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A sequential extraction technique was developed and tested for common naturally-occurring radionuclides. This technique allows the extraction and purification of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides from the same sample. Environmental materials such as water, soil, and biological samples can be analyzed for those radionuclides without matrix interferences in the quality of radioelement purification and in the radiochemical yield. The use of isotopic tracers (232U, 229Th, 224Ra, 209Po, and stable lead carrier) added to the sample in the beginning of the chemical procedure, enables an accurate control of the radiochemical yield for each radioelement. The ion extraction procedure, applied after either complete dissolution of the solid sample with mineral acids or co-precipitation of dissolved radionuclide with MnO2 for aqueous samples, includes the use of commercially available pre-packed columns from Eichrom(r) and ion exchange columns packed with Bio-Rad resins, in altogether three chromatography columns. All radioactive elements but one are purified and electroplated on stainless steel discs. Polonium is spontaneously plated on a silver disc. The discs are measured using high resolution silicon surface barrier detectors. 210Pb, a beta emitter, can be measured either through the beta emission of 210Bi, or stored for a few months and determined by alpha spectrometry through the in-growth of 210Po. This sequential extraction chromatography technique was tested and validated with the analysis of certified reference materials from the IAEA. Reproducibility was tested through repeated analysis of the same homogeneous material (water sample). (author)
Matong, Joseph M; Nyaba, Luthando; Nomngongo, Philiswa N
2016-07-01
The main objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of fourteen trace elements and to investigate their distribution as well as a contamination levels in selected agricultural soils. An ultrasonic assisted sequential extraction procedure derived from three-step BCR method was used for fractionation of trace elements. The total concentration of trace elements in soil samples was obtained by total digestion method in soil samples with aqua regia. The results of the extractable fractions revealed that most of the target trace elements can be transferred to the human being through the food chain, thus leading to serious human health. Enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), risk assessment code (RAC) and individual contamination factors (ICF) were used to assess the environmental impacts of trace metals in soil samples. The EF revealed that Cd was enriched by 3.1-7.2 (except in Soil 1). The Igeo results showed that the soils in the study area was moderately contaminated with Fe, and heavily to extremely polluted with Cd. The soil samples from the unplanted field was found to have highest contamination factor for Cd and lowest for Pb. Soil 3 showed a high risk for Tl and Cd with RAC values of greater than or equal to 50%. In addition, Fe, Ni, Cu, V, As, Mo (except Soil 2), Sb and Pb posed low environmental risk. The modified BCR sequential extraction method provided more information about mobility and environmental implication of studied trace elements in the study area. PMID:27058917
Sequential determination of lead and cobalt in tap water and foods samples by fluorescence.
Talio, María Carolina; Alesso, Magdalena; Acosta, María Gimena; Acosta, Mariano; Fernández, Liliana P
2014-09-01
In this work, a new procedure was developed for the separation and preconcentration of lead(II) and cobalt(II) in several water and foods samples. Complexes of metal ions with 8-hydroxyquinolein (8-HQ) were formed in aqueous solution. The proposed methodology is based on the preconcentration/separation of Pb(II) by solid-phase extraction using paper filter, followed by spectrofluorimetric determination of both metals, on the solid support and the filtered aqueous solution, respectively. The solid surface fluorescence determination was carried out at λem=455 nm (λex=385 nm) for Pb(II)-8-HQ complex and the fluorescence of Co(II)-8-HQ was determined in aqueous solution using λem=355 nm (λex=225 nm). The calibration graphs are linear in the range 0.14-8.03×10(4) μg L(-1) and 7.3×10(-2)-4.12×10(3) μg L(-1), for Pb(II) and Co(II), respectively, with a detection limit of 4.3×10(-2) and 2.19×10(-2) μg L(-1) (S/N=3). The developed methodology showed good sensitivity and adequate selectivity and it was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of lead and cobalt in tap waters belonging of different regions of Argentina and foods samples (milk powder, express coffee, cocoa powder) with satisfactory results. The new methodology was validated by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy with adequate agreement. The proposed methodology represents a novel application of fluorescence to Pb(II) and Co(II) quantification with sensitivity and accuracy similar to atomic spectroscopies.
Sequential rationalization of multivalued choice
García Sanz, María Dolores; Rodríguez Alcantud, José Carlos
2015-01-01
[EN]This paper contributes to the theory of rational choice under sequential criteria. Following the approach initiated by Manzini and Mariotti (2007) for single-valued choice functions, we characterize choice correspondences that are rational by two sequential criteria under a mild consistency axiom. Rationales ensuring the sequential rationalization are explicitly constructed and a uniquely determined, canonical solution is provided.
A Bayesian Bootstrap for a Finite Population
Lo, Albert Y.
1988-01-01
A Bayesian bootstrap for a finite population is introduced; its small-sample distributional properties are discussed and compared with those of the frequentist bootstrap for a finite population. It is also shown that the two are first-order asymptotically equivalent.
Bootstrapping Phylogenetic Trees: Theory and Methods
Holmes, Susan
2003-01-01
This is a survey of the use of the bootstrap in the area of systematic and evolutionary biology. I present the current usage by biologists of the bootstrap as a tool both for making inferences and for evaluating robustness, and propose a framework for thinking about these problems in terms of mathematical statistics.
Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes
Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico
2012-01-01
The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying
Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew
2012-01-01
Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…
A comparison of four different block bootstrap methods
Boris Radovanov; Aleksandra Marcikić
2014-01-01
The paper contains a description of four different block bootstrap methods, i.e., non-overlapping block bootstrap, overlapping block bootstrap (moving block bootstrap), stationary block bootstrap and subsampling. Furthermore, the basic goal of this paper is to quantify relative efficiency of each mentioned block bootstrap procedure and then to compare those methods. To achieve the goal, we measure mean square errors of estimation variance returns. The returns are calculated from 1250 daily ob...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry(ICP/AES) was used for the determination of uranium and thorium in geological materials. Samples were predecomposed by mixed acid digestion technique. The separation of the uranium and thorium was achieved by systematic solvent extraction with TTA(thenoyltrifluoroacetone) and TOA(tri-n-octylamine) and back extraction into HCl. The results for standard rock sample, NIST SRM 278, showed a good agreement with those certified from NIST as well as found values by other non-destructive techniques. Additional purification for extracted portions was carried out by anion exchange chromatography for measurement of several natural radioisotopes of uranium and thorium by alpha spectrometry. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Sidnei G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Morales-Rubio, Angel; Guardia, Miguel de la [Universidad de Valencia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Rocha, Fabio R.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)
2011-07-15
A new procedure for spectrofluorimetric determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel samples is presented. It is based on the oxidation of glycerol by periodate, forming formaldehyde, which reacts with acetylacetone, producing the luminescent 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine. A flow system with solenoid micro-pumps is proposed for solution handling. Free glycerol was extracted off-line from biodiesel samples with water, and total glycerol was converted to free glycerol by saponification with sodium ethylate under sonication. For free glycerol, a linear response was observed from 5 to 70 mg L{sup -1} with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, which corresponds to 2 mg kg{sup -1} in biodiesel. The coefficient of variation was 0.9% (20 mg L{sup -1}, n = 10). For total glycerol, samples were diluted on-line, and the linear response range was 25 to 300 mg L{sup -1}. The detection limit was 1.4 mg L{sup -1} (2.8 mg kg{sup -1} in biodiesel) with a coefficient of variation of 1.4% (200 mg L{sup -1}, n = 10). The sampling rate was ca. 35 samples h{sup -1} and the procedure was applied to determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel samples from soybean, cottonseed, and castor beans. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solid sample graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (SS-GFAAS) has been proposed since its appearance as a good alternative to wet methods of analysis in many matrices. Here, we examine the use of SS-GFAAS for total and leachable arsenic determination in sediments from distinct origins. Our direct analysis of seven selected sediments was not always free of spectral matrix interference, but the spectroscopic technique gave very good results for (a) direct arsenic measurement in solid residues from a range of leaching processes, (b) total arsenic determination (HNO3 leaching test) and (c) the evaluation of its potential remobilisation (modified BCR three-step sequential extraction scheme). For the optimised instrumental conditions, the analysis limit was 0.44 mg kg-1 and long-term reproducibility was between 10-15%. The sum of leachable arsenic in HNO3 65% and the residual fraction, gave recoveries from 72 to 118% of total arsenic content. These results are a good alternative to other cumbersome wet methods involving HF
Zhu, Zhenwu; Zhuo, Yuqun; Fan, Yaming; Wang, Zhipeng
2016-05-01
A considerable amount of Hg is retained in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum from Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (WFGD) systems. For this reason, it is important to determine the species of Hg in FGD gypsum not only to understand the mechanism of Hg removal by WFGD systems but also to determine the final fate of Hg when FGD gypsum is disposed. In this study, Temperature Programmed Decomposition (TPD) and Sequential Chemical Extraction (SCE) were applied to FGD gypsum to identify the Hg species in it. The FGD gypsum samples were collected from seven coal-fired power plants in China, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 3.27μg/g. A series of pure Hg compounds were used as reference materials in TPD experiments and the results revealed that the decomposition temperatures of different Hg compounds increase in the order of Hg2Cl2mercury sulfides were the primary compounds. The results of SCE indicated that Hg was mainly distributed in the strongly complexed phase. The low Hg content in FGD gypsum increases the ambiguity of assigning extraction fractions to certain Hg species by SCE. The fact that the primary compounds in FGD gypsum are HgS phases leads the leaching of Hg in the natural environment to be quite low, but a considerable amount of Hg may be released during the industrial heating process. PMID:27155422
The N=2 superconformal bootstrap
Beem, Christopher; Lemos, Madalena; Liendo, Pedro; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C.
2016-03-01
In this work we initiate the conformal bootstrap program for N=2 super-conformal field theories in four dimensions. We promote an abstract operator-algebraic viewpoint in order to unify the description of Lagrangian and non-Lagrangian theories, and formulate various conjectures concerning the landscape of theories. We analyze in detail the four-point functions of flavor symmetry current multiplets and of N=2 chiral operators. For both correlation functions we review the solution of the superconformal Ward identities and describe their superconformal block decompositions. This provides the foundation for an extensive numerical analysis discussed in the second half of the paper. We find a large number of constraints for operator dimensions, OPE coefficients, and central charges that must hold for any N=2 superconformal field theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per;
2009-01-01
This article presents an automated method for the rapid determination of 239Pu and 240Pu in various environmental samples. The analytical method involves the in-line separation of Pu isotopes using extraction chromatography (TEVA) implemented in a sequential injection (SI) network followed by det...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gine, Maria Fernanda; Patreze, Aparecida F.; Silva, Edson L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mfgine@cena.usp.br; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Kakazu, Mauricio H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2008-07-01
A two-step sequential cloud point extraction (CPE) of trace elements from small sample volumes of human serum, animal blood, and food diet is proposed to gain analytical information in the analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The first CPE was attained by adding O,O-diethyldithiophosphate, the non ionic surfactant Triton{sup R} X-114 followed by heating at 40 deg C, centrifugation and cooling at 0 deg C. The resulting surfactant-rich phase was separated to determine Cd, Pb and Cu by isotope dilution. Isotope ratio measurements presented RSD < 0.7%. The residual surfactant-poor phase solution had the pH adjusted in the range 4 to 5 before the chelating reagent, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol plus surfactant Triton{sup R} X-114 were added followed by the sequence to attain the CPE. Co and Ni were quantified in the second extracted surfactant-rich phases by standard additions method with RSD < 2%. Recoveries from 85 to 96% were obtained for all elements. Analyzing reference materials with certified and recommended values assessed accuracy. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohtasham MOHAMMADI
2014-03-01
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.
Vergé, Christelle; Del Moral, Pierre; Moulines, Eric; Olsson, Jimmy
2014-01-01
Particle island models (Verg\\'e et al., 2013) provide a means of parallelization of sequential Monte Carlo methods, and in this paper we present novel convergence results for algorithms of this sort. In particular we establish a central limit theorem - as the number of islands and the common size of the islands tend jointly to infinity - of the double bootstrap algorithm with possibly adaptive selection on the island level. For this purpose we introduce a notion of archipelagos of weighted is...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Highly sensitive determination of Hg(II) using SI–ASV-BDD was achieved. • Electrochemical detection of Hg(II) using Cu(II) enhancer was accomplished. • LOD and LOQ were found to be very low at 40.0 ppt and 135.0 ppt. • This method was successfully applied for determination of Hg(II) in real samples. - Abstract: A highly sensitive determination of mercury in the presence of Cu(II) using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film electrode coupled with sequential injection–anodic stripping voltammetry (SI–ASV) was proposed. The Cu(II) was simultaneously deposited with Hg(II) in a 0.5 M HCl supporting electrolyte by electrodeposition. In presence of an excess of Cu(II), the sensitivity for the determination of Hg(II) was remarkably enhanced. Cu(II) and Hg(II) were on-line deposited onto the BDD electrode surface at −1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) for 150 s with a flow rate of 14 μL s−1. An anodic stripping voltammogram was recorded from −0.4 V to 0.25 V using a frequency of 60 Hz, an amplitude of 50 mV, and a step potential of 10 mV at a stopped flow. Under the optimal conditions, well-defined peaks of Cu(II) and Hg(II) were found at −0.25 V and +0.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl), respectively. The detection of Hg(II) showed two linear dynamic ranges (0.1–30.0 ng mL−1 and 5.0–60.0 ng mL−1). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) obtained from the experiment was found to be 0.04 ng mL−1. The precision values for 10 replicate determinations were 1.1, 2.1 and 2.9% RSD for 0.5, 10 and 20 ng mL−1, respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of Hg(II) in seawater, salmon, squid, cockle and seaweed samples. A comparison between the proposed method and an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) standard method was performed on the samples, and the concentrations obtained via both methods were in agreement with the certified values of Hg(II), according to the paired t-test at a
Bootstrap Prediction Intervals in Non-Parametric Regression with Applications to Anomaly Detection
Kumar, Sricharan; Srivistava, Ashok N.
2012-01-01
Prediction intervals provide a measure of the probable interval in which the outputs of a regression model can be expected to occur. Subsequently, these prediction intervals can be used to determine if the observed output is anomalous or not, conditioned on the input. In this paper, a procedure for determining prediction intervals for outputs of nonparametric regression models using bootstrap methods is proposed. Bootstrap methods allow for a non-parametric approach to computing prediction intervals with no specific assumptions about the sampling distribution of the noise or the data. The asymptotic fidelity of the proposed prediction intervals is theoretically proved. Subsequently, the validity of the bootstrap based prediction intervals is illustrated via simulations. Finally, the bootstrap prediction intervals are applied to the problem of anomaly detection on aviation data.
Improving the Reliability of Bootstrap Tests with the Fast Double Bootstrap
Davidson, Russell; MacKinnon, James
2006-01-01
Two procedures are proposed for estimating the rejection probabilities of bootstrap tests in Monte Carlo experiments without actually computing a bootstrap test for each replication. These procedures are only about twice as expensive (per replication) as estimating rejection probabilities for asymptotic tests. Then a new procedure is proposed for computing bootstrap P values that will often be more accurate than ordinary ones. This “fast double bootstrap” is closely related to the double boot...
iDESWEB: Frameworks CSS: Bootstrap
Yuste Torregrosa, Álvaro; Luján Mora, Sergio
2012-01-01
Framework CSS (herramientas y pautas), frameworks más famosos (BluePrint, 960 Grid System, YUI), Twitter Bootstrap, ejemplo de botones, ejemplo de uso de la rejilla. Sitio web del curso: http://idesweb.es/
Bootstrapping Reflective Systems: The Case of Pharo
Polito, Guillermo; Ducasse, Stéphane; Fabresse, Luc; Bouraqadi, Noury; Van Ryseghem, Benjamin
2014-01-01
Bootstrapping is a technique commonly known by its usage in language definition by the introduction of a compiler written in the same language it compiles. This process is important to understand and modify the definition of a given language using the same language, taking benefit of the abstractions and expression power it provides. A bootstrap, then, supports the evolution of a language. However, the infrastructure of reflective systems like Smalltalk includes, in addition to a compiler, an...
Investigating Mortality Uncertainty Using the Block Bootstrap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoming Liu
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a block bootstrap method for measuring mortality risk under the Lee-Carter model framework. In order to take account of all sources of risk (the process risk, the parameter risk, and the model risk properly, a block bootstrap is needed to cope with the spatial dependence found in the residuals. As a result, the prediction intervals we obtain for life expectancy are more accurate than the ones obtained from other similar methods.
Theoretical Comparison of Bootstrap Confidence Intervals
Hall, Peter
1988-01-01
We develop a unified framework within which many commonly used bootstrap critical points and confidence intervals may be discussed and compared. In all, seven different bootstrap methods are examined, each being usable in both parametric and nonparametric contexts. Emphasis is on the way in which the methods cope with first- and second-order departures from normality. Percentile-$t$ and accelerated bias-correction emerge as the most promising of existing techniques. Certain other methods are ...
Investigating Mortality Uncertainty Using the Block Bootstrap
Xiaoming Liu; W. John Braun
2010-01-01
This paper proposes a block bootstrap method for measuring mortality risk under the Lee-Carter model framework. In order to take account of all sources of risk (the process risk, the parameter risk, and the model risk) properly, a block bootstrap is needed to cope with the spatial dependence found in the residuals. As a result, the prediction intervals we obtain for life expectancy are more accurate than the ones obtained from other similar methods.
A new approach to bootstrap inference in functional coefficient models
Herwartz, Helmut; Xu, Fang
2007-01-01
We introduce a new, factor based bootstrap approach which is robust under heteroskedastic error terms for inference in functional coefficient models. Modeling the functional coefficient parametrically, the bootstrap approximation of an F statistic is shown to hold asymptotically. In simulation studies with both parametric and nonparametric functional coefficients, factor based bootstrap inference outperforms the wild bootstrap and pairs bootstrap approach according to its size features. Apply...
The Bootstrap of Mean for Dependent Heterogeneous Arrays.
GONÇALVES, Silvia; White, Halbert
2001-01-01
Presently, conditions ensuring the validity of bootstrap methods for the sample mean of (possibly heterogeneous) near epoch dependent (NED) functions of mixing processes are unknown. Here we establish the validity of the bootstrap in this context, extending the applicability of bootstrap methods to a class of processes broadly relevant for applications in economics and finance. Our results apply to two block bootstrap methods: the moving blocks bootstrap of Künsch ( 989) and Liu and Singh ( 9...
Maximum Likelihood and the Bootstrap for Nonlinear Dynamic Models
Goncalves, Silvia; White, Halbert
2002-01-01
The bootstrap is an increasingly popular method for performing statistical inference. This paper provides the theoretical foundation for using the bootstrap as a valid tool of inference for quasi-maximum likelihood estimators (QMLE). We provide a unified framework for analyzing bootstrapped extremum estimators of nonlinear dynamic models for heterogeneous dependent stochastic processes. We apply our results to two block bootstrap methods, the moving blocks bootstrap of Künsch (1989) and Liu a...
A Score Based Approach to Wild Bootstrap Inference
Patrick M. Kline; Andres Santos
2010-01-01
We propose a generalization of the wild bootstrap of Wu (1986) and Liu (1988) based upon perturbing the scores of M-estimators. This "score bootstrap" procedure avoids recomputing the estimator in each bootstrap iteration, making it substantially less costly to compute than the conventional nonparametric bootstrap, particularly in complex nonlinear models. Despite this computational advantage, in the linear model, the score bootstrap studentized test statistic is equivalent to that of the con...
Conformal bootstrap: non-perturbative QFT's under siege
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
[Exceptionally in Council Chamber] Originally formulated in the 70's, the conformal bootstrap is the ambitious idea that one can use internal consistency conditions to carve out, and eventually solve, the space of conformal field theories. In this talk I will review recent developments in the field which have boosted this program to a new level. I will present a method to extract quantitative informations in strongly-interacting theories, such as 3D Ising, O(N) vector model and even systems without a Lagrangian formulation. I will explain how these techniques have led to the world record determination of several critical exponents. Finally, I will review exact analytical results obtained using bootstrap techniques.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
River Tinto is located in the Huelva province, SW of Spain. This river has been strongly affected by anthropogenic activities in its vicinity such as mining, paper mills or phosphoric acid industries (in fact phosphogypsum deposits, so-called gyp-stacks, are located in the mouth of the Tinto River estuary). The combination of acid water from mines, different industrial effluents and fluvial and sea waters plays a determining role in the evolutionary process of the environmental characteristics of the Tinto River and its estuary. In this context several natural radionuclides as polonium, radium, thorium and uranium isotopes, could be used as markers and/or tracers of several environmental processes. Therefore, environmental matrixes (superficial sediments, waters and suspended matter) have been collected from 12 points along the Tinto River and its estuary. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (210Po, 226,228Ra, 230,232Th, 234,238U) have been determined in these samples. Due to sampling conditions, low water volumes and suspended matter masses were collected, so radioactive activities were expected to be close to the mBq order of magnitude. As a consequence, alpha-particle spectrometry was a suitable radiometric technique to perform our wide set of measurements. Then a radiochemical scheme for polonium, radium, thorium and uranium isolation, purification and deposition from these polluted environmental samples was needed. This work will show the sequential radiochemical procedure, originally developed by CSIRO laboratories, adapted to our laboratory conditions and applied for natural radionuclides determination in environmental samples collected from the Tinto River. Hence, and after pretreatment of the sample, polonium was extracted by DDTC and deposited onto silver planchets. Then, after a co-precipitation process, uranium was found in the supernatant whereas radium and thorium were found in the precipitate. Using TBP, uranium was separated and
Wald, Abraham
2013-01-01
In 1943, while in charge of Columbia University's Statistical Research Group, Abraham Wald devised Sequential Design, an innovative statistical inference system. Because the decision to terminate an experiment is not predetermined, sequential analysis can arrive at a decision much sooner and with substantially fewer observations than equally reliable test procedures based on a predetermined number of observations. The system's immense value was immediately recognized, and its use was restricted to wartime research and procedures. In 1945, it was released to the public and has since revolutio
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel; Petersen, Roongrat
In recent years sequential injection (SI) analysis and Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approaches have proven themselves as powerful and versatile front ends to implement suitable pre-treatment procedures (separation and pre-concentration) for the assay of low concentrations of metals, as amply reflected...... of environmental interest as demonstrated by the accommodation of both single and sequential extraction schemes for metal fractionation of solid samples of environmental concern (e.g. soils and sediments) packed within dedicated microcartridges. An account of the construction and the experimental modes of operandi...
T.A. Knoch (Tobias)
2003-01-01
textabstractGenomes are one of the major foundations of life due to their role in information storage, process regulation and evolution. However, the sequential and three-dimensional structure of the human genome in the cell nucleus as well as its interplay with and embedding into the cell and o
T.A. Knoch (Tobias)
2003-01-01
textabstractGenomes are one of the major foundations of life due to their role in information storage, process regulation and evolution. However, the sequential and three-dimensional structure of the human genome in the cell nucleus as well as its interplay with and embedding into the cell and organ
Frentiu, Tiberiu; Pintican, Bogdan Petru; Butaciu, Sanziana; Mihaltan, Alin Ironim; Ponta, Michaela; Frentiu, Maria
2013-01-01
Background The paper presents the evaluation of soil contamination with total, water-available, mobile, semi-mobile and non-mobile Hg fractions in the surroundings of a former chlor-alkali plant in connection with several chemical soil characteristics. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were used to evaluate the chemical composition variability of soil and factors influencing the fate of Hg in such areas. The sequential extraction EPA 3200-Method and the determination technique...
Conformal Collider Physics from the Lightcone Bootstrap
Li, Daliang; Poland, David
2015-01-01
We analytically study the lightcone limit of the conformal bootstrap equations for 4-point functions containing global symmetry currents and the stress tensor in 3d CFTs. We show that the contribution of the stress tensor to the anomalous dimensions of large spin double-twist states is negative if and only if the conformal collider physics bounds are satisfied. In the context of AdS/CFT these results indicate a relation between the attractiveness of AdS gravity and positivity of the CFT energy flux. We also study the contribution of non-Abelian conserved currents to the anomalous dimensions of double-twist operators, corresponding to the gauge binding energy of 2-particle states in AdS. We show that the representation of the double-twist state determines the sign of the gauge binding energy if and only if the coefficient appearing in the current 3-point function satisfies a similar bound, which is equivalent to an upper bound on the charge flux asymmetry of the CFT.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Elo Harald
In recent years sequential injection (SI) analysis and Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approaches have proven themselves as powerful and versatile front ends to implement suitable pre-treatment procedures (separation and pre-concentration) for the assay of low concentrations of metals, as amply reflected...... packed with suitable materials, the emphasis in this lecture will be on applying solid-phase extraction in the SI/LOV mode. Providing unique characteristics and specific advantages, particularly allowing to take advantage of the so-called renewable approach, where the solid-phase material, if called for...... to handle solid samples of environmental interest as demonstrated by the accommodation of both single and sequential extraction schemes for metal fractionation of solid samples of environmental concern (e.g. soils and sediments) packed within dedicated microcartridges. A brief account of the construction...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miriam Martinez-Biarge
Full Text Available The evolution of non-hemorrhagic white matter injury (WMI based on sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has not been well studied. Our aim was to describe sequential MRI findings in preterm infants with non-hemorrhagic WMI and to develop an MRI classification system for preterm WMI based on these findings.Eighty-two preterm infants (gestation ≤35 weeks were retrospectively included. WMI was diagnosed and classified based on sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS and confirmed on MRI.138 MRIs were obtained at three time-points: early (<2 weeks; n = 32, mid (2-6 weeks; n = 30 and term equivalent age (TEA; n = 76. 63 infants (77% had 2 MRIs during the neonatal period. WMI was non-cystic in 35 and cystic in 47 infants. In infants with cystic-WMI early MRI showed extensive restricted diffusion abnormalities, cysts were already present in 3 infants; mid MRI showed focal or extensive cysts, without acute diffusion changes. A significant reduction in the size and/or extent of the cysts was observed in 32% of the infants between early/mid and TEA MRI. In 4/9 infants previously seen focal cysts were no longer identified at TEA. All infants with cystic WMI showed ≥2 additional findings at TEA: significant reduction in WM volume, mild-moderate irregular ventriculomegaly, several areas of increased signal intensity on T1-weighted-images, abnormal myelination of the PLIC, small thalami.In infants with extensive WM cysts at 2-6 weeks, cysts may be reduced in number or may even no longer be seen at TEA. A single MRI at TEA, without taking sequential cUS data and pre-TEA MRI findings into account, may underestimate the extent of WMI; based on these results we propose a new MRI classification for preterm non-hemorrhagic WMI.
Knoch, Tobias
2003-01-01
textabstractGenomes are one of the major foundations of life due to their role in information storage, process regulation and evolution. However, the sequential and three-dimensional structure of the human genome in the cell nucleus as well as its interplay with and embedding into the cell and organism only arise scarcely from the unknown. To achieve a deeper unterstanding of the human genome the three-dimensional organization of the human cell nucleus, the structural-, scaling- and dynamic p...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lozano, J.C. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Blanco Rodriguez, P. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Vera Tome, F., E-mail: fvt@unex.es [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Leal-Cidoncha, E. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
2012-04-15
In a previous paper the authors proposed a sequential method for the determination of isotopes of uranium, thorium, radium, and lead from environmental samples using alpha-particle spectrometry and LSC techniques. Although the radiochemical yields were suitable when the assays were performed on synthetic samples, application to real environmental samples caused a major decrease in the radiochemical yield, especially for uranium in inorganic samples (soils). A modification of the procedure is described that overcomes this drawback. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential methods permit one to obtain the radionuclides from the same aliquot. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposal method enhances the radiochemical yields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For soil samples, the yields were of (56{+-}2)%, (57{+-}6)%, and (71{+-}4)% for U, Ra, and Pb.
Early Stop Criterion from the Bootstrap Ensemble
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Fog, Torben L.
1997-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of generalization error estimation in neural networks. A new early stop criterion based on a Bootstrap estimate of the generalization error is suggested. The estimate does not require the network to be trained to the minimum of the cost function, as required...... by other methods based on asymptotic theory. Moreover, in contrast to methods based on cross-validation which require data left out for testing, and thus biasing the estimate, the Bootstrap technique does not have this disadvantage. The potential of the suggested technique is demonstrated on various time...
Bootstrap percolation: a renormalisation group approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In bootstrap percolation, sites are occupied at random with probability p, but each site is considered active only if at least m of its neighbours are also active. Within an approximate position-space renormalization group framework on a square lattice we obtain the behaviour of the critical concentration p (sub)c and of the critical exponents ν and β for m = 0 (ordinary percolation), 1,2 and 3. We find that the bootstrap percolation problem can be cast into different universality classes, characterized by the values of m. (author)
BOOTSTRAPPING FOR EXTRACTING RELATIONS FROM LARGE CORPORA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A new approach of relation extraction is described in this paper. It adopts a bootstrapping model with a novel iteration strategy, which generates more precise examples of specific relation. Compared with previous methods, the proposed method has three main advantages: first, it needs less manual intervention; second, more abundant and reasonable information are introduced to represent a relation pattern; third, it reduces the risk of circular dependency occurrence in bootstrapping. Scalable evaluation methodology and metrics are developed for our task with comparable techniques over TianWang 100G corpus. The experimental results show that it can get 90% precision and have excellent expansibility.
Conference on Bootstrapping and Related Techniques
Rothe, Günter; Sendler, Wolfgang
1992-01-01
This book contains 30 selected, refereed papers from an in- ternational conference on bootstrapping and related techni- ques held in Trier 1990. Thepurpose of the book is to in- form about recent research in the area of bootstrap, jack- knife and Monte Carlo Tests. Addressing the novice and the expert it covers as well theoretical as practical aspects of these statistical techniques. Potential users in different disciplines as biometry, epidemiology, computer science, economics and sociology but also theoretical researchers s- hould consult the book to be informed on the state of the art in this area.
Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campbell, K.
1988-08-01
Use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process. The fact that this function has to be estimated from data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the bootstrap in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as their kriging variance, provide a reasonable picture of variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.
A Large Sample Study of the Bayesian Bootstrap
Lo, Albert Y.
1987-01-01
An asymptotic justification of the Bayesian bootstrap is given. Large-sample Bayesian bootstrap probability intervals for the mean, the variance and bands for the distribution, the smoothed density and smoothed rate function are also provided.
The use of the bootstrap in the analysis of case-control studies with missing data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Johansen, Christoffer
2004-01-01
nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study......nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study...
Rogan, Nastja; Dolenec, Tadej; Serafimovski, Todor; Tasev, Goran; Dolenec, Matej
2008-01-01
In this study we examine the distribution of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in paddy soil samples from Kočani Field (Macedonia) by ICP-EAS and sequential extraction procedure. Very high concentrations of As (42 mg/kg), Cd (5.6 mg/kg), Cu (99 mg/kg), Pb (892 mg/kg) and Zn (1134 mg/kg) were found in the paddy soil sample from location VII-2 in the western part of Kočani Field, close to the Zletovska River, which drains the untreated effuents of the Pb-Zn mine in Zletovo and is used for th...
Non-Parametric Data Dependent Bootstrap for Conditional Moment Model
Bruce E. Hansen
2000-01-01
A new non-parametric bootstrap is introduced for dependent data. The bootstrap is based on a weighted empirical-likelihood estimate of the one-step-ahead conditional distribution, imposing the conditional moment restrictions implied by the model. This is the first dependent-data bootstrap procedure which imposes conditional moment restrictions on a bootstrap distribution. The method can be applied to form confidence intervals and p-values from hypothesis tests in Generalized Method of Moments...
Wild bootstrap of the mean in the infinite variance case
Giuseppe Cavaliere; Iliyan Georgiev; Robert Taylor, A. M.
2011-01-01
It is well known that the standard i.i.d. bootstrap of the mean is inconsistent in a location model with infinite variance (alfa-stable) innovations. This occurs because the bootstrap distribution of a normalised sum of infinite variance random variables tends to a random distribution. Consistent bootstrap algorithms based on subsampling methods have been proposed but have the drawback that they deliver much wider confidence sets than those generated by the i.i.d. bootstrap owing to the fact ...
uniform bootstrap confidence bands for bounded influence curve estimators
Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Ritov, Ya‘acov; Wang, Weining
2013-01-01
We consider theoretical bootstrap "coupling" techniques for nonparametric robust smoothers and quantile regression, and verify the bootstrap improvement. To cope with curse of dimensionality, a variant of "coupling" bootstrap techniques are developed for additive models with both symmetric error distributions and further extension to the quantile regression framework. Our bootstrap method can be used in many situations like constructing con dence intervals and bands. We demonstrate the bootst...
How to Bootstrap a Human Communication System
Fay, Nicolas; Arbib, Michael; Garrod, Simon
2013-01-01
How might a human communication system be bootstrapped in the absence of conventional language? We argue that motivated signs play an important role (i.e., signs that are linked to meaning by structural resemblance or by natural association). An experimental study is then reported in which participants try to communicate a range of pre-specified…
Pulling Econometrics Students up by Their Bootstraps
O'Hara, Michael E.
2014-01-01
Although the concept of the sampling distribution is at the core of much of what we do in econometrics, it is a concept that is often difficult for students to grasp. The thought process behind bootstrapping provides a way for students to conceptualize the sampling distribution in a way that is intuitive and visual. However, teaching students to…
A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation
Bai, Haiyan
2013-01-01
Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…
Automatic bootstrapping and tracking of object contours.
Chiverton, John; Xie, Xianghua; Mirmehdi, Majid
2012-03-01
A new fully automatic object tracking and segmentation framework is proposed. The framework consists of a motion-based bootstrapping algorithm concurrent to a shape-based active contour. The shape-based active contour uses finite shape memory that is automatically and continuously built from both the bootstrap process and the active-contour object tracker. A scheme is proposed to ensure that the finite shape memory is continuously updated but forgets unnecessary information. Two new ways of automatically extracting shape information from image data given a region of interest are also proposed. Results demonstrate that the bootstrapping stage provides important motion and shape information to the object tracker. This information is found to be essential for good (fully automatic) initialization of the active contour. Further results also demonstrate convergence properties of the content of the finite shape memory and similar object tracking performance in comparison with an object tracker with unlimited shape memory. Tests with an active contour using a fixed-shape prior also demonstrate superior performance for the proposed bootstrapped finite-shape-memory framework and similar performance when compared with a recently proposed active contour that uses an alternative online learning model. PMID:21908256
Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael
Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...
Weak Convergence of Smoothed and Nonsmoothed Bootstrap Quantile Estimates
Falk, M; Reiss, R.-D.
1989-01-01
Under fairly general assumptions on the underlying distribution function, the bootstrap process, pertaining to the sample $q$-quantile, converges weakly in $D_\\mathbb{R}$ to the standard Brownian motion. Furthermore, weak convergence of a smoothed bootstrap quantile estimate is proved which entails that in this particular case the smoothed bootstrap estimate outperforms the nonsmoothed one.
Testing for asymmetry in economic time series using bootstrap methods
Claudio Lupi; Patrizia Ordine
2001-01-01
In this paper we show that phase-scrambling bootstrap offers a natural framework for asymmetry testing in economic time series. A comparison with other bootstrap schemes is also sketched. A Monte Carlo analysis is carried out to evaluate the size and power properties of the phase-scrambling bootstrap-based test.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analytical procedure for determination of As(III) and As(V) in soils using sequential extraction combined with flow injection (FI) hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) was presented. The soils were sequentially extracted by water, 0.6 mol l-1 KH2PO4 solution, 1% (v/v) HCl solution and 1% (w/v) NaOH solution. The arsenite (As(III)) in extract was analyzed by HG-AFS in the medium of 0.1 mol l-1 citric acid solution, then the total arsenic in extract was determined by HG-AFS using on-line reduction of arsenate with L-cysteine. The concentration of arsenate (As(V)) was calculated by the difference. The optimum conditions of extraction and determination were studied in detail. The detection limit (3σ) for As(III) and As(V) were 0.11 and 0.07 μg l-1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 1.43% (n=11) at the 10 μg l-1 As level. The method was applied in the determination of As(III) and As(V) of real soils and the recoveries of As(III) and As(V) were in the range of 89.3-118 and 80.4-111%, respectively
Karakaseva, Elizabeta; Boev, Blazo; Zajkova-Paneva, Vesna
2012-01-01
The total and extractable forms of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Fe in vineyard soils from the valley of Valandovo were analyzed in order to understand the existence of metals in soils and their potential availability to the flora and fauna. The content of metals was determined by ICP-EAS analysis, while metal binding was defined with a sequential extraction procedure. The total content of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe and Cr, in almost all soil samples, did not exceed the maximum permissible cont...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Elo Harald
2005-01-01
to facilitate the desired sensitivity and selectivity of measurement. Such pretreatment schemes are advantageously performed in flow injection (FI) or sequential injection (SI) manifolds, where all unit operations can be effected on-line and under enclosed and strictly controlled conditions. Various separation...... and characteristics of FI and SI, we present, via selected examples, various separation/preconcentration FI/Sl schemes for the determination of trace levels of metals, with particular emphasis on the use of the novel extension of FI/SI, that is, the so-called lab-on-valve concept....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: → Sequential injection determination of phosphate in estuarine and freshwaters. → Alternative spectrophotometric flow cells are compared. → Minimization of schlieren effect was assessed. → Proposed method can cope with wide salinity ranges. → Multi-reflective cell shows clear advantages. - Abstract: A sequential injection system with dual analytical line was developed and applied in the comparison of two different detection systems viz; a conventional spectrophotometer with a commercial flow cell, and a multi-reflective flow cell coupled with a photometric detector under the same experimental conditions. The study was based on the spectrophotometric determination of phosphate using the molybdenum-blue chemistry. The two alternative flow cells were compared in terms of their response to variation of sample salinity, susceptibility to interferences and to refractive index changes. The developed method was applied to the determination of phosphate in natural waters (estuarine, river, well and ground waters). The achieved detection limit (0.007 μM PO43-) is consistent with the requirement of the target water samples, and a wide quantification range (0.024-9.5 μM) was achieved using both detection systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mesquita, Raquel B.R. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, R. Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Laboratory of Hydrobiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS) and Institute of Marine Research (CIIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Lg. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Ferreira, M. Teresa S.O.B. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, R. Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Toth, Ildiko V. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha, 164, 4050-047 Porto (Portugal); Bordalo, Adriano A. [Laboratory of Hydrobiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS) and Institute of Marine Research (CIIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Lg. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); McKelvie, Ian D. [School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rangel, Antonio O.S.S., E-mail: aorangel@esb.ucp.pt [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, R. Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)
2011-09-02
Highlights: {yields} Sequential injection determination of phosphate in estuarine and freshwaters. {yields} Alternative spectrophotometric flow cells are compared. {yields} Minimization of schlieren effect was assessed. {yields} Proposed method can cope with wide salinity ranges. {yields} Multi-reflective cell shows clear advantages. - Abstract: A sequential injection system with dual analytical line was developed and applied in the comparison of two different detection systems viz; a conventional spectrophotometer with a commercial flow cell, and a multi-reflective flow cell coupled with a photometric detector under the same experimental conditions. The study was based on the spectrophotometric determination of phosphate using the molybdenum-blue chemistry. The two alternative flow cells were compared in terms of their response to variation of sample salinity, susceptibility to interferences and to refractive index changes. The developed method was applied to the determination of phosphate in natural waters (estuarine, river, well and ground waters). The achieved detection limit (0.007 {mu}M PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) is consistent with the requirement of the target water samples, and a wide quantification range (0.024-9.5 {mu}M) was achieved using both detection systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An improved methodology has been developed, based on dissolution by automated fusion followed by extraction chromatography for the detection and quantification of uranium in environmental matrices by mass spectrometry. A rapid fusion protocol (2/LiBr melts were used. The use of a M4 fusion unit also improved repeatability in sample preparation over muffle furnace fusion. Instrumental issues originating from the presence of high salt concentrations in the digestate after lithium metaborate fusion was also mitigated using an extraction chromatography (EXC) protocol aimed at removing lithium and interfering matrix constituants prior to the elution of uranium. The sequential methodology, which can be performed simultaneously on three samples, requires less than 20 min per sample for fusion and separation. It was successfully coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) achieving detection limits below 100 pg kg-1 for 5-300 mg of sample.
Iterated smoothed bootstrap confidence intervals for population quantiles
Lee, SMS; Ho, YHS
2005-01-01
This paper investigates the effects of smoothed bootstrap iterations on coverage probabilities of smoothed bootstrap and bootstrap-t confidence intervals for population quantiles, and establishes the optimal kernel bandwidths at various stages of the smoothing procedures. The conventional smoothed bootstrap and bootstrap-t methods have been known to yield one-sided coverage errors of orders O(n−1/2) and o(n−2/3), respectively, for intervals based on the sample quantile of a random sample of s...
The Block-block Bootstrap: Improved Asymptotic Refinements
Donald W.K. Andrews
2002-01-01
The asymptotic refinements attributable to the block bootstrap for time series are not as large as those of the nonparametric iid bootstrap or the parametric bootstrap. One reason is that the independence between the blocks in the block bootstrap sample does not mimic the dependence structure of the original sample. This is the join-point problem. In this paper, we propose a method of solving this problem. The idea is not to alter the block bootstrap. Instead, we alter the original sample sta...
The cluster bootstrap consistency in generalized estimating equations
Cheng, Guang
2013-03-01
The cluster bootstrap resamples clusters or subjects instead of individual observations in order to preserve the dependence within each cluster or subject. In this paper, we provide a theoretical justification of using the cluster bootstrap for the inferences of the generalized estimating equations (GEE) for clustered/longitudinal data. Under the general exchangeable bootstrap weights, we show that the cluster bootstrap yields a consistent approximation of the distribution of the regression estimate, and a consistent approximation of the confidence sets. We also show that a computationally more efficient one-step version of the cluster bootstrap provides asymptotically equivalent inference. © 2012.
Bootstrapping phylogenies inferred from rearrangement data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Yu
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale sequencing of genomes has enabled the inference of phylogenies based on the evolution of genomic architecture, under such events as rearrangements, duplications, and losses. Many evolutionary models and associated algorithms have been designed over the last few years and have found use in comparative genomics and phylogenetic inference. However, the assessment of phylogenies built from such data has not been properly addressed to date. The standard method used in sequence-based phylogenetic inference is the bootstrap, but it relies on a large number of homologous characters that can be resampled; yet in the case of rearrangements, the entire genome is a single character. Alternatives such as the jackknife suffer from the same problem, while likelihood tests cannot be applied in the absence of well established probabilistic models. Results We present a new approach to the assessment of distance-based phylogenetic inference from whole-genome data; our approach combines features of the jackknife and the bootstrap and remains nonparametric. For each feature of our method, we give an equivalent feature in the sequence-based framework; we also present the results of extensive experimental testing, in both sequence-based and genome-based frameworks. Through the feature-by-feature comparison and the experimental results, we show that our bootstrapping approach is on par with the classic phylogenetic bootstrap used in sequence-based reconstruction, and we establish the clear superiority of the classic bootstrap for sequence data and of our corresponding new approach for rearrangement data over proposed variants. Finally, we test our approach on a small dataset of mammalian genomes, verifying that the support values match current thinking about the respective branches. Conclusions Our method is the first to provide a standard of assessment to match that of the classic phylogenetic bootstrap for aligned sequences. Its
A comparison of four different block bootstrap methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boris Radovanov
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The paper contains a description of four different block bootstrap methods, i.e., non-overlapping block bootstrap, overlapping block bootstrap (moving block bootstrap, stationary block bootstrap and subsampling. Furthermore, the basic goal of this paper is to quantify relative efficiency of each mentioned block bootstrap procedure and then to compare those methods. To achieve the goal, we measure mean square errors of estimation variance returns. The returns are calculated from 1250 daily observations of Serbian stock market index values BELEX15 from April 2009 to April 2014. Thereby, considering the effects of potential changes in decisions according to variations in the sample length and purposes of the use, this paper introduces stability analysis which contains robustness testing of the different sample size and the different block length. Testing results indicate some changes in bootstrap method efficiencies when altering the sample size or the block length.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Single-drop microextraction (SDME) and sequential injection analysis have been hyphenated for ultratrace metal determination by Electrothermal-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS). The novel method was targeted on extraction of the Cr(VI)-APDC chelate and encompasses the potential of SDME as a miniaturized and virtually solvent-free preconcentration technique, the ability of sequential injection analysis to handle samples and the versatility of furnace autosamplers for introducing microliter samples in ETAAS. The variables influencing the microextraction of Cr(VI) onto an organic solvent drop, i.e., type of organic solvent, microextraction time, stirring rate of the sample solution, drop volume, immersion depth of the drop, salting-out effect, temperature of the sample, concentration of the complexing agent and pH of the sample solution were fully investigated. For a 5 and 20 min microextraction time, the preconcentration factors were 20 and 70, respectively. The detection limit was 0.02 μg/L of Cr(VI) and the repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation was 7%. The SDME-SIA-ETAAS technique was validated against BCR CRM 544 (lyophilized solution) and applied to ultrasensitive determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters
Luan, Fubo; Burgos, William D
2012-11-01
Iron-bearing phyllosilicates strongly influence the redox state and mobility of uranium because of their limited hydraulic conductivity, high specific surface area, and redox reactivity. Standard extraction procedures cannot be accurately applied for the determination of clay-Fe(II/III) and U(IV/VI) in clay mineral-U suspensions such that advanced spectroscopic techniques are required. Instead, we developed and validated a sequential extraction method for determination of clay-Fe(II/III) and U(IV/VI) in clay-U suspensions. In our so-called "H(3)PO(4)-HF-H(2)SO(4) sequential extraction" method, H(3)PO(4)-H(2)SO(4) is used first to solubilize and remove U, and the remaining clay pellet is subject to HF-H(2)SO(4) digestion. Physical separation of U and clay eliminates valence cycling between U(IV/VI) and clay-Fe(II/III) that otherwise occurred in the extraction solutions and caused analytical discrepancies. We further developed an "automated anoxic KPA" method to measure soluble U(VI) and total U (calculate U(IV) by difference) and modified the conventional HF-H(2)SO(4) digestion method to eliminate a series of time-consuming weighing steps. We measured the kinetics of uraninite oxidation by nontronite using this sequential extraction method and anoxic KPA method and measured a stoichiometric ratio of 2.19 ± 0.05 mol clay-Fe(II) produced per mol U(VI) produced (theoretical value of 2.0). We found that we were able to recover 98.0-98.5% of the clay Fe and 98.1-98.5% of the U through the sequential extractions. Compared to the theoretical stoichiometric ratio of 2.0, the parallel extractions of 0.5 M HCl for clay-Fe(II) and 1 M NaHCO(3) for U(VI) leached two-times more Fe(II) than U(VI). The parallel extractions of HF-H(2)SO(4) for clay Fe(II) and 1 M NaHCO(3) for U(VI) leached six-times more Fe(II) than U(VI). PMID:23075386
Lahiri, S. N.
2005-01-01
Efron [J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 54 (1992) 83--111] proposed a computationally efficient method, called the jackknife-after-bootstrap, for estimating the variance of a bootstrap estimator for independent data. For dependent data, a version of the jackknife-after-bootstrap method has been recently proposed by Lahiri [Econometric Theory 18 (2002) 79--98]. In this paper it is shown that the jackknife-after-bootstrap estimators of the variance of a bootstrap quantile are consistent for both de...
Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campbell, K.
1987-01-01
The use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process, and the fact that this function has to be estimated from the data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the ''bootstrap'' in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as of their ''kriging variance,'' provide a reasonable picture of the variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.
The $(2,0)$ superconformal bootstrap
Beem, Christopher; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C
2016-01-01
We develop the conformal bootstrap program for six-dimensional conformal field theories with $(2,0)$ supersymmetry, focusing on the universal four-point function of stress tensor multiplets. We review the solution of the superconformal Ward identities and describe the superconformal block decomposition of this correlator. We apply numerical bootstrap techniques to derive bounds on OPE coefficients and scaling dimensions from the constraints of crossing symmetry and unitarity. We also derive analytic results for the large spin spectrum using the lightcone expansion of the crossing equation. Our principal result is strong evidence that the $A_1$ theory realizes the minimal allowed central charge $(c=25)$ for any interacting $(2,0)$ theory. This implies that the full stress tensor four-point function of the $A_1$ theory is the unique unitary solution to the crossing symmetry equation at $c=25$. For this theory, we estimate the scaling dimensions of the lightest unprotected operators appearing in the stress tenso...
[Sensitometry of Mammographic Screen-film System Using Bootstrap Aluminum Step-Wedge.].
Abe, Shinji; Imada, Ryou; Terauchi, Takashi; Fujisaki, Tatsuya; Monma, Masahiko; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Mochizuki, Yasuo
2005-01-01
Recently, a few types of step-wedges for bootstrap sensitometry with a mammographic screen-film system have been proposed. In this study, the bootstrap sensitometry with the mammographic screen-film system was studied for two types of aluminum step-wedges. Characteristic X-ray energy curves were determined using mammographic and general radiographic aluminum step-wedges devised to prevent scattered X-rays generated from one step penetrating into the region of another one, and dependence of the characteristic curves on the wedges was also discussed. No difference was found in the characteristic curves due to the difference in the step-wedges for mammography and general radiography although there was a slight difference in shape at the shoulder portion for the two types of step-wedges. Therefore, it was concluded that aluminum step-wedges for mammography and general radiography could be employed in bootstrap sensitometry with the mammographic screen-film system. PMID:16479054
Bootstrapping Deep Lexical Resources: Resources for Courses
Baldwin, Timothy
2007-01-01
We propose a range of deep lexical acquisition methods which make use of morphological, syntactic and ontological language resources to model word similarity and bootstrap from a seed lexicon. The different methods are deployed in learning lexical items for a precision grammar, and shown to each have strengths and weaknesses over different word classes. A particular focus of this paper is the relative accessibility of different language resource types, and predicted ``bang for the buck'' associated with each in deep lexical acquisition applications.
TASI Lectures on the Conformal Bootstrap
Simmons-Duffin, David
2016-01-01
These notes are from courses given at TASI and the Advanced Strings School in summer 2015. Starting from principles of quantum field theory and the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, we develop the basics of conformal field theory, including conformal Ward identities, radial quantization, reflection positivity, the operator product expansion, and conformal blocks. We end with an introduction to numerical bootstrap methods, focusing on the 2d and 3d Ising models.
Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Al-Shamali, K.
Speciation of three trace elements (Zn, Pb, Cu) in air particulates of two Syrian cities (Tartous and Darya) with different climate conditions and industrial emissions has been studied. Air filters were collected during 2000-2001 and extracted chemically using different selective fluids in an attempt to identify the different forms of trace elements. Approximately 60% of lead in air particulates of both cities was found to be associated with organic materials produced by incomplete burning of vehicles fuels and residential heating; the remaining 40% of lead was as lead oxides and mineral acids soluble compounds. Zinc was found in oxides (28-65%) samples collected in Tartous city, indicating that the Tartous cement factory and phosphate loading cargoes are the main source of emissions. In the Darya filters, zinc associated with organic materials (28-49%) was related to the presence of plastic molding industries and corroding car tires. In addition, copper was also found to be in the form of oxides (19-46%) in both cities in the summer periods, while 13-25% and 35% are associated with organic materials and silicates, respectively. Differences in chemical forms of the studied trace elements in air particulates were found to be related to differences in air pollution sources and differences in human behaviour throughout the year. Therefore, chemical fractionation of trace elements in air particulates using sequential leaching can be used for identification of air pollutions sources in urban and industrial areas.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shi, Keliang; Qiao, Jixin; Wu, Wangsuo;
2012-01-01
An automated method was developed for rapid determination of 99Tc in large volume seawater samples. The analytical procedure involves preconcentration of technetium with coprecipitation, online separation using extraction chromatography (two TEVA columns) implemented in a sequential injection setup......% depending on the sample volumes, and a detection limit of 7.5 mBq/m3 (or 11.5 pg/m3) for 200 L of seawater was obtained. Compared with the conventional analytical procedure, the developed method significantly reduces analytical time. A batch of samples (n > 4) can be analyzed within 24 h. The method has...... been successfully applied for rapid and automated determination of low level 99Tc in large volume seawater samples. The analytical results of seawater samples collected in Denmark show a good agreement with the values obtained using the conventional method....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel automatic sequential injection (SI) single-drop micro-extraction (SDME) system is proposed as versatile approach for on-line metal preconcentration and/or separation. Coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) the potentials of this SI scheme are demonstrated for trace cadmium determination in water samples. A non-charged complex of cadmium with ammonium diethyldithiophosphate (DDPA) was produced and extracted on-line into a 60 μL micro-drop of di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK). The extraction procedure was performed into a newly designed flow-through extraction cell coupled on a sequential injection manifold. As the complex Cd(II)-DDPA flowed continuously around the micro-droplet, the analyte was extracting into the solvent micro-drop. All the critical parameters were optimized and offered good performance characteristics and high preconcentration ratios. For 600 s micro-extraction time, the enhancement factor was 10 and the sampling frequency was 6 h-1. The detection limit was 0.01 μg L-1 and the precision (RSD at 0.1 μg L-1 of cadmium) was 3.9%. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sequential extraction procedures and the high-pressure digestion method were selected to determine the element constituents of fly ash samples. Sequential extraction is one of the most useful methods used to measure the various elements from municipal solid waste incineration ash and contaminated soils. The extract from each step is analyzed using various techniques and equipments, and the results are then evaluated. In this work, a six-step extraction procedure modified from that of Tessier et al. and Wang et al. was performed and applied to the certified reference material BCR 176 (city waste incineration ash). Analyses were carried out by various techniques such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) to evaluate the characteristics of fly ash. The extraction efficiency of many elements was higher than 80%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) for recovery of most elements were within 10%. In addition, an H2O2 + HNO3 + HF mixed acid digestion solution processed using a low-temperature evaporation procedure was selected as the optimal process for fly ash digestion. The results of this work provide information on the chemical composition, distribution, and potential mobility of the investigated elements
Giving the Boot to the Bootstrap: How Not to Learn the Natural Numbers
Rips, Lance J.; Asmuth, Jennifer; Bloomfield, Amber
2006-01-01
According to one theory about how children learn the concept of natural numbers, they first determine that "one", "two", and "three" denote the size of sets containing the relevant number of items. They then make the following inductive inference (the Bootstrap): The next number word in the counting series denotes the size of the sets you get by…
H. Bunschoten; M. Gore (Milind); I.J.Th.M. Claassen (Ivo); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); B. Dietzschold; W.H. Wunner; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab)
1989-01-01
textabstractTwo new monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) derived from mice immunized with the Pitman-Moore (PM) strain of rabies virus were used to identify and characterize two unique antigenic determinants on the rabies virus glycoprotein. One of the determinants, which defined an additional antigenic sit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald
2005-01-01
A new concept is presented for selective and sensitive determination of trace metals via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) based on the principle of bead injection (BI) with renewable reversed-phase surfaces in a sequential injection-lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) mode. The methodology...... involves the use of poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) beads containing pendant octadecyl moieties (C18-PS/DVB), which are preimpregnated with a selective organic metal chelating agent prior to the automatic manipulation of the beads in the microbore conduits of the LOV unit. By adapting this approach, the...... immobilization of the most suitable chelating agent can be effected irrespective of the kinetics involved, optimal reaction conditions can be used for implementing the chelating reaction of the target metal analyte with the immobilized reagent, and an added degree of freedom is offered in selecting the most...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per;
2010-01-01
This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) and neptunium (237Np) in environmental samples. An extraction chromatographic column packed with TrisKem TEVA® resin was incorporated in a sequential injection (SI......) system for the isolation of plutonium and neptunium from matrix elements and interfering nuclides. Valence adjustment is a crucial step to ensure the same chemical behavior of plutonium and neptunium onto the TEVA column and consequently to accomplish their simultaneous separation and detection. Distinct...... procedures were investigated and compared for the adjustment of oxidation states of plutonium and neptunium to Pu(IV) and Np(IV), respectively. A two-step protocol using sulfite and concentrated nitric acid as redox reagents was proven to be the most effective method. The analytical results for both...
Change-point in stochastic design regression and the bootstrap
Seijo, Emilio; Sen, Bodhisattva
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the consistency of different bootstrap procedures for constructing confidence intervals (CIs) for the unique jump discontinuity (change-point) in an otherwise smooth regression function in a stochastic design setting. This problem exhibits nonstandard asymptotics and we argue that the standard bootstrap procedures in regression fail to provide valid confidence intervals for the change-point. We propose a version of smoothed bootstrap, illustrate its remarkable finite sa...
Is Bootstrap Really Helpful in Point Process Statistics?
Snethlage, Martin
2000-01-01
There are some papers which describe the use of bootstrap techniques in point process statistics. The aim of the present paper is to show that the form in which bootstrap is used there is dubious. In case of variance estimation of pair correlation function estimators the used bootstrap techniques lead to results which can be obtained simpler without simulation; furthermore, they differ from the desired results. The problem to obtain confidence regions for the intensity function of inhomogeneo...
A PARAMETRIC BOOTSTRAP USING THE FIRST FOURMOMENTS OF THE RESIDUALS
Pierre-Eric Treyens
2007-01-01
We consider linear regression models and we suppose that disturbances are either Gaussian or non Gaussian. Until now, within the framework of the bootstrap, we thought that the error in rejection probability (ERP) had the same rate of convergence with the parametric bootstrap or the nonparametric bootstrap. For linear data generating processes (DGP) we show in this paper that this assertion is false if skewness and/or kurtosis coefficients of the distribution of the disturbances are nonnull. ...
Stationary bootstrapping realized volatility under market microstructure noise
Hwang, Eunju; Shin, Dong Wan
2013-01-01
Large-sample validity is proved for stationary bootstrapping of a bias-corrected realized volatility under market microstructure noise, which enables us to construct a bootstrap confidence interval of integrated volatility. A finite-sample simulation shows that the stationary bootstrapping confidence interval outperforms existing ones which are constructed ignoring market microstructure noise or using asymptotic normality for the bias-corrected realized volatility.
Model Based Bootstrap Methods for Interval Censored Data
Sen, Bodhisattva; Xu, Gongjun
2013-01-01
We investigate the performance of model based bootstrap methods for constructing point-wise confidence intervals around the survival function with interval censored data. We show that bootstrapping from the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of the survival function is inconsistent for both the current status and case 2 interval censoring models. A model based smoothed bootstrap procedure is proposed and shown to be consistent. In addition, simulation studies are conducted to illustra...
Bootstrap confidence intervals for the process capability index under half-logistic distribution
Wararit Panichkitkosolkul
2012-01-01
This study concerns the construction of bootstrap confidence intervals for theprocess capability index in the case of half-logistic distribution. The bootstrap confidence intervals applied consist of standard bootstrap confidence interval, percentile bootstrap confidence interval and bias-corrected percentile bootstrap confidence interval. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the estimated coverage probabilities and average widths ofbootstrap confidence intervals are compared, with results showing ...
Accidental Symmetries and the Conformal Bootstrap
Chester, Shai M; Iliesiu, Luca V; Klebanov, Igor R; Pufu, Silviu S; Yacoby, Ran
2015-01-01
We study an ${\\cal N} = 2$ supersymmetric generalization of the three-dimensional critical $O(N)$ vector model that is described by $N+1$ chiral superfields with superpotential $W = g_1 X \\sum_i Z_i^2 + g_2 X^3$. By combining the tools of the conformal bootstrap with results obtained through supersymmetric localization, we argue that this model exhibits a symmetry enhancement at the infrared superconformal fixed point due to $g_2$ flowing to zero. This example is special in that the existence of an infrared fixed point with $g_1,g_2\
Chu, Ning; Fan, Shihua
2009-12-01
A new analytical method was developed for the simultaneous kinetic spectrophotometric determination of a quaternary carbamate pesticide mixture consisting of carbofuran, propoxur, metolcarb and fenobucarb using sequential injection analysis (SIA). The procedure was based upon the different kinetic properties between the analytes reacted with reagent in flow system in the non-stopped-flow mode, in which their hydrolysis products coupled with diazotized p-nitroaniline in an alkaline medium to form the corresponding colored complexes. The absorbance data from SIA peak time profile were recorded at 510 nm and resolved by the use of back-propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms for multivariate quantitative analysis. The experimental variables and main network parameters were optimized and each of the pesticides could be determined in the concentration range of 0.5-10.0 μg mL -1, at a sampling frequency of 18 h -1. The proposed method was compared to other spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of mixtures of carbamate pesticides, and it was proved to be adequately reliable and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the four pesticide residues in water and fruit samples, obtaining the satisfactory results based on recovery studies (84.7-116.0%).
Confidence Intervals for the Mean: To Bootstrap or Not to Bootstrap
Calzada, Maria E.; Gardner, Holly
2011-01-01
The results of a simulation conducted by a research team involving undergraduate and high school students indicate that when data is symmetric the student's "t" confidence interval for a mean is superior to the studied non-parametric bootstrap confidence intervals. When data is skewed and for sample sizes n greater than or equal to 10, the results…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The development of mercury-free electroanalytical systems for in-field analysis of pollutants requires a foundation on the electrochemical behaviour of the chosen electrode material in the target sample matrices. In this work, the behaviour of gold working electrodes in the media employed in the BCR sequential extraction protocol, for the fractionation of metals in solid environmental matrices, is reported. All three of the BCR sequential extraction media are redox active, on the basis of acidity and oxygen content as well as the inherent reducing or oxidising nature of some of the reagents employed: 0.11 M acetic acid, 0.1 M hydroxylammonium chloride (adjusted to pH 2) and 1 M ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 2) with added trace hydrogen peroxide. The available potential ranges together with the demonstrated detection of target metals in these media are presented. Stripping voltammetry of copper or lead in the BCR extract media solutions reveal a multi-peak behaviour due to the stripping of both bulk metal and underpotential metal deposits. A procedure based on underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) was evaluated for application to determination of copper in 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. A preliminary screening step in which different deposition times are applied to the sample enables a deposition time commensurate with UPD-SV to be selected so that no bulk deposition or stripping occurs thus simplifying the shape and features of the resulting voltammograms. Choice of the suitable deposition time is then followed by standards addition calibration. The method was validated by the analysis of a number of BCR 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. Good agreement was obtained been the UPD-SV method and atomic spectroscopic results
Nava-Júnior, I. S.; Aucelio, R. Q.
2009-03-01
The selective determination of norfloxacin in mixtures with other fluorquinolones was achieved by synchronous scanning solid surface room-temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) and Th(NO 3) 4 as selective phosphorescence inducer. The method also allowed the determination of levofloxacin in a sequential way. The optimization of experimental conditions was made through an univariate approach, in order to find the best conditions for norfloxacin phosphorescence, followed by a 2 3 factorial design in order to verify interaction among relevant variables, to check robustness for each variable and to perform final adjustment of parameters. Absolute limit of detection (ALOD) for norfloxacin was 12 ng with a linear signal response extending up to 400 ng. Under the same experimental conditions set for norfloxacin, the ALOD for levofloxacin was 13 ng with linear signal response up to 450 ng. Accuracy of the method, using Th (IV) as selective phosphorescence inducer, was evaluated through the analysis of commercial and simulated pharmaceutical formulations with recoveries between 94.4 and 101% for norfloxacin and 95.9 and 103.8% for levofloxacin. The use of Cd (II), a traditional phosphorescence inducer for fluorquinolones, did not allow selective determination of norfloxacin. Further studies indicated the potential application of the method in urine samples.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
A short sequential extraction procedure(SSEP) was applied to the determination of more readily available metal fractions of Zn, Cu, and Cd in the riverbed sludge in Hejiagou, Harbin, China. From the results, a potential order of metal availability in seven sludge samples was proposed: Cd＜Cu＜Zn, and samples S1,S2, and S4 were used for the determination of total Zn content, and sample S3 used for the determination of total Cu content in the mobile and the mobilizable fractions showed the highest pollution risk. The results with regard to metal mobility in sludge samples were confirmed by the individual and global contamination factors that were calculated from the nonresidual and resi-dual metal contents. The results obtained from metal-release experiments after exposure of sludge to environmental conditions agreed well with those obtained from both SSEP and the individual and global contamination factors, indicating that the maximum metal release could be an additional factor to evaluate the heavy metal availability in contaminated sludge. A substantial time saving was achieved by using the metal-release method in the present study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A procedure is described by which plutonium and americium can be determined in environmental samples. The sample is leached with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and the two elements are co-precipitated with ferric hydroxide and calcium oxalate. The calcium oxalate is incinerated at 4500 and the ash is dissolved in nitric acid. Plutonium is extracted with tri-n-octylamine solution in xylene from 4M nitric acid and stripped with ammonium iodide/hydrochloric acid. Americium is extracted with thenoyltrifluoroacetone solution in xylene at pH 4 together with rare-earth elements and stripped with 1M nitric acid. Americium and the rare-earth elements thus separated are sorbed on Dowex 1 x 4 resin from 1M nitric acid in 93% methanol, the rare-earth elements are eluted with 0.1M hydrochloric acid/0.5M ammonium thiocyanate/80% methanol and the americium is finally eluted with 1.5M hydrochloric acid in 86% methanol. Plutonium and americium in each fraction are electro-deposited and determined by alpha-spectrometry. Overall average recoveries are 81% for plutonium and 59% for americium. (author)
Learning web development with Bootstrap and AngularJS
Radford, Stephen
2015-01-01
Whether you know a little about Bootstrap or AngularJS, or you're a complete beginner, this book will enhance your capabilities in both frameworks and you'll build a fully functional web app. A working knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript is required to fully get to grips with Bootstrap and AngularJS.
On bootstrap sample size in extreme value theory
J.L. Geluk (Jaap); L.F.M. de Haan (Laurens)
2002-01-01
textabstractIt has been known for a long time that for bootstrapping the probability distribution of the maximum of a sample consistently, the bootstrap sample size needs to be of smaller order than the original sample size. See Jun Shao and Dongsheng Tu (1995), Ex. 3.9,p. 123. We show that the same
Bootstrap Estimates of Standard Errors in Generalizability Theory
Tong, Ye; Brennan, Robert L.
2007-01-01
Estimating standard errors of estimated variance components has long been a challenging task in generalizability theory. Researchers have speculated about the potential applicability of the bootstrap for obtaining such estimates, but they have identified problems (especially bias) in using the bootstrap. Using Brennan's bias-correcting procedures…
Using Commonly Available Software for Conducting Bootstrap Analyses.
Fan, Xitao
Bootstrap analysis, both for nonparametric statistical inference and for describing sample results stability and replicability, has been gaining prominence among quantitative researchers in educational and psychological research. Procedurally, however, it is often quite a challenge for quantitative researchers to implement bootstrap analysis in…
Unbiased Estimates of Variance Components with Bootstrap Procedures
Brennan, Robert L.
2007-01-01
This article provides general procedures for obtaining unbiased estimates of variance components for any random-model balanced design under any bootstrap sampling plan, with the focus on designs of the type typically used in generalizability theory. The results reported here are particularly helpful when the bootstrap is used to estimate standard…
Bootstrapping and Bartlett corrections in the cointegrated VAR model
P.H. Omtzigt; S. Fachin
2003-01-01
The small sample properties of tests on long-run coefficients in cointegrated systems are still a matter of concern to applied econometricians. We compare the performance of the Bartlett correction, the bootstrap and the fast double bootstrap for tests on ccointegration parameters in the maximum lik
A nonparametric hypothesis test via the Bootstrap resampling
Temel, Tugrul
2011-01-01
This paper adapts an already existing nonparametric hypothesis test to the bootstrap framework. The test utilizes the nonparametric kernel regression method to estimate a measure of distance between the models stated under the null hypothesis. The bootstraped version of the test allows to approximate errors involved in the asymptotic hypothesis test. The paper also develops a Mathematica Code for the test algorithm.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.
1991-01-01
with simulated soil extracts obtained using 50 ml of 2 M potassium chloride solution containing 130-mu-g of NH4+-N (2.3 atom% N-15) and 120-mu-g of NO3--N (natural N-15 abundance). No cross-over in the N-15 abundances of NH4+-N and NO3--N was observed, indicating a quantitative diffusion process (72 h, 25......A novel diffusion method was used for preparation of NH4+- and NO3--N samples from soil extracts for N-15 determination. Ammonium, and nitrate following reduction to ammonia, are allowed to diffuse to an acid-wetted glass filter enclosed in polytetrafluoroethylene tape. The method was evaluated...
Peña-Vázquez, E.; Barciela-Alonso, M. C.; Pita-Calvo, C.; Domínguez-González, R.; Bermejo-Barrera, P.
2015-09-01
The objective of this work is to develop a method for the determination of metals in saline matrices using high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS). Module SFS 6 for sample injection was used in the manual mode, and flame operating conditions were selected. The main absorption lines were used for all the elements, and the number of selected analytical pixels were 5 (CP±2) for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, and 3 pixels for Mn (CP±1). Samples were acidified (0.5% (v/v) nitric acid), and the standard addition method was used for the sequential determination of the analytes in diluted samples (1:2). The method showed good precision (RSD(%) < 4%, except for Pb (6.5%)) and good recoveries. Accuracy was checked after the analysis of an SPS-WW2 wastewater reference material diluted with synthetic seawater (dilution 1:2), showing a good agreement between certified and experimental results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ristya Widi Endah Yani
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Bootstrap is a computer simulation-based method that provides estimation accuracy in estimating inferential statistical parameters. Purpose: This article describes a research using secondary data (n = 30 aimed to elucidate bootstrap method as the estimator of linear regression test based on the computer programs MINITAB 13, SPSS 13, and MacroMINITAB. Methods: Bootstrap regression methods determine ˆ β and Yˆ value from OLS (ordinary least square, ε i = Yi −Yˆi value, determine how many repetition for bootstrap (B, take n sample by replacement from ε i to ε (i , Yi = Yˆi + ε (i value, ˆ β value from sample bootstrap at i vector. If the amount of repetition less than, B a recalculation should be back to take n sample by using replacement from ε i . Otherwise, determine ˆ β from “bootstrap” methods as the average ˆ β value from the result of B times sample taken. Result: The result has similar result compared to linear regression equation with OLS method (α = 5%. The resulting regression equation for caries was = 1.90 + 2.02 (OHI-S, indicating that every one increase of OHI-S unit will result in caries increase of 2.02 units. Conclusion: This was conducted with B as many as 10,500 with 10 times iterations.
Hilmer, Christiana E.; Holt, Matthew T.
2000-01-01
This paper compares the finite sample performance of subsample bootstrap and subsample jackknife techniques to the traditional bootstrap method when parameters are constrained to be on some boundary. To assess how these three methods perform in an empirical application, a negative semi-definite translog cost function is estimated using U.S. manufacturing data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► Drop-in-plug micro-extraction based on SI-LAV platform for metal preconcentration. ► Automatic liquid phase micro-extraction coupled with FAAS. ► Organic solvents with density higher than water are used. ► Lead determination in environmental water and urine samples. -- Abstract: A novel automatic on-line liquid phase micro-extraction method based on drop-in-plug sequential injection lab-at-valve (LAV) platform was proposed for metal preconcentration and determination. A flow-through micro-extraction chamber mounted at the selection valve was adopted without the need of sophisticated lab-on-valve components. Coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), the potential of this lab-at-valve scheme is demonstrated for trace lead determination in environmental and biological water samples. A hydrophobic complex of lead with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was formed on-line and subsequently extracted into an 80 μL plug of chloroform. The extraction procedure was performed by forming micro-droplets of aqueous phase into the plug of the extractant. All critical parameters that affect the efficiency of the system were studied and optimized. The proposed method offered good performance characteristics and high preconcentration ratios. For 10 mL sample consumption an enhancement factor of 125 was obtained. The detection limit was 1.8 μg L−1 and the precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) at 50.0 μg L−1 of lead was 2.9%. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and applied for lead determination in natural waters and urine samples
顺序注射尿碘测定仪的研制及应用%Sequential Injection Instrument for Determination of Urine Iodine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘颖; 张榕; 布伟静; 唐洁冰; 陈珊; 刘立侠
2009-01-01
An iodine analysis instrument with sequential injection of urine samples was developed. A method for measurement of urine iodine was also developed by combining sequential injection and catalysis kinetics,and making use of catalysis facilitation of the iodine in the redox reaction of As~(3+) and Ce~(4+) . The sequential injection and stopped-flow stabilization determination were made possible by the program-controlled injector with controlled flow rate and the 16-hole program-controlled selection valves. The arsenic-cerium reaction with iodine-catalyzed at constant temperature state might proceed with the constant temperature flow cell. Using the syringes with program-controlled velocity,pushing and suction,Using the digital connected circuit and micro-iodine determination software,the reaction temperature of (32.0±0.1)℃,injection time of 45 s,stabilization time of 60 s,detection time of 20 s,injection volume of 400μL,linear range of 15 -600μg/L,detecting limitation of 5.01 μg/L(n=11) and recovery rate of 94. 1 % - 105. 1 % were obtained. With this method,the detecting result of the National Standard Reference (GBW09109 and GBW09110) materials was within a given standard range. Through this method,the detecting results had no significant differences comparing with those by standard method of National Health Service(P >0.05).%研制了一种顺序注射尿碘分析仪,将顺序注射技术与催化动力学分析相结合,利用碘对砷-铈氧化还原反应的催化作用,建立了顺序注射尿碘测定方法.采用流速和推吸可控的程控注射器及16孔程控选择阀,实现了顺序注射进样和停留稳态测量.恒温流动池使碘催化的砷-铈反应可以在恒温状态下进行.应用自行设计的微机接口电路和尿碘测定的应用软件,控制反应温度(32.0±0.1)℃,流动配送时间45 s,停流稳定时间60 s,停流检测时间20 s,进样量400 μL.本方法线性范围为15～600 μg/L,检出限为5.01 μg/L(n=11),
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 in environmental samples and applied to the analysis of mineral waters is studied. Thorium isotopes are coprecipitated with lanthanium fluoride before counting in alpha spectrometer, the uranium isotopes are determined by alpha spectrometry following extraction with TOPO onto a polymenic membrane. Radium-226 is determined with the radom emanation technique. (M.J.C.)
Conformal bootstrap, universality and gravitational scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven Jackson
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We use the conformal bootstrap equations to study the non-perturbative gravitational scattering between infalling and outgoing particles in the vicinity of a black hole horizon in AdS. We focus on irrational 2D CFTs with large c and only Virasoro symmetry. The scattering process is described by the matrix element of two light operators (particles between two heavy states (BTZ black holes. We find that the operator algebra in this regime is (i universal and identical to that of Liouville CFT, and (ii takes the form of an exchange algebra, specified by an R-matrix that exactly matches the scattering amplitude of 2+1 gravity. The R-matrix is given by a quantum 6j-symbol and the scattering phase by the volume of a hyperbolic tetrahedron. We comment on the relevance of our results to scrambling and the holographic reconstruction of the bulk physics near black hole horizons.
Conformal Bootstrap, Universality and Gravitational Scattering
Jackson, Steven; Verlinde, Herman
2014-01-01
We use the conformal bootstrap equations to study the non-perturbative gravitational scattering between infalling and outgoing particles in the vicinity of a black hole horizon in AdS. We focus on irrational 2D CFTs with large $c$, a sparse light spectrum and only Virasoro symmetry. The scattering process is described by the matrix element of two light operators (particles) between two heavy states (BTZ black holes). We find that the operator algebra in this regime is (i) universal and identical to that of Liouville CFT, and (ii) takes the form of an exchange algebra, specified by an R-matrix that exactly matches with the scattering amplitude of 2+1 gravity. The R-matrix is given by a quantum 6j-symbol and the scattering phase by the volume of a hyperbolic tetrahedron. We comment on the relevance of our results to scrambling and the holographic reconstruction of the bulk physics near black hole horizons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An automated sequential injection (SI) method for the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwaters is presented. For DIC measurement on-line sample acidification (sulphuric acid, pH 2 which subsequently diffused through a PTFE membrane into a basic, cresol red acceptor stream. The CO2 increased the concentration of the acidic form of the cresol red indicator, with a resultant decrease in absorbance at 570 nm being directly proportional to DIC concentration. DIC + DOC was determined after on-line sample irradiation (15 W low power UV lamp) coupled with acid-peroxydisulfate digestion, with the subsequent detection of CO2 as described above. DOC was determined by subtraction of DIC from (DIC + DOC). Analytical figures of merit were linear ranges of 0.05-5.0 mg C L-1 for both DIC and DIC + DOC, with typical R.S.D.s of less than 7% (0.05 mg C L-1-5.3% for DIC and 6.6% for DIC + DOC; 4.0 mg C L-1-2.6% for DIC and 2.4% for DIC + DOC, n = 3) and an LOD (blank + 3S.D.) of 0.05 mg C L-1. Sample throughput for the automated system was 8 h-1 for DIC and DOC with low reagent consumption (acid/peroxydisulfate 200 μL per DIC + DOC analysis). A range of model carbon compounds and Tamar River (Plymouth, UK) samples were analysed for DIC and DOC and the results showed good agreement with a high temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO) reference method (t-test, P = 0.05)
Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Miró, Manuel
2009-10-01
This article presents an automated method for the rapid determination of 239Pu and 240Pu in various environmental samples. The analytical method involves the in-line separation of Pu isotopes using extraction chromatography (TEVA) implemented in a sequential injection (SI) network followed by detection of isolated analytes with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method has been devised for the determination of Pu isotopes at environmentally relevant concentrations, whereby it has been successfully applied to the analyses of large volumes/amounts of samples, for example, 100-200 g of soil and sediment, 20 g of seaweed, and 200 L of seawater following analyte preconcentration. The investigation of the separation capability of the assembled SI system revealed that up to 200 g of soil or sediment can be treated using a column containing about 0.70 g of TEVA resin. The analytical results of Pu isotopes in the reference materials showed good agreement with the certified or reference values at the 0.05 significance level. Chemical yields of Pu ranged from 80 to 105%, and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium, mercury and lead were all above 10(4). The duration of the in-line extraction chromatographic run was <1.5 h, and the proposed setup was able to handle up to 20 samples (14 mL each) in a fully automated mode using a single chromatographic column. The SI manifold is thus suitable for rapid and automated determination of Pu isotopes in environmental risk assessment and emergency preparedness scenarios. PMID:19722516
Horstkotte, Burkhard; Jarošová, Patrícia; Chocholouš, Petr; Sklenářová, Hana; Solich, Petr
2015-05-01
In this work, the applicability of Sequential Injection Chromatography for the determination of transition metals in water is evaluated for the separation of copper(II), zinc(II), and iron(II) cations. Separations were performed using a Dionex IonPAC™ guard column (50mm×2mm i.d., 9 µm). Mobile phase composition and post-column reaction were optimized by modified SIMPLEX method with subsequent study of the concentration of each component. The mobile phase consisted of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as analyte-selective compound, sodium sulfate, and formic acid/sodium formate buffer. Post-column addition of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol was carried out for spectrophotometric detection of the analytes׳ complexes at 530nm. Approaches to achieve higher robustness, baseline stability, and detection sensitivity by on-column stacking of the analytes and initial gradient implementation as well as air-cushion pressure damping for post-column reagent addition were studied. The method allowed the rapid separation of copper(II), zinc(II), and iron(II) within 6.5min including pump refilling and aspiration of sample and 1mmol HNO3 for analyte stacking on the separation column. High sensitivity was achieved applying an injection volume of up to 90µL. A signal repeatability of<2% RSD of peak height was found. Analyte recovery evaluated by spiking of different natural water samples was well suited for routine analysis with sub-micromolar limits of detection.
Ding, Jun; Mao, Li-Jing; Guo, Ning; Yu, Lei; Feng, Yu-Qi
2016-05-13
In this study, a sequential magnetic solid phase extraction followed by in situ derivatization/desorption method was proposed for the fast, selective and sensitive determination of brassinosteroids (BRs) in plant tissues. Magnetic sorbent for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method (mQuEChERS) and polymer(4-vinylphenylboronic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) coated Fe3O4@SiO2 (p(4-VPBA-co-EGDMA) coated Fe3O4@SiO2) were prepared and characterized. Using them as sorbents, pigments and hydrophilic interferents were firstly removed from plant extract by mQuEChERS, and then endogenous BRs were selectively enriched by p(4-VPBA-co-EGDMA) coated Fe3O4@SiO2 through boronate affinity interaction. After loading BRs on p(4-VPBA-co-EGDMA) coated Fe3O4@SiO2, instead of directly eluting free BRs, the adsorbed BRs were released by adding 4-(N,N-dimethyamino)phenylboronic acid (4-DMAPBA) solution for in situ derivatizaiton/desorption of BRs based on a transesterification reaction between the boronate moieties of p(4-VPBA-co-EGDMA) coated Fe3O4@SiO2 and 4-DMAPBA, finally the resultant solution was submitted to LC-MS/MS for quantification. The whole procedure of the sequential MSPE could be accomplished within 1h, and the matrix effect to MS signal after the sample pretreatment was estimated to be in the range of 93.0-97.4%. The established method provided broad linear dynamics ranges (1.0-100.0pg/mL) with correlation coefficients (R) >0.9978, substantial sensitivity (limits of detection ranged from 0.27 to 1.29pg/mL), high reproducibility (intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 14.8%) and satisfactory accuracy (recoveries ranged from 74.0%-116.6%). Furthermore, endogenous BRs were successfully detected in one flower of Brassica napus L. (22.5-542.7pg/g fresh weight) and other plant tissues (13.7-289.8pg/g fresh weight). PMID:27072523
Bootstrap consistency for general semiparametric M-estimation
Cheng, Guang
2010-10-01
Consider M-estimation in a semiparametric model that is characterized by a Euclidean parameter of interest and an infinite-dimensional nuisance parameter. As a general purpose approach to statistical inferences, the bootstrap has found wide applications in semiparametric M-estimation and, because of its simplicity, provides an attractive alternative to the inference approach based on the asymptotic distribution theory. The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical justifications for the use of bootstrap as a semiparametric inferential tool. We show that, under general conditions, the bootstrap is asymptotically consistent in estimating the distribution of the M-estimate of Euclidean parameter; that is, the bootstrap distribution asymptotically imitates the distribution of the M-estimate. We also show that the bootstrap confidence set has the asymptotically correct coverage probability. These general onclusions hold, in particular, when the nuisance parameter is not estimable at root-n rate, and apply to a broad class of bootstrap methods with exchangeable ootstrap weights. This paper provides a first general theoretical study of the bootstrap in semiparametric models. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald;
2006-01-01
Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the pa......Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified...... by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorous in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase...... associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the 3 steps of the Hietjles-Litjkema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0 M NH4Cl, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Injang, Uthaitip; Noyrod, Peeyanun [Sensor Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Siangproh, Weena [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukumvit 23 Rd., Wattana, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Dungchai, Wijitar [Sensor Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Motomizu, Shoji [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushimanaka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Chailapakul, Orawon, E-mail: corawon@chula.ac.th [Sensor Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)
2010-05-23
A method for the simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) at low {mu}g L{sup -1} concentration levels by sequential injection analysis-anodic stripping voltammetry (SIA-ASV) using screen-printed carbon nanotubes electrodes (SPCNTE) was developed. A bismuth film was prepared by in situ plating of bismuth on the screen-printed carbon nanotubes electrode. Operational parameters such as ratio of carbon nanotubes to carbon ink, bismuth concentration, deposition time and flow rate during preconcentration step were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges were found to be 2-100 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Pb(II) and Cd(II), and 12-100 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Zn(II). The limits of detection (S{sub bl}/S = 3) were 0.2 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Pb(II), 0.8 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd(II) and 11 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Zn(II). The measurement frequency was found to be 10-15 stripping cycle h{sup -1}. The present method offers high sensitivity and high throughput for on-line monitoring of trace heavy metals. The practical utility of our method was also demonstrated with the determination of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) by spiking procedure in herb samples. Our methodology produced results that were correlated with ICP-AES data. Therefore, we propose a method that can be used for the automatic and sensitive evaluation of heavy metals contaminated in herb items.
Thorn, Graeme J; King, John R
2016-01-01
The Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic endospore-forming species which produces acetone, butanol and ethanol via the acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation process, leading to biofuels including butanol. In previous work we looked to estimate the parameters in an ordinary differential equation model of the glucose metabolism network using data from pH-controlled continuous culture experiments. Here we combine two approaches, namely the approximate Bayesian computation via an existing sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) method (to compute credible intervals for the parameters), and the profile likelihood estimation (PLE) (to improve the calculation of confidence intervals for the same parameters), the parameters in both cases being derived from experimental data from forward shift experiments. We also apply the ABC-SMC method to investigate which of the models introduced previously (one non-sporulation and four sporulation models) have the greatest strength of evidence. We find that the joint approximate posterior distribution of the parameters determines the same parameters as previously, including all of the basal and increased enzyme production rates and enzyme reaction activity parameters, as well as the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for glucose ingestion, while other parameters are not as well-determined, particularly those connected with the internal metabolites acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA. We also find that the approximate posterior is strongly non-Gaussian, indicating that our previous assumption of elliptical contours of the distribution is not valid, which has the effect of reducing the numbers of pairs of parameters that are (linearly) correlated with each other. Calculations of confidence intervals using the PLE method back this up. Finally, we find that all five of our models are equally likely, given the data available at present. PMID:26561777
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: This paper presents an automated analytical method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of Pu and Np in the environmental samples. Anion exchange chromatographic column was incorporated in a sequential injection system to actualize the automated separation of Pu isotpes along with 237Np from the matrix elements and interfering radionuclides. K2S2O5-conc. HNO3 was applied as redox reagents for the valence adjustment and stabilization of Pu(IV) and Np(IV). 242Pu preformed well as a tracer for both Pu isotopes and 237Np. It was observed that the cross-link and particle size of the resins had significant effluence on the separation efficiency and anion exchange resin Bio-Rad AG 1 x 4 with the particle size of 100-200 mesh was chosen as the optimum. The investigation on the capacity showed small-sized column packed with 2mL resin sufficed up to 50g of soil sample, which provides an advantage of low consumption of the resin and low generation of acid waste after the column washing. The analytical results for Pu and Np in three reference materials showed good agreement with the certified or reference values at the 0.05 significance level. Chemical yields of Pu and Np equally range from 80% to 100%, and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead were in the range of 103 to 104. The total time of separation for a single sample was < 2.5 hours, which extremely improve the analysis efficiency and reduces the labor intensity, as well as enables a rapid determination of Pu and Np in emergency situations. (author)
Properties of bootstrap tests for N-of-1 studies
Lin, Sharon Xiaowen; Morrison, Leanne; Smith, Peter; Hargood, Charlie; Weal, Mark; Yardley, Lucy
2016-01-01
N-of-1 study designs involve the collection and analysis of repeated measures data from an individual not using an intervention and using an intervention. This study explores the use of semi-parametric and parametric bootstrap tests in the analysis of N-of-1 studies under a single time series framework in the presence of autocorrelation. When the Type I error rates of bootstrap tests are compared to Wald tests, our results show that the bootstrap tests have more desirable properties. We compa...
SEQUENTIAL LOCALIZATION OF SENSOR NETWORKS
Fang, J.; Cao, M.; Morse, A. S.; Anderson, B. D. O.
2009-01-01
The sensor network localization problem with distance information is to determine the positions of all sensors in a network, given the positions of some of the sensors and the distances between some pairs of sensors. A definition is given for a sensor network in the plane to be "sequentially localiz
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Maria Celia Ramos; Ludwig, Gerson Otto [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma]. E-mail: mcr@plasma.inpe.br
2004-07-01
Different bootstrap current formulations are implemented in a self-consistent equilibrium calculation obtained from a direct variational technique in fixed boundary tokamak plasmas. The total plasma current profile is supposed to have contributions of the diamagnetic, Pfirsch-Schlueter, and the neoclassical Ohmic and bootstrap currents. The Ohmic component is calculated in terms of the neoclassical conductivity, compared here among different expressions, and the loop voltage determined consistently in order to give the prescribed value of the total plasma current. A comparison among several bootstrap current models for different viscosity coefficient calculations and distinct forms for the Coulomb collision operator is performed for a variety of plasma parameters of the small aspect ratio tokamak ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) at the Associated Plasma Laboratory of INPE, in Brazil. We have performed this comparison for the ETE tokamak so that the differences among all the models reported here, mainly regarding plasma collisionality, can be better illustrated. The dependence of the bootstrap current ratio upon some plasma parameters in the frame of the self-consistent calculation is also analysed. We emphasize in this paper what we call the Hirshman-Sigmar/Shaing model, valid for all collisionality regimes and aspect ratios, and a fitted formulation proposed by Sauter, which has the same range of validity but is faster to compute than the previous one. The advantages or possible limitations of all these different formulations for the bootstrap current estimate are analysed throughout this work. (author)
Double bootstrap confidence intervals in the two-stage DEA approach
Chronopoulos, D.K.; Girardone, C.; Nankervis, J.C.
2015-01-01
Contextual factors usually assume an important role in determining firms' productive efficiencies. Nevertheless, identifying them in a regression framework might be complicated. The problem arises from the efficiencies being correlated with each other when estimated by Data Envelopment Analysis, rendering standard inference methods invalid. Simar and Wilson (2007) suggest the use of bootstrap algorithms that allow for valid statistical inference in this context. This article extends their wor...
Variance estimation in neutron coincidence counting using the bootstrap method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubi, C., E-mail: chendb331@gmail.com [Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B. 9001 Beer Sheva (Israel); Ocherashvilli, A.; Ettegui, H. [Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B. 9001 Beer Sheva (Israel); Pedersen, B. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Via E. Fermi, 2749 JRC, Ispra (Italy)
2015-09-11
In the study, we demonstrate the implementation of the “bootstrap” method for a reliable estimation of the statistical error in Neutron Multiplicity Counting (NMC) on plutonium samples. The “bootstrap” method estimates the variance of a measurement through a re-sampling process, in which a large number of pseudo-samples are generated, from which the so-called bootstrap distribution is generated. The outline of the present study is to give a full description of the bootstrapping procedure, and to validate, through experimental results, the reliability of the estimated variance. Results indicate both a very good agreement between the measured variance and the variance obtained through the bootstrap method, and a robustness of the method with respect to the duration of the measurement and the bootstrap parameters.
Bootstrapping pre-averaged realized volatility under market microstructure noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hounyo, Ulrich; Goncalves, Sílvia; Meddahi, Nour
The main contribution of this paper is to propose a bootstrap method for inference on integrated volatility based on the pre-averaging approach of Jacod et al. (2009), where the pre-averaging is done over all possible overlapping blocks of consecutive observations. The overlapping nature of the pre......-averaged returns implies that these are kn-dependent with kn growing slowly with the sample size n. This motivates the application of a blockwise bootstrap method. We show that the "blocks of blocks" bootstrap method suggested by Politis and Romano (1992) (and further studied by Bühlmann and Künsch (1995)) is...... valid only when volatility is constant. The failure of the blocks of blocks bootstrap is due to the heterogeneity of the squared pre-averaged returns when volatility is stochastic. To preserve both the dependence and the heterogeneity of squared pre-averaged returns, we propose a novel procedure that...
'Bootstrap' Configuration for Multistage Pulse-Tube Coolers
Nguyen, Bich; Nguyen, Lauren
2008-01-01
A bootstrap configuration has been proposed for multistage pulse-tube coolers that, for instance, provide final-stage cooling to temperatures as low as 20 K. The bootstrap configuration supplants the conventional configuration, in which customarily the warm heat exchangers of all stages reject heat at ambient temperature. In the bootstrap configuration, the warm heat exchanger, the inertance tube, and the reservoir of each stage would be thermally anchored to the cold heat exchanger of the next warmer stage. The bootstrapped configuration is superior to the conventional setup, in some cases increasing the 20 K cooler's coefficient of performance two-fold over that of an otherwise equivalent conventional layout. The increased efficiency could translate into less power consumption, less cooler mass, and/or lower cost for a given amount of cooling.
On the range of validity of the autoregressive sieve bootstrap
Kreiss, Jens-Peter; Politis, Dimitris N; 10.1214/11-AOS900
2012-01-01
We explore the limits of the autoregressive (AR) sieve bootstrap, and show that its applicability extends well beyond the realm of linear time series as has been previously thought. In particular, for appropriate statistics, the AR-sieve bootstrap is valid for stationary processes possessing a general Wold-type autoregressive representation with respect to a white noise; in essence, this includes all stationary, purely nondeterministic processes, whose spectral density is everywhere positive. Our main theorem provides a simple and effective tool in assessing whether the AR-sieve bootstrap is asymptotically valid in any given situation. In effect, the large-sample distribution of the statistic in question must only depend on the first and second order moments of the process; prominent examples include the sample mean and the spectral density. As a counterexample, we show how the AR-sieve bootstrap is not always valid for the sample autocovariance even when the underlying process is linear.
Teixeira, Leonel Silva; Vieira, Heulla Pereira; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina
2014-02-01
A fast and accurate method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction in a cup-horn sonoreactor was developed to determine the total content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in organic fertilizers by fast sequential flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FS FAAS). Multivariate optimization was used to establish the optimal conditions for the extraction procedure. An aliquot containing approximately 120 mg of the sample was added to a 500 µL volume of an acid mixture (HNO3/HCl/HF, 5:3:3, v/v/v). After a few minutes, 500 µL of deionized water was added and eight samples were simultaneously sonicated for 10 min at 50% amplitude, allowing a sample throughput of 32 extractions per hour. The performance of the method was evaluated with a certified reference material of sewage sludge (CRM 029). The precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.58% to 5.6%. The recoveries of analytes were found to 100%, 109%, 96%, 92%, 101%, 104% and 102% for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. The linearity, limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated and the values obtained were adequate for the quality control of organic fertilizers. The method was applied to the analysis of several commercial organic fertilizers and organic wastes used as fertilizers, and the results were compared with those obtained using the microwave digestion procedure. A good agreement was found between the results obtained by microwave and ultrasound procedures with recoveries ranging from 80.4% to 117%. Two organic waste samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian legislation regarding the acceptable levels of contaminants.
Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Ioannou, Kallirroy-Ioanna G
2009-06-30
A simple, sensitive and powerful on-line sequential injection (SI) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system was developed as an alternative approach for on-line metal preconcentration and separation, using extraction solvent at microlitre volume. The potentials of this novel schema, coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), were demonstrated for trace copper and lead determination in water samples. The stream of methanol (disperser solvent) containing 2.0% (v/v) xylene (extraction solvent) and 0.3% (m/v) ammonium diethyldithiophosphate (chelating agent) was merged on-line with the stream of sample (aqueous phase), resulting a cloudy mixture, which was consisted of fine droplets of the extraction solvent dispersed entirely into the aqueous phase. By this continuous process, metal chelating complexes were formed and extracted into the fine droplets of the extraction solvent. The hydrophobic droplets of organic phase were retained into a microcolumn packed with PTFE-turnings. A portion of 300 microL isobutylmethylketone was used for quantitative elution of the analytes, which transported directly to the nebulizer of FAAS. All the critical parameters of the system such as type of extraction solvent, flow-rate of disperser and sample, extraction time as well as the chemical parameters were studied. Under the optimum conditions the enhancement factor for copper and lead was 560 and 265, respectively. For copper, the detection limit and the precision (R.S.D.) were 0.04 microg L(-1) and 2.1% at 2.0 microg L(-1) Cu(II), respectively, while for lead were 0.54 microg L(-1) and 1.9% at 30.0 microg L(-1) Pb(II), respectively. The developed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material and applied successfully to the analysis of environmental water samples. PMID:19376348
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to investigate the behavior and distribution of metallic elements including rare earth elements(REEs), thorium(Th) and uranium(U) in the agricultural field, these elements in agricultural soils were partitioned into 6 fractions by a sequential extraction procedure: water soluble(F1), exchangeable(F2), bound to inorganic matter(F3), bound to organic matter(F4), bound to free oxides(F5) and residual(F6) fractions, and determined for each fraction as well as for total amount. Soil samples were collected from the agricultural field (paddy and upland field) and non-agricultural field in Sakata City (from 2005 to 2010) and Murayama City (from 2008 to 2010) in Yamagata Prefecture, and Sekikawa Village, Iwafune District (from 2007 to 2010) in Niigata Prefecture. Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The distribution proportion of metallic elements among six fractions of the soils are varied depending on elements and soil utilization(i.e., paddy, upland or no plow). Among REEs, the tendency that the proportion of F5 of heavy-REE(HREE) is generally larger than that of light-REE(LREE) or in middle-REE(MREE) can be found. (2) The differences of REEs concentrations(or REE pattern) of soils are observed among sampling points. It can be related to the nature of soil including the content of Fe-Mn oxides or organic carbon (i.e., the affinity for free oxides or organic matter). (3) The distribution proportion as well as total concentrations of metallic elements in soils are not greatly varied regardless of sampling period(i.e., spring or autumn). (author)
Batista, Bruno Lemos; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Nunes, Juliana Andrade; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Barbosa, Fernando
2009-04-20
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with quadrupole (q-ICP-MS) and dynamic reaction cell (DRC-ICP-MS) were evaluated for sequential determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Tl, V and Zn in blood. The method requires as little as 100 microL of blood. Prior to analysis, samples (100 microL) were diluted 1:50 in a solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid. The use of the DRC was only mandatory for Cr, Cu, V and Zn. For the other elements the equipment may be operated in a standard mode (q-ICP-MS). Ammonia was used as reaction gas. Selection of best flow rate of ammonium gas and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic band-pass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using a ovine base blood for Cr and V and a synthetic matrix solution (SMS) for Zn and Cu diluted 1:50 and spiked to contain 1 microg L(-1) of each element. Method detection limits (3 s) for (75)As, (114)Cd, (59)Co, (51)Cr, (63)Cu (55)Mn, (208)Pb, (82)Se, (205)Tl, (51)V, and (64)Zn were 14.0, 3.0, 11.0, 7.0, 280, 9.0, 3.0, 264, 0.7, 6.0 and 800 ng L(-1), respectively. Method validation was accomplished by the analysis of blood Reference Materials produced by the L'Institut National de Santé Publique du Quebec (Canada).
Einecke, Sabrina; Bissantz, Nicolai; Clevermann, Fabian; Rhode, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
Astroparticle experiments such as IceCube or MAGIC require a deconvolution of their measured data with respect to the response function of the detector to provide the distributions of interest, e.g. energy spectra. In this paper, appropriate uncertainty limits that also allow to draw conclusions on the geometric shape of the underlying distribution are determined using bootstrap methods, which are frequently applied in statistical applications. Bootstrap is a collective term for resampling methods that can be employed to approximate unknown probability distributions or features thereof. A clear advantage of bootstrap methods is their wide range of applicability. For instance, they yield reliable results, even if the usual normality assumption is violated. The use, meaning and construction of uncertainty limits to any user-specific confidence level in the form of confidence intervals and levels are discussed. The precise algorithms for the implementation of these methods, applicable for any deconvolution algor...
Bootstrap tests in linear models with many regressors
Patrick Richard
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with bootstrap hypothesis testing in high dimensional linear regression models. Using a theoretical framework recently introduced by Anatolyev (2012), we show that bootstrap F, LR and LM tests are asymptotically valid even when the numbers of estimated parameters and tested restrictions are not asymptotically negligible fractions of the sample size. These results are derived for models with iid error terms, but Monte Carlo evidence suggests that they extend to the wild...
Bootstrapping and Bartlett corrections in the cointegrated VAR model
Omtzigt, P.H.; Fachin, S.
2002-01-01
The small sample properties of tests on long-run coefficients in cointegrated systems are still a matter of concern to applied econometricians. We compare the performance of the Bartlett correction, the bootstrap and the fast double bootstrap for tests on ccointegration parameters in the maximum likelihood framework. We show by means of a theoretical result and simulations that all three procedures should be based on the unrestricted estimate of the cointegration vectors. The fast double boot...
Spectrum of local boundary operators from boundary form factor bootstrap
Szots, M
2007-01-01
Using the recently introduced boundary form factor bootstrap equations, we map the complete space of their solutions for the boundary version of the scaling Lee-Yang model and sinh-Gordon theory. We show that the complete space of solutions, graded by the ultraviolet behaviour of the form factors can be brought into correspondence with the spectrum of local boundary operators expected from boundary conformal field theory, which is a major evidence for the correctness of the boundary form factor bootstrap framework.
On the range of validity of the autoregressive sieve bootstrap
Kreiss, Jens-Peter; Paparoditis, Efstathios; Politis, Dimitris N.
2012-01-01
We explore the limits of the autoregressive (AR) sieve bootstrap, and show that its applicability extends well beyond the realm of linear time series as has been previously thought. In particular, for appropriate statistics, the AR-sieve bootstrap is valid for stationary processes possessing a general Wold-type autoregressive representation with respect to a white noise; in essence, this includes all stationary, purely nondeterministic processes, whose spectral density is everywhere positive....
Bootstrap transition to high beta equilibrium in helical system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown theoretically and computationally that helical magnetic field, produced by continuous winding helical coils and without the toroidal coil, can sustain MHD stable high beta plasma. Pressure driven toroidal current (bootstrap current) cancels the external magnetic field and reduces the MHD potential energy, depending on the plasma beta values. Ramp-up of heating power input induces bootstrap transition to higher beta plasmas with flat-top pressure profiles. Helical pitch parameter dependence of MHD stability is analyzed. (author)
Bootstrapping the statistical uncertainties of NN scattering data
Perez, R Navarro; Arriola, E Ruiz
2014-01-01
We use the Monte Carlo bootstrap as a method to simulate pp and np scattering data below pion production threshold from an initial set of over 6700 experimental mutually $3\\sigma$ consistent data. We compare the results of the bootstrap, with 1020 statistically generated samples of the full database, with the standard covariance matrix method of error propagation. No significant differences in scattering observables and phase shifts are found. This suggests alternative strategies for propagating errors of nuclear forces in nuclear structure calculations.
Bootstrapped Multinomial Logistic Regression on Apnea Detection Using ECG Data
Sanabila, Hadaiq R.; Fanany, Mohamad Ivan; Jatmiko, Wisnu; Arymurthy, Aniati Murni
2010-01-01
In designing a classification system, one of the most important considerations is how optimal the classifier will adapt and give best generalization when it is given data from unknown model distribution. Unlike linear regression, logistic regression has no simple formula to assess its generalization ability. In such cases, bootstrapping offers an advantage over analytical methods thanks to its simplicity. This paper presents an analysis of bootstrapped multinomial logistic regression appli...
BOOTSTRAP-BASED STATISTICAL THRESHOLDING FOR MEG SOURCE RECONSTRUCTION IMAGES
Sekihara, Kensuke; Sahani, Maneesh; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.
2004-01-01
This paper proposes a bootstrap-based statistical method for extracting target source activities from MEG/EEG source reconstruction results. The method requires measurements in a control condition, which contains only non-target source activities. The method derives, at each pixel location, an empirical probability distribution of the non-target source activity using bootstrapped reconstruction obtained from the control period. The statistical threshold that can extract the target source acti...
Quantum bootstrapping via compressed quantum Hamiltonian learning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A major problem facing the development of quantum computers or large scale quantum simulators is that general methods for characterizing and controlling are intractable. We provide a new approach to this problem that uses small quantum simulators to efficiently characterize and learn control models for larger devices. Our protocol achieves this by using Bayesian inference in concert with Lieb–Robinson bounds and interactive quantum learning methods to achieve compressed simulations for characterization. We also show that the Lieb–Robinson velocity is epistemic for our protocol, meaning that information propagates at a rate that depends on the uncertainty in the system Hamiltonian. We illustrate the efficiency of our bootstrapping protocol by showing numerically that an 8 qubit Ising model simulator can be used to calibrate and control a 50 qubit Ising simulator while using only about 750 kilobits of experimental data. Finally, we provide upper bounds for the Fisher information that show that the number of experiments needed to characterize a system rapidly diverges as the duration of the experiments used in the characterization shrinks, which motivates the use of methods such as ours that do not require short evolution times. (fast track communication)
Bootstrapping Object Coreferencing on the Semantic Web
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei Hu; Yu-Zhong Qu; Xing-Zhi Sun
2011-01-01
An object on the Semantic Web is likely to be denoted with several URIs by different parties.Object coreferencing is a process to identify "equivalent" URIs of objects for achieving a better Data Web.In this paper,we propose a bootstrapping approach for object coreferencing on the Semantic Web.For an object URI,we firstly establish a kernel that consists of semantically equivalent URIs from the same-as,(inverse) functional properties and (max-)cardinalities,and then extend the kernel with respect to the textual descriptions (e.g.,labels and local names) of URIs.We also propose a trustworthiness-based method to rank the coreferent URIs in the kernel as well as a similarity-based method for ranking the URIs in the extension of the kernel.We implement the proposed approach,called ObjectCoref,on a large-scale dataset that contains 76 million URIs collected by the Falcons search engine until 2008.The evaluation on precision,relative recall and response time demonstrates the feasibility of our approach.Additionally,we apply the proposed approach to investigate the popularity of the URI alias phenomenon on the current Semantic Web.
Bootstrap inference longitudinal semiparametric regression model
Pane, Rahmawati; Otok, Bambang Widjanarko; Zain, Ismaini; Budiantara, I. Nyoman
2016-02-01
Semiparametric regression contains two components, i.e. parametric and nonparametric component. Semiparametric regression model is represented by yt i=μ (x˜'ti,zt i)+εt i where μ (x˜'ti,zt i)=x˜'tiβ ˜+g (zt i) and yti is response variable. It is assumed to have a linear relationship with the predictor variables x˜'ti=(x1 i 1,x2 i 2,…,xT i r) . Random error εti, i = 1, …, n, t = 1, …, T is normally distributed with zero mean and variance σ2 and g(zti) is a nonparametric component. The results of this study showed that the PLS approach on longitudinal semiparametric regression models obtain estimators β˜^t=[X'H(λ)X]-1X'H(λ )y ˜ and g˜^λ(z )=M (λ )y ˜ . The result also show that bootstrap was valid on longitudinal semiparametric regression model with g^λ(b )(z ) as nonparametric component estimator.
Control of bootstrap current in the pedestal region of tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaing, K. C. [Institute for Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53796 (United States); Lai, A. L. [Institute for Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)
2013-12-15
The high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in the pedestal region of tokamaks are characterized by steep gradient of the radial electric field, and sonic poloidal U{sub p,m} flow that consists of poloidal components of the E×B flow and the plasma flow velocity that is parallel to the magnetic field B. Here, E is the electric field. The bootstrap current that is important for the equilibrium, and stability of the pedestal of H-mode plasmas is shown to have an expression different from that in the conventional theory. In the limit where ‖U{sub p,m}‖≫ 1, the bootstrap current is driven by the electron temperature gradient and inductive electric field fundamentally different from that in the conventional theory. The bootstrap current in the pedestal region can be controlled through manipulating U{sub p,m} and the gradient of the radial electric. This, in turn, can control plasma stability such as edge-localized modes. Quantitative evaluations of various coefficients are shown to illustrate that the bootstrap current remains finite when ‖U{sub p,m}‖ approaches infinite and to provide indications how to control the bootstrap current. Approximate analytic expressions for viscous coefficients that join results in the banana and plateau-Pfirsch-Schluter regimes are presented to facilitate bootstrap and neoclassical transport simulations in the pedestal region.
Tie the straps: Uniform bootstrap con fidence bands for bounded influence curve estimators
Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Ritov, Ya'Acov; Wang, Weining
2013-01-01
We consider theoretical bootstrap coupling techniques for nonparametric robust smoothers and quantile regression, and verify the bootstrap improvement. To cope with curse of dimensionality, a variant of coupling bootstrap techniques are developed for additive models with both symmetric error distributions and further extension to the quantile regression framework. Our bootstrap method can be used in many situations like constructing con dence intervals and bands. We demonstrate the bootstrap ...
Sheng, Chunyang; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Wei; Leung, Henry
2013-07-01
Prediction intervals that provide estimated values as well as the corresponding reliability are applied to nonlinear time series forecast. However, constructing reliable prediction intervals for noisy time series is still a challenge. In this paper, a bootstrapping reservoir computing network ensemble (BRCNE) is proposed and a simultaneous training method based on Bayesian linear regression is developed. In addition, the structural parameters of the BRCNE, that is, the number of reservoir computing networks and the reservoir dimension, are determined off-line by the 0.632 bootstrap cross-validation. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, two kinds of time series data, including the multisuperimposed oscillator problem with additive noises and a practical gas flow in steel industry are employed here. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach has a satisfactory performance on prediction intervals for practical applications.
Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S; Fetisov, V A
2015-01-01
The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) of injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the passengers inside the car passenger compartment based on the analysis of 599 archival expert documents available from 45 regional state bureaus of forensic medical examination of the Russian federation for the period from 1995 till 2014. These materials included the data obtained by the examination of 200 corpses and 300 live persons involved in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use the sequential analysis method based on the Byes and Wald formulas yielded the diagnostic coefficients that made it possible to identify the most important signs characterizing the risk of injuries for the passenger occupying the front seat of the vehicle. In the case of the lethal outcome, such injuries include fractures of the right femur (DC -8.9), bleeding (DC -7.1), wounds in the soft tissues of the right thigh (DC -5.0) with the injurious force applied to its anterior surface, bruises on the posterior surface of the right shoulder (DC -6.2), the right deltoid region (DC -5.9), and the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -5.5), fractures of the right humerus (DC -5.), etc. When both the driver and the passengers survive, the most informative signs in the latter are bleeding and scratches (DC -14.5 and 11.5 respectively) in the soft tissues at the posterior surface of the right shoulder, fractures of the right humerus (DC -10.0), bruises on the anterior surface of the right thigh (DC -13.0), the posterior surface of the right forearm (DC -10.0) and the fontal region of the right lower leg (DC -10.0), bleeding in the posterior region of the right forearm (DC -9.0) and the anterior region of the left thigh (DC -8.6), fractures of the right femur (DG -8.1), etc. It is concluded that the knowledge of diagnostic coefficients helps to draw attention of the experts to the analysis of the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel; Long, Xiangbao;
2006-01-01
are presented as based on the exploitation of micro-sequential injection (μSI-LOV) using hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic bead materials. The examples given comprise the presentation of a universal approach for SPE-assays, front-end speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in a fully automated and enclosed set...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald
2003-01-01
Within the last decade, the first generation of flow injection (FI) has been supplemented by sequential injection (SI), also termed the second generation, and, recently, by the third generation, i.e., SI-Lab-on-Valve (SI-LOV). As apparent from the literature, FI and/or SI have become dominant...
A Bootstrap Approach to Martian Manufacturing
Dorais, Gregory A.
2004-01-01
In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is an essential element of any affordable strategy for a sustained human presence on Mars. Ideally, Martian habitats would be extremely massive to allow plenty of room to comfortably live and work, as well as to protect the occupants from the environment. Moreover, transportation and power generation systems would also require significant mass if affordable. For our approach to ISRU, we use the industrialization of the U.S. as a metaphor. The 19th century started with small blacksmith shops and ended with massive steel mills primarily accomplished by blacksmiths increasing their production capacity and product size to create larger shops, which produced small mills, which produced the large steel mills that industrialized the country. Most of the mass of a steel mill is comprised of steel in simple shapes, which are produced and repaired with few pieces of equipment also mostly made of steel in basic shapes. Due to this simplicity, we expect that the 19th century manufacturing growth can be repeated on Mars in the 21st century using robots as the primary labor force. We suggest a "bootstrap" approach to manufacturing on Mars that uses a "seed" manufacturing system that uses regolith to create major structural components and spare parts. The regolith would be melted, foamed, and sintered as needed to fabricate parts using casting and solid freeform fabrication techniques. Complex components, such as electronics, would be brought from Earth and integrated as needed. These parts would be assembled to create additional manufacturing systems, which can be both more capable and higher capacity. These subsequent manufacturing systems could refine vast amounts of raw materials to create large components, as well as assemble equipment, habitats, pressure vessels, cranes, pipelines, railways, trains, power generation stations, and other facilities needed to economically maintain a sustained human presence on Mars.
More on analytic bootstrap for O( N) models
Dey, Parijat; Kaviraj, Apratim; Sen, Kallol
2016-06-01
This note is an extension of a recent work on the analytical bootstrapping of O( N) models. An additonal feature of the O( N) model is that the OPE contains trace and antisymmetric operators apart from the symmetric-traceless objects appearing in the OPE of the singlet sector. This in addition to the stress tensor ( T μν ) and the ϕ i ϕ i scalar, we also have other minimal twist operators as the spin-1 current J μ and the symmetric-traceless scalar in the case of O( N). We determine the effect of these additional objects on the anomalous dimensions of the corresponding trace, symmetric-traceless and antisymmetric operators in the large spin sector of the O( N) model, in the limit when the spin is much larger than the twist. As an observation, we also verified that the leading order results for the large spin sector from the ɛ-expansion are an exact match with our n = 0 case. A plausible holographic setup for the special case when N = 2 is also mentioned which mimics the calculation in the CFT.
Xu, Kuan-Man
2006-01-01
A new method is proposed to compare statistical differences between summary histograms, which are the histograms summed over a large ensemble of individual histograms. It consists of choosing a distance statistic for measuring the difference between summary histograms and using a bootstrap procedure to calculate the statistical significance level. Bootstrapping is an approach to statistical inference that makes few assumptions about the underlying probability distribution that describes the data. Three distance statistics are compared in this study. They are the Euclidean distance, the Jeffries-Matusita distance and the Kuiper distance. The data used in testing the bootstrap method are satellite measurements of cloud systems called cloud objects. Each cloud object is defined as a contiguous region/patch composed of individual footprints or fields of view. A histogram of measured values over footprints is generated for each parameter of each cloud object and then summary histograms are accumulated over all individual histograms in a given cloud-object size category. The results of statistical hypothesis tests using all three distances as test statistics are generally similar, indicating the validity of the proposed method. The Euclidean distance is determined to be most suitable after comparing the statistical tests of several parameters with distinct probability distributions among three cloud-object size categories. Impacts on the statistical significance levels resulting from differences in the total lengths of satellite footprint data between two size categories are also discussed.
Sequentializing Parameterized Programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salvatore La Torre
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We exhibit assertion-preserving (reachability preserving transformations from parameterized concurrent shared-memory programs, under a k-round scheduling of processes, to sequential programs. The salient feature of the sequential program is that it tracks the local variables of only one thread at any point, and uses only O(k copies of shared variables (it does not use extra counters, not even one counter to keep track of the number of threads. Sequentialization is achieved using the concept of a linear interface that captures the effect an unbounded block of processes have on the shared state in a k-round schedule. Our transformation utilizes linear interfaces to sequentialize the program, and to ensure the sequential program explores only reachable states and preserves local invariants.
Adaptive wavelet detection of transients using the bootstrap
Hewer, Gary A.; Kuo, Wei; Peterson, Lawrence A.
1996-03-01
A Daubechies wavelet-based bootstrap detection strategy based on the research of Carmona was applied to a set of test signals. The detector was a function of the d-scales. The adaptive detection statistics were derived using Efron's bootstrap methodology, which relieved us from having to make parametric assumptions about the underlying noise and offered a method of overcoming the constraints of modeling the detector statistics. The test set of signals used to evaluate the Daubechies/bootstrap pulse detector were generated with a Hewlett-Packard Fast Agile Signal Simulator (FASS). These video pulses, with varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), included unmodulated, linear chirp, and Barker phase-code modulations baseband (IF) video pulses mixed with additive white Gaussian noise. Simulated examples illustrating the bootstrap methodology are presented, along with a complete set of constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection statistics for the test signals. The CFAR curves clearly show that the wavelet bootstrap can adaptively detect transient pulses at low SNRs.
A bootstrap estimation scheme for chemical compositional data with nondetects
Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Martín-Fernández, J.A; Olea, Ricardo A.
2014-01-01
The bootstrap method is commonly used to estimate the distribution of estimators and their associated uncertainty when explicit analytic expressions are not available or are difficult to obtain. It has been widely applied in environmental and geochemical studies, where the data generated often represent parts of whole, typically chemical concentrations. This kind of constrained data is generically called compositional data, and they require specialised statistical methods to properly account for their particular covariance structure. On the other hand, it is not unusual in practice that those data contain labels denoting nondetects, that is, concentrations falling below detection limits. Nondetects impede the implementation of the bootstrap and represent an additional source of uncertainty that must be taken into account. In this work, a bootstrap scheme is devised that handles nondetects by adding an imputation step within the resampling process and conveniently propagates their associated uncertainly. In doing so, it considers the constrained relationships between chemical concentrations originated from their compositional nature. Bootstrap estimates using a range of imputation methods, including new stochastic proposals, are compared across scenarios of increasing difficulty. They are formulated to meet compositional principles following the log-ratio approach, and an adjustment is introduced in the multivariate case to deal with nonclosed samples. Results suggest that nondetect bootstrap based on model-based imputation is generally preferable. A robust approach based on isometric log-ratio transformations appears to be particularly suited in this context. Computer routines in the R statistical programming language are provided.
Funatsuki, Atsushi; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Nobuo
2012-01-01
Understanding the chemical state of lead in fly ash generated from a waste thermal treatment is important, since the toxicity and solubility of the element depends on its chemical state. This study identified three potential methods for obtaining quantitative information regarding the chemical state of lead in fly ash: X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, and the sequential extraction procedure. The result of this pr...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald
2001-01-01
A sequential injection system for on-line ion-exchange separation and preconcentration of trace-level amounts of metal ions with ensuing detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described. Based on the use of a renewable microcolumn incorporated within an integrated l.......3% for the determination of 2.0 mug/l Bi (n = 7). The procedure was validated by determination of bismuth in a certified reference material CRM 320 (river sediment), and by bismuth spike recoveries in two human urine samples....
Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function
Ramli, Ahmad; Abd. Majid, Ahmad
2016-01-01
This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study. PMID:27315105
Design and Implementation of a Bootstrap Trust Chain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Fajiang; ZHANG Huanguo
2006-01-01
The chain of trust in bootstrap process is the basis of whole system trust in the trusted computing group (TCG) definition. This paper presents a design and implementation of a bootstrap trust chain in PC based on the Windows and today' commodity hardware, merely depends on availability of an embedded security module (ESM). ESM and security enhanced BIOS is the root of trust, PMBR (Pre-MBR) checks the integrity of boot data and Windows kernel, which is a checking agent stored in ESM. In the end, the paper analyzed the mathematic expression of the chain of trust and the runtime performance compared with the common booting process. The trust chain bootstrap greatly strengthens the security of personal computer system, and affects the runtime performance with only adding about 12% booting time.
A Bootstrap Algebraic Multilevel method for Markov Chains
Bolten, M; Brannick, J; Frommer, A; Kahl, K; Livshits, I
2010-01-01
This work concerns the development of an Algebraic Multilevel method for computing stationary vectors of Markov chains. We present an efficient Bootstrap Algebraic Multilevel method for this task. In our proposed approach, we employ a multilevel eigensolver, with interpolation built using ideas based on compatible relaxation, algebraic distances, and least squares fitting of test vectors. Our adaptive variational strategy for computation of the state vector of a given Markov chain is then a combination of this multilevel eigensolver and associated multilevel preconditioned GMRES iterations. We show that the Bootstrap AMG eigensolver by itself can efficiently compute accurate approximations to the state vector. An additional benefit of the Bootstrap approach is that it yields an accurate interpolation operator for many other eigenmodes. This in turn allows for the use of the resulting AMG hierarchy to accelerate the MLE steps using standard multigrid correction steps. The proposed approach is applied to a rang...
Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks
Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato
2010-01-01
P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existing peer in the overlay, remains a challenge to enabling these services for small-scale P2P systems. In large networks, the solution to the bootstrap problem has been the use of dedicated services, though creating and maintaining these systems requires expertise and resources, which constrain their usefulness and make them unappealing for small-scale systems. This paper surveys and summarizes requirements that allow peers potentially constrained by network connectivity to bootstrap small-scale overlays through the use of e...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王晖; 刘大有; 等
1994-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of sequential processing and present a sequential model based on the back-propagation algorithm.This model is intended to deal with intrinsically sequential problems,such as word recognition,speech recognition,natural language understanding.This model can be used to train a network to learn the sequence of input patterns,in a fixed order or a random order.Besides,this model is open- and partial-associative,characterized as “resognizing while accumulating”, which, as we argue, is mental cognition process oriented.
Investigations of dipole localization accuracy in MEG using the bootstrap.
Darvas, F; Rautiainen, M; Pantazis, D; Baillet, S; Benali, H; Mosher, J C; Garnero, L; Leahy, R M
2005-04-01
We describe the use of the nonparametric bootstrap to investigate the accuracy of current dipole localization from magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies of event-related neural activity. The bootstrap is well suited to the analysis of event-related MEG data since the experiments are repeated tens or even hundreds of times and averaged to achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The set of repetitions or epochs can be viewed as a set of independent realizations of the brain's response to the experiment. Bootstrap resamples can be generated by sampling with replacement from these epochs and averaging. In this study, we applied the bootstrap resampling technique to MEG data from somatotopic experimental and simulated data. Four fingers of the right and left hand of a healthy subject were electrically stimulated, and about 400 trials per stimulation were recorded and averaged in order to measure the somatotopic mapping of the fingers in the S1 area of the brain. Based on single-trial recordings for each finger we performed 5000 bootstrap resamples. We reconstructed dipoles from these resampled averages using the Recursively Applied and Projected (RAP)-MUSIC source localization algorithm. We also performed a simulation for two dipolar sources with overlapping time courses embedded in realistic background brain activity generated using the prestimulus segments of the somatotopic data. To find correspondences between multiple sources in each bootstrap, sample dipoles with similar time series and forward fields were assumed to represent the same source. These dipoles were then clustered by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) clustering algorithm using their combined normalized time series and topographies as feature vectors. The mean and standard deviation of the dipole position and the dipole time series in each cluster were computed to provide estimates of the accuracy of the reconstructed source locations and time series. PMID:15784414
Bootstrapped efficiency measures of oil blocks in Angola
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper investigates the technical efficiency of Angola oil blocks over the period 2002-2007. A double bootstrap data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is adopted composed in the first stage of a DEA-variable returns to scale (VRS) model and then followed in the second stage by a bootstrapped truncated regression. Results showed that on average, the technical efficiency has fluctuated over the period of study, but deep and ultradeep oil blocks have generally maintained a consistent efficiency level. Policy implications are derived.
Bootstrapping Critical Ising Model on Three Dimensional Real Projective Space
Nakayama, Yu
2016-04-01
Given conformal data on a flat Euclidean space, we use crosscap conformal bootstrap equations to numerically solve the Lee-Yang model as well as the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space. We check the rapid convergence of our bootstrap program in two dimensions from the exact solutions available. Based on the comparison, we estimate that our systematic error on the numerically solved one-point functions of the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space is less than 1%. Our method opens up a novel way to solve conformal field theories on nontrivial geometries.
PyCFTBoot: A flexible interface for the conformal bootstrap
Behan, Connor
2016-01-01
We introduce PyCFTBoot, a wrapper designed to reduce the barrier to entry in conformal bootstrap calculations that require semidefinite programming. Symengine and SDPB are used for the most intensive symbolic and numerical steps respectively. After reviewing the built-in algorithms for conformal blocks, we explain how to use the code through a number of examples that verify past results. As an application, we show that the multi-correlator bootstrap still appears to single out the Wilson-Fisher fixed points as special theories in dimensions between 3 and 4 despite the recent proof that they violate unitarity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang-Ling Tao; Shi-Fan Min; Wei-Jian Wu; Guang-Wen Liang; Ling Zeng
2008-01-01
Taking a published natural population life table office leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), as an example, we estimated the population trend index,I, via re-sampling methods (jackknife and bootstrap), determined its statistical properties and illustrated the application of these methods in determining the control effectiveness of bio-agents and chemical insecticides. Depending on the simulation outputs, the smoothed distribution pattern of the estimates of I by delete-1 jackknife is visually distinguishable from the normal density, but the smoothed pattern produced by delete-d jackknife, and logarithm-transformed smoothed patterns produced by both empirical and parametric bootstraps,matched well the corresponding normal density. Thus, the estimates of I produced by delete-1 jackknife were not used to determine the suppressive effect of wasps and insecticides. The 95% percent confidence intervals or the narrowest 95 percentiles and Z-test criterion were employed to compare the effectiveness of Trichogrammajaponicum Ashmead and insecti-cides (powder, 1.5% mevinphos + 3% alpha-hexachloro cyclohexane) against the rice leaf roller based on the estimates of I produced by delete-d jackknife and bootstrap techniques.At α= 0.05 level, there were statistical differences between wasp treatment and control, and between wasp and insecticide treatments, if the normality is ensured, or by the narrowest 95 percentiles. However, there is still no difference between insecticide treatment and control.By Z-test criterion, wasp treatment is better than control and insecticide treatment with P-value＜0.01. Insecticide treatment is similar to control with P-value ＞ 0.2 indicating that 95% confidence intervals procedure is more conservative. Although similar conclusions may be drawn by re-sampling techniques, such as the delta method, about the suppressive effect of trichogramma and insecticides, the normality of the estimates can be checked and guaranteed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A modified three-step sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Commission of European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) was applied to certified reference materials of three different soil groups (rendzina, luvisol, cambisol) and sewage sludge of different composition originating from a municipal water treatment plant in order to assess potential mobility and the distribution of vanadium in the resulting fractions. Analysis of the extracts was carried out by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction using transversely heated graphite atomizers. Extracts showed significant matrix interferences which were overcome by the standard addition technique. The original soil and sludge certified reference materials (CRMs) and the extraction residue from the sequential extraction were decomposed by a mixture of HNO3-HClO4-HF in an open system. The content of V determined after decomposition of the samples was in very good agreement with the certified total values. The accuracy of the sequential extraction procedure was checked by comparing the sum of the vanadium contents in the three fractions and in the extraction residue with the certified total content of V. The amounts of vanadium leached were in good correlation with the certified total contents of V in the CRMs of soils and sewage sludge. In the soils examined, vanadium was present almost entirely in the mineral lattice, while in the sewage sludge samples 9-14% was found in the oxidizable and almost 25% in the reducible fractions. The recovery ranged from 93-106% and the precision (RSD) was below 10%
A universal property for sequential measurement
Westerbaan, Abraham; Westerbaan, Bas
2016-09-01
We study the sequential product the operation p ∗ q = √{ p } q √{ p } on the set of effects, [0, 1]𝒜, of a von Neumann algebra 𝒜 that represents sequential measurement of first p and then q. In their work [J. Math. Phys. 49(5), 052106 (2008)], Gudder and Latrémolière give a list of axioms based on physical grounds that completely determines the sequential product on a von Neumann algebra of type I, that is, a von Neumann algebra ℬ(ℋ) of all bounded operators on some Hilbert space ℋ. In this paper we give a list of axioms that completely determines the sequential product on all von Neumann algebras simultaneously (Theorem 4).
Dowall, Stuart; Taylor, Irene; Yeates, Paul; Smith, Leonie; Rule, Antony; Easterbrook, Linda; Bruce, Christine; Cook, Nicola; Corbin-Lickfett, Kara; Empig, Cyril; Schlunegger, Kyle; Graham, Victoria; Dennis, Mike; Hewson, Roger
2013-02-01
Sequential sampling from animals challenged with highly pathogenic organisms, such as haemorrhagic fever viruses, is required for many pharmaceutical studies. Using the guinea pig model of Ebola virus infection, a catheterized system was used which had the benefits of allowing repeated sampling of the same cohort of animals, and also a reduction in the use of sharps at high biological containment. Levels of a PS-targeting antibody (Bavituximab) were measured in Ebola-infected animals and uninfected controls. Data showed that the pharmacokinetics were similar in both groups, therefore Ebola virus infection did not have an observable effect on the half-life of the antibody.
Bootstrap Tests and Confidence Regions for Functions of a Covariance Matrix
Beran, Rudolf; Srivastava, Muni S.
1985-01-01
Bootstrap tests and confidence regions for functions of the population covariance matrix have the desired asymptotic levels, provided model restrictions, such as multiple eigenvalues in the covariance matrix, are taken into account in designing the bootstrap algorithm.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald
A new sample pretreatment approach is presented for selective and sensitive determination of trace metals via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) based on the principle of bead injection (BI) with renewable reagent-loaded hydrophobic beads in a Sequential Injection-Lab-on-Valve ......A new sample pretreatment approach is presented for selective and sensitive determination of trace metals via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) based on the principle of bead injection (BI) with renewable reagent-loaded hydrophobic beads in a Sequential Injection...... that the bead material can endure very high acidity which is a prerequisite for the reaction. On-line sample pH adjustment prevents alteration of the original distribution of the chromium species, while assuring fast rates for the DPC-Cr(VI) reaction. The proposed procedure was successfully applied...... for the determination of trace levels of Cr(VI) in natural waters of variable cpmpexity. Furthermore, it was validated by the determination of total chromium in a NIST standard reference material (NIST 1640, natural water) after Cr(III) oxidation....
A new resampling method for sampling designs without replacement: the doubled half bootstrap
Antal, Erika; Tillé, Yves
2016-01-01
A new and very fast method of bootstrap for sampling without replacement from a finite population is proposed. This method can be used to estimate the variance in sampling with unequal inclusion probabilities and does not require artificial populations or utilization of bootstrap weights. The bootstrap samples are directly selected from the original sample. The bootstrap procedure contains two steps: in the first step, units are selected once with Poisson sampling using the same inclusion pro...
Siana Halim; Herman Mallian
2006-01-01
The Bootstrap is a lively research area. A lot Of ideas are around and have let to quiet different proposals. In this paper we sketch briefly some Bootstrap methods for independent and dependent data. Finally we give an Bootstrap example for constructing confidence interval in the forecasting for stationer data. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Bootstrap merupakan area penelitian yang terus berkembang. Ada banyak ide dan proposal-proposal yang berbeda telah diberikan oleh para peneliti. Namun d...
First and second order analysis for periodic random arrays using block bootstrap methods
Dudek, Anna E.
2016-01-01
In the paper row-wise periodically correlated triangular arrays are considered. The period length is assumed to grow in time. The Fourier decomposition of the mean and autocovariance functions for each row of the matrix is presented. To construct bootstrap estimators of the Fourier coefficients two block bootstrap techniques are used. These are the circular version of the Generalized Seasonal Block Bootstrap and the Circular Block Bootstrap. Consistency results for both methods are presented....
Bootstrapping Rapidity Anomalous Dimension for Transverse-Momentum Resummation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Ye [Fermilab; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP
2016-04-05
Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. An intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.
A neural network based reputation bootstrapping approach for service selection
Wu, Quanwang; Zhu, Qingsheng; Li, Peng
2015-10-01
With the concept of service-oriented computing becoming widely accepted in enterprise application integration, more and more computing resources are encapsulated as services and published online. Reputation mechanism has been studied to establish trust on prior unknown services. One of the limitations of current reputation mechanisms is that they cannot assess the reputation of newly deployed services as no record of their previous behaviours exists. Most of the current bootstrapping approaches merely assign default reputation values to newcomers. However, by this kind of methods, either newcomers or existing services will be favoured. In this paper, we present a novel reputation bootstrapping approach, where correlations between features and performance of existing services are learned through an artificial neural network (ANN) and they are then generalised to establish a tentative reputation when evaluating new and unknown services. Reputations of services published previously by the same provider are also incorporated for reputation bootstrapping if available. The proposed reputation bootstrapping approach is seamlessly embedded into an existing reputation model and implemented in the extended service-oriented architecture. Empirical studies of the proposed approach are shown at last.
Automatic bootstrapping of a morphable face model using multiple components
Haar, F.B. ter; Veltkamp, R.C.
2009-01-01
We present a new bootstrapping algorithm to automatically enhance a 3D morphable face model with new face data. Our algorithm is based on a morphable model fitting method that uses a set of predefined face components. This fitting method produces accurate model fits to 3D face data with noise and ho
More on analytic bootstrap for O(N) models
Dey, Parijat; Sen, Kallol
2016-01-01
This note is an extension of a recent work on the analytical bootstrapping of $O(N)$ models. An additonal feature of the $O(N)$ model is that the OPE contains trace and antisymmetric operators apart from the symmetric-traceless objects appearing in the OPE of the singlet sector. This in addition to the stress tensor $(T_{\\mu\
Generalized Bootstrap Method for Assessment of Uncertainty in Semivariogram Inference
Olea, R.A.; Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.
2011-01-01
The semivariogram and its related function, the covariance, play a central role in classical geostatistics for modeling the average continuity of spatially correlated attributes. Whereas all methods are formulated in terms of the true semivariogram, in practice what can be used are estimated semivariograms and models based on samples. A generalized form of the bootstrap method to properly model spatially correlated data is used to advance knowledge about the reliability of empirical semivariograms and semivariogram models based on a single sample. Among several methods available to generate spatially correlated resamples, we selected a method based on the LU decomposition and used several examples to illustrate the approach. The first one is a synthetic, isotropic, exhaustive sample following a normal distribution, the second example is also a synthetic but following a non-Gaussian random field, and a third empirical sample consists of actual raingauge measurements. Results show wider confidence intervals than those found previously by others with inadequate application of the bootstrap. Also, even for the Gaussian example, distributions for estimated semivariogram values and model parameters are positively skewed. In this sense, bootstrap percentile confidence intervals, which are not centered around the empirical semivariogram and do not require distributional assumptions for its construction, provide an achieved coverage similar to the nominal coverage. The latter cannot be achieved by symmetrical confidence intervals based on the standard error, regardless if the standard error is estimated from a parametric equation or from bootstrap. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.
Metastability Thresholds for Anisotropic Bootstrap Percolation in Three Dimensions
Van Enter, A.C.D.; Fey, A.
2012-01-01
In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the orde
A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Callot, Laurent
functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...
Metastability thresholds for anisotropic bootstrap percolation in three dimensions
Van Enter, A.C.D.; Fey, A.
2012-01-01
In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the orde
Bootstrapping rapidity anomalous dimension for transverse-momentum resummation
Li, Ye
2016-01-01
Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. An intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.
Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life
Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.
2007-01-01
This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in t
Bootstrap confidence intervals for three-way methods
Kiers, Henk A.L.
2004-01-01
Results from exploratory three-way analysis techniques such as CANDECOMP/PARAFAC and Tucker3 analysis are usually presented without giving insight into uncertainties due to sampling. Here a bootstrap procedure is proposed that produces percentile intervals for all output parameters. Special adjustme
Sidecoin: a snapshot mechanism for bootstrapping a blockchain
Krug, Joseph; Peterson, Jack
2015-01-01
Sidecoin is a mechanism that allows a snapshot to be taken of Bitcoin's blockchain. We compile a list of Bitcoin's unspent transaction outputs, then use these outputs and their corresponding balances to bootstrap a new blockchain. This allows the preservation of Bitcoin's economic state in the context of a new blockchain, which may provide new features and technical innovations.
A Statistical Mechanics Approach to Approximate Analytical Bootstrap Averages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, Manfred
2003-01-01
We apply the replica method of Statistical Physics combined with a variational method to the approximate analytical computation of bootstrap averages for estimating the generalization error. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes and compare our results with averages ob...
Normal Limits, Nonnormal Limits, and the Bootstrap for Quantiles of Dependent Data
Sharipov, O. Sh.; Wendler, M.
2012-01-01
We will show under very weak conditions on differentiability and dependence that the central limit theorem for quantiles holds and that the block bootstrap is weakly consistent. Under slightly stronger conditions, the bootstrap is strongly consistent. Without the differentiability condition, quantiles might have a non-normal asymptotic distribution and the bootstrap might fail.
Spinella, Sarah
2011-01-01
As result replicability is essential to science and difficult to achieve through external replicability, the present paper notes the insufficiency of null hypothesis statistical significance testing (NHSST) and explains the bootstrap as a plausible alternative, with a heuristic example to illustrate the bootstrap method. The bootstrap relies on…
Noncentral limit theorem and the bootstrap for quantiles of dependent data
Sharipov, Olimjon S.; Wendler, Martin
2012-01-01
We will show under minimal conditions on differentiability and dependence that the central limit theorem for quantiles holds and that the block bootstrap is weakly consistent. Under slightly stronger conditions, the bootstrap is strongly consistent. Without the differentiability condition, quantiles might have a non-normal asymptotic distribution and the bootstrap might fail.
RANDOM QUADRATIC-FORMS AND THE BOOTSTRAP FOR U-STATISTICS
DEHLING, H; MIKOSCH, T
1994-01-01
We study the bootstrap distribution for U-statistics with special emphasis on the degenerate case. For the Efron bootstrap we give a short proof of the consistency using Mallows' metrics. We also study the i.i.d. weighted bootstrap [GRAPHICS] where (X(i)) and (xi(i)) are two i.i.d. sequences, indepe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We are developing the NIST standard sequential extraction protocol for identifying the fractionation of radioactive elements in soils and sediments. The procedure is designed to partition a soil or sediment sample into six operationally-defined fractions. A full-factorial experimental design/data analysis methodology was used to establish the optimum conditions for the first of these six fractions, called 'exchangeables'. Reaction time, reagent concentration and reaction temperature were chosen as experimental variables. The criteria for choosing optimum conditions were the maximum extraction of 238U combined with a minimum dissolution of non-targeted geochemical phases. Reagent concentration (i.e. ionic strength) is shown to be the controlling factor in the extraction of exchangeable 238U. The optimum (exchangeable) conditions, based on these experiments are: time=1 h; temperature=25 deg. C and concentration=0.4 M MgCl2
BOOTSTRAP WAVELET IN THE NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION MODEL WITH WEAKLY DEPENDENT PROCESSES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林路; 张润楚
2004-01-01
This paper introduces a method of bootstrap wavelet estimation in a nonparametric regression model with weakly dependent processes for both fixed and random designs. The asymptotic bounds for the bias and variance of the bootstrap wavelet estimators are given in the fixed design model. The conditional normality for a modified version of the bootstrap wavelet estimators is obtained in the fixed model. The consistency for the bootstrap wavelet estimator is also proved in the random design model. These results show that the bootstrap wavelet method is valid for the model with weakly dependent processes.
Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik
1998-01-01
the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first RS word is decoded after C computations are presented. These results are supported...
Sequential memory: Binding dynamics
Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail
2015-10-01
Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.
Deng, Nina; Allison, Jeroan J; Fang, Hua Julia; Ash, Arlene S.; Ware, John E.
2013-01-01
Background Relative validity (RV), a ratio of ANOVA F-statistics, is often used to compare the validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. We used the bootstrap to establish the statistical significance of the RV and to identify key factors affecting its significance. Methods Based on responses from 453 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to 16 CKD-specific and generic PRO measures, RVs were computed to determine how well each measure discriminated across clinically-defined groups ...
The Index of Biological Integrity and the bootstrap revisited: an example from Minnesota streams
Dolph, Christine L.; Sheshukov, Aleksey Y.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Wilson, Bruce
2010-01-01
Multimetric indices, such as the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), are increasingly used by management agencies to determine whether surface water quality is impaired. However, important questions about the variability of these indices have not been thoroughly addressed in the scientific literature. In this study, we used a bootstrap approach to quantify variability associated with fish IBIs developed for streams in two Minnesota river basins. We further placed this variability into a management context by comparing it to impairment thresholds currently used in water quality determinations for Minnesota streams. We found that 95% confidence intervals ranged as high as 40 points for IBIs scored on a 0–100 point scale. However, on average, 90% of IBI scores calculated from bootstrap replicate samples for a given stream site yielded the same impairment status as the original IBI score. We suggest that sampling variability in IBI scores is related to both the number of fish and the number of rare taxa in a field collection. A comparison of the effects of different scoring methods on IBI variability indicates that a continuous scoring method may reduce the amount of bias in IBI scores.
Bootstrap bound for conformal multi-flavor QCD on lattice
Nakayama, Yu
2016-01-01
The recent work by Iha et al shows an upper bound on mass anomalous dimension $\\gamma_m$ of multi-flavor massless QCD at the renormalization group fixed point from the conformal bootstrap in $SU(N_F)_V$ symmetric conformal field theories under the assumption that the fixed point is realizable with the lattice regularization based on staggered fermions. We show that the almost identical but slightly stronger bound applies to the regularization based on Wilson fermions (or domain wall fermions) by studying the conformal bootstrap in $SU(N_f)_L \\times SU(N_f)_R$ symmetric conformal field theories. For $N_f=8$, our bound implies $\\gamma_m < 1.31$ to avoid dangerously irrelevant operators that are not compatible with the lattice symmetry.
A bootstrap lunar base: Preliminary design review 2
1987-01-01
A bootstrap lunar base is the gateway to manned solar system exploration and requires new ideas and new designs on the cutting edge of technology. A preliminary design for a Bootstrap Lunar Base, the second provided by this contractor, is presented. An overview of the work completed is discussed as well as the technical, management, and cost strategies to complete the program requirements. The lunar base design stresses the transforming capabilities of its lander vehicles to aid in base construction. The design also emphasizes modularity and expandability in the base configuration to support the long-term goals of scientific research and profitable lunar resource exploitation. To successfully construct, develop, and inhabit a permanent lunar base, however, several technological advancements must first be realized. Some of these technological advancements are also discussed.
Bootstrap bound for conformal multi-flavor QCD on lattice
Nakayama, Yu
2016-07-01
The recent work by Iha et al. shows an upper bound on mass anomalous dimension γ m of multi-flavor massless QCD at the renormalization group fixed point from the conformal bootstrap in SU( N F ) V symmetric conformal field theories under the assumption that the fixed point is realizable with the lattice regularization based on staggered fermions. We show that the almost identical but slightly stronger bound applies to the regularization based on Wilson fermions (or domain wall fermions) by studying the conformal bootstrap in SU( N f ) L × SU( N f ) R symmetric conformal field theories. For N f = 8, our bound implies γ m < 1 .31 to avoid dangerously irrelevant operators that are not compatible with the lattice symmetry.
Non-critical string, Liouville theory and geometric bootstrap hypothesis
Hadasz, L; Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew
2003-01-01
Basing on the standard construction of critical string amplitudes we analyze properties of the longitudinal sector of the non-critical Nambu-Goto string. We demonstrate that it cannot be described by standard (in the sense of BPZ) conformal field theory. As an alternative we propose a new version of the geometric approach to Liouville theory and formulate its basic consistency condition - the geometric bootstrap equation.
'Bootstrap' charging of surfaces composed of multiple materials
Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.
1981-01-01
The paper examines the charging of a checkerboard array of two materials, only one of which tends to acquire a negative potential alone, using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP). The influence of the charging material's field causes the otherwise 'non-charging' material to acquire a negative potential due to the suppression of its secondary emission ('bootstrap' charging). The NASCAP predictions for the equilibrium potential difference between the two materials are compared to results based on an analytical model.
Higgs Critical Exponents and Conformal Bootstrap in Four Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antipin, Oleg; Mølgaard, Esben; Sannino, Francesco
2015-01-01
We investigate relevant properties of composite operators emerging in nonsupersymmetric, four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories with interacting conformal fixed points within a precise framework. The theories investigated in this work are structurally similar to the standard model of particle int...... bootstrap results are then compared to precise four dimensional conformal field theoretical results. To accomplish this, it was necessary to calculate explicitly the crossing symmetry relations for the global symmetry group SU($N$)$\\times$SU($N$)....
Spectrum of local boundary operators from boundary form factor bootstrap
Szots, M.; Takacs, G.
2007-01-01
Using the recently introduced boundary form factor bootstrap equations, we map the complete space of their solutions for the boundary version of the scaling Lee-Yang model and sinh-Gordon theory. We show that the complete space of solutions, graded by the ultraviolet behaviour of the form factors can be brought into correspondence with the spectrum of local boundary operators expected from boundary conformal field theory, which is a major evidence for the correctness of the boundary form fact...
Bootstrap and the physical values of $\\pi N$ resonance parameters
Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill M.; Vereshagin, Alexander V.; Vereshagin, Vladimir V.
2007-01-01
This is the 6th paper in the series developing the formalism to manage the effective scattering theory of strong interactions. Relying on the theoretical scheme suggested in our previous publications we concentrate here on the practical aspect and apply our technique to the elastic pion-nucleon scattering amplitude. We test numerically the pion-nucleon spectrum sum rules that follow from the tree level bootstrap constraints. We show how these constraints can be used to estimate the tensor and...
Study and Integrate Bootstrap 3 for OpixManager
Tapani, Zhejia
2010-01-01
ABSTRACT This bachelor thesis is about how to study and integrate Bootstrap 3 into OpixManager. The purpose is to improve user interface of OpixManager application. OpixManager is constructed by using CodeIgniter and Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework. OpixManager application is for project management. It includes staff augmentation, customer management, report management and so on. It is to support both scrum and traditional software development process. There are two major parts...
Bootstrap-Based Regularization for Low-Rank Matrix Estimation
Josse, Julie; Wager, Stefan
2014-01-01
We develop a flexible framework for low-rank matrix estimation that allows us to transform noise models into regularization schemes via a simple bootstrap algorithm. Effectively, our procedure seeks an autoencoding basis for the observed matrix that is stable with respect to the specified noise model; we call the resulting procedure a stable autoencoder. In the simplest case, with an isotropic noise model, our method is equivalent to a classical singular value shrinkage estimator. For non-iso...
Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks
Wolinsky, David Isaac; Juste, Pierre St.; Boykin, P. Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato
2010-01-01
P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existi...
Bootstrapping a Five-Loop Amplitude from Steinmann Relations
Caron-Huot, Simon; McLeod, Andrew; von Hippel, Matt
2016-01-01
The analytic structure of scattering amplitudes is restricted by Steinmann relations, which enforce the vanishing of certain discontinuities of discontinuities. We show that these relations dramatically simplify the function space for the hexagon function bootstrap in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Armed with this simplification, along with the constraints of dual conformal symmetry and Regge exponentiation, we obtain the complete five-loop six-particle amplitude.
A conformal bootstrap approach to critical percolation in two dimensions
Picco, Marco; Santachiara, Raoul
2016-01-01
We study four-point functions of critical percolation in two dimensions, and more generally of the Potts model. We propose an exact ansatz for the spectrum: an infinite, discrete and non-diagonal combination of representations of the Virasoro algebra. Based on this ansatz, we compute four-point functions using a numerical conformal bootstrap approach. The results agree with Monte-Carlo computations of connectivities of random clusters.
Comparison Of Modified Bootstrap And Conventional Sensitometry In Medical Radiography
Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen
1980-08-01
A new modified bootstrap approach to sensitometry is presented which provides H and D curves that show almost exact agreement with those obtained using conventional methods. Two bootstrap techniques are described; both involve a combination of inverse-square and step-ped wedge modulation of the radiation field and provide intensity-scale sensitometric curves as appropriate for medical radiography. H and D curves obtained with these modified techniques are compared with those obtained for screen-film combinations using inverse-square sensitometry as well as with those obtained for direct x-ray film using time-scale sensitometry. The stepped-wedge of the Wisconsin X-Ray Test Cassette was used in the boot-strap approach since it provides sufficient exposure latitude to encompass the useful den-sity range of medical x-ray film. This approach makes radiographic sensitometry quick and convenient, allowing accurate characteristic curves to be obtained for any screen-film cassette using standard diagnostic equipment.
Quantitative evaluation of PET image using event information bootstrap
Song, Hankyeol; Kwak, Shin Hye; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kang, Joo Hyun; Chung, Yong Hyun; Woo, Sang-Keun
2016-04-01
The purpose of this study was to enhance the effect in the PET image quality according to event bootstrap of small animal PET data. In order to investigate the time difference condition, realigned sinograms were generated from randomly sampled data set using bootstrap. List-mode data was obtained from small animal PET scanner for Ge-68 30 sec, Y-90 20 min and Y-90 60 min. PET image was reconstructed by Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization(OSEM) 2D with the list-mode format. Image analysis was investigated by Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR) of Ge-68 and Y-90 image. Non-parametric resampled PET image SNR percent change for the Ge-68 30 sec, Y-90 60 min, and Y-90 20 min was 1.69 %, 7.03 %, and 4.78 %, respectively. SNR percent change of non-parametric resampled PET image with time difference condition was 1.08 % for the Ge-68 30 sec, 6.74 % for the Y-90 60 min and 10.94 % for the Y-90 29 min. The result indicated that the bootstrap with time difference condition had a potential to improve a noisy Y-90 PET image quality. This method should be expected to reduce Y-90 PET measurement time and to enhance its accuracy.
Necessary Condition for Emergent Symmetry from the Conformal Bootstrap
Nakayama, Yu; Ohtsuki, Tomoki
2016-09-01
We use the conformal bootstrap program to derive the necessary conditions for emergent symmetry enhancement from discrete symmetry (e.g., Zn ) to continuous symmetry [e.g., U (1 )] under the renormalization group flow. In three dimensions, in order for Z2 symmetry to be enhanced to U (1 ) symmetry, the conformal bootstrap program predicts that the scaling dimension of the order parameter field at the infrared conformal fixed point must satisfy Δ1>1.08 . We also obtain the similar necessary conditions for Z3 symmetry with Δ1>0.580 and Z4 symmetry with Δ1>0.504 from the simultaneous conformal bootstrap analysis of multiple four-point functions. As applications, we show that our necessary conditions impose severe constraints on the nature of the chiral phase transition in QCD, the deconfinement criticality in Néel valence bond solid transitions, and anisotropic deformations in critical O (n ) models. We prove that some fixed points proposed in the literature are unstable under the perturbation that cannot be forbidden by the discrete symmetry. In these situations, the second-order phase transition with enhanced symmetry cannot happen.
Truncatable bootstrap equations in algebraic form and critical surface exponents
Gliozzi, Ferdinando
2016-01-01
We describe examples of drastic truncations of conformal bootstrap equations encoding much more information than that obtained by a direct numerical approach. A three-term truncation of the four point function of a free scalar in any space dimensions provides algebraic identities among conformal block derivatives which generate the exact spectrum of the infinitely many primary operators contributing to it. In boundary conformal field theories, we point out that the appearance of free parameters in the solutions of bootstrap equations is not an artifact of truncations, rather it reflects a physical property of permeable conformal interfaces which are described by the same equations. Surface transitions correspond to isolated points in the parameter space. We are able to locate them in the case of 3d Ising model, thanks to a useful algebraic form of 3d boundary bootstrap equations. It turns out that the low-lying spectra of the surface operators in the ordinary and the special transitions of 3d Ising model form...
On Bootstrap Tests of Symmetry About an Unknown Median.
Zheng, Tian; Gastwirth, Joseph L
2010-07-01
It is important to examine the symmetry of an underlying distribution before applying some statistical procedures to a data set. For example, in the Zuni School District case, a formula originally developed by the Department of Education trimmed 5% of the data symmetrically from each end. The validity of this procedure was questioned at the hearing by Chief Justice Roberts. Most tests of symmetry (even nonparametric ones) are not distribution free in finite sample sizes. Hence, using asymptotic distribution may not yield an accurate type I error rate or/and loss of power in small samples. Bootstrap resampling from a symmetric empirical distribution function fitted to the data is proposed to improve the accuracy of the calculated p-value of several tests of symmetry. The results show that the bootstrap method is superior to previously used approaches relying on the asymptotic distribution of the tests that assumed the data come from a normal distribution. Incorporating the bootstrap estimate in a recently proposed test due to Miao, Gel and Gastwirth (2006) preserved its level and shows it has reasonable power properties on the family of distribution evaluated.
A Grammatical Inference Sequential Mining Algorithm for Protein Fold Recognition
Taysir Hassan A.Soliman; Ahmed Sharaf Eldin; Marwa M. Ghareeb; Mohammed E. Marie
2014-01-01
Protein fold recognition plays an important role in computational protein analysis since it can determine protein function whose structure is unknown. In this paper, a Classified Sequential Pattern mining technique for Protein Fold Recognition (CSPF) is proposed. CSPF technique consists of two main phases: the sequential mining pattern phase and the fold recognition phase. In the sequential mining pattern phase, Mix & Test algorithm is developed based on Grammatical Inference, which is used a...
Enders, Craig K.
2005-01-01
The Bollen-Stine bootstrap can be used to correct for standard error and fit statistic bias that occurs in structural equation modeling (SEM) applications due to nonnormal data. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the use of a custom SAS macro program that can be used to implement the Bollen-Stine bootstrap with existing SEM software.…
Sequential measurements of conjugate observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carmeli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica ' Francesco Brioschi' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2011-07-15
We present a unified treatment of sequential measurements of two conjugate observables. Our approach is to derive a mathematical structure theorem for all the relevant covariant instruments. As a consequence of this result, we show that every Weyl-Heisenberg covariant observable can be implemented as a sequential measurement of two conjugate observables. This method is applicable both in finite- and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, therefore covering sequential spin component measurements as well as position-momentum sequential measurements.
Using minimum bootstrap support for splits to construct confidence regions for trees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edward Susko
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Many of the estimated topologies in phylogenetic studies are presented with the bootstrap support for each of the splits in the topology indicated. If phylogenetic estimation is unbiased, high bootstrap support for a split suggests that there is a good deal of certainty that the split actually is present in the tree and low bootstrap support suggests that one or more of the taxa on one side of the estimated split might in reality be located with taxa on the other side. In the latter case the follow-up questions about how many and which of the taxa could reasonably be incorrectly placed as well as where they might alternatively be placed are not addressed through the presented bootstrap support. We present here an algorithm that finds the set of all trees with minimum bootstrap support for their splits greater than some given value. The output is a ranked list of trees, ranked according to the minimum bootstrap supports for splits in the trees. The number of such trees and their topologies provides useful supplementary information in bootstrap analyses about the reasons for low bootstrap support for splits. We also present ways of quantifying low bootstrap support by considering the set of all topologies with minimum bootstrap greater than some quantity as providing a confidence region of topologies. Using a double bootstrap we are able to choose a cutoff so that the set of topologies with minimum bootstrap support for a split greater than that cutoff gives an approximate 95% confidence region. As with bootstrap support one advantage of the methods is that they are generally applicable to the wide variety of phylogenetic estimation methods.
Sequential Power-Dependence Theory
Buskens, Vincent; Rijt, Arnout van de
2008-01-01
Existing methods for predicting resource divisions in laboratory exchange networks do not take into account the sequential nature of the experimental setting. We extend network exchange theory by considering sequential exchange. We prove that Sequential Power-Dependence Theory—unlike Power-Dependenc
Ramírez-Prado, Dolores; Cortés, Ernesto; Aguilar-Segura, María Soledad; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco
2016-01-01
In January 2012, a review of the cases of chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome was published. However, this study did not include inferential statistics. The aims of the present study were to update the literature search and calculate confidence intervals for the prevalence of each phenotype using bootstrap methodology. Published case reports of patients with the syndrome that included detailed information about breakpoints and phenotype were sought and 36 were included. Deletions in megabase (Mb) pairs were determined to calculate the size of the interstitial deletion of the phenotypes studied in 2012. To determine confidence intervals for the prevalence of the phenotype and the interstitial loss, we used bootstrap methodology. Using the bootstrap percentiles method, we found wide variability in the prevalence of the different phenotypes (3–100%). The mean interstitial deletion size was 2.72 Mb (95% CI [2.35–3.10 Mb]). In comparison with our work, which expanded the literature search by 45 months, there were differences in the prevalence of 17% of the phenotypes, indicating that more studies are needed to analyze this rare disease. PMID:26925314
Sequential cloning of chromosomes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lacks, S.A.
1991-12-31
A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.
Bootstrap inversion for Pn wave velocity in North-Western Italy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Eva
1997-06-01
Full Text Available An inversion of Pn arrival times from regional distance earthquakes (180-800 km, recorded by 94 seismic stations operating in North-Western Italy and surrounding areas, was carried out to image lateral variations of P-wave velocity at the crust-mantle boundary, and to estimate the static delay time at each station. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed using both synthetic tests and the bootstrap Monte Carlo resampling technique. Numerical simulations demonstrated the existence of a trade-off between cell velocities and estimated station delay times along the edge of the model. Bootstrap inversions were carried out to determine the standard deviation of velocities and time terms. Low Pn velocity anomalies are detected beneath the outer side of the Alps (-6% and the Western Po plain (-4% in correspondence with two regions of strong crustal thickening and negative Bouguer anomaly. In contrast, high Pn velocities are imaged beneath the inner side of the Alps (+4% indicating the presence of high velocity and density lower crust-upper mantle. The Ligurian sea shows high Pn velocities close to the Ligurian coastlines (+3% and low Pn velocities (-1.5% in the middle of the basin in agreement with the upper mantle velocity structure revealed by seismic refraction profiles.
A bootstrapping soft shrinkage approach for variable selection in chemical modeling.
Deng, Bai-Chuan; Yun, Yong-Huan; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Yin, Yu-Long; Wang, Wei-Ting; Lu, Hong-Mei; Luo, Qian-Yi; Liang, Yi-Zeng
2016-02-18
In this study, a new variable selection method called bootstrapping soft shrinkage (BOSS) method is developed. It is derived from the idea of weighted bootstrap sampling (WBS) and model population analysis (MPA). The weights of variables are determined based on the absolute values of regression coefficients. WBS is applied according to the weights to generate sub-models and MPA is used to analyze the sub-models to update weights for variables. The optimization procedure follows the rule of soft shrinkage, in which less important variables are not eliminated directly but are assigned smaller weights. The algorithm runs iteratively and terminates until the number of variables reaches one. The optimal variable set with the lowest root mean squared error of cross-validation (RMSECV) is selected. The method was tested on three groups of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic datasets, i.e. corn datasets, diesel fuels datasets and soy datasets. Three high performing variable selection methods, i.e. Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm partial least squares (GA-PLS) are used for comparison. The results show that BOSS is promising with improved prediction performance. The Matlab codes for implementing BOSS are freely available on the website: http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/52770-boss. PMID:26826688
Robust parametric bootstrap test with MOM estimator: An alternative to independent sample t-test
Harun, Nurul Hanis; Yusof, Zahayu Md
2014-12-01
Normality and homogeneity are two major assumptions that need to be fulfilled when using independent sample t-test. However, not all data encompassed with these assumptions. Consequently, the result produced by independent sample t-test becomes invalid. Therefore, the alternative is to use robust statistical procedure in handling the problems of nonnormality and variances heterogeneity. This study proposed to use Parametric Bootstrap test with popular robust estimators, MADn and Tn which empirically determines the amount of trimming. The Type I error rates produced by each procedure were examined and compared with classical parametric test and nonparametric test namely independent sample t-test and Mann Whitney test, respectively. 5000 simulated data sets are used in this study in order to generate the Type I error for each procedure. The findings of this study indicate that the Parametric Bootstrap test with MADn and Tn produces the best Type I error control compared to the independent sample t-test and the Mann Whitney test under nonnormal distribution, heterogeneous variances and unbalanced design. Then, the performance of each procedure was demonstrated using real data.
Bootstrapping the Three-Loop Hexagon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC; Drummond, James M.; /CERN /Annecy, LAPTH; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Santa Barbara, KITP
2011-11-08
We consider the hexagonal Wilson loop dual to the six-point MHV amplitude in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. We apply constraints from the operator product expansion in the near-collinear limit to the symbol of the remainder function at three loops. Using these constraints, and assuming a natural ansatz for the symbol's entries, we determine the symbol up to just two undetermined constants. In the multi-Regge limit, both constants drop out from the symbol, enabling us to make a non-trivial confirmation of the BFKL prediction for the leading-log approximation. This result provides a strong consistency check of both our ansatz for the symbol and the duality between Wilson loops and MHV amplitudes. Furthermore, we predict the form of the full three-loop remainder function in the multi-Regge limit, beyond the leading-log approximation, up to a few constants representing terms not detected by the symbol. Our results confirm an all-loop prediction for the real part of the remainder function in multi-Regge 3 {yields} 3 scattering. In the multi-Regge limit, our result for the remainder function can be expressed entirely in terms of classical polylogarithms. For generic six-point kinematics other functions are required.
Asal Bileşenler Analizine Bootstrap Yaklaşımı
AKTÜKÜN, Dr. Aylin
2011-01-01
Bu çalışmada, bootstrap yöntemlerin asal bileşenler analizine uygulanma sürecini sunduk. Hipotetik bir veri ile asal bileşenler analizinde başvurulan bazı güven aralıklarının bootstrap yöntemlerle nasıl gerçekleştirilebileceğini gösterdik. Makaledeki tüm bootstrap süreçleri Mathematica dilinde yazdığımız bir programla gerçekleştirdik. Anahtar Kelimeler: Asal bileşenler analizi, Bootstrap, Bootstrap kantiller, Bootstrap Güven Aralıkları, Mathematica. ABSRACT In this paper, we apply ...
Higher-order accuracy of multiscale-double bootstrap for testing regions
Shimodaira, Hidetoshi
2013-01-01
We consider hypothesis testing for the null hypothesis being represented as an arbitrary-shaped region in the parameter space. We compute an approximate p-value by counting how many times the null hypothesis holds in bootstrap replicates. This frequency, known as bootstrap probability, is widely used in evolutionary biology, but often reported as biased in the literature. Based on the asymptotic theory of bootstrap confidence intervals, there have been some new attempts for adjusting the bias...
A PARAMETRIC BOOTSTRAP USING THE FIRST FOUR
MOMENTS OF THE RESIDUALS
Treyens, Pierre-Eric
2007-01-01
We consider linear regression models and we suppose that disturbances are either Gaussian or non Gaussian. Until now, within the framework of the bootstrap, we thought that the error in rejection probability (ERP) had the same rate of convergence with the parametric bootstrap or the nonparametric bootstrap. For linear data generating processes (DGP) we show in this paper that this assertion is false if skewness and/or kurtosis coefficients of the distribution of the disturbances are nonnull. ...
Bootstrap Co-integration Rank Testing: The Effect of Bias-Correcting Parameter Estimates
Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Taylor, A. M. Robert; Trenkler, Carsten
2013-01-01
In this paper we investigate bootstrap-based methods for bias-correcting the first-stage parameter estimates used in some recently developed bootstrap implementations of the co-integration rank tests of Johansen (1996). In order to do so we adapt the framework of Kilian (1998) which estimates the bias in the original parameter estimates using the average bias in the corresponding parameter esti- mates taken across a large number of auxiliary bootstrap replications. A number of possible imp...
Building Confidence Intervals with Block Bootstraps for the Variance Ratio Test of Predictability
Eduardo José Araújo Lima; Benjamin Miranda Tabak
2007-01-01
This paper compares different versions of the multiple variance ratio test based on bootstrap techniques for the construction of empirical distributions. It also analyzes the crucial issue of selecting optimal block sizes when block bootstrap procedures are used, by applying the methods developed by Hall et al. (1995) and by Politis and White (2004). By comparing the results of the different methods using Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that methodologies using block bootstrap methods pr...
Dale Poirier
2008-01-01
This paper provides Bayesian rationalizations for White’s heteroskedastic consistent (HC) covariance estimator and various modifications of it. An informed Bayesian bootstrap provides the statistical framework.
Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole Riis
In this thesis we describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon codes with non-uniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is pos...... of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first Reed-Solomon word is decoded after C computations are presented. This is supported by simulation results that are also extended to other parameters....
Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke
2008-01-01
A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald
2005-01-01
that the bead material exhibits excellent chemical stability at low pH values. On-line pH sample adjustment prevents alteration of the original distribution of chromium species while assuring fast rates for the DPC-Cr(VI) reaction. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of trace...... levels of Cr(VI) in natural waters containing high levels of dissolved salts (such as seawater and hard tap water) without requiring any dilution step. Method validation was performed by determination of total chromium in an NIST standard reference material (NIST 1640, natural water) after Cr...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G., E-mail: reisas@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SERTA/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico do Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas
2015-07-01
Alpha spectrometry analyzes were used for activity determinations of Pu and Am isotopes in evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants. In this work it was used tracers for isotopes determination and quantification. The radiometric yields ranged from 60% to 100% and the Lower Limit of Detection was estimated as being 2.05 mBqKg{sup -1}. The relative standard deviations for replicate analysis were calculated for {sup 241}Am, 15.13% (sample J) and 9.38% (sample N), and for {sup 239+240}Pu, 8.16% (sample J) and 7.95% (sample N). (author)
A Bootstrap Approach to an Affordable Exploration Program
Oeftering, Richard C.
2011-01-01
This paper examines the potential to build an affordable sustainable exploration program by adopting an approach that requires investing in technologies that can be used to build a space infrastructure from very modest initial capabilities. Human exploration has had a history of flight programs that have high development and operational costs. Since Apollo, human exploration has had very constrained budgets and they are expected be constrained in the future. Due to their high operations costs it becomes necessary to consider retiring established space facilities in order to move on to the next exploration challenge. This practice may save cost in the near term but it does so by sacrificing part of the program s future architecture. Human exploration also has a history of sacrificing fully functional flight hardware to achieve mission objectives. An affordable exploration program cannot be built when it involves billions of dollars of discarded space flight hardware, instead, the program must emphasize preserving its high value space assets and building a suitable permanent infrastructure. Further this infrastructure must reduce operational and logistics cost. The paper examines the importance of achieving a high level of logistics independence by minimizing resource consumption, minimizing the dependency on external logistics, and maximizing the utility of resources available. The approach involves the development and deployment of a core suite of technologies that have minimum initial needs yet are able expand upon initial capability in an incremental bootstrap fashion. The bootstrap approach incrementally creates an infrastructure that grows and becomes self sustaining and eventually begins producing the energy, products and consumable propellants that support human exploration. The bootstrap technologies involve new methods of delivering and manipulating energy and materials. These technologies will exploit the space environment, minimize dependencies, and
Remuestreo Bootstrap y Jackknife en confiabilidad: Caso Exponencial y Weibull
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Ramírez-Montoya
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Se comparan los métodos de remuestreo Bootstrap-t y Jackknife delete I y delete II, utilizando los estimadores no paramétricos de Kaplan-Meier y Nelson-Aalen, que se utilizan con frecuencia en la práctica, teniendo en cuenta diferentes porcentajes de censura, tamaños de muestra y tiempos de interés. La comparación se realiza vía simulación, mediante el error cuadrático medio.
Bootstrapped Oblivious Transfer and Secure Two-Party Function Computation
Wang, Ye
2009-01-01
We propose an information theoretic framework for the secure two-party function computation (SFC) problem and introduce the notion of SFC capacity. We study and extend string oblivious transfer (OT) to sample-wise OT. We propose an efficient, perfectly private OT protocol utilizing the binary erasure channel or source. We also propose the bootstrap string OT protocol which provides disjoint (weakened) privacy while achieving a multiplicative increase in rate, thus trading off security for rate. Finally, leveraging our OT protocol, we construct a protocol for SFC and establish a general lower bound on SFC capacity of the binary erasure channel and source.
Bootstrap framework : web-suunnittelun työkaluna
Peltomäki, Veera
2014-01-01
Pienen näytön omaavat mobiililaitteet kasvattavat suosiotaan Internetin selaamisessa. Samaan aikaan modernit pelikonsolit ja SmartTV:t yleistyvät kuluttajien keskuudessa, jolloin Internetiä voi selata suuren näyttötarkkuuden omaavilla laitteilla. Responsiivinen web-suunnittelu vastaa nykypäivän vaatimuksiin, jossa käyttäjät odottavat sivustoilta yhdenmukaista käyttökokemusta, päätelaitteesta riippumatta. Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee responsiivisen Bootstrap frameworkin valintaa web-suunni...
Comparing groups randomization and bootstrap methods using R
Zieffler, Andrew S; Long, Jeffrey D
2011-01-01
A hands-on guide to using R to carry out key statistical practices in educational and behavioral sciences research Computing has become an essential part of the day-to-day practice of statistical work, broadening the types of questions that can now be addressed by research scientists applying newly derived data analytic techniques. Comparing Groups: Randomization and Bootstrap Methods Using R emphasizes the direct link between scientific research questions and data analysis. Rather than relying on mathematical calculations, this book focus on conceptual explanations and the use of statistica
The S-matrix Bootstrap II: Two Dimensional Amplitudes
Paulos, Miguel F; Toledo, Jonathan; van Rees, Balt C; Vieira, Pedro
2016-01-01
We consider constraints on the S-matrix of any gapped, Lorentz invariant quantum field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions due to crossing symmetry and unitarity. In this way we establish rigorous bounds on the cubic couplings of a given theory with a fixed mass spectrum. In special cases we identify interesting integrable theories saturating these bounds. Our analytic bounds match precisely with numerical bounds obtained in a companion paper where we consider massive QFT in an AdS box and study boundary correlators using the technology of the conformal bootstrap.
Comparing groups randomization and bootstrap methods using R
Zieffler, Andrew S; Long, Jeffrey D
2011-01-01
A hands-on guide to using R to carry out key statistical practices in educational and behavioral sciences research Computing has become an essential part of the day-to-day practice of statistical work, broadening the types of questions that can now be addressed by research scientists applying newly derived data analytic techniques. Comparing Groups: Randomization and Bootstrap Methods Using R emphasizes the direct link between scientific research questions and data analysis. Rather than relying on mathematical calculations, this book focus on conceptual explanations and
Convergence rates of empirical block length selectors for block bootstrap
Nordman, Daniel J.; Lahiri, Soumendra N.
2014-01-01
We investigate the accuracy of two general non-parametric methods for estimating optimal block lengths for block bootstraps with time series – the first proposed in the seminal paper of Hall, Horowitz and Jing (Biometrika 82 (1995) 561–574) and the second from Lahiri et al. (Stat. Methodol. 4 (2007) 292–321). The relative performances of these general methods have been unknown and, to provide a comparison, we focus on rates of convergence for these block length selectors for the moving block ...
Two new data-dependent choices of m when applying the m-out-of-n bootstrap to hypothesis testing
Allison, James Samuel; Santana, Leonard; Swanepoel, Jan Willem Hendrik
2011-01-01
The traditional non-parametric bootstrap (referred to as the n-out-of-n bootstrap) is a widely applicable and powerful tool for statistical inference, but in important situations it can fail. It is well known that by using a bootstrap sample of size m, different from n, the resulting m-out-of-n bootstrap provides a method for rectifying the traditional bootstrap inconsistency. Moreover, recent studies have shown that interesting cases exist where it is better to use the m-out-of-n bootstrap i...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The simultaneous determination of actinides in air filter and water samples around the WIPP site have been demonstrated. The analytical method is based on the selective separation and purification by anion exchange and Eichrome-TEVA, TRU and DGA-resin followed by determination of actinides by alpha spectrometry. Counting sources for alpha spectrometric measurements were prepared by microcoprecipitation on neodymium fluoride (NdF3). Radiochemical yields were determined using 242Pu, 229Th, 243Am and 232U as tracers. The validation of the method is performed through the analysis of reference materials or participating in laboratory intercomparison programs. The plutonium concentrations in aerosols varied seasonally, being highest in spring and summer due to the spring-time enhanced wind-storm transportation of radioactive aerosols from the stratosphere to the troposphere. The 238Pu/239+240Pu activity ratio in the aerosol samples is typically close to that of global fallout from historic above-ground nuclear weapons testing. The results presented here indicate that the source of plutonium in the WIPP environment results mainly from global nuclear fallout and there is no evidence of increases in radiological contaminants in the region that could be attributed to releases from the WIPP. (author)
Current drive and sustain experiments with the bootstrap current in JT-60
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The current drive and sustain experiments with the neoclassical bootstrap current are performed in the JT-60 tokamak. It is shown that up to 80% of total plasma current is driven by the bootstrap current in extremely high βp regime (βp = 3.2) and the current drive product Ip (bootstrap) n-bareRp up to 4.4 x 1019 MAm-2 has been attained with the bootstrap current. The experimental resistive loop voltages are compared with the calculations using the neoclassical resistivity with and without the bootstrap current and the Spitzer resistivity for a wide range of the plasma current (Ip = 0.5 -2 MA) and the poloidal beta (βp = 0.1 - 3.2). The calculated resistive loop voltage is consistent with the neoclassical prediction including the bootstrap current. Current sustain with the bootstrap current is tested by terminating the Ip feedback control during the high power neutral beam heating. An enhancement of the L/R decay time than those expected from the plasma resistivity with measured Te and Zeff has been confirmed experimentally supporting the large non-inductive current in the plasma and is consistent with the neoclassical prediction. A new technique to calculate the bootstrap current in multi-collisionality regime for finite aspect ratio tokamak has bee developed. The neoclassical bootstrap current is calculated directly through the force balance equations between viscous and friction forces according to the Hirshman-Sigmar theory. The bootstrap current driven by the fast ion component is also included. Ballooning stability of the high βp plasma are analyzed using the current profiles including the bootstrap current. The plasma pressure is close to the ballooning limit in high βp discharges. (author)
Interaction of bootstrap-current-driven magnetic islands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The formation and interaction of fluctuating neoclassical pressure gradient driven magnetic islands is examined. The interaction of magnetic islands produces a stochastic region around the separatrices of the islands. This interaction causes the island pressure profile to be broadened, reducing the island bootstrap current and drive for the magnetic island. A model is presented that describes the magnetic topology as a bath of interacting magnetic islands with low to medium poloidal mode number (m congruent 3-30). The islands grow by the bootstrap current effect and damp due to the flattening of the pressure profile near the island separatrix caused by the interaction of the magnetic islands. The effect of this sporadic growth and decay of the islands (''magnetic bubbling'') is not normally addressed in theories of plasma transport due to magnetic fluctuations. The nature of the transport differs from statistical approaches to magnetic turbulence since the radial step size of the plasma transport is now given by the characteristic island width. This model suggests that tokamak experiments have relatively short-lived, coherent, long wavelength magnetic oscillations present in the steep pressure-gradient regions of the plasma. 42 refs
Bootstrap embedding: An internally consistent fragment-based method
Welborn, Matthew; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy
2016-08-01
Strong correlation poses a difficult problem for electronic structure theory, with computational cost scaling quickly with system size. Fragment embedding is an attractive approach to this problem. By dividing a large complicated system into smaller manageable fragments "embedded" in an approximate description of the rest of the system, we can hope to ameliorate the steep cost of correlated calculations. While appealing, these methods often converge slowly with fragment size because of small errors at the boundary between fragment and bath. We describe a new electronic embedding method, dubbed "Bootstrap Embedding," a self-consistent wavefunction-in-wavefunction embedding theory that uses overlapping fragments to improve the description of fragment edges. We apply this method to the one dimensional Hubbard model and a translationally asymmetric variant, and find that it performs very well for energies and populations. We find Bootstrap Embedding converges rapidly with embedded fragment size, overcoming the surface-area-to-volume-ratio error typical of many embedding methods. We anticipate that this method may lead to a low-scaling, high accuracy treatment of electron correlation in large molecular systems.
A Parsimonious Bootstrap Method to Model Natural Inflow Energy Series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Luiz Cyrino Oliveira
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Brazilian energy generation and transmission system is quite peculiar in its dimension and characteristics. As such, it can be considered unique in the world. It is a high dimension hydrothermal system with huge participation of hydro plants. Such strong dependency on hydrological regimes implies uncertainties related to the energetic planning, requiring adequate modeling of the hydrological time series. This is carried out via stochastic simulations of monthly inflow series using the family of Periodic Autoregressive models, PAR(p, one for each period (month of the year. In this paper it is shown the problems in fitting these models by the current system, particularly the identification of the autoregressive order “p” and the corresponding parameter estimation. It is followed by a proposal of a new approach to set both the model order and the parameters estimation of the PAR(p models, using a nonparametric computational technique, known as Bootstrap. This technique allows the estimation of reliable confidence intervals for the model parameters. The obtained results using the Parsimonious Bootstrap Method of Moments (PBMOM produced not only more parsimonious model orders but also adherent stochastic scenarios and, in the long range, lead to a better use of water resources in the energy operation planning.
Bootstrap embedding: An internally consistent fragment-based method.
Welborn, Matthew; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy
2016-08-21
Strong correlation poses a difficult problem for electronic structure theory, with computational cost scaling quickly with system size. Fragment embedding is an attractive approach to this problem. By dividing a large complicated system into smaller manageable fragments "embedded" in an approximate description of the rest of the system, we can hope to ameliorate the steep cost of correlated calculations. While appealing, these methods often converge slowly with fragment size because of small errors at the boundary between fragment and bath. We describe a new electronic embedding method, dubbed "Bootstrap Embedding," a self-consistent wavefunction-in-wavefunction embedding theory that uses overlapping fragments to improve the description of fragment edges. We apply this method to the one dimensional Hubbard model and a translationally asymmetric variant, and find that it performs very well for energies and populations. We find Bootstrap Embedding converges rapidly with embedded fragment size, overcoming the surface-area-to-volume-ratio error typical of many embedding methods. We anticipate that this method may lead to a low-scaling, high accuracy treatment of electron correlation in large molecular systems. PMID:27544082
Bootstrapping Q Methodology to Improve the Understanding of Human Perspectives.
Zabala, Aiora; Pascual, Unai
2016-01-01
Q is a semi-qualitative methodology to identify typologies of perspectives. It is appropriate to address questions concerning diverse viewpoints, plurality of discourses, or participation processes across disciplines. Perspectives are interpreted based on rankings of a set of statements. These rankings are analysed using multivariate data reduction techniques in order to find similarities between respondents. Discussing the analytical process and looking for progress in Q methodology is becoming increasingly relevant. While its use is growing in social, health and environmental studies, the analytical process has received little attention in the last decades and it has not benefited from recent statistical and computational advances. Specifically, the standard procedure provides overall and arguably simplistic variability measures for perspectives and none of these measures are associated to individual statements, on which the interpretation is based. This paper presents an innovative approach of bootstrapping Q to obtain additional and more detailed measures of variability, which helps researchers understand better their data and the perspectives therein. This approach provides measures of variability that are specific to each statement and perspective, and additional measures that indicate the degree of certainty with which each respondent relates to each perspective. This supplementary information may add or subtract strength to particular arguments used to describe the perspectives. We illustrate and show the usefulness of this approach with an empirical example. The paper provides full details for other researchers to implement the bootstrap in Q studies with any data collection design.
Assessing Uncertainty in LULC Classification Accuracy by Using Bootstrap Resampling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin-Hsuan Hsiao
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Supervised land-use/land-cover (LULC classifications are typically conducted using class assignment rules derived from a set of multiclass training samples. Consequently, classification accuracy varies with the training data set and is thus associated with uncertainty. In this study, we propose a bootstrap resampling and reclassification approach that can be applied for assessing not only the uncertainty in classification results of the bootstrap-training data sets, but also the classification uncertainty of individual pixels in the study area. Two measures of pixel-specific classification uncertainty, namely the maximum class probability and Shannon entropy, were derived from the class probability vector of individual pixels and used for the identification of unclassified pixels. Unclassified pixels that are identified using the traditional chi-square threshold technique represent outliers of individual LULC classes, but they are not necessarily associated with higher classification uncertainty. By contrast, unclassified pixels identified using the equal-likelihood technique are associated with higher classification uncertainty and they mostly occur on or near the borders of different land-cover.
Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S
2015-09-01
This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60-160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11-21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L(-1) for cadmium, 2.39 μg L(-1) for zinc, and 0.11 μg L(-1) for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h(-1) for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. PMID:26388376
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frantisek Cacho
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9 μg dm-3 and 2.7 μg dm-3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300 μg dm-3 for sample volumes of 4 mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60 g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant.
Renyi Entropies, the Analytic Bootstrap, and 3D Quantum Gravity at Higher Genus
Headrick, Matthew; Perlmutter, Eric; Zadeh, Ida G
2015-01-01
We compute the contribution of the vacuum Virasoro representation to the genus-two partition function of an arbitrary CFT with central charge $c>1$. This is the perturbative pure gravity partition function in three dimensions. We employ a sewing construction, in which the partition function is expressed as a sum of sphere four-point functions of Virasoro vacuum descendants. For this purpose, we develop techniques to efficiently compute correlation functions of holomorphic operators, which by crossing symmetry are determined exactly by a finite number of OPE coefficients; this is an analytic implementation of the conformal bootstrap. Expanding the results in $1/c$, corresponding to the semiclassical bulk gravity expansion, we find that---unlike at genus one---the result does not truncate at finite loop order. Our results also allow us to extend earlier work on multiple-interval Renyi entropies and on the partition function in the separating degeneration limit.
Active Sequential Hypothesis Testing
Naghshvar, Mohammad
2012-01-01
Consider a decision maker who is responsible to dynamically collect observations so as to enhance his information in a speedy manner about an underlying phenomena of interest while accounting for the penalty of wrong declaration. The special cases of the problem are shown to be that of variable-length coding with feedback and noisy dynamic search. Due to the sequential nature of the problem, the decision maker relies on his current information state to adaptively select the most "informative" sensing action among the available ones. In this paper, using results in dynamic programming, a lower bound for the optimal total cost is established. Moreover, upper bounds are obtained via an analysis of heuristic policies for dynamic selection of actions. It is shown that the proposed heuristics achieve asymptotic optimality in many practically relevant problems including the problems of variable-length coding with feedback and noisy dynamic search; where asymptotic optimality implies that the relative difference betw...
MEAN SQUARED ERRORS OF BOOTSTRAP VARIANCE ESTIMATORS FOR U-STATISTICS
Mizuno, Masayuki; Maesono, Yoshihiko
2011-01-01
In this paper, we obtain an asymptotic representation of the bootstrap variance estimator for a class of U-statistics. Using the representation of the estimator, we will obtain a mean squared error of the variance estimator until the order n^. Also we compare the bootstrap and the jackknife variance estimators, theoretically.
A Bootstrap Generalization of Modified Parallel Analysis for IRT Dimensionality Assessment
Finch, Holmes; Monahan, Patrick
2008-01-01
This article introduces a bootstrap generalization to the Modified Parallel Analysis (MPA) method of test dimensionality assessment using factor analysis. This methodology, based on the use of Marginal Maximum Likelihood nonlinear factor analysis, provides for the calculation of a test statistic based on a parametric bootstrap using the MPA…
Cui, Zhongmin; Kolen, Michael J.
2008-01-01
This article considers two methods of estimating standard errors of equipercentile equating: the parametric bootstrap method and the nonparametric bootstrap method. Using a simulation study, these two methods are compared under three sample sizes (300, 1,000, and 3,000), for two test content areas (the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills Maps and Diagrams…
On the M fewer than N bootstrap approximation to the trimmed mean
Gribkova, N.; Helmers, R.
2008-01-01
We show that the M fewer than N (N is the real data sample size, M denotes the size of the bootstrap resample; M=N ! 0, as M ! 1) bootstrap approximation to the distribution of the trimmed mean is consistent without any conditions on the population distribution F, whereas Efron's naive (i.e. M = N)
Bootstrapping to Test for Nonzero Population Correlation Coefficients Using Univariate Sampling
Beasley, William Howard; DeShea, Lise; Toothaker, Larry E.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Bard, David E.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee
2007-01-01
This article proposes 2 new approaches to test a nonzero population correlation ([rho]): the hypothesis-imposed univariate sampling bootstrap (HI) and the observed-imposed univariate sampling bootstrap (OI). The authors simulated correlated populations with various combinations of normal and skewed variates. With [alpha[subscript "set"
Bootstrapping the Small Sample Critical Values of the Rescaled Range Statistic
Marwan Izzeldin; Anthony Murphy
2000-01-01
Finite sample critical values of the rescaled range or R/S statistic may be obtained by bootstrapping. The empirical size and power performance of these critical values is good. Using the post blackened, moving block bootstrap helps to replicate the time dependencies in the original data. The Monte Carlo results show that the asymptotic critical values in Lo (1991) should not be used.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
In this paper,the author studies the asymptotic accuracies of the one-term Edgeworth expansions and the bootstrap approximation for the studentized MLE from randomly censored exponential population.It is shown that the Edgeworth expansions and the bootstrap approximation are asymptotically close to the exact distribution of the studentized MLE with a rate.
A Primer on Bootstrap Factor Analysis as Applied to Health Studies Research
Lu, Wenhua; Miao, Jingang; McKyer, E. Lisako J.
2014-01-01
Objectives: To demonstrate how the bootstrap method could be conducted in exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with a syntax written in SPSS. Methods: The data obtained from the Texas Childhood Obesity Prevention Policy Evaluation project (T-COPPE project) were used for illustration. A 5-step procedure to conduct bootstrap factor analysis (BFA) was…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁幸甜; 杨承祥
2008-01-01
目的 通过序贯法测定氯胺酮在小儿 MRI检查麻醉中的半数有效剂量(ED50).方法 选择ASA Ⅰ～Ⅱ级需在全麻下行MRI检查的小儿 34例.氯胺酮初始剂量选择6 mg/kg肌肉注射,观察前一小儿麻醉效果而序贯地按0.5 m∥kg的药量递增或递减.一次肌肉注射即可连续无中断地完成MRI检查为麻醉效果满意,否则为麻醉失败,下一例小儿需递增氯胺酮用量.所得数据以加权均数法求得氯胺酮的ED50.结果 氯胺酮的ED50为7.058 mg/kg,95%的可信限为6.833 6 ms/ks～7.289 8 ms/ks.结论 序贯法测定半数有效剂量简便、高效、结果可信,所得氯胺酮的ED50可指导临床更迅速、安全地完成小儿 MRI检查的麻醉.%Objective To determine the median effective dose (ED50) of ketamine in pediatric anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning with sequential method. Methods 34 children (ASA gradeⅠ-Ⅱ) scheduled receiving MRI scanning under ketamine anesthesia were chosen. The Ⅰ.M. dose was set as 6 mg/kg for the incipient child and the sequent dose for the next child was adjusted by increasing or decreasing 0.5 mg/kg using up-and-down sequential method, according to the response of previous child to the administered dose. Satisfactory anesthesia was defined as that scanning was successfully and uninterrupted completed with a single intramuscular injection of ketamine or otherwise as failure. In case of failure, a higher degree of dose was needed for the sequent child. The ED50 of ketamine was derived from the data obtained using weighted averaging method. Results The ED50 of ketamine is 7.058 mg/kg and the 95 % confidence interval is 6.833 6 mg/kg-7.289 8 mg/kg. Conclusion Using sequential method to determine ketamine ED50 is convenient and with high performance, and the result is creditable. Ketamine ED50 is useful to make pediatric anesthesia for MRI scanning more rapid and safer.
Program algebra for sequential code
Bergstra, J.A.; Loots, M.E.
2002-01-01
The jump instruction is considered essential for an adequate theoretical understanding of imperative sequential programming. Using basic instructions and tests as a basis we outline an algebra of programs, denoted PGA, which captures the crux of sequential programming.We single out a behavior extrac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid, commonly known as benzophenone-3 (BZ3) and benzophenone-4 (BZ4), respectively, are substances widely used as UV filters in cosmetic products in order to absorb UV radiation and protect human skin from direct exposure to the deleterious wavelengths of sunlight. As with other UV filters, there is evidence of their percutaneous absorption. This work describes an analytical method developed to determine trace levels of free BZ3 and BZ4 in human urine. The methodology is based on a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure for clean-up and pre-concentration, followed by the monitoring of the UV filters by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry detection (LC-UV). In order to improve not only the sensitivity and selectivity, but also the precision of the method, the principle of sequential injection analysis was used to automate the SPE process and to transfer the eluates from the SPE to the LC system. The application of a six-channel valve as an interface for the switching arrangements successfully allowed the on-line connection of SPE sample processing with LC analysis. The SPE process for BZ3 and BZ4 was performed using octadecyl (C18) and diethylaminopropyl (DEA) modified silica microcolumns, respectively, in which the analytes were retained and eluted selectively. Due to the matrix effects, the determination was based on standard addition quantification and was fully validated. The relative standard deviations of the results were 13% and 6% for BZ3 and BZ4, respectively, whereas the limits of detection were 60 and 30 ng mL-1, respectively. The method was satisfactorily applied to determine BZ3 and BZ4 in urine from volunteers that had applied a sunscreen cosmetic containing both UV filters.
A bootstrap method for estimating uncertainty of water quality trends
Hirsch, Robert M.; Archfield, Stacey A.; DeCicco, Laura
2015-01-01
Estimation of the direction and magnitude of trends in surface water quality remains a problem of great scientific and practical interest. The Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method was recently introduced as an exploratory data analysis tool to provide flexible and robust estimates of water quality trends. This paper enhances the WRTDS method through the introduction of the WRTDS Bootstrap Test (WBT), an extension of WRTDS that quantifies the uncertainty in WRTDS-estimates of water quality trends and offers various ways to visualize and communicate these uncertainties. Monte Carlo experiments are applied to estimate the Type I error probabilities for this method. WBT is compared to other water-quality trend-testing methods appropriate for data sets of one to three decades in length with sampling frequencies of 6–24 observations per year. The software to conduct the test is in the EGRETci R-package.
Bootstrapping Security Policies for Wearable Apps Using Attributed Structural Graphs.
González-Tablas, Ana I; Tapiador, Juan E
2016-05-11
We address the problem of bootstrapping security and privacy policies for newly-deployed apps in wireless body area networks (WBAN) composed of smartphones, sensors and other wearable devices. We introduce a framework to model such a WBAN as an undirected graph whose vertices correspond to devices, apps and app resources, while edges model structural relationships among them. This graph is then augmented with attributes capturing the features of each entity together with user-defined tags. We then adapt available graph-based similarity metrics to find the closest app to a new one to be deployed, with the aim of reusing, and possibly adapting, its security policy. We illustrate our approach through a detailed smartphone ecosystem case study. Our results suggest that the scheme can provide users with a reasonably good policy that is consistent with the user's security preferences implicitly captured by policies already in place.
Bootstrapping Pure Quantum Gravity in AdS3
Bae, Jin-Beom; Lee, Sungjay
2016-01-01
The three-dimensional pure quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is supposed to be dual to the extremal conformal field theory of central charge $c=24k$ in two dimensions. We employ the conformal bootstrap method to analyze the extremal CFTs, and find numerical evidence for the non-existence of the extremal CFTs for sufficiently large central charge ($k \\ge 20$). We also explore near-extremal CFTs, a small modification of extremal ones, and find similar evidence for their non-existence for large central charge. This indicates, under the assumption of holomorphic factorization, the pure gravity in the weakly curved AdS$_3$ do not exist as a consistent quantum theory.
Bootstrapping Security Policies for Wearable Apps Using Attributed Structural Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana I. González-Tablas
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We address the problem of bootstrapping security and privacy policies for newly-deployed apps in wireless body area networks (WBAN composed of smartphones, sensors and other wearable devices. We introduce a framework to model such a WBAN as an undirected graph whose vertices correspond to devices, apps and app resources, while edges model structural relationships among them. This graph is then augmented with attributes capturing the features of each entity together with user-defined tags. We then adapt available graph-based similarity metrics to find the closest app to a new one to be deployed, with the aim of reusing, and possibly adapting, its security policy. We illustrate our approach through a detailed smartphone ecosystem case study. Our results suggest that the scheme can provide users with a reasonably good policy that is consistent with the user’s security preferences implicitly captured by policies already in place.
Bootstrapping Mixed Correlators in the 3D Ising Model
Kos, Filip; Simmons-Duffin, David
2014-01-01
We study the conformal bootstrap for systems of correlators involving non-identical operators. The constraints of crossing symmetry and unitarity for such mixed correlators can be phrased in the language of semidefinite programming. We apply this formalism to the simplest system of mixed correlators in 3D CFTs with a $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ global symmetry. For the leading $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-odd operator $\\sigma$ and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-even operator $\\epsilon$, we obtain numerical constraints on the allowed dimensions $(\\Delta_\\sigma, \\Delta_\\epsilon)$ assuming that $\\sigma$ and $\\epsilon$ are the only relevant scalars in the theory. These constraints yield a small closed region in $(\\Delta_\\sigma, \\Delta_\\epsilon)$ space compatible with the known values in the 3D Ising CFT.
Bootstrap position analysis for forecasting low flow frequency
Tasker, Gary D.; Dunne, P.
1997-01-01
A method of random resampling of residuals from stochastic models is used to generate a large number of 12-month-long traces of natural monthly runoff to be used in a position analysis model for a water-supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses the traces to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality, fewer parameters need to be estimated directly from the data, and accounting for parameter uncertainty is easily done. For a given set of operating rules and water-use requirements for a system, water managers can use such a model as a decision-making tool to evaluate different operating rules. ?? ASCE,.
Higgs critical exponents and conformal bootstrap in four dimensions
Antipin, Oleg; Mølgaard, Esben; Sannino, Francesco
2015-06-01
We investigate relevant properties of composite operators emerging in non-supersymmetric, four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories with interacting conformal fixed points within a precise framework. The theories investigated in this work are structurally similar to the standard model of particle interactions, but differ by developing perturbative interacting fixed points. We investigate the physical properties of the singlet and the adjoint composite operators quadratic in the Higgs field, and discover, via a direct computation, that the singlet anomalous dimension is substantially larger than the adjoint one. The numerical bootstrap results are, when possible, compared to our precise findings associated to the four dimensional conformal field theoretical results. To accomplish this, it was necessary to calculate explicitly the crossing symmetry relations for the global symmetry group SU( N ) × SU( N ).
Higgs Critical Exponents and Conformal Bootstrap in Four Dimensions
Antipin, Oleg; Sannino, Francesco
2014-01-01
Within a precise framework, we investigate relevant properties of composite operators emerging in nonsupersymmetric, four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories with interacting conformal fixed points. The theories investigated in this work are structurally similar to the standard model of particle interactions, but differ from the standard model by developing perturbative interacting fixed points. We investigate the physical properties of the singlet and the adjoint composite operators quadratic in the Higgs field. We show that, in the Veneziano limit, and at the highest known order in perturbation theory, the singlet sector decouples from the other operators. This fact allows us to test the numerical bootstrap constraints against precise four dimensional conformal field theoretical results.
Bootstrap and the physical values of $\\pi N$ resonance parameters
Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill M; Vereshagin, Vladimir V
2007-01-01
This is the 6th paper in the series developing the formalism to manage the effective scattering theory of strong interactions. Relying on the theoretical scheme suggested in our previous publications we concentrate here on the practical aspect and apply our technique to the elastic pion-nucleon scattering amplitude. We test numerically the pion-nucleon spectrum sum rules that follow from the tree level bootstrap constraints. We show how these constraints can be used to estimate the tensor and vector $NN\\rho$ coupling constants. At last, we demonstrate that the tree-level low energy expansion coefficients computed in the framework of our approach show nice agreement with known experimental data. These results allow us to claim that the extended perturbation scheme is quite reasonable from the computational point of view.
Spanning Trees and bootstrap reliability estimation in correlation based networks
Tumminello, M; Lillo, F; Micciché, S; Mantegna, R N
2006-01-01
We introduce a new technique to associate a spanning tree to the average linkage cluster analysis. We term this tree as the Average Linkage Minimum Spanning Tree. We also introduce a technique to associate a value of reliability to links of correlation based graphs by using bootstrap replicas of data. Both techniques are applied to the portfolio of the 300 most capitalized stocks traded at New York Stock Exchange during the time period 2001-2003. We show that the Average Linkage Minimum Spanning Tree recognizes economic sectors and sub-sectors as communities in the network slightly better than the Minimum Spanning Tree does. We also show that the average reliability of links in the Minimum Spanning Tree is slightly greater than the average reliability of links in the Average Linkage Minimum Spanning Tree.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald
2002-01-01
An automated sequential injection (SI) on-line solvent extraction-back extraction separation/preconcentration procedure is described. Demonstrated for the assay of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), the analyte is initially complexed with ammonium...
Performance of Bootstrap MCEWMA: Study case of Sukuk Musyarakah data
Safiih, L. Muhamad; Hila, Z. Nurul
2014-07-01
Sukuk Musyarakah is one of several instruments of Islamic bond investment in Malaysia, where the form of this sukuk is actually based on restructuring the conventional bond to become a Syariah compliant bond. The Syariah compliant is based on prohibition of any influence of usury, benefit or fixed return. Despite of prohibition, daily returns of sukuk are non-fixed return and in statistic, the data of sukuk returns are said to be a time series data which is dependent and autocorrelation distributed. This kind of data is a crucial problem whether in statistical and financing field. Returns of sukuk can be statistically viewed by its volatility, whether it has high volatility that describing the dramatically change of price and categorized it as risky bond or else. However, this crucial problem doesn't get serious attention among researcher compared to conventional bond. In this study, MCEWMA chart in Statistical Process Control (SPC) is mainly used to monitor autocorrelated data and its application on daily returns of securities investment data has gained widespread attention among statistician. However, this chart has always been influence by inaccurate estimation, whether on base model or its limit, due to produce large error and high of probability of signalling out-of-control process for false alarm study. To overcome this problem, a bootstrap approach used in this study, by hybridise it on MCEWMA base model to construct a new chart, i.e. Bootstrap MCEWMA (BMCEWMA) chart. The hybrid model, BMCEWMA, will be applied to daily returns of sukuk Musyarakah for Rantau Abang Capital Bhd. The performance of BMCEWMA base model showed that its more effective compare to real model, MCEWMA based on smaller error estimation, shorter the confidence interval and smaller false alarm. In other word, hybrid chart reduce the variability which shown by smaller error and false alarm. It concludes that the application of BMCEWMA is better than MCEWMA.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ettore Marubini
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a robust two-stage procedure for identification of outlying observations in regression analysis. The exploratory stage identifies leverage points and vertical outliers through a robust distance estimator based on Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD. After deletion of these points, the confirmatory stage carries out an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS analysis on the remaining subset of data and investigates the effect of adding back in the previously deleted observations. Cut-off points pertinent to different diagnostics are generated by bootstrapping and the cases are definitely labelled as good-leverage, bad-leverage, vertical outliers and typical cases. The procedure is applied to four examples.
A NEW INEXACT SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING ALGORITHM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
倪勤
2002-01-01
This paper represents an inexact sequential quadratic programming (SQP ) algorithm which can solve nonlinear programming (NLP ) problems. An inexact solution of the quadratic programming subproblem is determined by a projection and contraction method such that only matrix-vector product is required. Some truncated criteria are chosen such that the algorithm is suitable to large scale NLP problem. The global convergence of the algorithm is proved.
Determining Redundant Actions in Sequential Plans
Chrpa, Lukáš; McCluskey, T.L.; Osborne, Hugh
2012-01-01
Automated planning even in its simplest form, classical planning, is a computationally hard problem. With the increasing involvement of intelligent systems in everyday life there is a need for more and more advanced planning techniques able to solve planning problems in little (or real) time. However, planners designed to solve planning problems as fast as possible often provide solution plans of low quality. The quality of solution plans can be improved by their post-planning analysis by whi...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Long, Xiangbao; Chomchoei, Roongrat; Hansen, Elo Harald;
2004-01-01
The operational characteristics of a novel poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) bead material, granular Algoflon®, used for separation and preconcentration of metal ions via adsorption of on-line generated non-charged metal complexes, were evaluated in a sequential injection (SI) system furnished...
Mining Frequent Max and Closed Sequential Patterns
Afshar, Ramin
2002-01-01
Although frequent sequential pattern mining has an important role in many data mining tasks, however, it often generates a large number of sequential patterns, which reduces its efficiency and effectiveness. For many applications mining all the frequent sequential patterns is not necessary, and mining frequent Max, or Closed sequential patterns will provide the same amount of information. Comparing to frequent sequential pattern mining, frequent Max, or Closed sequential pattern mining g...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hounyo, Ulrich; Varneskov, Rasmus T.
We provide a new resampling procedure - the local stable bootstrap - that is able to mimic the dependence properties of realized power variations for pure-jump semimartingales observed at different frequencies. This allows us to propose a bootstrap estimator and inference procedure for the activity...... index of the underlying process, β, as well as a bootstrap test for whether it obeys a jump-diffusion or a pure-jump process, that is, of the null hypothesis H₀: β=2 against the alternative H₁: β
Sequential operators in computability logic
Japaridze, Giorgi
2007-01-01
Computability logic (CL) (see http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html) is a semantical platform and research program for redeveloping logic as a formal theory of computability, as opposed to the formal theory of truth which it has more traditionally been. Formulas in CL stand for (interactive) computational problems, understood as games between a machine and its environment; logical operators represent operations on such entities; and "truth" is understood as existence of an effective solution, i.e., of an algorithmic winning strategy. The formalism of CL is open-ended, and may undergo series of extensions as the study of the subject advances. The main groups of operators on which CL has been focused so far are the parallel, choice, branching, and blind operators. The present paper introduces a new important group of operators, called sequential. The latter come in the form of sequential conjunction and disjunction, sequential quantifiers, and sequential recurrences. As the name may suggest, the algorithmic ...
Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator
Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.
2009-08-18
A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.
Mining Heterogeneous Multidimensional Sequential Patterns
Egho, Elias; Raïssi, Chedy; Jay, Nicolas; Napoli, Amedeo
2014-01-01
All domains of science and technology produce large and heterogeneous data. Although much work has been done in this area, mining such data is still a challenge. No previous research targets the mining of heterogeneous multidimensional sequential data. In this work, we present a new approach to extract heterogeneous multidimensional sequential patterns with different levels of granularity by relying on external taxonomies. We show the efficiency and interest of our approach with the analysis ...
View Dependent Sequential Point Trees
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen-Cheng Wang; Feng Wei; En-Hua Wu
2006-01-01
Sequential point trees provide the state-of-the-art technique for rendering point models, by re-arranging hierarchical points sequentially according to geometric errors running on GPU for fast rendering. This paper presents a view dependent method to augment sequential point trees by embedding the hierarchical tree structures in the sequential list of hierarchical points. By the method, two kinds of indices are constructed to facilitate the points rendering in an order mostly from near to far and from coarse to fine. As a result, invisible points can be culled view-dependently in high efficiency for hardware acceleration, and at the same time, the advantage of sequential point trees could be still fully taken. Therefore, the new method can run much faster than the conventional sequential point trees, and the acceleration can be highly promoted particularly when the objects possess complex occlusion relationship and viewed closely because invisible points would be in a high percentage of the points at finer levels.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel on-line sequential injection (SI) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for metal preconcentration in micro-scale, eliminating the laborious and time consuming procedure of phase separation with centrifugation. The potentials of the system were demonstrated for trace lead and cadmium determination in water samples. An appropriate disperser solution which contains the extraction solvent (xylene) and the chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) in methanol is mixed on-line with the sample solution (aqueous phase), resulting thus, a cloudy solution, which is consisted of fine droplets of xylene, dispersed throughout the aqueous phase. Three procedures are taking place simultaneously: cloudy solution creation, analyte complex formation and extraction from aqueous phase into the fine droplets of xylene. Subsequently the droplets were retained on the hydrophobic surface of PTFE-turnings into the column. A part of 30 μL of the eluent (methyl isobutyl ketone) was injected into furnace graphite for analyte atomization and quantification. The sampling frequency was 10 h-1, and the obtained enrichment factor was 80 for lead and 34 for cadmium. The detection limit was 10 ng L-1 and 2 ng L-1, while the precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.8% (at 0.5 μg L-1) and 4.1% (at 0.03 μg L-1) for lead and cadmium respectively. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and was applied to the analysis of natural waters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anthemidis, Aristidis N., E-mail: anthemid@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Ioannou, Kallirroy-Ioanna G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)
2010-05-23
A novel on-line sequential injection (SI) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for metal preconcentration in micro-scale, eliminating the laborious and time consuming procedure of phase separation with centrifugation. The potentials of the system were demonstrated for trace lead and cadmium determination in water samples. An appropriate disperser solution which contains the extraction solvent (xylene) and the chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) in methanol is mixed on-line with the sample solution (aqueous phase), resulting thus, a cloudy solution, which is consisted of fine droplets of xylene, dispersed throughout the aqueous phase. Three procedures are taking place simultaneously: cloudy solution creation, analyte complex formation and extraction from aqueous phase into the fine droplets of xylene. Subsequently the droplets were retained on the hydrophobic surface of PTFE-turnings into the column. A part of 30 {mu}L of the eluent (methyl isobutyl ketone) was injected into furnace graphite for analyte atomization and quantification. The sampling frequency was 10 h{sup -1}, and the obtained enrichment factor was 80 for lead and 34 for cadmium. The detection limit was 10 ng L{sup -1} and 2 ng L{sup -1}, while the precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.8% (at 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and 4.1% (at 0.03 {mu}g L{sup -1}) for lead and cadmium respectively. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and was applied to the analysis of natural waters.
Duan, Taicheng; Song, Xuejie; Jin, Dan; Li, Hongfei; Xu, Jingwei; Chen, Hangting
2005-10-31
In this work, a method was developed for determination of ultra-trace levels of Cd in tea samples by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). A flow injection solid phase extraction (FI-SPE) separation and preconcentration technique, to on-line couple with a sequential injection hydride generation (SI-HG) technique is employed in this study. Cd was preconcentrated on the SPE column, which was made from a neutral extractant named Cyanex 923, while other matrix ions or interfering ions were completely or mostly separated off. Conditions for the SPE separation and preconcentration, as well as conditions for the HG technique, were studied. Due to the separation of interfering elements, Cd hydride generation efficiency could be greatly enhanced with the sole presence of Co(2+) with a concentration of 200mugL(-1), which is much lower than those in other works previously reported. Interferences on both the Cd separation and preconcentration, and Cd hydride generation (HG) were investigated; it showed that both the separation and preconcentration system, and the HG system had a strong anti-interference ability. The SPE column could be repeatedly used at least 400 times, a R.S.D. of 0.97% was obtained for 6 measurements of Cd with 0.2mugL(-1) and a correlation coefficiency of 1.0000 was obtained for the measurement of a series of solutions with Cd concentrations from 0.1 to 2mugL(-1). The method has a low detection limit of 10.8ngL(-1) for a 25mL solution and was successfully validated by using two tea standard reference materials (GBW08513 and GBW07605).
Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Miró, Manuel
2011-01-01
This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in soil, sediment, and seaweed, with detection via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A chromatographic column packed with a macroporous anion exchanger (AG MP-1 M) was incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system for the efficient retrieval of plutonium, along with neptunium, from matrix elements and potential interfering nuclides. The sorption and elution behavior of plutonium and neptunium onto AG MP-1 M resin was compared with a commonly utilized AG 1-gel-type anion exchanger. Experimental results reveal that the pore structure of the anion exchanger plays a pivotal role in ensuring similar separation behavior of plutonium and neptunium along the separation protocol. It is proven that plutonium-242 ((242)Pu) performs well as a tracer for monitoring the chemical yield of neptunium when using AG MP-1 M resin, whereby the difficulties in obtaining a reliable and practicable isotopic neptunium tracer are overcome. An important asset of the SI setup is the feasibility of processing up to 100 g of solid substrates using a small-sized (ca. 2 mL) column with chemical yields of neptunium and plutonium being ≥79%. Analytical results of three certified/standard reference materials and two solid samples from intercomparison exercises are in good agreement with the reference values at the 0.05 significance level. The overall on-column separation can be completed within 3.5 h for 10 g of soil samples. Most importantly, the anion-exchange mini-column suffices to be reused up to 10-fold with satisfactory chemical yields (>70%), as demanded in environmental monitoring and emergency scenarios, making the proposed automated assembly well-suited for unattended and high-throughput analysis.
Performance analysis of sequential tests in process control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoyer, K.K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering/Management Science
1994-04-01
In recent years, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on quality control of industrial processes. In particular, numerous statistical techniques exist which are designed to continually check an industrial process for machine or component failure, thereby determining if the process is under control, or if it is becoming out of control. In this study, the authors consider a very powerful class of quality control techniques known as sequential tests. Sequential tests classify a set of observations in a manner similar to statistical hypothesis tests, but are characterized by a random sample size. Perhaps the best known sequential test is Wald`s sequential probability ratio test. The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a log likelihood ratio based test for simple or composite hypotheses. After taking each observation, the SPRT decides whether to accept the null hypothesis, reject the null hypothesis, or continue sampling. For the purpose of quality control, an SPRT can be conducted repeatedly over time as incoming observations are received. In the following section, the authors reviews the sequential probability ratio test and state some of its properties. In Section 3, they formulate a Markov additive model which allows them to study the sequential probability ratio test under various types of process behavior. Section 4 develops the theoretical results and the methodological approach that allows them to bound the first passage time distributions of their model. Section 5 illustrates their techniques through numerical examples.
Expected improvement in efficient global optimization through bootstrapped kriging
Van Nieuwenhuyse, Inneke; Kleijnen, Jack; van Beers, Wim
2012-01-01
This paper uses a sequentialized experimental design to select simulation input combinations for global optimization, based on Kriging (also called Gaussian process or spatial correlation modeling); this Kriging is used to analyze the input/output data of the simulation model (computer code). This paper adapts the classic "expected improvement" (EI) in "efficient global optimization" (EGO) through the introduction of an unbiased estimator of the Kriging predictor variance; this estimator uses...
BOOTSTRAP TECHNIQUE FOR ROC ANALYSIS: A STABLE EVALUATION OF FISHER CLASSIFIER PERFORMANCE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie Jigang; iu Zhengding
2007-01-01
This paper presents a novel bootstrap based method for Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of Fisher classifier. By defining Fisher classifier's output as a statistic, the bootstrap technique is used to obtain the sampling distributions of the outputs for the positive class and the negative class respectively. As a result, the ROC curve is a plot of all the (False Positive Rate (FPR),True Positive Rate (TPR)) pairs by varying the decision threshold over the whole range of the bootstrap sampling distributions. The advantage of this method is, the bootstrap based ROC curves are much stable than those of the holdout or cross-validation, indicating a more stable ROC analysis of Fisher classifier. Experiments on five data sets publicly available demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Web-sivujen kehitys ja mobiilioptimointi käytettäessä Bootstrap-alustaa
Myhrberg, Mikael
2015-01-01
Opinnäytetyön aihe perustuu omakohtaiseen kokemukseen web-kehityksestä. Taustana toimi myös aiemmin hyvinkääläiselle yritykselle tehty Bootstrap-projekti. Tarkoituksena oli esitellä Bootstrap-koodikirjastoa ja sitä, kuinka sitä voi käyttää alustana käytännön web-kehityksessä ja mobiilioptimoinnissa. Tavoitteena oli saada lukija ymmärtämään, mikä Bootstrap on ja mitä web-sivujen mobiilioptimointi tarkoittaa. Lisäksi tarkoituksena oli käytännön esimerkkiprojektin avulla näyttää, miten Bootstrap...
Treyens, Pierre-Eric
2008-01-01
We consider linear regression models and we suppose that disturbances are either Gaussian or non Gaussian. Then, by using Edgeworth expansions, we compute the exact errors in the rejection probability (ERPs) for all one-restriction tests (asymptotic and bootstrap) which can occur in these linear models. More precisely, we show that the ERP is the same for the asymptotic test as for the classical parametric bootstrap test it is based on as soon as the third cumulant is nonnul. On the other sid...
Sensitivity Analysis to Efficiency Scores : How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models
Simar, Léopold; Wilson, Paul
1995-01-01
Efficiency scores of production units are generally measured relative to an estimated production frontier. Nonparametric estimators (DEA, FDH, ... ) are based on a finite sample of observed production units. The bootstrap is one easy way to analyze the sensitivity of efficiency scores relative to the sampling variations of the estimated frontier. The main point in order to validate the bootstrap is to define a reasonable data generating process in this complex framework and to propose a reaso...
Bootstrap methods for lasso-type estimators under a moving-parameter framework
Cai, W; Lee, SMS
2012-01-01
We study the distributions of Lasso-type regression estimators in a moving-parameter asymptotic framework, and consider various bootstrap methods for estimating them accordingly. We show, in particular, that the distribution functions of Lasso-type estimators, including even those possessing the oracle properties such as the adaptive Lasso and the SCAD, cannot be consistently estimated by the bootstraps uniformly over the space of the regression parameters, especially when some of the regre...
Desenvolupament de tema per a WordPress basat en el framework Twitter Bootstrap
Roca Escoda, Víctor
2014-01-01
Desenvolupament de tema per a WordPress fet a mida per a una web d'empresa, utilitzant el marc de treball Twitter Bootstrap que permet adaptar la pàgina a l'entorn de l'usuari. Desarrollo de tema para WordPress hecho a medida para una web de empresa, utilizando el marco de trabajo Twitter Bootstrap que permite adaptar la página al entorno del usuario. Bachelor thesis for the Multimedia program.
Approximate regenerative-block bootstrap for Markov chains: some simulation studies
Bertail, Patrice; Clémençon, Stéphan
2007-01-01
Abstract : In Bertail & Clémençon (2005a) a novel methodology for bootstrappinggeneral Harris Markov chains has been proposed, which crucially exploits their renewalproperties (when eventually extended via the Nummelin splitting technique) and has theoreticalproperties that surpass other existing methods within the Markovian framework(bmoving block bootstrap, sieve bootstrap etc...). This paper is devoted to discuss practicalissues related to the implementation of this specific resampling met...
Fixed-b Subsampling and Block Bootstrap: Improved Confidence Sets Based on P-value Calibration
Shao, Xiaofeng; Politis, Dimitris N.
2012-01-01
Subsampling and block-based bootstrap methods have been used in a wide range of inference problems for time series. To accommodate the dependence, these resampling methods involve a bandwidth parameter, such as subsampling window width and block size in the block-based bootstrap. In empirical work, using different bandwidth parameters could lead to different inference results, but the traditional first order asymptotic theory does not capture the choice of the bandwidth. In this article, we p...
Sensitivity Analysis of Efficiency Scores: How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models
Simar, Léopold; Paul W. Wilson
1998-01-01
Efficiency scores of production units are generally measured relative to an estimated production frontier. Nonparametric estimators (DEA, FDH, \\cdots ) are based on a finite sample of observed production units. The bootstrap is one easy way to analyze the sensitivity of efficiency scores relative to the sampling variations of the estimated frontier. The main point in order to validate the bootstrap is to define a reasonable data-generating process in this complex framework and to propose a re...
Eddy Lizarazu Alanez; Jose A. Villasenor Alva
2010-01-01
Usamos simulaciones de Monte Carlo para estudiar el desempeno de la prueba de raiz unitaria de Shin-So (DFSS) bajo los enfoques de transformaciones invariantes y el bootstrapping. Si la hipotesis alternativa es un proceso estacionario alrededor de una tendencia lineal, entonces la prueba bootstrap parametrica es la mejor en terminos de la potencia estadistica. Sin embargo, si transformamos las observaciones para construir una prueba invariante, entonces la prueba DFSS es la mejor. Por consigu...
A two-stage productivity analysis using bootstrapped Malmquist index and quantile regression
Kaditi, Eleni A.; Nitsi, Elisavet I.
2009-01-01
This paper examines the effects of farm characteristics and government policies in enhancing productivity growth for a sample of Greek farms, using a two-stage procedure. In the 1st-stage, non-parametric estimates of Malmquist index and its decompositions are computed, while a bootstrapping procedure is applied to provide their statistical precision. In the 2nd-stage, the productivity growth estimates are regressed on various covariates using a bootstrapped quantile regression approach. The e...
Bootstrapping Multi-Parton Loop Amplitudes in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bern, Zvi; /UCLA; Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC; Kosower, David A.; /Saclay, SPhT
2005-07-06
The authors present a new method for computing complete one-loop amplitudes, including their rational parts, in non-supersymmetric gauge theory. This method merges the unitarity method with on-shell recursion relations. It systematizes a unitarity-factorization bootstrap approach previously applied by the authors to the one-loop amplitudes required for next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} Z, {gamma}* {yields} 4 jets and pp {yields} W + 2 jets. We illustrate the method by reproducing the one-loop color-ordered five-gluon helicity amplitudes in QCD that interfere with the tree amplitude, namely A{sub 5;1}(1{sup -}, 2{sup -}, 3{sup +}, 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}) and A{sub 5;1}(1{sup -}, 2{sup +}, 3{sup -}, 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}). Then we describe the construction of the six- and seven-gluon amplitudes with two adjacent negative-helicity gluons, A{sub 6;1}(1{sup -}, 2{sup -}, 3{sup +}, 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}, 6{sup +}) and A{sub 7;1}(1{sup -}, 2{sup -}, 3{sup +}, 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}, 6{sup +}, 7{sup +}), which uses the previously-computed logarithmic parts of the amplitudes as input. They present a compact expression for the six-gluon amplitude. No loop integrals are required to obtain the rational parts.
N=4 Superconformal Bootstrap of the K3 CFT
Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Simmons-Duffin, David; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi
2015-01-01
We study two-dimensional (4,4) superconformal field theories of central charge c=6, corresponding to nonlinear sigma models on K3 surfaces, using the superconformal bootstrap. This is made possible through a surprising relation between the BPS N=4 superconformal blocks with c=6 and bosonic Virasoro conformal blocks with c=28, and an exact result on the moduli dependence of a certain integrated BPS 4-point function. Nontrivial bounds on the non-BPS spectrum in the K3 CFT are obtained as functions of the CFT moduli, that interpolate between the free orbifold points and singular CFT points. We observe directly from the CFT perspective the signature of a continuous spectrum above a gap at the singular moduli, and find numerically an upper bound on this gap that is saturated by the $A_1$ N=4 cigar CFT. We also derive an analytic upper bound on the first nonzero eigenvalue of the scalar Laplacian on K3 in the large volume regime, that depends on the K3 moduli data. As two byproducts, we find an exact equivalence be...
N=4 Superconformal Bootstrap of the K3 CFT
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
We study two-dimensional (4,4) superconformal field theories of central charge c=6, corresponding to nonlinear σ models on K3 surfaces, using the superconformal bootstrap. This is made possible through a surprising relation between the BPS N=4 superconformal blocks with c=6 and bosonic Virasoro conformal blocks with c=28, and an exact result on the moduli dependence of a certain integrated BPS 4-point function. Nontrivial bounds on the non-BPS spectrum in the K3 CFT are obtained as functions of the CFT moduli, that interpolate between the free orbifold points and singular CFT points. We observe directly from the CFT perspective the signature of a continuous spectrum above a gap at the singular moduli, and find numerically an upper bound on this gap that is saturated by the A1 N=4 cigar CFT. We also derive an analytic upper bound on the first nonzero eigenvalue of the scalar Laplacian on K3 in the large volume regime, that depends on the K3 moduli data. As two byproducts, we find an exact equivalence...
Bootstrap equations for $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM with defects
Liendo, Pedro
2016-01-01
This paper focuses on the analysis of $4d$ $\\mathcal{N}=4$ superconformal theories in the presence of a defect from the point of view of the conformal bootstrap. We will concentrate first on the case of codimension one, where the defect is a boundary that preserves half of the supersymmetry. After studying the constraints imposed by supersymmetry, we will write the Ward identities associated to two-point functions of $\\tfrac{1}{2}$-BPS operators and write their solution as a superconformal block expansion. Due to a surprising connection between spacetime and R-symmetry conformal blocks, our results not only apply to $4d$ $\\Nm=4$ superconformal theories with a boundary, but also to three more systems that have the same symmetry algebra: $4d$ $\\Nm=4$ superconformal theories with a line defect, $3d$ $\\Nm=4$ superconformal theories with no defect, and $OSP(4^*|4)$ superconformal quantum mechanics. The superconformal algebra implies that all these systems possess a closed subsector of operators in which the bootst...
Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.
Salvi, Giampiero; Montesano, Luis; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, José
2012-06-01
We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants.
A bootstrap based space-time surveillance model with an application to crime occurrences
Kim, Youngho; O'Kelly, Morton
2008-06-01
This study proposes a bootstrap-based space-time surveillance model. Designed to find emerging hotspots in near-real time, the bootstrap based model is characterized by its use of past occurrence information and bootstrap permutations. Many existing space-time surveillance methods, using population at risk data to generate expected values, have resulting hotspots bounded by administrative area units and are of limited use for near-real time applications because of the population data needed. However, this study generates expected values for local hotspots from past occurrences rather than population at risk. Also, bootstrap permutations of previous occurrences are used for significant tests. Consequently, the bootstrap-based model, without the requirement of population at risk data, (1) is free from administrative area restriction, (2) enables more frequent surveillance for continuously updated registry database, and (3) is readily applicable to criminology and epidemiology surveillance. The bootstrap-based model performs better for space-time surveillance than the space-time scan statistic. This is shown by means of simulations and an application to residential crime occurrences in Columbus, OH, year 2000.
The non-local bootstrap--estimation of uncertainty in diffusion MRI.
Yap, Pew-Thian; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yasheng; Shen, Dinggang
2013-01-01
Diffusion MRI is a noninvasive imaging modality that allows for the estimation and visualization of white matter connectivity patterns in the human brain. However, due to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) nature of diffusion data, deriving useful statistics from the data is adversely affected by different sources of measurement noise. This is aggravated by the fact that the sampling distribution of the statistic of interest is often complex and unknown. In situations as such, the bootstrap, due to its distribution-independent nature, is an appealing tool for the estimation of the variability of almost any statistic, without relying on complicated theoretical calculations, but purely on computer simulation. In this work, we present new bootstrap strategies for variability estimation of diffusion statistics in association with noise. In contrast to the residual bootstrap, which relies on a predetermined data model, or the repetition bootstrap, which requires repeated signal measurements, our approach, called the non-local bootstrap (NLB), is non-parametric and obviates the need for time-consuming multiple acquisitions. The key assumption of NLB is that local image structures recur in the image. We exploit this self-similarity via a multivariate non-parametric kernel regression framework for bootstrap estimation of uncertainty. Evaluation of NLB using a set of high-resolution diffusion-weighted images, with lower than usual SNR due to the small voxel size, indicates that NLB is markedly more robust to noise and results in more accurate inferences. PMID:24683985
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Data-driven learning methods for predicting the evolution of the degradation processes affecting equipment are becoming increasingly attractive in reliability and prognostics applications. Among these, we consider here Support Vector Regression (SVR), which has provided promising results in various applications. Nevertheless, the predictions provided by SVR are point estimates whereas in order to take better informed decisions, an uncertainty assessment should be also carried out. For this, we apply bootstrap to SVR so as to obtain confidence and prediction intervals, without having to make any assumption about probability distributions and with good performance even when only a small data set is available. The bootstrapped SVR is first verified on Monte Carlo experiments and then is applied to a real case study concerning the prediction of degradation of a component from the offshore oil industry. The results obtained indicate that the bootstrapped SVR is a promising tool for providing reliable point and interval estimates, which can inform maintenance-related decisions on degrading components. - Highlights: • Bootstrap (pairs/residuals) and SVR are used as an uncertainty analysis framework. • Numerical experiments are performed to assess accuracy and coverage properties. • More bootstrap replications does not significantly improve performance. • Degradation of equipment of offshore oil wells is estimated by bootstrapped SVR. • Estimates about the scale growth rate can support maintenance-related decisions
Khabova, Z S; Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Tamberg, D K
2015-01-01
The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald
2006-01-01
A novel and miniaturized micro-sequential injection bead injection lab-on-valve (μSI-BI-LOV) fractionation system was developed for in-line microcolumn soil extraction under simulated environmental scenarios and accurate monitoring of the content of easily mobilisable hexavalent chromium in soil ...
Sequential quantum teleportation of optical coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We demonstrate a sequence of two quantum teleportations of optical coherent states, combining two high-fidelity teleporters for continuous variables. In our experiment, the individual teleportation fidelities are evaluated as F1=0.70±0.02 and F2=0.75±0.02, while the fidelity between the input and the sequentially teleported states is determined as F(2)=0.57±0.02. This still exceeds the optimal fidelity of one half for classical teleportation of arbitrary coherent states and almost attains the value of the first (unsequential) quantum teleportation experiment with optical coherent states
Assessing uncertainties in superficial water provision by different bootstrap-based techniques
Rodrigues, Dulce B. B.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario
2014-05-01
An assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, characterizing the interactions between societal needs, ecosystem functioning, and hydro-climatic conditions. The superficial freshwater provision level depends on the methods chosen for 'Environmental Flow Requirement' estimations, which integrate the sources of uncertainty in the understanding of how water-related threats to aquatic ecosystem security arise. Here, we develop an uncertainty assessment of superficial freshwater provision based on different bootstrap techniques (non-parametric resampling with replacement). To illustrate this approach, we use an agricultural basin (291 km2) within the Cantareira water supply system in Brazil monitored by one daily streamflow gage (24-year period). The original streamflow time series has been randomly resampled for different times or sample sizes (N = 500; ...; 1000), then applied to the conventional bootstrap approach and variations of this method, such as: 'nearest neighbor bootstrap'; and 'moving blocks bootstrap'. We have analyzed the impact of the sampling uncertainty on five Environmental Flow Requirement methods, based on: flow duration curves or probability of exceedance (Q90%, Q75% and Q50%); 7-day 10-year low-flow statistic (Q7,10); and presumptive standard (80% of the natural monthly mean ?ow). The bootstrap technique has been also used to compare those 'Environmental Flow Requirement' (EFR) methods among themselves, considering the difference between the bootstrap estimates and the "true" EFR characteristic, which has been computed averaging the EFR values of the five methods and using the entire streamflow record at monitoring station. This study evaluates the bootstrapping strategies, the representativeness of streamflow series for EFR estimates and their confidence intervals, in addition to overview of the performance differences between the EFR methods. The uncertainties arisen during EFR methods assessment will be
Bootstrapping word order in prelexical infants: a Japanese-Italian cross-linguistic study.
Gervain, Judit; Nespor, Marina; Mazuka, Reiko; Horie, Ryota; Mehler, Jacques
2008-08-01
Learning word order is one of the earliest feats infants accomplish during language acquisition [Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.]. Two theories have been proposed to account for this fact. Constructivist/lexicalist theories [Tomasello, M. (2000). Do young children have adult syntactic competence? Cognition, 74(3), 209-253.] argue that word order is learned separately for each lexical item or construction. Generativist theories [Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.], on the other hand, claim that word order is an abstract and general property, determined from the input independently of individual words. Here, we show that eight-month-old Japanese and Italian infants have opposite order preferences in an artificial grammar experiment, mirroring the opposite word orders of their respective native languages. This suggests that infants possess some representation of word order prelexically, arguing for the generativist view. We propose a frequency-based bootstrapping mechanism to account for our results, arguing that infants might build this representation by tracking the order of functors and content words, identified through their different frequency distributions. We investigate frequency and word order patterns in infant-directed Japanese and Italian corpora to support this claim. PMID:18241850
Exact Correlators of BPS Operators From the 3d Superconformal Bootstrap
Chester, Shai M; Pufu, Silviu S; Yacoby, Ran
2014-01-01
We use the superconformal bootstrap to derive exact relations between OPE coefficients in three-dimensional superconformal field theories with ${\\cal N} \\geq 4$ supersymmetry. These relations follow from a consistent truncation of the crossing symmetry equations that is associated with the cohomology of a certain supercharge. In ${\\cal N} = 4$ SCFTs, the non-trivial cohomology classes are in one-to-one correspondence with certain half-BPS operators, provided that these operators are restricted to lie on a line. The relations we find are powerful enough to allow us to determine an infinite number of OPE coefficients in the interacting SCFT ($U(2)_2 \\times U(1)_{-2}$ ABJ theory) that constitutes the IR limit of $O(3)$ ${\\cal N} = 8$ super-Yang-Mills theory. More generally, in ${\\cal N} = 8$ SCFTs with a unique stress tensor, we are led to conjecture that many superconformal multiplets allowed by group theory must actually be absent from the spectrum, and we test this conjecture in known ${\\cal N} = 8$ SCFTs usi...
Technical note: A bootstrapped LOESS regression approach for comparing soil depth profiles
Keith, Aidan M.; Henrys, Peter A.; Rowe, Rebecca L.; McNamara, Niall P.
2016-07-01
Understanding the consequences of different land uses for the soil system is important to make better informed decisions based on sustainability. The ability to assess change in soil properties, throughout the soil profile, is a critical step in this process. We present an approach to examine differences in soil depth profiles between land uses using bootstrapped LOESS regressions (BLRs). This non-parametric approach is data-driven, unconstrained by distributional model parameters and provides the ability to determine significant effects of land use at specific locations down a soil profile. We demonstrate an example of the BLR approach using data from a study examining the impacts of bioenergy land use change on soil organic carbon (SOC). While this straightforward non-parametric approach may be most useful in comparing SOC profiles between land uses, it can be applied to any soil property which has been measured at satisfactory resolution down the soil profile. It is hoped that further studies of land use and land management, based on new or existing data, can make use of this approach to examine differences in soil profiles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Keith
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Understanding the consequences of different land uses for the soil system is important to better inform decisions based on sustainability. The ability to assess change in soil properties, throughout the soil profile, is a critical step in this process. We present an approach to examine differences in soil depth profiles between land uses using bootstrapped Loess regressions (BLR. This non-parametric approach is data-driven, unconstrained by distributional model parameters and provides the ability to determine significant effects of land use at specific locations down a soil profile. We demonstrate an example of the BLR approach using data from a study examining the impacts of bioenergy land use change on soil carbon (C. While this straightforward non-parametric approach may be most useful in comparing soil C or organic matter profiles between land uses, it can be applied to any soil property which has been measured at satisfactory resolution down the soil profile. It is hoped that further studies of land use and land management, based on new or existing data, can make use of this approach to examine differences in soil profiles.
Sequential Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke
2013-01-01
Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is a novel technique which allows to implement synthetic aperture beamforming on a system with a restricted complexity, and without storing RF-data. The objective is to improve lateral resolution and obtain a more depth independent resolution...
Sequential triangulation of orbital photography
Rajan, M.; Junkins, J. L.; Turner, J. D.
1979-01-01
The feasibility of structuring the satellite photogrammetric triangulation as an iterative Extended Kalman estimation algorithm is demonstrated. Comparative numerical results of the sequential against batch estimation algorithm are presented. Difficulty of accurately modeling of the attitude motion is overcome by utilizing the on-board angular rate measurements. Solutions of the differential equations and the evaluation of state transition matrix are carried out numerically.
Sequential versus simultaneous market delineation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haldrup, Niels; Møllgaard, Peter; Kastberg Nielsen, Claus
2005-01-01
geographical markets. Using a unique data setfor prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodologyfor simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that comparedto a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.JEL: C3, K21, L41, Q22Keywords: Relevant market, econometric delineation...
Anastasios Economou; Anastasios Voulgaropoulos
2003-01-01
The development of a dedicated automated sequential-injection analysis apparatus for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is reported. The instrument comprised a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selector valve and a home-made potentiostat and used a mercury-film electrode as the working electrodes in a thin-layer electrochemical detector. Programming of the experimental sequence was performed in LabVIEW 5.1. The sequence of operations included format...
Vorburger, Robert S; Habeck, Christian G; Narkhede, Atul; Guzman, Vanessa A; Manly, Jennifer J; Brickman, Adam M
2016-01-01
Diffusion tensor imaging suffers from an intrinsic low signal-to-noise ratio. Bootstrap algorithms have been introduced to provide a non-parametric method to estimate the uncertainty of the measured diffusion parameters. To quantify the variability of the principal diffusion direction, bootstrap-derived metrics such as the cone of uncertainty have been proposed. However, bootstrap-derived metrics are not independent of the underlying diffusion profile. A higher mean diffusivity causes a smaller signal-to-noise ratio and, thus, increases the measurement uncertainty. Moreover, the goodness of the tensor model, which relies strongly on the complexity of the underlying diffusion profile, influences bootstrap-derived metrics as well. The presented simulations clearly depict the cone of uncertainty as a function of the underlying diffusion profile. Since the relationship of the cone of uncertainty and common diffusion parameters, such as the mean diffusivity and the fractional anisotropy, is not linear, the cone of uncertainty has a different sensitivity. In vivo analysis of the fornix reveals the cone of uncertainty to be a predictor of memory function among older adults. No significant correlation occurs with the common diffusion parameters. The present work not only demonstrates the cone of uncertainty as a function of the actual diffusion profile, but also discloses the cone of uncertainty as a sensitive predictor of memory function. Future studies should incorporate bootstrap-derived metrics to provide more comprehensive analysis.
Loop calculus and bootstrap-belief propagation for perfect matchings on arbitrary graphs
Chertkov, M.; Gelfand, A.; Shin, J.
2013-12-01
This manuscript discusses computation of the Partition Function (PF) and the Minimum Weight Perfect Matching (MWPM) on arbitrary, non-bipartite graphs. We present two novel problem formulations - one for computing the PF of a Perfect Matching (PM) and one for finding MWPMs - that build upon the inter-related Bethe Free Energy (BFE), Belief Propagation (BP), Loop Calculus (LC), Integer Linear Programming and Linear Programming frameworks. First, we describe an extension of the LC framework to the PM problem. The resulting formulas, coined (fractional) Bootstrap-BP, express the PF of the original model via the BFE of an alternative PM problem. We then study the zero-temperature version of this Bootstrap-BP formula for approximately solving the MWPM problem. We do so by leveraging the Bootstrap-BP formula to construct a sequence of MWPM problems, where each new problem in the sequence is formed by contracting odd-sized cycles (or blossoms) from the previous problem. This Bootstrap-and-Contract procedure converges reliably and generates an empirically tight upper bound for the MWPM. We conclude by discussing the relationship between our iterative procedure and the famous Blossom Algorithm of Edmonds '65 and demonstrate the performance of the Bootstrap-and-Contract approach on a variety of weighted PM problems.
Loop calculus and bootstrap-belief propagation for perfect matchings on arbitrary graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This manuscript discusses computation of the Partition Function (PF) and the Minimum Weight Perfect Matching (MWPM) on arbitrary, non-bipartite graphs. We present two novel problem formulations – one for computing the PF of a Perfect Matching (PM) and one for finding MWPMs – that build upon the inter-related Bethe Free Energy (BFE), Belief Propagation (BP), Loop Calculus (LC), Integer Linear Programming and Linear Programming frameworks. First, we describe an extension of the LC framework to the PM problem. The resulting formulas, coined (fractional) Bootstrap-BP, express the PF of the original model via the BFE of an alternative PM problem. We then study the zero-temperature version of this Bootstrap-BP formula for approximately solving the MWPM problem. We do so by leveraging the Bootstrap-BP formula to construct a sequence of MWPM problems, where each new problem in the sequence is formed by contracting odd-sized cycles (or blossoms) from the previous problem. This Bootstrap-and-Contract procedure converges reliably and generates an empirically tight upper bound for the MWPM. We conclude by discussing the relationship between our iterative procedure and the famous Blossom Algorithm of Edmonds '65 and demonstrate the performance of the Bootstrap-and-Contract approach on a variety of weighted PM problems
Tiwari, Mukesh K.; Adamowski, Jan
2013-10-01
A new hybrid wavelet-bootstrap-neural network (WBNN) model is proposed in this study for short term (1, 3, and 5 day; 1 and 2 week; and 1 and 2 month) urban water demand forecasting. The new method was tested using data from the city of Montreal in Canada. The performance of the WBNN method was compared with the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and autoregressive integrated moving average model with exogenous input variables (ARIMAX), traditional NNs, wavelet analysis-based NNs (WNN), bootstrap-based NNs (BNN), and a simple naïve persistence index model. The WBNN model was developed as an ensemble of several NNs built using bootstrap resamples of wavelet subtime series instead of raw data sets. The results demonstrated that the hybrid WBNN and WNN models produced significantly more accurate forecasting results than the traditional NN, BNN, ARIMA, and ARIMAX models. It was also found that the WBNN model reduces the uncertainty associated with the forecasts, and the performance of WBNN forecasted confidence bands was found to be more accurate and reliable than BNN forecasted confidence bands. It was found in this study that maximum temperature and total precipitation improved the accuracy of water demand forecasts using wavelet analysis. The performance of WBNN models was also compared for different numbers of bootstrap resamples (i.e., 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500) and it was found that WBNN models produced optimum results with different numbers of bootstrap resamples for different lead time forecasts with considerable variability.
Bootstrap Method for Dependent Data Structure and Measure of Statistical Precision
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. O. Olatayo
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: This article emphasized on the construction of valid inferential procedures for an estimator θ^ as a measure of its statistical precision for dependent data structure. Approach: The truncated geometric bootstrap estimates of standard error and other measures of statistical precision such as bias, coefficient of variation, ratio and root mean square error are considered. Results: We extend it to other measures of statistical precision such as bootstrap confidence interval for an estimator θ^ and illustrate with real geological data. Conclusion/Recommendations: The bootstrap estimates of standard error and other measures of statistical accuracy such as bias, ratio, coefficient of variation and root mean square error reveals the suitability of the method for dependent data structure.
Fixed-b Subsampling and Block Bootstrap: Improved Confidence Sets Based on P-value Calibration
Shao, Xiaofeng
2012-01-01
Subsampling and block-based bootstrap methods have been used in a wide range of inference problems for time series. To accommodate the dependence, these resampling methods involve a bandwidth parameter, such as subsampling window width and block size in the block-based bootstrap. In empirical work, using different bandwidth parameters could lead to different inference results, but the traditional first order asymptotic theory does not capture the choice of the bandwidth. In this article, we propose to adopt the fixed-b approach, as advocated by Kiefer and Vogelsang (2005) in the heteroscedasticity-autocorrelation robust testing context, to account for the influence of the bandwidth on the inference. Under the fixed-b asymptotic framework, we derive the asymptotic null distribution of the p-values for subsampling and the moving block bootstrap, and further propose a calibration of the traditional small-b based confidence intervals (regions, bands) and tests. Our treatment is fairly general as it includes both ...
Closure of the Operator Product Expansion in the Non-Unitary Bootstrap
Esterlis, Ilya; Ramirez, David
2016-01-01
We use the numerical conformal bootstrap in two dimensions to search for finite, closed sub-algebras of the operator product expansion (OPE), without assuming unitarity. We find the minimal models as special cases, as well as additional lines of solutions that can be understood in the Coulomb gas formalism. All the solutions we find that contain the vacuum in the operator algebra are cases where the external operators of the bootstrap equation are degenerate operators, and we argue that this follows analytically from the expressions in arXiv:1202.4698 for the crossing matrices of Virasoro conformal blocks. Our numerical analysis is a special case of the "Gliozzi" bootstrap method, and provides a simpler setting in which to study technical challenges with the method. In the supplementary material, we provide a Mathematica notebook that automates the calculation of the crossing matrices and OPE coefficients for degenerate operators using the formulae of Dotsenko and Fateev.
The economics of bootstrapping space industries - Development of an analytic computer model
Goldberg, A. H.; Criswell, D. R.
1982-01-01
A simple economic model of 'bootstrapping' industrial growth in space and on the Moon is presented. An initial space manufacturing facility (SMF) is assumed to consume lunar materials to enlarge the productive capacity in space. After reaching a predetermined throughput, the enlarged SMF is devoted to products which generate revenue continuously in proportion to the accumulated output mass (such as space solar power stations). Present discounted value and physical estimates for the general factors of production (transport, capital efficiency, labor, etc.) are combined to explore optimum growth in terms of maximized discounted revenues. It is found that 'bootstrapping' reduces the fractional cost to a space industry of transport off-Earth, permits more efficient use of a given transport fleet. It is concluded that more attention should be given to structuring 'bootstrapping' scenarios in which 'learning while doing' can be more fully incorporated in program analysis.
The S-matrix Bootstrap I: QFT in AdS
Paulos, Miguel F; Toledo, Jonathan; van Rees, Balt C; Vieira, Pedro
2016-01-01
We propose a strategy to study massive Quantum Field Theory (QFT) using conformal bootstrap methods. The idea is to consider QFT in hyperbolic space and study correlation functions of its boundary operators. We show that these are solutions of the crossing equations in one lower dimension. By sending the curvature radius of the background hyperbolic space to infinity we expect to recover flat-space physics. We explain that this regime corresponds to large scaling dimensions of the boundary operators, and discuss how to obtain the flat-space scattering amplitudes from the corresponding limit of the boundary correlators. We implement this strategy to obtain universal bounds on the strength of cubic couplings in 2D flat-space QFTs using 1D conformal bootstrap techniques. Our numerical results match precisely the analytic bounds obtained in our companion paper using S-matrix bootstrap techniques.
Lightweight CoAP-Based Bootstrapping Service for the Internet of Things.
Garcia-Carrillo, Dan; Marin-Lopez, Rafael
2016-03-11
The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming increasingly important in several fields of industrial applications and personal applications, such as medical e-health, smart cities, etc. The research into protocols and security aspects related to this area is continuously advancing in making these networks more reliable and secure, taking into account these aspects by design. Bootstrapping is a procedure by which a user obtains key material and configuration information, among other parameters, to operate as an authenticated party in a security domain. Until now solutions have focused on re-using security protocols that were not developed for IoT constraints. For this reason, in this work we propose a design and implementation of a lightweight bootstrapping service for IoT networks that leverages one of the application protocols used in IoT : Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Additionally, in order to provide flexibility, scalability, support for large scale deployment, accountability and identity federation, our design uses technologies such as the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) and Authentication Authorization and Accounting (AAA). We have named this service CoAP-EAP. First, we review the state of the art in the field of bootstrapping and specifically for IoT. Second, we detail the bootstrapping service: the architecture with entities and interfaces and the flow operation. Third, we obtain performance measurements of CoAP-EAP (bootstrapping time, memory footprint, message processing time, message length and energy consumption) and compare them with PANATIKI. The most significant and constrained representative of the bootstrapping solutions related with CoAP-EAP. As we will show, our solution provides significant improvements, mainly due to an important reduction of the message length.
Lightweight CoAP-Based Bootstrapping Service for the Internet of Things
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Garcia-Carrillo
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is becoming increasingly important in several fields of industrial applications and personal applications, such as medical e-health, smart cities, etc. The research into protocols and security aspects related to this area is continuously advancing in making these networks more reliable and secure, taking into account these aspects by design. Bootstrapping is a procedure by which a user obtains key material and configuration information, among other parameters, to operate as an authenticated party in a security domain. Until now solutions have focused on re-using security protocols that were not developed for IoT constraints. For this reason, in this work we propose a design and implementation of a lightweight bootstrapping service for IoT networks that leverages one of the application protocols used in IoT : Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP. Additionally, in order to provide flexibility, scalability, support for large scale deployment, accountability and identity federation, our design uses technologies such as the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP and Authentication Authorization and Accounting (AAA. We have named this service CoAP-EAP. First, we review the state of the art in the field of bootstrapping and specifically for IoT. Second, we detail the bootstrapping service: the architecture with entities and interfaces and the flow operation. Third, we obtain performance measurements of CoAP-EAP (bootstrapping time, memory footprint, message processing time, message length and energy consumption and compare them with PANATIKI. The most significant and constrained representative of the bootstrapping solutions related with CoAP-EAP. As we will show, our solution provides significant improvements, mainly due to an important reduction of the message length.
Lightweight CoAP-Based Bootstrapping Service for the Internet of Things.
Garcia-Carrillo, Dan; Marin-Lopez, Rafael
2016-01-01
The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming increasingly important in several fields of industrial applications and personal applications, such as medical e-health, smart cities, etc. The research into protocols and security aspects related to this area is continuously advancing in making these networks more reliable and secure, taking into account these aspects by design. Bootstrapping is a procedure by which a user obtains key material and configuration information, among other parameters, to operate as an authenticated party in a security domain. Until now solutions have focused on re-using security protocols that were not developed for IoT constraints. For this reason, in this work we propose a design and implementation of a lightweight bootstrapping service for IoT networks that leverages one of the application protocols used in IoT : Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Additionally, in order to provide flexibility, scalability, support for large scale deployment, accountability and identity federation, our design uses technologies such as the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) and Authentication Authorization and Accounting (AAA). We have named this service CoAP-EAP. First, we review the state of the art in the field of bootstrapping and specifically for IoT. Second, we detail the bootstrapping service: the architecture with entities and interfaces and the flow operation. Third, we obtain performance measurements of CoAP-EAP (bootstrapping time, memory footprint, message processing time, message length and energy consumption) and compare them with PANATIKI. The most significant and constrained representative of the bootstrapping solutions related with CoAP-EAP. As we will show, our solution provides significant improvements, mainly due to an important reduction of the message length. PMID:26978362
Neural Adaptive Sequential Monte Carlo
Gu, Shixiang; Ghahramani, Zoubin; Turner, Richard E
2015-01-01
Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC), or particle filtering, is a popular class of methods for sampling from an intractable target distribution using a sequence of simpler intermediate distributions. Like other importance sampling-based methods, performance is critically dependent on the proposal distribution: a bad proposal can lead to arbitrarily inaccurate estimates of the target distribution. This paper presents a new method for automatically adapting the proposal using an approximation of the Ku...
Sequential Detection of Digital Watermarking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Li; YU Yu-lian; WANG Pei
2005-01-01
The paper analyzed a new watermarking detection paradigm including double detection thresholds based on sequential hypothesis testing. A joint design of watermarking encoding and detection was proposed. The paradigm had good immunity to noisy signal attacks and high detection probability. Many experiments proved that the above algorithm can detect watermarks about 66% faster than popular detectors, which could have significant impact on many applications such as video watermarking detection and watermark-searching in a large database of digital contents.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua
2002-01-01
) are presented and discussed. Demonstrating that such pretreatments advantageously are to be performed in flow injection (FI) or sequential injection (SI) manifolds, where all appropriate unit operations can be effected under enclosed and strictly controlled conditions, procedures based on ion......-exchange, precipitation/coprecipitation, adsorption, liquid-liquid extraction, extraction/back-extraction and hydride generation are reviewed. Emphasising the use of SI-systems, special attention is paid to the use of the newly introduced approach termed the lab-on-valve (LOV), where all necessary manipulations required...... prior to detection are effected in a microconduit placed on top of an SI selection valve....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel
2003-01-01
This communication presents an overview of the state-of-the-art of the exploitation of sequential injection (SI)-bead injection (BI)-lab-on-valve (LOV) schemes for automatic on-line sample pre-treatments interfaced with ETAAS and ICPMS detection as conducted in the authors' group. The discussions...... are focused on the applications of SI-BI-LOV protocols for on-line microcolumn based solid phase extraction of ultra-trace levels of heavy metals, employing the so-called renewable surface separation and preconcentration manipulatory scheme. Two types of sorbents have been employed as packing material...
A New Regime for Studying the High Bootstrap Current Fraction Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A. Isayama; Y. Kamada; K. Ushigusa; T. Fujita; T. Suzuki; X. Gao
2001-01-01
A new experimental regime has recently been studied for achieving the high fraction of the bootstrap current in the JT-60U hydrogen discharges. The high poloidal beta(βp ～ 3.61) plasma was obtained by high-power neutral beam injection heating at a very high edge safety factor (Ip = 0.3 MA, Bt = 3.65 T, qeff = 25 - 35) region, and the bootstrap current fraction (fBS) was correspondingly about 40% using the ACCOME code calculation. It was observed that there were no magnetohydrodynamic instabilities to retard the increase of the βp and fBS parameters in the new regime.
Bootstrapping critical Ising model on three-dimensional real projective space
Nakayama, Yu
2016-01-01
Given a conformal data on a flat Euclidean space, we use crosscap conformal bootstrap equations to numerically solve the Lee-Yang model as well as the critical Ising model on a three-dimensional real projective space. We check the rapid convergence of our bootstrap program in two-dimensions from the exact solutions available. Based on the comparison, we estimate that our systematic error on the numerically solved one-point functions of the critical Ising model on a three-dimensional real projective space is less than one percent. Our method opens up a novel way to solve conformal field theories on non-trivial geometries.
Pareto, Deborah; Aguiar, Pablo; Pavía, Javier; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Cot, Albert; Falcón, Carles; Benabarre, Antoni; Lomeña, Francisco; Vieta, Eduard; Ros, Domènec
2008-07-01
Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) has become the technique of choice to statistically evaluate positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain studies. Nevertheless, only a few methodological studies have been carried out to assess the performance of SPM in SPECT. The aim of this paper was to study the performance of SPM in detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in hypo- and hyperperfused areas in brain SPECT studies. The paper seeks to determine the relationship between the group size and the rCBF changes, and the influence of the correction for degradations. The assessment was carried out using simulated brain SPECT studies. Projections were obtained with Monte Carlo techniques, and a fan-beam collimator was considered in the simulation process. Reconstruction was performed by using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with and without compensation for attenuation, scattering, and spatial variant collimator response. Significance probability maps were obtained with SPM2 by using a one-tailed two-sample t-test. A bootstrap resampling approach was used to determine the sample size for SPM to detect the between-group differences. Our findings show that the correction for degradations results in a diminution of the sample size, which is more significant for small regions and low-activation factors. Differences in sample size were found between hypo- and hyperperfusion. These differences were larger for small regions and low-activation factors, and when no corrections were included in the reconstruction algorithm.
Application of a New Resampling Method to SEM: A Comparison of S-SMART with the Bootstrap
Bai, Haiyan; Sivo, Stephen A.; Pan, Wei; Fan, Xitao
2016-01-01
Among the commonly used resampling methods of dealing with small-sample problems, the bootstrap enjoys the widest applications because it often outperforms its counterparts. However, the bootstrap still has limitations when its operations are contemplated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine an alternative, new resampling method…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linnet, Kristian
2005-01-01
Bootstrap, HPLC, limit of blank, limit of detection, non-parametric statistics, type I and II errors......Bootstrap, HPLC, limit of blank, limit of detection, non-parametric statistics, type I and II errors...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thawatchai Onjun
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The investigation of bootstrap current formation in ITER is carried out using BALDUR integrated predictive modelingcode. The combination of Mixed B/gB anomalous transport model and NLCASS module together with the pedestal model isused in BALDUR code to simulate the time evolution of temperature, density, and plasma current profiles. It was found inthe simulations that without the presence of ITB, a minimal fraction of bootstrap current (as well as low fusion performancewas achieved. The enhancement due to ITB depends sensitively on the strength of toroidal velocity. A sensitivity study wasalso carried out to optimize the bootstrap current fraction and plasma performance. It was found that the bootstrap currentfraction slightly improved; while the plasma performance greatly improved with increasing of NBI power or pedestal temperature.On the other hand, higher impurity concentration resulted in a significant degradation of fusion performance, buta smaller degradation in bootstrap current.
Confidence limits for the mean of exponential distribution in any time-sequential samples
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jiading; FANG Xiangzhong
2005-01-01
We present the general results determining confidence limits for the mean of exponential distribution in any time-sequential samples, which are obtained in any sequential life tests with replacement or without replacement. Especially, we give the best lower confidence limits in the case of no failure data.
Improved tolerance to sequential glucose loading (Staub-Traugott effect): size and mechanisms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonuccelli, Sandra; Muscelli, Elza; Gastaldelli, Amalia;
2009-01-01
Improved glucose tolerance to sequential glucose loading (Staub-Traugott effect) is an important determinant of day-to-day glycemic exposure. Its mechanisms have not been clearly established. We recruited 17 healthy volunteers to receive two sequential oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), at time...
Schick, Simon; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf
2016-10-01
Based on a hindcast experiment for the period 1982-2013 in 66 sub-catchments of the Swiss Rhine, the present study compares two approaches of building a regression model for seasonal streamflow forecasting. The first approach selects a single "best guess" model, which is tested by leave-one-out cross-validation. The second approach implements the idea of bootstrap aggregating, where bootstrap replicates are employed to select several models, and out-of-bag predictions provide model testing. The target value is mean streamflow for durations of 30, 60 and 90 days, starting with the 1st and 16th day of every month. Compared to the best guess model, bootstrap aggregating reduces the mean squared error of the streamflow forecast by seven percent on average. Thus, if resampling is anyway part of the model building procedure, bootstrap aggregating seems to be a useful strategy in statistical seasonal streamflow forecasting. Since the improved accuracy comes at the cost of a less interpretable model, the approach might be best suited for pure prediction tasks, e.g. as in operational applications.
Seol, Hyunsoo
2016-06-01
The purpose of this study was to apply the bootstrap procedure to evaluate how the bootstrapped confidence intervals (CIs) for polytomous Rasch fit statistics might differ according to sample sizes and test lengths in comparison with the rule-of-thumb critical value of misfit. A total of 25 simulated data sets were generated to fit the Rasch measurement and then a total of 1,000 replications were conducted to compute the bootstrapped CIs under each of 25 testing conditions. The results showed that rule-of-thumb critical values for assessing the magnitude of misfit were not applicable because the infit and outfit mean square error statistics showed different magnitudes of variability over testing conditions and the standardized fit statistics did not exactly follow the standard normal distribution. Further, they also do not share the same critical range for the item and person misfit. Based on the results of the study, the bootstrapped CIs can be used to identify misfitting items or persons as they offer a reasonable alternative solution, especially when the distributions of the infit and outfit statistics are not well known and depend on sample size.
Inferences of Coordinates in Multidimensional Scaling by a Bootstrapping Procedure in R
Kim, Donghoh; Kim, Se-Kang; Park, Soyeon
2015-01-01
Recently, MDS has been utilized to identify and evaluate cognitive ability latent profiles in a population. However, dimension coordinates do not carry any statistical properties. To cope with statistical incompetence of MDS, we investigated the common aspects of various studies utilizing bootstrapping, and provided an R function for its…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, Manfred
2003-01-01
We employ the replica method of statistical physics to study the average case performance of learning systems. The new feature of our theory is that general distributions of data can be treated, which enables applications to real data. For a class of Bayesian prediction models which are based on ...... Gaussian processes, we discuss Bootstrap estimates for learning curves....
Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Luo, Shanhong
2010-01-01
This article is concerned with using the bootstrap to assign confidence intervals for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in ordinary least squares exploratory factor analysis. Coverage performances of "SE"-based intervals, percentile intervals, bias-corrected percentile intervals, bias-corrected accelerated percentile intervals, and…
Bootstrapping realized volatility and realized beta under a local Gaussianity assumption
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hounyo, Ulrich
The main contribution of this paper is to propose a new bootstrap method for statistics based on high frequency returns. The new method exploits the local Gaussianity and the local constancy of volatility of high frequency returns, two assumptions that can simplify inference in the high frequency...
Genetic divergence among cupuaçu accessions by multiscale bootstrap resampling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinicius Silva dos Santos
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the genetic divergence of eighteen accessions of cupuaçu trees based on fruit morphometric traits and comparing usual methods of cluster analysis with the proposed multiscale bootstrap resampling methodology. The data were obtained from an experiment conducted in Tomé-Açu city (PA, Brazil, arranged in a completely randomized design with eighteen cupuaçu accessions and 10 repetitions, from 2004 to 2011. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction (REML/BLUP methodology. The predicted breeding values were used in the study on genetic divergence through Unweighted Pair Cluster Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA hierarchical clustering and Tocher’s optimization method based on standardized Euclidean distance. Clustering consistency and optimal number of clusters in the UPGMA method were verified by the cophenetic correlation coefficient (CCC and Mojena’s criterion, respectively, besides the multiscale bootstrap resampling technique. The use of the clustering UPGMA method in situations with and without multiscale bootstrap resulted in four and five clusters, respectively, while the Tocher’s method resulted in seven clusters. The multiscale bootstrap resampling technique proves to be efficient to assess the consistency of clustering in hierarchical methods and, consequently, the optimal number of clusters.
Parametric bootstrap methods for testing multiplicative terms in GGE and AMMI models.
Forkman, Johannes; Piepho, Hans-Peter
2014-09-01
The genotype main effects and genotype-by-environment interaction effects (GGE) model and the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model are two common models for analysis of genotype-by-environment data. These models are frequently used by agronomists, plant breeders, geneticists and statisticians for analysis of multi-environment trials. In such trials, a set of genotypes, for example, crop cultivars, are compared across a range of environments, for example, locations. The GGE and AMMI models use singular value decomposition to partition genotype-by-environment interaction into an ordered sum of multiplicative terms. This article deals with the problem of testing the significance of these multiplicative terms in order to decide how many terms to retain in the final model. We propose parametric bootstrap methods for this problem. Models with fixed main effects, fixed multiplicative terms and random normally distributed errors are considered. Two methods are derived: a full and a simple parametric bootstrap method. These are compared with the alternatives of using approximate F-tests and cross-validation. In a simulation study based on four multi-environment trials, both bootstrap methods performed well with regard to Type I error rate and power. The simple parametric bootstrap method is particularly easy to use, since it only involves repeated sampling of standard normally distributed values. This method is recommended for selecting the number of multiplicative terms in GGE and AMMI models. The proposed methods can also be used for testing components in principal component analysis.
The use of vector bootstrapping to improve variable selection precision in Lasso models.
Laurin, Charles; Boomsma, Dorret; Lubke, Gitta
2016-08-01
The Lasso is a shrinkage regression method that is widely used for variable selection in statistical genetics. Commonly, K-fold cross-validation is used to fit a Lasso model. This is sometimes followed by using bootstrap confidence intervals to improve precision in the resulting variable selections. Nesting cross-validation within bootstrapping could provide further improvements in precision, but this has not been investigated systematically. We performed simulation studies of Lasso variable selection precision (VSP) with and without nesting cross-validation within bootstrapping. Data were simulated to represent genomic data under a polygenic model as well as under a model with effect sizes representative of typical GWAS results. We compared these approaches to each other as well as to software defaults for the Lasso. Nested cross-validation had the most precise variable selection at small effect sizes. At larger effect sizes, there was no advantage to nesting. We illustrated the nested approach with empirical data comprising SNPs and SNP-SNP interactions from the most significant SNPs in a GWAS of borderline personality symptoms. In the empirical example, we found that the default Lasso selected low-reliability SNPs and interactions which were excluded by bootstrapping. PMID:27248122
A bootstrap procedure to select hyperspectral wavebands related to tannin content
Ferwerda, J.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Stein, A.
2006-01-01
Detection of hydrocarbons in plants with hyperspectral remote sensing is hampered by overlapping absorption pits, while the `optimal' wavebands for detecting some surface characteristics (e.g. chlorophyll, lignin, tannin) may shift. We combined a phased regression with a bootstrap procedure to find
A Class of Population Covariance Matrices in the Bootstrap Approach to Covariance Structure Analysis
Yuan, Ke-Hai; Hayashi, Kentaro; Yanagihara, Hirokazu
2007-01-01
Model evaluation in covariance structure analysis is critical before the results can be trusted. Due to finite sample sizes and unknown distributions of real data, existing conclusions regarding a particular statistic may not be applicable in practice. The bootstrap procedure automatically takes care of the unknown distribution and, for a given…
Bootsie: estimation of coefficient of variation of AFLP data by bootstrap analysis
Bootsie is an English-native replacement for ASG Coelho’s “DBOOT” utility for estimating coefficient of variation of a population of AFLP marker data using bootstrapping. Bootsie improves on DBOOT by supporting batch processing, time-to-completion estimation, built-in graphs, and a suite of export t...
Structural features of sequential weak measurements
Diósi, Lajos
2016-07-01
We discuss the abstract structure of sequential weak measurement (WM) of general observables. In all orders, the sequential WM correlations without postselection yield the corresponding correlations of the Wigner function, offering direct quantum tomography through the moments of the canonical variables. Correlations in spin-1/2 sequential weak measurements coincide with those in strong measurements, they are constrained kinematically, and they are equivalent with single measurements. In sequential WMs with postselection, an anomaly occurs, different from the weak value anomaly of single WMs. In particular, the spread of polarization σ ̂ as measured in double WMs of σ ̂ will diverge for certain orthogonal pre- and postselected states.
Non-sequential double ionization of molecules
Prauzner-Bechcicki, J S; Eckhardt, B; Zakrzewski, J; Prauzner-Bechcicki, Jakub S.; Sacha, Krzysztof; Eckhardt, Bruno; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2004-01-01
Double ionization of diatomic molecules by short linearly polarized laser pulses is analyzed. We consider the final stage of the ionization process, that is the decay of a highly excited two electron molecule, which is formed after re-scattering. The saddles of the effective adiabatic potential energy close to which simultaneous escape of electrons takes place are identified. Numerical simulations of the ionization of molecules show that the process can be dominated by either sequential or non-sequential events. In order to increase the ratio of non-sequential to sequential ionizations very short laser pulses should be applied.
Saarelma, S.; Günter, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.
2000-05-01
An ELMy ASDEX Upgrade plasma equilibrium is reconstructed taking into account the bootstrap current. The peeling mode stability of the equilibrium is numerically analysed using the GATO [1] code, and it is found that the bootstrap current can drive the plasma peeling mode unstable. A high-n ballooning mode stability analysis of the equilibria revealed that, while destabilizing the peeling modes, the bootstrap current has a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A combination of these two instabilities is a possible explanation for the type I ELM phenomenon. A triangularity scan showed that increasing triangularity stabilizes the peeling modes and can produce ELM-free periods observed in the experiments.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chomchoei, R.; Hansen, Elo Harald; Shiowatana, J.
2007-01-01
This communication presents a novel approach to perform sequential extraction of elements in solid samples by using a sequential injection (SI) system incorporating a specially designed extraction microcolumn. Based on the operation of the syringe pump, different modes of extraction are potentially...... feasible, uni-directional and bi-directional flow schemes being used herein. A three-step sequential extraction scheme, using conventionally adopted extractants, was used to evaluate the system by determining Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn in a soil certified reference material (NIST, SRM 2710). It is demonstrated...
Sequential visibility-graph motifs
Iacovacci, Jacopo; Lacasa, Lucas
2016-04-01
Visibility algorithms transform time series into graphs and encode dynamical information in their topology, paving the way for graph-theoretical time series analysis as well as building a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and network science. In this work we introduce and study the concept of sequential visibility-graph motifs, smaller substructures of n consecutive nodes that appear with characteristic frequencies. We develop a theory to compute in an exact way the motif profiles associated with general classes of deterministic and stochastic dynamics. We find that this simple property is indeed a highly informative and computationally efficient feature capable of distinguishing among different dynamics and robust against noise contamination. We finally confirm that it can be used in practice to perform unsupervised learning, by extracting motif profiles from experimental heart-rate series and being able, accordingly, to disentangle meditative from other relaxation states. Applications of this general theory include the automatic classification and description of physical, biological, and financial time series.
Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte;
2015-01-01
The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...