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Sample records for boophilus microplus larvae

  1. Controle de larvas de Boophilus microplus por Metarhizium anisopliae em pastagens infestadas artificialmente Control of Boophilus microplus larvae by Metarhizium anisopliae in artificially infested pastures

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    Lúcia Mara de Souza Basso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do controle exercido por Metarhizium anisopliae na população de Boophilus microplus, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, e do híbrido Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., artificialmente infestadas com fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. Trinta canteiros com 1 m² de área cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente. Quinze foram pulverizados com esporos do fungo e quinze controles em cada forrageira, constituindo cinco repetições de cada tratamento, foram infestados com número e peso padronizados de fêmeas ingurgitadas do ácaro. Aplicou-se o fungo, na concentração de 1,8x10(8 conídios mL-1, em três situações: pulverização antes da infestação com o carrapato, após a infestação e posterioriormente à emergência das primeiras larvas nos capins. A ação do fungo foi avaliada no 35º, 38º, 41º, 48º, 55º e 61º dia pós-infestação, por meio da contagem de larvas recuperadas. Obteve-se controle de larvas do ácaro, que, nas avaliações realizadas entre o 35º e o 48º dia pós-infestação, variou entre 87% e 94%. As médias das contagens de estágios larvares do carrapato foram menores em todas as amostragens realizadas no capim-Tifton 85, indicando que houve efeito da pastagem na ação do fungo. A situação de aplicação influencia a atividade do fungo, com melhor resultado nas coletas realizadas entre o 41º e 55º dia após infestação em B. brizantha, e aplicação dos conídios logo após a emergência das primeiras larvas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus against Boophilus microplus population in Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 (Cynodon pastures, artificially infested with tick engorged females. Thirty plots of 1 m² each were randomly distributed in fifteen treated and fifteen control groups per type of grass, establishing five repetitions for each treatment. Pastures were infested with engorged tick females

  2. Avaliação da atividade repelente do timol, mentol, salicilato de metila e ácido salicilico sobre larvas de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae Evaluation of repellent activity of thymol, menthol, methyl salicylate and salicylic acid on Boophilus microplus larvae (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    A.M.S. Novelino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a atividade repelente do timol, mentol, ácido salicílico e salicilato de metila sobre larvas de Boophilus microplus. Essas substâncias foram usadas em emulsões em dimetilsulfuxido aquoso a 1% ou solução aquosa. Para cada substância foram testadas três concentrações, 1,0%; 0,5% e 0,25%, com cinco repetições cada. Cerca de 100 larvas, com 21 dias de idade, foram inseridas na base de hastes de madeira para avaliação da repelência, a cada duas horas, totalizando 12 horas. As concentrações mais elevadas apontaram que as quatro substâncias causaram alteração no comportamento das larvas. Timol, com mortalidade de 65% e 35% de repelência e mentol e salicilato de metila, ambos com 80% de repelência foram os mais eficientes.The repellent activity of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus larvae was studied. These substances were tested according to their solubility: emulsions in 1% aqueous dimethylsulphoxide or in pure water. Three concentrations were tested for each substance, 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.25%, with five repetitions for each. Approximately 100 larvae at 21 days of age were placed on the base of wooden sticks and then observed for repellent action every two hours, during twelve hours. The results obtained from the higher concentrations showed that the four substances caused alterations on the larvae behavior. However, thymol (65% of mortality and 35% of repellency, menthol (80% of repellency and methyl salicylate (80% of repellency were the most efficient.

  3. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

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    Gondro Cedric

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian] (p ≤ 0.001. These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi

  4. An Overview of the Status of Cattle Tick Boophilus microplus in Queensland

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    Davis, Rex

    1996-01-01

    The common cattle tick Boophilus microplus has been a major economic pest to cattle producers in the tick-infested area of Queensland since its arrival from Java in 1872. Boophilus microplus affects cattle directly by reducing potential yield and indirectly through the transmission of blood parasites. Estimates by the Cattle Tick Commission (1973) placed the total cost of control and lost production caused by Boophilus microplus at approximately $33 million per annum (approximately $183 milli...

  5. Larvicidal potential of Sapindus saponaria to control the cattle tick Boophilus microplus Potencial larvicida de Sapindus saponaria para controle do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus

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    Fernando de Freitas Fernandes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal potential of a crude ethanol extract (CEE of soapberry Sapindus saponaria stem peel on the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Tick larvae obtained by incubating engorged females, collected from naturally infested cattle, were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of CEE in the test group, and distilled water in the control group. Four repetitions were made with each solution (n>120. Mortality was observed after 48 hours. Lethal concentration values of 1,258 ppm (LC50 and 6,360 ppm (LC99 were obtained.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial larvicida do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE, da casca do caule de Sapindus saponaria, sobre Boophilus microplus. Larvas desse carrapato foram obtidas pela incubação de teleóginas, coletadas de bovinos naturalmente infestados. As larvas foram acondicionadas em envelopes de papel-filtro, impregnados com diferentes concentrações do EBE no grupo teste, e com água destilada no grupo controle. Quatro repetições foram feitas com cada solução (n>120. A mortalidade foi observada após 48 horas. Foram obtidas concentrações letais CL50 de 1.258 ppm e CL99 de 6.360 ppm.

  6. Resistencia de la garrapata Boophilus microplus a los ixodicidas

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Alonso-Díaz; R I Rodríguez-Vivas; H Fragoso-Sánchez; R Rosario-Cruz

    2006-01-01

    La resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es uno de los principales problemas que afectan a los productores bovinos en el subtrópico y trópico, donde las garrapatas, especialmente Boophilus microplus y los agentes que transmiten, tienen un efecto costo-beneficio en la producción. El objetivo de la presente revisión es dar a conocer los principales hallazgos de la resistencia de B. microplus. Se presenta la definición, desarrollo, evolución y el diagnóstico de la resistencia. Asimismo,...

  7. Resistencia de la garrapata Boophilus microplus a los ixodicidas Ixodicide resistance of the the Boophilus microplus tick to ixodicides

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Alonso-Díaz; R I Rodríguez-Vivas; H Fragoso-Sánchez; R Rosario-Cruz

    2006-01-01

    La resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es uno de los principales problemas que afectan a los productores bovinos en el subtrópico y trópico, donde las garrapatas, especialmente Boophilus microplus y los agentes que transmiten, tienen un efecto costo-beneficio en la producción. El objetivo de la presente revisión es dar a conocer los principales hallazgos de la resistencia de B. microplus. Se presenta la definición, desarrollo, evolución y el diagnóstico de la resistencia. Asimismo,...

  8. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

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    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transmits, such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis (Xianxun and Wenshun, 1997; Yeruhan et al., 1998, are of special interest. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the larvae of Boophilus microplus to seven tick-killing agents commonly used in the state of Nuevo Leon. The methodology used for the diagnosis of the susceptibility of B. microplus tick to Organochlorine, Organophosphorate and Pyrethroid compounds was the one applied by Rodriguez-Vivas et al., (2007; in which it was used a discriminant dose (table 1, using the larvae package test technique (Stone & Haydock, 1962. The results of the CL50 to the ticks of cattle in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico showed a greater susceptibility to Deltamethrine, followed by Chlorfenvinphos; in third place Diazinon, then Flumethrin; after that Cypermethrin, in sixth place Lindane and a less toxicological action for the Coumaphos (Asuntol. The result was already expected due to the fact that it is the most commonly used product in the control of ticks through the larval immersion technique.

  9. Protection against Boophilus annulatus infestations in cattle vaccinated with the B. microplus Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac. off.

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    Fragoso, H; Rad, P H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Herrera, L; de la Fuente, J

    1998-12-01

    Tick infestations by Boophilus spp. constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The use of traditional control methods has been only partially successful and tick infestations remain a serious problem. Recently, the gut antigen Bm86 was isolated from B. microplus. Recombinant preparations of this antigen have been used in vaccines for the control of B. microplus infestations. However, in several regions of the world, B. microplus coexists with other Boophilus species, mainly B. annulatus and B. decoloratus. Therefore, there is a need for the simultaneous control of infestations by different Boophilus species. To test the capacity of the P. pastoris-derived Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana) to control B. annulatus infestations, controlled experiments were conducted in Mexico and Iran. Cattle were vaccinated with Gavac or not vaccinated and then artificially infested with B. annulatus larvae. The results showed for the first time a high protection efficacy (> 99.9%) of Gavac in the control of B. annulatus infestations. These results support the application of Bm86-containing vaccines for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations. PMID:9796055

  10. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

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    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  11. Global comparative analysis of ESTs from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Pertea Geo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is an economically important parasite of cattle and can transmit several pathogenic microorganisms to its cattle host during the feeding process. Understanding the biology and genomics of R. microplus is critical to developing novel methods for controlling these ticks. Results We present a global comparative genomic analysis of a gene index of R. microplus comprised of 13,643 unique transcripts assembled from 42,512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs, a significant fraction of the complement of R. microplus genes. The source material for these ESTs consisted of polyA RNA from various tissues, lifestages, and strains of R. microplus, including larvae exposed to heat, cold, host odor, and acaricide. Functional annotation using RPS-Blast analysis identified conserved protein domains in the conceptually translated gene index and assigned GO terms to those database transcripts which had informative BlastX hits. Blast Score Ratio and SimiTri analysis compared the conceptual transcriptome of the R. microplus database to other eukaryotic proteomes and EST databases, including those from 3 ticks. The most abundant protein domains in BmiGI were also analyzed by SimiTri methodology. Conclusion These results indicate that a large fraction of BmiGI entries have no homologs in other sequenced genomes. Analysis with the PartiGene annotation pipeline showed 64% of the members of BmiGI could not be assigned GO annotation, thus minimal information is available about a significant fraction of the tick genome. This highlights the important insights in tick biology which are likely to result from a tick genome sequencing project. Global comparative analysis identified some tick genes with unexpected phylogenetic relationships which detailed analysis attributed to gene losses in some members of the animal kingdom. Some tick genes were identified which had close orthologues to mammalian genes

  12. Resistencia de la garrapata Boophilus microplus a los ixodicidas Ixodicide resistance of the the Boophilus microplus tick to ixodicides

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    M A Alonso-Díaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es uno de los principales problemas que afectan a los productores bovinos en el subtrópico y trópico, donde las garrapatas, especialmente Boophilus microplus y los agentes que transmiten, tienen un efecto costo-beneficio en la producción. El objetivo de la presente revisión es dar a conocer los principales hallazgos de la resistencia de B. microplus. Se presenta la definición, desarrollo, evolución y el diagnóstico de la resistencia. Asimismo, se presenta la distribución mundial de la resistencia de las garrapatas, especialmente en México. Se concluye que la resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es un problema importante en la producción bovina y se necesitan implementar medidas estratégicas para reducir o retardar el impacto en la ganadería bovina.The tick is a major problem for cattle producers in subtropical and tropical areas where ticks, especially Boophilus microplus, and the disease agents that they transmit, are a constraint to cost-effective production. The aim of the present review is to present the most important findings of acaricide resistance in the B. microplus tick. The definition, development, evolution and diagnosis of tick resistance are presented. The distribution of tick resistance in the world, especially in Mexico is also presented. It is concluded that tick resistance is an important problem for cattle production and strategies need to be developed to reduce the impact on cattle.

  13. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  14. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

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    Castro, Karina Neoob de Carvalho; Lima, David Fernandes; Wolschick, Dolores; Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira de; Santos, Raimunda Cardoso Dos; Santos, Francisco José de Seixas Dos; Veras, Leiz Maria Costa; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL-1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL-1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50) of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m), respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL-1) and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL-1) of R.(B.) microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL-1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE. PMID:27334829

  15. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Karina Neoob de Carvalho Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE and ethanolic extracts (EE and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi, respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL–1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL–1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50 of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m, respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL–1 and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL–1 of R.(B. microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL–1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE.

  16. Commercialisation of a recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus.

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    Willadsen, P; Bird, P; Cobon, G S; Hungerford, J

    1995-01-01

    Increasingly, there is need for methods to control cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) infestations by the use of non-chemical technology. This need is brought about by a mixture of market forces and the failure or inadequacy of existing technology. A recombinant vaccine has now been developed against the tick. This vaccine relies on the uptake with the blood meal of antibody directed against a critical protein in the tick gut. The isolation of the vaccine antigen, Bm86, and its production as a recombinant protein is briefly described. The vaccine has been tested in the field, has been taken through the full registration process and is now in commercial use in Australia. A related development has occurred in Cuba. The potential for improvement of the current vaccine and for the development of similar vaccines against other haematophagous parasites is discussed. PMID:7784128

  17. Acaricidal activity of Palicourea marcgravii, a species from the Amazon forest, on cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

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    Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Heinzen, Horacio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2011-06-30

    Leaves of Palicourea marcgravii were extracted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol in order to evaluate their acaricidal activity on larvae and adult stages of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest bioactivity of the tested extracts, which contained 0.12% monofluoroacetic acid. On engorged female, the ethyl acetate extract showed a lethal concentration 50% - LC(50)=30.08 mg ml(-1), inhibitory concentration 50% - IC(50)=5.79 mg ml(-1) and lethal time 50% - LT(50)=4.72 days; 100% reproduction was controlled at concentrations of 50 mg ml(-1) and on larvae the ethyl acetate extract showed a LC(50)=2.46 mg ml(-1). No alkaloids were detected in any of the extracts. This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of P. marcgravii extracts against R. microplus as well as the acaricidal properties of a plant species containing monofluoroacetic acid. PMID:21411227

  18. In vitro activity of pineapple extracts (Ananas comosus, Bromeliaceae) on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza

    2013-07-01

    Measures to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, based only on chemical products are becoming unsustainable, mainly because of the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS) and bromelain extracted from the stem (Sigma-Aldrich®, B4882) on engorged females and larvae of R. (B.) microplus in vitro. These substances were diluted in water and evaluated at eight concentrations. Engorged females were collected and distributed in groups of 10, with three repetitions for each treatment. After immersion in the solutions, the females were placed in an incubator for observation of survival, oviposition and larval hatching. The larval packet method was used, also with three repetitions with about 100 larvae each. The packets were incubated and the readings were performed after 24 h. The estimated reproduction and efficacy of the solutions were calculated. The LC(50) and LC(90) were estimated using the Probit procedure of the SAS program. The eight concentrations were compared within each treatment by the Tukey test. For the experiment with engorged females, the most effective concentrations were 125, 250 and 500 mg/mL: 33%, 48% and 59% for the AEPS and 27%, 51% and 55% for the bromelain. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were, respectively, 276 and 8691 mg/mL for AEPS and 373 and 5172 mg/mL for bromelain. None of the dilutions tested was effective against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus. This is the first report of the action of pineapple extracts or their constituents on cattle ticks. The results demonstrate that further studies regarding composition of tick cuticle, with evaluation of other solvents and formulations, should be conducted seeking to enhance the effect of pineapple extracts and compounds against this ectoparasite. PMID:23541882

  19. Sequence characterization and immunogenicity of cystatins from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

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    Parizi, Luís F; Githaka, Naftaly W; Acevedo, Carolina; Benavides, Uruguaysito; Seixas, Adriana; Logullo, Carlos; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Masuda, Aoi; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

    2013-12-01

    Various classes of endopeptidases and their inhibitors facilitate blood feeding and digestion in ticks. Cystatins, a family of tight-binding and reversible inhibitors of cysteine endopeptidases, have recently been found in several tick tissues. Moreover, vaccine trials using tick cystatins have been found to induce protective immune responses against tick infestation. However, the mode of action of tick cystatins is still poorly understood, limiting the elucidation of their physiological role. Against this background, we have investigated sequence characteristics and immunogenic properties of 5 putative cystatins from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Brazil and Uruguay. The similarity of the deduced amino acid sequences among cystatins from the Brazilian tick strain was 27-42%, all of which had a secretory signal peptide. The cystatin motif (QxVxG), a glycine in the N-terminal region, and the PW motif in the second hairpin loop in the C-terminal region are highly conserved in all 5 cystatins identified in this study. Four cysteine residues in the C terminus characteristic of type 2 cystatins are also present. qRT-PCR revealed differential expression patterns among the 5 cystatins identified, as well as variation in mRNA transcripts present in egg, larva, gut, salivary glands, ovary, and fat body tissues. One R. microplus cystatin showed 97-100% amino acid similarity between Brazilian and Uruguayan isolates. Furthermore, by in silico analysis, antigenic amino acid regions from R. microplus cystatins showed high degrees of homology (54-92%) among Rhipicephalus spp. cystatins. Three Brazilian R. microplus cystatins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins were determined by vaccinating mice. Western blotting using mice sera indicated cross-reactivity between the cystatins, suggesting shared epitopes. The present characterization of Rhipicephalus spp. cystatins represents an empirical approach in an effort to evaluate

  20. Toxicity of Piper aduncum L. (Piperales: Piperaceae) from the Amazon forest for the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; de Souza, Hellen Emília Menezes; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, Maria Verônica; Mato, Mauricio; Albrecht, Francine; de Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2009-10-14

    The mortality of 14-21-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae, and the mortality and fertility of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of spiked pepper (Piper aduncum) were evaluated, using a completely randomized design with five treatment groups, two control groups, and two replicates for the larvae and five replicates for the adult females. Similar methodology was used to investigate the toxicity of the essential oil hydro-distillate (94.84% dillapiole) obtained from the P. aduncum crude hexane extract. The LC(50) of the hexane extract was 9.30 mg ml(-1) for larvae and the reproduction reduction ranged from 12.48% to 54.22%, while 0.1mg/ml(-1) of the essential oil induced 100% mortality in larvae. Literature reports on natural products active against R. microplus were listed and compared with the results presented here. These results indicate that P. aduncum extracts, and particularly its essential oil, are potential alternative control agents for R. microplus. PMID:19573994

  1. Fenvalerate resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

    2016-09-01

    Larval packet test was used for evaluating the resistance levels in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from different districts of central plain zone of Punjab state, India against fenvalerate. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larvae plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of fenvalerate were utilized for the estimation of lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and 95 % (LC95) values against various field isolates of R. (B.) microplus. The slope of mortality (95 % confidence levels) varied from 0.730 ± 0.097 (0.419-1.043) to 1.455 ± 0.281 (0.558-2.352) and the value of R(2) varied from 0.881 to 0.997. From the regression equation the values of LC50 and LC95 were recorded in range of 184.39-1,338.01 and 3,253.33-112,706.26 ppm, respectively. Among the various tick isolates resistance factors in range of 1.56-54.34 were determined and all field isolates studied were found resistant against fenvalerate. Two field isolates (Jalandhar and Ludhiana) showed level I resistance; three (Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib and Amritsar) showed level II and Kapurthala isolate showed level IV resistance. The data generated on fenvalerate resistant status will help in judicious use of the drug and formulation of effective tick control strategy for the region. PMID:27605769

  2. Prevalencia de lecherías con Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides y factores de riesgo asociados a su presencia en el Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Marbel Villarroel-Alvarez; Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; Fidel Villegas-Anze; Hugo Fragoso-Sánchez; Alejandrina Ortiz-Nájera; Salvador Neri-Orantes

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de sección cruzada para determinar la prevalencia de ranchos con garrapatas Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides sintéticos (PS), así como posibles factores de riesgo en la Zona Integrada del Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Se muestrearon 83 ranchos, donde se colectaron al menos 10 teleoginas de B. microplus para evaluar en su progenie la respuesta a los PS. Se utilizó la prueba de paquete de larvas, con la dosis discriminante para diagnosticar resistencia ...

  3. Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Bendele Kylie G; Guerrero Felix D; Dowd Scot E; Pérez de León Adalberto A; Andreotti Renato; Scoles Glen A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique to cha...

  4. Acaricide resistance mechanisms in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Mecanismos de resistência aos acaricidas em Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix David Guerrero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acaricide resistance has become widespread in countries where cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a problem. Resistance arises through genetic changes in a cattle tick population that causes modifications to the target site, increased metabolism or sequestration of the acaricide, or reduced ability of the acaricide to penetrate through the outer protective layers of the tick’s body. We review the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of acaricide resistance that have been shown to be functional in R. (B. microplus. From a mechanistic point of view, resistance to pyrethroids has been characterized to a greater degree than any other acaricide class. Although a great deal of research has gone into discovery of the mechanisms that cause organophosphate resistance, very little is defined at the molecular level and organophosphate resistance seems to be maintained through a complex and multifactorial process. The resistance mechanisms for other acaricides are less well understood. The target sites of fipronil and the macrocyclic lactones are known and resistance mechanism studies are in the early stages. The target site of amitraz has not been definitively identified and this is hampering mechanistic studies on this acaricide.A resistência aos acaricidas tornou-se amplamente difundida nos países onde os carrapatos bovinos, Rhipicephalus .Boophilus. microplus, são um problema. A resistência surge por meio de alterações genéticas em umapopulação de carrapatos que causam modificações no local de ação, aumento do metabolismo ou sequestro do acaricida, ou ainda redução na capacidade do acaricida em penetrar através das camadas protetoras do corpo do carrapato. Neste artigo, foram revisados os mecanismos moleculares e bioquímicos da resistência aos acaricidas que ocorrem em R. (B. microplus. A partir de um ponto de vista dos mecanismos envolvidos, a resistência aos piretróides tem sido caracterizada em maior grau do

  5. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  6. Targeted silencing of the aquaporin 2 gene of rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus reduces tick fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can affect human and animal health both directly by up taking blood and indirectly by transmitting pathogens. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of bovines and it is responsible for the t...

  7. Evidence for the utility of the Bm86 antigen from Boophilus microplus in vaccination against other tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, S; Zeinstra, L; Taoufik, O; Willadsen, P; Jongejan, F

    2001-01-01

    The Bm86 antigen, as originally identified in Boophilus microplus, is the basis of commercial tick vaccines against this tick species. The potential for using this antigen or homologues of the antigen in vaccination against other tick species has been assessed. We have conducted vaccine trials in cattle using the B. microplus-derived recombinant Bm86 vaccine (TickGARD) using pairs of vaccinated calves and control calves. These were infested with B. microplus and Boophilus decoloratus larvae simultaneously. For both species, the numbers of engorged female adult ticks, their weight and egg-laying capacity were all reduced, leading to a reduction in reproductive capacity of 74% for B. microplus and 70% for B. decoloratus. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were fed both as immatures as well as adults on vaccinated calves and non-vaccinated controls. There was an overall 50% reduction in the total weight of nymphs engorging on vaccinated calves, and a suggestion of a subsequent effect on feeding adults. For Hyalomma dromedarii there was a 95% reduction in the number of nymphs engorging and a further 55% reduction in weight of those ticks surviving. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum ticks were fed simultaneously both as immatures and subsequently as adults. There was no evidence for a significant vaccination effect. Finally, the amino acid sequence of a Bm86 homologue found in H. a. anatolicum unequivocally demonstrated the conservation of this molecule in this species. Our strategy for the development of multivalent anti-tick vaccines is discussed in relation to these findings. PMID:11523920

  8. Control de garrapatas Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus en bovinos con el inmunógeno Herber biogar - Control of Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks in bovine with the Herber biogar inmunógeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botello A.R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de controlar la garrapata Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus por medio del inmunógeno Herber biogar en bovinos en el municipio de Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.SummaryThis research was conducted with the aim of controlling the tickRiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus through Herber biogar immunogen incattle in the town of Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.

  9. Control de garrapatas Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en bovinos con el inmunógeno Herber biogar - Control of Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in bovine with the Herber biogar inmunógeno

    OpenAIRE

    Botello A.R.; Botello A.L.; Fajardo H.; Pérez Kirenia C.; Gómez I.A.; Borroto C.N.; Marisela Suárez; Pérez Dunia A.; Linares Belkis R.; Colicchia Maribel R.; Peraza Paula S.; Rodríguez Y.V.; González A.O.; Rodríguez A.N.; Gort A.M.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de controlar la garrapata Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus por medio del inmunógeno Herber biogar en bovinos en el municipio de Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.SummaryThis research was conducted with the aim of controlling the tickRiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus through Herber biogar immunogen incattle in the town of Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.

  10. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen Imunoproteção de bovinos contra Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus com antígeno recombinante Bm86-Campo Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B. microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B. microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG strain of R. (B. microplus was produced using the Pichiapastoris expression system to test its ability to immunoprotect cattle against tick infestation. Secretion of rBm86-CG by P. pastoris through the bioprocess reported here simplified purification of the antigen. A specific humoral immune response was detected by ELISA in vaccinated cattle. Immunoblot results revealed that polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated cattle recognized a protein in larval extracts with a molecular weight corresponding to Bm86. The rBm86-CG antigen showed 31% efficacy against the Campo Grande strain of R. (B. microplus infesting vaccinated cattle. The rBm86-CG is an antigen that could be used in a polyvalent vaccine as part of an integrated program for the control of R. (B. microplus in the region that includes Mato Grosso do Sul.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é, sem dúvidas, o ectoparasito economicamente mais importante para o gado a nível mundial. A utilização inadequada de acaricidas tem impulsionado a evolução da resistência em populações de R. (B. microplus. Vacinas contra o carrapato representam uma tecnologia que pode ser combinada com acaricidas em programas de controle integrado para diminuir o impacto de R. (B. microplus. A forma recombinante da Bm86 da cepa Campo Grande (rBm86-CG de R. (B. microplus foi produzido utilizando o sistema de expressão em Pichia pastoris para testar sua capacidade de imunoproteção ao gado contra a infestação de

  11. Identificación de un polimorfismo del gen Est9 relacionado con resistencia a piretroides en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Diaz R.; Gustavo Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Mediante procedimientos de PCR-RFLP, detectar un polimorfismo en el gen Est9 de garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistentes a piretroides en Ibagué, Colombia, determinando el grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes. Materiales y métodos. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. (Boophilus) microplus fenotípicamente susceptibles, resistentes o medianamente resistentes a piretroides en una prueba de Drummond modificada, fue amplificado por PCR con c...

  12. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen Imunoproteção de bovinos contra Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus com antígeno recombinante Bm86-Campo Grande

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha; Adalberto Angel Pérez de León; Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite; Luciano da Silva Pinto; Alceu Gonçalves dos Santos Júnior; Renato Andreotti

    2012-01-01

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B.) microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B.) microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG) strai...

  13. A Novel Carbamate Insecticide with Superior Selectivity for Cattle Tick (Boophilus microplus) and Sand Fly (Phlebotomus papatasi) Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, and the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Pp), are vectors of infectious agents affecting cattle and humans, respectively. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitor profile of acetylcholinesterases from R. microplus(BmAChE1) and Pp (PpAchE) for c...

  14. Artificial infestation of Boophilus microplus in beef cattle heifers of four genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mary da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of beef cattle heifers to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was evaluated by artificial infestation of 66 beef cattle heifers of the following genetic groups: 16 Nelore (NE, 18 Canchim x Nelore (CN, 16 Angus x Nelore (AN and 16 Simmental x Nelore (SN. The animals, with a mean age of 16.5 months, were maintained with no chemical tick control in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Four artificial infestations with 20,000 B. microplus larvae were carried out 14 days apart and from day 18 to day 22 of each infestation the number of engorged female ticks (> 4.5 mm was counted on the left side of each heifer. Data were analyzed as the percentage of return (PR = percentage of ticks counted relative to the number infested, transformed to (PR¼, and as log10 (Cij + 1, in which Cij is the number of ticks in each infestation, using the least squares method with a model that included the effects of genetic group (GG, animal within GG (error a, infestation number (I, GG x I and the residual (error b. Results indicated a significant GG x I interaction, because AN and SN heifers had a higher percentage of return than CN and NE heifers, while CN heifers showed a higher percentage of return than the NE heifers only in infestations 3 and 4. Transformed percentages of return were NE = 0.35 ± 0.06, AN = 0.89 ± 0.06, CN = 0.54 ± 0.05 and SN = 0.85 ± 0.06.

  15. Ação larvicida de derivados arilsulfonílicos da (+- cânfora e da (+- isopinocanfona sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus Larvicidal action of (+-camphor and (+- isopinocamphone arilsulphonyl derivatives on Boophilus microplus cattle tick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S. Chagas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a atividade larvicida de 33 derivados arilsulfonílicos da (+-cânfora e da (+-isopinocanfona no carrapato B. microplus, na busca de princípios ativos menos tóxicos para o seu controle. Os produtos foram obtidos por clorossulfonação da (+-cânfora e da (+-isopinocanfona. Eles foram submetidos à solubilização e testados separadamente e em conjunto contra larvas de carrapato encerradas em envelopes contendo papéis impregnados e acondicionadas em estufa climatizada. A mortalidade média não atingiu 5% em todos os testes realizados, indicando que a clorossulfonação não é a rota de síntese mais adequada para a obtenção de derivados sintéticos com efeito larvicida sobre B. microplus. Os 33 produtos testados sob a forma de triagem biológica não podem ser considerados como potenciais acaricidas.It was investigated the acaricidal activity of (+- camphor and (+- isopinocamphone arilsulphonyl derivatives against Boophilus microplus cattle tick. The products were obtained through the camphor and isopinocamphone clorosulfonation. Thirty-three products were submitted to solubilization and tested alone and together, against tick larvae. Ticks were caught in filter paper envelopes impregnated with products, which were incubated under controlled conditions. The average mortality did not reach 5% in all trials, indicating that clorosulfonation is not an appropiate procedure to obtain derivatives with larvicidal effect against B. microplus. The 33 products tested in the biological screening could not be considered as potential acaricides.

  16. Características biológicas de Boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae a partir de infestação experimental em cão Biological characteristics of Boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae on dog under experimental infestation

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    Marcos P. Franque

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887, um parasita comum dos bovinos, tem sido observado em cães. Com objetivo de descrever características biológicas desse parasitismo, um cão foi infestado experimentalmente com 10.000 larvas de B. microplus previamente mantidas em câmara climatizada a 27 ± 1 ºC e umidade relativa superior a 80%. A média da fase parasitária foi de 24,4 ± 1,50 dias, com uma taxa de recuperação de 0,42%. Das 21 fêmeas desprendidas natural e precocemente do hospedeiro, 6 (28% ingurgitaram o suficiente (75,1 ± 30,23mg para realizar postura. O período médio de prépostura foi de 4,33 ± 1,37 dias e o período médio de postura de 9,17 ± 2,32 dias, com produção média de 18,78 ± 15,34mg de postura. O índice médio de produção de ovos observado foi de 22,38%. Estes resultados demonstraram que fêmeas de B. microplus alimentadas em cão experimentalmente infestado, completam seu ciclo biológico. A obtenção de fêmeas, capazes de realizar posturas viáveis, sugerem a possibilidade do cão atuar como hospedeiro alternativo para B. microplus, especialmente quando não há disponível outra espécie de hospedeiro preferencial.Boophilus microplus, a common parasite of cattle, has eventually reported in dogs. To describe biological features of this parasitism, one dog was experimentally infested with 10,000 larvae of B. microplus which were previously held in acclimatized camera at 27 ±1ºC and relative humidity up to 80%. The mean of parasitic phase was 24.4 ± 1.50 days, with 0.42% of recovery rate. Of 21 natural detached B. microplus females, six engorged enough (75.1 ± 30.23mg to achieve posture. The mean period of pre-posture was 4.33 ± 1.37 days and the means period of posture was 9.17 ± 2.32, producing a mean of 18.78 ± 15.34 posture weight. The mean of eggs production index observed was 22.38%. The results showed that B. microplus females fed on dogs to complete their life cycle. The females collected

  17. Polymorphism of the bm86 gene in South American strains of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossai, Sidimar; Peconick, Ana P; Sales-Junior, Policarpo A; Marcelino, Francismar C; Vargas, Marlene I; Neves, Elisangela S; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2005-01-01

    Thirty Boophilus microplus strains from various geographic regions of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela and Colombia were analyzed for the bm86 and bm95 gene. A fragment of cDNA of 794 base pairs of the parasite larvae, included between nucleotides 278-1071s, was amplified and cloned on the pGEM-T vector. Two random clones were sequenced for each population and the nucleotides 278-1071 and predicted amino acid sequences compared with the bm86 and bm95 genes. Variations from 1.76 to 3.65% were detected in the nucleotides sequence when compared with the homologous sequence of the bm86 gene and a 3.4-6.08% in the homologous amino acid sequence of the Bm86 protein. When the sequences obtained were compared with the bm95 gene, variations from 0.50 to 3.15% were detected. Variations from 1.14 to 4.56% were detected for the Bm95 protein homologous sequences in the deduced amino acid sequence. Only five of the 30 strains analyzed presented two different types of alleles expressed and the two alleles of the Alegre population and allele 1 of the Betim population were the most divergent of all those analyzed. PMID:16323051

  18. New approaches toward anti-Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick vaccine Novas estratégias para o desenvolvimento de uma vacina contra o carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Parizi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (formerly Boophilus microplus is the major ectoparasite affecting livestock in America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania. Conventional tick control is based on the use of acaricides but immunization of bovines with tick gut proteins induces only a partial protective immune response. Based on this information, distinct research groups have explored the possibility of protecting the animals by inducing an immune response against other tick proteins. However, the antigens so far described do not induce the necessary protection for suppressing the use of acaricides. Currently, several groups are engaged in identifying new tick proteins to be used as targets for the development of new vaccines. This approach focuses on the enhancement of the immunogenicity of antigens already tested by incorporating new adjuvants or formulations and by searching for new antigens. This paper reviews the work done by Brazilian researchers to develop a vaccine against this tick.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (anteriormente Boophilus microplus é o principal ectoparasita que afeta bovinos na América, Ásia, África e Oceania e o seu controle é tradicionalmente realizado através do uso de acaricidas. Experimentos de imunização com proteínas do carrapato mostram que a resposta imune desenvolvida pelos bovinos vacinados protege, em parte, os animais do parasitismo. Baseado nessas observações, vários grupos de pesquisa exploram a possibilidade de proteger os animais pela indução de uma resposta imune contra proteínas do carrapato. Entretanto, os antígenos já caracterizados não asseguram o grau de proteção necessário para suprimir o uso de acaricidas. Portanto, esses grupos de pesquisa estão engajados na tentativa de identificar novas proteínas que possam ser utilizadas para o desenvolvimento de novas vacinas, as quais possam induzir maior imunogenicidade de que os antígenos já testados, através do

  19. Boophiline, an Antimicrobial Sterol Amide from the Cattle Tick Boophilus microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Potterat, Olivier; Hostettmann, Kurt; Höltzel, Alexandra; Jung, Günther; Diehl, Peter A.; Petrini, Orlando

    2008-01-01

    Boophiline (1), a new sterol amide was isolated from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Ixodidae). The structure was assigned as N-[3-(sulfooxy)-25ξ-cholest-5-en-26-oyl]-L-isoleucine by detailed 2D NMR investigations in conjunction with FAB mass spectrometry and acidic hydrolyses. Complete assignment of the diastereotopic methylene protons of the ring system could be deduced from the NMR data. In agar dilution assays, 1 exhibited antifungal properties against Cladosporium cucumerinum and an...

  20. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Neoob de Carvalho Castro; David Fernandes Lima; Dolores Wolschick; Ivanilza Moreira de Andrade; Raimunda Cardoso dos Santos; Francisco José de Seixas dos Santos; Leiz Maria Costa Veras; Lívio Martins Costa-Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg...

  1. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería; Emily Lizett Esparza Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transm...

  2. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistant to acaricides and ivermectin in cattle farms of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vivas, Róger Iván; Pérez-Cogollo, Luis Carlos; Rosado-Aguilar, José Alberto; Ojeda-Chi, Melina Maribel; Trinidad-Martinez, Iris; Miller, Robert John; Li, Andrew Yongsheng; de León, Adalberto Pérez; Guerrero, Félix; Klafke, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Ticks and the diseases they transmit cause great economic losses to livestock in tropical countries. Non-chemical control alternatives include the use of resistant cattle breeds, biological control and vaccines. However, the most widely used method is the application of different chemical classes of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. Populations of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistant to organophosphates (OP), synthetic pyrethroids (SP), amitraz and fipronil have been reported in Mexico. Macrocyclic lactones are the most sold antiparasitic drug in the Mexican veterinary market. Ivermectin-resistant populations of R. (B.) microplus have been reported in Brazil, Uruguay and especially in Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan). Although ivermectin resistance levels in R. (B.) microplus from Mexico were generally low in most cases, some field populations of R. (B.) microplus exhibited high levels of ivermectin resistance. The CHPAT population showed a resistance ratio of 10.23 and 79.6 at lethal concentration of 50% and 99%, respectively. Many field populations of R. (B.) microplus are resistant to multiple classes of antiparasitic drugs, including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amitraz and ivermectin. This paper reports the current status of the resistance of R. (B.) microplus to acaricides, especially ivermectin, in Mexican cattle. PMID:25054487

  3. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Pérez de León, Adalberto Angel; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Dos Santos Júnior, Alceu Gonçalves; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B.) microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B.) microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG) strain of R. (B.) microplus was produced using the Pichiapastoris expression system to test its ability to immunoprotect cattle against tick infestation. Secretion of rBm86-CG by P. pastoris through the bioprocess reported here simplified purification of the antigen. A specific humoral immune response was detected by ELISA in vaccinated cattle. Immunoblot results revealed that polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated cattle recognized a protein in larval extracts with a molecular weight corresponding to Bm86. The rBm86-CG antigen showed 31% efficacy against the Campo Grande strain of R. (B.) microplus infesting vaccinated cattle. The rBm86-CG is an antigen that could be used in a polyvalent vaccine as part of an integrated program for the control of R. (B.) microplus in the region that includes Mato Grosso do Sul. PMID:23070436

  4. Esterase mediated resistance in deltamethrin resistant reference tick colony of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Snehil; Ajith Kumar, K G; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, Sachin; Saravanan, B C; Ravikumar, Gandham; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of acaricide resistance is considered as one of the important facets of integrated tick management. In an attempt of development of resistance monitoring indicators, in the present study two reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus maintained in the Entomology laboratory, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, India, were studied to determine the possible contributing factors involved in development of resistance to deltamethrin. Electrophoretic profiling of esterase enzymes detected high activities of EST-1 in reference resistant tick colony designated as IVRI-IV whereas it was not detectable in reference susceptible IVRI-I line of R. (B.) microplus. Esterases were further characterized as carboxylesterase or acetylcholinesterase based on inhibitor study using PMSF, eserine sulphate, malathion, TPP and copper sulphate. It was concluded that an acetylcholinesterase, EST-1, possibly plays an important role for development of deltamethrin resistance in IVRI-IV colony of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:26979585

  5. Avaliação in vitro de uma cepa de campo de Boophilus microplus (Acari : Ixodidae resistente à amitraz In vitro evaluation of a field strain of Boophilus microplus (Acari:Ixodidae resistant to amitraz

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    Minerva Santamaría Vargas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos acaricidas químicos ainda se constitui no principal instrumento de controle do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus. No sul do Brasil, o amitraz aplicado por imersão e aspersão é o ingrediente ativo mais utilizado, nos últimos anos, contra as cepas de carrapatos resistentes aos organofosforados (OF e piretróides sintéticos (PS. Em conseqüência, torna-se importante a realização de investigações que possam contribuir para prolongar a vida útil desse ixodicida. No presente estudo, foi analisado o comportamento toxicológico de uma cepa de B. microplus colhida na localidade de Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, usando-se químicos da família dos OF, PS, misturas OF/PS, além do amitraz. Os resultados indicaram que a cepa denominada "Santa Luiza" apresentou fatores de resistência (FR que variaram entre 2,3 e 3,95 para OF, 23,3 e 147,56 para PS e de 3,76 a 21.57 para amitraz em testes realizados com larvas de carrapatos. A caracterização e purificação de uma cepa de B. microplus resistente ao amitraz permitem seu uso como cepa de referência para a avaliação biológica de ixodicidas alternativos, além de padronizar e validar métodos de diagnósticos toxicológicos que possam detectar resistência frente a esse acaricida.The use of chemical acaricide still remains as the main tool against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. In Southern Brazil, amitraz applied by immersion and/or spray is the main active ingredient to control organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid resistant strains. In consequence it is important to conduct investigations in order to prolong useful life of this ingredient. In this article, toxicological behaviour of a strain of Boophilus microplus named "Santa Luiza" collected in the locality of Alegrete, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was analyzed against acaricides organophosphorous, pyrethroids, mixtures SP and OP and amitraz. Results showed factors of resistance from 2.3 to 3.95 to OP, 23.3 to 147

  6. Immunological control of ticks through vaccination with Boophilus microplus gut antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; García-García, J C

    2000-01-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the scientific community. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful. Recently, vaccination with recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigens has been shown to control tick infestations. Our Bm86-containing vaccine formulation (Gavac) has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus, and chemically sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America, and Iran. Preliminary results with Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. suggest partial cross protection. In field trials, vaccination with Gavac controlled B. microplus and B. annulatus infestations and reduced the transmission of babesiosis, resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. Different degrees of susceptibility to the vaccination with Bm86 and sequence variations in the Bm86 locus have been reported. The Bm95 antigen was isolated from the Argentinean Bm86-resistant B. microplus strain A. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions with similar results to that obtained with Gavac. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen in protecting cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage and possibilities for the immunological control of ticks. PMID:11193686

  7. Bovine genetic resistance effects on biological traits of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegelmeyer, P; Nizoli, L Q; da Silva, S S; dos Santos, T R B; Dionello, N J L; Gulias-Gomes, C C; Cardoso, F F

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to verify the influence of bovine genetic resistance on biological traits of the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick. Genetic resistance or susceptibility was determined according to breeding values for tick counts, predicted using a dataset of 9007 Hereford and Braford (Hereford×Zebu) bovines naturally infested and raised under extensive production systems in southern Brazil. From a total of 974 Braford heifers born in 2008, 20 were classified as genetically tick-resistant and 20 classified as genetically tick-susceptible, and used to obtain the ticks samples used in this study. The 40 heifers were exposed to four subsequent artificial infestations with approximately 20,000 larvae at 14-day intervals. From the 19th to 23rd day of each infestation tick counts were performed on the left body side of the heifers. Engorged ticks were manually collected on the day of highest observed burden after each infestation. Tick counts on susceptible heifers were 5.5, 10.5, 11.1 and 6.9 times larger than on resistant heifers, respectively, after the first, second, third and fourth artificial infestations. In the third infestation, ticks from resistant heifers showed lower egg production index (Pticks from susceptible heifers. In the fourth infestation, ticks from susceptible group showed higher egg mass weight (Pticks from resistant heifers. Tick initial weights showed a positive association with egg production index in susceptible heifers (Presistant group (Pticks from resistant cattle. This shows that bovine genetic tick resistance, in addition to affecting the number of ticks carried by the animals, also affected the egg mass weight, egg production and nutrient indexes of ticks. The results of the present study imply that the selection of resistant animals could be used as a strategic tool for tick control in production systems, reducing infestation levels on cattle and environment. PMID:25648284

  8. Detecting resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, with a propoxur-based biochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, G D; Green, P; Stuttgen, M; Barker, S C

    1999-11-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of resistance to insecticides in arthropods is needed. In the cattle tick. Boophilus microplus, resistance to a variety of acaricides is widespread. The most commonly used assay for resistance, the larval packet test, takes at least two, but generally six weeks for a one-host tick like B. microplus to complete and may take up to three months to complete for three-host ticks. Here we describe a test for resistance to organophosphate acaricides that can be used on larvae and adult ticks which takes less than 24 hours. The test measures the difference in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in homogenates of ticks in the presence and absence of propoxur, a carbamate acaricide. We found clear discrimination of organophosphate-susceptible and organophosphate-resistant adults with 100 microM propoxur. AChE from susceptible ticks had almost no activity at this concentration of propoxur whereas AChE from resistant ticks had 67% of its potential activity. AChE from heterozygote ticks could also be distinguished from AChE from homozygous-susceptible and homozygous-resistant ticks. This is the first biochemical test for resistance to an acaricide. Rapid, sensitive tests like ours will allow resistance to organophosphates to be detected soon after it develops in the field, thus, the spread of resistance might be slowed and the useful life of acaricides extended.

  9. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

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    Knowles Donald P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifying additional methods to utilize Bm86 to reduce R. microplus infestation and babesia transmission. Additionally, the role played by Bm86 in R. microplus fitness during B. bovis infection is unknown. Results Here we describe in two independent experiments that RNA interference-mediated silencing of Bm86 decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Notably, Bm86 silencing decreased the number and survival of engorged females, and decreased the weight of egg masses. However, gene silencing had no significant effect on the efficiency of transovarial transmission of B. bovis from surviving female ticks to their larval offspring. The results also show that Bm86 is expressed, in addition to gut cells, in larvae, nymphs, adult males and ovaries of partially engorged adult R. microplus females, and its expression was significantly down-regulated in ovaries of ticks fed on B. bovis-infected cattle. Conclusion The R. microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role during tick feeding and after repletion during blood digestion in ticks fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Therefore, the data indirectly support the rationale for using Bm86-based vaccines, perhaps in combination with acaricides, to control tick infestation particularly in B. bovis endemic areas.

  10. Expression of recombinant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. annulatus and R. decoloratus Bm86 orthologs as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan Frans; Hope Michelle; Nijhof Ard M; Naranjo Victoria; de la Lastra José; Canales Mario; de la Fuente José

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in Africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The R. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant DNA technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Results In this study, the genes for Bm86 (R. microplus), Ba86 (R. annulatus) and Bd86 (...

  11. Partial sequencing of Bm86 gene for studying the phylogeny of an Indian isolate of Rhipicephalus(Boophilus) microplus tick

    OpenAIRE

    Anbarasi, P.; Latha, B. R.; Dhinakar Raj, G.; Sreekumar, C.; Senthuran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tick gut glycoprotein, designated as Bm86, found on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells of Boophilus microplus, which is a concealed antigen, has been used as vaccine candidate molecule for immunization against ticks. To better understand the molecular diversity of Bm86 gene in ticks, a portion of the cDNA was sequenced from an Indian isolate of B. microplus. Comparison of nucleotide sequence revealed that Indian isolate had 97 % homology (18 polymorphisms) with...

  12. Infectividad de Metarhizium anisopliae en contra de cepas de garrapata Boophilus microplus sensible y resistente a los organofosforados

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Fernández-Ruvalcaba; Elyes Zhioua; Zeferino García-Vázquez

    2005-01-01

    La infectividad del hongo entomopatogénico Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) fue probada en contra de una cepa de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) sensible, y otra resistente a los organofosforados, por medio de un ensayo in vitro con hembras ingurgitadas de B. microplus recién desprendidas del bovino, utilizando la cepa ECS1 de M. anisopliae. El micromiceto M. anisopliae demostró ser altamente infectivo, tanto para la cepa sensible como para la resistente a los organofosforados a la conc...

  13. Immunization of cattle with synthetic peptides derived from the Boophilus microplus gut protein (Bm86).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patarroyo, J H; Portela, R W; De Castro, R O; Pimentel, J Couto; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E; Vargas, M I; Prates, A A; Mendes, M A Dias

    2002-09-25

    Three synthetic peptides (SBm4912, SBm7462 and SBm19733), derived from the Bm86 glycoprotein from Boophilus microplus gut, were constructed and used to immunize cattle from a tick-free area. The immunized animals received three subcutaneous doses of the peptides, with saponin as adjuvant, at 30-day intervals. The immune response was evaluated by IgG elicited against the peptides by the detection of anti-Bm86 specific antibodies in situ and by Western blotting analysis. After tick challenge, reduction in the number, weight and oviposition capacity of engorged females was observed in the tick population that had fed on immunized animals. The results pointed a high efficacy (81.05%) for the SBm7462 synthetic peptide in relation to the others (p<0.01), demonstrating the efficiency of the immune response elicited by synthetic peptides to control the cattle tick B. microplus. PMID:12127414

  14. AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DE FITOTERÁPICOS NO CONTROLE DE RHIPICEPHALUS BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS

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    Carlos Augusto Nicolino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal medicines is considered an important alternative to control pests, and can reduce economic and environmental impacts the use of synthetic pesticides. The present study aimed at comparing the in vitro action of essential oils against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Essential oil was used Azadiracta indica (Neem, Cymbopogom nardus L. Rendle (Citronella and Cymbopogon citratus (lemon-grass in the following concentrations: 12.5%, 6%, 3% and 1%. Maximum efficiency (100% was observed for all plants at concentrations of 12.5%. At the concentration of 6% only the essential oils of neem and citronella apresntaram 100% efficiency. Citronella still showed maximum efficiency at a concentration of 3% and still got 95.30% in the lowest concentration (1%. It is concluded that the use of essential oils can be an important alternative in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus.O uso de fitoterápicos é considerado uma alternativa importante no controle de parasitas, e podem reduzir impactos econômicos e ambientais ao uso de pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar comparativamente a ação in vitro de óleos essenciais contra fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Foi utilizado óleo essencial de Azadiracta indica (Neem, Cymbopogom nardus L. Rendle (Citronela e Cymbopogon citratus (Capim-cidreira nas seguintes concentrações: 12,5%, 6%, 3% e 1%. Eficácia máxima (100% foi observada por todas as plantas nas concentrações de 12,5%. Na concentração de 6% somente os óleos essenciais de neem e citronela apresentaram eficácia de 100%. A citronela ainda apresentou eficácia máxima na concentração de 3% e ainda obteve 95,30% na menor concentração (1%. Conclui-se que a utilização de óleos essenciais pode ser uma alternativa importante no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus.

  15. First Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma marginale in Cattle and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks in Cebu, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YBAÑEZ, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; YBAÑEZ, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; RATILLA, Jowarren Catingan; PEREZ, Zandro Obligado; GABOTERO, Shirleny Reyes; Hakimi, Hassan; KAWAZU, Shin-Ichiro; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; INOKUMA, Hisashi; 河津, 信一郎; 松本, 高太郎; 横山, 直明; 猪熊,壽

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale has been detected in the Philippines only by peripheral blood smear examination and serological methods. This study generally aimed to molecularly detect and characterize A. marginale in cattle and ticks in Cebu, Philippines. A total of 12 bovine blood samples and 60 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were collected on the Cebu Island in 2011. 16S rRNA-based screening-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed 8 cattle (66.7%) and 8 ticks (13.3%) to be positive for A. marginal...

  16. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant Boophilus microplus Bm86 antigen expressed by transformed Pichia pastoris cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesino, R; Cremata, J; Rodríguez, M; Besada, V; Falcón, V; de la Fuente, J

    1996-02-01

    In the present paper we report the biochemical characteristics of the recombinant tick (Boophilus microplus) gut antigen Bm86 that previously has been cloned, expressed and recovered at high levels in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The results demonstrate that rBm86 had a modification at position 92 (Thr replaced by Ile) and aggregated, forming particles ranging between 17 and 40 nm. The rBm86 was N-glycosylated, having at least two non-glycosylated sequons (Asn-329 and Asn-363) and a ratio of only 0.4/65 (free Cys/total Cys)/mol of protein. PMID:8867893

  17. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to pyrethroids and their associations in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Breno Barros; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Santana, Marília de Andrade; Alves, Leucio Cãmara; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The synthetic pyrethroids and their associations have been widely used for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The frequent use of acaricides has been inducing the development of resistance in the tick populations. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of R. (B.) microplus populations to pyrethroids and their associations in the region of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil. In addition, the level of information among farm owners regarding tick control measures was investigated. Ticks were collected directly from naturally infested dairy cattle in the region and were exposed to pyrethroids and their associations. At the same time, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied with the aim of investigating the level of information among the farmers. The results reported here indicate that R. (B.) microplus populations in the dairy region of Garanhuns show resistance to pyrethroids and their associations, except when the product is associated with piperonyl butoxide. Regarding the results from the epidemiological survey, it was seen that there is a considerable lack of information among the farmers in relation to ixodid control measures. The level of ticks resistance to acaricides varied widely across the region studied. No alternative control programs have been implemented among these farms, thus demonstrating that there is a need for more information relating to the biology and control of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:23856731

  18. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

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    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of the first tick CAP2b (periviscerokinin) receptor from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cDNA of the receptor for CAP2b/periviscerokinin (PVK) neuropeptides, designated Rhimi-CAP2b-R, was cloned from synganglia of tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This receptor is the ortholog of the insect CAP2b/PVK receptor, as concluded from analyses of the predicted protein sequence, ph...

  20. Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae em laboratório Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae in laboratory

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    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais foram estudados com o objetivo de avaliar suas eficiências no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em laboratório. Fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato foram coletadas de bovinos e mantidas em placas de Petri. Foram utilizados extratos orgânicos alcoólicos 2% (peso/volume de sementes de Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (graviola; flores de Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (jambo; folhas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (capim-santo; folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (nim; e extrato hexânico na mesma concentração de A. indica (sementes. Os grupos-controle foram compostos por fêmeas sem tratamento e fêmeas tratadas com água destilada e esterilizada e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a uma concentração de 1%. O extrato de A. muricata apresentou o maior poder acaricida, com eficácia de 100%, seguido dos extratos de S. malaccensis (75 e 59,24% e A. indica (65 e 38,49%. Houve 100% de redução na eclosão das larvas quando se utilizou o extrato de sementes de A. muricata.Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (soursop; flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (iamb, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (holy grass, leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (neem and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume of A. indica (seeds. The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24% and A. indica (65 and 38.49%. The seed extract of A. muricata

  1. Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing

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    Bendele Kylie G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP technique to characterize its bacterial diversity. Pyrosequencing was performed on adult males and females, eggs, and gut and ovary tissues from adult females derived from samples of R. microplus collected during outbreaks in southern Texas. Results Raw data from bTEFAP were screened and trimmed based upon quality scores and binned into individual sample collections. Bacteria identified to the species level include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus sciuri, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Finegoldia magna. One hundred twenty-one bacterial genera were detected in all the life stages and tissues sampled. The total number of genera identified by tick sample comprised: 53 in adult males, 61 in adult females, 11 in gut tissue, 7 in ovarian tissue, and 54 in the eggs. Notable genera detected in the cattle tick include Wolbachia, Coxiella, and Borrelia. The molecular approach applied in this study allowed us to assess the relative abundance of the microbiota associated with R. microplus. Conclusions This report represents the first survey of the bacteriome in the cattle tick using non-culture based molecular approaches. Comparisons of our results with previous bacterial surveys provide an indication of geographic variation in the assemblages of bacteria associated with R. microplus. Additional reports on the identification of new bacterial species maintained in nature by R. microplus that may be

  2. Chemo-profiling and bioassay of phytoextracts from Ageratum conyzoides for acaricidal properties against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cattle and buffaloes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K G Ajith; Tayade, Amol B; Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, Suman; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Tewari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Rawat, A K S; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-03-01

    In India, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations have developed a certain level of resistance to most of the acaricides marketed against tick species. To manage the problem, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the acaricidal potential of Ageratum conyzoides plants against acaricides-resistant ticks infesting cattle and buffaloes. The regression analysis of dose-response data of ethanolic extract of A. conyzoides revealed LC90 value of 8.91% against reference susceptible IVRI-1 line of R.(B.) microplus. The ethanolic extract was found efficacious against 76.7-90% acaricides-resistant field ticks and adversely affected oviposition showing 7.04-31.3% reduction in egg laying capacity. The extract was also showed an in vitro efficacy of 52.5 and 76.7% against reference resistant IVRI-4 and 5 lines. The GC/MS/MS profiling of hexane extract, two bioactive sub-fractions and essential oils revealed the presence of 6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran (precocene II) as a major phyto-compound. The bioactive sub-fractions showed 96.2-97.5% efficacy against larvae of IVRI-1 and 77.1-94.9% against multi-acaricide resistant larvae of IVRI-5 line of R.(B.) microplus. The results of this study provided significant support for the development of a phyto-formulation based on A. conyzoides species. PMID:26723275

  3. Allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Jongejan Frans

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The morphological and genetic differences among R. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from America/Africa and those from Australia being different species. To test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we performed a series of experiments to characterize the reproductive performance of crosses between R. microplus from Australia, Africa and America and the genetic diversity of strains from Australia, Asia, Africa and America. Results The results showed that the crosses between Australian and Argentinean or Mozambican strains of boophilid ticks are infertile while crosses between Argentinean and Mozambican strains are fertile. These results showed that tick strains from Africa (Mozambique and America (Argentina are the same species, while ticks from Australia may actually represent a separate species. The genetic analysis of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and microsatellite loci were not conclusive when taken separately, but provided evidence that Australian tick strains were genetically different from Asian, African and American strains. Conclusion The results reported herein support the hypothesis that at least two different species share the name R. microplus. These species could be redefined as R. microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (for American and African strains and probably the old R. australis Fuller, 1899 (for Australian strains, which needs to be redescribed. However, experiments with a larger number of tick strains from different geographic locations are needed to corroborate these results.

  4. Identification of a synthetic peptide inducing cross-reactive antibodies binding to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus BM86 homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Nadja; Diaz, Diana; Amacker, Mario; Odongo, David O; Beier, Konstantin; Nitsch, Cordula; Bishop, Richard P; Daubenberger, Claudia A

    2009-12-10

    The BM86 antigen, originally identified in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is the basis of the only commercialized anti-tick vaccine. The long-term goal of our study is to improve BM86 based vaccines by induction of high levels of tick gut binding antibodies that are also cross-reactive with a range of BM86 homologues expressed in other important tick species. Here we have used a BD86 derived synthetic peptide, BD86-3, to raise a series of mouse monoclonal antibodies. One of these mAbs, named 12.1, recognized BM86 homologues in immuno-histochemical analyses in four out of five tick species including R. (B.) microplus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Our results indicate that broadly cross-reactive tick gut binding antibodies can be induced after immunization with a synthetic peptide derived from the protein BD86. PMID:19808026

  5. Detection of amitraz resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from North Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Singh, Veer; Rath, S S

    2015-03-01

    Amitraz has become one of the most extensively used chemical acaricide for control of cattle tick due to development of resistance against most of the organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroid acaricides. The resistance status of amitraz was evaluated against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India by adult immersion test (AIT). The different concentrations of amitraz utilized in the AIT were 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm. The adult female ticks showed an upward trend in the mortality percentage with increase in drug concentration. The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality which was 1.868 ± 0.2068. The lethal concentration (LC95) was calculated as 3098.2 ppm and the RF was 24.78 which indicated level II resistance status. The dose response curves for egg masses, reproductive index and inhibition of oviposition of R. (B.) microplus were also validated and the slope was -0.5165 ± 0.08287, -0.1328 ± 0.04472 and 24.22 ± 8.160, respectively. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz resistance in R. (B.) microplus from India and the data generated could be of immense help to develop effective control strategies against ticks. PMID:25698859

  6. Control of Boophilus microplus populations in grazing cattle vaccinated with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M L; Mouris, A E; Labarta, V; Luaces, L L; Rubiera, R; Cordovés, C; Sánchez, P A; Ramos, E; Soto, A

    1995-04-01

    Current methods for the control of cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, we developed a vaccine against B. microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 (rBm86) antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec) and it was shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals under controlled conditions. Here we show that, under field conditions in grazing cattle, the vaccine is able to control B. microplus populations. Two parasite-free farms were employed for the study. In the first farm, animals were vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine, while, in the second, animals received a saline injection in adjuvant. After immunization, animals were artificially infected and the infestation rate was recorded. Over the 33 weeks of the experiment, the infestation rate was lower in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. At the end of the experiment it was necessary to use chemicals in the control farm after serious losses in production and animals. PMID:7660571

  7. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expressão e caracterização da Bm86-CG em Pichia pastoris

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    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (GavacTM and TickGardPLUS that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks.O carrapato-do-boi Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas econômicas. Seu controle é principalmente químico e apresenta limitações quanto ao desenvolvimento de resistência aos princípios ativos. As vacinas podem auxiliar no controle deste parasita diminuindo as aplicações de carrapaticidas. Considerando isso, foi realizada a subclonagem do gene da proteína Bm86-CG, proteína homologa a que atualmente é a base das vacinas desenvolvidas (GavacTM e TickGardPLUS contra o carrapato-do-boi, no vetor de expressão pPIC9, para ser transformado em levedura, Pichia pastoris. Esta proteína foi caracterizada pela expressão da cepa recombinante Mut+ que expressou maior quantidade de proteína. A proteína expressa, rBm86-CG, foi reconhecida no ensaio de Western-blot pelos soros policlonais anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti

  8. Isolation of the monooxygenase complex from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus - clues to understanding acaricide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kirsty M; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Finn, Robert D

    2016-06-01

    The monooxygenase complex is composed of three key proteins, a cytochrome P450 (CYP), the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5 and plays a key role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotic substances, including pesticides. In addition, overexpression of these components has been linked to pesticide resistance in several important vectors of disease. Despite this, the monooxygenase complex has not been isolated from the Southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, a major disease vector in livestock. Using bioinformatics 115 transcriptomic sequences were analyzed to identify putative pesticide metabolizing CYPs. RACE-PCR was used to amplify the full length sequence of one CYP; CYP3006G8 which displays a high degree of homology to members of the CYP6 and 9 subfamilies, known to metabolize pyrethroids. mRNA expression levels of CYP3006G8 were investigated in 11 strains of R. microplus with differing resistance profiles by qPCR, the results of which indicated a correlation with pyrethroid metabolic resistance. In addition to this gene, the sequences for CPR and cytochrome b5 were also identified and subsequently isolated from R. microplus using PCR. CYP3006G8 is only the third CYP gene isolated from R. microplus and the first to putatively metabolize pesticides. The initial results of expression analysis suggest that CYP3006G8 metabolizes pyrethroids but further biochemical characterization is required to confirm this. Differences in the kinetic parameters of human and mosquito CPR in terms of NADPH binding have been demonstrated and could potentially be used to design species specific pesticides. Similar differences in the tick CPR would confirm that this is a characteristic of heamatophagous arthropods. PMID:26850353

  9. In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of computer-selected analogues of carvacrol and salicylic acid on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción, Ramírez L; Froylán, Ibarra V; Herminia I, Pérez M; Norberto, Manjarrez A; Héctor J, Salgado Z; Yeniel, González C

    2013-10-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a tick that causes huge economic losses in cattle. The indiscriminate use of acaricides has generated resistance to most compounds present on the market. This makes further investigation on other potential acaricides necessary, the in silico assay being an alternative to the design of new compounds. In the present study a biosilico assay was performed using TOMOCOMD-CARDD (TOpological MOlecular COMputer Design-Computer-Aided Rational Drug Design) and WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) software. Two carvacrol and four salicylic acid derivatives, synthesized by conventional methods and evaluated with the larval packet test on larvae of R. (B.) microplus were selected. All evaluated compounds presented acaricidal activity; however, ethyl 2-methoxybenzoate (91.8 ± 1.7 % mortality) and ethyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (89.1 ± 1.6 % mortality) showed greater activity than salicylic acid. With regard to the carvacrol analogues, carvacrol acetate (67.8 ± 2.1 % mortality) and carvacrol methyl ether (71.7 ± 1.6 % mortality) also showed greater activity than carvacrol (35.9 ± 3.2 % mortality). TOMOCOMD-CARDD and WEKA software were helpful tools in the search for alternative structures with potential acaricidal activity on R. (B.) microplus. PMID:23543288

  10. Gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick Boophilus microplus by RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Ard M; Taoufik, Amar; de la Fuente, José; Kocan, Katherine M; de Vries, Erik; Jongejan, Frans

    2007-05-01

    The use of RNA interference (RNAi) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of RNAi to the one-host tick, Boophilus microplus, has not been reported. We evaluated the application of RNAi in B. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin. Gene-specific double-stranded (dsRNA) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing was confirmed by real time PCR. Gene silencing occurred in injected unfed females after they were allowed to feed. Injection of dsRNA into engorged females caused gene silencing in the subsequently oviposited eggs and larvae that hatched from these eggs, but not in adults that developed from these larvae. dsRNA injected into engorged females could be detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in eggs 14 days from the beginning of oviposition, demonstrating that unprocessed dsRNA was incorporated in the eggs. Eggs produced by engorged females injected with subolesin dsRNA were abnormal, suggesting that subolesin may play a role in embryonic development. The injection of dsRNA into engorged females to obtain gene-specific silencing in eggs and larvae is a novel method which can be used to study gene function in tick embryogenesis. PMID:17196597

  11. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Leandro de Oliveira Souza; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Koller, Wilson Werner; Andreotti, Renato

    2016-06-01

    The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais) and the Distrito Federal (DF) of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported. PMID:27334816

  12. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Souza Higa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais and the Distrito Federal (DF of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported.

  13. Resistencia a los acaricidas en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: situación actual y mecanismos de resistencia

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Trees, Alexander J.

    2012-01-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus es una plaga endémica de ganado en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo, causando grandes pérdidas económicas a los productores de ganado. Acaricidas químicos han desempeñado un papel fundamental en el control de R. (B). microplus; sin embargo, como consecuencia de su uso extensivo, esta especie ha desarrollado resistencia a todas las clases principales de acaricidas en todo el mundo. Resistencia a organofosforados, piretroides sintéticos y ami...

  14. Uso de lactonas macrocíclicas para el control de la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus en el ganado bovino Use of macrocyclic lactones to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    RI Rodríguez-Vivas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta revisión se describe en detalle la composición química, farmacocinética, presentación y dosis, seguridad y tiempo de retiro y la seguridad ambiental de los grupos que componen a las LM: avemectinas (ivermectina, doramectina, eprinomectina, abamectina y milbemicinas (moxidectina. Además se presenta una discusión sobre su eficacia y el problema de resistencia de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus a las LM. Se concluye que las LM por su alta liposolubilidad se distribuyen ampliamente en los tejidos, siendo eficaces para el control de R. (B. microplus en el ganado bovino. La eficacia de la ivermectina, doramectina, eprinomectina, abamectina y moxidectina de corta acción es similar (> 90% de eficacia a las cuatro semanas postratamiento, PT para el control de fases adultas de R. (B. microplus; sin embargo, existen en el mercado LM de larga acción que presentan eficacia > 95% con persistencia hasta 70 días PT.An overview of the macrocyclic lactones (ML, with recent results and their effect on the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is presented in this paper. This review describes in detail the chemistry, pharmacokinetics and dose presentation, security and time withdrawal and environmental safety of the groups belonging to ML: avermectins (ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, abamectin and milbemycin (moxidectin. There is also a discussion on their efficacy and the problem of resistance of R. (B. microplus to ML. Finally, it is concluded that due to their high lipid solubility ML are widely distributed in tissues, being effective in the control of R. (B. microplus in cattle. The efficacy of short-acting ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, abamectin and moxidectin are similar (> 90% effective after four weeks post treatment, PT to control adult stages of R. (B. microplus, however, in long-acting LM are available the market and present efficiency of > 95% with persistence up to 70 days PT.

  15. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expressão e caracterização da Bm86-CG em Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha; Renato Andreotti; Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite

    2011-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (GavacTM and TickGardPLUS) that have been developed against cattle ticks. The ...

  16. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Fernández José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega Abel; Padilla-Camberos Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not we...

  18. Vaccination with recombinant Boophilus annulatus Bm86 ortholog protein, Ba86, protects cattle against B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan Frans; Naranjo Victoria; Almazán Consuelo; Canales Mario; de la Fuente José

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The cattle ticks, Boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant B. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Recently, the gene coding for B. annulatus Bm86 ortholog, Ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast Pichia past...

  19. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Almazan, C.; Lagunes, R.; Villar, M.; Canales, M.; R Rosario-Cruz; Jongejan, F; de la Fuente, J.

    2009-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, ...

  20. Binding and storage of heme by vitellin from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logullo, C; Moraes, J; Dansa-Petretski, M; Vaz, I S; Masuda, A; Sorgine, M H F; Braz, G R; Masuda, H; Oliveira, P L

    2002-12-01

    We have previously shown (, Curr. Biol. 9, 703-706) that the cattle tick Boophilus microplus does not synthesize heme, relying solely on the recovery of the heme from the diet to make all its hemeproteins. Here we present evidence that Vitellin (VN(1)), the main tick yolk protein, is a reservoir of heme for embryo development. VN was isolated from eggs at different days throughout embryogenesis. Immediately after oviposition, Boophilus VN contains approximately one mol of heme/mol of protein. During embryo development about one third of egg VN is degraded. The remaining VN molecules bind part of the heme released. These results suggest that VN functions as a heme reservoir, binding any free heme that exceeds the amount needed for development. In vitro measurement of the binding of heme to VN showed that each VN molecule binds up to 31 heme molecules. The association of heme with VN strongly inhibits heme-induced lipid peroxidation, suggesting that binding of heme is an important antioxidant mechanism to protect embryo cells from oxidative damage. This mechanism allows this hematophagous arthropod to safely store heme obtained from a blood meal inside their eggs for future use. Taken together our data suggest that, besides its known roles, VN also plays additional functions as a heme deposit and an antioxidant protective molecule. PMID:12429132

  1. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

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    Valle Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Rmi a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crustaceans. Model arthropod genomes such as Drosophila and Anopheles are too taxonomically distant for a reference in tick genomic sequence analysis. This study focuses on the de-novo assembly of two R. microplus BAC sequences from the understudied R microplus genome. Based on available R. microplus sequenced resources and comparative analysis, tick genomic structure and functional predictions identify complex gene structures and genomic targets expressed during tick-cattle interaction. Results In our BAC analyses we have assembled, using the correct positioning of BAC end sequences and transcript sequences, two challenging genomic regions. Cot DNA fractions compared to the BAC sequences confirmed a highly repetitive BAC sequence BM-012-E08 and a low repetitive BAC sequence BM-005-G14 which was gene rich and contained short interspersed elements (SINEs. Based directly on the BAC and Cot data comparisons, the genome wide frequency of the SINE Ruka element was estimated. Using a conservative approach to the assembly of the highly repetitive BM-012-E08, the sequence was de-convoluted into three repeat units, each unit containing an 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA encoding gene sequence (rDNA, related internal transcribed spacer and complex intergenic region. In the low repetitive BM-005-G14, a novel gene complex was found between to 2 genes on the same strand. Nested in the second intron of a large 9 Kb papilin gene was a helicase gene. This helicase overlapped in two exonic regions with the papilin. Both these genes were shown expressed in different tick life stage important in ectoparasite interaction with the host. Tick specific sequence

  2. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Bahia state North-Central region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, José Tadeu; Silva, Aretha Alves Borges da; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Bahiense, Thiago Campanharo; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner

    2013-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B.) microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation. PMID:23538503

  3. [Prokaryotic expression of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus and optimization of the expression condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mi-Ling; Guan, Gui-Quan; Li, You-Quan; Liu, Ai-Hong; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Niu, Qing-Li; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun

    2009-12-01

    A pair of specific primers was designed based on the reported Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus,the Bm86 gene was cloned by PCR using the plasmid pMD18-T-Bm86 as templates, and subcloned into the prokaryotic plasmid pGEX-4T-1. The recombined plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) and followed by expression of the protein induced by different concentration of IPTG for different time. SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-1/Bm86 expressed a fusion protein Bm86-GST (Mr 94 000) after being induced with IPTG. High level expression of Bm86-GST was found at 1 mmol/L IPTG condition a fter incubation for 8 h at 37 degree C, and the expression level of the recombinant Bm86-GST reached up to 29% of total E coli proteins Western-blotting analysis showed that the recombinant Bm86-GST was recognized by the rabbit anti-B. microplus positive serum. PMID:20232640

  4. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements

  5. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cypermethrin, amitraz, and piperonyl butoxide mixtures for the control of resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Mexican tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Li, A Y; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martinez, I; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Miller, R J; Pérez de León, A A

    2013-10-18

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of cypermethrin, amitraz, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) mixtures, through in vitro laboratory bioassays and in vivo on-animal efficacy trials, for the control of resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on cattle in the Mexican tropics. Also, to examine mechanisms of resistance to cypermethrin in this tick population, the frequency of a mutated sodium channel gene (F1550I) was determined using a PCR assay. Results of laboratory bioassays using modified larval packet tests revealed that cypermethrin toxicity was synergized by PBO (from 46.6-57.0% to 83.7-85.0% larval mortality; Presistant tick larvae in vitro (96.7-100% of larval mortality). Tick larvae surviving exposure to cypermethrin or mixtures either with amitraz and PBO in vitro showed 2.9-49.6 higher probability to present the mutated allele than those killed by acaricide treatment (P95% control that persisted for 28 days post-treatment against R. microplus infesting cattle when tested under field conditions in the Mexican tropics. Although this mixture is a potentially useful tool to combat pyrethroid resistance, a product based on an acaricide mixture like the one tested in this study has to be used rationally. PMID:23948559

  6. Vaccination with recombinant Boophilus annulatus Bm86 ortholog protein, Ba86, protects cattle against B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongejan Frans

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle ticks, Boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant B. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Recently, the gene coding for B. annulatus Bm86 ortholog, Ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris. Results Recombinant Ba86 (Israel strain was used to immunize cattle to test its efficacy for the control of B. annulatus (Mercedes, Texas, USA strain and B. microplus (Susceptible, Mexico strain infestations. Bm86 (Gavac and Mozambique strain and adjuvant/saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vaccination with Ba86 reduced tick infestations (71% and 40%, weight (8% and 15%, oviposition (22% and 5% and egg fertility (25% and 50% for B. annulatus and B. microplus, respectively. The efficacy of both Ba86 and Bm86 was higher for B. annulatus than for B. microplus. The efficacy of Ba86 was higher for B. annulatus (83.0% than for B. microplus (71.5%. The efficacy of Bm86 (Gavac; 85.2% but not Bm86 (Mozambique strain; 70.4% was higher than that of Ba86 (71.5% on B. microplus. However, the efficacy of Bm86 (both Gavac and Mozambique strain; 99.6% was higher than that of Ba86 (83.0% on B. annulatus. Conclusion These experiments showed the efficacy of recombinant Ba86 for the control of B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations in cattle and suggested that physiological differences between B. microplus and B. annulatus and those encoded in the sequence of Bm86 orthologs may be responsible for the differences in susceptibility of these tick species to Bm86 vaccines.

  7. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Andreotti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to obtain an epidemiological view of acaricide resistance in populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Twenty-four tick samples were collected from municipalities in the State where farmers had reported concerns about resistance to or failure of tick control. These ticks were subjected to in vitro resistance detection assays using the adult immersion test (AIT. The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin and amitraz treatments on samples collected throughout the State was generally poor. AIT showed efficacy > 90% from the use of DDVP + chlorfenvinphos (20 out of 21 municipalities, dichlorvos + cypermethrin (10 out of 16 municipalities and cypermethrin + citronella + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide (20 out of 21 municipalities. PCR assays were used to detect the presence of pyrethroid resistance-associated sodium channel gene mutation. Larvae from three different populations that had previously been diagnosed as pyrethroid-resistant, through AIT, were evaluated. The PCR assays showed that the pyrethroid resistance-associated gene mutation was absent from these three populations. This study confirms that the emergence of resistance is a constant challenge for the livestock industry, and that development of resistance continues to be a major driver for new antiparasitic drugs to be developed.Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se obter uma visão epidemiológica da resistência aos acaricidas nas populações de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Vinte e quatro amostras de carrapatos foram coletadas em cidades do estado onde os fazendeiros relataram preocupação com resistência ou falha no controle dos carrapatos. Estes carrapatos foram submetidos a testes de detecção de resistência in vitro usando o teste de imersão de adultos (TIA. A eficácia do tratamento com alfa-cipermetrina, cipermetrina e amitraz foi geralmente pobre

  8. Borrelia theileri: observação em carrapatos do gênero Boophilus microplus no município de Guaíba, RS, Brasil Borrelia theileri: observation on Boophilus microplus ticks in Guaiba, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Martins

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Espiroquetas da espécie Borrelia theileri identificadas em uma estirpe de carrapatos Boophilus microplus provenientes do município de Guaíba, RS. A observação ocorreu no exame de hemolinfa de fêmeas adultas com 10 dias pós-repleçâo, corada por Giemsa. Não foram observadas espiroquetas em ovos provenientes de teleóginas infectadas. A detecção da estirpe infectada sugere a presença de borreliose em rebanhos bovinos, fato que eventualmente pode interferir em resultados de diagnóstico ou tornar-se motivo de preocupação em produtos derivados de sangue bovino tais como vacinas vivas contra anaplasmose e babesiose bovina.Spirochetes of species Borrelia theileri were identifica in afield-strain of the caule tick Boophilus microplus, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil. Hemolymph smears from females 10 days post-repletion were collected by gentty section of the tarsal-metatarsaijoint, and dropped onto a microscope slide, and stained by Giemsa. No spirochetes were observed in eggs squashed and stained by Giemsa from the same infected strain. The detection of B. microplus adult females infected with Borrelia theileri suggesfs the likely presence of borreliosis in bovine heras what might eventually interfere with the interpretation of diagnosis results or become cause for concern in blood products such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis live vaccines.

  9. The mitochondrial genome of a Texas outbreak strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, derived from whole genome sequencing Pacific Biosciences and Illumina reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCooke, John K; Guerrero, Felix D; Barrero, Roberto A; Black, Michael; Hunter, Adam; Bell, Callum; Schilkey, Faye; Miller, Robert J; Bellgard, Matthew I

    2015-10-15

    The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most significant medical veterinary pests in the world, vectoring several serious livestock diseases negatively impacting agricultural economies of tropical and subtropical countries around the world. In our study, we assembled the complete R. microplus mitochondrial genome from Illumina and Pac Bio sequencing reads obtained from the ongoing R. microplus (Deutsch strain from Texas, USA) genome sequencing project. We compared the Deutsch strain mitogenome to the mitogenome from a Brazilian R. microplus and from an Australian cattle tick that has recently been taxonomically designated as Rhipicephalus australis after previously being considered R. microplus. The sequence divergence of the Texas and Australia ticks is much higher than the divergence between the Texas and Brazil ticks. This is consistent with the idea that the Australian ticks are distinct from the R. microplus of the Americas.

  10. Transmisión de cepas atenuadas de babesia bigemina y babesia bovis por garrapatas rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo E. Rojas Ramírez; Juan J. Mosqueda Gualito; Jesús A. Álvarez Martínez; Rubén Hernández Ortíz; Juan A. Ramos Aragón; Carmen Rojas Martínez; Germinal J. Cantó Alarcón; Carlos A. Vega y Murguía; Julio V. Figueroa Millán

    2011-01-01

    Para evaluar la transmisión por garrapatas Rhipicephalus microplus (R. microplus) de una clona atenuada de Babesia bovis (BOR) y una cepa atenuada de Babesia bigemina (BIS), doce bovinos se dividieron en cuatro grupos e infestados de forma escalonada con larvas de R. microplus libres de Babesia spp. Un becerro de cada grupo se inoculó con 1x108 eritrocitos infectados (EI) con BIS, BOR, y cepas virulentas de B. bigemina y B. bovis, respectivamente. Se realizaron dos inoculaciones seriadas adic...

  11. Bmcystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor characterized from the tick Boophilus microplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a blood-sucking animal, which is responsible for Babesia spp and Anaplasma marginale transmission for cattle. From a B. microplus fat body cDNA library, 465 selected clones were sequenced randomly and resulted in 60 Contigs. An open reading frame (ORF) contains 98 amino acids named Bmcystatin, due to 70% amino acid identity to a classical type 1 cystatin from Ixodes scapularis tick (GenBank Accession No. DQ066227). The Bmcystatin amino acid sequence analysis showed two cysteine residues, theoretical pI of 5.92 and Mr of 11kDa. Bmcystatin gene was cloned in pET 26b vector and the protein expressed using bacteria Escherichia coli BL21 SI. Recombinant Bmcystatin (rBmcystatin) purified by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA-agarose column and ionic exchange chromatography on HiTrap Q column presented molecular mass of 11kDa, by SDS-PAGE and the N-terminal amino acid sequenced revealed unprocessed N-terminal containing part of pelB signal sequence. Purified rBmcystatin showed to be a C1 cysteine peptidase inhibitor with Ki value of 0.1 and 0.6nM for human cathepsin L and VTDCE (vitellin degrading cysteine endopeptidase), respectively. The rBmcystatin expression analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification of a specific DNA sequence (294bp) in the fat body and ovary cDNA preparation. On the other hand, a protein band was detected in the fat body, ovary, and the salivary gland extracts using anti-Bmcystatin antibody by Western blot. The present results suggest a possible role of Bmcystatin in the ovary, even though the gene was cloned from the fat body, which could be another site of this protein synthesis

  12. Variation among Bm86 sequences in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks collected from cattle across Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, S; Kaewmongkol, G; Inthong, N; Lakkitjaroen, N; Sirinarumitr, T; Berry, C M; Jonsson, N N; Stich, R W; Jittapalapong, S

    2015-06-01

    Anti-tick vaccines based on recombinant homologues Bm86 and Bm95 have become a more cost-effective and sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides commonly used to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. However, Bm86 polymorphism among geographically separate ticks is reportedly associated with reduced effectiveness of these vaccines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation of Bm86 among cattle ticks collected from Northern, Northeastern, Central and Southern areas across Thailand. Bm86 cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences representing 29 female tick midgut samples were 95.6-97.0 and 91.5-93.5 % identical to the nucleotide and amino acid reference sequences, respectively, of the Australian Yeerongpilly vaccine strain. Multiple sequence analyses of these Bm86 variants indicated geographical relationships and polymorphism among Thai cattle ticks. Two larger groups of cattle tick strains were discernable based on this phylogenetic analysis of Bm86, a Thai group and a Latin American group. Thai female and male cattle ticks (50 pairs) were also subjected to detailed morphological characterization to confirm their identity. The majority of female ticks had morphological features consistent with those described for R. (B.) microplus, whereas, curiously, the majority of male ticks were more consistent with the recently re-instated R. (B.) australis. A number of these ticks had features consistent with both species. Further investigations are warranted to test the efficacies of rBm86-based vaccines to homologous and heterologous challenge infestations with Thai tick strains and for in-depth study of the phylogeny of Thai cattle ticks. PMID:25777941

  13. Comportamento de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Boophilus microplus The drop-off behaviour of engorged females of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus

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    Paula Hocayen de Paula

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Boophilus microplus foi avaliada na Estação Experimental da Embrapa Gado de Leite, em Coronel Pacheco- MG, Brasil. O objetivo foi avaliar as vantagens da modificação do horário de ordenha dos bovinos, considerando a higienização do pasto, em relação ao carrapato. O experimento constou de uma fase de verão/outono e uma de inverno, para testar diferenças no ritmo de queda dos carrapatos entre as duas estações. Os resultados mostraram diferenças significativas entre as fases. No verão/outono, as fêmeas ingurgitadas apresentaram maior porcentagem de queda entre 7 e 10 horas (35,3% e no inverno entre 6 e 9 horas (19,69% e entre 14 e 17 horas (21,79%. A porcentagem de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas no período foi de 35,15% para o sistema de ordenha de 5-8h e 13-16h e de 45,48% para o sistema de ordenha de 8-11h e 16-19h, durante os meses de verão/outono. Nos meses de inverno, o porcentual de queda foi de 40,51% e de 32,71% para os dois horários de ordenha respectivamente. Considerando o tempo que os animais permanecem estabulados para a suplementação no cocho durante o período entre as ordenhas na época seca do ano na região (maio a setembro, a porcentagem de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas foi de 55,83% para o sistema de ordenha de 5 a 16h e de 52,36% para o sistema de ordenha de 8 a 19h.A description of the drop-off behaviour of engorged females of the tick Boophilus microplus was carried out as a result of an experiment at the Experimental Station, Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, MG, Brazil. Its objective was to evaluate any repercussions of changing the time of milking of cattle in terms of reduced recontamination of the pastures with the tick. Such possible changes in this daily cattle management routine have recently become a reality since the advent of refrigerated on-farm storage of the milk and non-daily collection by tanker truck. The field experiment

  14. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles Donald P; Ueti Massaro W; Bastos Reginaldo G; Scoles Glen A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifyin...

  15. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Erlinda; Suárez Marisela; Lleonart Ricardo; Méndez Luis; Rodríguez Elsa; Machado Héctor; Joglar Marisdania; Alfonso Aymé; Valdés Mario; Pérez Danny; Sánchez Dunia; Montero Carlos; Vargas Milagros; Estrada Mario P; Rodríguez-Mallón Alina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core el...

  16. Pharmacological characterization of a tyramine receptor from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R

    2015-08-01

    The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control methods include the use of chemical acaricides including amitraz, a formamidine insecticide, which is proposed to activate octopamine receptors. Previous studies have identified a putative octopamine receptor from the southern cattle tick in Australia and the Americas. Furthermore, this putative octopamine receptor could play a role in acaricide resistance to amitraz. Recently, sequence data indicated that this putative octopamine receptor is probably a type-1 tyramine receptor (TAR1). In this study, the putative TAR1 was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and the expressed receptor resulted in a 39-fold higher potency for tyramine compared to octopamine. Furthermore, the expressed receptor was strongly antagonized by yohimbine and cyproheptadine, and mildly antagonized by mianserin and phentolamine. Tolazoline and naphazoline had agonistic or modulatory activity against the expressed receptor, as did the amitraz metabolite, BTS-27271; however, this was only observed in the presence of tyramine. The southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor may serve as a target for the development of anti-parasitic compounds, in addition to being a likely target of formamidine insecticides. PMID:25958152

  17. Cross-resistance between fipronil and lindane in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Janer, E; Klafke, G M; Capurro, M L; Schumaker, T T S

    2015-05-30

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is one of the most damaging parasites of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. Several chemical groups have been used for its control, including cyclodienes (lindane and dieldrin). In Uruguay and Brazil these products were used at the beginning of the 1960s and during a few years. Fipronil and lindane act on the same target site. In both countries, southern cattle tick resistance to fipronil has sometimes developed quickly after only a few acaricide treatments (three to seven). The objective of the present study was to determine cross-resistance between fipronil and lindane in southern cattle ticks from Uruguay and Brazil. Initially, the FAO's (Food and Agricultural Organization) larval packet test with lindane was applied to a fipronil-resistant strain and to susceptible field populations. Mozo and POA strains were used as the susceptible controls. A larval immersion test was used to assess fipronil toxicity. Of fifteen fipronil-resistant field populations that were tested with lindane, eleven were lindane-resistant and three were susceptible. The last three populations had incipient resistance to fipronil. Finally, cross-resistance between fipronil and lindane in the southern cattle tick is reported in this study for the first time. PMID:25868846

  18. Seroepidemiological study of Babesia bovis in support of the Uruguayan Boophilus microplus control programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine blood samples were collected from a region endemic for Boophilus microplus and consisting of 125 ranches with a cattle population of 76,918. A total of 1,728 cattle were bled (1,485 adults and 243 calves less from 1 year of age) from 27 ranches. This sample size was determined to provide incidence and prevalence values with a precision of ±10% at a confidence level of 95%. The FAO/IAEA ELISA kit was used to detect antibody to Babesia bovis. Dispersion (proportion of ranches with babesia infection) was estimated to be 70.5% ± 8.8 (SD). A positive ranch was defined as having one or more test-positive animals. Apparent prevalence (proportion of cattle with a positive test result) within the region was estimated to be 3.5% ± 0.3, with a range from 0 to 18.5%. Incidence based on apparent prevalence in calves less than 1 year of age was estimated to be 2.8%. The dispersion, apparent prevalence, and incidence data for this region of Uruguay will be compared through a repeated sampling of cattle in this area during a three-year period to assess the effectiveness of the eradication/control campaign. (author)

  19. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Andreotti, Renato; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2011-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (Gavac(TM) and TickGard(PLUS)) that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG) was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks. PMID:21722483

  20. Vaccination of cattle against the Boophilus microplus using a mucin-like membrane glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, R V; Riding, G A; Jarmey, J M; Pearson, R D; Willadsen, P

    1998-07-01

    An antigen, BMA7, which induced partial immunity against tick infestation has been isolated from Boophilus microplus using two different protein fractionation protocols, accompanied by vaccination and parasite challenge trails. The antigen is a 63 kDa glycoprotein isolated from semi-engorged adult female ticks. Though significant, the induced immunity is less striking than that previously reported for antigen Bm86 from the same parasite. However, co-vaccination with Bm86 and BMA7 can enhance immunity over that seen with a commercial vaccine based on Bm86 alone. Limited peptide sequence information shows significant variation in the BMA7 protein occurs. The antigen has approximately 36 kDa of glycosylation, in both N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharides. There is evidence that both polypeptide and oligosaccharide are antigenic, but the chemical nature of the protective antigenic sites is not clear. There is little or no immunological response to the antigen during natural infestation with parasites, suggesting the antigen is 'concealed' and protective immunity dependent on artificial vaccination. The antigen has some similarities with the vertebrate mucins. It is widely distributed in tick tissues and membrane bound but its function is currently unknown. PMID:9717194

  1. Efficiency of sulphur in garlic extract and non-sulphur homeopathy in the control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L M; Furlong, J

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-sulphur-based homeopathic preparation and a sulphur-containing natural product derived from Allium sativum (Linnaeus) against infestation by the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). A total of 24 crossbred calves (7 : 8 Holstein : Zebu), aged 6-8 months and maintained in individual stables under tick-free conditions, were divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) received no treatment; Group 2 was treated with 0.01 g/day of the homeopathic preparation Fator C&MC(®), and Group 3 was treated with 20 g/day of Enxofre-Allium sativum(®). After adaptation to the diet for 1 month, each calf was subjected to artificial infestation with 8000 R. (B.) microplus larvae (aged 7-14 days) twice per week over a 5-month period. Numbers of engorged females were recorded every 14 days and samples of freely released engorged females were collected at 14-day intervals commencing 3 months after the start of the experiment. The engorged females were weighed, incubated for 15 days under biochemical oxygen demand conditions at 27 ± 1 °C and relative humidity >85%, and the weights of the egg masses produced were recorded. Other biological parameters, including reproduction estimate, reduction in oviposition and efficiency of treatment, were determined. A significant reduction in the number of engorged females was detected on animals treated with Enxofre-Allium sativum(®) (Group 3) in comparison with the other two groups. The overall efficiency of the treatment with the sulphur-containing product was 64%, whereas that of the homeopathic preparation was 26%. Under the experimental conditions established, Enxofre-Allium sativum(®) can reduce the intensity of the R. (B.) microplus infestation.

  2. Efficacy of amitraz (Taktic 12.5% EC) as a dip for the control of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J E; Davey, R B; Ahrens, E H; Pound, J M; Drummond, R O

    1998-12-01

    Four groups of cattle infested with Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were each dipped in a different concentration of amitraz diluted from a 12.5% EC formulation to determine the efficacy and performance of the product in an 11,400 l dipping vat. Except for the period when heifers were dipped, animals were restrained in stanchions placed individually inside 3.3 x 3.3 m2 stalls within an open-sided barn. The amitraz in the vat was stabilized with hydrated lime to maintain a pH of ca. 12. Analyses of vat samples showed that concentrations of amitraz in the vat were 7.6 to 13% lower than the targeted concentrations of 0.010, 0.015, 0.020, and 0.025% active ingredient (AI) for dilutions prepared according to instructions on the manufacturer's label. The large quantity of hydrated lime added to the vat (10 kg/1000 l) interfered with the HPLC analysis of vat samples. Therapeutic efficacy of each of the four observed concentrations (0.0088, 0.0131, 0.0174, and 0.0231% AI) of amitraz was excellent (> 99% control). However, the rapid detachment of all ticks from an animal within a few hours after treatment with amitraz, that has been frequently observed, was not pronounced in the present study. Only 47% of the B. microplus detached in the first 4 h post-treatment, and 84% detached within the first 24 h. All of the treatments, except the lowest concentration, provided protection of cattle against re-infestation by B. microplus larvae for 14 days post-treatment. Possibly as a result of the formation of a compact layer of lime and amitraz on the bottom after the vat was undisturbed for six weeks, intense agitation was required to re-suspend the active ingredient. PMID:9879580

  3. Determinação da CL90 e TL90 do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae para o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barci Leila A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade e a virulência do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana para larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O isolado IBCB66 foi utilizado como padrão, com a finalidade de determinar a CL50 (Concentração Letal, CL90, TL50 (Tempo Letal e TL90. O isolado IBCB66 foi testado em seis concentrações diferentes (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 e 10(9 para determinar a porcentagem de mortalidade. A mortalidade total de larvas foi observada 18 dias após o início do teste no grupo tratado com 5 × 10(9 conídios.mL-1. A análise de Probit dos dados consignados apontou a CL50 e CL90 concentrações de 3 × 10(7 e 5 × 10(8 conídios.mL-1 e para TL50 e TL90, foram 10 e 16 dias, respectivamente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B. microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 and 10(9 conidia.mL-1 to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5 × 10(9 conidia.mL-1. The LC50 and LC90 were 3 × 10(7 and 5 × 10(8 respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  4. Identificación de un polimorfismo del gen Est9 relacionado con resistencia a piretroides en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Edgar Diaz R.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Mediante procedimientos de PCR-RFLP, detectar un polimorfismo en el gen Est9 de garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides en Ibagué, Colombia, determinando el grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes. Materiales y métodos. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. (Boophilus microplus fenotípicamente susceptibles, resistentes o medianamente resistentes a piretroides en una prueba de Drummond modificada, fue amplificado por PCR con cebadores específicos para obtener un fragmento de 372 pb del gen Est9, que fue sometido a digestión con la enzima EcoRI para estudiar los RFLPs generados y poder diferenciar los respectivos genotipos. El grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes se determinó mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados. Luego de digerir el fragmento con la endonucleasa, se generaron dos segmentos en teleoginas con algún nivel de resistencia, mientras en las teleoginas susceptibles no hubo división del fragmento de 372 pb, demostrándose así la presencia de una mutación puntual y los genotipos homocigoto natural, homocigoto mutante y heterocigoto. Las diferencias altamente significativas (p<0.01 entre teleoginas susceptibles y aquellas con algún nivel de resistencia, mostraron una relación directa entre el genotipo y el fenotipo con un nivel de confianza de p=0.0009852. Conclusiones. Se comprobó, por primera vez en Colombia, la presencia de una mutación puntual en el gen Est9 de garrapatas R. (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides, sugiriendo la necesidad de realizar estudios para detectar alteraciones moleculares en otros genes relacionados con quimioresistencia.

  5. Suscetibilidade de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus a carrapaticidas em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to acaricides in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Alberto Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O carrapato bovino, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, destaca-se dentre os ectoparasitas de importância econômica à pecuária nacional, tornando-se necessária a adoção de medidas de controle, particularmente em rebanhos Bos taurus e seus cruzamentos. O controle do carrapato tem sido cada vez mais difícil devido à constatação de populações resistentes aos diversos produtos em uso. Neste estudo, teve-se por objetivo conhecer a suscetibilidade desse carrapato a acaricidas em Mato Grosso do Sul. De outubro de 2003 a outubro de 2006, testes carrapaticidogramas foram realizados em onze das principais regiões pecuárias do estado. Nos testes de suscetibilidade, foi utilizada a técnica de imersão de adultos, com posterior avaliação de parâmetros biológicos. Foram testados doze acaricidas comerciais, abrangendo sete princípios ativos (isoladamente ou em associação, pertencentes a três grupos químicos: amidinas (amitraz, piretróides sintéticos (cipermetrina e organofosforados (clorfenvinfós, clorpirifós, diazinon, diclorvós e etion. Baixa suscetibilidade foi detectada em todas as propriedades, evidenciando uma reduzida eficácia de todos os grupos químicos testados. Apesar da grande variação de suscetibilidade demonstrada pelas distintas populações a cada acaricida testado, foi possível observar um gradiente de eficácia desses produtos. Independente da classe, a eficácia média dos produtos com um único princípio ativo (19,94%-64,27% foi, de modo geral, menor que a das associações, tanto entre piretróide e organofosforados (46,38%-82,68%, como exclusivamente entre organofosforados (85,28%-97,68%. A associação contendo piretróide, organofosforados, sinergista e repelente (cipermetrina + clorpirifós + butóxido de piperonila + citronelal apresentou 100% de eficácia, embora testada em menor número de populações. Embora comparações com cepas suscetíveis não tenham sido efetuadas, a baixa suscetibilidade

  6. Partial sequencing of Bm86 gene for studying the phylogeny of an Indian isolate of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, P; Latha, B R; Dhinakar Raj, G; Sreekumar, C; Senthuran, S

    2014-09-01

    Tick gut glycoprotein, designated as Bm86, found on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells of Boophilus microplus, which is a concealed antigen, has been used as vaccine candidate molecule for immunization against ticks. To better understand the molecular diversity of Bm86 gene in ticks, a portion of the cDNA was sequenced from an Indian isolate of B. microplus. Comparison of nucleotide sequence revealed that Indian isolate had 97 % homology (18 polymorphisms) with that of the Australian isolate and 96 % homology (20 polymorphisms) with that of the Cuban vaccine strain. Further, the Indian isolate differed from the Cuban vaccine isolate at 7 amino acid loci, including 5 substitutions (at residues 88, 94, 175, 176 and 177) and 2 deletions (at 183 and 184). However, protein prediction studies did not show any difference in the putative antigenic epitopes of the protein expressed. PMID:25035581

  7. Efecto ixodicida de los extractos etanólicos de algunas plantas sobre garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela Rodríguez S.; Carlos Rodríguez M.; Anastasia Cruz C.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar in vitro, el efecto ixodicida del extracto etanólico de cinco plantas; Brugmasia arborea, Sambucus nigra, Nicotiana tabacum, Bidens pilosa y Ambrosia cumanenses sobre garrapatas adultas de la especie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Materiales y métodos. El extracto de cada planta fue obtenido mediante la técnica de lixiviación. Para las pruebas, se utilizaron garrapatas adultas de dos tamaños (pequeñas y medianas), que fueron expuestas a los extractos de cada planta, ut...

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Flores-Fernández José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus.

  9. Esterase profile in a pyrethroid-resistant Brazilian strain of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae

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    Milla Alves Baffi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Boophilus microplus causes great damage in livestock and is considered one of the most important tropical ectoparasites. The traditional method of control is based on the intensive use of pesticides, however the indiscriminate use of these compounds over the years has led to the selection of resistant ticks. Hydrolases, particularly esterases (EST, have been reported to be associated with acaricide resistance in B. microplus. We compared the esterase profile of susceptible and cypermethrin-resistant strains of adult B. microplus and a pyrethroid susceptible reference strain (the Mozzo strain using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and specific staining. The electrophoretic profiles of protein extracts revealed the presence of four regions with esterase activity in the cypermethrin-resistant strain and three of these regions in the susceptible strains. The bands were numbered EST-1 to EST-4 in sequence (starting from the anode according to their decrease in negative charge. The EST-1A and EST-1B enzymes were detected only in the resistant strain. The inhibition studies with eserine sulfate, copper sulfate, p- p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB, malathion and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF indicated that the EST-1A and EST-1B enzymes belong to the acetylcholinesterase class and are probably associated with resistance to acaricides in this Brazilian resistant strain of B. microplus.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR) gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus. PMID:25174962

  11. Discovery, adaptation and transcriptional activity of two tick promoters: Construction of a dual luciferase reporter system for optimization of RNA interference in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dual luciferase reporter systems are valuable tools for functional genomic studies, but have not previously been developed for use in tick cell culture. We evaluated expression of available luciferase constructs in tick cell cultures derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, an important vec...

  12. Efficiency of tick biotherapic on the control of infestation by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Dutch dairy cows.

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    Cesar Alberto Coutinho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus poses serious problems for farmers in Brazil, especially because the parasite easily develops resistance to pesticide agents. For this reason, together with other factors including environmental, human and animal contamination and costs, alternative approaches have been sought for. Aims: this study sough to evaluate the efficiency of a tick biotherapic on tick-infested cows. Methods: 34 dairy Dutch cows were divided in 2 groups: one group received 100g/day of mineral salt supplement impregnated with tick biotherapic 12cH for 6 months, and then in alternate days with tick biotherapic 30cH to complete 28 months of treatment; the other group (control received only the mineral salt supplement. After 28 months of treatment, engorged Rhipicephalus (boophilus microplus females were collected in both groups, counted and weighed; in vitro tests were carried out to assess mass of ticks; egg mass; egg-hatching rate; and reproductive efficiency. Results: There was significant difference between both groups for all parameters evaluated; tick-mass (p = 0.0008; egg mass (p=0.0044; egg-hatching rate (p= 0.0017; and reproductive efficiency (p = 0.0044. Conclusion: treatment with tick biotherapic significantly decreased the mass of engorged females, deposition and hatching rate of eggs, resulting consequently in the decrease of the reproductive efficiency of ticks.

  13. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabrício Amadori; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Ferreira, Maiara Sanitá Tafner; Gregorio, Fabiano de Vargas; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acaricide resistance of tick populations in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), which has not previously been reported. Fifty-four cattle farms were visited and specimens of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were collected and subjected to the adult immersion test, using nine commercial acaricides in the amidine, pyrethroid and organophosphate groups. Climatic data, including monthly precipitation, were recorded. The results from the present study demonstrated that seven of the acaricides analyzed presented mean efficacy values of less than 95%, with large differences among the products tested. Nine of them exhibited satisfactory and unsatisfactory acaricide results on at least one farm. In conclusion, the farms located in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, exhibited populations of R. (Boophilus) microplus with variable degrees of susceptibility to different acaricides, thus suggesting that resistance to the active compounds exists. It is suggested that treatment protocols should be implemented at the beginning of winter and summer, using the acaricides that showed efficacy in the adult immersion test. PMID:25271453

  14. Molecular characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 homologue from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min; Zhou, Jinlin; Hatta, Takeshi; Umemiya, Rika; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Xuan, Xuenan; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2007-05-15

    One sequence in the EST database of a midgut cDNA library prepared from semi-engorged female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks has been found to be a homologue of the Bm86 gene of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. The full-length sequence containing a 1785 bp open reading fragment (ORF) was obtained and designated as the Hl86 gene. The predicted amino acid sequence of the Hl86 gene shows a 37% identity to the Bm86 gene. Hl86 is predicted to be a GPI-anchored membrane-bound glycoprotein with a 19-amino acid signal sequence and a 22-amino acid hydrophobic region adjacent to the carboxyl terminus. The most important feature that Hl86 has in common with Bm86 is the repeated pattern of 6 cysteine residues forming epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. RT-PCR analysis showed that Hl86 mRNA transcripts are expressed in all the life cycles of H. longicornis, and the expression was found in the midgut of the adult tick. The Hl86 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a gene10 fusion protein. Mouse anti-recombinant Hl86 serum recognized an 86 kDa protein band in the midgut lysate of semi-engorged ticks in Western blot analysis and showed a strong reaction on the luminal surface of midgut cells in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Silencing of the Hl86 gene by RNAi led to a significant reduction in the engorged tick body weight. This is the first report of cloning and characterization of the Bm86 homologue in different genera and species of ixodid and argasid ticks since Bm86 was first reported in 1989. PMID:17363170

  15. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to ivermectin (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg) in field studies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Ruivo, Maycon Araújo; Colli, Marcos Henrique Alcantara; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro Massamitsu; da Costa, Alvimar José; De Oliveira, Gilson Pereira

    2015-01-30

    The present study aimed to determine the susceptibility of 17 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations, originating in the Southeast and Southern regions of Brazil, to different ivermectin concentrations (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg), administered through subcutaneous or topical (pour-on) routes. R. (B.) microplus populations from the states of Minas Gerais (seven populations), São Paulo (seven populations) and Paraná (three populations) were chosen for the tests. The selected cattle were allocated to treatment groups on day 0, and block formation was based on the arithmetic mean of female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm long) counted on three consecutive days (-3, -2 and -1). To evaluate the therapeutic and residual efficacies of these formulations, tick counts (females ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 mm long) were performed on days 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, and continued on a weekly basis thereafter until the end of each experiment. The results obtained throughout this study, utilizing field efficacy studies, allowed us to conclude that the resistance of R. (B.) microplus against 200 and 500 μg/kg ivermectin is widely disseminated because all tick populations that had contact with these specific concentrations were diagnosed as resistant. However, it is possible to infer that R. (B.) microplus resistance against 630 μg/kg ivermectin was also widespread, diagnosed at six of ten analyzed properties. Resistance of these ectoparasites to 630 μg/kg ivermectin is most likely emerging in three other populations of R. (B.) microplus. Strategies of resistance management need to be quickly determined to keep the selection pressure at a minimum level in Brazil. PMID:25576441

  16. Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas (Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus by zymograms analysis.

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    Miranda, Miranda, Estefan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida-SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y susceptibilidad a productos acaricidas. Los ensayos que se diseñaron para detectar las enzimas esterasa, fosfodiesterasa, glutatión peroxidasa y catalasa, fueron procesados como zimogramas en imágenes digitalizadas, a partir de las cuales se obtuvieron sus respectivos densitogramas, valorando las movilidades electroforéticas relativas (Rf, así como las diferentes masas moleculares (MM en miles de Daltons (kDa y actividades enzimáticas específicas (AEE. Se identificó una elevada actividad de esterasa en posición Rf 0.52 con una MM de 47 kDa en las cepas resistentes, con un incremento en AEE del 317 % cuando se compara con las garrapatas susceptibles a los acaricidas. También se identificó una fosfodiesterasa en Rf. 0.1 con MM de 130 kDa presente en las cepas resistentes, con un incremento de AEE del 340% con respecto al nivel basal de la cepa susceptible. Se concluyó que estos ensayos enzimáticos pueden ser utilizados como indicadores de resistencia a los acaricidas en poblaciones de garrapatas aisladas de campo, constituyendo un procedimiento rápido, eficaz y económico, como alternativa al complicado bioensayo actualmente utilizado. Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, is achieved by a complex bioassay which requires reference strains of ticks as well as field isolated ticks, cultured on living cattle restrained for weeks. In order to assess an alternate diagnostics procedure, enzymatic assays were performed on

  17. Primer caso de resistencia al amitraz en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus en México

    OpenAIRE

    Noé Soberanes Céspedes; Minerva Santamaría Vargas; Hugo Fragoso Sánchez; Zeferino García Vázquez

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue documentar el primer caso de la resistencia de la garrapata B. microplus al Amitraz, en México. Se obtuvo una muestra de garrapatas B. microplus del municipio de Emiliano Zapata, Tabasco, con reportes de fallas de control con este acaricida. La cepa de garrapatas fue denominada “San Alfonso” y se utilizaron larvas (F1) provenientes de la generación parental de hembras repletas, éstas se probaron con dosis discriminate de Amitraz 0.0002 %, (Taktic®) en formulaci...

  18. Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

    2012-05-14

    The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. PMID:22446633

  19. Integrated control of Boophilus microplus ticks in Cuba based on vaccination with the anti-tick vaccine Gavac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Manuel Rodriguez; Mèndez, Luis; Valdez, Mario; Redondo, Miguel; Espinosa, Carlos Montero; Vargas, Milagro; Cruz, Ricardo Lleonart; Barrios, Humberto Perez; Seoane, Guillermo; Ramirez, Emerio Serrano; Boue, Oscar; Vigil, Jorge Lodos; Machado, Héctor; Nordelo, Carlos Borroto; Piñeiro, Marisdania Joglar

    2004-01-01

    Boophilus microplus has developed resistance against a range of chemical acaricides which has stimulated the development of alternative methods such as vaccination against ticks. In Cuba, the Bm86-based recombinant vaccine Gavac has been successfully used in a number of controlled laboratory and field trials in cattle against B. microplus. In this paper, we have evaluated Gavac in a large scale field trial wherein 588,573 dairy cattle were vaccinated with the aim to reduce the number of acaricidal treatments. It was found that the number of acaricidal treatments could be reduced by 87% over a period of 8 years (1995--2003). Prior to the introduction of the vaccine, 54 clinical cases of babesiosis and six fatal cases were reported per 1000 animals. Six years later, the incidence of babesiosis was reduced to 1.9 cases per 1000 cattle and mortality reduced to 0.18 per 1000. The national consumption of acaricides in Cuba could be reduced by 82% after the implementation of the integrated anti-B. microplus control program. PMID:15651533

  20. Transmissão transovariana de Babesia bovis em Boophilus microplus: obtenção de cepa de carrapato livre de Babesia spp. Babesia bovis transovarian transmission in Boophilus microplus: obtention of a Babesia free tick strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Bettin dos Santos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou o estudo de parte do ciclo da Babesia bovis no seu hospedeiro invertebrado, o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Analisou-se a capacidade de infeccção e transmissão transovariana de B. bovis em partenóginas de B. microplus, alimentadas em bovinos portadores e enfermos por esse protozoário. No 18º dia após a infestação, coletaram-se partenóginas diretamente do corpo dos bovinos e teleóginas após o desprendimento natural, a partir do 21º dia. Todos os grupos foram incubados a 27ºC e umidade relativa superior a 70%. No 5º dia após o início da postura, realizou-se o exame de hemolinfa a fim de diagnosticar a infecção dos ínstares por B. bovis. A ausência de infecção detectada no exame de hemolinfa foi confirmada posteriormente com o teste biológico, revelando que partenóginas não transmitem B. bovis transovarianamente. Esses resultados oferecem uma técnica simplificada para a obtenção de cepas de carrapatos livres de B. bovis.In this experiment part of the life cycle of Babesia bovis in its invertebrate host, the tick Boophilus microplus was studied. In order to evaluate the capacity of infection and transmission of B. bovis were collected semi-engorged females of B. microplus fed on carrier and ill bovines. In the 18th day after infestation, semi-engorged females were collected directly from bovine bodies and after 21st day engorged females dropped on the ground. All the collected groups were incubated at 27°C and relative humidity greater than 70%. At the 5th day of oviposition the diagnosis was made by direct examination of haemolymph smears. The biological test reveled that B. bovis transovarial transmission doesn't happer in semi-engorged females. The results offer a simple techique to obtain strains of ticks free of B. bovis.

  1. Perspectives for the use of plant extracts to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Perspectivas para o uso de extratos de plantas para o controle do carrapato de bovinos Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Miranda Ferreira Borges

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to synthetic acaricides has given rise to the need for new scientific investigations on alternative ways to control this tick. In this regard, various studies on plants have been developed in an attempt to find extracts with acaricidal properties. Evaluations on plant extracts for controlling R. (B. microplus have grown intensely over the last decade. There are many advantages from using plant extracts: for example, they can be used in organic cattle farming or even replace synthetic acaricides and they are associated with lower environmental and food contamination, slower development of resistance and lower toxicity to animals and humans. In vitro studies on plant extracts have shown promising results, but most of these extracts have not been tested on animals to validate their use. Difficulties in preparing proper formulations, differences in the chemical composition of plants of the same species due to extrinsic and intrinsic factors and sparse information on active acaricide compounds are hindrances that need to be addressed in order to enable progress within this scientific field.A evolução da resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas sintéticos tem impulsionado novas investigações científicas sobre métodos alternativos para controlar este carrapato. Considerando isso, vários estudos com plantas têm sido desenvolvidos numa tentativa de encontrar extratos com propriedades acaricidas. Avalições de extratos de plantas para o controle de R. (B. microplus tem sido intensificadas nesta última década. Existem muitas vantagens com o uso de extratos de plantas no controle deste carrapato, como: eles podem ser utilizados na produção orgânica de bovinos, ou mesmo substituir os acaricidas sintéticos, além do mais, estão associados com baixa contaminação ambiental e dos alimentos, desenvolvimento mais lento de resistência e baixa toxicidade

  2. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; Lagunes, Rodolfo; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2010-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, we describe the analysis of R. microplus glutathione-S transferase, ubiquitin (UBQ), selenoprotein W, elongation factor-1 alpha, and subolesin (SUB) complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by RNA interference (RNAi) in R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus. Candidate protective antigens were selected for vaccination experiments based on the effect of gene knockdown on tick mortality, feeding, and fertility. Two cDNA clones encoding for UBQ and SUB were used for cattle vaccination and infestation with R. microplus and R. annulatus. Control groups were immunized with recombinant Bm86 or adjuvant/saline. The highest vaccine efficacy for the control of tick infestations was obtained for Bm86. Although with low immunogenic response, the results with the SUB vaccine encourage further investigations on the use of recombinant subolesin alone or in combination with other antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. The UBQ peptide showed low immunogenicity, and the results of the vaccination trial were inconclusive to assess the protective efficacy of this antigen. These experiments showed that RNAi could be used for the selection of candidate tick-protective antigens. However, vaccination trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of recombinant antigens in the control of tick infestations, a process that requires efficient recombinant protein production and formulation systems. PMID:19943063

  3. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  4. [Morphologic characterization and biological aspects of evolutive forms of Babesia bigemina (Smith and Kilborne, 1893) (Protozoa: Babesiidae) in Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Jairo D; Rossi, Maria Inês D; da Silva, Gil Vicente O; Pires, Fabiano A; Massard, Carlos L

    2005-01-01

    The development of Babesia bigemina in Boophilus microplus were studied in experimental conditions, using crossed-breed bovine from free-area of these parasites. Stages of the hemoparasites were observed in the tick vector, starting from the infected red-blood cells observed in the gut of engorged females, from the first 24 hours after detachment to the emergence of sporokinets in the larvas. In the period from 24 to 48 hours after detachment of the engorged females (DEF), the presence of some infected red-blood cells was verified, beside the occurrence of ray bodies and of vermiculars forms, known as oocynets. Since 72 hours after the DEF, the of okinets presence was observed in the cytoplasm of the epithelium cells besides of great sporokinets number in development. At same period, the presence of sporokinets of B. bigemina in the hemolymph samples was observed inside the hemocytes. After the fourth day of incubation beside the presence of the sporokinets was also verified in the Malpighi's tubes and ovaries. As well as in the ticks eggs from the sporokinets were also observed ticks eggs from the fourty day after the natural detachment of the engorged females of the host. PMID:16153336

  5. Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas (Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus by zymograms analysis).

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Miranda, Estefan; Osorio, Miranda Jorge; Cossío, Bayúgar, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida-SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y suscep...

  6. Gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick Boophilus microplus by RNA interference

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, A. M.; Taoufik, A.; de la Fuente, M.R.; Kocan, K M; de Vries, E; Jongejan, F

    2007-01-01

    The use of RNA interference (RNAi) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of RNAi to the one-host tick, Boophilus microplus, has not been reported. We evaluated the application of RNAi in B. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin. Gene-specific double-stranded (dsRNA) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing w...

  7. Use of biodegradable PLGA microspheres as a slow release delivery system for the Boophilus microplus synthetic vaccine SBm7462.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Junior, P A; Guzman, F; Vargas, M I; Sossai, S; Patarroyo V, A M; González, C Z L; Patarroyo, J H

    2005-09-15

    The synthetic anti-Boophilus microplus vaccine SBm7462 derived from the tick intestinal protein, Bm86, induced a protective immune response when emulsified in saponin and used in cattle. Using a mice model, and with the objective of improving the vaccine by continual peptide release, it was encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 microspheres and inoculated in BALB/c mice to assess the immunological response by detection of anti-peptide IgGs. Comparative studies were made with the peptide emulsified in saponin and with another synthetic vaccine, and the microsphere/peptide was characterized for efficiency of encapsulation, in vitro release profile, morphology, size, peptide integrity after encapsulation and stability in different pHs. The findings showed that saponin enhances a better immune response from SBm7462 and that the PLGA 50:50 microspheres are suitable for use with this peptide. PMID:16002149

  8. Comparative vaccination of cattle against Boophilus microplus with recombinant antigen Bm86 alone or in combination with recombinant Bm91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willadsen, P; Smith, D; Cobon, G; McKenna, R V

    1996-05-01

    Cattle were vaccinated either with a single recombinant tick antigen, Bm86 or with a combination of two recombinant antigens, Bm86 and Bm91 from the tick Boophilus microplus. In three experiments, the responses of cattle to subsequent challenge with the tick were assessed. The addition of the Bm91 antigen enhanced the efficacy of the vaccination over that with Bm86 alone to a statistically significant degree. Moreover, co-vaccination with two antigens did not impair the response of cattle to the Bm86 antigen. Finally, responses of individual cattle to the two antigens were independent. All of these results may be relevant to the increase in efficacy expected from a dual antigen vaccine. PMID:9229376

  9. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae as a parasite of pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus and cattle in Brazil's Central Pantanal Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus como parasita de veado-campeiro (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus e do gado bovino no Pantanal Central do Brasil

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    Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Pantanal, domestic and wild animals share the same habitats; their parasites and environment interact in a complex and dynamic way. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most important cattle tick in Brazil. In the past two decades, some traditional management practices are being replaced with the aim of intensifying cattle production. Forested areas are being replaced by exotic pasture and ranch owners are replacing Nelore for European breeds. The pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus is a medium-sized cervid that occurs in grasslands of South America. Between December 2005 and January 2007, we captured and collected ticks from 15 pampas deer and 172 bovines. The abundance, intensity, and prevalence of ticks found in cattle were lower than those in pampas deer (p No Pantanal Brasileiro, onde animais domésticos e selvagens compartilham os mesmos habitats; hospedeiros, parasitas e ambientes encontram-se em interação complexa e dinâmica. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é o carrapato bovino mais importante no Brasil. Nas últimas duas décadas práticas de manejo vem sendo substituídas com objetivo de aumentar a produtividade. Áreas de florestas estão sendo substituídas por pastagens exóticas e os produtores começam a utilizar raças européias no lugar do Nelore. O veado-campeiro é um cervídeo que ocorre em áreas de campo na América do sul. Entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2007, foram coletados carrapatos de 20 veados-campeiros e 172 bovinos. Os valores de abundância, intensidade parasitária e prevalência de carrapatos no gado foram menores que os valores encontrados no veado-campeiro (p < 0,05, indicando que o veado-campeiro é mais susceptível que o bovino. O elevado número de fêmeas ingurgitadas coletadas, sua capacidade de ovipor e o percentual de eclosão indicam que a população veado-campeiro na região de estudo é suficiente para manter o R. (B. microplus, desta maneira participando na

  10. Acaricide activity of leaves extracts of Sambucus australis Schltdl. (Caprifoliaceae at 2% on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Felipe da Silva Krawczak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite infections caused by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus are responsible for the most of economic losses in producing-cattle countries in tropical and subtropical areas. Indiscriminate uses of chemical acaricides have contributed with the appearance of tick resistance to many drugs available in the marketplace, and it is a serious problem in the tick control. Flowers of Sambucus australis (South America, called "sabugueiro-from-Brazil", are used on infusions or decoctions forms in the folk medicine with diuretic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and laxative purpose, also employed for treating respiratory diseases in human. The main goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro potential of S. australis leaves extracts as an acaricide agent. Ethanol extract at 70% has been dehydrated and a fraction was suspended in 70% ethanol or in distillated water at final concentration of 2% (0.2mg-1. Using the immersion test of engorged females the efficiency results were obtained in 34% and 66% with the leaves extract diluted in water and 70% ethanol, respectively. This study is the first report on acaricidal activity of S. australis against cattle tick. Further studies to determine the active metabolites in different stages of S. australis could aid to identify suitable extracts to be tested in the R. (B. microplus control.

  11. Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Bandyopadhyay, A; Julliet, Sanis; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95% ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95% ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50% mortality of treated ticks. The 95% ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC90 values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3%, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner. PMID:25717008

  12. Immune response in mice and cattle after immunization with a Boophilus microplus DNA vaccine containing bm86 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lina María; Orduz, Sergio; López, Elkin D; Guzmán, Fanny; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Armengol, Gemma

    2007-03-15

    Plasmid pBMC2 encoding antigen Bm86 from a Colombian strain of cattle tick Boophilus microplus, was used for DNA-mediated immunization of BALB/c mice, employing doses of 10 and 50microg, delivered by intradermic and intramuscular routes. Anti-Bm86 antibody levels were significantly higher compared to control mice treated with PBS. In the evaluation of immunoglobulin isotypes, significant levels of IgG2a and IgG2b were observed in mice immunized with 50microg of pBMC2. Measurement of interleukine (IL) levels (IL-4, IL-5, IL-12(p40)) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the sera of mice immunized with pBMC2 indicated high levels of IL-4 and IL-5, although there were also significant levels of IFN-gamma. Mice immunized with pBMC2 showed antigen-specific stimulation of splenocytes according to the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and IFN-gamma secretion. In all trials, mice injected intramuscularly with 50microg of pBMC2 presented the highest immune response. Moreover, cattle immunized with this DNA vaccine showed antibody production significantly different to the negative control. In conclusion, these results suggest the potential of DNA immunization with pBMC2 to induce humoral and cellular immune responses against B. microplus. PMID:17055651

  13. Expression of recombinant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. annulatus and R. decoloratus Bm86 orthologs as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris

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    Jongejan Frans

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in Africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The R. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant DNA technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Results In this study, the genes for Bm86 (R. microplus, Ba86 (R. annulatus and Bd86 (R. decoloratus were cloned and characterized from African or Asian tick strains and the recombinant proteins were secreted and purified from P. pastoris. The secretion of recombinant Bm86 ortholog proteins in P. pastoris allowed for a simple purification process rendering a final product with high recovery (35–42% and purity (80–85% and likely to result in a more reproducible conformation closely resembling the native protein. Rabbit immunization experiments with recombinant proteins showed immune cross-reactivity between Bm86 ortholog proteins. Conclusion These experiments support the development and testing of vaccines containing recombinant Bm86, Ba86 and Bd86 secreted in P. pastoris for the control of tick infestations in Africa.

  14. Sequence variations in the Boophilus microplus Bm86 locus and implications for immunoprotection in cattle vaccinated with this antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, J C; Gonzalez, I L; González, D M; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; Lamberti, J; D'Agostino, B; Citroni, D; Fragoso, H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-11-01

    Cattle tick infestations constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful, hampered by the selection of chemical-resistant tick populations. The Boophilus microplus Bm86 protein was isolated from tick gut epithelial cells and shown to induce a protective response against tick infestations in vaccinated cattle. Vaccine preparations including the recombinant Bm86 are used to control cattle tick infestations in the field as an alternative measure to reduce the losses produced by this ectoparasite. The principle for the immunological control of tick infestations relies on a polyclonal antibody response against the target antigen and, therefore, should be difficult to select for tick-resistant populations. However, sequence variations in the Bm86 locus, among other factors, could affect the effectiveness of Bm86-containing vaccines. In the present study we have addressed this issue, employing data obtained with B. microplus strains from Australia, Mexico, Cuba, Argentina and Venezuela. The results showed a tendency in the inverse correlation between the efficacy of the vaccination with Bm86 and the sequence variations in the Bm86 locus (R2 = 0.7). The mutation fixation index in the Bm86 locus was calculated and shown to be between 0.02 and 0.1 amino acids per year. Possible implications of these findings for the immunoprotection of cattle against tick infestations employing the Bm86 antigen are discussed. PMID:10668863

  15. Integrated control of acaricide-resistant Boophilus microplus populations on grazing cattle in Mexico using vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, M; Fragoso, H; Ortíz, M; Montero, C; Lona, J; Medellín, J A; Fría, R; Hernández, V; Franco, R; Machado, H; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-10-01

    Throughout most of the twentieth century, tick infestations on cattle have been controlled with chemical acaricides, typically administered by dipping or spraying. This approach can cause environmental and residue problems and has created a high incidence of acaricide resistance within tick populations in the field. Recently we developed a vaccine against Boophilus microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac), (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) which has been shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals. Here we show for the first time under field conditions a near 100% control of B. microplus populations resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates, by an integrated system employing vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments. This method effectively controls tick infestations while reducing the number of chemical acaricide treatments and consequently the rise of B. microplus populations resistant to chemical acaricides. PMID:10581714

  16. Resistance to cypermethrin and amitraz in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus on the Santa Catarina Plateau, Brazil Situação da resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus à cipermetrina e amitraz no Planalto Catarinense, Brasil

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    Luana Paula Haubold Neis Veiga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus resistance to cipermetrina and amitraz, were collected engorged tick females from cattle on 20 farms on the Santa Catarina Plateau, in southern Brazil, between January of 2004 and May of 2006. Were also received 20 groups of engorged R. (B. microplus females, collected by cattle farmers requesting acaricidal efficacy (AE testing. Were performed in vitro tests, which consisted of immersing engorged females in cypermethrin (0.015% and in amitraz (0.025%. An AE >95% was considered indicative of effectiveness. Of the 20 collected groups, 18 (90% showed cypermethrin resistance and 1 (5% showed amitraz resistance. Of the 20 received groups, 19 (95% showed cypermethrin resistance and 2 (10% showed amitraz resistance. The AE of cypermethrin was found to be >95%, 85-94%, and 55-64%, respectively, in 4 (57.1%, 2 (28.6%, and 1 (14.3% of 7 reference groups, collected in the 1997-2001 period. The AE of amitraz was >95% in all of those groups. Among the groups of specimens received for analysis in that period, the AE of amitraz was >95% in 6 (85.71% and 75-84% in 1 (14.28%. R. (B. microplus resistance to acaricides is increasing on the Santa Catarina Plateau.Com os objetivos de avaliar a resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus à cipermetrina e ao amitraz no Planalto Catarinense, no período de janeiro de 2004 a maio de 2006, foram coletadas teleóginas em bovinos de 20 propriedades onde os produtores autorizaram a coleta (amostras por conveniência e recebidas teleóginas de mais 20 propriedades com objetivo de diagnóstico de eficácia. Os testes in vitro foram realizados por imersão de teleóginas em cipermetrina (0,015% e amitraz (0,025%. Considerando a eficácia igual ou superior a 95%, das 20 propriedades amostradas, 18 (90% apresentaram resistência à cipermetrina e uma (5% ao amitraz. Das 20 propriedades com teleóginas para diagnóstico, 19 (95% apresentaram resist

  17. Use of biotherapic in the control of the natural infestation by Boophilus microplus: pilot study Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen; José Luiz Moletta; Nilceu Lemos Silva; Alessandro Pelegrine Minho

    2008-01-01

    In the control of tick-borne disease (TBD), resistance to chemical products has been reported and a concern with the preservation of the environment requires alternative procedures to control infestation by Boophilus microplus worldwide. The use of biotherapic preparations is one of such alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a biotherapic mixture including B. microplus in naturally infested cattle. 27 animals were divided in 3 groups (n=9): I – control, re...

  18. Gene expression in the skin of Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle infested with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Emily K; Jackson, Louise A; Bagnall, Neil H; Kongsuwan, Kritaya K; Lew, Ala E; Jonsson, Nicholas N

    2008-11-15

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (formerly Boophilus microplus) is responsible for severe production losses to the cattle industry worldwide. It has long been known that different breeds of cattle can resist tick infestation to varying degrees; however, the mechanisms by which resistant cattle prevent heavy infestation are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether gene expression varied significantly between skin sampling sites (neck, chest and tail region), and whether changes in gene expression could be detected in samples taken at tick attachment sites (tick attached to skin sample) compared with samples taken from non-attachment sites (no tick attachment). We present here the results of an experiment examining the expression of a panel of forty-four genes in skin sections taken from Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle of known high resistance, and Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian) cattle of known low resistance to the cattle tick. The forty-four genes chosen for this study included genes known to be involved in several immune processes, some structural genes, and some genes previously suggested to be of importance in tick resistance by other researchers. The expression of fifteen gene transcripts increased significantly in Holstein-Friesian skin samples at tick attachment sites. The higher expression of many genes involved in innate inflammatory processes in the Holstein-Friesian animals at tick attachment sites suggests this breed is exhibiting a non-directed pathological response to infestation. Of the forty-four genes analysed, no transcripts were detected in higher abundance at tick attachment sites in the Brahman cattle compared with similar samples from the Holstein-Friesian group, nor difference between attachment site and non-attachment site samples within the Brahman group. The results presented here suggest that the means by which these two cattle breeds respond to tick infestation differ and warrant further investigation. PMID

  19. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project first submission of genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence difficult. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used to reduce the repetitive fraction of the tick genome and enrich for the fraction of DNA with gene-containing regions. The Cot-selected ...

  20. CattleTickBase: An integrated Internet-based bioinformatics resource for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rhipicephalus microplus genome is large and complex in structure, making a genome sequence difficult to assemble and costly to resource the required bioinformatics. In light of this, a consortium of international collaborators was formed to pool resources to begin sequencing this genome. We have...

  1. Diagnosis of amitraz resistance in Brazilian populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) with larval immersion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Elisa Cimitan; Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Sato, Mário Eidi

    2013-11-01

    Among the ectoparasites of cattle, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae) remains a major cause of economic losses to livestock. The chemical control with acaricides is still the most efficient method available to control ticks. The aims of this study were to diagnose resistance to amitraz in 16 tick populations from the States of São Paulo (14) and Paraná (2), using the larval immersion technique (LIT), and evaluate the effect of synergists [piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM), triphenyl phosphate (TPP)] on amitraz resistant and susceptible strains of cattle tick. Most of the evaluated populations (68.7 %) showed to be resistant to amitraz, with resistance ratios ranging from 2.14 to 132. The results suggest that the test procedure by LIT is sensitive and adequate for detection and monitoring of amitraz resistance in cattle tick. No synergistic effect was observed for the synergists PBO, DEM and TPP, on the amitraz resistant (Poa) strain of cattle tick, indicating that increased detoxification metabolism was not involved in this resistance. PMID:23620418

  2. IN VITRO EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL ACARICIDES INDICATE RESISTANT POPULATIONS OF RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS IN NORTHERN REGION OF MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eckstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are responsible for high economic and production losses on cattle production, and the use of acaricides is the main form of control applied. In recent decades, the resistance of ticks to acaricides was exacerbated by incorrect use of products, compromising the effectiveness of treatments. This study aimed to determine in vitro effectiveness of commercial acaricides in six populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in northern region of Mato Grosso. On average 100 engorged females were collected from each herd, which were selected and separated into homogeneous groups, sanitized, and immersed to acaricide diluted according to the manufacturer's statement, on sequence there was incubated. After the incubation was obtained from female reproductive efficiency and effectiveness of the tested acaricides. The association cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos + citronellal showed satisfactory efficiency (> 95% in all the properties (mean 99.86% in properties, followed by trichlorfon (83.45%, amitraz (72.33%, neem oil (67.23% and cypermethrin (22.97%, which was not effective in any property. It indicates the use of the association cypermethrin +chlorpyrifos+ citronellal on evaluated properties for control of cattle tick effectively.

  3. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

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    Craik Charles S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

  4. Acaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae) against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Prerna, Mranalini; Singh, Harkirat; Dumka, V K; Sharma, S K

    2016-06-01

    Resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against synthetic pyrethroids was assessed by larval packet test which revealed level I and II resistance against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test was employed to study the acaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo (sheesham) against these ticks. Mortality and fecundity of ticks exposed to sheesham leaf aqueous (SLA) and ethanolic (SLE) extracts were evaluated at concentrations of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% and controls (distilled water and 10% ethanol). Higher acaricidal activity was recorded in SLA with a lower LC50 (95% CL) value of 1.58% (0.92-2.71%) than SLE [5.25% (4.91-5.63%)]. A significant decrease in egg mass weight and reproductive index was recorded in treated ticks along with an increase in percent inhibition of oviposition. A complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with higher concentrations of SLA, whereas, SLE exhibited no effect on hatching percentage. PMID:27234528

  5. Control of Boophilus microplus ticks in cattle calves by immunization with a recombinant Bm86 glucoprotein antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf-Allah, S S

    1999-06-01

    Forty Egyptian native cattle calves of 4-6 months old randomly allocated into two groups of twenty animals each were used to assess the effect of immunization of animals with a recombinant Bm86 antigen derived from Boophilus microplus ticks on induction of immunity that could protect calves during tick season. The immunization protocol involved two injections administered intramuscularly, the first was applied with complete Freund's adjuvant and the second was given with incomplete Freund's adjuvant two months later. Control calves were given saline plus adjuvant. Immunization reduced the number of adult ticks developing from a subsequent challenge infestation by 78% in immunized calves. Vaccination also, significantly reduced the weight of adult ticks in immunized calves (30.51%). The results of skin delayed hypersensitivity reaction revealed that the diameter of sites injected with the recombinant Bm86 antigen was significantly larger in immunized calves than those in controls. Analysis of the immune response indicated that there was a significant increase in the level of IgG and IgA antibodies in serum of immunized calves and protection from reinfestation was correlated with the levels of circulating antibodies. PMID:10422372

  6. Field studies and cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination with Gavac against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Montero, C; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enriquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R; de Armas, C A; Rey, S; Rodríguez, J L; Artiles, M; García, L

    1998-02-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remains a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. These vaccines have been shown to control tick infestations in the field. However, extensive field studies investigating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of vaccination have not been reported and are needed to appraise the effect of this new approach for tick control. Here is reported the results of the application of Gavac in a field trial including more than 260,000 animals in Cuba. In this study the correlation between the antibody response to vaccination and the effect on ticks fertility is determined. Physiological status of the animals was found to affect the primary response to vaccination but not the antibody titers after revaccination. A cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of $23.4 animal-1 year-1. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for tick control. PMID:9607057

  7. Simulation of control strategies for the cattle tick Boophilus microplus employing vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarta, V; Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M; Lleonart, R; Luaces, L L; de la Fuente, J

    1996-05-01

    Current strategies for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus include the use of chemicals as the principal control method. These methods, however, have met with partially successful results. The recent development of immunological methods for the control of the cattle tick has opened new possibilities for the design of control strategies. Employing the results obtained by us in experiments testing the effect of vaccination with the recombinant vaccine, Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.), on tick populations, we have developed a model to evaluate, through a computer program, the efficacy of the vaccine as a control method. The action of the vaccine on the control of tick populations was simulated and the specific serum antibody titers required to decrease the tick population in the field were calculated. The specific serum antibody titer required to decrease the tick population in the field after the first vaccination scheme was found to be > or = 57,200 and the antibody titer required to maintain this effect when the vaccine is already acting and after successive revaccinations was found to be > or = 27,500. Considerations about revaccination schemes and combination between vaccination and acaricide treatments as possible control strategies are discussed. PMID:8792587

  8. Abordagem sobre o controle do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Studies of the management of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina B. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul a infestação dos bovinos por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ocorre, principalmente, entre os meses de outubro e abril, devido às condições climáticas. Além do conhecimento do ciclo biológico desse parasito, também é fundamental conhecer a epidemiologia, para estabelecer estratégias de controle. No Rio Grande do Sul, e também no Brasil, existem poucos estudos epidemiológicos a respeito da resistência aos acaricidas. Além disso, a grande área geográfica e a deficiência estrutural quanto ao uso e acesso a bancos de dados dificultam a obtenção de dados confiáveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar um inquérito abordando a percepção dos produtores da região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, quanto à identificação de populações de R. (B. microplus difíceis de controlar com acaricidas e os fatores de risco para a seleção de populações de carrapatos resistentes. Para execução do trabalho foram coletados dados sobre o controle do carrapato de bovinos de corte, em 85 propriedades de sete municípios, localizados na região sul do Estado. Os resultados revelaram a existência de associação positiva entre a dificuldade de controlar o carrapato com os acaricidas e o grau de instrução do proprietário (até o ensino fundamental com OR=3,67 e p=0,01 e o número de aplicação de carrapaticida por ano (superior a 4 com OR=4,05 e p=0,006. Esses resultados indicam também que propriedades com mais de 100 bovinos de corte em criação extensiva, na região sul do rio Grande do Sul apresentam características que podem contribuir para uma maior vida útil dos carrapaticidas do que as verificadas em outras regiões do País.In the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, cattle become infested with Rhipicephalus (B. microplus mainly between October and April due to the climatic conditions. In addition to knowing its life cycle, knowledge of parasite's epidemiology is essential to

  9. Synthetic vaccine (SBm7462) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: preservation of immunogenic determinants in different strains from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peconick, A P; Sossai, S; Girão, F A; Rodrigues, M Q R B; Souza E Silva, C H; Guzman Q, F; Patarroyo V, A M; Vargas, M I; Patarroyo, J H

    2008-05-01

    The synthetic vaccine SBm7462 is based on three immunogenic epitopes (4822, 4823 and 4824) contained within protein Bm86 derived from the Australian Yeerongpilly strain of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Twenty strains of the tick originating from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Uruguay were analysed in order to identify differences compared with sequences present in components of vaccine SBm7462. For each parasite population, three cDNA fragments containing the nucleotides coding for the epitopes 4822, 4824 and 4823 were sequenced, and the amino acid sequences were deduced and compared with those of the homologous bm86 gene. The results indicate that the epitope sequences of vaccine SBm7462 are conserved in the South American populations of the tick. The conservation of such sequences is very important for the immunological response of different populations of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:18226809

  10. Detección inmunoquímica de esterasas en dos cepas de la garrapata boophilus microplus (acarii: ixodidae) resistentes a ixodicidas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Rosario Cruz; Zeferino García Vázquez; John George Edward

    2000-01-01

    Se encontró una esterasa en Boophilus microplus con actividad incrementada, en dos cepas de garrapatas resistentes a acaricidas de la familia de los piretroides y organofosforados, que fue detectada después de ser separadas electroforéticamente. La proteína fue separada y utilizada en la preparación de un anticuerpo policlonal monoespecífico. La especificidad de este anticuerpo fue probada mediante un ensayo de inmunoelectrotransferencia, en extractos totales de dos cepas de garrapatas resist...

  11. Boophilus microplus: ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS Y MOLECULARES DE LA RESISTENCIA A LOS ACARICIDAS Y SU IMPACTO EN LA SALUD ANIMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Inés Domínguez-García; Rodrigo Rosario-Cruz; Consuelo Almazán-García; Jorge Alberto Saltijeral Oaxaca; José de la Fuente

    2010-01-01

    La aplicación de ixodicidas durante mucho tiempo ha sido la alternativa de elección para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, sin embargo, actualmente el uso de los ixodicidas tiene una eficacia limitada en la reducción de las infestaciones debido al desarrollo de poblaciones de garrapatas resistes. La resistencia a ixodicidas es un problema creciente que necesita ser atendido, por que en este momento está afectando la competitividad de la ganadería y la economía de miles de produc...

  12. Utilización del Boophilus microplus como remedio isopático en el control del ectoparásito en el Municipio de Aguazul (Casanare)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Niño Murcia; Edwin Gustavo Morales Arguello

    2005-01-01

    En este estudio se demostró la efectividad de un remedio isopático vía oral, para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, inocuo para los animales, medio ambiente y el hombre, evitando residuos de plaguicidas en el producto final. La investigación se realizó en una finca ubicada en el municipio de Aguazul (Casanare); localizada a los 05°10’23’’ de latitud norte y 72°33’17’’ de longitud oeste desde Greenwich, altitud: 300 msnm, temperatura media: 27ÚC. Precipitación anual media: 2.441 ...

  13. Persistencia de la eficacia de dos lactonas macrocíclicas contra infestaciones naturales de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en bovinos del trópico mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie de Jesús Arieta-Román; Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; José Alberto Rosado- Aguilara; Genny Trinidad Ramírez-Cruz; Gertrudis Basto-Estrella

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó la persistencia de la eficacia de ivermectina-3.15% (IVM-3.15%) y moxidectina-10% (MOX-10%) contra infestaciones naturales de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en bovinos del trópico mexicano. Para ello se utilizaron 33 bovinos hembras que fueron distribuidos en tres grupos (n=11) recibiendo los siguientes tratamientos: a) IVM-3.15% (0.63 mg/kg de peso vivo por vía subcutánea; b) MOX-10% (1 mg/kg de peso vivo por vía subcutánea); c) grupo testigo. El número de garrapatas adultas f...

  14. Efficacy of fipronil (1.0 mg/kg) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strains resistant to ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Gomes, Lucas V Costa; Favero, Flávia; Soares, Vando Edésio; Bichuette, Murilo A; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil (1 mg/kg) against three strains of ivermectin-resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (R. (B.) microplus), naturally infesting cattle from different states of Brazil. Three rural properties with a history of macrocyclic lactones ineffectiveness against the cattle tick, and low frequency use of fipronil in the herd, were selected for the study. The animals were randomized according to the mean tick counts, performed on days -3, -2 and -1, into three groups with 10 animals each: T01, control (saline solution); T02, subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg) and T03, topical fipronil (1 mg/kg). Treatment was performed on day 0. Counts of partially engorged female ticks were performed on days 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment (DPT), and then every 7 days until the 49th DPT. In all three experiments, it was possible to diagnose resistance of R. (B.) microplus to ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). The maximum efficacy (arithmetic mean) obtained for ivermectin was 64% in experiment II. On the other hand, the formulation containing fipronil (1 mg/kg) reached high efficacy values (≥97%) in all three experiments. The results from all experiments in this study demonstrate the high efficacy of 1mg/kg fipronil, administered pour-on in naturally infested cattle, against strains of R. (B.) microplus that are resistant to 630 mcg/kg ivermectin. PMID:24853051

  15. Control of ticks resistant to immunization with Bm86 in cattle vaccinated with the recombinant antigen Bm95 isolated from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, J C; Montero, C; Redondo, M; Vargas, M; Canales, M; Boue, O; Rodríguez, M; Joglar, M; Machado, H; González, I L; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; de la Fuente, J

    2000-04-28

    The recombinant Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac(TM) against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus has proved its efficacy in a number of experiments, especially when combined with acaricides in an integrated manner. However, tick isolates such as the Argentinean strain A, show low susceptibility to this vaccine. In this paper we report on the isolation of the Bm95 gene from the B. microplus strain A, which was cloned and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris producing a glycosylated and particulated recombinant protein. This new antigen was effective against different tick strains in a pen trial, including the B. microplus strain A, resistant to vaccination with Bm86. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions, lowering the number of ticks on vaccinated animals and, therefore, reducing the frequency of acaricide treatments. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen to protect cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. PMID:10717348

  16. Evolutionary conserved microRNAs are ubiquitously expressed compared to tick-specific miRNAs in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Tateno Yoshio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes modulating a large diversity of biological processes. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new opportunities to understand the biology of a number of species. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, causes significant economic losses in cattle production worldwide and this drives us to further understand their biology so that effective control measures can be developed. To be able to provide new insights into the biology of cattle ticks and to expand the repertoire of tick miRNAs we utilized Illumina technology to sequence the small RNA transcriptomes derived from various life stages and selected organs of R. microplus. Results To discover and profile cattle tick miRNAs we employed two complementary approaches, one aiming to find evolutionary conserved miRNAs and another focused on the discovery of novel cattle-tick specific miRNAs. We found 51 evolutionary conserved R. microplus miRNA loci, with 36 of these previously found in the tick Ixodes scapularis. The majority of the R. microplus miRNAs are perfectly conserved throughout evolution with 11, 5 and 15 of these conserved since the Nephrozoan (640 MYA, Protostomian (620MYA and Arthropoda (540 MYA ancestor, respectively. We then employed a de novo computational screening for novel tick miRNAs using the draft genome of I. scapularis and genomic contigs of R. microplus as templates. This identified 36 novel R. microplus miRNA loci of which 12 were conserved in I. scapularis. Overall we found 87 R. microplus miRNA loci, of these 15 showed the expression of both miRNA and miRNA* sequences. R. microplus miRNAs showed a variety of expression profiles, with the evolutionary-conserved miRNAs mainly expressed in all life stages at various levels, while the expression of novel tick-specific miRNAs was mostly limited to particular life stages and/or tick organs. Conclusions

  17. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus embryogenesis and starvation larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.G. de; Mentizingen, L.G.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab.de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, C.P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Daffre, S.; Esteves, E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is considered a key rate controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis pathway. Gluconeogenesis is a highly regulated process, catalyzed by several enzymes subject to regulation by insulin. Normally, insulin rapidly and substantially inhibits PEPCK gene transcription and the PEPCK activity is proportional to the rate of gene transcription. The transcriptional regulation of the PEPCK gene has been extensively studied. CREM is the transcription factor that bind efficiently to the putative cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in PEPCK gene. Several other transcription factors can bind to this element and activate transcription. In oviparous animals, such as bovine tick R. microplus, the embryonic development occurs outside the maternal organism, implying that all the nutrients necessary for embryogenesis must be present in the oocytes. We observed the relationship between the main energy sources and the morphogenetic changes that occur during R. microplus tick embryogenesis. Energy homeostasis is maintained by glycogen mobilization in the beginning of embryogenesis, as its content is drastically decreased during the first five days of development. Afterwards, the activity of the gluconeogenesis enzyme PEPCK increases enormously, as indicated by a concomitant increase in glucose content (Moraes et al., 2007). Here, we analyzed PEPCK gene transcription by qPCR during the embryogenesis and starvation larvae. The PEPCK transcription was higher at first and 15th day eggs of the development. In larvae the levels of PEPCK transcripts is increased at fifth day after hatch. However, the activity is continuous increased in larvae the form first up to 15th day. Now we are investigating the involvement of CREM in the PEPCK gene transcription in these cells. In this sense, we obtained CREM sequence from TIGR ESTs R. microplus bank and designed the specific primers to qPCR. Taken together our results suggest the involvement of PEPCK to the

  18. Perceptions of milk producers from Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, regarding Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control Percepção dos produtores de leite de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Semi-systematized interviews were conducted with 100 dairy cattle producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, with the aim of ascertaining their perceptions regarding the importance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and of combating it. Content analysis was performed and the frequency distribution of each of the variables was used to construct profiles of the producers interviewed. The production losses caused by ticks were perceived incompletely by the producers, who were unaware of the pathogen transmission caused by the parasite and the indirect losses through combating it, such as the cost of acaricide and labor. The combat operations were performed in a traditional manner, with an excessive number of inefficient treatments that aimed to control the level of infestation at that moment. The quality of the acaricide dipping/spraying applied was affected by the quality of the equipment used to apply the products, lack of knowledge of the mode of action of these products, lack of the specific information needed and lack of motivation caused by unawareness of the disadvantages of chemical combat. It was concluded that the lack of knowledge about combat methods and the acceptance of endemicity of the parasitosis were impediments to changing the realities encountered.Entrevistas semissistematizadas foram aplicadas a 100 produtores de bovinos leiteiros do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de verificar a sua percepção sobre a importância de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus e seu combate. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" e a distribuição de frequência de cada uma das variáveis para a construção de perfis dos produtores entrevistados. Os prejuízos causados à produção pelo carrapato são percebidos de forma incompleta pelos produtores, que ignoram a transmissão de patógenos pelo parasito e as perdas indiretas pelo combate, como o custo do carrapaticida e da mão de obra. O combate era feito

  19. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick in vitro feeding methods for functional (dsRNA) and vaccine candidate (antibody) screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-Tabor, Ala E; Bruyeres, Anthea G; Zhang, Bing; Rodriguez Valle, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks cause economic losses for cattle industries throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world estimated at $US2.5 billion annually. Lack of access to efficacious long-lasting vaccination regimes and increases in tick acaricide resistance have led to the investigation of targets for the development of novel tick vaccines and treatments. In vitro tick feeding has been used for many tick species to study the effect of new acaricides on the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. Few studies have reported the use of in vitro feeding for functional genomic studies using RNA interference and/or the effect of specific anti-tick antibodies. In particular, in vitro feeding reports for the cattle tick are limited due to its relatively short hypostome. Previously published methods were further modified to broaden optimal tick sizes/weights, feeding sources including bovine and ovine serum, optimisation of commercially available blood anti-coagulant tubes, and IgG concentrations for effective antibody delivery. Ticks are fed overnight and monitored for ∼5-6 weeks to determine egg output and success of larval emergence using a humidified incubator. Lithium-heparin blood tubes provided the most reliable anti-coagulant for bovine blood feeding compared with commercial citrated (CPDA) and EDTA tubes. Although >30mg semi-engorged ticks fed more reliably, ticks as small as 15mg also fed to repletion to lay viable eggs. Ticks which gained less than ∼10mg during in vitro feeding typically did not lay eggs. One mg/ml IgG from Bm86-vaccinated cattle produced a potent anti-tick effect in vitro (83% efficacy) similar to that observed in vivo. Alternatively, feeding of dsRNA targeting Bm86 did not demonstrate anti-tick effects (11% efficacy) compared with the potent effects of ubiquitin dsRNA. This study optimises R. microplus tick in vitro feeding methods which support the development of cattle tick vaccines and

  20. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

    2014-01-01

    Detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Moga, Punjab (India) was carried out using larval packet test. Results indicated the presence of resistance of level I and III against cypermethrin (resistance factors (RF) = 4.67) and deltamethrin (RF = 34.2), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo, and Withania somnifera along with roots of V. negundo against the SP resistant engorged females of R. (B.) microplus. The efficacy of various extracts was assessed by estimation of percent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), percent inhibition of oviposition (%IO), and hatching rate. A concentration dependent increase in tick mortality was recorded which was more marked with various ethanolic extracts, and highest mortality was recorded in ticks treated with ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus. The LC50 values were determined by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality for various aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Acaricidal property was recorded to be higher in ethanolic extracts, and high activity was found with the ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus with LC50 (95% CL) values of 0.46% (0.35-0.59%), followed by W. somnifera as 5.21% (4.45-6.09%) and V. negundo as 7.02% (4.58-10.74%). The egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the various extract was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the RI and the %IO value of the treated ticks were reduced. Further, complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo and aqueous extracts of leaves of W. somnifera. The results of the current study indicate that extracts of C

  1. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick.

  2. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India

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    K. P. Shyma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT and Larval Packet Test (LPT were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5 has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25. Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks.

  3. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer; Patel, K K

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and Larval Packet Test (LPT) were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5) has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25). Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks. PMID:26788362

  4. Efecto ixodicida de los extractos etanólicos de algunas plantas sobre garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ángela Rodríguez S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar in vitro, el efecto ixodicida del extracto etanólico de cinco plantas; Brugmasia arborea, Sambucus nigra, Nicotiana tabacum, Bidens pilosa y Ambrosia cumanenses sobre garrapatas adultas de la especie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Materiales y métodos. El extracto de cada planta fue obtenido mediante la técnica de lixiviación. Para las pruebas, se utilizaron garrapatas adultas de dos tamaños (pequeñas y medianas, que fueron expuestas a los extractos de cada planta, utilizando la técnica de inmersión de garrapatas adultas. A las 24 h de exposición, se realizó la lectura de mortalidad, donde se tomó como mínimo eficaz una mortalidad del 60%. Las pruebas iniciales se realizaron con extractos puros y cuando éstos mostraban eficacia se procedía a realizar diluciones crecientes, hasta encontrar la concentración mínima eficaz. Estas pruebas fueron realizadas en clima frio y cálido. Resultados. El extracto de N. tabacum, mostró efectividad en garrapata pequeña, hasta las diluciones 0.5:10 y 1:10 en clima frio y cálido, respectivamente y con 2.5:10 y 5:10 sobre garrapata mediana en clima frio y cálido, respectivamente; B. arbórea, mostró eficacia sobre garrapata pequeña hasta la dilución 7.5:10 en ambos climas; S. nigra y B. pilosa solo fueron eficaces en clima cálido sobre garrapatas pequeñas empleando extracto puro. A. cumanenses no fue eficaz en ninguna de las pruebas. Conclusiones. N. tabacum, mostró mayor eficacia y se observó que los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con las mayores concentraciones.

  5. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first Chelicerata pyrokinin receptor from a worldwide tick vector of zoonotic pathogens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We identified the first pyrokinin receptor (Rhimi-PK-R) from the Chelicerata and analyzed structure-activity relationships of cognate ligand neuropeptides and their analogs. This receptor, which we cloned from larvae of the tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), is the ortholog of the inse...

  6. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks and determination of the expression profile of Bm86

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    Jongejan Frans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. In most studies on ticks where (semi-quantitative RT-PCR is employed, normalization occurs with a single reference gene, usually β-actin, without validation of its presumed expression stability. The first goal of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. To demonstrate the usefulness of these results, an unresolved issue in tick vaccine development was examined. Commercial vaccines against R. microplus were developed based on the recombinant antigen Bm86, but despite a high degree of sequence homology, these vaccines are not effective against R. appendiculatus. In fact, Bm86-based vaccines give better protection against some tick species with lower Bm86 sequence homology. One possible explanation is the variation in Bm86 expression levels between R. microplus and R. appendiculatus. The most stable reference genes were therefore used for normalization of the Bm86 expression profile in all life stages of both species to examine whether antigen abundance plays a role in Bm86 vaccine susceptibility. Results The transcription levels of nine potential reference genes: β-actin (ACTB, β-tubulin (BTUB, elongation factor 1α (ELF1A, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, H3 histone family 3A (H3F3A, cyclophilin (PPIA, ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4 and TATA box binding protein (TBP were measured in all life stages of R. microplus and R. appendiculatus. ELF1A was found to be the most stable expressed gene in both species following analysis by both geNorm and Normfinder software applications, GST showed the least stability. The expression profile of Bm86 in R. appendiculatus and R. microplus revealed a more continuous Bm86 antigen abundance in R

  7. PI3K/PKB signaling in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryo cell line BME26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, L.; Fabres, A.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP)]. E-mail: leoabreu@uenf.br; Esteves, E.; Daffre, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropods and important vectors of both human and animal diseases. In order to study the insulin triggered pathway and its possible roles during embryogenesis we are using a culture of embryonic Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus cells (BME26). Besides its metabolic role, insulin signaling pathway (ISP) is widely described as crucial for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis and development. In such cascade Phosphatidylinositol 3-OH Kinase (PI3K) is hierarchically located upstream Protein Kinase B (PKB). Exogenous insulin is able to increase the expression level of PI3K's regulatory sub unity (p85), as determined by Real Time RT-PCR. In the presence of PI3K inhibitors (Wortmannin or LY294002) these effects were reversed. This correlates well with the activation of PKB by phosphorylation, as it appears to be PI3K-dependent. Additionally, PI3K inhibition increased the expression level of two insulin-regulated downstream targets from glycogen metabolism (GSK3b) and gluneogenesis (PEPCK) pathways. GSK3b inhibition by phosphorylation diminished in cells treated with PI3K inhibitors. These results strongly suggest the presence of an insulin sensitive PI3K-PKB axis in BME26 cells. The further study of PI3K and PKB activity in egg homogenates during embryogenesis may help us to understand the role of ISP for R. micro plus development.

  8. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus from Bahia state North-Central region Eficiência de acaricidas sobreRhipicephalus (Boophilus microplusna região Centro-Norte, Bahia

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    José Tadeu Raynal

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B. microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas na pecuária brasileira, principalmente devido à redução no desempenho produtivo dos animais. A resistência do parasita a diferentes classes de acaricidas tem sido amplamente relatada, bem como os problemas de ocorrência de resíduos desses compostos em produtos de origem animal e no ambiente. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diversos acaricidas sobre populações de R. (B. microplus provenientes de propriedades rurais da Região Centro-Norte do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Teleóginas ingurgitadas foram colhidas em diferentes propriedades da região e submetidas a ensaio in vitro de eficiência de acaricidas, baseado na

  9. Conditions for stable parapatric coexistence between Boophilus decoloratus and B. microplus ticks: a simulation study using the competitive Lotka-Volterra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Petr; Lynen, Godelieve

    2010-12-01

    The autochthonous tick Boophilus decoloratus, and the invasive species Bo. microplus, the tick most threatening the livestock industry in Africa, show complex interactions in their interspecific rivalry. This study was conducted to specify the conditions under which the two competitors can co-exist in equilibrium, and to provide insight into their climate-dependant parapatric distribution in Tanzania. A model of the Lotka-Volterra type was used, taking into account population dispersal and interactions of various kinds. If the model allowed for immunity-mediated competition on cattle, reproductive interference, and an external mortality factor, it explained fairly well the field observation that the borderline between these ticks loosely follows the 22-23°C isotherm and the 58 mm isohyet (i.e. ~700 mm of annual rainfall total). Simulations fully compatible with the pattern of real co-existing populations of Bo. decoloratus and Bo. microplus, characterized by a pronounced population density trough and mutual exclusion of the two ticks on cattle in an intermediary zone between their distributional ranges, were, however, achieved only if the model also implemented a hypothetical factor responsible for some mortality upon encounter of one tick with the other, interpretable as an interaction through a shared pathogen(s). This study also demonstrated the importance of non-cattle hosts, enabling the autochthon to avoid competition with Bo. microplus, for the behaviour of the modelled system. The simulations indicate that a substantial reduction of wildlife habitats and consequently of Bo. decoloratus refugia, may accelerate the replacement of Bo. decoloratus with Bo. microplus much faster than climatic changes might do.

  10. Use of biotherapic in the control of the natural infestation by Boophilus microplus: pilot study Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

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    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the control of tick-borne disease (TBD, resistance to chemical products has been reported and a concern with the preservation of the environment requires alternative procedures to control infestation by Boophilus microplus worldwide. The use of biotherapic preparations is one of such alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a biotherapic mixture including B. microplus in naturally infested cattle. 27 animals were divided in 3 groups (n=9: I – control, received no treatment; II- treated with amitraz dip; III- treated with a standard commercial mixture of biotherapic 12cH, p.o. Group III presented a statistically significant decrease of ticks when compared to the control group (p Keywords: Biotherapic; Tick; Alternative control; Cattle.   Uso do bioterapico no controle da infestação natural por Boophilus microplus: estudo piloto Resumo No controle de enfermidades transmitidas por carrapatos tem sido notada a resistência a produtos químicos. A preocupação com a conservação do meio ambiente tem exigido procedimentos alternativos para controlar a infestação por Boophilus microplus, em todo o mundo. O uso de bioterápicos representa uma dessas alternativas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de uma mistura de bioterápicos incluindo B. microplus, em gado bovino infestado naturalmente. 27 animais foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=9: I controle sem tratamento; II tratado com banho de amitraz; III tratado com mistura comercial de bioterápicos 12 cH, via oral. O grupo III apresentou uma diminuição estatísticamente significativa de carrapatos, em comparação com grupo controle (p Palavras-chave: Bioterapicos; Carrapato; Controles alternativos; Bovinos.   Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

  11. Survey of acaricides resistance status of Rhipiciphalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from selected places of Bihar, an eastern state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Kumar, Rinesh; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Srivastava, Aman; Kumar, Suman; Ajith Kumar, K G; Saravanan, B C

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring acaricide resistance in field ticks and use of suitable managemental practices are essential for controlling tick populations infesting animals. In the present study, the acaricide resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks infesting cattle and buffaloes of five districts located in the eastern Indian state, Bihar were characterized using three data sets (AIT, Biochemical assays and gene sequences). Adult immersion test (AIT) was adopted using seven field isolates and their resistance factor (RF) was determined. Six isolates (DNP, MUZ, BEG, VSH, DRB and SUL) were found resistant to both deltamethrin and diazinon and except VSH all were resistant to cypermethrin. One isolate (PTN) was susceptible with a RF below 1.5. To understand the possible mode of resistance development, targeted enzymes and gene sequences of the para sodium channel and achetylcholinesterase 2 (AChE2) were analyzed. The esterase, monooxygenase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity of reference susceptible IVRI-I line was determined as 2.47 ± 0.007 nmol/min/mg protein, 0.089 ± 0.0016 nmol/mg of protein and 0.0439 ± 0.0003 nmol/mg/min respectively, which increased significantly in the resistant field isolates. However, except esterases, the fold increase of monooxygenase (1.14-2.27 times) and GST (0.82-1.53 times) activities were not very high. A cytosine (C) to adenine (A) nucleotide substitution (CTC to ATC) at position 190 in domain II S4-5 linker region was detected only in one isolate (SUL) having RF of 34.9 and in the reference deltamethrin resistant line (IVRI-IV). However, the T2134A mutation was not detected in domain IIIS6 transmembrane segment of resistant isolates and also in reference IVRI-IV line despite of varying degree of resistance. The flumethrin specific G215T and the recently identified T170C mutations were also absent in domain II sequences under study. Four novel amino acid substitutions in AChE2 gene of field isolates and in

  12. Infestación natural de hembras de Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) en dos genotipos de bovinos en el trópico húmedo de Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Alonso Díaz; Barud Josué López Silva; Ana Carolina Leme de Magalhães Labarthe; Roger Iván Rodríguez Vivas

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la dinámica poblacional anual de Boophilus microplus en dos genotipos de ganado bovino. El estudio se realizó en Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz, México (región trópico húmeda). Se utilizaron 20 toretes de diez meses de edad y 185 kg de peso, infestados naturalmente con garrapatas B. microplus. Se formaron dos grupos de diez animales cada uno, según el genotipo (¾ Bos taurus [½ Holstein, ¼ Simmental, ¼ Cebú] y ½ Bos taurus [½ Holstein, ½ Cebú]). ...

  13. INCIDENCE OF Boophilus microplus AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN CROSSBRED STEERS FED OF SUNFLOWER INCIDÊNCIA DE Boophilus microplus E AVALIAÇÃO DOS PARÂMETROS SANGÜÍNEOS EM BOVINOS MESTIÇOS (HOLANDÊS x ZEBU ALIMENTADOS COM GIRASSOL

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    Sérgio Luíz S. Rezende

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sunflower meal and sunflower seeds to control Boophilus microplus in naturally infested steers. The experiment was developed in the Dairy Cattle Facilities of the Veterinary College - UFG. Two herds of steers (Holstein x zebu were allotted in a randomized block design in 2x10 factorial arrangement with six repetitions on Brachiaria decumbens pastures. After 14 days, weekly for two months, B. microplus females > 4 mm were counted, blood samples were collected and the animals were weighed. The B. microplus engorged females were collected to evaluate reproductive parameters. Blood samples were processed to determine: hematocrit, total protein, fibrinogen and leukocytes. The results had been submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages compared for the Scott-Knott test (5%. Tick counts, index (%, larval eclosion, hematocrit, total protein, fibrinogen and leukocytes were similar between treatments. The results do not corroborate the empirical reports concerning the effectiveness of the sunflower to control B. microplus in crossbred steers. KEY-WORDS: Blood values, oily seeds, parasites, tick count. Objetivou-se avaliar a ação do farelo ou das sementes de girassol no controle de Boophilus microplus em novilhos mestiços (holandês x zebu infestados naturalmente. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Setor de Bovinocultura do Departamento de Produção Animal da Escola de Veterinária (EV da UFG. Foram utilizados dois lotes de animais, distribuídos inteiramente ao acaso num fatorial 2 x 10 com seis repetições, em piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens, onde foram suplementados. Após quatorze dias de experimento e a cada sete dias, durante dois meses, num curral de manejo, efetuaram-se a contagem das fêmeas de B. microplus > 4 mm, as coletas de sangue e as pesagens dos bovinos. Colheram-se fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus para avaliação de parâmetros reprodutivos. Amostras de sangue

  14. Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas

    OpenAIRE

    Estefan Miranda Miranda; Jorge Miranda Osorio; Raquel Cossío Bayúgar

    2005-01-01

    La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida- SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y susce...

  15. Role of Rusa deer Cervus timorensis russa in the cycle of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, N; Bianchi, M; Chardonnet, L

    2001-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Rusa deer in the development of the cattle tick Boaphilus microplus in comparison with that of steers in the same pastures and under the same conditions of infestation. No difference was noted between a mixed steer/deer herd and a pure steer or pure deer herd in the infestation pattern of each host, suggesting that attachment to the alternative host is mechanical and not affected by the simultaneous presence of the primary host on the pasture. Deer are capable of producing engorged viable females, with weight and reproductive performances similar to or even better than females fed on steers. For moderate levels (1 million larvae per hectare) and high levels (32 million larvae per hectare) of pasture infestation, tick burdens on steers were not very different (e.g. average 1,911 and 2,681 ticks per m2 skin, respectively, on day 24). This may be because of saturation of steer skin sites at the moderate larval dose. Deer harboured 2.7-33 times fewer ticks than steers and produce no engorged females at the moderate larval level and 32 times fewer engorged females than steers at the high larval level. Infestation of deer was dose-dependent with averages of 12 and 399 ticks per m2 skin on day 25 at the moderate and high larval levels, respectively. At a high infestation level of the environment, Rusa deer may contribute, but to a limited extent, to infestation of pastures and, consequently, of cattle. However, their role in sustaining a viable tick population requires further investigation. PMID:11508531

  16. Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina, with an analysis of tick distribution among cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Canevari, José T; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2015-03-15

    Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina were evaluated for one year. In addition, tick distribution among cattle was analyzed to evaluate if partial selective treatment or culling the small proportion of most heavily infested animals were feasible options to control R. (B.) microplus. Two different treatments schemes based on two applications of fluazuron and one application of 3.15% ivermectin were performed. Treatments were made in late winter and spring so as to act on the small 1st spring generation of R. (B.) microplus, in order to preclude the rise of the larger autumn generation. The overall treatment effect was positively significant in both schemes. The number of ticks observed in the control group was significantly higher than in the treated groups on all post-treatment counts. Group 2 exhibited more than 80% of efficacy almost throughout the study period, whereas Group 1 exhibited an efficacy percentage higher than 80% in September, October, December, February, April and May, but not in November (73.4%), January (58.3%), March (45.2%) or June (53.4%). Absolute control was observed in Group 2 in the counts of September and October, and in Group 1 in the count of February. The control strategies evaluated in this work provide an acceptable control level with only three applications of acaricides; at the same time, they prevent the occurrence of the autumn peak of tick burdens, which is characteristic of R. (B.) microplus in northwestern Argentina. Tick distribution was markedly aggregated in all counts. Although ticks were not distributed evenly among calves, the individual composition of the most heavily infested group was not consistent throughout the study period. In addition, the level of aggregation varied with tick abundance. These results suggest that applying acaricides to a portion of the herd or culling the most infested individuals at a given moment of the

  17. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

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    Fernández Erlinda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core element of broad control programs against this ectoparasite, in which acquired immunity in cattle to Bm86 is combined with a rational use of acaricides. At present, the conventional vaccine scheme consists of three doses that should be administered at weeks 0, 4 and 7, followed by a booster every six months. Results In this study we assayed a reduction in the number of the initial doses of Gavacplus, evaluated the time course and the level of bovine anti-Bm86 antibodies elicited, and analyzed the vaccine effect on ticks engorging on immunized cattle under production conditions. Following three different immunization schemes, the bovines developed a strong and specific immune response characterized by elevated anti-Bm86 IgG titers. A reduction in the weight of engorging female ticks, in the weight of the eggs laid and also in R. microplus viable eggs percentage was obtained by using only two doses of Gavacplus administered at weeks 0 and 4, followed by a booster six months later. This reduction did not differ from the results obtained on ticks engorging on cattle immunized at weeks 0, 4 and 7. It was also demonstrated that anti-Bm86 antibody titers over 1:640, measured in bovines immunized at weeks 0 and 4, were sufficient to affect weight and reproductive potential of female ticks as compared with ticks engorging on unvaccinated animals. In addition, no statistically significant differences were detected in the average weight of eggs laid by ticks engorged on

  18. Determination of acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) field populations of Argentina, South Africa, and Australia with the Larval Tarsal Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, L; Reggi, J; Berggoetz, M; Betschart, B; Sager, H

    2013-03-01

    Infestations with ticks have an important economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide and resistance to acaricides has become a widespread phenomenon. To optimize their treatment strategy, farmers need to know if and against which classes potential acaricide-resistance does occur. Bioassays are used to assess the resistance level and pattern of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations. The objective of the current study was to assess the susceptibility of field populations originating from Argentina (8), South Africa (3), and Australia (2) using the Larval Tarsal Test. Nine acaricidal compounds from five major classes were tested: organosphosphates, synthetic pyrethroids (SP), macrocyclic lactones, phenylpyrazols, and amidines. The resistance ratios at concentrations inducing 50 and 90% mortality were used to detect established and emerging resistance. This study confirmed the newly reported presence of amitraz resistance in populations from Argentina In addition, resistance to SP appeared to be widespread (88%) in the Argentinean farms, which had been selected based on the observation of lack of treatment efficacy by farmers. In South Africa one of the three populations was found to be resistant to SP and to a phenylpyrazol compound (pyriprol). Furthermore, resistance to organosphosphates and SP was observed in Australia. Finally, the Larval Tarsal Test proved to be a suitable test to evaluate the susceptibility of R. microplus field populations to the most relevant acaricidal classes. PMID:23540121

  19. Tick-susceptible Bos taurus cattle display an increased cellular response at the site of larval Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus attachment, compared with tick-resistant Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Emily K; Jackson, Louise A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Gondro, Cedric; Lew-Tabor, Ala E; Jonsson, Nicholas N

    2010-03-15

    Cattle demonstrate divergent and heritable phenotypes of resistance and susceptibility to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Bos indicus cattle are generally more resistant to tick infestation than Bos taurus breeds although large variations in resistance can occur within subspecies and within breed. Increased tick resistance has been previously associated with an intense hypersensitivity response in B. taurus breeds; however, the mechanism by which highly resistant B. indicus cattle acquire and sustain high levels of tick resistance remains to be elucidated. Using the commercially available Affymetrix microarray gene expression platform, together with histological examination of the larval attachment site, this study aimed to describe those processes responsible for high levels of tick resistance in Brahman (B. indicus) cattle that differ from those in low-resistance Holstein-Friesian (B. taurus) cattle. We found that genes involved in inflammatory processes and immune responsiveness to infestation by ticks, although up-regulated in tick-infested Holstein-Friesian cattle, were not up-regulated in Brahman cattle. In contrast, genes encoding constituents of the extracellular matrix were up-regulated in Brahmans. Furthermore, the susceptible Holstein-Friesian animals displayed a much greater cellular inflammatory response at the site of larval R. microplus attachment compared with the tick-resistant Brahman cattle. PMID:19852965

  20. Evaluation in vitro of the infection times of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain Avaliação in vitro dos tempos de infecção de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus pelo nematoide entomopatogênico Steinernema glaseri estirpe CCA

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    Leandro Barbiéri de Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that ticks are susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic nematodes. These studies indicate different susceptibilities of ticks to infection by these fungi, depending on the tick species, development phase, entomopathogenic nematodes species and strains and the time the ticks are exposed to them. Usually this period ranges from 24 to 72 hours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infection times in vitro of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus females by the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema glaseri CCA strain, by analysis of the ticks' biological parameters. The results show that a 2-hour exposure time was sufficient for the engorged R. microplus females to be infected by S. glaseri CCA, but that a minimum exposure time of 24 hours was necessary to generate treatment efficacy above 90%.Os carrapatos são susceptíveis à infecção por nematoides entomopatogênicos. Essa susceptibilidade diverge quanto às espécies de carrapato estudadas, à fase evolutiva, às espécies e estirpes dos nematoides e ao tempo ao qual os carrapatos ficam expostos a estes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os tempos de infecção in vitro de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus pelo nematoide entomopatogênico Steinernema glaseri estirpe CCA, pela análise dos parâmetros biológicos do carrapato. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que um período de duas horas de exposição foi suficiente para que fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus fossem infectadas por S. glaseri CCA e que um período de exposição mínimo de 24h foi necessário para que houvesse infecção de fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus por S. glaseri estirpe CCA, capaz de gerar, in vitro, eficácia no tratamento superior a 90%.

  1. Principal component analysis on the perceptions of milk producers about Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control in Minas Gerais Análise de componente Principal da percepção dos produtores de leite sobre o controle do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus em Minas Gerais

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk producers in Lavras, Passos and Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, were interviewed with the aim of evaluating their perceptions and attitudes regarding control over Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Multivariate correlation between the variables was done by means of principal component analysis. The producers' perceptions and attitudes regarding R. (B. microplus were similar: most of them did not have any basic knowledge of tick biology or control, and they applied acaricide products through backpack spraying, without any defined technical criteria. Some of the results obtained were: I. a negative correlation between schooling level and the frequency of spraying cattle with acaricides; II. a positive correlation between milk production, quality of equipment for acaricide application and technological level of the farm; III. farm properties with greater production and technification tended to keep the intervals between acaricide applications constant over the course of the year. After applying principal component analysis, a positive correlation was observed between schooling level, technological level of the farm and perceptions regarding R. (B. microplus, but without any correlation with attitudes towards controlling this tick. It was concluded that higher technological level and schooling level improved the producers' perceptions relating to the biology of the tick R. (B. microplus, but did not achieve effectiveness with regard to using controls more rationally.Produtores de leite de Lavras, Passos e Divinópolis, MG, foram entrevistados com objetivo de avaliar sua percepção e atitude no controle do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. A análise da correlação multivariada entre as variáveis foi feita através de componentes principais (ACP. A percepção e atitude sobre o R. (B. microplus foram semelhantes entre os produtores, sendo que a maioria deles não tem o conhecimento básico sobre a biologia e o controle desse carrapato

  2. Percepção dos produtores de leite do município de Passos, MG, sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae, 2001 Perception of dairy farmers from Passos county, MG, Brazil, concerning the tick Boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae, 2001

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrevistas com 25 proprietários de rebanhos com produção diária acima de 500 litros de leite, sorteados da listagem da cooperativa de Passos/MG/Brasil, foram aplicadas para caracterizar suas percepções sobre a biologia do Boophilus microplus e suas atitudes no controle de carrapatos. A maioria desses produtores tem pelo menos o ensino médio completo e está na atividade há mais de dez anos. Os prejuízos biológicos produzidos pelos carrapatos são bem percebidos por eles; porém, não demonstraram conhecimento sobre a biologia do B. microplus e as desvantagens dos banhos carrapaticidas, principalmente com relação aos riscos toxicológicos. Esses produtores realizam controle de carrapatos sem critérios técnicos e com alta freqüência, baseando-se na avaliação subjetiva da infestação nos animais. Isto favorece o estabelecimento da resistência aos acaricidas e demonstra que a transferência de tecnologia sobre controle de carrapatos para o setor pecuário é falha.Twenty five dairy farms were randomly chosen from all farms producing more than 500 liters of milk/ day in Passos, MG, Brazil. The owners were interviewed to characterize their perceptions about the biology of B. microplus and their attitudes towards tick control. Most of the producers have a college degree and more than six year-experience in the activity. The biological damages caused by ticks are perceived by the farmers. Their tick control is performed without technical criteria and they did not show a proper knowledge on the biology of B. microplus nor on the toxicological risks of acaricides application. The results reveal a gap between the technology and farmers, favoring tick resistance to acaricides.

  3. Avaliação in vitro da ação do óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre o carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus In vitro evaluation of the action of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    F.C.C. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso indiscriminado de produtos químicos no controle do carrapato bovino constitui a principal causa do gradativo aumento do número de cepas resistentes deste parasita às bases disponíveis no mercado. A utilização de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais é uma prática antiga no controle de carrapatos, porém só recentemente tem recebido a devida atenção dos pesquisadores. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a eficácia in vitro do óleo de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus através do exame de biocarrapaticidograma. Foram testadas seis diluições do óleo de C. citratus (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 e 100% em uma população de carrapatos resistentes a amidínicos e piretróides sintéticos. A inibição de postura foi de 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 e 46%, a eclosão larval foi de 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 e 25% e a eficácia do tratamento foi de 32; 64; 83; 100; 88 e 82%, respectivamente. O óleo de C. citratus apresentou controle parcial do carrapato R. microplus in vitro, mesmo frente a populações resistentes a produtos químicos.The indiscriminate use of chemical products to control the cattle tick is the main cause of the gradual increase in the number of strains of this parasite that are resistant to the bases currently available in the market. The use of essential oils and plant extracts is an ancient practice for tick control; however, only recently has it received due attention by researchers. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus through immersion test. Six concentrations of Cymbopogon citratus oil (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 and 100% were tested against a tick population resistant to synthetic formamidines and pyrethroids. The inhibition of egg-laying was 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 and 46%, the hatching was 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 and 25%, and the treatment efficacy was 32

  4. Toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle

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    Choudhury M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively.

  5. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectiv...

  6. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, M K

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively. PMID:20502579

  7. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats

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    Cruz Alejandro Cabezas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B. microplus engorged females that had been collected from naturally infested cattle in a farm in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This agent was then established and cultured in IDE8 tick cells. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and gp36 genes. We used the maximum likelihood method to construct the phylogenetic trees. Results The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA showed that the Ehrlichia spp isolated in this study falls in a clade separated from any previously reported Ehrlichia spp. The molecular analysis of the ortholog of gp36, the major immunoreactive glycoproteins in E. canis and ortholog of the E. chaffeensis gp47, showed a unique tandem repeat of 9 amino acids (VPAASGDAQ when compared with those reported for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and the related mucin-like protein in E. ruminantium. Conclusions Based on the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA genes we concluded that this tick-derived microorganism isolated in Brazil is a new species, named E. mineirensis (UFMG-EV, with predicted novel antigenic properties in the gp36 ortholog glycoprotein. Further studies on this new Ehrlichia spp should address questions about its transmissibility by ticks and its pathogenicity for mammalian hosts.

  8. Integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, in Puerto Rico using new and alternative products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico (PR) is plagued by the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (PR-DA), and the...

  9. Avaliação in vitro da eficácia de acaricidas sobre Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae de bovinos no município de Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil In vitro valuation of acaricides efficiency to Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae from bovines at the region of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

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    Dunezeu Alves Campos Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O carrapato Boophilus microplus é a espécie de maior distribuição geográfica e importância econômica para os países produtores de bovinos em áreas tropicais e sub-tropicais do planeta. No Brasil, a Região Nordeste apresenta algumas áreas mais favoráveis para as infestações do gado. O controle químico ainda é a forma mais eficaz de combate deste ectoparasita, mas o manejo inadequado dos acaricidas tem contribuído com o aparecimento de resistência de populações aos produtos disponíveis no mercado. O município de Ilhéus, na Região Cacaueira da Bahia, vem incrementando sua atividade pecuária em substituição à lavoura cacaueira devastada. Foram realizados 30 testes de imersão in vitro (biocarrapaticidogramas com fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus colhidas em propriedades rurais aleatoriamente selecionadas num grupo de 96 entrevistadas na região. O estudo revelou a existência de resistência ou sensibilidade de populações de B. microplus frente aos carrapaticidas de contato mais utilizados nas propriedades de exploração pecuária da região de Ilhéus. Os quatro carrapaticidas testados apresentaram as seguintes eficiências médias: Amitraz - 30,95%; Deltametrina - 65,04%; Cipermetrina / diclorvos - 75,73%; e Triclorfon / coumaphos / cyfluthrin - 75,13%.The tick Boophilus microplus is the species with the greatest geographical distribution and economic importance for the countries situated at tropical and sub-tropical zones of the planet. In Brazil, the Northwest Region is showed as the most favorable to the cattle infestation. Chemical control is an efficient control method employed, but the inadequate handling of acaricides contributed for to the onset of resistant ticks to the available acaricides in the market. The county of Ilhéus, at the Cocoa's Region from Bahia, has been increasing the cattle activity instead of the devastated cocoa's plantations. Between April and September 2000, in vitro imersion tests

  10. Characterization of the pyrethroid resistance profile of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations from the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Duarte, Fernanda Calvo; Martins, João Ricardo; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Fiorini, Leonardo Costa; de Barros, Antônio Thadeu Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus are mainly controlled in Brazil by means of acaricide products, without any official policies in this regard. Acaricides continue to be sold indiscriminately, and this has contributed towards making the problem of resistance widespread, thus making diagnosis and monitoring of tick resistance essential. Here, bioassays (larval packet test) were performed on tick populations from the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso do Sul regarding their susceptibility to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and flumethrin. All the tick samples tested showed resistance to cypermethrin (10) (resistance factor (RF) ranging from 5.6 to 80.3) and deltamethrin (10) (RF ranging from 2.4 to 83.1). Six out of eight populations were resistant to flumethrin (RF ranging from 3.8 to 8.2). PCR molecular analyses did not show any T2134A mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, in any of the sampled populations. The results from this study highlight the critical status of resistance of the cattle tick to synthetic pyrethroids in the regions studied. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms responsible for the resistant phenotypes observed in the bioassays. This was the first detection of flumethrin resistance in Brazil. PMID:24142169

  11. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana: A New Potential Agent to Control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, a Cattle Tick of Veterinary Significance

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    Carlos Henrique Miguita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Guarea kunthiana fruits, guided by their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus—a major economic problem to the livestock industry worldwide—led to isolation of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol, a new protolimonoid, from the bioactive hexane phase obtained by partitioning the crude ethanol extract. An adult immersion test was performed. The compound strongly inhibited egg-laying and hatchability (99.2% effectiveness at a 0.01% concentration. Melianone, isolated from the same phase, yielded unremarkable results in the adult immersion test. From the dichloromethane phase, melianol, melianodiol, meliantriol, and a new protolimonoid, 3β-O-tigloylmeliantriol, were isolated, all of which, in the same manner as melianone, exhibited unremarkable results in the test. The structures of new and known compounds were mostly established by 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses and mass spectrometry data. This is the first report on the bioactivity of protolimonoids on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of R. (B. microplus. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol proved a promising candidate for the development of a biocontrol agent against the cattle tick investigated, as an alternative to environmentally hazardous synthetic acaricides.

  12. A theoretical analysis of codon adaptation index of the Boophilus microplus bm86 gene directed to the optimization of a DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lina María; Armengol, Gemma; Habeych, Edwin; Orduz, Sergio

    2006-04-21

    DNA vaccines utilize host cell molecules for gene transcription and translation to proteins, and the interspecific difference of codon usage is one of the major obstacles for effective induction of specific and strong immune response. In an attempt to improve codon usage effects of DNA vaccine on protein expression, a quantitative study was conducted to clarify the relationship of codon usage in the tick gene bm86 and its potential expression in bovine cells. The calculated relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and codon adaptation index (CAI) values of bm86 from Boophilus microplus and a set of 14 highly expressed genes from Bos taurus indicated that some codons utilized frequently in bm86 are rarely used in B. taurus genes and vice versa. The different translational efficiencies obtained suggested that after DNA vaccination using the wild bm86 gene, the protein Bm86 would be expressed in bovines, but it would not be the optimum sequence. However, using the codon-optimized bm86 gene to bovines, whose sequence was theoretically designed, would probably improve the level of the immune response generated against ticks. PMID:16171828

  13. [Elaboration and evaluation of a candidate to the DNA vaccine using synthetic genes derived from the peptídeo SBm7462 against the carrapato Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Carla L; Mendonça, Bianca G; Tavares, Larissa C; Girão, Flávia A; Sossai, Sidimar; Peconick, Ana P; Carvalho, Gabriel D; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2008-09-01

    Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important arthropods in veterinary medicine due economic losses and health problems caused in cattle production. The vaccination represents optimum method evaluated with effective cost to prevent economic losses and to increase the duration and quality of life of the production animals. A synthetic peptide, SBm 7462, derived from Bm86, has been shown great results in control of ticks. The construction and synthesis of one nucleotide sequence based on this peptide might be useful for design a DNA vaccine that has many advances than peptide vaccine. A gene, called seq1, was constructed with a three repetition of nucleotide sequence of SBm 7462. It was cloned into a pCIneo vector expression in mammals and injected in BALB/c mouse. When mice were inoculated with the expression cassette they did not response in ELISA. They elevated antibody titles only when vaccinated with the synthetic peptide SBm7462®. And, the best titles of immunoglobulins were seen when the SBm7462® was administered subcutaneously. PMID:20059811

  14. First report of pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus larvae (Say, 1821) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Kheiri, Sadegh; Asgarian, Fatemeh; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Fariborz; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Aarabi, Mohsen; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-04-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is one of the most important hard ticks parasitizing cattle in northern Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate pyrethroid resistance levels of this species from Nur County, northern Iran. The hard ticks were collected through a multistage cluster randomized sampling method from the study area and fully engorged female R. (B.) annulatus were reared in a controlled insectary until they produced larvae for bioassay. Seventeen populations of the hard ticks were bioassayed with cypermethrin and 12 populations with lambda-cyhalothrin using a modified larval packet test (LPT). Biochemical assays to measure the contents/activity of different enzyme groups including mixed function oxidases (MFOs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and general esterases were performed. Population 75 showed a resistance ratio of 4.05 with cypermethrin when compared with the most susceptible field population 66 at the LC50 level. With lambda-cyhalothrin the resistance ratio based on LC50 was 3.67 when compared with the susceptible population. The results of biochemical assays demonstrated significantly elevated levels of GSTs and esterases in populations tested compared with the heterozygous susceptible filed population and a correlation coefficient of these enzymes was found in association to lambda-cyhalothrin resistance. Based on the results, pyrethroid acaricides may operationally fail to control R. (B.) annulatus in North of Iran. This study is the first document of pyrethroid resistance in R. (B.) annulatus populations from Iran. PMID:26772446

  15. First report of pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus larvae (Say, 1821) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Kheiri, Sadegh; Asgarian, Fatemeh; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Fariborz; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Aarabi, Mohsen; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-04-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is one of the most important hard ticks parasitizing cattle in northern Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate pyrethroid resistance levels of this species from Nur County, northern Iran. The hard ticks were collected through a multistage cluster randomized sampling method from the study area and fully engorged female R. (B.) annulatus were reared in a controlled insectary until they produced larvae for bioassay. Seventeen populations of the hard ticks were bioassayed with cypermethrin and 12 populations with lambda-cyhalothrin using a modified larval packet test (LPT). Biochemical assays to measure the contents/activity of different enzyme groups including mixed function oxidases (MFOs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and general esterases were performed. Population 75 showed a resistance ratio of 4.05 with cypermethrin when compared with the most susceptible field population 66 at the LC50 level. With lambda-cyhalothrin the resistance ratio based on LC50 was 3.67 when compared with the susceptible population. The results of biochemical assays demonstrated significantly elevated levels of GSTs and esterases in populations tested compared with the heterozygous susceptible filed population and a correlation coefficient of these enzymes was found in association to lambda-cyhalothrin resistance. Based on the results, pyrethroid acaricides may operationally fail to control R. (B.) annulatus in North of Iran. This study is the first document of pyrethroid resistance in R. (B.) annulatus populations from Iran.

  16. Expression and secretion in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger of a cell surface glycoprotein from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, by using the fungal amdS promoter system.

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, I F; Smith, D R; Sharp, P. J.; Cobon, G S; Hynes, M J

    1990-01-01

    A cell surface glycoprotein (Bm86) from cells of the digestive tract of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, which has been shown to elicit a protective immunological response in vaccinated cattle, was expressed and secreted in the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger by using the fungal amdS promoter system. The cloned gene coded for the Bm86 secretory signal and all of the Bm86 mature polypeptide except for the hydrophobic carboxy-terminal segment. High levels of Bm8...

  17. Evaluation of antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle submitted to rBm86 protein Boophilus microplus tick immunization and associated challenges influence Avaliação da produção de anticorpos anti Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos submetidos à imunização com proteína rBm86 de carrapato Boophilus microplus e influência dos desafios associados

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa; Adivaldo Henrique Fonseca; Natalino Hajime Yoshinari; Ana Luiza Alves Rosa Osório

    2003-01-01

    IgG antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in immunized cattle with rBm86 protein from Boophilus microplus was evaluated as well as the influence of the association between immunizations and stress through indirect ELISA test during one year. In the present study there was no influence of the isolated challenged used on the production of IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi. The rBm86 immunogen did not cause significant oscillation in the production of IgG antibodies against B. b...

  18. Acaricide activity of leaves extracts of Sambucus australis Schltdl. (Caprifoliaceae at 2% on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade acaricida de extratos de folhas de Sambucus australis Schltdl (Caprifoliaceae a 2% sobre teleóginas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Felipe da Silva Krawczak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite infections caused by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus are responsible for the most of economic losses in producing-cattle countries in tropical and subtropical areas. Indiscriminate uses of chemical acaricides have contributed with the appearance of tick resistance to many drugs available in the marketplace, and it is a serious problem in the tick control. Flowers of Sambucus australis (South America, called "sabugueiro-from-Brazil", are used on infusions or decoctions forms in the folk medicine with diuretic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and laxative purpose, also employed for treating respiratory diseases in human. The main goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro potential of S. australis leaves extracts as an acaricide agent. Ethanol extract at 70% has been dehydrated and a fraction was suspended in 70% ethanol or in distillated water at final concentration of 2% (0.2mg-1. Using the immersion test of engorged females the efficiency results were obtained in 34% and 66% with the leaves extract diluted in water and 70% ethanol, respectively. This study is the first report on acaricidal activity of S. australis against cattle tick. Further studies to determine the active metabolites in different stages of S. australis could aid to identify suitable extracts to be tested in the R. (B. microplus control.A infestação por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas econômicas em países produtores de bovinos nas áreas tropicais e subtropicais. Usos indiscriminados de acaricidas químicos têm contribuído para o aparecimento da resistência dos ixodídeos a múltiplas drogas, representando um sério problema no controle de carrapatos. As flores da planta Sambucus australis, conhecidas pelo nome popular de sabugueiro do Brasil, são usadas, na forma de infusão ou emplastros, na medicina popular como diurético, antipirético, antiinflamatório e laxativo; também empregado no tratamento de doen

  19. New histochemical and morphological findings in the female genital tract of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae: an attempt toward the elucidation of fertilization in ticks Novas características histoquímicas e morfológicas no trato genital feminino de Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae: uma tentativa para a elucidação da fertilização nos carrapatos

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    Casimiro García-Fernández

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available At present not only is the site of fertilization in ticks still unknown but it is also unclear as to how this mystery can be solved. Signs of fertilization can be observed throughout the female genital tract and these can be clues for the elucidation of the unsolved questions relating to ticks fertilization. In Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 the most important signs are the following: the final eversion of the acrosomal canal in females ready for oviposition; the presence of small tubules, resembling the subplasmalemal process of the spermatozoon between the oviduct cells; budding nuclei throughout the female genital tract; and the two Feulgen and DAPI positive areas in the oocyte at vitelogenesis. These morphological characteristics suggest that fertilization takes place in the internal cylinder which extends from the uterus to the ovary itself.Até o momento, não só o lugar da fertilização em carrapatos é desconhecido, mas também não é claro como este mistério possa ser esclarecido. Sinais de fertilização podem ser observados ao longo do trato genital feminino e estes podem ser pistas para a elucidação das questões relacionadas à fertilização em ácaros. Em Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887, os sinais mais importantes são os seguintes: a eversão final do canal acrossômico em fêmeas prestes à oviposição; a presença de pequenos túbulos assemelhando-se a processos subplasmalêmicos dos espermatozóides entre as células do oviduto; brotamentos nucleares ao longo do trato genital feminino e as duas áreas Feulgen e DAPI positivas nos ovócitos em processo de vitelogênese. Estas características morfológicas sugerem que a fertilização ocorra no cilindro interno, o qual se estende desde o útero até o ovário inclusive.

  20. Perceptions about the biology of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus among milk producers in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais Percepção dos produtores de leite de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre a biologia do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred semi-systematized interviews were applied with the aim of surveying the perceptions of milk producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais regarding the biology of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Content analysis was conducted on each of the variables surveyed and their descriptions, highlighting the higher frequencies in order to construct profiles of perceptions about each of the matters surveyed. In addition, each of the producers was categorized regarding their readiness to proceed with efficient control, from the assessment of their responses. Among the variables surveyed were the tick lifespan, duration of parasitic life, time of greatest incidence, survival in pastures and egg-laying volume. These questions are considered important for defining the knowledge needed for rational combat. It was concluded that the information needed for adopting effective practices to combat ticks was insufficient among the milk farm properties in Divinópolis. Moreover, the producers interviewed had a good perception of what they observed in their daily routine, but did not have complementary information about the tick life cycle.Foram aplicadas 100 entrevistas semissistematizadas com o objetivo de levantar a percepção dos produtores de leite do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre a biologia do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" de cada uma das variáveis levantadas e sua descrição com destaque das maiores frequências para a construção de perfis de percepção sobre cada um dos aspectos levantados. Além disso, cada um dos produtores foram categorizados quanto a estar ou não apto a proceder um controle eficiente pela avaliação de suas respostas. Algumas das variáveis levantadas foram tempo de vida do carrapato, tempo de vida parasitária, época de maior incidência, sobrevivência nas pastagens e volume de postura, questões consideradas importantes

  1. Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) as a host for the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    1977-04-01

    The rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) is more resistant to the cattle tick (Boophlilus microplus) than are Britsh breed cattle in Papua New Guinea. The average yield of replete female ticks from deer was 1.6% (0.3-3.2%) as compared to 11.2% (3.4-23.1%) from calves. Ticks from deer were more slender, lighter in weight and produced fewer eggs (mean 1,800) than did ticks from calves (mean 2,200) but the deer was shown to be an effective host. A cervid population can maintain a tick population in the absence of bovine hosts thus presenting an important factor in eradication programs. Nutritional stress appears to result in a higher seasonal prevalence of infestation amongst males and non-pregnant females. PMID:864854

  2. INFLUÊNCIA DO PESO INICIAL E DA ESTAÇÃO DO ANO NA CONVERSÃO EM OVOS DE FÊMEAS DE Boophilus microplus (ACARI: IXODIDAE

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    Abraão Garcia Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do peso inicial da fêmea e da estação do ano na conversão em ovos de Boophilus microplus. O índice de eficiência reprodutiva (IER de 411 fêmeas pesando entre 31 e 360 mg foi correlacionado com seu peso inicial. Para avaliar a influência das diferentes estações do ano neste parâmetro biológico, dez fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus pesando acima de 150 mg foram colhidas, a cada duas semanas, e mantidas em condições climáticas controladas até a determinação do IER. Uma relação curvilinear foi observada entre o peso das fêmeas e o IER. Fêmeas pesando entre 151 e 360 mg tiveram IER’s mais altos (variando de 44,9% a 51,4% do que aquelas mais leves, as quais apresentaram uma menor capacidade de conversão em ovos (variando de 31,4% a 39,0%. Foi observado que a capacidade de as fêmeas converterem o peso em ovos variou sazonalmente. Os mais altos IER foram observados no período seco, de abril a setembro (47,6% a 58,3%, do que no período chuvoso, de outubro a março (40,2% a 43,6% (P<0,05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus, biologia, conversão em ovos, bovinos.

  3. Toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury M

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and ...

  4. Population dynamics and evaluation of the partial selective treatment of crossbreed steers naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a herd from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Melo, Daniel Pacheco; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Gonçalves Junior, Geraldo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-04-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus over a period of 13 months on a rural property located in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Animals were treated for ticks indoors by whole body spraying when R. (B.) microplus had an average count equal or more than 30 ticks. The study also evaluated the possibility of a partial selective treatment for bovines to control R. (B.) microplus in which only a percentage of the population would be treated (specifically those bovines with tick counts of ≥20. Moreover, we examined the percentage of the population of R. (B.) microplus present on experimental bovines that did not come into contact with the chemical compounds used in the partial selective treatment. We concluded that in this particular region of Brazil, the crossbreed steers support up to five R. (B.) microplus generations per year and that the number of generations was primarily affected by the pluviometric precipitation. We sprayed the bovines with chemicals seven times during the course of the study. The results of the partial selective treatment method revealed that during the rainy and the dry periods, 42.1% to 60.0% and 61.9% to 79.2% of the animals, respectively, fulfilled the criteria to receive a chemical treatment to reduce the number of cattle ticks. In consideration of the need to slow the development of tick resistance with the chemical compounds used in the spraying treatment, the results showed that the percentage of animals that did not require treatment is not relevant. This was evidenced by the result that bovines that presented tick counts of ≥20 during the dry and rainy periods represented 91.5% and 90.6% of the total recorded R. (B.) microplus populations, respectively. Only 8.7% of the tick population remained free from exposure to acaricides during the 13 months of the study, which is an important point when considering the adoption of the partial selective treatment

  5. Population dynamics and evaluation of the partial selective treatment of crossbreed steers naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a herd from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Melo, Daniel Pacheco; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Gonçalves Junior, Geraldo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-04-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus over a period of 13 months on a rural property located in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Animals were treated for ticks indoors by whole body spraying when R. (B.) microplus had an average count equal or more than 30 ticks. The study also evaluated the possibility of a partial selective treatment for bovines to control R. (B.) microplus in which only a percentage of the population would be treated (specifically those bovines with tick counts of ≥20. Moreover, we examined the percentage of the population of R. (B.) microplus present on experimental bovines that did not come into contact with the chemical compounds used in the partial selective treatment. We concluded that in this particular region of Brazil, the crossbreed steers support up to five R. (B.) microplus generations per year and that the number of generations was primarily affected by the pluviometric precipitation. We sprayed the bovines with chemicals seven times during the course of the study. The results of the partial selective treatment method revealed that during the rainy and the dry periods, 42.1% to 60.0% and 61.9% to 79.2% of the animals, respectively, fulfilled the criteria to receive a chemical treatment to reduce the number of cattle ticks. In consideration of the need to slow the development of tick resistance with the chemical compounds used in the spraying treatment, the results showed that the percentage of animals that did not require treatment is not relevant. This was evidenced by the result that bovines that presented tick counts of ≥20 during the dry and rainy periods represented 91.5% and 90.6% of the total recorded R. (B.) microplus populations, respectively. Only 8.7% of the tick population remained free from exposure to acaricides during the 13 months of the study, which is an important point when considering the adoption of the partial selective treatment

  6. Effect of different concentrations of citronella oil and tincture on reproductive parameters of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus teleoginesEfeito de diferentes concentrações de óleo e tintura de citronela sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos de teleóginas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most important ectoparasite in cattle rising, and it is responsible for severe economic losses. Parasite control is based on chemicals, which are used indiscriminately and result in effectiveness reduction of these compounds. In order to delay the onset of parasite resistance, some alternative methods are being researched, including herbal medicine. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus oil and tincture on R. (B microplus by the engorged female immersion test. Four oil concentrations were tested (1; 25; 50; 100% and the inhibition of oviposition were 16; 40; 53; 73%, egg hatch were 28; 16; 23; 6% and the effectiveness were 78; 100; 86; 98%, respectively. The gradual rise of the inhibition of oviposition and low egg hatch had a positive influence in the effectiveness of treatment. The solution at 1% of citronella oil had a partial control of the teleogines and the solution at 25% had 100% of effectiveness. Six dilutions of the tincture (1; 5; 10; 25; 50; 100% were tested and the inhibition of oviposition were 10; 63; 80; 83; 86; 96%, egg hatch were 91; 31; 6; 26; 0; 0% and the effectiveness were 23; 93; 94; 97; 100; 100%, respectively. Most of the treatments with the citronella tincture had inhibition of oviposition higher than 80% and low egg hatch rate. The tincture at 5% had similar efficacy compared to the groups with higher concentrations. A significant association between the oil and tincture of citronella and the treatment effectiveness was observed in the statistical evaluation. It is possible to conclude that both the oil and the tincture of citronella had negative influence in the reproductive parameters of R. (B microplus. O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é o ectoparasito mais importante em áreas de exploração pecuária, sendo responsável por severas perdas econômicas. O controle deste parasito é feito

  7. Caracterização do controle de Haematobia irritans e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais

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    Luísa N. Domingues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle eficaz de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (carrapato-do-boi é um fator crucial à maior rentabilidade da pecuária brasileira, porém ainda constitui-se um desafio. Um maior conhecimento das práticas adotadas no combate destes parasitos faz-se necessário para que se possam estruturar estratégias de controle mais próximas da realidade do produtor rural e mais fáceis de serem executadas. Este estudo caracterizou, através de entrevistas, as práticas adotadas no controle desses ectoparasitos em 23 propriedades da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais. A maioria dos entrevistados reconheceu a importância desses parasitos para a atividade pecuária, entretanto, diversos problemas relativos ao controle parasitário foram observados. O controle da mosca-dos-chifres e do carrapato-do-boi era uma prática rotineira em, respectivamente, 17,4% e 95,7% das propriedades, geralmente realizado em função de elevado grau de infestação dos animais. Mais de seis aplicações de ectoparasiticidas eram realizadas por ano em todas as propriedades que empregavam tratamentos para o controle da mosca e em 76,5% daquelas que combatiam o carrapato. Os produtos eram aplicados principalmente com bombas costais manuais (63,6% e sem a contenção dos animais em 45,5% das propriedades. A diluição dos produtos segundo recomendações dos fabricantes era realizada por 45,4% dos entrevistados, porém, 63,6% aplicavam um volume de solução por animal menor do que o tecnicamente recomendado. Utilizava-se principalmente a associação de piretróides e organofosforados para o controle de ambos os parasitos. Apesar de utilizar rotineiramente ectoparasiticidas, o uso de equipamento de proteção individual (EPI não era comum entre os entrevistados. A maioria dos entrevistados conhecia algumas características epidemiológicas dos parasitos, entretanto, o controle parasitário adotado na

  8. Ten years later: Evaluation of the effectiveness of 12.5% amitraz against a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using field studies, artificial infestation (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-12-15

    Using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and in vitro adult immersion tests, the present study evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of 12.5% amitraz administered via whole body spraying against a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population that did not have any contact with chemical products belonging to this acaricide family for 10 years (approximately 40 generations). Two natural infestation trials, two artificial infestation trials (Stall tests) and two adult immersion tests were performed in two different stages in 2005 and 2015. Between 2002 and 2015, the bovine herd of this property was formed by approximately 450 animals from the Simmental breed that were divided into nine paddocks formed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. For the natural infestation experiments in 2005 and 2015, we selected nearly 70 animals naturally infested with ticks from the same herd that belonged to the "São Paulo" farm located in São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil. Field studies were performed in the same paddock (9). To evaluate anti-R. (B.) microplus activity in the artificially infested cattle (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, two experiments of each methodology were performed at CPPAR (the Center of Research in Animal Health located on the FCAV/UNESP campus in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil) in 2005 and 2015. R. (B.) microplus used in the artificial infestation, and adult immersion test experiments were obtained from paddocks 1-9 in 2005 and 2015 from the commercial farm where the field studies were performed. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that amitraz use in rotation with pyrethroids every 28 days for three consecutive years (2002-2004) previous to the beginning of the first trial (2005) was sufficient to generate a R. (B.) microplus strain resistant to amitraz. Moreover, using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, we verified that 40 generations of the tick species with no

  9. AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DA AÇÃO DE ACARICIDAS SOBRE Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus CANESTRINI, 1887 (ACARI: IXODIDAE DE BOVINOS LEITEIROS NO MUNICÍPIO DE ITAMARAJU, BAHIA, BRASIL

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    Fernando Henrique Spagnol

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As many tick populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus can be resistant to drugs in the municipality of Itamaraju,Bahia, Brazil, an in vitro immersion test was carried out, from January to November 2008, in ticks from 22 dairy farms using the nine most used acaricides in the market. Fipronil had 99% efficacy, Chlorpyriphos+Cypermethrin high-cis 92%, Amitraz+Chlorpyriphos 90.7%, Diclorvos+Chlorpyriphos 81.4%, Cypermethrin+Chlorpyriphos+Citronelol 49.2%, Amitraz 49.0%, Cypermethrin+Ethion 39.9%, Deltamethrin 33.9%, Cypermethrin 21.1%. There was a range from one to five efficient acaricides (≥ 95% in each property. The results show that there is a wrong use of acaricides by the farmers and a high degree of resistance by ticks.

  10. Análise da eficácia de acaricidas sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus, durante a última década, na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul Acaricids efficacy analysis on Boophilus microplus tick, in the last decade in the southern of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Nara Amélia Farias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A região sul do Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se por uma bovinocultura com predomínio de raças européias, tanto para produção de carne, quanto de leite. Essa região é considerada área marginal de ocorrência do carrapato Boophilus microplus, cujo parasitismo ocorre entre final de setembro e meados de maio devido às baixas temperaturas do inverno. No entanto, as perdas causadas por esse parasito são elevadas, o que tem sido agravadas pela seleção de populações de carrapatos resistentes aos acaricidas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a situação de sensibilidade/resistência do carrapato bovino, assim como a dinâmica de uso dos diferentes grupos acaricidas disponíveis no mercado, na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, na última década. Durante o período foram avaliadas amostras de carrapatos provenientes de 124 propriedades, de 14 municípios da região. Em cada propriedade foram coletadas teleóginas e informações relativas ao manejo. No Laboratório de Parasitologia do Instituto de Biologia da UFPel, foi realizado teste de imersão de teleóginas. Observou-se que durante o primeiro triênio os produtos mais utilizados eram à base de piretróide, determinando uma seleção de populações resistentes a esse princípio ativo. No terceiro triênio os produtos a base de amitraz dominaram o mercado, ocorrendo também seleção de populações resistentes. No primeiro triênio, todas as populações de carrapato analisadas eram sensíveis ao amitraz (índice de eficácia = 95%, enquanto que, ao final do estudo, no terceiro triênio, esse índice de eficácia foi detectado em apenas 79% das populações estudadas. Foram detectadas falhas de manejo na região, como número de aplicação superior a seis por ano, aplicação de acaricida somente quando visualizadas as formas adultas e uso exclusivo de acaricidas para o controle do carrapato, que predispõem a seleção de populações resistentes.In the southern

  11. Evaluation of antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle submitted to rBm86 protein Boophilus microplus tick immunization and associated challenges influence Avaliação da produção de anticorpos anti Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos submetidos à imunização com proteína rBm86 de carrapato Boophilus microplus e influência dos desafios associados

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    Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available IgG antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in immunized cattle with rBm86 protein from Boophilus microplus was evaluated as well as the influence of the association between immunizations and stress through indirect ELISA test during one year. In the present study there was no influence of the isolated challenged used on the production of IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi. The rBm86 immunogen did not cause significant oscillation in the production of IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi capable to interfere in the serological results for Lyme Borreliosis in cattle. This study demonstrated the possibility of transitory changes in the production of antibodies after the association of vaccine stimuli and stress, emphasizing the necessity of serological studies combined with epidemiological and management data.Avaliou-se a produção de anticorpos da classe Ig-G anti Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos imunizados com proteína recombinante Bm86 de Boophilus microplus, assim como a influência de imunizações e estresse associados por meio do teste ELISA indireto no período de um ano. Não houve interferência na produção de anticorpos IgG anti B. burgdorferi pelos desafios utilizados isoladamente no presente estudo. O imunógeno rBm86 não causou oscilações significantes na produção de anticorpos IgG anti B. burgdorferi capazes de interferir nos resultados sorológicos para Borreliose de Lyme em bovinos. O estudo demonstrou a possibilidade de alterações transitórias na produção de anticorpos após estímulos vacinais e de estresse associados, ressaltando a necessidade de estudos sorológicos em conjunto a dados epidemiológicos e de manejo.

  12. Effect of the association of cattle and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) on populations of cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, N; Bianchi, M; De Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2002-10-01

    The wild population of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia (South Pacific) is nearly as large as the cattle population. The cattle tick is widespread and occurs all year round. Opinions are divided on the role of deer in the biological cycle of the tick: i) Do they maintain a sustainable tick population that is secondarily available for cattle? ii) Do they decrease the infestation of the environment by collecting larvae on the pasture, but preventing their development to the engorged female stage? or iii) Do they contribute to both situations? An experiment was conducted in three groups of pastures, each seeded with 450 000 larvae/ha and allowed to be grazed only by cattle, only by deer, and by a mixed herd of deer and cattle (deer representing 30% of the biomass), at approximately the same stocking rate (470-510 kg/ha). After 15 months of exposure, the tick burden per weight unit of host was 42 ticks/kg for the steers-only herd and 0.01/kg for the deer-only herd. The steers in the "mixed group" harbored 7 times fewer ticks (6.2/kg) than the cattle-only group, and the deer in the "mixed group," 130 times more (1.3/kg) than the deer-only group. Five emergency acaricide treatments had to be applied in the cattle-only group, but none in the other groups. The long-term sustainability of a viable tick population on deer as well as the potential benefit resulting from the association of deer and susceptible cattle in the tick control of cattle are highlighted. PMID:12381606

  13. Assessment of the acaricidal activity of carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, trans-anethole, and linalool on larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringóta, Viviane; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Calmon, Fernanda; Maturano, Ralph; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Faza, Aline; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The acaricidal activity of carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, trans-anethole, and linalool was studied on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens larvae. All the substances were tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 μl/ml, with 10 repetitions per treatment. The modified larval packet technique was employed in the tests and the mortality was evaluated after 24 h. In the groups treated with carvacrol, the lowest concentration (2.5 μl/ml) was sufficient to cause 100% death of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae. The same concentration of (E)-cinnamaldehyde resulted in death of approximately 99% of the larvae of both tick species and reached 100% at the other concentrations. For trans-anethole, mortality rates above 90% of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae were only observed starting at the concentration of 15.0 μl/ml and reached 100% at the highest concentration (20.0 μl/ml). Finally, the mortality rates of the groups treated with linalool were low, only reaching 8.4 and 14.5% at the highest concentration (20.0 μl/ml) for larvae of D. nitens and R. microplus, respectively. These results show that carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and trans-anethole have acaricidal activity, particularly carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, both of which resulted in high mortality rates for the larvae of these two tick species even at the lowest concentration.

  14. Effect of vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation on natural infestations of Boophilus microplus in grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M; Massard, C L; da Fonseca, A H; Ramos, N F; Machado, H; Labarta, V; de la Fuente, J

    1995-12-01

    Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Recent advances have introduced the possibility for the immunological control of the parasite through the use of recombinant vaccines. Recently, it was shown that the recombinant vaccine Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.) is able to control B. microplus populations in artificially infected grazing dairy cattle in Cuba. To assay the effect of the vaccine on a different B. microplus strain and under different ecological conditions, we conducted a trial in Brazil on grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle under natural infestation conditions. A farm in the northeast of the state of Sao Paulo was selected and two groups of animals per breed were included in the experiment and were maintained grazing on separate but similar pastures. For each breed, one group was vaccinated with the vaccine Gavac and the second group was not vaccinated and was employed as a control. In vaccinated cattle, during 36 weeks of experiment, the average infestation rate was maintained below 78 ticks per animal while average infestation peaks (mean +/- S.E.) of 144 +/- 44 ticks per animal (for dairy cross-bred cattle) and 195 +/- 42 ticks per animal (for beef cross-bred cattle) were recorded in the control groups. Tick infestation rates showed statistical significant differences (p = 0.04) between both experimental groups throughout the experiment. These results clearly showed, as in the Cuban study, that the vaccine controlled tick numbers in successive generations in the field. PMID:8701597

  15. Utilización del Boophilus microplus como remedio isopático en el control del ectoparásito en el Municipio de Aguazul (Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Niño Murcia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se demostró la efectividad de un remedio isopático vía oral, para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, inocuo para los animales, medio ambiente y el hombre, evitando residuos de plaguicidas en el producto final. La investigación se realizó en una finca ubicada en el municipio de Aguazul (Casanare; localizada a los 05°10’23’’ de latitud norte y 72°33’17’’ de longitud oeste desde Greenwich, altitud: 300 msnm, temperatura media: 27ÚC. Precipitación anual media: 2.441 mm. Se contó con 32 animales de doble propósito; con la propuesta adoptada por la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria, CORPOICA, en cuanto al Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP; acerca del control ejercido con base en niveles críticos, se inició con un conteo de garrapatas, con un tamaño entre 4.5 mm y 8 mm, por un lado del cuerpo del animal; animales con más de 20 garrapatas, entraban en el proceso de investigación, se les administró el remedio isopático, el cual correspondía al grupo A, y el placebo el cual correspondió con el grupo B, durante cuatro días consecutivos. Se administraron dos potencias del remedio, la primera con nueve centésimal (9 C, la cual no tuvo ningún efecto sobre la garrapata, la segunda potencia treinta centesimal (30 C, con la cual se observaron los resultados propuestos sobre la garrapata, se hace un segundo conteo de garrapatas con los mismos tamaños para verificar la efectividad de la segunda potencia; veinticinco días después de la administración, se hizo un último conteo de garrapatas con los mismos tamaños con los cuales se partió. Se utilizó la técnica experimental de doble ciego para obtener datos más veraces. El estudio estadístico se realizó por la técnica de análisis operacional de varianza de dos factores con varias muestras por grupo; los recuentos de garrapatas se trasformaron a la expresión logarítmica: t = Log 10 (X+1, donde X es el recuento de

  16. Análise de fatores genéticos e ambientais que afetam a infestação de fêmeas bovinas da raça Caracu por carrapatos (Boophilus microplus Genetic analysis of the infestation of Caracu female cattle breed by cattle tick (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Bossi Fraga

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fatores de meio sobre a infestação de bovinos Caracu pelo carrapato Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 e estimar parâmetros genéticos do grau de infestação por esse ectoparasita. Foram realizadas contagens em fêmeas de dois rebanhos, nas quatro estações, por dois anos consecutivos (setembro/1998 a julho/2000. Contou-se o número de carrapatos (NC em um dos lados do animal e atribuiu-se escore visual (EC de acordo com a quantidade de carrapatos no animal. Foram feitas de uma a oito avaliações, totalizando-se 4.079 e 3.994 observações de NC e EC, respectivamente, em 718 animais. Os dados foram analisados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos com um modelo que incluiu efeitos de rebanho (R, cor do animal (C, R x C, animal dentro de R x C como erro a, ano e estação da avaliação, espessura de pelame e idade do animal como covariável. As estimativas dos componentes de variância foram obtidas pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivadas, utilizando-se um modelo que incluiu os efeitos fixos de grupo de contemporâneos (fazenda-ano-época, espessura do pelame e idade do animal como covariável e os efeitos aleatórios aditivos diretos e de ambiente permanente. Antes das análises, a variável NC foi transformada para log10 (n + 1 e EC para (x + 0,5½, em que n é o número de carrapatos contados no animal e x, o escore (0 a 4. A incidência de carrapatos foi maior no verão e, quanto maior a espessura do pelame, maior o nível de infestação. As estimativas de herdabilidade e repetibilidade foram, respectivamente, 0,22 e 0,29 para NC e 0,15 e 0,21 para EC; a correlação genética entre NC e EC foi igual a 1,00. Os resultados sugerem que é possível obter progresso genético para resistência a carrapato pela seleção.The objective of this study was to evaluate environmental aspects that affect the infestation of the Caracu cattle breed by the

  17. Caracterização do controle de Haematobia irritans e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais Characterization of Haematobia irritans and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control in Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa N. Domingues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle eficaz de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (carrapato-do-boi é um fator crucial à maior rentabilidade da pecuária brasileira, porém ainda constitui-se um desafio. Um maior conhecimento das práticas adotadas no combate destes parasitos faz-se necessário para que se possam estruturar estratégias de controle mais próximas da realidade do produtor rural e mais fáceis de serem executadas. Este estudo caracterizou, através de entrevistas, as práticas adotadas no controle desses ectoparasitos em 23 propriedades da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais. A maioria dos entrevistados reconheceu a importância desses parasitos para a atividade pecuária, entretanto, diversos problemas relativos ao controle parasitário foram observados. O controle da mosca-dos-chifres e do carrapato-do-boi era uma prática rotineira em, respectivamente, 17,4% e 95,7% das propriedades, geralmente realizado em função de elevado grau de infestação dos animais. Mais de seis aplicações de ectoparasiticidas eram realizadas por ano em todas as propriedades que empregavam tratamentos para o controle da mosca e em 76,5% daquelas que combatiam o carrapato. Os produtos eram aplicados principalmente com bombas costais manuais (63,6% e sem a contenção dos animais em 45,5% das propriedades. A diluição dos produtos segundo recomendações dos fabricantes era realizada por 45,4% dos entrevistados, porém, 63,6% aplicavam um volume de solução por animal menor do que o tecnicamente recomendado. Utilizava-se principalmente a associação de piretróides e organofosforados para o controle de ambos os parasitos. Apesar de utilizar rotineiramente ectoparasiticidas, o uso de equipamento de proteção individual (EPI não era comum entre os entrevistados. A maioria dos entrevistados conhecia algumas características epidemiológicas dos parasitos, entretanto, o controle parasitário adotado na

  18. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana: A New Potential Agent to Control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, a Cattle Tick of Veterinary Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Miguita; Carolina da Silva Barbosa; Lidilhone Hamerski; Ulana Chaves Sarmento; José Nicácio do Nascimento; Walmir Silva Garcez; Fernanda Rodrigues Garcez

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of Guarea kunthiana fruits, guided by their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus—a major economic problem to the livestock industry worldwide—led to isolation of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol, a new protolimonoid, from the bioactive hexane phase obtained by partitioning the crude ethanol extract. An adult immersion test was performed. The compound strongly inhibited egg-laying and hatchability (99.2% effect...

  19. [Molecular analysis of the antigenic sequence (SBm7462®) from Bm86 of the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and similarity with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peconick, Ana P; Sossai, Sidimar; Medeiros, Carla L; Carvalho, Gabriel D; Vargas, Marlene I; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2008-09-01

    The vaccination represents optimum method evaluated with effective cost to prevent economic losses and to increase the duration and quality of life of the production animals. . Diverse vaccines are produced from the intestinal protein Bm86 of the Rhipicephalus. (B.) microplus. The knowledge of the conservation of the gene bm86 is very important to evaluate the vaccine efficiency and the possibility of reaction crossed between different species of ticks. Samples of R. (B.) microplus come from different localities had been sequenced. The analyses of multiple alignments of the sequences had been made through the BioEdit program 7.0.5.3 version and the verification of polymorphism for visual inspection. In this work the alignment of all was become fulfilled sequences using itself BLAST in the search for similarity. Similarity was observed enters the sequenced fragments of R. (B.) microplus with the sequence of the protein Rs86 de Rhipicephalus sanguineus and with protein HA98 of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. The results give molecular support to synthetic the vaccine use based in the gene bm86 (SBm7462®) to be used in different species of ticks. PMID:20059809

  20. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry. PMID:26359641

  1. A Mitochondrial Membrane Exopolyphosphatase Is Modulated by, and Plays a Role in, the Energy Metabolism of Hard Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Logullo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The physiological roles of polyphosphates (polyP recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the relationship between the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase (PPX and the energy metabolism of hard tick Rhipicephalus microplus embryos are investigated. Mitochondrial respiration was activated by adenosine diphosphate using polyP as the only source of inorganic phosphate (Pi and this activation was much greater using polyP3 than polyP15. After mitochondrial subfractionation, most of the PPX activity was recovered in the membrane fraction and its kinetic analysis revealed that the affinity for polyP3 was 10 times stronger than that for polyP15. Membrane PPX activity was also increased in the presence of the respiratory substrate pyruvic acid and after addition of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Furthermore, these stimulatory effects disappeared upon addition of the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor potassium cyanide and the activity was completely inhibited by 20 µg/mL heparin. The activity was either increased or decreased by 50% upon addition of dithiothreitol or hydrogen peroxide, respectively, suggesting redox regulation. These results indicate a PPX activity that is regulated during mitochondrial respiration and that plays a role in adenosine-5’-triphosphate synthesis in hard tick embryos.

  2. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry.

  3. Molecular analysis of Boophilus spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) tick strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, J; García-García, J C; González, D M; Izquierdo, G; Ochagavia, M E

    2000-10-01

    Boophilus spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitize cattle and other farm and wild animals in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Ticks belonging to the genus Boophilus have undergone evolutionary processes associated with habitat adaptation following biogeographical separation, resulting in strains with marked morphological differences. We have characterized at the molecular level B. microplus strains from Latin America and Australia, employing sequences derived from the bm86 coding region, an intron located within the bm86 gene, and DNA short tandem repeats (STR). A B. annulatus strain was employed for comparison. The results indicated that variation within the bm86 coding region is higher between B. microplus strains than between some B. microplus strains and B. annulatus. The sequence of the intron was not informative for phylogenetic analysis, varying among individuals of the same strain. Two STRs were identified in B. microplus (STRs BmM1 and BmM2) and one in B. annulatus (STR Ba1). Southern hybridization experiments with STRs BmM1 and BmM2 as a probe revealed the prevalence of dispersed moderately repeated DNA in the genome of B. microplus. The analysis of polymorphism at STR locus BmM1 evidenced differences within and between populations of B. microplus. These results support at the molecular level the existing differences between B. microplus strains and suggest tools to characterize these populations. PMID:10962158

  4. Comparison of efficiency and reproductive aptitude indexes between a reference and field strains of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, in Sinaloa, Mexico Comparação dos índices de eficiência e aptidão reprodutiva entre uma cepa de referência e outra de campo do carrapato do gado, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, em Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soila Gaxiola-Camacho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the reproductive behavior of two strains of R. (B. microplus, one wild-caught (Native and one reference strain (Media Joya for two years, measuring the reproductive efficiency index (REI and reproductive aptitude index (RAI. Engorged ticks from each strain were collected monthly from February 2002 to February 2004. These were weighed and kept in the laboratory until egg-laying. Oogenic masses were individually weighed and incubated until larvae emergence. REI and RAI were calculated from each sample, grouping ticks by weight in 100 mg range classes. An analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple rank tests were carried out on the data (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a conduta reprodutiva de duas cepas de R. (B. microplus, uma coletada no campo (Nativa e outra de referência (Média Jóia, por dois anos, calculando o índice de eficiência reprodutiva (REI e o índice de aptidão reprodutiva (RAI. Foram coletados mensalmente carrapatos fêmeas engurgitadas de cada cepa no período de Fevereiro de 2002 a Fevereiro de 2004. Estas foram pesadas e conservadas no laboratório até ovipositar. As massas de ovos foram pesadas individualmente e incubadas até a eclosão das larvas. O REI e o RAI foram calculados para cada coleta, agrupando os carrapatos em classe de peso de 100 mg. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e prova de classe múltipla de Duncan (P < 0,05. Foram calculados os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson (P < 0,01 para estimar a associação entre o peso dos carrapatos engurgitados e o peso e número de ovos postos e eclosionados. A cepa Nativa mostrou um peso ao engurgitamento mais alto do que a cepa Média Jóia. Os valores de REI e de RAI em ambas cepas foram similares em todos as classes de peso, mostrando tendência cuadrática na Média Jóia e linear-cuadrática na cepa Nativa (P < 0,05. Ambos os índices por classe de peso no engurgitamento foram sempre mais

  5. Acaricidal activity of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantea against Rhipicephalus microplus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sampath Marimuthu; Moorthy Iyappan; Chinnadurai Siva; Loganathan Karthik; Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Arivarasan Vishnu Kirthi; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Kanayairam Velayutham; Asokan Bagavan; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acaricidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) synthesized from flower aqueous extract of Calotropis gigantea (C. gigantea) against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus [R. (B.) microplus] and the adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa (H. bispinosa). Methods: The lyophilized C. gigantea flower aqueous extract of 50 mg was added with 100 mL of TiO(OH)2 (10 mM) and magnetically stirred for 6 h. Synthesized TiO2 NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The synthesised TiO2 NPs were tested against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus and adult of H. bispinosa were exposed to filter paper impregnated method. Results:XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles with the mean size of 10.52 nm. The functional groups for synthesized TiO2 NPs were 1 405.19, and 1 053.45 cm-1 for-NH2 bending, primary amines and amides and 1 053.84 and 1 078.45 cm-1 for C-O. SEM micrographs of the synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the aggregated and spherical in shape. The maximum efficacy was observed in the aqueous flower extract of C. gigantea and synthesized TiO2 NPs against R. (B.) microplus (LC50=24.63 and 5.43 mg/L and r2=0.960 and 0.988) and against H. bispinosa (LC50=35.22 and 9.15 mg/L and r2=0.969 and 0.969), respectively. Conclusions: The synthesized TiO2 NPs were highly stable and had significant acaricidal activity against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus and adult of H. bispinosa. This study provides the first report of synthesized TiO2 NPs and possessed excellent anti-parasitic activity.

  6. Immunological Profiles of Bos taurus and Bos indicus Cattle Infested with the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Emily K.; Jonsson, Nicholas N.; Gondro, Cedric; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Vance, Megan E.; Jackson, Louise A.

    2009-01-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is a major threat to the improvement of cattle production in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Bos indicus cattle are naturally more resistant to infestation with the cattle tick than are Bos taurus breeds, although considerable variation in resistance occurs within and between breeds. It is not known which genes contribute to the resistant phenotype, nor have immune parameters involved in resistance to R. microplus been fully ...

  7. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used ...

  8. Reduced efficacy of commercial acaricides against populations of resistant cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus from two municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 µ...

  9. Prediction of G protein-coupled receptor encoding sequences from the synganglion transcriptome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is a pest which causes multiple health complications in cattle. The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family presents an interesting target for developing novel tick control methods. However, GPCRs share limited sequence similarity among or...

  10. Acute Oral Mammalian Toxicity and Effect of Solvents on Efficacy of Maerua edulis (Gilg. & Ben. De Wolf against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus Koch, 1844 (Acarina: Ixodidae, Tick Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel T. Nyahangare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy and toxicity of aqueous and organic solvents extracts of Maerua edulis against ticks and mice, respectively, were determined. Ground leaves were extracted separately using cold water, cold water plus surfactant (1% v/v liquid soap, hot water plus surfactant, hexane, or methanol to make 25% w/v stock solutions from which serial dilutions of 5, 10, 20, and 25% were made. For each concentration, 20 Rhipicephalus decoloratus tick larvae were put in filter papers impregnated with extracts and incubated for 48 h at 27°C and 85–90% RH for mortality observation after 24 h and 48 h. In the toxicity experiment, hot water plus surfactant treatments of 5, 10, 20, and 25% (w/v M. edulis were administered in suspension per os to sexually mature Balb/C mice and observed for clinical signs and mortality for 72 h. Larvae mortality was highest (>98% in methanol-extracted M. edulis treatments (20 and 25%, which was not different from the amitraz-based control (Tickbuster®. Mortality was also higher in the hot water than in cold water plus surfactant treatments (P<0.05. No postadministration adverse health effects were observed in the mice. These results suggest that M. edulis is an effective tick remedy best extracted using methanol or hot water plus surfactant.

  11. Repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against cattle tick larvae (Rhipicephalus australis) when formulated as emulsions and in β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Wei Tsun; Bhandari, Bhesh; Jackson, Louise; James, Peter

    2016-07-30

    Rhipicephalus australis (formerly Boophilus microplus) is a one host tick responsible for major economic loss in tropical and subtropical cattle production enterprises. Control is largely dependent on the application of acaricides but resistance has developed to most currently registered chemical groups. Repellent compounds that prevent initial attachment of tick larvae offer a potential alternative to control with chemical toxicants. The repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (TTO) emulsions and two β-cyclodextrin complex formulations, a slow release form (SR) and a modified faster release form (FR), were examined in a series of laboratory studies. Emulsions containing 4% and 5% TTO applied to cattle hair in laboratory studies completely repelled ascending tick larvae for 24h whereas 2% and 3% formulations provided 80% protection. At 48h, 5% TTO provided 78% repellency but lower concentrations repelled less than 60% of larvae. In a study conducted over 15 days, 3% TTO emulsion applied to cattle hair provided close to 100% repellency for 2 days, but then protection fell to 23% by day 15. The FR formulation gave significantly greater repellency than the emulsion and the SR formulation from day 3 until the end of the study (P<0.05), providing almost complete repellency at day 3 (99.5%), then decreasing over the period of the study to 49% repellency at day 15. Proof of concept is established for the use of appropriately designed controlled-release formulations to extend the period of repellency provided by TTO against R. australis larvae. PMID:27369582

  12. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. 72.1 Section 72.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  13. Virulence of Isaria sp. and Purpureocillium lilacinum to Rhipicephalus microplus tick under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Isabele C; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Bahiense, Thiago C; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Golo, Patricia S; Moraes, Ana Paula R; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2012-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) is an ectoparasite accountable for great economic losses. The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control arthropods has shown promising responses. The present study evaluated the virulence of Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fr., Isaria fumosorosea (Wize) Brown and Smith, and Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) (Thom.) Samson to engorged females, eggs, and larvae of R. microplus. There were four treatment groups (10(5), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) conidia ml(-1)) and the control group (water and Tween 80, 0.1% v/v). The treatment was based on immersion of the specimen in 1 ml of the suspension or control solution. The study observed changes in egg viability and larval mortality after treatment. The results showed that I. farinosa, P. lilacinum, and I. fumosorosea caused alterations in the biological parameters of R. microplus ticks. I. fumosorosea presented the greatest potential to control R. microplus engorged females in vitro, causing a 49% decrease in nutritional index. All fungal isolates presented significant reduction in the egg production index. I. farinosa reduced the hatching percentage if the eggs were treated with the two highest conidial concentrations. All conidial concentrations of I. fumosorosea were able to reduce the hatching percentage significantly. All tested isolates showed pathogenicity toward unfed R. microplus larvae. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the effect in vitro of I. farinosa, I. fumosorosea, and P. lilacinum to different developmental stages of R. microplus ticks. PMID:22710525

  14. Acaricide activity in vitro of Acmella oleracea against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, K N C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L C; Leite, J R S A; Santos, R C; Paz Neto, A A; Costa-Júnior, L M

    2014-10-01

    Cattle tick control has been limited by the resistance of these parasites to synthetic acaricides. Natural products are a possible alternative as they have different mechanisms of action. Acmella oleracea is a native plant with a large cultivated area in the Amazon region and could be easily used for large-scale preparation of a commercial product. This study evaluated the in vitro action of the hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea on larvae and engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Spilanthol was the major constituent with a content of 14.8% in the extract. The hexane extract of A. oleracea was highly effective against larvae of R. microplus with an LC50 of 0.8 mg mL(-1). Against engorged females, hexane extract of A. oleracea reduced oviposition and hatchability of eggs with an LC50 of 79.7 mg mL(-1). Larvae and engorged females were killed by the hexane extract with high efficiency (>95%) at concentrations of 3.1 and 150.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the hexane extract of A. oleracea has significant activity against R. microplus and has potential to be developed into formulations for tick control. PMID:25033813

  15. Lesser protein degradation machinery correlates with higher BM86 tick vaccine efficacy in Rhipicephalus annulatus when compared to Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popara, Marina; Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; de Mera, Isabel G Fernández; Marina, Anabel; del Valle, Mercedes; Almazán, Consuelo; Domingos, Ana; de la Fuente, José

    2013-10-01

    Infestations with cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus, economically impact cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Vaccines containing the recombinant R. microplus BM86 gut antigen were developed and commercialized to induce an immunological protection in cattle against tick infestations. These vaccines demonstrated that tick control by vaccination is cost-effective, reduces environmental contamination and prevents the selection of drug resistant ticks that result from repeated acaricide applications. The protection elicited by BM86-containing vaccines against tick infestations is mediated by a collaborative action between the complement system and IgG antibodies. The efficacy of the vaccination with BM86 and other tick antigens is always higher for R. annulatus than against R. microplus, suggesting that tick genetic and/or physiological factors may affect tick vaccine efficacy. These factors may be related to BM86 protein levels or tick physiological processes such as feeding and protein degradation that could result in more efficient antibody-antigen interactions and vaccine efficacy. To test this hypothesis, we compared the proteome in R. annulatus and R. microplus female ticks after feeding on BM86-vaccinated and control cattle. The results showed that cattle proteins were under represented in R. annulatus when compared to R. microplus, suggesting that R. annulatus ticks ingested less blood, a difference that increased when feeding on vaccinated cattle, probably reflecting the effect of antibody-BM86 interactions on this process. The results also showed that tick protein degradation machinery was under represented in R. annulatus when compared to R. microplus. BM86 mRNA and protein levels were similar in both tick species, suggesting that lesser protease activity in R. annulatus results in more efficient antibody-antigen interactions and higher vaccine efficacy. These results have important

  16. Histoarchitecture of the Ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus during Pre- and Postengorgement Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelekha Kanapadinchareveetil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B. annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B. microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium.

  17. In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition. PMID:24221889

  18. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil from Zanthoxylum caribaeum against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jeane; Vinturelle, Rafaelle; Mattos, Camila; Tietbohl, Luis Armando Candido; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Junior, Itabajara Silva Vaz; Mourão, Samanta Cardozo; Rocha, Leandro; Folly, Evelize

    2014-09-01

    Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lamarck (Rutaceae) is plant species with a variety of medical applications, including insecticidal activity. This study determined the bioacaricidal activity of the essential oil from Z. caribaeum leaves against engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) females using the adult immersion test. For this purpose, three serial concentrations (5.0, 2.5, and 1.25%, vol:vol, in 1% dimetilsulfoxide) of the essential oil were used. Essential oil 5% caused 65% mortality on the first day after treatment, 85% on the second day, and 100% mortality by the fifth day. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Z. caribaeum leaves against cattle ticks.

  19. Vaccination against ticks (Boophilus spp.): the experience with the Bm86-based vaccine Gavac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Montero, C; Redondo, M; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enríquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R

    1999-11-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant B. microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. Our vaccine formulation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) has been registered and is commercially available in Cuba, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Brazil and Mexico. In controlled pen trials, Gavac has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus and chemical-sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America and Iran. In controlled field trials in Cuba, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, Gavac has shown a 55-100% efficacy in the control of B. microplus infestations in grazing cattle 12-36 weeks after the first vaccination. Field trials under production conditions have been conducted in Cuba, Colombia, Brazil and Mexico in pure and cross-bred cattle herds. The application of Gavac has increased the time between acaricide treatments by an average of 32 /-21 days (P = 0.0005) resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. In Cuba, a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in more than 260000 animals. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number of acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of 23.4 dollars animal(-1) year (-1). These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations. PMID:10596754

  20. Vaccination of cattle with TickGARD induces cross-reactive antibodies binding to conserved linear peptides of Bm86 homologues in Boophilus decoloratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, David; Kamau, Lucy; Skilton, Robert; Mwaura, Stephen; Nitsch, Cordula; Musoke, Anthony; Taracha, Evans; Daubenberger, Claudia; Bishop, Richard

    2007-01-26

    Vaccines based on recombinant Bm86 gut antigen from Boophilus microplus are a useful component of integrated control strategies against B. microplus infestations of cattle. The capacity of such vaccines to control heterologous infestations by two African tick species was investigated. The mean weight of engorged female ticks and mean egg mass per tick were significantly reduced in B. decoloratus infestations, but there was no effect of the vaccine against adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. We cloned, sequenced and expressed two Bm86 homologues (Bd86) from B. decoloratus. Amino acid sequence identity between Bd86 homologues (Bd86-1 and Bd86-2) and Bm86 was 86% and 85%, respectively, compared to 93% identity between the variants. Native Bd86 protein in B. decoloratus tick mid-gut sections and recombinant Bd86-1 reacted strongly with sera from TickGARD vaccinated cattle. TickGARD can therefore protect against a heterologous tick species with multiple antigen sequences. Epitope mapping using sera from TickGARD-vaccinated cattle identified two linear peptides conserved between the Bd86 homologues and Bm86. These epitopes represent candidate synthetic peptide vaccines for control of Boophilus spp. and the pathogens transmitted by these tick vectors. PMID:17070625

  1. Acaricidal activity of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantea against Rhipicephalus microplus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sampath; Marimuthu; Abdul; Abdul; Rahuman; Chidambaram; Jayaseelan; Arivarasan; Vishnu; Kirthi; Thirunavukkarasu; Santhoshkumar; Kanayairam; Velayutham; Asokan; Bagavan; Chinnaperumal; Kamaraj; Gandhi; Elango; Moorthy; Iyappan; Chinnadurai; Siva; Loganathan; Karthik; Kokati; Venkata; Bhaskara; Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the acaricidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles(TiO2 NPs)synthesized from flower aqueous extract of Calotropis gigantea(C.gigantea)against the larvae of Rhipicephalus(Boophilus)microplus[R.(B.)microplus]and the adult of Haemaphrysalis bispinosa(H.bispinosa).Methods:The lyophilized C.gigantea flower aqueous extract of 50 mg was added with 100 mL of TiO(OH2)(10 mM)and magnetically stirred for 6 h.Synthesized TiO2 NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD).Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),Scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX).The synthesised TiO2 NPs were tested against the larvae of R(B.)microplus and adult of H.bispinosa were exposed to filter paper impregnated method.Results:XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles with the mean size of 10.52 nm.The functional groups for synthesized TiO2NPs were 1405.19,and 1053.45 cm-1for-NH2 bending,primary amines and amides and 1053.84and 1078.45 cm-1for C-O.SEM micrographs of the synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the aggregated and spherical in shape.The maximum efficacy was observed in the aqueous flower extract of C.gigantea and synthesized TiO2 NPs against R.(B.)microplus(LC50=24.63 and 5.43 mg/L and r2=0.960 and 0.988)and against H.bispinosa(LC50=35.22 and 9.15 mg/L and r2=0.969 and 0.969).respectively.Conclusions:The synthesized TiO2 NPs were highly stable and had significant acaricidal activity against the larvae of R.(B.)microplus and adult of H.bispinosa.This study provides the first report of synthesized TiO2 NPs and possessed excellent anti-parasitic activity.

  2. EFICACIA DE LA MEZCLA DE DOS CEPAS DE Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) PARA EL CONTROL DE Rhipicephalus microplus EN INFESTACIONES NATURALES EN BOVINOS

    OpenAIRE

    Uriel Jesús Rodríguez-Alcocer; Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi; Edelmira Galindo-Velasco; Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de Metarhizium anisopliae para el control de Rhipicephalus microplus en ganado bovino infestado naturalmente. El estudio se realizó en una unidad de producción de ganado bovino ubicada en el trópico Mexicano. Se formaron dos grupos de 10 bovinos basado en el número de garrapatas R. microplus adultas y fases juveniles (larvas y ninfas). Los animales del grupo tratado (promedio de 73.4 y 27.5 garrapatas adultas y juveniles respectivamente...

  3. Survey of cattle tick, Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistance to amitraz and deltamethrin in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, J; Cauquil, L; Hurlin, J C; Gaia, H; Hüe, T

    2016-02-15

    The evolution of tick resistance to acaricides in New Caledonia was followed in two ways: through two large scale surveys in 1998 and 2014 and through the routine analysis of samples of ticks with suspected resistance. The results of the two approaches were qualitatively similar though analysis of ticks with suspected resistance gave higher frequencies of resistance, as expected of a biased sample. Resistance tests using a larval packet test have been conducted since 1993 for deltamethrin and 2003 for amitraz. Deltamethrin was used in country-wide control from 1986 to 2003 and amitraz since 1996. This study analyzed the variation of resistance parameters such as lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and the resistance factor over 21 years for deltamethrin and LC99 over 11 years for amitraz. There was an increase in deltamethrin's annual mean LC50 from 1993 to 2004 when it reached 2.9 g/l and then a progressive decrease, reaching a level consistently below 1g/l since 2007. Even though breeders stopped using deltamethrin in New Caledonia in 2003, the percentage of susceptible strains has remained below 30% since 1998. Amitraz's LC99 mean increased significantly from 0.31 g/l in 2003 to 2.96 g/l in 2014. Whereas all tested strains in 2003 were susceptible, only 40% of strains tested at the request of farmers were susceptible in 2014. The recent territory-wide survey showed that 76.7% of strains are still susceptible. This study established that resistance to amitraz has developed slowly in New Caledonia. A reversion phenomenon may have occurred concerning deltamethrin resistance, visible through the decrease of LC50 mean and the decreased proportion of very resistant strains; however the proportion of susceptible strains remains at a low level and there is anecdotal evidence that high resistance can re-emerge rapidly. PMID:26827863

  4. Nuclear glycogen synthase kinase-3 {beta} (GSK-3) in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzingen, Leticia; Andrade, Josiana G. de; Logullo, Carlos [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, Caroline P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is recognized as a key component of a large number of cellular processes and diseases. Several mechanisms play a part in controlling the actions of GSK3, including phosphorylation, protein complex formation, and subcellular distribution. Recent observations point to functions for phosphorylases several transcription factors in the nucleus. Also, GSK3b participate of the canonical W nt signalling pathway, which has been studied intensively in embryonic and cancer cells. Like in many other signaling pathways, most components in W nt signal transduction were highly conserved during the evolution. More than 40 proteins have been reported to be phosphorylated by GSK3, including over a dozen transcription factors. Although the mechanisms regulating GSK3 are not fully understood, precise control appears to be achieved by a combination of phosphorylation, localization, and interactions with GSK3-binding proteins. Although GSK3 is traditionally considered a cytosolic protein, it is also present in nuclei. Nuclear GSK3 is particularly interesting because of the many transcription factors that it regulates enabling GSK3 to influence many signaling pathways that converge on these transcription factors, thereby regulating the expression of many genes. Our group identified that GSK-3 {beta} could be detected in different stage eggs of R. micro plus. In this work we detected the GSK-3 in isolated nuclear fraction from the egg homogenates of R. micro plus by western-blot analysis, using anti-GSK- 3 {beta} antibodies. The enzyme activity was also detected radiochemically throughout embryogenesis in same fraction. The GSK-3 activity was inhibiting by using SB 216763 (selective molecule inhibitors of GSK-3). Taken together our results suggest that GSK-3 {beta} isoform probably is involved in gene transcription factors during R. micro plus embryo development.

  5. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks.

  6. Reproductive and safety assessment of vaccination with Gavac against the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, O; Redondo, M; Montero, C; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-06-01

    Recent developments in cattle tick control have incorporated the use of recombinant Bm86 vaccines against this ectoparasite. The vaccine developed by our group (Gavac) contains an antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris, and has been successfully employed for the control of tick infestations and transmission of tick-borne diseases. Here, we examined the safety and effect of the Gavac vaccine on reproductive parameters in cattle. Toxicity tests in mice and guinea pigs demonstrated the safety of Gavac. To study the adverse effects of vaccination on reproduction, a field trial involving 9,500 animals in Cuba was conducted. The cattle at 3 farms were vaccinated while those on a fourth farm were left unvaccinated and served as the control. Following vaccination, the control of tick infestation and the transmission of babesiosis were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the vaccine. No adverse effects were observed in any of the reproductive parameters studied when comparing the data before and after vaccination with Gavac and between the vaccinated farms and the control farm. These results demonstrate that under the conditions of our study vaccination with Gavac is safe for use on cattle. PMID:10729081

  7. Cloning and expression of a protective antigen from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rand, K N; Moore, T.; Sriskantha, A; Spring, K; Tellam, R; P. Willadsen; Cobon, G S

    1989-01-01

    Glycoproteins located on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of tick gut epithelial cells, when used to vaccinate cattle, are capable of stimulating an immune response that protects cattle against subsequent tick infestation. One such tick gut glycoprotein, designated Bm86, has been purified to homogeneity and the amino acid sequences of peptide fragments generated by endoproteinase Lys-C digestion have been determined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a cDNA that e...

  8. Exploring the use of an anti-tick vaccine as a tool for the integrated eradication of the cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Almazán, Consuelo; Allen, Andrew; Jory, Lauren; Yeater, Kathleen; Messenger, Matthew; Ellis, Dee; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2012-08-17

    Bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever, is a tick-borne protozoal disease foreign to the United States. It was eradicated by eliminating the vector species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, through the efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP), with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone (PQZ) in south Texas along the border with Mexico. Keeping the U.S. free of cattle fever ticks in a sustainable manner is a critical national agricultural biosecurity issue. The efficacy of a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine commercialized outside of the U.S. was evaluated against a strain of R. annulatus originated from an outbreak in Texas. Vaccination controlled 99.9 and 91.4% of the ticks 8 weeks and 5.5 months after the initial vaccination, respectively. Computer modeling of habitat suitability within the PQZ typically at risk of re-infestation with R. annulatus from Mexico predicted that at a level of control greater than 40%, eradication would be maintained indefinitely. Efficacy and computer modeling data indicate that the integration of vaccination using a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine with standard eradication practices within the northwestern half of the PQZ could incentivize producers to maintain cattle on pasture thereby avoiding the need to vacate infested premises. Implementing this epidemiologically proactive strategy offers the opportunity to prevent R. annulatus outbreaks in the U.S., which would represent a significant shift in the way the CFTEP operates. PMID:22687762

  9. Immunity against Boophilus annulatus induced by the Bm86 (Tick-GARD) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipano, Eugene; Alekceev, Eugene; Galker, Felicia; Fish, Lea; Samish, Michael; Shkap, Varda

    2003-01-01

    Friesian cattle were immunized with two inoculations of anti-tick Bm86 (Tick-GARD) vaccine and were challenged 30 or 90 d later with Boophilus annulatus larvae derived from 1.2 g of eggs. No nymphs or adult ticks were found on the immunized cattle during four weeks after challenge. Repeated infestations (2 to 4) with larvae on three other calves during a period of 160 and 390 d after the immunization did not result in development of nymphal and adult stages. In control, non-immunized cattle infested with corresponding batches of larvae 1380 to 4653 replete adult female ticks were collected. Larvae issued from Babesia bovis-infected female ticks transmitted the infection to Bm86-immunized cattle, but the progeny of B. bigemina-infected females did not. Since B. bigemina is transmitted exclusively by nymphal stages of Bo. annulatus these results support the observation that immunity induced by Bm86 affects the larval stage of this tick. PMID:14580066

  10. Humoral immune response of dairy cattle immunized with rBm95 (KU-VAC1) derived from Thai Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapalapong, S; Kaewhom, P; Kengradomkij, C; Saratapan, N; Canales, M; de la Fuente, J; Stich, R W

    2010-04-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an important cause of economic losses in Thailand through direct effects of feeding on cattle and pathogen transmission. Current tick control methods rely on expensive chemical acaricides that result in environmental contamination, residues in food animal products and acaricide-resistant ticks. Anti-tick vaccines based on concealed antigens have shown promising results in the control of cattle tick. Thus, recombinant Bm95 (rBm95) from Thai R. microplus (KU-VAC1) was cloned and expressed to test as an anti-tick vaccine in Thailand. The objective of this study was to compare antibody responses induced by KU-VAC1 to that obtained after vaccination with Gavac that is based on the Bm86 homologue. Four groups of six cattle each were immunized with KU-VAC1, Gavac, adjuvant or phosphate-buffered saline, and boosted three times at 21-day intervals. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay were used to measure the humoral antibody responses specific to Thai rBm95. Cattle immunized with either KU-VAC1 or Gavac showed significantly greater antibody production than the controls. Antibody titres were detected after the first immunization and peaked after the seventh week. These results indicated that KU-VAC1 and Gavac are similarly immunogenic, and that further studies are warranted to compare performance parameters of ticks fed on immunized cattle. PMID:20537117

  11. Acaricide and ivermectin resistance in a field population of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Mexican tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Miller, R J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Trinidad-Martínez, I C; Pérez de León, A A

    2014-02-24

    In the Neotropics the control of tick infestations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) is achieved primarily through the use of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. In Mexico, resistance to one or multiple classes of acaricides has been reported in Rhipicephalus microplus infesting cattle, but information on acaricide susceptibility in R. microplus infesting red deer is lacking. In this study we report the level of resistance to different classes of acaricides and ivermectin in R. microplus collected from red deer in the Mexican tropics. Engorged R. microplus females were collected from a red deer farm in Yucatan, Mexico. The larval packet test was used to detect resistance to the organophosphates (OPs) chlorpyrifos and coumaphos, synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) cypermethrin and permethrin, and the phenylpyrazol, fipronil. Resistance to the formamidine amitraz (Am), and ivermectin was ascertained using the larval immersion test. Data were subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentrations and resistance ratios to kill 50% (RR50) and 99% (RR99) of the tick population under evaluation in relation to susceptible reference strains. Additionally, allele specific polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus. The R. microplus population from red deer in Yucatan showed very high resistance to the two SPs evaluated (RRs>72.2 for cypermethrin; RR for permethrin resistance was so high a dose-response curve was not possible). All individual larvae tested to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus were homozygous. The same tick population showed different levels of resistance to OPs (chlorpyrifos: RR50=1.55, RR99=0.63; coumaphos: RR50=6.8, RR99=5.9), fipronil (RR50=1.8, RR99=0.9), and amitraz (RR50=2.3, RR99=4.4). Resistance to ivermectin was regarded as moderate (RR50=7.1, RR99=5.0). This is the first report of R. microplus ticks collected from red

  12. Rhipicephalus microplus lipocalins (LRMs): genomic identification and analysis of the bovine immune response using in silico predicted B and T cell epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Piper, Emily K; Weiss, Olivia; Vance, Megan; Bellgard, Matthew; Lew-Tabor, Ala

    2013-08-01

    The attachment to host skin by Rhipicephalus microplus larvae induces a series of physiological events at the attachment site. The host-parasite interaction might induce a rejection of the larvae, as is frequently observed in Bos taurus indicus cattle, and under certain conditions in Bos taurus taurus cattle. Ticks deactivate the host rejection response by secreting specific proteins and lipids that play an essential role in manipulation of the host immune response. The available genomic information on the R. microplus tick was mined using bioinformatics approaches to identify R. microplus lipocalins (LRMs). This in silico examination revealed a total of 12 different putative R. microplus LRMs (LRM1-LRM12). The identity of the LRM family showed high sequence variability: from 6% between LRM7 and LRM8 to 55.9% between LRM2 and LRM6. However, the three-dimensional structure of the lipocalin family was conserved in the LRMs. The B and T cell epitopes in these lipocalins were then predicted, and six of the LRMs (5, 6, 9, 10, 11 and 12) were used to examine the host immune interactions with sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from tick-susceptible and tick-resistant cattle challenged with R. microplus. On days 28-60 after tick infestation, the anti-LRM titres were higher in the resistant group compared with the susceptible cattle. After 60 day, the anti-LRM titres (except LRM9 and LRM11) decreased to zero in the sera of both the tick-resistant and tick-susceptible cattle. Using cell proliferation assays, the PBMCs challenged with some of the predicted T cell epitopes (LRM1_T1, T2; LRM_T1, T2 and LRM12_T) exhibited a significantly higher number of IFN-γ-secreting cells (Th1) in tick-susceptible Holstein-Friesians compared with tick-resistant Brahman cattle. In contrast, expression of the Th2 cytokine (IL-4) was lower in Holstein-Friesians cattle compared with Brahman cattle. Moreover, this study found that LRM6, LRM9 and LRM11 play important

  13. A treatment with a protease inhibitor recombinant from the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus ameliorates emphysema in mice.

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    Juliana D Lourenço

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine whether a serine protease inhibitor treatment can prevent or minimize emphysema in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were subjected to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE nasal instillation to induce emphysema and were treated with a serine protease inhibitor (rBmTI-A before (Protocol 1 and after (Protocol 2 emphysema development. In both protocols, we evaluated lung function to evaluate the airway resistance (Raw, tissue damping (Gtis and tissue elastance (Htis. The inflammatory profile was analyzed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF and through the use of morphometry; we measured the mean linear intercept (Lm (to verify alveolar enlargement, the volume proportion of collagen and elastic fibers, and the numbers of macrophages and metalloprotease 12 (MMP-12 positive cells in the parenchyma. We showed that at both time points, even after the emphysema was established, the rBmTI-A treatment was sufficient to reverse the loss of elastic recoil measured by Htis, the alveolar enlargement and the increase in the total number of cells in the BALF, with a primary decrease in the number of macrophages. Although, the treatment did not control the increase in macrophages in the lung parenchyma, it was sufficient to decrease the number of positive cells for MMP-12 and reduce the volume of collagen fibers, which was increased in PPE groups. These findings attest to the importance of MMP-12 in PPE-induced emphysema and suggest that this metalloprotease could be an effective therapeutic target.

  14. Bm86 antigen induces a protective immune response against Boophilus microplus following DNA and protein vaccination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, R; McKenna, R V; Cobon, G; Tennent, J; Zakrzewski, H; Gale, K; Wood, P R; Scheerlinck, J P; Willadsen, P

    1999-11-30

    Vaccination of sheep with a plasmid bearing the full length gene for the tick antigen Bm86 either alone or co-administered with plasmid carrying the ovine genes for the cytokines, granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin (IL)-1beta induced a relatively low level of protection against subsequent tick infestation. This tick damage reached statistical significance only for the groups which were vaccinated with plasmid encoding for Bm86, co-administered with plasmid encoding for ovine GM-CSF. Antibody titres measured against Bm86 were also low in all groups injected with the Bm86 DNA vaccine. Antibody production and anti-tick effect were significantly less than that achieved by two vaccinations with recombinant Bm86 protein. In all cases only a low level of antigen-specific stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was recorded, as measured either by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine or the release of IFN-gamma. Injection of DNA encoding for Bm86, either alone or with co-administered cytokine genes, did however prime for a strong subsequent antibody response following a single injection of recombinant Bm86 protein in adjuvant. Antibody production nevertheless appeared to be slightly less effective than following two vaccinations with recombinant protein. The persistence of antibody following vaccination was the same regardless of the method of primary sensitization. In all cases the half-life of the antibody response was approximately 40-50 days indicating that, in contrast to results reported in mice, DNA vaccination in sheep did not result in sustained antibody production. PMID:10587297

  15. [Larva migrans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  16. Reduced Efficacy of Commercial Acaricides Against Populations of Resistant Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus from Two Municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Arias, Anderson; Villar-Argaiz, David; Chaparro-Gutierrez, Jenny J; Miller, Robert J; Perez de Leon, Adalberto A

    2014-01-01

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 μg/kg). Injections were made at 3-month intervals on animals at each farm to evaluate the therapeutic and persistent efficacy of ivermectin against R. microplus. Body tick counts and reproductive parameters of semi- or fully engorged females (≥5 mm) were assessed at 10-day intervals, and since no negative control group could be included, values were compared against those for day 0. Although there was an overall reduction of 50%-75% in tick numbers that persisted for 30-40 days, it was not significantly different at one of the farms and not enough to afford protection from severe infestations. The engorgement weight and egg mass weight of ticks from treated animals were significantly lower throughout the 50-day posttreatment period. Egg hatch was not significantly reduced posttreatment and remained at levels of 80%-90%. A random selection of 9 out of 28 commercial formulations of ivermectin sold in Colombia were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). All were within the expected labeled concentration (±15% deviation) of 1% and 3.15% ivermectin except for one. A popular unregistered injectable widely used in both farms and labeled as "natural pyrethrin", was found to contain 10.5% ivermectin. An adult immersion test was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of topical acaricides to recommended concentrations of five commercial products and/or their combinations. Efficacy was determined by comparing the reproductive index of each treated group to that of the control group. Cypermethrin (150 ppm) was completely ineffective at both farms. Amitraz (208 ppm) exhibited low and intermediate efficacies of 14% and 56%. The combination of amitraz (100 ppm) and

  17. A GPCR-focused investigation of the R. microplus transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus microplus, also known as the southern cattle tick, has been found in tropical and subtropical regions all over the world, including Mexico. It is a vector for parasites responsible for cattle diseases that can lead to decreased weight, anemia, loss of milk/meat production, and death. T...

  18. First report of fluazuron resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus: a field tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, José; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Webster, Anelise; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Scheffer, Ramon; Souza, Ugo Araújo; Corassini, Vivian Bamberg; Vargas, Rafael; dos Santos, Julsan Silveira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza

    2014-03-17

    The control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is based mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, which has contributed to the emerging problem of selection of resistant tick populations. Currently, there are six main classes of acaricides commercially available in Brazil to control cattle ticks, with fluazuron, a tick growth regulator with acaricidal properties, being the only active ingredient with no previous reports of resistance. Ticks (designated the Jaguar strain) were collected in a beef cattle ranch located at Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil, after a complaint of fluazuron treatment failure. To characterise the resistance of this strain against acaricides, larval tests were performed and showed that the Jaguar strain was resistant to all of the drugs tested: cypermethrin (resistance ratio, RR=31.242), chlorpyriphos (RR=103.926), fipronil (RR=4.441), amitraz (RR=11.907) and ivermectin (3.081). A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fluazuron treatment in heifers that had been experimentally infested with the Jaguar or a susceptible strain. Between 14 and 28 days after treatment, the average efficacy in cattle experimentally infested with the susceptible strain was 96%, while for the Jaguar strain the efficacy was zero. Additionally, the Jaguar strain response to fluazuron was evaluated in vitro using a modified adult immersion test (AIT) and the artificial feeding assay (AFA). With the AIT, 50 ppm of fluazuron inhibited 99% of larvae hatching in the susceptible strain (POA) and less than 50% in the Jaguar strain. Results of the AFA showed a larval hatching rate of 67% at 2.5 ppm of fluazuron with the Jaguar strain; conversely, only 3% of larvae of the susceptible strain hatched at the same fluazuron concentration. The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil. PMID:24560364

  19. Generation of full-length cDNAs for eight putative GPCnR from the cattle tick, R. microplus using a targeted degenerate PCR and sequencing strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W Corley

    Full Text Available We describe here a rapid and efficient method for the targeted isolation of specific members of gene families without the need for cloning. Using this strategy we isolated full length cDNAs for eight putative G-protein coupled neurotransmitter receptors (GPCnR from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Gene specific degenerate primers were designed using aligned amino acid sequences of similar receptor types from several insect and arachnid species. These primers were used to amplify and sequence a section of the target gene. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE PCR was used to generate full length cDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis placed 7 of these sequences into Class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR (Rm_α2AOR, Rm_β2AOR, Rm_Dop1R, Rm_Dop2R, Rm_INDR, Rm_5-HT(7R and Rm_mAchR, and one into Class C GPCR (Rm_GABA(BR. Of the 7 Class A sequences, only Rm_mAchR is not a member of the biogenic amine receptor family. The isolation of these putative receptor sequences provides an opportunity to gain an understanding of acaricide resistance mechanisms such as amitraz resistance and might suggest possibilities for the development of new acaricides.

  20. A new approach to characterization of the resistance of populations of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to organophosphate and pyrethroid in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faza, Aline Pasqualini; Pinto, Isabella Silvestre Barreto; Fonseca, Isabela; Antunes, Gustavo Resende; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Daemon, Erik; Muniz, Michelle de Souza; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Furlong, John; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2013-08-01

    The monitoring of resistance of cattle tick populations in Brazil to the chemical bases in use is largely limited to investigation of the phenotypic profile. There are few studies investigating the role played by the genotypic profile in acaricide resistance in the country. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to carry out molecular characterization and trace out the genetic profile of populations of Rhipicephalus microplus with respect to resistance to the organophosphate and pyrethroid chemical groups. For that purpose, larvae were genotyped belonging to 587 populations for pyrethroids and 306 for organophosphates, using the polymerase chain reaction technique. It was found that 75.49% and 97.44% of the larvae studied showed resistance to the organophosphates and pyrethroids, respectively. Among the populations resistant to pyrethroids, 91.9% were heterozygotes, showing that most of the resistant populations have only one allele responsible for resistance. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the genotyped populations have high resistance to organophosphates, and even more so to pyrethroids. This information is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms of resistance of R. microplus to acaricides, to enable improvement of control techniques. PMID:23639866

  1. Host resistance in cattle to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Piper, E K; Constantinoiu, C C

    2014-11-01

    Resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus infestation in cattle has many effector mechanisms, each of which is likely to be modulated by complex, interacting factors. Some of the mechanisms of host resistance and their modulating factors have been identified and quantified, although much remains to be explained. The variation in resistance to tick infestation is most marked between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, taurine cattle given the same exposure carrying between five and 10 times as many ticks as indicine cattle. Tick resistance is mostly manifest against attaching larvae, which attempt to feed often and without success, death occurring mostly within 24 h of finding a host. There is evidence of innate and adaptive immune response to tick infestation, and it appears that the relative importance of each differs between indicine and taurine cattle. There is conflicting information regarding the role of humoral immunity in tick resistance, and recent studies indicate that strong IgG responses to tick antigens are not protective. A strong T-cell-mediated response directed against larval stages, as mounted by indicine cattle, seems to be protective. Variation in the extracellular matrix of skin (epidermal growth factors, collagens and other matrix components such as lumican) also contributes to variation in host resistance. PMID:25313455

  2. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is an important factor on animal resistance to ticks. Rhipicephalus microplus is the most pathogenic cattle tick in Brazil causing death in susceptible animals. Cortisol is the hormone of stress. The influence of grooming on tick infestation and serum cortisol level was studied in 16 Holstein heifers from fifth to eight-month-old. They were infested with 10,000 larvae in June/20/2011. Half of them used a necklace made of wood strips and had an infestation chamber made by cotton cloth covering about 50 cm diameter of the shaved flank, fixed at the skin in both sides with adhesive to prevent larvae to escape from the infestation chamber and the amount of larvae was divided into the two chambers. Such artifacts had the purpose to avoid grooming. The heifers remained all the tick parasitic life cycle in individual pens inside a closed shed at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. Tick females bigger than 4.5 mm were counted in the right side from day 20 to 22 after the artificial infestation. The tick recovery rate was calculated by adding and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that 5,000 female larvae had infested the cattle. Immediately before infestation (day 0 and in day2, day8, and day17 after infestation, blood samples were collected using vacuum tubes, in the morning (8:30 – 10:00 A.M.. Cortisol was measured by immunoassay (EIA and the D.O. (optical density at 420 nm was converted in ng of cortisol/mL of serum sample. The experimental design was randomized with 8 replications. Data from serum cortisol were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using the presence of the artifacts (necklace and chamber and sampling day as independent variables and serum cortisol as the dependent variable. In the analyse of tick recovery rate, the presence of artifacts was the independent variable and tick recovery rate the dependent variable. The presence of

  3. Assessment of bovine immunoprotecion against Rhipicephalus microplus using Bm86-CG antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a major pest of cattle in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In addition to direct effects associated with its obligate parasitic way of life, R. microplus also transmits the pathogens that cause bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Commercially ...

  4. High efficacy of a 20 amino acid peptide of the acidic ribosomal protein P0 against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina; Encinosa, Pedro E; Méndez-Pérez, Lídice; Bello, Yamil; Rodríguez Fernández, Rafmary; Garay, Hilda; Cabrales, Ania; Méndez, Luis; Borroto, Carlos; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Current strategies to control cattle ticks use integrated control programs (ICP) that include vaccination. Reduction in the use of chemicals and in the cost of tick control, the delay or elimination of acaricide resistance and the decreasing of environmental pollution are the advantages of using these programs. This integrated program is potentially applicable to all genotypes of chemical resistant ticks. However, the problem here is to improve the efficacy of anti-tick vaccines. The P0 protein is a structural component of the ribosome of all organisms. We have identified an immunogenic region of ribosomal protein P0 from Rhipicephalus spp. ticks that is not very conserved compared to the orthologous protein in their hosts. A synthetic 20 amino acid peptide from this sequence was effective as a vaccine against Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestations in an immunization and challenge experiment using rabbits. In this paper, the same peptide used as vaccine against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus shows a significant diminution in the number of engorged females recovered, in the weight of females and the weight of egg masses. The number of eggs hatched was also significantly reduced for the vaccinated group, with an overall effectivity for the antigen pP0 of 96%. These results, together with the conserved sequence of the P0 peptide among ticks, suggest that this antigen could be a good broad spectrum vaccine candidate. It would be expected to be active against many species of ticks and thus has promise in an ICP for effective control of ticks and thereby to improve the efficiency and productivity of the livestock industry. PMID:25958782

  5. Extensive larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vandana Rai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans is characterized by tortuous migratory lesions of the skin caused by larvae of nematodes. A 26-year-old fisherman presented to us with complaints of an itchy eruption on his back and arms of two months′ duration. Clinical examination revealed multiple wavy serpentine tracts and fork like lesions with a raised absolute eosinophil count of 3800 cells/cmm. Biopsy was inconclusive. This case is reported to highlight the extensive involvement by larva migrans.

  6. Extensive larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vandana Rai

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans is characterized by tortuous migratory lesions of the skin caused by larvae of nematodes. A 26-year-old fisherman presented to us with complaints of an itchy eruption on his back and arms of two months′ duration. Clinical examination revealed multiple wavy serpentine tracts and fork like lesions with a raised absolute eosinophil count of 3800 cells/cmm. Biopsy was inconclusive. This case is reported to highlight the extensive involvement by larva migrans.

  7. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...... to have a beneficial effect on the growth performance, intestinal health and on animal behavior in flocks....

  8. Acaricidal efficacies of Lippia gracilis essential oil and its phytochemicals against organophosphate-resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-derived natural products can serve as an alternative to synthetic compounds for control of ticks of veterinary and medical importance. Lippia gracilis is an aromatic plant that produces essential oil with high content of carvacrol and thymol monoterpenes. These monoterpenes have high acaricida...

  9. Assessing bovine babesiosis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks and 3 to 9-month-old cattle in the middle Magdalena region, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos-Tobón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.

  10. VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA DA ADOÇÃO DO CONTROLE ESTRATÉGICO DO CARRAPATO RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (CANESTRINI, 1887 EM REBANHOS BOVINOS LEITEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Monteiro de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade econômica do programa de controle estratégico do carrapato em bovinos leiteiros adotado pela Embrapa Gado de Leite. O programa se fundamenta na racionalização do uso de carrapaticidas com a realização de tratamentos no período em que a população de carrapatos encontra-se reduzida; na escolha do produto mais adequado para o combate da população de carrapatos, por meio da realização de testes de sensibilidade dos carrapatos aos carrapaticidas; e, pela utilização do carrapaticida na diluição recomendada e quantidade suficiente para banhar todo o corpo do animal. O estudo foi realizado junto a 104 produtores rurais, criadores de gado de leite, em 27 municípios da região central e norte do estado de Minas Gerais. As informações foram coletadas por meio de questionário, no período de setembro a novembro de 2010. Constatou-se que em 68% dos rebanhos, a infestação por TPB é a que mais afeta os animais. Por causa desse e outros problemas, 79% dos consultados resolveram aderir ao Programa por recomendação do técnico e outros 70% por causa das altas infestações nos animais. Setenta e nove por cento aderiram e seguiram o Programa, de maneira correta. Nessas fazendas, a maior parte da mão de obra é contratada (46%, o sistema de exploração da atividade leiteira é o semi-intensivo (84%, o padrão racial do rebanho é o cruzamento Girolando (95% e em, 45%, a produção média diária de leite varia entre 40 a 400 litros. Antes da adesão ao Programa, em 89% das propriedades, as vacas lactantes eram as mais afetadas, seguidas de bezerros. Para escolher o carrapaticida, 41% dos produtores baseavam a escolha na indicação do balconista. Após a adesão ao Programa, 94% dos fazendeiros seguiram as orientações repassadas pelos técnicos. O primeiro motivo citado (78% para permanência com o plano de controle foi a credibilidade no teste de sensibilidade dos carrapatos aos acaricidas. Com isso, 90% notaram a diminuição dos ataques pelo parasito, mudando a maneira de realizar os banhos (100% dos produtores. Houve a redução de 57% dos gastos em reais com a compra de carrapaticidas por mês e de 33% da quantidade de tratamentos por ano. Em relação à TPB, houve queda de 60% do número médio de casos e 100% da média do número de mortes em bezerros. Portanto, os resultados indicaram que a adoção do controle estratégico do carrapato em bovinos leiteiros possibilitou a redução das despesas dos produtores com aquisição de carrapaticidas químicos. Além disso, a adoção do controle estratégico possibilitou a redução de prejuízos diretos e indiretos causados pelo carrapato, com reflexos positivos sobre a produção e a qualidade do leite e derivados.

  11. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling tick [Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus] resistance on bovine cjrp,psp,es 5, 7 and 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds have diverged at approximately 10.000 years ago, the differences in the process of domestication and subsequent selection for desired phenotypes is presumed to have contributed the phenotypic and genetic differences between these subspecies. Of particu...

  12. The penultimate arginine of the carboxy terminus determines slow desensitisation in a P2X receptor from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    P2X ion channels have been functionally characterised from a range of eukaryotes. Whilst these receptors can be broadly classified into fast and slow desensitising, the molecular mechanisms underlying current desensitisation are not fully understood. Here we describe the characterisation of a P2X ch...

  13. 微小牛蜱Bm86基因的真核表达%Eukaryotic expression of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卉; 任巧云; 罗建勋; 殷宏; 关贵全; 马米玲; 刘志杰; 刘爱红; 党志胜; 高金亮

    2005-01-01

    采用RT-PCR技术从微小牛蜱饥饿幼蜱破解物中扩增到Bm86基因,将其与巴斯德毕赤酵母分泌型表达载体pPIC9K重组构建了重组表达载体pPIC9K-Bm86,测序正确后将其用SacⅠ内切酶线性化后采用电穿孔法转化巴斯德毕赤酵母菌GS115,经G418抗性筛选高拷贝重组菌株后用甲醇诱导表达,SDS-PAGE和Western-blotting分析结果表明,诱导表达的培养上清液中表达出具有反应活性的68 ku重组Bm86蛋白,目的蛋白约占培养上清液中蛋白总量的32%以上,诱导96 h目的蛋白的表达量为0.36 mg/mL.

  14. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks and determination of the expression profile of Bm86

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan Frans; Postigo Milagros; Balk Jesper A; Nijhof Ard M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. In most studies on ticks where (semi-)quantitative RT-PCR is employed, normalization occurs with a single reference gene, usually β-actin, without validation of its presumed expression stability. The first goal of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus ...

  15. Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus intestine protein variants Bm86 Campo Grande strain, Bm86 and Bm95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Renato; Pedroso, Marisela S; Caetano, Alexandre R; Martins, Natália F

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and Gavac, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of potential MHC class-I binding regions in the antigens. Pair-wise alignment revealed that the similarity between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm86 is 0.2% higher than that between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm95 antigens. The identities were 96.5% and 96.3% respectively. Major suggestive differences in hydrophobicity were predicted among the sequences in two specific regions. PMID:18823577

  16. Boophilus microplus: estado actual de la resistencia a los acaricidas en la frontera México Estados Unidos y su impacto en la relación comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ramón González Sáenz Pardo; Rubén Hernández Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda la importancia de las exportaciones de ganado bovino en pie a los Estados Unidos de América, destacando el valor comercial que representa para México la entrada de divisas por 700 millones USD anuales por este concepto. La comercialización de ganado se ve frenada por barreras no arancelarias, tales como la tuberculosis (TB), brucelosis y las garrapatas. Se ha formado un grupo binacional de expertos para tratar estos temas. En el tema de garrapatas se han establecido sistemas de cola...

  17. Cellular responses to Rhipicephalus microplus infestations in pre-sensitised cattle with differing phenotypes of infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Dzama, Kennedy; Chimonyo, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, threatens cattle production in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Delayed skin hypersensitivity reactions are thought to cause Nguni cattle to be more resistant to R. microplus than Bonsmara cattle yet the cellular mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been classified. Tick counts and inflammatory cell infiltrates in skin biopsies from feeding sites of adult R. microplus ticks were determined in 9-month-old Nguni and Bonsmara heifers to determine the cellular mechanisms responsible for tick immunity. Nguni heifers (1.7 ± 0.03) had lower (P tick counts than the Bonsmaras (2.0 ± 0.03). Parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had higher counts of basophils, mast and mononuclear cells than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Conversely, parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had lower neutrophil and eosinophil counts than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Tick count was negatively correlated with basophil and mast cell counts and positively correlated with eosinophil counts in both breeds. In the Bonsmara breed, tick count was positively correlated with mononuclear cell counts. Cellular responses to adult R. microplus infestations were different and correlated with differences in tick resistance in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle breeds. It is essential to further characterise the molecular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate elicited by adult R. microplus infestation to fully comprehend immunity to ticks in cattle. PMID:24057115

  18. Baylisascaris larva migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  19. Comparison of 3 tests to detect acaricide resistance in Boophilus decoloratus on dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mekonnen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the larval offspring of engorged female Boophilus decoloratus, and of the engorged females, collected from cattle on the dairy farms Brycedale, Sunny Grove and Welgevind in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, was tested against the acaricides amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. Resistance was determined by means of the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT for larvae and the Reproductive Estimate Test (RET and Egg Laying Test (ELT for adults. At Brycedale the tests all indicated resistance to chlorfenvinphos, and RET and ELT indicated resistance to amitraz and emerging resistance to cypermethrin. At Sunny Grove, B. decoloratus was resistant to cypermethrin using SLIT and exhibited emerging resistance to chlorfenvinphos with SLIT and to cypermethrin with both RET and ELT. At Welgevind, resistance was recorded against chlorfenvinphos (SLIT and against cypermethrin (ELT, and emerging resistance against permethrin (RET. The results obtained with RET and ELT were generally comparable, but often differed from those obtained with SLIT. Resistance could be detected within 7 days with ELT compared to 42 days with RET and 60 days with SLIT.

  20. An integrative approach to understanding pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus and R. decoloratus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyk, Roelof Dj van; Baron, Samantha; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus decoloratus species occur in regions with savannah and temperate climates, typically in grassland and wooded areas used as cattle pasture. Both species are associated with the transmission of Anaplasma and Babesia spp., impacting livestock health and quality of livestock-associated products. In Africa, tick control is predominantly mediated with the use of acaricides, such as synthetic pyrethroids. After several years on the market, reports of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids escalated but limited field data and validation studies have been conducted to determine the extent of acaricide resistance in Africa. Without this data, knowledge-based tick control will remain problematic and selection pressure will remain high increasing the rate of resistance acquisition. To date, several pyrethroid resistance associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported for arthropods within the voltage-gated sodium channel. Three SNPs have been identified within this channel in pyrethroid resistant R. microplus ticks, but none has been reported for R. decoloratus. This study is the first to report the presence of a shared SNP within the voltage-gated sodium channel in both R. microplus and R. decoloratus, which is directly linked to pyrethroid resistance in R. microplus. As the mode of action by which these SNPs mediate pyrethroid resistance remains unknown, this study aims to set hypotheses by means of predictive structural modelling. This not only paves the way forward to elucidating the underlying biological mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance, but also improvement of existing acaricides and ultimately sustainable tick control management. PMID:26851840

  1. Role of Rhipicephalus microplus cheliceral receptors in gustation and host differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle worldwide. It is known that zebuine breeds of cattle are less susceptible to tick infestation than taurine breeds. Contact chemoreceptors in the cheliceral pit sensilla of ticks respond selectively to phagos...

  2. SNP Analysis Infers that Recombination Is Involved in the Evolution of Amitraz Resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Madder, Maxime; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus, better known as the Asiatic cattle tick, is a largely invasive ectoparasite of great economic importance due to the negative effect it has on agricultural livestock on a global scale, particularly cattle. Tick-borne diseases (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) transmitted by R. microplus are alarming as they decrease the quality of livestock health and production. In sub-Saharan Africa, cattle represent a major source of meat and milk, but this region of the world is severely affected by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. The principal method for tick control is the use of chemical acaricides, notably amitraz, which was implemented in the 1990's after resistance to other acaricides surfaced. However, the efficiency of chemical control is hindered by an increase in the frequency of mutant resistance alleles to amitraz in tick populations. Presently, the only way to assess amitraz resistance is by means of larval packet tests, but this technique is time-consuming and not particularly cost effective. The main aims of this study were three-fold. First, we attempted to correlate two known SNPs in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr) receptor with amitraz resistance in South African field samples of R. microplus. Second, we calculated gametic disequilibrium for these SNPs to determine whether they are randomly associated. Lastly, we conducted a study to assess the evolutionary effects of recombination within the OCT/Tyr receptor. Our results confirmed that the two SNPs are associated with amitraz resistance in the South African tick strain, and that they are in gametic disequilibrium. Additionally, recombination was detected in the OCT/Tyr receptor generating two recombinant haplotypes. These results are of concern to farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, and the emergence of amitraz resistance should be closely monitored in future. Therefore, we present a quick and affordable RFLP based diagnostic technique to assess amitraz resistance in field samples of R

  3. Role of Rhipicephalus microplus cheliceral receptors in gustation and host differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Soares, Sara Fernandes; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Oliveira, Thaynara Tatielly; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle worldwide. It is known that zebuine breeds of cattle are less susceptible to tick infestation than taurine breeds. Contact chemoreceptors in the cheliceral pit sensilla of ticks respond selectively to phagostimulant compounds, however their role in blood feeding relative to host susceptibility to infestation remains to be fully understood. We addressed this topic by conducting taste electrophysiology experiments with cheliceral pit sensilla preparations of R. microplus females. Solutions of five known ixodid tick phagostimulants were tested at different concentrations: sodium (NaCl), and potassium chloride (KCl) (10(-3)-10(-1)M); glucose (10(-4)-10(-1)M); adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (10(-6)-10(-2)M); and reduced l-glutathione (GSH) (10(-6)-10(-2)M). Serum samples from six susceptible animals of the Girolando breed (5/8 Bos indicus×3/8 B. taurus) and six resistant Nelore bovines (pure B. indicus) were also tested. A dose-dependent response of gustatory neurons associated with the chelicerae sensillum to NaCl, glucose, GSH, and ATP were observed. Responses by the cheliceral inner digit pit sensilla of R. microplus to KCl and glucose were also observed and they are reported here for the first time. In addition to an electrophysiological response to known phagostimulants, chemoreceptors in the chelicera of R. microplus responded differently to serum from cattle susceptible and resistant to infestation. The cheliceral pit neurons were more responsive to serum of R. microplus resistant bovines with a higher mean spike frequency (53.5±2spikess(-1)) than to serum samples from susceptible cattle (40.3±2spikess(-1)). The implications of chemosensation during tick blood feeding are discussed.

  4. SNP Analysis Infers that Recombination Is Involved in the Evolution of Amitraz Resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Baron

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus microplus, better known as the Asiatic cattle tick, is a largely invasive ectoparasite of great economic importance due to the negative effect it has on agricultural livestock on a global scale, particularly cattle. Tick-borne diseases (babesiosis and anaplasmosis transmitted by R. microplus are alarming as they decrease the quality of livestock health and production. In sub-Saharan Africa, cattle represent a major source of meat and milk, but this region of the world is severely affected by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. The principal method for tick control is the use of chemical acaricides, notably amitraz, which was implemented in the 1990's after resistance to other acaricides surfaced. However, the efficiency of chemical control is hindered by an increase in the frequency of mutant resistance alleles to amitraz in tick populations. Presently, the only way to assess amitraz resistance is by means of larval packet tests, but this technique is time-consuming and not particularly cost effective. The main aims of this study were three-fold. First, we attempted to correlate two known SNPs in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr receptor with amitraz resistance in South African field samples of R. microplus. Second, we calculated gametic disequilibrium for these SNPs to determine whether they are randomly associated. Lastly, we conducted a study to assess the evolutionary effects of recombination within the OCT/Tyr receptor. Our results confirmed that the two SNPs are associated with amitraz resistance in the South African tick strain, and that they are in gametic disequilibrium. Additionally, recombination was detected in the OCT/Tyr receptor generating two recombinant haplotypes. These results are of concern to farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, and the emergence of amitraz resistance should be closely monitored in future. Therefore, we present a quick and affordable RFLP based diagnostic technique to assess amitraz resistance in field

  5. Role of Rhipicephalus microplus cheliceral receptors in gustation and host differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Soares, Sara Fernandes; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Oliveira, Thaynara Tatielly; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle worldwide. It is known that zebuine breeds of cattle are less susceptible to tick infestation than taurine breeds. Contact chemoreceptors in the cheliceral pit sensilla of ticks respond selectively to phagostimulant compounds, however their role in blood feeding relative to host susceptibility to infestation remains to be fully understood. We addressed this topic by conducting taste electrophysiology experiments with cheliceral pit sensilla preparations of R. microplus females. Solutions of five known ixodid tick phagostimulants were tested at different concentrations: sodium (NaCl), and potassium chloride (KCl) (10(-3)-10(-1)M); glucose (10(-4)-10(-1)M); adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (10(-6)-10(-2)M); and reduced l-glutathione (GSH) (10(-6)-10(-2)M). Serum samples from six susceptible animals of the Girolando breed (5/8 Bos indicus×3/8 B. taurus) and six resistant Nelore bovines (pure B. indicus) were also tested. A dose-dependent response of gustatory neurons associated with the chelicerae sensillum to NaCl, glucose, GSH, and ATP were observed. Responses by the cheliceral inner digit pit sensilla of R. microplus to KCl and glucose were also observed and they are reported here for the first time. In addition to an electrophysiological response to known phagostimulants, chemoreceptors in the chelicera of R. microplus responded differently to serum from cattle susceptible and resistant to infestation. The cheliceral pit neurons were more responsive to serum of R. microplus resistant bovines with a higher mean spike frequency (53.5±2spikess(-1)) than to serum samples from susceptible cattle (40.3±2spikess(-1)). The implications of chemosensation during tick blood feeding are discussed. PMID:25616714

  6. Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus intestine protein variants BM86 Campo Grande strain, BM86 and BM95 Comparação da previsão de ligação das variantes de proteína de intestino de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Bm86 cepa Campo Grande, Bm86 e Bm95

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Andreotti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and GavacTM, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of potential MHC class-I binding regions in the antigens. Pair-wise alignment revealed that the similarity between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm86 is 0.2% higher than that between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm95 antigens. The identities were 96.5% and 96.3% respectively. Major suggestive differences in hydrophobicity were predicted among the sequences in two specific regions.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a seqüência de Bm86 cepa Campo Grande comparando-a com os antígenos Bm86 e Bm95 das preparações TickGardPLUS e GavacTM, respectivamente. O produto de PCR foi clonado em PMOSBlue e seqüenciado. Para calcular os conteúdos de alfa-hélice e fita beta do polipeptídio previsto, foi utilizada a ferramenta de prognóstico de estrutura secundária PSIPRED. O perfil de hidrofobicidade foi calculado usando os algoritmos de Hopp e Woods, além da identificação das possíveis regiões de ligação com MHC classe I nos antígenos. O alinhamento "pair-wise" revelou que a similaridade entre Bm86 cepa Campo Grande e Bm86 é 0,2% maior que aquela entre Bm86 cepa Campo Grande e Bm95. As identidades foram de 96,5% e 96,3%, respectivamente. Com relação à hidrofobicidade, os resultados sugerem que a maior diferença entre as seqüências está localizada em duas regiões específicas.

  7. Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus intestine protein variants BM86 Campo Grande strain, BM86 and BM95 Comparação da previsão de ligação das variantes de proteína de intestino de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 cepa Campo Grande, Bm86 e Bm95

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Andreotti; Marisela S. Pedroso; Caetano, Alexandre R; Natália F. Martins

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and GavacTM, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of po...

  8. Sequence variation of Bm86 in cattle fever ticks isolated from outbreaks in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus cattle infestations have significantly expanded beyond the original quarantine zone established in south Texas as part of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Major obstacles for containment of ticks...

  9. Disseminated Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Kaliaperumal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old male agricultural labourer presented with generalized itchy lesions over the back and extremities of 5 days duration. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple erythematous linear to serpentine lesions (numbering about 40 about 1-2 mm in width and ranging in length from 7 to 9 cm. The patient had eosinophilia and classical skin lesions, which responded very well to albendazole therapy. All these features supported the clinical diagnosis of dissenmintal cutaneous larva migrans.

  10. Acaricidal effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf ethanolic extract against Rhipicephlaus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, A R; Amithamol, K K; Juliet, S; Nair, S N; Ajithkumar, K G; Soorya, V C; Divya, T M; Jyothymol, G; Ghosh, S; Ravindran, R

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluates the acaricidal properties of crude ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula leaves for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test (AIT). The percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of ova laid were studied at different concentrations of the extract ranging from 50 to 100 mg / ml. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA. The extract produced complete inhibition of hatching of eggs at concentrations above 80 mg / ml of the extract. Mortality of adult engorged female ticks and inhibition of fecundity were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of extract against R. (B.) annulatus was 97.1 mg / ml.

  11. Immunoregulation of bovine macrophages by factors in the salivary glands of Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brake Danett K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative strategies are required to control the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, due to evolving resistance to commercially available acaricides. This invasive ectoparasite is a vector of economically important diseases of cattle such as bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. An understanding of the biological intricacies underlying vector-host-pathogen interactions is required to innovate sustainable tick management strategies that can ultimately mitigate the impact of animal and zoonotic tick-borne diseases. Tick saliva contains molecules evolved to impair host innate and adaptive immune responses, which facilitates blood feeding and pathogen transmission. Antigen presenting cells are central to the development of robust T cell responses including Th1 and Th2 determination. In this study we examined changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response of bovine macrophages exposed to salivary gland extracts (SGE obtained from 2-3 day fed, pathogen-free adult R. microplus. Methods Peripheral blood-derived macrophages were treated for 1 hr with 1, 5, or 10 μg/mL of SGE followed by 1, 6, 24 hr of 1 μg/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Real-time PCR and cytokine ELISA were used to measure changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response. Results Changes were observed in co-stimulatory molecule expression of bovine macrophages in response to R. microplus SGE exposure. After 6 hrs, CD86, but not CD80, was preferentially up-regulated on bovine macrophages when treated with 1 μg/ml SGE and then LPS, but not SGE alone. At 24 hrs CD80, CD86, and CD69 expression was increased with LPS, but was inhibited by the addition of SGE. SGE also inhibited LPS induced upregulation of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-12 cytokines, but did not alter IL-4 or CD40 mRNA expression. Conclusions Molecules from the salivary glands of adult R. microplus showed bimodal concentration-, and time-dependent effects on

  12. Chemical composition and efficacy of dichloromethane extract of Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Adne A; Motta, Lucimar B; Klafke, Guilherme M; Pohl, Paula C; Furlan, Cláudia M; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Negri, Giuseppina; Labruna, Marcelo B; Salatino, Antonio

    2013-02-18

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, causing high economic impact on cattle production. The control of tick infestations is regarded worldwide as critical and has been based on the use of organophosphates, synthetic pyretroids, amitraz and recently ivermectin and fipronil. The present study reports the analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the constituents of leaf extracts of Croton sphaerogynus and results of acaricidal activity against the cattle tick R. microplus. The larval package test using the serial dilutions 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0% and 20.0% (v/v) gave mortality rates 2.25%, 8.26%, 8.81%, 24.80%, 83.66% and 99.32%, respectively. Relevant constituents identified were abietanes, podocarpenes and clerodane type furano diterpenes. The present work may represent a possibility of attainment of natural substances useful for the control of R. microplus.

  13. Mosquitoes feeding on insect larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P; Riordan, D F; Cooke, D

    1969-04-11

    Caged Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis are attracted to insect larvae, engorge on their body fluids, and produce viable eggs. Attractiveness of the larvae is related to their size, shape, and color but not to their movement. The possibility that wild mosquitoes substitute insect hemolymph for vertebrate blood is discussed. PMID:5774191

  14. Gene expression profiling of adult female tissues in feeding Rhipicephalus microplus cattle ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzer, Christian; van Zyl, Willem A; Olivier, Nicholas A; Richards, Sabine; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is an economically important pest, especially for resource-poor countries, both as a highly adaptive invasive species and prominent vector of disease. The increasing prevalence of resistance to chemical acaricides and variable efficacy of current tick vaccine candidates highlight the need for more effective control methods. In the absence of a fully annotated genome, the wealth of available expressed sequence tag sequence data for this species presents a unique opportunity to study the genes that are expressed in tissues involved in blood meal acquisition, digestion and reproduction during feeding. Utilising a custom oligonucleotide microarray designed from available singletons (BmiGI Version 2.1) and expressed sequence tag sequences of R. microplus, the expression profiles in feeding adult female midgut, salivary glands and ovarian tissues were compared. From 13,456 assembled transcripts, 588 genes expressed in all three tissues were identified from fed adult females 20 days post infestation. The greatest complement of genes relate to translation and protein turnover. Additionally, a number of unique transcripts were identified for each tissue that relate well to their respective physiological/biological function/role(s). These transcripts include secreted anti-hemostatics and defense proteins from the salivary glands for acquisition of a blood meal, proteases as well as enzymes and transporters for digestion and nutrient acquisition from ingested blood in the midgut, and finally proteins and associated factors involved in DNA replication and cell-cycle control for oogenesis in the ovaries. Comparative analyses of adult female tissues during feeding enabled the identification of a catalogue of transcripts that may be essential for successful feeding and reproduction in the cattle tick, R. microplus. Future studies will increase our understanding of basic tick biology, allowing the identification of shared proteins

  15. Acetylcholinesterase 1 in populations of organophosphate-resistant North American strains of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendele, Kylie G; Guerrero, Felix D; Miller, Robert J; Li, Andrew Y; Barrero, Roberto A; Moolhuijzen, Paula M; Black, Michael; McCooke, John K; Meyer, Jason; Hill, Catherine A; Bellgard, Matthew I

    2015-08-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus, the cattle fever tick, is a global economic problem to the cattle industry due to direct infestation of cattle and pathogens transmitted during feeding. Cattle fever tick outbreaks continue to occur along the Mexico-US border even though the tick has been eradicated from the USA. The organophosphate (OP) coumaphos targets acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and is the approved acaricide for eradicating cattle fever tick outbreaks. There is evidence for coumaphos resistance developing in cattle ticks in Mexico, and OP-resistant R. microplus ticks were discovered in outbreak populations of Texas in 2005. The molecular basis of coumaphos resistance is not known, and our study was established to gather further information on whether AChE1 is involved in the resistance mechanism. We also sought information on allele diversity in tick populations with different levels of coumaphos resistance. The overarching project goal was to define OP resistance-associated gene mutations such that a DNA-based diagnostic assay could be developed to assist the management of resistance. Three different AChE transcripts have been reported in R. microplus, and supporting genomic and transcriptomic data are available at CattleTickBase. Here, we report the complete R. microplus AChE1 gene ascertained by sequencing a bacterial artificial chromosome clone containing the entire coding region and the flanking 5' and 3' regions. We also report AChE1 sequences of larval ticks from R. microplus strains having different sensitivities to OP. To accomplish this, we sequenced a 669-bp region of the AChE1 gene corresponding to a 223 amino acid region of exon 2 to assess alleles in seven strains of R. microplus with varying OP resistance phenotypes. We identified 72 AChE1 sequence variants, 2 of which are strongly associated with OP-resistant phenotypes. Esterase-like sequences from the R. microplus transcriptome RmiTr Version 1.0 were compared to the available sequence databases to

  16. Prevalence of Resistant Strains of Rhipicephalus microplus to Acaricides in Cattle Ranch in the Tropical Region of Tecpan of Galeana, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olivares-Pérez*, S. Rojas-Hernández, M.T. Valencia-Almazan, I. Gutiérrez-Segura and E.J. Míreles-Martínez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tick and tick borne diseases cause many problems to the cattle industry worldwide. The prevalence of resistant strains of Rhipicephalus microplus to different acaricides on cattle farms in the tropical region of Tecpan of Galeana, Guerrero, Mexico, and risk factors related to prevalence of resistant strains of R. microplus. Sixty one ranches infested were sampled; in each ranch were collected 30-50 fully-engorged female R. microplus ticks, of 10 cattle randomly selected, and evaluated in their progeny resistance to acaricides, using the larval packet test. The prevalence of resistant strains was total pyrethroids and amitraz. In organophosphorus 31.1, 48.3 and 82.2% of strains were resistant to clorpyriphos, coumaphos and diazinon, respectively. Risk factors favored (P<0.05 the development of resistant strains of acaricides. We concluded that the resistance of R. microplus to acaricides used to control a problem, and risk factors (livestock management have accelerated the development of resistance.

  17. Expression of immune response genes in peripheral blood of cattle infested with Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, R; Wohlres-Viana, S; Reis, D R L; Teixeira, H C; Ferreira, A P; Guimarães, S E F; Prata, M C A; Furlong, J; Verneque, R S; Machado, M A

    2014-01-01

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus microplus is responsible for severe economic losses in tropical cattle production. Bos indicus breeds are more resistant to tick infestations than are Bos taurus breeds, and the understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in this difference is important for the development of new methods of parasite control. We evaluated differences in the transcript expression of genes related to the immune response in the peripheral blood of cattle previously characterized as resistant or susceptible to tick infestation. Crossbreed F2 Gir x Holstein animals (resistant, N = 6; susceptible, N = 6) were artificially submitted to tick infestation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h after tick infestation and evaluated for transcript expression of the CD25, CXCL8, CXCL10, FoxP3, interleukin (IL)-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) genes. Gene expression of CD25 (6.00, P resistant group at 48 h compared with samples collected before infestation. In the susceptible group, CXCL8 (-2.02, P resistance to R. microplus in cattle. PMID:24938612

  18. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form. PMID:27369577

  19. Biological parameters of two strains (acaricide resistant and susceptible of the tick Rhipicephalus microplusParâmetros biológicos de duas cepas (sensível e resistente a acaricidas do carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dalla Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of Rhipicephalus microplus to acaricides occurs in almost all regions where it is present and treatments with chemicals are the most frequent. Therefore the monitoring of ticks is crucial to diagnose resistance at an early stage to help slow down the spread of resistance and to obtain knowledge of the distribution of acaricide resistance. The objective of the present work was to know the biological parameters of R. microplus sensitive strain to the main acaricides used. We compared the number and weight of engorged females, as well as the mass of eggs obtained the percentage of hatching and reproductive efficiency of two strains (acaricide-resistant and susceptible of the tick R. microplus, after passage in cattle. The results showed a reduced capacity to adjust the acaricide-susceptible strain, which presented the lowest number of ticks recovered (p?0.0001, with less weight and egg mass. With respect to reproductive parameters, the ticks susceptible strain showed hatching rate eggs (p=0.0002410 and reproductive efficiency reduced when compared with those of the acaricide-resistant strain. A resistência do Rhipicephalus microplus aos carrapaticidas ocorre em quase todas as regiões onde ele está presente e os tratamentos com produtos químicos são os mais frequentes. Portanto, monitoramento de carrapatos é fundamental para diagnosticar a resistência em um estágio inicial, diminuir a propagação e obter conhecimento da distribuição da resistência acaricida. Com o objetivo de se conhecer os parâmetros biológicos de uma cepa sensível de R. microplus aos principais carrapaticidas utilizados, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido. Foram comparados o número e o peso de teleóginas, assim como a massa de ovos obtida, a percentagem de eclosão e a eficiência reprodutiva de duas cepas (sensível e resistente a acaricidas do carrapato R. microplus, após passagem em bovinos. Os resultados demonstraram uma menor capacidade de

  20. Injectable fipronil for cattle: Plasma disposition and efficacy against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Yara P; Ferreira, Thais P; Magalhães, Viviane S; Correia, Thais R; Scott, Fábio B

    2016-04-15

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole class insecticide. It is widely used as an insecticide in agriculture and in the control of ectoparasites in veterinary medicine. The application of fipronil in an injectable form (subcutaneously) becomes an innovation, since there is no commercially available preparation containing fipronil herein. The present study aimed at fipronil usage, applied subcutaneously in cattle, to control Rhipicephalus microplus. The assessing criteria used in the research have been the construction of the plasma concentration curve and efficacy studies. A method using High Performance Liquid Chromatograph with ultraviolet detection was developed for determination of fipronil in bovine plasma samples, providing a fast and simple process with good reproducibility and low limit of quantification. The validation of the analytical method showed linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity and stability, thus proving it as suitable for routine analysis. This method showed to be an important investigative tool in the analysis of fipronil plasma concentration in cattle. Fipronil administered via subcutaneous in bovine reached the systemic circulation (Cmax=378.06±137.44 ng/mL), was quickly absorbed (t(max)=10±0.87 h), and its elimination occurred slowly (t(1/2)=12 days), while maintaining quantifiable blood plasma levels (23.79±12.16 ng/mL) for up to 21 days after the treatment with a 1 mg/kg dosage. The in vivo efficacy tests proved that fipronil applied subcutaneously in a single dose of 1 mg/kg in cattle exhibited a mean efficacy of 82.41% against R. microplus. The potential of subcutaneous injection as an alternative treatment route in cattle encourage the development of an injectable formulation of fipronil. PMID:26995714

  1. Injectable fipronil for cattle: Plasma disposition and efficacy against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Yara P; Ferreira, Thais P; Magalhães, Viviane S; Correia, Thais R; Scott, Fábio B

    2016-04-15

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole class insecticide. It is widely used as an insecticide in agriculture and in the control of ectoparasites in veterinary medicine. The application of fipronil in an injectable form (subcutaneously) becomes an innovation, since there is no commercially available preparation containing fipronil herein. The present study aimed at fipronil usage, applied subcutaneously in cattle, to control Rhipicephalus microplus. The assessing criteria used in the research have been the construction of the plasma concentration curve and efficacy studies. A method using High Performance Liquid Chromatograph with ultraviolet detection was developed for determination of fipronil in bovine plasma samples, providing a fast and simple process with good reproducibility and low limit of quantification. The validation of the analytical method showed linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity and stability, thus proving it as suitable for routine analysis. This method showed to be an important investigative tool in the analysis of fipronil plasma concentration in cattle. Fipronil administered via subcutaneous in bovine reached the systemic circulation (Cmax=378.06±137.44 ng/mL), was quickly absorbed (t(max)=10±0.87 h), and its elimination occurred slowly (t(1/2)=12 days), while maintaining quantifiable blood plasma levels (23.79±12.16 ng/mL) for up to 21 days after the treatment with a 1 mg/kg dosage. The in vivo efficacy tests proved that fipronil applied subcutaneously in a single dose of 1 mg/kg in cattle exhibited a mean efficacy of 82.41% against R. microplus. The potential of subcutaneous injection as an alternative treatment route in cattle encourage the development of an injectable formulation of fipronil.

  2. Cytotoxic effects of extract of Acmella oleraceae (Jambú) in Rhipicephalus microplus females ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; de Carvalho Castro, Karina Neoob; Anholeto, Luis Adriano; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2016-08-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of different concentrations of the hexane extract of A. oleraceae (HEAO) (Jambú) on the germ cells of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus microplus female ticks, through a morpho-histological study, evaluating the effectiveness of the extract in the genesis of the individuals. To perform this analysis, 100 semi-engorged females were divided into five groups with 20 individuals each: groups I and II, respectively constituted by distilled water control and 50% ethanol + 1% DMSO, and groups III, IV, and V constituted by treatment with HEAO in the concentrations of 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg/mL, respectively. All the ticks were immersed in the different concentrations of the extract or in distilled water for 5 minutes, dried and conditioned in BOD incubator for 7 days. The individuals of the treatment groups revealed the action of this extract showing alterations in the germ cells of the females from the different groups when compared with those from the groups I and II (control groups). These alterations were mainly related to the size and shape of the oocytes; number of yolk granules; presence, number, size and location of vacuoles in the cytoplasm of all the germ cells; and the presence of nuclear alterations in these cells as well. Thus, it was demonstrated that the concentrations of HEAO affected the germ cells of R. microplus ticks. The effects of the extract are similar to those caused by renowned and efficient chemical products used to control these ticks. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:744-753, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27271726

  3. A model to simulate the effect of vaccination against Boophilus ticks on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodos, J; Boue, O; de la Fuente, J

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes a vaccination model to simulate the effect of cattle vaccination with concealed antigens on Boophilus tick spp. The model considers the vaccination effect in three parts: antibody titer, accumulation of damaging vaccination effects by parasite stages, and the effect of accumulated damage on all tick life stages. Biological parameters for ticks and hosts, as well as parameters describing tick-host interaction, were included. The validity of this model, integrated with the TICKSIM simulation program, was demonstrated for the Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac by comparing simulated and real data for several geographic locations in the Americas. All model parameters were estimated using field data collected in the different geographic locations. The model sensitivity to changes in antibody titer level and titer half-life was studied, and the impact on tick population density of changes in these parameters was evaluated. Simulation results showed that to achieve a higher level of tick control, an increase in the maximum antibody titer levels was more important than extending titer half-life in geographical locations with short seasonal peaks of tick infestation. The TICKSIM program, integrated with the new vaccination model, proved to be a framework for designing and evaluating tick control strategies, including vaccination with GavacTM. PMID:10669101

  4. Mutation in the RmβAOR gene is associated with amitraz resistance in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Sean W Corley; Jonsson, Nicholas N.; Piper, Emily K.; Cutullé, Christian; Stear, Michael J; Jennifer M. Seddon

    2013-01-01

    Amitraz is a widely used acaricide for the control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, an important parasite of cattle in the tropics and subtropics. Here we describe in detail the evolution of amitraz resistance in replicated populations of ticks in the field, using divergent selection pressures with amitraz. We also demonstrate a close association between resistance to amitraz and a specific allele of the β-adrenergic octopamine receptor gene, which we propose confers resistance to ...

  5. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  6. 微小牛蜱Bm86基因的原核表达与表达条件的优化%Prokaryotic Expression of Bm86 Gene of Boophilus microplus and Optimization of the Expression Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马米玲; 关贵全; 李有全; 刘爱红; 任巧云; 牛庆丽; 殷宏; 罗建勋

    2009-01-01

    根据微小牛蜱Bin86基因序列设计引物,在重组质粒pMD18-T-Bin86中克隆,并将其定向亚克隆入原核表达载体pGEX-4T-1,转化至大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)株,用不同浓度异丙基-β-D-硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)在不同时间进行诱导表达.十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)检测结果表明,37℃条件下经1 mmol/L IPTG诱导8 h后,目的 重组蛋白表达量最大,表达相对分子质量(Mr)约为94000的包涵体蛋白,与预期大小一致,目的 蛋白约占蛋白总量的29%.蛋白质印迹(Western blotting)分析表明,该重组蛋白可被兔抗微小牛蜱全蜱阳性血清所识别.

  7. Cloning of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus and construction of recombinant expression vector%微小牛蜱Bm86基因的克隆及真核表达载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卉; 任巧云; 殷宏; 罗建勋; 刘磊; 党志胜; 高金亮; 关贵全; 刘志杰; 刘爱红; 马米玲

    2005-01-01

    为了克隆微小牛蜱Bm86基因及构建该基因的表达载体,以微小牛蜱饥饿幼蜱的破解物提取的总RNA为模板,参照已发表的微小牛蜱Bm86基因的核苷酸序列,设计了1对引物,采用 RT-PCR技术获得微小牛蜱Bm86基因;将Bm86基因克隆入载体,并进行序列分析,结果证明,克隆的Bm86基因序列与GenBank上登录的Bm86基因序列的同源性达97.4%,而且该序列包含完整的开放阅读框.将该基因克隆入真核表达载体pPIC9K,构建并获得了重组真核表达载体pPIC9K-Bm86.

  8. Cloning and expression of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus in E.coli%微小牛蜱Bm86基因的克隆与原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊瑞泉; 任巧云; 刘爱红; 罗建勋; 杨孝朴; 殷宏; 高金亮; 关贵全; 刘志杰; 党志胜; 马米玲

    2007-01-01

    根据已发表的Bm86基因序列,设计表达型引物,利用RT-PCR技术,从微小牛蜱饥饿幼蜱的研磨物中扩增Bm86基因,将PCR产物连入pGEM-T Easy载体,构建重组克隆载体pGEM-T easy-Bm86.测序分析表明:克隆的微小牛蜱Bm86基因序列与GenBank上登录的Bm86基因的核苷酸和氨基酸序列的同源性分别为97 %和95.6 %.然后对重组克隆载体pGEM-T easy-Bm86进行双酶切,获得带有粘性末端的Bm86基因片段,并将此片段定向亚克隆入原核表达载体pGEX-4T-1,构建重组原核表达载体pGEX-4T-1-Bm86,将其转化到BL21宿主菌中,用IPTG进行诱导表达.SDS-PAGE检测表明表达产物为分子量为88Ku的融合蛋白,目的蛋白约占蛋白总量的39 %,表达量约为1.08mg/mL.Western blot分析表明此表达产物能被兔抗微小牛蜱阳性血清所识别.

  9. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  10. Use of Ivermectin as Endoparasiticide in Tropical Cattle Herds Generates Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes and the Tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-López, M A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine simultaneously the status of resistance against ivermectin (IVM) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) ticks in 12 cattle farms where IVM was used for the control of GIN in the Mexican tropics. Six farms had frequent use of IVM (≥ 4 times per year) and six farms had low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year). The fecal egg count reduction test and the larval immersion test were used to determine the resistant status of GIN and R. microplus against IVM, respectively. The results indicated that 100% of the surveyed farms had IVM-resistant GIN (reduction % from 0 to 67%). The genera involved were Haemonchus, Cooperia, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, and Oesophagostomum. Although the IVM was never used for the control of ticks, 50% of the surveyed farms presented GIN and R. microplus simultaneously resistant to IVM. Furthermore, two R. microplus populations showed high resistance ratio (RR) to IVM (farm TAT: RR50% = 7 and RR99% = 40.1; and farm SLS: RR50% = 2.4; RR99% = 11.0). A high frequency of IVM use (≥ 4 times per year) seemed to promote IVM resistance amongst R. microplus ticks compared with the farms with low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year; 66.6 vs. 25.0%, respectively). However, the number of surveyed farms was insufficient to show clear statistical inferences (odds ratio = 6.00; 95% CI = 0.341-105.5). The use of IVM for the control of GIN promoted simultaneously the development of IVM resistance in the GIN and R. microplus populations of the cattle herds surveyed. PMID:26336306

  11. Genetic diversity, acaricide resistance status and evolutionary potential of a Rhipicephalus microplus population from a disease-controlled cattle farming area in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, Luïse; Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Madder, Maxime; Stoltsz, Wilhelm H; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of great veterinary and economic importance. Along with its adaptability, reproductive success and vectoring capacity, R. microplus has been reported to develop resistance to the major chemical classes of acaricides currently in use. In South Africa, the Mnisi community in the Mpumalanga region offers a unique opportunity to study the adaptive potential of R. microplus. The aims of this study therefore included characterising acaricide resistance and determining the level and pattern of genetic diversity for R. microplus in this region from one primary population consisting of 12 communal dip-stations. The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that contribute to acaricide insensitivity. Additionally, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene fragments of collected individuals were sequenced and a haplotype network was constructed. A high prevalence of alleles attributed to resistance against formamidines (amitraz) in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr) receptor (frequency of 0.55) and pyrethroids in the carboxylesterase (frequency of 0.81) genes were observed. Overall, the sampled tick population was homozygous resistant to pyrethroid-based acaricides in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGS) gene. A total of 11 haplotypes were identified in the Mnisi R. microplus population from ITS2 analysis with no clear population structure. From these allele frequencies it appears that formamidine resistance in the Mnisi community is on the rise, as the R. microplus populations is acquiring or generating these resistance alleles. Apart from rearing multi-resistant ticks to commonly used acaricides in this community these ticks may pose future problems to its surrounding areas. PMID:26965787

  12. Genetic diversity, acaricide resistance status and evolutionary potential of a Rhipicephalus microplus population from a disease-controlled cattle farming area in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, Luïse; Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Madder, Maxime; Stoltsz, Wilhelm H; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of great veterinary and economic importance. Along with its adaptability, reproductive success and vectoring capacity, R. microplus has been reported to develop resistance to the major chemical classes of acaricides currently in use. In South Africa, the Mnisi community in the Mpumalanga region offers a unique opportunity to study the adaptive potential of R. microplus. The aims of this study therefore included characterising acaricide resistance and determining the level and pattern of genetic diversity for R. microplus in this region from one primary population consisting of 12 communal dip-stations. The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that contribute to acaricide insensitivity. Additionally, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene fragments of collected individuals were sequenced and a haplotype network was constructed. A high prevalence of alleles attributed to resistance against formamidines (amitraz) in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr) receptor (frequency of 0.55) and pyrethroids in the carboxylesterase (frequency of 0.81) genes were observed. Overall, the sampled tick population was homozygous resistant to pyrethroid-based acaricides in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGS) gene. A total of 11 haplotypes were identified in the Mnisi R. microplus population from ITS2 analysis with no clear population structure. From these allele frequencies it appears that formamidine resistance in the Mnisi community is on the rise, as the R. microplus populations is acquiring or generating these resistance alleles. Apart from rearing multi-resistant ticks to commonly used acaricides in this community these ticks may pose future problems to its surrounding areas.

  13. Control de Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) mediante el uso del hongo entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). Revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi; Roger Ivan Rodríguez-Vivas; Edelmira Galindo-Velasco; Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez; Carlos Cruz-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Las infestaciones de la garrapata del ganado, Rhipicephalus microplus, producen el mayor problema global de ectoparásitos en ganado de regiones tropicales y subtropicales, provocan importantes pérdidas económicas en la producción de carne, leche y pieles, además incrementan los gastos derivados de los programas de control, y son capaces de transmitir Babesia bovis, B. bigemina y Anaplasma marginale. El control de R. microplus se basa principalmente en el uso de ixodicidas, sin embargo, su uso...

  14. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances.

  15. Biology of Paenibacillus larvae, a deadly pathogen of honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Julia; Knispel, Henriette; Hertlein, Gillian; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2016-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees, a notifiable disease in many countries. Hence, P. larvae can be considered as an entomopathogen of considerable relevance in veterinary medicine. P. larvae is a highly specialized pathogen with only one established host, the honey bee larva. No other natural environment supporting germination and proliferation of P. larvae is known. Over the last decade, tremendous progress in the understanding of P. larvae and its interactions with honey bee larvae at a molecular level has been made. In this review, we will present the recent highlights and developments in P. larvae research and discuss the impact of some of the findings in a broader context to demonstrate what we can learn from studying "exotic" pathogens. PMID:27394713

  16. Non-Classical Gluconeogenesis-Dependent Glucose Metabolism in Rhipicephalus microplus Embryonic Cell Line BME26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Martins da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated several genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism, the major pathways for carbohydrate catabolism and anabolism, in the BME26 Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell line. Genetic and catalytic control of the genes and enzymes associated with these pathways are modulated by alterations in energy resource availability (primarily glucose. BME26 cells in media were investigated using three different glucose concentrations, and changes in the transcription levels of target genes in response to carbohydrate utilization were assessed. The results indicate that several genes, such as glycogen synthase (GS, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and glucose-6 phosphatase (GP displayed mutual regulation in response to glucose treatment. Surprisingly, the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes was found to increase alongside that of glycolytic enzymes, especially pyruvate kinase, with high glucose treatment. In addition, RNAi data from this study revealed that the transcription of gluconeogenic genes in BME26 cells is controlled by GSK-3. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of how glucose metabolism is regulated at the genetic level in tick cells.

  17. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  18. Molecular Characterization of Ancylostoma braziliense Larvae in a Patient with Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    OpenAIRE

    Joncour, Alexandre Le; Lacour, Sandrine A.; Lecso, Gabriel; Regnier, Stéphanie; Guillot, Jacques; Caumes, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans diagnosed microscopically. Viable hookworm larvae were found by microscopic examination of a skin scraping from follicular lesions. Amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 allowed the specific identification of the larvae as Ancylostoma braziliense.

  19. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeij, Mark J.A.; Marhaver, Kristen L; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Ivan Nagelkerken; Simpson, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (

  20. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Mark J A; Marhaver, Kristen L; Huijbers, Chantal M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency. PMID:20498831

  1. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to ob

  2. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  3. High resolution predictive mapping of Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus in south Texas after vaccination with the anti-tick vaccine Gavac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional anti-tick vaccines based on the tick gut antigen Bm86 exist commercially (TickGARD and Gavac) and could serve as an alternative to the use of acaricides to eradicate ticks, but their level of efficacy against R. microplus is too low for eradication if used alone. Therefore, the current ...

  4. Mutation in the RmβAOR gene is associated with amitraz resistance in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Sean W; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Piper, Emily K; Cutullé, Christian; Stear, Michael J; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2013-10-15

    We aimed to describe the evolution of resistance to amitraz in Rhipicephalus microplus in the field and to test the association between amitraz resistance and the frequency of a mutation in the β-adrenergic octopamine receptor gene (RmβAOR). We established six populations of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks in similar paddocks by the admixture of ticks from strains known to be susceptible and resistant to amitraz and synthetic pyrethroids. Each population was managed using one of three acaricide treatment regimes: always amitraz, always spinosad, or rotation between amitraz and spinosad. We used microsatellites to elucidate population structure over time, an SNP in the para-sodium channel gene previously demonstrated to confer resistance to synthetic pyrethroids to quantify changes in resistance to synthetic pyrethroids over time, and a nonsynonymous SNP in the RmβAOR, a gene that we proposed to confer resistance to amitraz, to determine whether selection with amitraz increased the frequency of this mutation. The study showed panmixia of the two strains and that selection of ticks with amitraz increased the frequency of the RmβAOR mutation while increasing the prevalence of amitraz-resistance. We conclude that polymorphisms in the RmβAOR gene are likely to confer resistance to amitraz. PMID:24082133

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05. The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus.

  6. Characterisation of divergent flavivirus NS3 and NS5 protein sequences detected in Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Maruyama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcripts similar to those that encode the nonstructural (NS proteins NS3 and NS5 from flaviviruses were found in a salivary gland (SG complementary DNA (cDNA library from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Tick extracts were cultured with cells to enable the isolation of viruses capable of replicating in cultured invertebrate and vertebrate cells. Deep sequencing of the viral RNA isolated from culture supernatants provided the complete coding sequences for the NS3 and NS5 proteins and their molecular characterisation confirmed similarity with the NS3 and NS5 sequences from other flaviviruses. Despite this similarity, phylogenetic analyses revealed that this potentially novel virus may be a highly divergent member of the genus Flavivirus. Interestingly, we detected the divergent NS3 and NS5 sequences in ticks collected from several dairy farms widely distributed throughout three regions of Brazil. This is the first report of flavivirus-like transcripts in R. microplus ticks. This novel virus is a potential arbovirus because it replicated in arthropod and mammalian cells; furthermore, it was detected in a cDNA library from tick SGs and therefore may be present in tick saliva. It is important to determine whether and by what means this potential virus is transmissible and to monitor the virus as a potential emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen.

  7. The First Report of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus kohlsi (Hoogstraal and Kaiser 1960 from Wild Goats (Capra hircus aega¬grus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nabian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies concerning ticks were of interest to evaluate the distribution and composition of species affecting live¬stock, thus it was a main step in our knowledge of the pathogens that they may transmit by tick. Methods: A collection of 21 adult female and 15 male hard ticks, all is representing a single species of tick collected under the tail of wild goat. The specimens preserved in 70 % alcohol in glass vial and brought to laboratory for identification. In or¬der to distinguish species relationships between wild and domestic animals, tick sampling has been achieved in 7 different places located around Kolah Qazi national park in Isfahan Province. Results: Important descriptions of ticks isolated from wild goat strongly supported that the tick species in this collection was only Rhipicephalus (Boophilus kohlsi. Conclusion: It seems that this is the first report of Rh. (Boophilus kohlsi in Iran. Wild sheep and goats live throughout Iran ex¬cept in forest and other tall vegetation areas. Although, both animals has pastured occasionally in same open rangeland but we could not find any tick of Rh. (Boophilus kohlsi in domestic animals.

  8. Behavior of Settling Marine Larvae in Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J.; Koehl, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many bottom-dwelling marine animals produce microscopic larvae that are dispersed by ambient water currents. These larvae can only recruit to habitats on which they have landed if they can resist being washed away by ambient water flow. We found that larvae on marine surfaces do not experience steady water flow, but rather are exposed to brief pulses of water movement as turbulent eddies sweep across them. We made video recordings of larvae of the tube worm, Hydroides elegans, (important members of the community of organisms growing on docks and ships) on surfaces subjected to measured realistic flow pulses to study factors that might affect their dislodgement from surfaces in nature. We found that the response of a larva of H. elegans to a realistic pulse of water flow depended on its behavior at the time of the pulse and on its recent history of exposure to flow pulses, and that stationary larvae were less likely than locomoting larvae to be blown away when hit by the first pulse of water flow.; ;

  9. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to th...

  10. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  11. Habitat selection by emperor fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Y; Shibuno, T.; Lecchini, David; Watanabe, Y.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great puzzles of coral reef fish ecology is how pelagic larvae locate the habitat in which they settle. The present study explored whether offshore emperor fish (Lethrinidae) larvae selected a specific reef and/or habitat at settlement. Although older juveniles are known to use back-reef seagrass beds as a potential nursery habitat, information is scarce regarding pre-settlement larvae. Using light traps anchored on the reef slopes at seagrass-replete and seagrass-free reefs (lshig...

  12. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. PMID:20545737

  13. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue. PMID:26179750

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01650-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8.g Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus B... 34 2.0 3 ( FG285891 ) 1108770704094 New World Screwworm Egg 926...nosize Bicyclus anynan... 30 2.6 4 ( FG294764 ) 1108770717863 New World Screwworm

  15. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  16. Filiform papilla of holstein’s tongue and its relation with the Rhipicephalus microplus tick resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies describe anatomical, morphological and histological analysis of domestic and wild animals tongue. The tongue is an extendable muscular organ that performs gripping, chewing, and swallowing food actions and executes tasting and mechanical body self-cleaning functions (grooming. The distribution of these tongue characteristics may vary, according to different species, but studies made with different animals classes reveal the filiform papilla acting in mechanical body cleaning function. In order to evaluate these mechanical functions, especially the self-cleaning one, we proposed to investigate filiform papillae length or its base dimensions would be related to the heifers resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Biopsies were performed in eight (8 Holstein heifers’ tongues, with a 6 mm diameter punch, in the anterior third of tongues, at the distance of 3 cm from its tip. The animals were anesthetized with xylazine hydrochloride 2%, a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant and received local anesthetic, hydrochloride 2.0 g lidocaine. After tissue removal, the local lesions received an ointment of triamcinolone acetonide, 1.0 mg g-1. The Holstein heifers were one year and half old and naturally infested with ticks in a paddock situated at “Instituto de Zootecnia”. We monitored their natural infestation by counting females ticks, greater than 4.5 mm, presents in every animal, in four weekly evaluations (from 8 to 28 December – 2011. These samples were submitted to technical process of fixation and dehydration (as required by in the scanning electron microscope study, in the laboratory NAP/MEPA - ESALQ-USP. The papillae were visualized and measured with the aid of the measurement tool between two points of the software in the scanning electron microscope Zeiss LEO 435VP. Statistically analyses were performed by the SPSSP 12.0 program in a complete randomized design. We employed the Oneway method for variance analysis to

  17. Late presentation of cutaneous larva migrans: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous larva migrans is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas. A history of recent travel to the tropics is usually elicited. Case presentation A case of cutaneous larva migrans is described in which symptoms did not appear until five months after travel to Tanzania. Conclusion Although the lesion of cutaneous larva migrans may appear immediately, the larvae may lie dormant for many months and presentation may therefore occur a long time a...

  18. Attraction to and learning from social cues in fruitfly larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2013-01-01

    We examined the use of social information in fruitfly larvae, which represent an ideal model system owing to their robust learning abilities, small number of neurons and well-studied neurogenetics. Focal larvae showed attraction to the distinct odour emanating from food occupied by other larvae. In controlled learning experiments, focal larvae preferred novel odours previously paired with food occupied by other larvae over novel odours previously paired with unoccupied food. When we gave grou...

  19. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana G; Barbieri, Fábio S; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Oliveira, Márcia C S; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales

    2011-01-01

    The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35-76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate (OP) associations (68.91-81.47%) and amidine (51.35-100%). For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the milbemycin (94.84-100%) was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21-100%) and the avermectins (81.34-100%). The phenylpyrazole (PZ) group had similar efficacy (99.90%) to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed. PMID:21547224

  20. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana G. Brito; Barbieri, Fábio S.; Rocha, Rodrigo B.; Márcia C. S. Oliveira; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales

    2011-01-01

    The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate...

  1. Acaricidal activity of the organic extracts of thirteen South African plants against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Gerda; Ramafuthula, Mary; Maselela, Vusi; Mokoena, Moses; Senabe, Jeremiah; Leboho, Tlabo; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Eloff, Jacobus N; Wellington, Kevin W

    2016-07-15

    The African blue tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, is a common tick species found in South Africa and affects cattle production as well as vectoring pathogens in regions of Africa and Asia. In an attempt to develop a non-toxic, lower cost and environmentally friendly tick control method, twenty-six plant extracts were prepared from thirteen plant species using 99.5% acetone and 99% ethanol. The adapted Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT) was used to test the efficacy of the extracts. A 1% solution of each of the plant extracts was prepared for efficacy testing and the ethanol extracts were found to have better acaricidal activity than the acetone extracts. The ethanol extract from the leaves and flowers of Calpurnia aurea had the best activity [corrected mortality (CM)=82.9%] which was followed by the stem extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CM=80.4%). The plant species were screened against Vero cells and were found to have low toxicity. From this study it is apparent that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against R. (B.) decoloratus. PMID:27270388

  2. Acaricidal Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst. Alston against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Adarsh Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst. Alston (family: Vitaceae against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus was assessed using adult immersion test (AIT. The per cent of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity, and blocking of hatching of eggs were studied at different concentrations. The extract at 10% concentration showed 88.96% inhibition of fecundity, 58.32% of adult tick mortality, and 50% inhibition of hatching. Peak mortality rate was observed after day 5 of treatment. Mortality of engorged female ticks, inhibition of fecundity, and hatching of eggs were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of the extract against R. (B. annulatus was 10.46%. The HPTLC profiling of the petroleum ether extract revealed the presence of at least seven polyvalent components. In the petroleum ether extract, nicotine was identified as one of the components up to a concentration of 5.4%. However, nicotine did not reveal any acaricidal activity up to 20000 ppm (2%. Coconut oil, used as diluent for dissolving the extract, did not reveal any acaricidal effects. The results are indicative of the involvement of synergistic or additive action of the bioactive components in the tick mortality and inhibition of the oviposition.

  3. Mitigation of Resistance Through Mixtures of Traditional Pesticides, Anti-tick Vaccines, and New Acaricides Developed by the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 70 years, the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has developed resistance to every acaricide available for its control. Recently, populations of R. microplus have evolved simultaneous resistance to multiple classes of acaricides. These multi-resistant population...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SD to SI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names C to CE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  7. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  8. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  9. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  10. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  11. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso Visceral larva migrans: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bortoli Machado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs from the environment originating from roundworms which commonly infect dogs and cats, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. The larvae penetrate the gut wall and migrate through the tissues causing disorders consequent to an inflammatory immune response¹. The authors describe a clinical case of visceral larva migrans with an unusual clinical presentation and also its clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed.

  12. Acaricidal effect of Pelargonium roseum and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils against adult stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Halajian, Ali

    2009-06-10

    In a laboratory trial, in west-central Iran, the acaricidal effects of the essential oils (EOs) prepared from two medicinal plants, i.e. Pelargonium roseum and Eucalyptus globulus on the adult stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus were evaluated. For this purpose, the engorged females of R. (B) annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of oils (0.31-5.0%) using a "dipping method" in vitro. The engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (eight per dilution) for 1min then each replicate was incubated in separate petri dishes at 26 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. The mortality rate for adult ticks exposed to different dilutions of P. roseum and E. globulus EO's showed a dose-dependent decrease. It was however significant only for the 2.5% and 5.0% dilutions of P. roseum EO, when compared to the non-treated control (P<0.05). The mass of produced eggs in adult female ticks exposed to both P. roseum and E. globulus EOs had decreased dose-dependently. It was significant for only 2.5% and 5.0% dilutions of P. roseum EO, comparing the non-treated control (P<0.05). The highest decrease in egg laying was reported for ticks treated with 5% dilutions of P. roseum (87.5%) and E. globosus (25%) (P<0.05). This is the first report that details the acaricidal activity of EO's obtained from P. roseum and E. globosus against R. (B) annulatus. The results show that both plants, particularly P. Roseum can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of R. (B) annulatus in the field.

  13. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  14. Cutaneous Larva Migrans - a Typical Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, G.; João, A

    2013-01-01

    A larva migrans cutânea é frequente em regiões tropicais e sub-tropicais e é causada pela migração de larvas de nemátodos na pele. O diagnóstico é efectuado essencialmente pelas características epidemiológicas da dermatose e pela sua semiologia clínica. Geralmente o tratamento é bem sucedido com albendazol ou ivermectina. Descreve-se o caso clínico de uma mulher de 54 anos que regressou de férias na Jamaica há cerca de 15 dias. A doente iniciou no local, uma pápula eritematosa, bem deli...

  15. The Biology of Decapod Crustacean Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    About 90% of the extant species of the Decapoda live in oceans and adjacent coastal and estuarine regions, and most of them pass through a complex life history comprising a benthic (juvenile-adult) and a planktonic (larval) phase. The larvae show a wide array of adaptations to the pelagic environment, including modifications in functio-nal morphology, anatomy, the molting cycle, nutrition, growth, chemical composi-tion, meta-bo-lism, energy partitioning, ecology, and behavior. Due to these ad...

  16. The early stress responses in fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mola, Lucrezia

    2016-05-01

    During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied. Indeed the immune system of this species is the best known among marine teleosts. In this review the data on main signal molecules of stress carried out on larvae of fish are considered and discussed. For sea bass active roles in the early immunological responses of some well-known molecules involved in the stress, such as ACTH, nitric oxide, CRF, HSP-70 and cortisol have been proposed. These molecules and/or their receptors are biologically active mainly in the gut before complete differentiation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), probably acting in an autocrine/paracrine way. An intriguing idea emerges from all results of these researches; the molecules involved in stress responses, expressed in the adult cells of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, during the larval life of fish are present in several other localizations, where they perform probably the same role. It may be hypothesized that the functions performed by hypothalamic-pituitary system are particularly important for the survival of the larva and therefore they comprises several other localizations of body. Indeed the larval stages of fish are very crucial phases that include many physiological changes and several possible stress both internal and environmental. PMID:26968620

  17. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  18. Feeding behavior of giant gourami, Osphronemus gouramy (Lacepede larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumronk Amornsakun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were carried out in 15-liter glass aquaria with 10 liters of water containing 1000 larvae aged 1.5 days post-hatching (before mouth opening in three replicates. It was found that the feeding scheme of larval giant gourami aged 5-17 days (TL 8.36-13.40 mm consumed Moina. The larvae aged 14-17 days (TL 12.40-13.40 mm consumed both Moina and artificial pellet. Larvae aged more than 18-days (TL 13.60 mm consumed only artificial pellet. Daily food uptake by the larvae and juvenile were determined in a 15-liter aquaria (water volume 10 liters containing 500 larvae. The larvae were fed with Moina at density of 10 ind/ml. Aquaria without larvae were also set for a control of natural fluctuation in food density. The amount of food intake was calculated based on changes of food density in the aquarium with and without fish larvae. It was found the average uptake of Moina in digestive tract per day of larvae aged 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17 days old were 38, 52, 182, 205 and 266 individual/larva, respectively at density of 1.27, 1.73, 6.07, 6.83, and 8.87 individual/ml, respectively.

  19. Interactions among Drosophila larvae before and during collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Nils; Risse, Benjamin; Berh, Dimitri; Bittern, Jonas; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Klämbt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In populations of Drosophila larvae, both, an aggregation and a dispersal behavior can be observed. However, the mechanisms coordinating larval locomotion in respect to other animals, especially in close proximity and during/after physical contacts are currently only little understood. Here we test whether relevant information is perceived before or during larva-larva contacts, analyze its influence on behavior and ask whether larvae avoid or pursue collisions. Employing frustrated total internal reflection-based imaging (FIM) we first found that larvae visually detect other moving larvae in a narrow perceptive field and respond with characteristic escape reactions. To decipher larval locomotion not only before but also during the collision we utilized a two color FIM approach (FIM(2c)), which allowed to faithfully extract the posture and motion of colliding animals. We show that during collision, larval locomotion freezes and sensory information is sampled during a KISS phase (german: Kollisions Induziertes Stopp Syndrom or english: collision induced stop syndrome). Interestingly, larvae react differently to living, dead or artificial larvae, discriminate other Drosophila species and have an increased bending probability for a short period after the collision terminates. Thus, Drosophila larvae evolved means to specify behaviors in response to other larvae.

  20. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  1. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles. PMID:26313007

  2. Microsporidium Infecting Anopheles supepictus (Diptera: Culicidae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Omrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (Diptera: Cu­licidae. In a recent study on the mosquito fauna of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, at the central western part of Iran, a few larvae of Anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. Cur­rent investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level.Methods: Fresh infected larvae were collected from the field. After determining the species identity they were dis­sected to extract their infective contents. Wet preparations were checked for general appearance and the size of the pathogenic microorganism. Fixed preparations were stained with Geimsa and Ryan-Blue modified Trichrome tech­niques to visualize further morphological characters. The obtained light microscopy data were used in the identifica­tion process.Results: The infected larvae were bulged by a whitish material filling the involved segments corresponding to a microsporidium infection. Bottle-shaped semioval spores ranged 4.33±0.19×2.67±0.12 and 4.18±0.43×2.45±0.33 micron in wet and fixed preparations, respectively. They were mostly arranged in globular structures comprised of 8 spores. These data was in favor of a species from the genus Parathelohania in the family Ambliosporidae.Conclusion: This is the first report of a microsporidium infection in An. superpictus. The causative agent is diag­nosed as a member of the genus Parathelohania. Further identification down to the species level needs to determine its ultrastructural characteristics and the comparative analysis of ss rRNA sequence data. It is also necessary to un­derstand the detail of the components of the transmission cycle.

  3. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  4. Nutritional components affecting skeletal development in fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Cahu, Chantal; Zambonino, Jose-luis; Takeuchi, Toshio

    2003-01-01

    Marine fish larvae undergo major functional and morphological changes during the developmental stages and several factors can interfere with the normal development of larvae and affect fry quality. Skeletal malformations, such as spinal malformation-scoliosis, lordosis, coiled vertebral column-, missing or additional fin rays, bending opercle or jaw malformations, are frequently observed in hatchery-reared larvae. This paper reviews the effects of some nutritional components on skeletal devel...

  5. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, C; Senecal, J; Gros Calvo, M; Ahrens, L; Josefsson, S; Wiberg, K; Vinnerås, B

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (pesticides into the environment. PMID:27177134

  7. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  8. Biodiversity of Insect Larvae in Streams at Jobolarangan Forest

    OpenAIRE

    MANAN EFENDI; EDWI MAHAJOENO; ARDIANSYAH

    2001-01-01

    Insect larvae are macro-invertebrate that becomes the most perfect indicator of aquatic-environmental health. Natural streams usually determined by its insect-larvae community in a good condition, in which their taxonomic diversity and richness are high. The objective of the research was to know the taxonomic diversity and richness of insect-larvae family in streams at Jobolarangan forest. The larvae were sampled using net-surber (dip-net) in three location of streams, i.e.: Parkiran (1773 m ...

  9. Protective action of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a cattle pen trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Renato; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante

    2013-10-18

    The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is globally regarded as the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock, and the evolution of resistance to commercial acaricides among cattle tick populations is of great concern. The essential oil derived from Tagetes minuta may be efficacious against cattle tick infestation, and the results of a cattle pen trial using this essential oil for the control of ticks are reported here. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of four major components in the essential oil. These components represent more than 70% of the essential oil: limonene (6.96%), β-ocimene (5.11%), dihydrotagetone (54.10%) and tagetone (6.73%). The results of the cattle pen trial indicated significant differences among the average values of the analyzed biological parameters, including the number of ticks, the average weight of the ticks, the average egg weight per engorged female and larval viability. Treatment with the T. minuta essential oil prepared in this study promoted significant effects on all biological indicators analyzed. Based on the biological indicators, the essential oil showed 99.98% efficacy compared to the control group when used at a 20% concentration. The results obtained in this study suggest that the T. minuta essential oil is a potential R. microplus tick control agent and may be used to mitigate the economic losses caused by tick infestation. PMID:23778081

  10. Integrated control of an acaricide-resistant strain of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus by applying Metarhizium anisopliae associated with cypermethrin and chlorpyriphos under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Anelise; Reck, José; Santi, Lucélia; Souza, Ugo A; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Klafke, Guilherme M; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O; Martins, João Ricardo; Schrank, Augusto

    2015-01-30

    The efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control ticks has been shown in several in vitro experiments. However, few studies have been undertaken in field conditions in order to demonstrate the applicability of its use as a biological control of ticks and its combination with chemical acaricides. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of M. anisopliae to control an acaricide-resistant strain of Rhipicephalus microplus under laboratory and field conditions. First, the compatibility of M. anisopliae strain (TIS-BR03) with commercial acaricides and its potential to control the cattle tick were evaluated in vitro. In general, acaricide treatments had mild effects on fungus viability. In the field experiment, the median of treatment efficacy with acaricide only, M. anisopliae only and combination of M. anisopliae with acaricide were 71.1%, 56.3% and 97.9%, respectively. There is no statistical difference between groups treated with M. anisopliae and acaricide alone. Thus, in this work we have demonstrated the applicability of M. anisopliae use associated or not with chemical acaricides on field conditions in order to control an acaricide-resistant strain of the cattle tick R. microplus. PMID:25577676

  11. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%, followed by SP + organophosphate (OP associations (68.91–81.47% and amidine (51.35–100%. For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs, the milbemycin (94.84–100% was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21–100% and the avermectins (81.34–100%. The phenylpyrazole (PZ group had similar efficacy (99.90% to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed.

  12. Partial selective treatment of Rhipicephalus microplus and breed resistance variation in beef cows in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Fortes, Fernanda Silva; Buzatti, Andréia; Kloster, Fernando Staude; Sprenger, Lew Kan; Coimbra, Eliane; Soares, Luis Dorneles

    2013-02-18

    Rhipicephalus microplus infestation causes heavy losses in cattle. The majority of farmers control the cattle tick by using long-acting drugs throughout the year, which evidently increases selection pressure for drug resistance. Partial selective treatment (PST) may be used to directly reduce selection pressure by treating only the portion of the herd that is most infested. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of PST in two herds of beef cows and the effect of breed tolerance. The Santiago (n=306 animals) and the São Francisco de Assis (n=204 animals) herds were composed of up to eight pure breeds of Bos taurus and Bos indicus and their crosses and were evaluated during the first and second (8 months) tick generations. Ticks larger than 4.5mm were counted on one side of the animal, and the animals were treated when numbers exceeded 20 ticks per host. On both farms, the tick-tolerant breeds with a high proportion of B. indicus (Braford, Brangus, and Nellore) consistently carried fewer ticks than Charolais. The economical evaluation showed an average profit margin in the use of PST of 674.25% and 1394.5% on the Santiago and São Francisco de Assis farms, respectively, in comparison to all-herd treatment. These results indicate that PST is a reliable tool for health management and may be used as a standard protocol for tick control with significant economic benefits on farms. In addition, the maintenance of the highest possible tolerant/resilient breeds is also an essential factor that should be considered in today's more sustainable animal production systems. PMID:23219046

  13. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Davies

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  14. Metamorphosis of cinctoblastula larvae (Homoscleromorpha, porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereskovsky, Alexander V; Tokina, Daria B; Bézac, Chantal; Boury-Esnault, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    The metamorphosis of the cinctoblastula of Homoscleromorpha is studied in five species belonging to three genera. The different steps of metamorphosis are similar in all species. The metamorphosis occurs by the invagination and involution of either the anterior epithelium or the posterior epithelium of the larva. During metamorphosis, morphogenetic polymorphism was observed, which has an individual character and does not depend on either external or species specific factors. In the rhagon, the development of the aquiferous system occurs only by epithelial morphogenesis and subsequent differentiation of cells. Mesohylar cells derive from flagellated cells after ingression. The formation of pinacoderm and choanoderm occurs by the differentiation of the larval flagellated epithelium. This is possibly due to the conservation of cell junctions in the external surface of the larval flagellated cells and of the basement membrane in their internal surface. The main difference in homoscleromorph metamorphosis compared with Demospongiae is the persistence of the flagellated epithelium throughout this process and even in the adult since exo- and endopinacoderm remain flagellated. The antero-posterior axis of the larva corresponds to the baso-apical axis of the adult in Homoscleromorpha.

  15. Feeding behaviour of snake head fish, Channa striatus larvae

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    Thumronk Amornsakun1*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding scheme experiments were done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 500 of two-dayold larvae (stage at first feeding. It was found that larval snake head fish aged 3-11 days (average total length 6.08-10.86 mmconsumed Moina. Larvae aged 12-15 days (average total length 10.79-14.61 mm consumed both Moina and commercialpellet (40 % crude protein. Larvae aged more than 16 days consumed only commercial pellet.Determining the daily food uptake by the larvae and juveniles was done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10liters containing 1,000 larvae. The larvae consumed Moina ,provide of a density of Moina 10 individual/ml. The amount offood intake was calculated based on changes of food density in the aquarium with and without fish larvae at 2-hour intervals.It was found that larvae aged 3-15 days consumed Moina. The average uptake of Moina in digestive tract per day of larvaeage 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days old was 28.7, 115.70, 162.27, 195.30 and 227.30 individual/larva, respectively at water temperaturesranging between 25 and 28°C.A starvation experiment was carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters with three replications.Two hundred newly hatched larvae were kept without feeding. Larvae started to die at 216 hr and totally died within 326 hrafter hatching at water temperature ranging between 28.0 and 30.5°C.

  16. BACTERIAL FLORA OF RAINBOW TROUT LARVAE AND FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available There are no information in available literature about the structure of bacterial flora in rainbow trout larvae and fry in the first days of their lives. The objective of our work has been to follow bacteroflora between the third and the eighth week of their lives. During 35 days of experiment bacteroflora of rainbow trout has been examined, along with following physico–chemical characteristics of water quality as well as it’s influence on health. Samples for bacteriological examination were taken from gill, heart and kidney areas and innoculated on the plates. Bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, slides with Gram staining, and afterwords biochemical tests were performed. For identification, APILAB Plus programme (bio Mérieux, France was used. Bacterial population of rainbow trout larvae and fry changed in dependence with their age. Physico–chemical characteristics of water ranged within optimal values. Most of bacterial colonies originated from gill isolates (64,4 %, than from heart (21,8 % and kidney areas (13,8 %. The bacterial flora of larvae in incubator was composed mostly of Gram–positive bacteria (75,1 %, genera: Renibacterium (25 %, Lactobacillus (16,7 %, Staphilococcus (16,7 % and Corynebacterium (16,7 %. The transfer of larvae from incubator into the pools resulted in reducing bacterial flora (–66,7 % after 45 minute stay in the pool. Gram–negative bacteria, which have been represented in larvae in incubator with low percent (24, 9 %, after the transfer of larvae to the pools became dominant and represented more than 95 % of rainbow trout larvae and fry bacterial flora. Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram–negative genera in larvae in incubator, whereas Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Pasteurella were the main isolates from rainbow trout larvae and fry until the end of experiment. Bacterial flora of larvae in incubator mostly consists of Gram–positive bacteria

  17. The effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on white sturgeon larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Mesa, M.G.; Parsley, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Spill at dams has caused supersaturation of atmospheric gas in waters of the Columbia and Snake rivers and raised concerns about the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) on white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus. The timing and location of white sturgeon spawning and the dispersal of white sturgeon larvae from incubation areas makes the larval stage potentially vulnerable to the effects of DGS. To assess the effects of DGS on white sturgeon larvae, we exposed larvae to mean total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 118% and 131% saturation in laboratory bioassay tests. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) was manifested as a gas bubble in the buccal cavity, nares, or both and it first occurred at developmental stages characterized by the formation of the mouth and gills. Exposure times of 15 min were sufficient to elicit these signs in larvae in various stages of development. No mortality was observed in larvae exposed to 118% TDG for 10 d, but 50% mortality occurred after a 13-d exposure to 131% TDG. The signs of GBT we observed resulted in positive buoyancy and alterations in behavior that may affect the dispersal and predation vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae. The exact depth distribution of dispersing white sturgeon larvae in the Columbia River currently is unknown. Thus, our results may represent a worst-case scenario if white sturgeon larvae are dispersed at depths with insufficient hydrostatic pressure to compensate for high TDG levels.

  18. Effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on gnathostoma spinigerum larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnathostoma spinigerum infective larvae were found to be very resistant to gamma ray. The larvae were still viable, motile and capable to infect white mice with no observable abnormality in both internal and external structures and their sizes after exposure to 0-7.0 KGy of gamma ray. At doses of 0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 KGy, the infective rates were 72%, 78%, 64%, 54%, 28%, 42%, 26%, 14% and 5% respectively. The infective rates of the irradiated larvae exposed to 8 KGy and 10 KGy of irradiation in mice became zero. The reduction of motility and infectivity was first observed after exposure of larvae to 1.5 KGy of gamma ray. It was also found that motility and infectivity decreased in relationship to the higher doses of gamma ray. At 10.0 KGy of irradiation which was the highest dose used in this experiment could not devitalize the larvae but inhibit infectivity. Irradiation of the larvae mixed in food prepared from fishes at 8 KGy was proved to inhibit the infectivity. On the study, the dose of 8.0 KGy was suggested to be the minimum effective dose that inhibited the infectivity of the infective stage. To confirm the effective dose, the mixture of the infective larvae and Somfuk, a local food, was treated by 8 KGy and these irradiated larvae precisely lost their infectivity in mice

  19. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  20. Cultivation of sponge larvae: settlement, survival, and growth of juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Otjens, H.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to culture sponge juveniles from larvae. Starting from larvae we expected to enhance the survival and growth, and to decrease the variation in these parameters during the sponge cultures. First, settlement success, morphological changes during metamorphosis, and survival of

  1. Bacteria Present in Comadia redtenbacheri Larvae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, L; Llanderal-Cázares, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Aranda-Ocampo, S

    2015-09-01

    The external and internal culturable bacterial community present in the larvae of Comadia redtenbacheri Hammerschmidt, an edible insect, was studied. Characterization of the isolates determined the existence of 18 morphotypes and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the existence of Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus safensis, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus pseudomycoides, Corynebacterium variabile, Enterococcus sp., Gordonia sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cereus. Greater diversity of bacteria was found in those larvae obtained from vendors than in those directly taken from Agave plants in nature. Many of the larvae obtained from vendors presented signs of potential disease, and after the analysis, results showed a greater bacterial community compared with the larvae with a healthy appearance. This indicates that bacterial flora can vary in accordance with how the larvae are handled during extraction, collection, and transport. PMID:26336239

  2. Chemical spying in coral reef fish larvae at recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Natacha; Brooker, Rohan M; Lecellier, Gaël; Berthe, Cécile; Frédérich, Bruno; Banaigs, Bernard; Lecchini, David

    2015-10-01

    When fish larvae recruit back to a reef, chemical cues are often used to find suitable habitat or to find juvenile or adult conspecifics. We tested if the chemical information used by larvae was intentionally produced by juvenile and adult conspecifics already on the reef (communication process) or whether the cues used result from normal biochemical processes with no active involvement by conspecifics ("spying" behavior by larvae). Conspecific chemical cues attracted the majority of larvae (four out of the seven species tested); although while some species were equally attracted to cues from adults and juveniles (Chromis viridis, Apogon novemfasciatus), two exhibited greater sensitivity to adult cues (Pomacentrus pavo, Dascyllus aruanus). Our results indicate also that spying cues are those most commonly used by settling fishes (C. viridis, P. pavo, A. novemfasciatus). Only one species (D. aruanus) preferred the odour of conspecifics that had had visual contact with larvae (communication). PMID:26318049

  3. [Tungiasis and cutaneous larva migrans: unpleasant travel souvenirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-12-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) and cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption) are parasitic skin diseases in which the infectious agents only temporarily invade human skin. The parasites die in situ and eventually are eliminated by tissue repair mechanisms. Both diseases are zoonoses. Humans only accidentally become a host for animal hookworm larvae (resulting in cutaneous larva migrans), but get infected with Tunga penetrans as frequent as domestic animals. In travelers to tropical and subtropical regions tungiasis and cutaneous larva migrans are the most common imported skin diseases. The diagnosis is made clinically. In tungiasis the clinical manifestations depend on the stage of the disease. Intense local inflammation and bacterial superinfection are common. Cutaneous larva migrans is treated orally with ivermectin or albendazole. A repellent based on coconut oil effectively prevents penetration of sand fleas.

  4. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    . To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  5. Evaluation of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) exotrophic larvae as live feed for marine decapod crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Repolho, Tiago Filipe Baptista da Rosa, 1974-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Marinha e Aquacultura), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 In the present study, we have evaluated 4‐arm exotrophic larvae of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) as live feed in marine decapod crustacean larviculture, in comparison to Artemia spp. naupliar stages, a commonly used live prey in marine hatcheries. We therefore investigated several key parameters to assess the potential of P. lividus plutei as l...

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of surface proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae and intestinal infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Cui, Jing; Liu, Xiao Lin; Jiang, Peng; Sun, Ge Ge; Zhang, Xi; Long, Shao Rong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2015-10-01

    The critical step for Trichinella spiralis infection is that muscle larvae (ML) are activated to intestinal infective larvae (IIL) and invade intestinal epithelium to further develop. The IIL is its first invasive stage, surface proteins are directly exposed to host environment and are crucial for larval invasion and development. In this study, shotgun LC-MS/MS was used to analyze surface protein profiles of ML and IIL. Totally, 41 proteins common to both larvae, and 85 ML biased and 113 IIL biased proteins. Some proteins (e.g., putative scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain protein and putative onchocystatin) were involved in host-parasite interactions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that proteins involved in generation of precursor metabolites and energy; and nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolic process were enriched in IIL at level 4. Some IIL biased proteins might play important role in larval invasion and development. qPCR results confirmed the high expression of some genes in IIL. Our study provides new insights into larval invasion, host-Trichinella interaction and for screening vaccine candidate antigens. PMID:26184560

  7. Larva migrans within scalp sebaceous gland Larva migrans em glândula sebácea do couro cabeludo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Calheiros Guimarães

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of larva migrans or serpiginous linear dermatitis on the scalp of a teenager is reported. An ancylostomid larva was found within a sebaceous gland acinus. The unusual skin site for larva migrans as well as the penetration through the sebaceous gland are highlighted. The probable mechanism by which the parasite reached the skin adnexa is discussed.Relata-se caso de larva migrans ou dermatite linear serpiginosa no couro cabeludo de adolescente, no qual o ancilostomídeo foi encontrado no interior de glândula sebácea. Destaca-se a possibilidade do helminto sediar-se em locais pouco usuais, das glândulas sebáceas serem via de penetração de larvas na pele e discute-se o provável mecanismo pelo qual o agente implantou-se no anexo cutâneo.

  8. Biodiversity of Insect Larvae in Streams at Jobolarangan Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANAN EFENDI

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect larvae are macro-invertebrate that becomes the most perfect indicator of aquatic-environmental health. Natural streams usually determined by its insect-larvae community in a good condition, in which their taxonomic diversity and richness are high. The objective of the research was to know the taxonomic diversity and richness of insect-larvae family in streams at Jobolarangan forest. The larvae were sampled using net-surber (dip-net in three location of streams, i.e.: Parkiran (1773 m asl., Mrutu (1875 m asl., and Air Terjun (1600 m asl.. The screened insect-larvae were grouped its family and counted their individual number. The diversity was counted using Shanon-Weiner diversity indices. In this research was found 12 families of insect-larvae consisted of two families of Odonata order, 3 families of Coleopteran order, and a family of Lepidoptera. Nine families identified, while the three insect-larvae i.e. 2 of Coleoptera and 1 of Lepidoptera were not identified yet. The Parkiran station indicated the highest diversity index of 0.1436.

  9. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  10. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  11. In vitro establishment of ivermectin-resistant Rhipicephalus microplus cell line and the contribution of ABC transporters on the resistance mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Paula C; Carvalho, Danielle D; Daffre, Sirlei; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Masuda, Aoi

    2014-08-29

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the most economically damaging livestock ectoparasites, and its widespread resistance to acaricides is a considerable challenge to its control. In this scenario, the establishment of resistant cell lines is a useful approach to understand the mechanisms involved in the development of acaricide resistance, to identify drug resistance markers, and to develop new acaricides. This study describes the establishment of an ivermectin (IVM)-resistant R. microplus embryonic cell line, BME26-IVM. The resistant cells were obtained after the exposure of IVM-sensitive BME26 cells to increasing doses of IVM in a step-wise manner, starting from an initial non-toxic concentration of 0.5 μg/mL IVM, and reaching 6 μg/mL IVM after a 46-week period. BME26-IVM cell line was 4.5 times more resistant to IVM than the parental BME26 cell line (lethal concentration 50 (LC50) 15.1 ± 1.6 μg/mL and 3.35 ± 0.09 μg/mL, respectively). As an effort to determine the molecular mechanisms governing resistance, the contribution of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was investigated. Increased expression levels of ABC transporter genes were found in IVM-treated cells, and resistance to IVM was significantly reduced by co-incubation with 5 μM cyclosporine A (CsA), an ABC transporter inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of these proteins in IVM-resistance. These results are similar to those already described in IVM-resistant tick populations, and suggest that similar resistance mechanisms are involved in vitro and in vivo. They reinforce the hypothesis that ABC transporters are involved in IVM resistance and support the use of BME26-IVM as an in vitro approach to study acaricide resistance mechanisms. PMID:24956999

  12. Starvation threshold of Balanus amphitrite larvae in relation to temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Desai, D.V.

    Energy content in the non-feeding (lecithotrophic) cyprid larvae of B. amphitrite plays an important role in determining its metamorphic characteristics. In this context it is important to understand the energy transformed to this stage from...

  13. What do barnacle larvae feed on ? Implications in biofouling ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.; Anil, A.C.

    deliberated by monitoring the faecal pellets egested by freshly captured larvae from a tropical estuarine environment (Dona Paula bay, Goa, west coast of India) influenced by monsoon and characteristic temporal variations in the phytoplankton abundance...

  14. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen; Tomkiewicz, Jonna;

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic...... gonadotropin), which afford gametes for in vitro fertilization studies. The maturing process may lead to mass hatchings of up to ½ million larvae of which some survive the entire yolk sac phase. However, the rearing of larvae suffers from high larval mortalities, and water quality might be a crucial factor...... for larval survival in rearing systems. By applying antibiotic treatment as a research tool, it was possible to determine the extent of microbial interference in the production of high numbers of good quality larvae. By controlling microbiota during egg and larval incubation, the egg hatching success...

  15. Microbial modulation of behavior and stress responses in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Bryda, Elizabeth C; Gillespie, Catherine H; Ericsson, Aaron C

    2016-09-15

    The influence of the microbiota on behavior and stress responses is poorly understood. Zebrafish larvae have unique characteristics that are advantageous for neuroimmune research, however, they are currently underutilized for such studies. Here, we used germ-free zebrafish to determine the effects of the microbiota on behavior and stress testing. The absence of a microbiota dramatically altered locomotor and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, characteristic responses to an acute stressor were also obliterated in larvae lacking exposure to microbes. Lastly, treatment with the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum was sufficient to attenuate anxiety-related behavior in conventionally-raised zebrafish larvae. These results underscore the importance of the microbiota in communicating to the CNS via the microbiome-gut-brain axis and set a foundation for using zebrafish larvae for neuroimmune research. PMID:27217102

  16. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The migratory pattern of Toxocara canis was investigated following infection of pigs with 60 000 infective eggs. Groups of six pigs were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 28 days after infection (p.i.), and the number of larvae in selected organs and muscles was determined by digestion. A group...... of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around...... towards T. canis L2/L3 ES products was observed from day 14 p.i. until termination of the experiment, and the maximum eosinophil response was observed 14 days p.i. The pig is a useful non-primate model for human visceral larva migrans, since T. canis migrate well and induce a strong immunological response...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gende, L. B.; Pires, Sância; Fernandez, N.J.; Damiani, M; Churio, M.S.; Fritz, R.; Eguaras, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    American foulbrood is a serious bacterial disease that affects Apis mellifera colonies; the causative agent is Paenibacillus larvae [1 ]. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oils against P. larvae. Oils from 21 botanical species were analyzed by gas chromatography (CG and CG/EM). All essential oils were classified according to the composition of their main components in two groups: benzene ring compounds (BRC) and terpene com...

  18. Maya Index and Larva Density Aedes Aegypti Toward Dengue Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sang G. Purnama; Tri Baskoro

    2012-01-01

    South Denpasar District was of there as with the highest dengue cases in Bali province. The number of mosquito breeding places and larvae density become risk factor that influenced the spreading of mosquitoes. Maya index was an indicator to measure the amount of waterreservoirs can be breeding places for mosquitoes. Knowing the relationship between maya index and density of larvae and pupae of Ae.aegypti toward dengue infection in South Denpasar District. The study was observational analytic ...

  19. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  20. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. ...

  1. Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L.; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W.; Crandall, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remar...

  2. Long-duration feedings and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    The duration of feedings received by Bombus terrestris larvae was studied using video-recordings. In the last days of development all larvae received feedings mainly of long duration. Worker larvae of the third brood received significantly longer feedings than worker larvae reared in the other brood

  3. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  4. Biorheological action of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae on human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Patricia Ponce; Del Balzo, Gonzalo; Riquelme, Bibiana

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that A. lumbricoides extracts capture sialic acid (SA) from human red blood cells (RBC). The aim of this work was to study hemorheological alterations in vitro caused by parasite larvae. The biorheological action of three larva concentrates of first and second larval stage on group O erythrocytes was analyzed by incubating the erythrocyte packed together with an equal volume of larvae (treated RBC) and PBS (control RBC). Distribution and parameters of aggregation (digital image analysis), aggregation kinetics (erythroaggregameter), and viscoelasticity (erythrodeformeter) were measured. The digital image analysis showed that all the larvae diminished the isolated cells percentage and increased the size of the formed aggregates. The aggregate formation velocity was lower in the treated than in the control. The deformability index (ID) values of treated RBC did not present variations with respect to those of the control, but a decrease in the erythrocyte elastic modulus (μ(m)) and membrane surface viscosity (η(m)) values was observed, indicating that the larvae not only induced a diminution in the membrane surface viscosity of RBC but also altered the dynamic viscoelasticity of the membrane. Experiments carried out in vitro support the conclusion that the contact between larvae and RBC produces hemorheological alterations.

  5. Appetitive and aversive learning in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ali; Colson, Violaine; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Adult Lepidoptera are capable of associative learning. This helps them to forage flowers or to find suitable oviposition sites. Larval learning has never been seriously considered because they have limited foraging capabilities and usually depend on adults as concerns their food choices. We tested if Spodoptera littoralis larvae can learn to associate an odor with a tastant using a new classical conditioning paradigm. Groups of larvae were exposed to an unconditioned stimulus (US: fructose or quinine mixed with agar) paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS: hexanol, geraniol or pentyl acetate) in a petri dish. Their reaction to CS was subsequently tested in a petri dish at different time intervals after conditioning. Trained larvae showed a significant preference or avoidance to CS when paired with US depending on the reinforcer used. The training was more efficient when larvae were given a choice between an area where CS-US was paired and an area with no CS (or another odor). In these conditions, the memory formed could be recalled at least 24 h after pairing with an aversive stimulus and only 5 min after pairing with an appetitive stimulus. This learning was specific to CS because trained larvae were able to discriminate CS from another odor that was present during the training but unrewarded. These results suggest that Lepidoptera larvae exhibit more behavioral plasticity than previously appreciated. PMID:21653242

  6. Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite in larvae and post-larvae of the land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Orlando B S; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

    2012-08-01

    Sodium metabisulphite (SMB) is used in marine shrimp aquaculture to prevent the occurrence of black spot. The release SMB into the estuarine environment from shrimp farm pond effluents has been reported. This study evaluated the susceptibility of larvae and post-larvae of land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi to this salt. A decrease in dissolved oxygen and pH occurred with increasing concentration of SMB and exposure time. LC(50) values after 48 h of exposure were 34 ± 1.1 mg/L, 31.1 ± 1.9 mg/L, and 30.6 ± 0.5 mg/L for I zoea larvae, megalopa larvae and stage I juveniles, respectively.

  7. Differential immunological responses induced by infection with female muscle larvae and newborn larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Asano, K; Liu, M Y; Takahashi, Y

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella pseudospiralis infection can modulate the immunological response of autoimmune and allergic diseases leading to the amelioration of these diseases. The present study was undertaken to compare immunity induced by adult worms and muscle larvae. Higher eosinophilia was observed from newborn larva (NBL) infection than from adult females while higher levels of IgE were observed in adult female infections over those induced by NBL. The IgG1 response to ES antigen was more prominent in infections with adult females. The IgG2 responses to larval crude antigen were prominent against NBL. The Th2 cytokine, IL-4 cytokine was elevated in adult female infection following re-stimulation with adult crude antigen and ES. Both infections induced strong IFN-γ responses. The present study demonstrates that adult female worms induced stronger Th2 responses (IgG1, IgE and IL-4 responses) than NBL. Further examination of the mechanisms involved in immune modulation may be helpful for identifying Trichinella-derived molecules responsible for regulating autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:23433605

  8. DETECTION OF EHRLICHIA SP. ISOLATED FROM THE TICK BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS OF TIBET BY SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF 16S rRNA GENES%用16S rRNA基因序列分析从西藏的微小牛蜱中检出的埃立克体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温博海; 蹇锐; 张有植

    2003-01-01

    用埃立克体属特异性套式PCR和DNA序列测定从西藏微小牛蜱检出边缘无形体和埃立克体;用半套式PCR扩得该埃立克体的16S rRNA基因,并测定了它的序列;将该埃立克体的16S rRNA基因序列与其它埃立克体的16S rRNA基因序列进行对比分析,结果证明它的16S rRNA基因与埃立克体属的犬埃立克体群16S rRNA基因相似水平最高(97%~98%);用16S rRNA基因序列做系统发育分析,结果显示该采自西藏的微小牛蜱的埃立克体可能是与查菲埃立克体密切相关的一种新埃立克体.

  9. 新疆南疆微小牛蜱Bm86/Bm91双基因原核表达载体的构建%Construction of Prokaryotic Expression Vector of Bm86 and Bm91 Dual Genes of Boophilus microplus in South Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代艳艳; 赵丽; 周桐; 罗福江; 周玉琴; 王帅; 刘永宏

    2014-01-01

    为构建微小牛蜱Bm86和Bm91双基因原核表达载体,以新疆生产建设兵团塔里木畜牧科技重点实验室获得的Bm86和Bm91克隆基因阳性菌或质粒DNA为模板,参照GenBank登录的微小牛蜱Bm86和Bm91基因序列和所用载体序列,设计可以扩增Bm86和Bm91基因完整阅读框架的引物,然后对新疆南疆微小牛蜱Bm86和Bm91基因进行PCR扩增、纯化、酶切后连接,构建双基因重组质粒pET-32a-Bm并鉴定.结果显示,成功构建Bm86和Bm91双基因重组质粒pET-32a-Bm,经测序鉴定和初始获得的Bm86和Bm91基因序列一致,未发生变异.

  10. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  11. Amostragem por larva-única na vigilância de Aedes aegypti Single-larva sampling for Aedes aegypti surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Bracco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a metodologia de amostragem por larva-única na vigilância entomológica do Aedes aegypti, foram pesquisados domicílios do Município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil. Nos criadouros que continham larvas de Aedes uma delas foi coletada. Como controle, após a coleta da larva-única, todas as larvas foram coletadas para identificação posterior. Esse processo foi repetido no laboratório. Dos 447 domicílios visitados, apenas 12 foram considerados positivos e 20 criadouros foram identificados; destes, 13 continham larvas de Aedes; 5, larvas de Aedes e Culex e 2, larvas de Culex. Os resultados mostram o reconhecimento correto, no campo, de todos os criadouros, evidenciando que o método poderia ser utilizado na vigilância entomológica de municípios sem infestação domiciliar ou infestados apenas com uma única espécie de Aedes.Buildings in Araraquara city, Southeastern Brazil, were searched during a year for the presence of Aedes larvae using single larva sampling in order to check the single-larva methodology. In those breeding places in wich Aedes larvae were found, one of them was collected. As a control, after the single larva had been collected, all the larvae from the breeding place were collected for later identification. This process was repeated in the laboratory. Of the 447 domiciles searched, 12 were considered positive and 20 breeding places were found. Of the breeding places, 13 contained Aedes larvae, 5 both Aedes and Culex larvae and 2 Culex larvae only. The results show that all the breeding places in the field were properly recognited showing the method may be used for Aedes surveillance in cities infested with one species only or without any domiciliary infestation.

  12. Unexpected high losses of Anopheles gambiae larvae due to rainfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krijn P Paaijmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immature stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae experience high mortality, but its cause is poorly understood. Here we study the impact of rainfall, one of the abiotic factors to which the immatures are frequently exposed, on their mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that rainfall significantly affected larval mosquitoes by flushing them out of their aquatic habitat and killing them. Outdoor experiments under natural conditions in Kenya revealed that the additional nightly loss of larvae caused by rainfall was on average 17.5% for the youngest (L1 larvae and 4.8% for the oldest (L4 larvae; an additional 10.5% (increase from 0.9 to 11.4% of the L1 larvae and 3.3% (from 0.1 to 3.4% of the L4 larvae were flushed away and larval mortality increased by 6.9% (from 4.6 to 11.5% and 1.5% (from 4.1 to 5.6% for L1 and L4 larvae, respectively, compared to nights without rain. On rainy nights, 1.3% and 0.7% of L1 and L4 larvae, respectively, were lost due to ejection from the breeding site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that immature populations of malaria mosquitoes suffer high losses during rainfall events. As these populations are likely to experience several rain showers during their lifespan, rainfall will have a profound effect on the productivity of mosquito breeding sites and, as a result, on the transmission of malaria. These findings are discussed in the light of malaria risk and changing rainfall patterns in response to climate change.

  13. Descrição da larva de Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae Description of the larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Santos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius, 1775 is described and figured based on exuviae of last instar of reared specimes collected on still waters in São João river, Silva Jardim (22º38' - 42º18', Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The relationship among the larva of D. obscura and larvae of Celithemis are discussed.

  14. Performance of two Bm86 antigen vaccin formulation against tick using crossbreed bovines in stall test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Cattle tick control remains a serious problem for cattle farms in Brazil due to the limited success achieved with chemicals. In Brazil, the use of vaccines for tick control associated with the use of chemicals and pasture rotation may open possibilities for integrated control. However, it is important to know whether regional Boophilus microplus strains are sensitive to antibodies produced by the available antigens: antigen preparations Gavac™ and TickGard(PLUS). The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of two Bm86 antigen vaccine formulation against tick using crossbred bovines in stall test antigen against a regional B. microplus strain. The experiment was carried out in central Brazil (20 degrees 27'S, 54 degrees 37'W). A trial was conducted in stall conditions on crossbred cattle under controlled infestation. Two groups of 16 animals each, homogeneous in weight and sex, were vaccinated with Gavac™ or TickGard(PLUS), two groups of eight animals as control. Challenge was performed on three alternate days, with 5,000 larvae each time, beginning 21 days after the second injection. The antibody response was measured by ELISA and vaccinated animals presented immune response considering IgG levels. The results showed 49.2% and 46.4% protection efficacy for Gavac™ and TickGard(PLUS), respectively. PMID:16978472

  15. Bm86 homologues and novel ATAQ proteins with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains from hard and soft ticks ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, Ard M; Balk, Jesper A.; Postigo, Milagros; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Taoufik, Amar; Jongejan, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. Two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant Bm86 protein from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. Partial protection of the Bm86 vaccine against other Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) and Hyalomma tick species suggest...

  16. Image enhancement for tracking the translucent larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukant Khurana

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster larvae are model systems for studies of development, synaptic transmission, sensory physiology, locomotion, drug discovery, and learning and memory. A detailed behavioral understanding of larvae can advance all these fields of neuroscience. Automated tracking can expand fine-grained behavioral analysis, yet its full potential remains to be implemented for the larvae. All published methods are unable to track the larvae near high contrast objects, including the petri-dish edges encountered in many behavioral paradigms. To alleviate these issues, we enhanced the larval contrast to obtain complete tracks. Our method employed a dual approach of optical-contrast boosting and post-hoc image processing for contrast enhancement. We reared larvae on black food media to enhance their optical contrast through darkening of their digestive tracts. For image processing we performed Frame Averaging followed by Subtraction then Thresholding (FAST. This algorithm can remove all static objects from the movie, including petri-dish edges prior to processing by the image-tracking module. This dual approach for contrast enhancement also succeeded in overcoming fluctuations in illumination caused by the alternating current power source. Our tracking method yields complete tracks, including at the edges of the behavioral arena and is computationally fast, hence suitable for high-throughput fine-grained behavioral measurements.

  17. Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich

    2009-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

  18. Larva migrans in India: veterinary and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajnish; Singh, B B; Gill, J P S

    2015-12-01

    Despite an important public health problem in developing world like India, larva migrans remains a neglected zoonosis. Cutaneous larva migrans, Visceral larva migrans, and Ocular larva migrans are the important clinical manifestations seen in humans in India. Although many nematode parasites have the ability to cause the infection, the disease primarily occurs due to Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis. Presence of the infection in dogs is an indirect indication of its incidence in humans in endemic regions. In India, sporadic cases of this neglected but important parasitic zoonosis are the main implications of lack of diagnostic methods and under-reporting of human cases. Tropical climate in addition to overcrowding, poor hygiene and sanitation problems, stray dogs, open defecation by dogs and improper faecal disposal are the important factors for persistence of this disease in the country. Sanitary and hygienic measures, improved diagnostic techniques and surveillance programme in dogs as well as humans should be adopted for its effective control. Comprehensive collaborative efforts by physicians and veterinarians are required to tackle this problem in order to attain optimal health for humans, animals and the environment. Moreover, recognition of larva migrans as an important public health problem is the most important step to combat this neglected disease in developing countries like India. PMID:26688621

  19. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments. PMID:25195467

  20. Inactivation of Chironomid Larvae with Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xin-bin; CUI Fu-yi

    2008-01-01

    Chironomid larvae propagate prolifically in eutrophic water body and they cannot be exterminated by conventional disinfection process.The inactivation effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on Chironomid larvae were investigated and some boundary values in practice were determined under conditions of various oxidant dosage,organic precursor concentration and pH value.In addition,removal effect of differmt pre-oxidation combined with coagulation process on Chironomid larvae in law water was evaluated.It was found that chlorine dioxide possessed better inactivation effect than chlorine.Complete inactivation of Chironomid larvae in raw water was resulted by 1.5mg/L of chlorine dioxide with 30min of contact time. Additionally,the ocgallic precursor concentration,pH value had little influence on the inactivation effect.The coagulation jar test showed that Chironomid larvae in the raw water could be completely ronxwed by chlorine dioxide pre-oxidation in combination with the omgulation process at chlorine dioxide dosage of 0.8 mg/L.

  1. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of uninfected and granulosis virus-infected Plodia interpunctella larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study on the lipid and fatty acid composition of the uninfected and GV-infected Plodia interpunctella larvae was performed. Higher levels of free fatty acids were found in GV-infected larvae compared to those of the uninfected larvae, while the latter had more triacylglycerol compared to the former. The known identified phospholipids were fewer in the GV-infected larvae compared to those in the uninfected larvae. However, an unidentified phospholipid was found to be approximately two times higher in GV-infected larvae. The total lipid of both larvae had palmitic, oleic, and linoleic as the major fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of the GV-infected larval phospholipid differed considerably compared to that of the uninfected larvae, in that the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid was 3.5 times less in the GV-infected larvae.

  2. Ecdysteroids in the larvae of Opogona sacchari (Bojer), a invasive alien pest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG FangHai; ZHANG GuRen; WEN RuiZhen; HE GuoFeng

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the composition and quantitative variation of ecdysteriods in the larvae of Opogona sacchari (Bojer), a invasive alien pest, we analyzed the larval ecdysteroid composition and titers in this pest. The main component of ecdysteriods in the larvae of O. Sacchari is 20-hydroxyecdysone, and also there is a little 26-hydroxyecdysone. The titer of ecdysteriods in the larvae from the 1st instar to the 7th instar was gotten higher gradually compared on ng ecdysteroid/larva, but no regularity could be found about the titer if compared on ng ecdysteroid/g avoirdupois. There was only one peak of ecdysteroids (0.5475 ng/larva) showed at day 2 during the developmental time of the 6th instar larvae. However, there were two peaks appearing during the developmental time of the 7th instar larvae , one peak (0.29415 ng/larva) at day 3, another (0.214 ng/larva) at day 5.

  3. Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates obtained from the housefly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qin, Qi-Lian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The housefly is an important resource insect and the housefly larvae are ideal source of food additives. The housefly larvae protein hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase and neutral proteinase. Their antioxidant activities were investigated, including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of both hydrolysates increased with their increasing concentrations. The alcalase hydrolysate (AH) showed higher scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical at low concentrations and higher metal-chelating activity than the neutral proteinase hydrolysate (NPH). The NPH exhibited higher scavenging activity against DPPH free radical and higher reducing power than the AH. Both hydrolysates showed more than 50% superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity at 10 μg/mL. These results indicate that both housefly larvae protein hydrolysates display high antioxidant activities and they could serve as potential natural antioxidant food additives. PMID:27630047

  4. Microsatellite genotyping of individual abalone larvae: parentage assignment in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvamani, M J; Degnan, S M; Degnan, B M

    2001-09-01

    In aquaculture, microsatellite DNA markers are used to genotype parental broodstock, to assess fertilization success, and to maintain pedigree information for selective breeding. In this study we genotyped individual Haliotis asinina larvae by analyzing a suit of polymorphic microsatellite loci. At least 10 loci can be analyzed from a single abalone veliger larva. We assayed 5 polymorphic loci to identify the parents of individual larvae produced in 3 separate crosses. In all cases, the parents of an individual veliger could be determined from as few as 3 loci. The microsatellite analysis revealed that, in each of our crosses, a single male fathered most of the veligers, despite efforts to normalize the amount of sperm contributed by competing males. These observations suggest that highly controlled breeding practices may be required to ensure that the genetic diversity of an abalone population produced for aquaculture is maintained at the level of diversity of the original broodstock.

  5. Paenibacillus larvae-Directed Bacteriophage HB10c2 and Its Application in American Foulbrood-Affected Honey Bee Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beims, Hannes; Wittmann, Johannes; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Rohde, Christine; Günther, Gabi; Rohde, Manfred; von der Ohe, Werner; Steinert, Michael

    2015-08-15

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most serious honey bee brood bacterial disease. We isolated and characterized P. larvae-directed bacteriophages and developed criteria for safe phage therapy. Whole-genome analysis of a highly lytic virus of the family Siphoviridae (HB10c2) provided a detailed safety profile and uncovered its lysogenic nature and a putative beta-lactamase-like protein. To rate its antagonistic activity against the pathogens targeted and to specify potentially harmful effects on the bee population and the environment, P. larvae genotypes ERIC I to IV, representatives of the bee gut microbiota, and a broad panel of members of the order Bacillales were analyzed for phage HB10c2-induced lysis. Breeding assays with infected bee larvae revealed that the in vitro phage activity observed was not predictive of the real-life scenario and therapeutic efficacy. On the basis of the disclosed P. larvae-bacteriophage coevolution, we discuss the future prospects of AFB phage therapy. PMID:26048941

  6. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both horizontal and vertical variability in hydrography and abundances of potential copepod prey The investigation was carried out at a frontal zone along the Norwegian Trench in the northern North Sea, and was based on a series of cross-bathymetric sampling transects. Tows with a large ring net and an opening-closing net were used for describing fish larval horizontal and vertical distributions, while a submersible pump was used for describing vertical distributions of copepods. Hydrographic profiles and current velocity measurements were used to outline variability in temperature, salinity and current structure. Measurements demonstrated a distinct bottom front at the southern slope of the Trench with deepening isopycnals and high chlorphyll a concentrations. Abundances of both gadoid fish larvae and copepods peaked in vicinity of the front around mid-depth, and findings points to an inter-connection between the vertical and horizontal distributions of each species. However, the three-dimensional pattern of distribution differed significantly among species of larvae and species of copepods. The study underlines the complexity of bio-physical interrelationships in the frontal zone, and indicates that the zone encompasses specific ecological niches to which each species of fish larvae is adapted.

  7. Developmental arrest in Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae causes high expression of enzymes involved in thymidylate biosynthesis, similar to that found in Trichinella muscle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wińska, P; Gołos, B; Cieśla, J; Zieliński, Z; Fraczyk, T; Wałajtys-Rode, E; Rode, W

    2005-08-01

    Crude extract specific activities of thymidylate synthase, dUTPase, thymidine kinase and dihydrofolate reductase were high during the development of Caenorhabditis elegans, the dauer larva activities being similar to those previously determined in Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis muscle larvae (with the exception of thymidine kinase, not detected in Trichinella). High thymidylate synthase expression in developmentally arrested larvae, demonstrated also at the mRNA and protein levels, is in agreement with a global cell cycle arrest of dauer larvae and indicates this unusual cell cycle regulation pattern can be shared by developmentally arrested larvae of C. elegans and the two Trichnella species. Hence, the phenomenon may be characteristic for developmentally arrested larvae of different nematodes, rather than specific for the parasitic Trichinella muscle larvae. Endogenous C. elegans thymidylate synthase was purified and its molecular properties compared with those of the recombinant protein, expression of the latter in E. coli cells confirming the NCBI database sequence identity. PMID:16145941

  8. CONTROLE DE LARVAS DE Diloboderus abderus COM INSETICIDAS EM TRIGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Mauro Tadeu Braga da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A larva de Diloboderus abderus Sturm (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae é uma praga importante da cultura do trigo (Triticum aestivum L. em plantio direto na região Sul do Brasil. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes inseticidas aplicados nas sementes (fipronil e tiametoxam e via pulverização do solo (clorpirifós e lambdacialotrina para o controle dessa praga. A eficiência dos inseticidas foi determinada através do número de larvas vivas no solo aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a emergência das plantas (DAE, da massa seca da parte aérea das plantas aos 90 DAE e da produção de grãos. Foram observadas correlações negativas significativas entre a dose dos inseticidas fipronil e tiametoxam e o número de larvas, e correlações positivas significativas entre estes inseticidas e a massa seca da parte aérea e a produtividade de grãos. Infestações de larvas nas testemunhas não tratadas reduziram a produtividade em relação às áreas tratadas com inseticidas. A produtividade incrementou à medida que aumentou a eficiência de controle do inseto pelos inseticidas. Concluiu-se que clorpirifós (960 e 1200g i.a./ha e lambdacialotrina a 25g i.a./ha (formulação CE, aplicados em pulverização do solo, são eficientes para reduzir a população de larvas de D. abderus, garantindo a produtividade de grãos. Sugerem-se novos testes com os inseticidas fipronil, tiametoxam e lambdacialotrina (formulação SC para determinar doses técnica e economicamente adequadas para o controle de larvas de D. abderus em trigo.

  9. Nutrient effects of broodstocks on the larvae in Patinopecten yessoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yucen; Zhang, Tao; Qiu, Tianlong; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Xiaofang

    2015-07-01

    Patinopecten yessoensis is a commercial valuable species. This study deals with the effect of nutrient effects of the broodstock (mainly ovaries) on the larvae. Concentrations of total carbohydrate, total protein and total lipid in the gonads of P. yessoensis from three Hatcheries (Hatchery 1, Hatchery 2, and Hatchery 3) were determined before and after spawning. The relationship between the nutrient concentration in ovaries before spawning (BC) and that of larvae (LC) was assessed as well as the change in nutrient levels in ovaries after spawning (DC). Results indicate that the BC of total carbohydrate (7.66%) and total lipid (14.48%) in ovaries were significantly higher than in testes (5.20%, 5.20% respectively), whereas the BC of total protein in the ovaries was lower (61.76%) than in the testes (81.67%). The different gonadal composition suggests the different nutrient demands between male and female broodstocks in breeding season. Patinopecten yessoensis gonads contained a higher proportion of lipids, in comparison to other bivalves, which might be a response to the low ambient water temperatures. Further analysis of fatty acids showed that the concentrations of n-3PUFA, EPA and DHA in larvae (LC) were positively correlated with BC and DC, indicating the significant nutrient influence of broodstocks on the larvae. As these fatty acids are important in metabolism, and have been demonstrated to be influential to the viability of the larvae, larval growth and the settlement, spat growth, and juvenile survival in many bivalves, they could possibly be used as indexes to evaluate, and predict condition of broodstocks and larvae.

  10. Studies on anopheline larvae in El Faiyum Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; el Kadery, A A; Salama, M M; Sabry, A H; Kotb, M M; el Sharkawy, I M

    1995-08-01

    In Egypt, malaria is still reported as sporadic cases or small outbreaks particularly in El Faiyum Governorate. This paper aimed to identify and to study the breeding and seasonal activities of anopheline larvae. Spot light surveys were carried out in five different ecological areas (Karoun Lake, El Fedemean, El Siliyien, Kom-Osheim and Sinouris) from September 1991 to August 1992. Three species of Anopheles larvae were encountered: A. (Cellia) pharoensis (43%), A. (Cellia) sergenti (29.8%) and A. (Cellia) multicolor (27.2%). Several type of breeding places were encountered for the three species. A. pharoensis preferred clear, shallow, stagnant water with thick growth of vegetations an shae especially in rice fields. A. sergenti preferred clean, shallow to deep stagnant or slow-moving water with vegetations especially in small water collections in grassy areas and under palm trees. A. multicolor preferred shallow, stagnant water, sometimes partially exposed to sunlight especially in seepage water. The breeding waters for the three species were alkaline. Seasonal study of the anopheline larvae were conducted in three villages: Abheit El Hagar, El Zawia El Khadra and Tersa, in Sinouris Center during the year 1993. A. pharoensis larvae were abundant in the three villages in June, July, August and September with a peak in June. No breeding was noticed in January and February. A. sergenti larvae were abundant from September to November in the three villages, the lowest density was recorded in January and July in Abheit, in April in El Zawia and in June in Tersa. No breeding in February in the three villages was noticed and also in March in Abheit and Tersa. A multicolor larvae were recorded in Abheit and Tersa. In Abheit, the highest density was recorded in November with no breeding in January, February, March and June while in Tersa, the highest density was recorded in October and November with no breeding in January, February, March, April, July and December. The

  11. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Bava; Lucia; G; Gonzalez; Celeste; M; Seley; Gisela; P; Lopez; Alcides; Troncoso

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans(CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis.CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas,and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it.The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion,intense itching and history of foreign travel.CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can be easily prevented by wearing ’protective’ footwear.A case of CLM is described in this article.

  12. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    BAVA Javier; Gonzalez, Lucia G; Seley, Celeste M; López, Gisela P; Troncoso, Alcides

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis. CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion, intense itching and history of foreign travel. CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can ...

  13. Culture of Eriocheir sinensis Larvae in Ponds in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang RUAN; Liangcheng HU; Hai ZHOU; Dawen MA; Yabin TANG

    2016-01-01

    A total of 15 pools were selected from a greenhouse, and they were randomly and evenly divided into three groups. In each group, one stocking density of Eriocheir sinensis was arranged. The results showed that after 45-d culture, the crab number per kilogram reached about 300 with survival rate of about 20%; the initial stocking density had significantly effect on the body size of E. sinensis on sel , instead on the survival rate of E. sinensis larvae. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct the culture of E. sinensis larvae in a pool in greenhouse.

  14. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    , larvae of flatfishes undergo a particularly evident and dramatic metamorphosis, because flatfishes completely reprogram their body to move from the pelagic habitat, in the water column, to the benthic habitat, on the sea floor. Due to the complex morphological and physiological changes, in aquaculture...... capture success. This thesis is part of a large international project aimed at improving the rearing techniques of high value fish species larvae fed with calanoid copepods, their natural prey, to achieve high levels of survival and quality. In fact, fish aquaculture is becoming increasingly important...

  15. CONTROLE DE LARVAS DE Diloboderus abderus COM INSETICIDAS EM TRIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Mauro Tadeu Braga da; Boss Adriano

    2002-01-01

    A larva de Diloboderus abderus Sturm (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) é uma praga importante da cultura do trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) em plantio direto na região Sul do Brasil. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes inseticidas aplicados nas sementes (fipronil e tiametoxam) e via pulverização do solo (clorpirifós e lambdacialotrina) para o controle dessa praga. A eficiência dos inseticidas foi determinada através do número de larvas vivas no solo aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a emergência...

  16. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Macedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  17. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Bava; Lucia G Gonzalez; Celeste M Seley; Gisela P Lpez; Alcides Troncoso

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis. CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion, intense itching and history of foreign travel. CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can be easily prevented by wearing 'protective' footwear. A case of CLM is described in this article.

  18. Sun-Compass Orientation in Mediterranean Fish Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Faillettaz; Agathe Blandin; Claire B. Paris; Philippe Koubbi; Jean-Olivier Irisson

    2015-01-01

    Mortality is very high during the pelagic larval phase of fishes but the factors that determine recruitment success remain unclear and hard to predict. Because of their bipartite life history , larvae of coastal species have to head back to the shore at the end of their pelagic episode , to settle. These settlement-stage larvae are known to display strong sensory and motile abilities, but most work has been focused on tropical, insular environments and on the influence of coast-related cues o...

  19. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera. This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalopteran larvae had 24 Temnocephala sp. associated. Furthermore, eight of these Temnocephala worms had chironomid larvae in their gut contents, an interaction previously unknown. Gut content analyses revealed Corynoneura as the commonest chironomid, but larvae of Larsia, Rheotanytarsus and Tanytarsus were recorded as well. This study included Corydalus and Protochauliodes as hosts for Temnocephala, which might be important for this worm dispersion and population dynamics.Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera. Este estudo constitui o primeiro registro de Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte em larvas de Megaloptera, como um possível predador de larvas de Chironomidae. Vinte e oito larvas de Corydalidae (Corydalus e Protochauliodes foram examinadas sobre estereomicroscópio na busca por Temnocephala e larvas de Chironomidae, das quais cinco larvas de Megaloptera continham 24 Temnocephala sp. associadas. Além disso, oito Temnocephala possuíam em seu conteúdo estomacal larvas de Chironomidae, uma interação desconhecida anteriormente. A análise do conteúdo estomacal revelou Corynoneura como o quironomídeo mais abundante, e também algumas larvas de Larsia, Rheotanytarsus e Tanytarsus. Este estudo inclui Corydalus e Protochauliodes como hospedeiros de Temnocephala, os quais podem ser importantes

  20. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, H.

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  1. Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode: Metastrongiloidea: in vitro cultivation of infective third-stage larvae to fourth-stage larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Jyh Lin

    Full Text Available The present study to attempt to cultivate Angiostrongylus cantonensis from third-stage larvae (AcL3 to fourth-stage larvae (AcL4 in vitro in defined complete culture medium that contained with Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEM, supplemented amino acid (AA, amine (AM, fatty acid (FA, carbohydrate (CA and 20% fetal calf serum (FCS was successful. When AcL3 were cultured in the defined complete culture medium at 37°C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere, the larvae began to develop to AcL4 after 30 days of cultivation, and were enclosed within the sheaths of the third molts of the life cycle. Under these conditions, the larvae developed uniformly and reached to the fourth-stage 36 days. The morphology of AcL3 develop to AcL4 were recording and analyzing. Then comparison of A. cantonensis larval morphology and development between in vitro cultivation in defined complete culture medium and in vivo cultivation in infective BALB/c mice. The larvae that had been cultivated in vitro were smaller than AcL4 of infective BALB/c mice. However the AcL3 that were cultured using defined incomplete culture medium (MEM plus 20% FCS with AA+AM, FA, CA, AA+AM+FA, FA+CA, CA+AA+AM or not did not adequately survive and develop. Accordingly, the inference is made that only the defined complete medium enable AcL3 develop to AcL4 in vitro. Some nematodes have been successfully cultured into mature worms but only a few researches have been made to cultivate A. cantonensis in vitro. The present study is the first to have succeeded in developing AcL3 to AcL4 by in vitro cultivation. Finally, the results of in vitro cultivation studies herein contribute to improving media for the effective development and growth of A. cantonensis. The gap in the A. cantonensis life cycle when the larvae are cultivated in vitro from third-stage larvae to fourth-stage larvae can thus be solved.

  2. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of app

  3. The Blue Neck Syndrome : Nematode Larvae in Skin Scrapings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugathan P

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-inflammatory type of pigmentation of the neck associated with nematode larvae on affected skin is described. The name ′Blue neck syndrome′ is suggested for this condition because of the characteristic clinical appearance. Antinematode agents such as albendazole and neem oil have been found to be effective in the treatment.

  4. Cryopreservation of Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) trochophore larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, E; Adams, S L; Tervit, H R; Smith, J F; McGowan, L T; Gale, S L; Morrish, J R; Watts, E

    2012-12-01

    The Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) is the main shellfish species farmed in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cryoprotectant concentration, loading and unloading strategy as well as freezing and thawing method in order to develop a protocol for cryopreservation of trochophore larvae (16-20 h old). Toxicity tests showed that levels of 10-15% ethylene glycol (EG) were not toxic to larvae and could be loaded and unloaded in a single step. Through cryopreservation experiments, we designed a cryopreservation protocol that enabled 40-60% of trochophores to develop to D-larvae when normalized to controls. The protocol involved: holding at 0 °C for 5 min, then cooling at 1 °C min⁻¹ to -10 °C, holding for a further 5 min, then cooling at 0.5 °C min⁻¹ to -35 °C followed by a 5 min hold and then plunging into liquid nitrogen. A final larval rearing experiment of 18 days was conducted to assess the ability of these frozen larvae to develop further. Results showed that only 2.8% of the frozen trochophores were able to develop to competent pediveligers.

  5. Coral larvae under ocean acidification: survival, metabolism, and metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nakamura

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification may negatively impact the early life stages of some marine invertebrates including corals. Although reduced growth of juvenile corals in acidified seawater has been reported, coral larvae have been reported to demonstrate some level of tolerance to reduced pH. We hypothesize that the observed tolerance of coral larvae to low pH may be partly explained by reduced metabolic rates in acidified seawater because both calcifying and non-calcifying marine invertebrates could show metabolic depression under reduced pH in order to enhance their survival. In this study, after 3-d and 7-d exposure to three different pH levels (8.0, 7.6, and 7.3, we found that the oxygen consumption of Acropora digitifera larvae tended to be suppressed with reduced pH, although a statistically significant difference was not observed between pH conditions. Larval metamorphosis was also observed, confirming that successful recruitment is impaired when metamorphosis is disrupted, despite larval survival. Results also showed that the metamorphosis rate significantly decreased under acidified seawater conditions after both short (2 h and long (7 d term exposure. These results imply that acidified seawater impacts larval physiology, suggesting that suppressed metabolism and metamorphosis may alter the dispersal potential of larvae and subsequently reduce the resilience of coral communities in the near future as the ocean pH decreases.

  6. The Colonization Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in Tilapia Larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giatsis, C.; Sipkema, D.; Smidt, H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an e

  7. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  8. CHIRONOMUS PLUMOSUS LARVAE - A SUITABLE NUTRIENT FOR FRESHWATER FARMED FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bogut

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude protein, fat, water, ash, dry matter and essential amino and fatty acids were analyzed from freshly collected Chironomus plumosus larvae in order to evaluate their suitability as a component for farmed fish diet. The analyses were performed in intact living organisms and in the dry matter. Essential amino acids were determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer, while fatty acids were determined by Chronopack CP 9000 chromatograph with flame ionization detector. Crude protein content was 7.6% and 55.7% in fresh larvae and dry matter, respectively, being a value adequate for growth needs of all freshwater fish sorts and categories. Most essential amino acids in fresh larvae and dry matter are present in quantities adequate for feeding majority of omnivorous and carnivorous freshwater fish species. Crude fat content was 1.3% and 9.7% in fresh larvae and dry matter, respectively, being energetically sufficient for all warm-water living fish. The crude fat contains 26.12% saturated, 30.42% monounsaturated and 34.03% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Among the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, the most abundant is linolenic (7.21%, followed by eicosapentanoic (4.36%, docosahexaenoic (2.49% and docosapentaenoic (1.16% acid. The measured quantity of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids (essential for omnivorous fish, as well as ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acid ratio (0.81, completely meets nutritional requirements of carp and tench.

  9. Behavioral Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haein; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Insect larvae, which recognize food sources through chemosensory cues, are a major source of global agricultural loss. Gustation is an important factor that determines feeding behavior, and the gustatory receptors (Grs) act as molecular receptors that recognize diverse chemicals in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). The behavior of Drosophila larvae is relatively simpler than the adult fly, and a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map was established in a previous study of the major external larval head sensory organs. Here, we extensively study the bitter taste responses of larvae using 2-choice behavioral assays. First, we tested a panel of 23 candidate bitter compounds to compare the behavioral responses of larvae and adults. We define 9 bitter compounds which elicit aversive behavior in a dose-dependent manner. A functional map of the larval GRNs was constructed with the use of Gr-GAL4 lines that drive expression of UAS-tetanus toxin and UAS-VR1 in specific gustatory neurons to identify bitter tastants-GRN combinations by suppressing and activating discrete subsets of taste neurons, respectively. Our results suggest that many gustatory neurons act cooperatively in larval bitter sensing, and that these neurons have different degrees of responsiveness to different bitter compounds.

  10. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  11. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaneil Lahiri

    Full Text Available When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1 peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2 asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  12. Interrelationships among egg, larvae and maternal characteristics in Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus

    OpenAIRE

    Rajab Mohammad Nazari; Mohammad Reza Ghomi; Laura Aquiloni

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe the correlations among egg, larvae and maternal characteristics of Persian sturgeon. A total of 41 females were used and the variables including fertilization rate, incubation survival rate, larvae survival rate during yolk sac absorption (before feeding), and larvae survival rate after first feeding were determined. As a result, fertilization rate was positively correlated with three variables: incubation survival, larvae survival during yolk sac absorption, a...

  13. Predation on anchovy larvae by a pelagic chaetognatha, Sagitta nagae in the Sagami Bay, central Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Terazaki, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Anchovy larvae were detected in the gut of Sagitta nagae collected near Oshima Island in Sagami Bay during the night on 23 May 1996. S. nagae attacked the anchovy larvae actively when they encountered the aggregation of larvae. Generally, large animals consumed larger prey and there is a good correlation between body length of S. nagae and their prey size. Many S. nagae caught anchovy larvae from tail.

  14. The potential for ontogenetic vertical migration by larvae of bathyal echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Cm; Devin, Mg; Jaeckle, Wb; Ekaratne, Suk; George, Sb

    1996-01-01

    Planktotrophy is a relatively common developmental mode among bathyal and abyssal echinoderms, but the sources of food used by deep-sea planktotrophic larvae remain generally unknown. Very few deep-sea echinoderm larvae have been collected in plankton samples, so we do not know whether larvae migrate to the euphotic zone to feed or if they rely on bacteria or detritus at greater depths. We approached this question indirectly by investigating whether larvae of bathyal echinoids can tolerate th...

  15. S1 guideline diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous larva migrans (creeping disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Sunderkötter, C.; von Stebut, E.; Schöfer, H.; Mempel, M; Reinel, D; Wolf, G.; Meyer, V.; Nast, A; Burchard, GD

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans is a skin infection with a typical clinical appearance caused by active penetration of nematode larvae and their subsequent epidermal migration. The typical clinical appearance is caused by hookworm larvae, usually Ancylostoma braziliense but sometimes other canine or feline types of hookworm.This guideline aims to enhance patient care by optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of infections due to creeping disease (cutaneous larva migrans) and to raise awareness among ...

  16. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbusser, George G; Hales, Burke; Langdon, Chris J; Haley, Brian A; Schrader, Paul; Brunner, Elizabeth L; Gray, Matthew W; Miller, Cale A; Gimenez, Iria; Hutchinson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4) with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material affected only by

  17. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G Waldbusser

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4 with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material

  18. Gut fluorescence analysis of barnacle larvae: An approach to quantify the ingested food

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.A.; Anil, A.C.

    pellets it was 224(plus or minus 63) ng chlorophyll a larva sup(−1). A phaeopigment concentration in larval gut was found to be 311(plus or minus 13) ng larva sup(−1) and in faecal pellets it was 172(plus or minus 61) ng larva sup(−1). The study also...

  19. Infection of North Sea cod, Gadus morhua L., larvae with the parasitic nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum Rudolphi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Munk, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of 2197 cod larvae and post-larvae collected in the North Sea revealed high prevalence of infection with a parasitic anisakid nematode identified morphologically and genetically as Hysterothylacium aduncum. Nematodes were third stage larvae and were almost exclusively found...

  20. Infestation of a bird and two cats by larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, R D; Kanton, K; Foster, C N; Steinberg, H; Pellitteri, P

    2001-09-01

    The larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), commonly known as the Indian meal moth, often cause enormous losses in stored food supplies. We present three clinical case reports of accidental infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in two domestic cats and one parakeet. A larva gained entry into the avian host and subsequently migrated to the brain. It was alive, covered with "silk-like" fibers and confirmed to be a fourth instar. Plodia interpunctella larvae were excised with forceps from the subcutaneous tissues of the ear and neck of two cats in a different household. Previous reports of infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in vertebrates are unknown.

  1. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudoterranova azarasi LARVAE IN COD (Gadus sp.) SOLD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Juliana; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-12-01

    Anisakiasis and Pseudoterranovosis are human diseases caused by the ingestion of live Anisakidae larvae in raw, undercooked or lightly marinated fish. Larvae were collected from one salted cod sold for human consumption in a Sao Paulo market in 2013. One section of one brownish larva was used for molecular analyses. The partial COX2 gene sequence from the larva had a nucleotide identity of 99.8 % with Pseudoterranova azarasi, which belongs to the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex. The risk of allergy when consuming dead larvae in salted fish is not well known and should be considered.

  2. Description of the larva of Gynacantha millardi Selys, 1891 (Odonata: Aeshnidae) from Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Prosenjit; Chandra, Kailash

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Gynacantha millardi Selys is described here from female larvae and male and female exuviae collected from Chhattisgarh, India. Unlike other Gynacantha larvae known so far, G. millardi has 7 palpal setae almost equal in length; in other species, the palpal setae are of different lengths. The larvae lack a tooth on each side of the median cleft and have a distinct blunt tooth on the inner margin corner of each labial palp. The larvae were found in a semi-stagnant forest pool with enormous growth of aquatic vegetation. PMID:27395672

  3. Age of Atlantic halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) at first feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Harboe, Torstein; Næss, Tore Håkon; Naas, Kjell Emil; Rabben, Håvard; Skjolddal, Lillian

    1990-01-01

    Halibut larvae at different age (150 to 315 day-degrees) were transferred to outdoor startfeeding tanks each with two internal plastic bags (100 litre). The larvae were fed wild zooplankton. One bag was sampled after 24 hours, and the other after nine days. Numbers of larvae with food in the gut, without food in gut and dead larvae, were counted for each larval age tested. The results showed that some larvae captured prey at an age of 150 day-degrees. However, at this age few ...

  4. [Ingestion and digestion of seven species of microalgae by larvae of Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Súarez, V; Aldana Aranda, D

    2000-12-01

    The potential nutritional value of seven microalgal diets as measured by their ingestibility and digestibility to queen conch Strombus gigas larvae was tested with 30 day old larvae reared at 28 degrees C and fed at 1000 cells x ml(-1). The algae were Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii Isochrysis aff. galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas coccoides, Chaetoceros sp. and Thalassiosira fluviatilis. Ingestion and digestion were measured by the four nutritional stages studied with epifluorescence microscopy with live larvae. Temporal and absolute indices showed that larvae fed Chaetoceros sp. and T. fluviatilis had lower ingestion and digestion levels. The other algae are recommend to feed S. gigas larvae. PMID:15266796

  5. Feeding habits of Pacific cod larvae and juveniles in Mutsu Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takatsu, Tetsuya; NAKATANI, Toshikuni; MUTOH, Takashi; Takahashi, Toyomi

    1995-01-01

    The diets and prey widths of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) larvae and juveniles were examined in Mutsu Bay. In early March, 11 yolk-sac larvae were caught in midwater of the bay mouth. Five of 11 larvae captured had not opened their mouths, and the remaining six had not fed. Post-larvae ≤ 7mm in total length (TL) fed on copepod nauplii, particularly Pseudocalanus nauplii. Prey items of post-larvae >7mm TL were chiefly crustacean eggs, and Pseudocalanus spp. copepodites and adults. From Ap...

  6. Reduction of muscle larvae burden in rats experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machnicka-Rowinska B.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats infected with 500 to 2,500 Trichinella spiralis larvae the muscle larvae intensity (larvae per gram-l.p.g. was measured from 20 to 180 day post infection (d.p.i. The l.p.g. increased to day 40-50 p.i. and decreased thereafter. The highest reduction took place between 6 0 and 120 d.p.i. with intermediate inoculum of T. spiralis larvae. The mechanism of the reduction of T. spiralis larvae in muscles is suggested to depend on pericapsular-intercapsular host cells infiltrations attracted by parasite antigens.

  7. Starving honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae signal pheromonally to worker bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu Jiang; Zhang, Xue Chuan; Jiang, Wu Jun; Barron, Andrew B.; Zhang, Jian Hui; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative brood care is diagnostic of animal societies. This is particularly true for the advanced social insects, and the honey bee is the best understood of the insect societies. A brood pheromone signaling the presence of larvae in a bee colony has been characterised and well studied, but here we explored whether honey bee larvae actively signal their food needs pheromonally to workers. We show that starving honey bee larvae signal to workers via increased production of the volatile pheromone E-β-ocimene. Analysis of volatile pheromones produced by food-deprived and fed larvae with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that starving larvae produced more E-β-ocimene. Behavioural analyses showed that adding E-β-ocimene to empty cells increased the number of worker visits to those cells, and similarly adding E-β-ocimene to larvae increased worker visitation rate to the larvae. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis identified 3 genes in the E-β-ocimene biosynthetic pathway that were upregulated in larvae following 30 minutes of starvation, and these genes also upregulated in 2-day old larvae compared to 4-day old larvae (2-day old larvae produce the most E-β-ocimene). This identifies a pheromonal mechanism by which brood can beg for food from workers to influence the allocation of resources within the colony. PMID:26924295

  8. Enhanced ammonia content in compost leachate processed by black soldier fly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrence R; Popa, Radu

    2012-03-01

    Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens), feeding on leachate from decaying vegetable and food scrap waste, increase ammonia (NH (4) (+) ) concentration five- to sixfold relative to leachate unprocessed by larvae. NH (4) (+) in larva-processed leachate reached levels as high as ∼100 mM. Most of this NH (4) (+) appears to have come from organic nitrogen within the frass produced by the larvae as they fed on leachate. In nitrate-enriched solutions, BSF larvae also facilitate dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. The markedly higher concentration of NH (4) (+) recovered in leachates processed with BSF larvae and concomitant diversion of nutrients into insect biomass (itself a valuable feedstock) indicate that the use of BSF larvae in processing leachate of decaying organic waste could be advantageous in offsetting capital and environmental costs incurred in composting. PMID:22238016

  9. VISCERAL LARVA MIGRANS AND TROPICAL PYOMYOSITIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tropical pyomyositis in a boy who presented with a severe febrile illness associated with diffuse erythema, and swelling in many areas of the body which revealed on operation extensive necrotic areas of various muscles that required repeated débridement. The patient gave a history of contact with dogs, and an ELISA test for Toxocara canis was positive. He also presented eosinophilia and high serum IgE levels. Staphylococcus aureus was the sole bacteria isolated from the muscles affected. We suggest that tropical pyomyositis may be caused by the presence of migrating larvae of this or other parasites in the muscles. The immunologic and structural alterations caused by the larvae, in the presence of concomitant bacteremia, would favour seeding of the bacteria and the development of pyomyositis.

  10. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure.

  11. Microvascular system forming in skeletal muscle near trichinella larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine structure and dynamics of formation of the microcirculatory system about the larvae of the two Trichinella species, providing for the rapid entry of nutrient substances to the larvae, were investigated in the muscles of white mice. Hitological, hitochemical, autoradiographic, and electron-microscopic methods were used in the investigation. At a certain period of the experiment, the greatest quantity of RNA was found in the endotheliocyte cytoplasm, tritium-thymidine label was incorporated into the nuclei, and mitoses were visible. The transition to tissue parasitism was accompanied by a complication of the relationships with the host and the formation of a more complex independent microcirculatory system, which ensures a more intensive influx of blood

  12. Identification of common excitatory motoneurons in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Eiji; Komatsu, Akira; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2007-05-01

    In insects, four types of motoneurons have long been known, including fast motoneurons, slow motoneurons, common inhibitory motoneurons, and DUM neurons. They innervate the same muscle and control its contraction together. Recent studies in Drosophila have suggested the existence of another type of motoneuron, the common excitatory motoneuron. Here, we found that shakB-GAL4 produced by labels this type of motoneuron in Drosophila larvae. We found that Drosophila larvae have two common excitatory motoneurons in each abdominal segment, RP2 for dorsal muscles and MNSNb/d-Is for ventral muscles. They innervate most of the internal longitudinal or oblique muscles on the dorsal or ventral body wall with type-Is terminals and use glutamate as a transmitter. Electrophysiological recording indicated that stimulation of the RP2 axon evoked excitatory junctional potential in a dorsal muscle. PMID:17867850

  13. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure. PMID:27405123

  14. Effects of dietary vitamin C on fish and crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary needs for ascorbic acid (AA) at startfeeding, the AA content in the various live diets currently applied in aquaculture (algae, rotifers, Artemia ) was studied. Application of boosting techniques using ascorbyl palmitate (AP) as the vitamin C source enabled the transfer of elevated levels of bioactive vitamin C (up to 2500µg AA.g DW-1) via the live food chain into larvae of fish (Clarias gariepinus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Scophthalmus maximus), shrimp (Pennaeus v...

  15. Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Hellmich, Richard L; Blair D Siegfried; Sears, Mark K.; Stanley-Horn, Diane E.; Daniels, Michael J.; Mattila, Heather R.; Spencer, Terrence; Bidne, Keith G.; Lewis, Leslie C.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to establish the relative toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and pollen from Bt corn to monarch larvae. Toxins tested included Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry9C, and Cry1F. Three methods were used: (i) purified toxins incorporated into artificial diet, (ii) pollen collected from Bt corn hybrids applied directly to milkweed leaf discs, and (iii) Bt pollen contaminated with corn tassel material applied directly to milkweed leaf discs. Bioassays of purified Bt tox...

  16. CHIRONOMUS PLUMOSUS LARVAE - A SUITABLE NUTRIENT FOR FRESHWATER FARMED FISH

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Rajković; Zdeněk Adámek; Elizabeta Has-Schön; Ivan Bogut; Dalida Galović

    2007-01-01

    Crude protein, fat, water, ash, dry matter and essential amino and fatty acids were analyzed from freshly collected Chironomus plumosus larvae in order to evaluate their suitability as a component for farmed fish diet. The analyses were performed in intact living organisms and in the dry matter. Essential amino acidswere determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer, while fatty acids were determined by Chronopack CP 9000 chromatograph with flame ionization detector. Crude protein content was...

  17. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  18. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukant Khurana; Mohammed Bin AbuBaker; Obaid Siddiqi

    2009-10-01

    Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) and long term (LTM) as a function of training cycles. The same method of analysis when applied to learning mutants dunce, amnesiac, rutabaga and radish reveals memory deficits characteristic of the mutant strains.

  19. Larva currens in a case of Organophosphorous poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old healthy farmer consumed organophosphorous poison. On third day he developed diarrhoea and on fourth day linear serpiginous ulcers appeared on both buttocks. Clinically lesions were considered as decubitus ulcers. By stool examination and other laboratory investigations it was diagnosed as cutaneous larva currens due to S trongyloides stercoralis in a case of organophosphorus poisoning. Patient responded very well to a course of albendazole.

  20. Maya Index and Larva Density Aedes Aegypti Toward Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang G. Purnama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South Denpasar District was of there as with the highest dengue cases in Bali province. The number of mosquito breeding places and larvae density become risk factor that influenced the spreading of mosquitoes. Maya index was an indicator to measure the amount of waterreservoirs can be breeding places for mosquitoes. Knowing the relationship between maya index and density of larvae and pupae of Ae.aegypti toward dengue infection in South Denpasar District. The study was observational analytic with case-control design. Data was collected through interviews and field observations to 150 respondents. The survey entomologist with indicators maya index, house index (HI, container index (CI, breteau index (BI and pupa index (PI to see the density of larvae and pupae in survey area. Dengue transmission risk was categorized mild, moderate and severe based on density figure. Water storage containers inspected in 1215 containers that as many as 675 containers in the case and 540 containers in control. Water reservoirs (TPA that the most larvae was tub (29.27%, dispenser (18.29%, container tirta (10.98%, wells (10.98%. Maya index status was lower in the case (24% smaller thancontrols (37.33%. Value of HI = 23.33; CI=10.69; BI=55; PI=15.33. Based on HI and CI indicator South Denpasar District means have moderate the risk of transmission spread of dengue disease. Based on the BI, have a high risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease. Based on the maya index showed house cases have highest risk as breeding place compare than control house. House index, Breteau index, container index, pupa index and maya index have correlation with dengue infection. Kind of breeding place have the high risk is bath tub

  1. DINAMIKA LARVA IKAN SEBAGAI DASAR OPSI PENGELOLAAN SUMBER DAYA IKAN DI LAGUNA PULAU PARI KEPULAUAN SERIBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Puspasari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Proses rekruitmen populasi ikan sangat ditentukan oleh kelangsungan hidup larva ikan yang ada di daerah pemijahan/asuhan. Laguna Pulau Pari merupakan daerah pemjahan bagi banyak jenis larva ikan karang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji dinamika kelimpahan dan komposisi dari larva ikan di laguna Pulau Pari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelimpahan larva ikan yang ditemukan berkisar antara 1,0 x103 – 14,7 x 103 individu/m3. Puncak kelimpahan tertinggi terjadi pada bulan Juli dan Oktober. Larva ikan ditemukan tersebar di semua lokasi pengamatan. Larva pada fase perkembangan pre flexion ditemukan dalam presentase yang paling tinggi. Selama masa pengamatan ditemukan 79 famili larva ikan yang didominasi oleh Pomacentridae, Aulostomidae, Blenniidae, Engraulidae dan Pinguipedidae. Dinamika yang terjadi pada larva ikan dapat dijadikan dasar bagi pengelolaan perikanan di wilayah Laguna Pulau Pari dengan cara memperluas daerah perlindungan laut dan rehabilitasi ekosistem Laguna Pulau Pari, sehingga peran dan fungsinya sebagai pemasok rekrut bagi stok ikan di perairan sekitarnya terjaga.   Fish Recruitment is, in turn, thought to be directly related to the survival of the early life stages in the spawning/nursery ground. Pulau Pari Laguna is considered as a spawning ground for many reef fishes. The aims of the research were to investigate the dynamic of abundance and composition of fish larvae in Pulau Pari lagune. The Results show, fish larvae abundance range between 1,0 x 103 – 14,7 x 103 ind/m3. Highest larval abundance occurred on July and October, which predicted as the month of fish larvae production seasons. Fish larvae were distributed in all part of the lagune. Larvae in the pre flexion stage found in the highest precentation compare to other. Totally 79 families of reef fish larvae were found during June – November 2010 dominated by Pomacentridae, Aulostomidae, Blenniidae, Engraulidae and Pinguipedidae.

  2. The larva of Drusus vinconi Sipahiler, 1992 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Waringer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Drusus vinconi Sipahiler, 1992. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of D. vinconi keys together with D. annulatus (Stephens, 1837, D. biguttatus (Pictet, 1834, D. ingridae Sipahiler, 1993, Hadimina torosensis Sipahiler, 2002 and Leptodrusus budtzi (Ulmer, 1913. These species differ in the contours of the pronotum in lateral view, the presence/absence of the pronotal transverse groove, the shape of the median notch of the pronotum (in anterior view, pronotal sculpturing, presence/absence of the lateral carina of the head capsule, the number of proximo-dorsal setae on the mid-and hind femora, where the lateral fringe starts on the abdomen, and in geographic distribution. With respect to zoogeography, Drusus vinconi is a (micro-endemic of the Western Pyrenees. The species prefers stony substratum in springs and springbrooks of the montane and subalpine region (Graf et al. 2008; Sipahiler 1992, 1993. As a grazer, the larvae of D. vinconi feed on biofilm and epilithic algae.

  3. Using black soldier fly larvae for processing organic leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R

    2012-04-01

    A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass. PMID:22606806

  4. Toxic dinoflagellates and Vibrio spp. act independently in bivalve larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Van Acker, E; Nevejan, N; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2016-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and marine pathogens - like Vibrio spp. - are increasingly common due to climate change. These stressors affect the growth, viability and development of bivalve larvae. Little is known, however, about the potential for interactions between these two concurrent stressors. While some mixed exposures have been performed with adult bivalves, no such work has been done with larvae which are generally more sensitive. This study examines whether dinoflagellates and bacteria may interactively affect the viability and immunological resilience of blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae. Embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (100, 500, 2500 & 12,500 cells ml(-1)) of a dinoflagellate (Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Karenia mikimotoi, Protoceratium reticulatum, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. lima or P. micans), a known pathogen (Vibrio coralliilyticus/neptunius-like isolate or Vibrio splendidus; 10(5) CFU ml(-1)), or both. After five days of exposure, significant (p < 0.05) adverse effects on larval viability and larval development were found for all dinoflagellates (except P. cordatum) and V. splendidus. Yet, despite the individual effect of each stressor, no significant interactions were found between the pathogens and harmful algae. The larval viability and the phenoloxidase innate immune system responded independently to each stressor. This independence may be related to a differential timing of the effects of HABs and pathogens. PMID:27554394

  5. Toxic dinoflagellates and Vibrio spp. act independently in bivalve larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Van Acker, E; Nevejan, N; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2016-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and marine pathogens - like Vibrio spp. - are increasingly common due to climate change. These stressors affect the growth, viability and development of bivalve larvae. Little is known, however, about the potential for interactions between these two concurrent stressors. While some mixed exposures have been performed with adult bivalves, no such work has been done with larvae which are generally more sensitive. This study examines whether dinoflagellates and bacteria may interactively affect the viability and immunological resilience of blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae. Embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (100, 500, 2500 & 12,500 cells ml(-1)) of a dinoflagellate (Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Karenia mikimotoi, Protoceratium reticulatum, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. lima or P. micans), a known pathogen (Vibrio coralliilyticus/neptunius-like isolate or Vibrio splendidus; 10(5) CFU ml(-1)), or both. After five days of exposure, significant (p larval viability and larval development were found for all dinoflagellates (except P. cordatum) and V. splendidus. Yet, despite the individual effect of each stressor, no significant interactions were found between the pathogens and harmful algae. The larval viability and the phenoloxidase innate immune system responded independently to each stressor. This independence may be related to a differential timing of the effects of HABs and pathogens.

  6. Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmich, R L; Siegfried, B D; Sears, M K; Stanley-Horn, D E; Daniels, M J; Mattila, H R; Spencer, T; Bidne, K G; Lewis, L C

    2001-10-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to establish the relative toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and pollen from Bt corn to monarch larvae. Toxins tested included Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry9C, and Cry1F. Three methods were used: (i) purified toxins incorporated into artificial diet, (ii) pollen collected from Bt corn hybrids applied directly to milkweed leaf discs, and (iii) Bt pollen contaminated with corn tassel material applied directly to milkweed leaf discs. Bioassays of purified Bt toxins indicate that Cry9C and Cry1F proteins are relatively nontoxic to monarch first instars, whereas first instars are sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins. Older instars were 12 to 23 times less susceptible to Cry1Ab toxin compared with first instars. Pollen bioassays suggest that pollen contaminants, an artifact of pollen processing, can dramatically influence larval survival and weight gains and produce spurious results. The only transgenic corn pollen that consistently affected monarch larvae was from Cry1Ab event 176 hybrids, currently corn planted and for which re-registration has not been applied. Results from the other types of Bt corn suggest that pollen from the Cry1Ab (events Bt11 and Mon810) and Cry1F, and experimental Cry9C hybrids, will have no acute effects on monarch butterfly larvae in field settings. PMID:11559841

  7. Observations of cocooned Hydrobaenus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Taaja R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the family Chironomidae have developed a variety of ways to tolerate environmental stress, including the formation of cocoons, which allows larvae to avoid unfavorable temperature conditions, drought, or competition with other chironomids. Summer cocoon formation by younger instars of the genus Hydrobaenus Fries allows persistence through increased temperatures and/or intermittent dry periods in arid regions or temporary habitats, but this behavior was not observed in the Great Lakes until the current study. Cocoon-aestivating Hydrobaenus sp. larvae were found in benthic grab samples collected in 2010–2013 near Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in northern Lake Michigan with densities up to 7329/m2. The aestivating species was identified as Hydrobaenus johannseni (Sublette, 1967), and the associated chironomid community was typical for an oligotrophic nearshore system. Hydrobaenus cocoon formation in the Great Lakes was likely previously unnoticed due to the discrepancies between the genus' life history and typical benthos sampling procedures which has consequences for describing chironomid communities where Hydrobaenus is present.

  8. Chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity in Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider 1799) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, M R; Bandara, M G D K; Ratnasooriya, W D; Lakraj, G P

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of continuous exposure to a widely used organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, on survival, growth, development, and activity of larvae of the Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus Schneider 1799. Larvae were continuously exposed to six different concentrations (1-1,500 μg l(-1)) of commercial-grade chlorpyrifos for 14 days and monitored for 1 additional week. Chlorpyrifos at ≥1,000 μg l(-1) caused significantly high and dose-dependent mortality, and the weekly LC50(7 day-21 day) values ranged from 3,003 to 462 μg l(-1). Larvae surviving exposure to ≥500 μg l(-1) chlorpyrifos showed significant growth impairment, delays in metamorphosis, and decreased swimming activity. Tail abnormalities were the most common morphologic deformity at concentrations of 1,000 and 1,500 μg l(-1) chlorpyrifos. The findings of the present study highlight the need to recognize the potential risk that agrochemicals pose to amphibians inhabiting agricultural landscapes in Sri Lanka and other Asian countries. PMID:20669016

  9. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study. PMID:26580574

  10. Probiotic legacy effects on gut microbial assembly in tilapia larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, Christos; Sipkema, Detmer; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier; Bacanu, Gianina M.; Abernathy, Jason; Verreth, Johan; Smidt, Hauke; Verdegem, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of fish to environmental free-living microbes and its effect on early colonization in the gut have been studied in recent years. However, little is known regarding how the host and environment interact to shape gut communities during early life. Here, we tested whether the early microbial exposure of tilapia larvae affects the gut microbiota at later life stages. The experimental period was divided into three stages: axenic, probiotic and active suspension. Axenic tilapia larvae were reared either under conventional conditions (active suspension systems) or exposed to a single strain probiotic (Bacillus subtilis) added to the water. Microbial characterization by Illumina HiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed the presence of B. subtilis in the gut during the seven days of probiotic application. Although B. subtilis was no longer detected in the guts of fish exposed to the probiotic after day 7, gut microbiota of the exposed tilapia larvae remained significantly different from that of the control treatment. Compared with the control, fish gut microbiota under probiotic treatment was less affected by spatial differences resulting from tank replication, suggesting that the early probiotic contact contributed to the subsequent observation of low inter-individual variation. PMID:27670882

  11. Olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae investigated by cross-adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Jennefer; Cobb, Matthew

    2005-09-01

    In order to reveal aspects of olfactory coding, the effects of sensory adaptation on the olfactory responses of first-instar Drosophila melanogaster larvae were tested. Larvae were pre-stimulated with a homologous series of acetic esters (C3-C9), and their responses to each of these odours were then measured. The overall patterns suggested that methyl acetate has no specific pathway but was detected by all the sensory pathways studied here, that butyl and pentyl acetate tended to have similar effects to each other and that hexyl acetate was processed separately from the other odours. In a number of cases, cross-adaptation transformed a control attractive response into a repulsive response; in no case was an increase in attractiveness observed. This was investigated by studying changes in dose-response curves following pre-stimulation. These findings are discussed in light of the possible intra- and intercellular mechanisms of adaptation and the advantage of altered sensitivity for the larva. PMID:16155221

  12. Immunization of cattle with Ra86 impedes Rhipicephalus appendiculatus nymphal-to-adult molting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olds, C.; Mwaura, S.; Crowder, D.; Odongo, D.; Oers, van M.M.; Owen, J.; Bishop, R.; Daubenberger, C.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial vaccines based on the tick gut protein Bm86 have been successful in controlling the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and provide heterologous protection against certain other non-target ixodid tick species. This cross protection, however, does not extend to the three-host

  13. Evidence for the role of white-tailed deer(Artiodactyla:Cervidae)in the epidemiology of cattle ticks and southern cattle ticks (Acari:Ixodidae)in reinfestations along the Texas/Mexico border in South Texas-A review and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933 the tick eradication methods of dipping cattle in an acaricide or "pasture vacation" were enormously successful in eradicating southern cattle ticks [SCT, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini)], until failures began to oc...

  14. Integration of ecologically-based approaches to re-eradicate cattle fever ticks from the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we summarize highlights of research conducted as part of a NIFA-AFRI funded grant. Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, have been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradic...

  15. Bm86 midgut protein sequence variation in south Texas cattle fever ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, vector bovine and equine babesiosis, and have significantly expanded beyond the permanent quarantine zone established in South Texas. Currently, there are no vaccines approved for use within the United States for controll...

  16. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  17. Mananoligossacarídeo em dietas para larvas de tilápia Mannanoligosaccharides in diets for tilapia larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Kalko Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar níveis crescentes de mananoligossacarídeo (MOS na dieta de larvas de tilápias-do-nilo (linhagem Supreme® na fase de reversão sexual durante 30 dias. Larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (n=1500, P=0,01 g ± 0,001 g foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em 30 tanques de 100 litros. Os peixes foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto por seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. A dieta controle (isenta de MOS foi elaborada para conter aproximadamente 35% de proteína bruta e 3.100 kcal de ED/kg. As demais foram suplementadas com 0; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75% de MOS em substituição ao milho da dieta controle. Com o aumento nos níveis de MOS nas dietas, foi observado aumento linear sobre o comprimento do intestino, a altura das vilosidades intestinais e a densidade dos vilos. Não houve diferença na composição corporal, no ganho em peso, no peso final, no comprimento final, no fator de condição, na taxa de sobrevivência e no número de células caliciformes do intestino das larvas. Os níveis de MOS tiveram efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar, cujos melhores resultados foram obtidos com 0,34% de MOS. A utilização de MOS no nível de 0,34% em dietas para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo melhora a conversão alimentar e promove aumento do comprimento do intestino, da altura das vilosidades e da densidade de vilos intestinal.This experiment was conducted to evaluate increasing levels of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS in the diet of Nile tilapia larvae (Supreme® at the sex reversal stage for 30 days. Nile tilapia larvae (n = 1500, p = 0.01 ± 0.001 g, were randomly distributed in 30 tanks of 100 liters each, for 30 days. The fish were distributed in a randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. The control diet (no MOS was elaborated to contain approximately 35% of crude protein and 3,100 kcal DE/kg. Mannanoligosaccharides were included in the other diets

  18. Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Keith D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used cDNA-AFLP ®Technology to profile transcripts in infected and uninfected bee larvae. From 64 primer combinations, over 7,400 transcriptionally-derived fragments were obtained A total of 98 reproducible polymorphic cDNA-AFLP fragments were excised and sequenced, followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of these and additional samples. We have identified a number of differentially-regulated transcripts that are implicated in general mechanisms of stress adaptation, including energy metabolism and protein transport. One of the most interesting differentially-regulated transcripts is for a chitinase-like enzyme that may be linked to anti-fungal activities in the honey bee larvae, similarly to gut and fat-body specific chitinases found in mosquitoes and the red flour beetle. Surprisingly, we did not find many components of the well-characterized NF-κB intracellular signaling pathways to be differentially-regulated using the cDNA-AFLP approach. Therefore, utilizing qRT-PCR, we probed some of the immune related genes to determine whether the lack of up-regulation of their transcripts in our analysis can be attributed to lack of immune activation or to limitations of the cDNA-AFLP approach. Conclusions Using a combination of cDNA-AFLP and qRT-PCR analyses, we were able to determine several key transcriptional events that constitute the overall effort in the honey bee larvae to fight natural fungal infection. Honey bee transcripts identified in this study are involved in critical

  19. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf;

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found...

  20. Exposure to lead induces hypoxia-like responses in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, T.M.; Blackstone, B.J.; Nixdorf, W.L.; Taylor, D.H.

    1999-10-01

    Amphibians collected around mining sites, areas with extensive automobile traffic, and shooting ranges have been documented to contain high levels of lead. Lead-exposed amphibians might respond as if in hypoxic conditions because exposure is known to decrease hemoglobin levels, damage erythrocytes, and alter respiratory surfaces. Therefore, the authors exposed bullfrog larvae to either 0 or 780 {micro}g/L Pb and either 3.50 or 7.85 mg/L oxygen for 7 d and monitored activity, trips to the surface, and buccal ventilation rates. Activity was significantly decreased in larvae exposed to low oxygen, Pb, or both compared to activity of larvae in high oxygen with no Pb. Larvae exposed to both Pb and low oxygen displayed higher buccal ventilation rates than larvae exposed to either treatment separately. Lead-exposed larvae surfaced significantly more often than unexposed larvae even under high-oxygen conditions. Lead-exposed larvae decreased in mass during the exposure period, whereas unexposed larvae increased in mass. Lead exposure could decrease survival of larvae in the field not only because of physiological problems due to decreased oxygen uptake but also because of greater predation pressure due to increased presence at the surface and reduced growth rates.