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Sample records for boophilus microplus larvae

  1. Controle de larvas de Boophilus microplus por Metarhizium anisopliae em pastagens infestadas artificialmente Control of Boophilus microplus larvae by Metarhizium anisopliae in artificially infested pastures

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    Lúcia Mara de Souza Basso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do controle exercido por Metarhizium anisopliae na população de Boophilus microplus, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, e do híbrido Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., artificialmente infestadas com fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. Trinta canteiros com 1 m² de área cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente. Quinze foram pulverizados com esporos do fungo e quinze controles em cada forrageira, constituindo cinco repetições de cada tratamento, foram infestados com número e peso padronizados de fêmeas ingurgitadas do ácaro. Aplicou-se o fungo, na concentração de 1,8x10(8 conídios mL-1, em três situações: pulverização antes da infestação com o carrapato, após a infestação e posterioriormente à emergência das primeiras larvas nos capins. A ação do fungo foi avaliada no 35º, 38º, 41º, 48º, 55º e 61º dia pós-infestação, por meio da contagem de larvas recuperadas. Obteve-se controle de larvas do ácaro, que, nas avaliações realizadas entre o 35º e o 48º dia pós-infestação, variou entre 87% e 94%. As médias das contagens de estágios larvares do carrapato foram menores em todas as amostragens realizadas no capim-Tifton 85, indicando que houve efeito da pastagem na ação do fungo. A situação de aplicação influencia a atividade do fungo, com melhor resultado nas coletas realizadas entre o 41º e 55º dia após infestação em B. brizantha, e aplicação dos conídios logo após a emergência das primeiras larvas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus against Boophilus microplus population in Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 (Cynodon pastures, artificially infested with tick engorged females. Thirty plots of 1 m² each were randomly distributed in fifteen treated and fifteen control groups per type of grass, establishing five repetitions for each treatment. Pastures were infested with engorged tick females

  2. Cutaneous hyperaemia elicited by larvae of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J R; Schleger, A V; Kemp, D H; Fawcett, A A

    1981-01-01

    The responses of skin capillary blood flow (BF) to infestation by larvae of B. microplus have been determined using radioactive microspheres. Larvae were placed in gauze-covered rings glued to the closely clipped skin. In pilot experiments on three Brahman-cross calves which had prior exposure to ticks, BF measurements at intervals up to 25 h post-infestation revealed a continuing increase. 'High' rates of infestation (5000 larvae per ring) elicited up to an 80-fold increase in BF. In four Australian Illawarra Shorthorn (AIS) calves with prior exposure to ticks, BF had increased by 0.5 h post-infestation, it reached a peak at 24 h, and fell markedly by 48 and 75 h. In contrast, two AIS calves without prior tick exposure showed no significant increase in BF until 24 h and this increase continued until observations were terminated at 72 h. BF in the neck area (normally favoured by ticks) increased most in calves of highest resistance to ticks, but the flank area (normally unfavoured) showed no consistent difference in BF response between animals of different tick resistance. It is concluded that skin capillary hyperaemia is triggered by the host's immune response to larval attachment. Within the relatively narrow range of tick resistance in the present animals, the degree of hyperaemia was directly related to level of resistance to the tick in skin regions normally favoured by ticks and therefore it may play a role in determining resistance to ticks. PMID:7259632

  3. Proposta para teste carrapaticida por imersão de larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: avaliação em cipermetrina e amitraz Proposal of an acaricide laboratory test larvae immersion of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: evaluation with cypermethrin and amitraz

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    Antonio P. de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se desenvolver uma técnica de avaliação de carrapaticidas por imersão de larvas de Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus. As larvas foram obtidas a partir de ovos de 30 teleóginas coletadas em bovinos de uma propriedade rural do município de Lages, SC, Brasil, os quais foram acondicionados em alíquotas de 10mg por seringa descartável de 5ml, previamente preparadas e mantidas em câmara climatizada até a eclosão. Larvas com sete a dez dias de idade foram submetidas à imersão por 30 segundos em oito diluições de produtos carrapaticidas comerciais à base de amitraz e de cipermetrina, cada uma com dez repetições, sendo mantido um grupo controle para cada repetição e produto, o qual foi imerso em água destilada. A leitura foi realizada 24 horas após o tratamento com a contagem de larvas vivas e mortas. A média de DL50 para cipermetrina foi de 2,99ppm e o erro padrão de 0,36 e para o amitraz foi de 17,22ppm e o erro padrão de 4,20, com intervalo de confiança (IC 95%.The aim of this work was to develop a technique of acaricides evaluation by immersion of larvae. Larvae were obtained from 30 engorged females of Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus were collected in a ranch in Lages, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Larvae were obtained from 10mg of eggs placed into 5ml disposable syringes, previously prepared and kept under controlled conditions of laboratory, and collected between the third and the twelfth day of oviposition. Seven to ten days old larvae were submitted to the acaricide laboratory test, in ten replications, by their immersion in eight dilutions of commercial acaricides (amitraz or cypermethrin, for 30 seconds; for each replication and commercial product, a control group was immersed in distilled water. Results were evaluated 24 hours after each treatment by counting the number of live and dead larvae. The mean LD50 values and standard error of the mean for cypermethrin and amitraz were 2.99 ± 0.36 and 17.22

  4. Failure of Boophilus microplus to transmit irradiated Babesia bovis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, I.G.; Mirre, G.B.; Mahoney, D.F.; Goodger, B.V. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Indooroopilly (Australia). Long Pocket Labs.)

    1983-01-01

    Babesia bovis parasites which had either been freshly irradiated or had been reisolated from cattle infected 12 months previously with irradiated organisms were not transmitted transovarially by cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus). The parent unirradiated strain of B bovis was readily transmitted in this manner after being in host cattle for 12 months.

  5. Failure of Boophilus microplus to transmit irradiated Babesia bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babesia bovis parasites which had either been freshly irradiated or had been reisolated from cattle infected 12 months previously with irradiated organisms were not transmitted transovarially by cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus). The parent unirradiated strain of B bovis was readily transmitted in this manner after being in host cattle for 12 months. (author)

  6. Control de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae con extractos vegetales Control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae with vegetable extracts

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    SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO MICHELETTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de varios extractos vegetales como controladores de la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus en condiciones de laboratorio. Hembras ingurgitadas se recolectaron de bovinos y se aislaron en cajas de petri. Se emplearon extractos orgánicos alcohólicos al 1% (p/v de semillas de Annona muricata (Annonaceae, flores de Syzygium malaccensis (Myrtaceae, hojas de Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae, hojas de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae y extracto hexánico de semillas de A. indica. El testigo consistió en hembras sin tratar y tratadas con agua destilada y esterilizada y dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a una concentración de 1%. El extracto de semillas de A. muricata mostró tener mayor poder acaricida, con 100% de eficiencia, seguido de los extractos de flores de S. malaccensis (75% y 57,25% y semillas de A. indica (65% y 38,50%. Hubo 100% en la reducción de la eclosión de las larvas nacidas a partir de hembras tratadas con extracto de semillas de A. muricata.The efficacy of various plant extracts in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was evaluated in the laboratory. Engorged females were collected from cattle and were isolated in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts at 1% (weight/volume were used from seeds of Annona muricata (Annonaceae, flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (Myrtaceae, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae, leaves of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and hexane extract 1% (weight/volume of A. indica seeds. The control groups consisted of females either untreated or treated with distilled and sterile water and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO at a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata seeds showed the highest acaricide power, with 100% efficacy, followed by flower extracts of S. malaccensis (75% and 57.25% and seeds of A. indica (65% and 38.50%. There was a 100% reduction in the eclosion of larvae from eggs of females treated with the seed extract of A. muricata.

  7. Resistencia de la garrapata Boophilus microplus a los ixodicidas

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Alonso-Díaz; R I Rodríguez-Vivas; H Fragoso-Sánchez; R Rosario-Cruz

    2006-01-01

    La resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es uno de los principales problemas que afectan a los productores bovinos en el subtrópico y trópico, donde las garrapatas, especialmente Boophilus microplus y los agentes que transmiten, tienen un efecto costo-beneficio en la producción. El objetivo de la presente revisión es dar a conocer los principales hallazgos de la resistencia de B. microplus. Se presenta la definición, desarrollo, evolución y el diagnóstico de la resistencia. Asimismo,...

  8. Competição intraespecífica em Boophilus microplus Intra-specific competition in Boophilus microplus

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    Andreia Passos dos Santos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brasil, tendo como objetivo a verificação da ocorrência de competição intra-específica durante a fase parasitária do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus e a confirmação da correlação positiva entre o peso da fêmea ingurgitada e o peso da massa de ovos. Foram feitas observações em bovinos infestados naturalmente e experimentalmente, com cargas parasitárias e intervalos diferenciados. Os animais infestados permaneceram em baias individuais durante todo o período de queda das fêmeas ingurgitadas, para que estas pudessem ser coletadas diariamente. As diferenças observadas entre as médias de peso das fêmeas ingurgitadas, no decorrer dos dias de queda, sugeriram a ocorrência de competição durante a fase de alimentação. Observou-se também que o potencial de oviposição está diretamente relacionado a sua capacidade de alimentação.This study was developed in the Experimental Station of Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and had the aim of verifying the occurrence of intra-specific competition in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus during its parasite life and to confirm the relation between the weight of engorged females and the egg mass laid. Observations were done with cattle naturally and experimentally infested with different quantities of larvae during different intervals of time. The infested animals remained in individual stalls for the whole period of engorged females drop-off, in order to collect them daily. The observed differences among weight of engorged females during drop-off days suggested the competition occurrence during the feeding phase. It was also seen that the oviposition potential of an engorged female is directly related to its feeding capacity.

  9. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

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    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transmits, such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis (Xianxun and Wenshun, 1997; Yeruhan et al., 1998, are of special interest. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the larvae of Boophilus microplus to seven tick-killing agents commonly used in the state of Nuevo Leon. The methodology used for the diagnosis of the susceptibility of B. microplus tick to Organochlorine, Organophosphorate and Pyrethroid compounds was the one applied by Rodriguez-Vivas et al., (2007; in which it was used a discriminant dose (table 1, using the larvae package test technique (Stone & Haydock, 1962. The results of the CL50 to the ticks of cattle in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico showed a greater susceptibility to Deltamethrine, followed by Chlorfenvinphos; in third place Diazinon, then Flumethrin; after that Cypermethrin, in sixth place Lindane and a less toxicological action for the Coumaphos (Asuntol. The result was already expected due to the fact that it is the most commonly used product in the control of ticks through the larval immersion technique.

  10. Resistencia de la garrapata Boophilus microplus a los ixodicidas Ixodicide resistance of the the Boophilus microplus tick to ixodicides

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Alonso-Díaz; R I Rodríguez-Vivas; H Fragoso-Sánchez; R Rosario-Cruz

    2006-01-01

    La resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es uno de los principales problemas que afectan a los productores bovinos en el subtrópico y trópico, donde las garrapatas, especialmente Boophilus microplus y los agentes que transmiten, tienen un efecto costo-beneficio en la producción. El objetivo de la presente revisión es dar a conocer los principales hallazgos de la resistencia de B. microplus. Se presenta la definición, desarrollo, evolución y el diagnóstico de la resistencia. Asimismo,...

  11. Protection against Boophilus annulatus infestations in cattle vaccinated with the B. microplus Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac. off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, H; Rad, P H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Herrera, L; de la Fuente, J

    1998-12-01

    Tick infestations by Boophilus spp. constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The use of traditional control methods has been only partially successful and tick infestations remain a serious problem. Recently, the gut antigen Bm86 was isolated from B. microplus. Recombinant preparations of this antigen have been used in vaccines for the control of B. microplus infestations. However, in several regions of the world, B. microplus coexists with other Boophilus species, mainly B. annulatus and B. decoloratus. Therefore, there is a need for the simultaneous control of infestations by different Boophilus species. To test the capacity of the P. pastoris-derived Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana) to control B. annulatus infestations, controlled experiments were conducted in Mexico and Iran. Cattle were vaccinated with Gavac or not vaccinated and then artificially infested with B. annulatus larvae. The results showed for the first time a high protection efficacy (> 99.9%) of Gavac in the control of B. annulatus infestations. These results support the application of Bm86-containing vaccines for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations. PMID:9796055

  12. Global comparative analysis of ESTs from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Pertea Geo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is an economically important parasite of cattle and can transmit several pathogenic microorganisms to its cattle host during the feeding process. Understanding the biology and genomics of R. microplus is critical to developing novel methods for controlling these ticks. Results We present a global comparative genomic analysis of a gene index of R. microplus comprised of 13,643 unique transcripts assembled from 42,512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs, a significant fraction of the complement of R. microplus genes. The source material for these ESTs consisted of polyA RNA from various tissues, lifestages, and strains of R. microplus, including larvae exposed to heat, cold, host odor, and acaricide. Functional annotation using RPS-Blast analysis identified conserved protein domains in the conceptually translated gene index and assigned GO terms to those database transcripts which had informative BlastX hits. Blast Score Ratio and SimiTri analysis compared the conceptual transcriptome of the R. microplus database to other eukaryotic proteomes and EST databases, including those from 3 ticks. The most abundant protein domains in BmiGI were also analyzed by SimiTri methodology. Conclusion These results indicate that a large fraction of BmiGI entries have no homologs in other sequenced genomes. Analysis with the PartiGene annotation pipeline showed 64% of the members of BmiGI could not be assigned GO annotation, thus minimal information is available about a significant fraction of the tick genome. This highlights the important insights in tick biology which are likely to result from a tick genome sequencing project. Global comparative analysis identified some tick genes with unexpected phylogenetic relationships which detailed analysis attributed to gene losses in some members of the animal kingdom. Some tick genes were identified which had close orthologues to mammalian genes

  13. Resistencia de la garrapata Boophilus microplus a los ixodicidas Ixodicide resistance of the the Boophilus microplus tick to ixodicides

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    M A Alonso-Díaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es uno de los principales problemas que afectan a los productores bovinos en el subtrópico y trópico, donde las garrapatas, especialmente Boophilus microplus y los agentes que transmiten, tienen un efecto costo-beneficio en la producción. El objetivo de la presente revisión es dar a conocer los principales hallazgos de la resistencia de B. microplus. Se presenta la definición, desarrollo, evolución y el diagnóstico de la resistencia. Asimismo, se presenta la distribución mundial de la resistencia de las garrapatas, especialmente en México. Se concluye que la resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es un problema importante en la producción bovina y se necesitan implementar medidas estratégicas para reducir o retardar el impacto en la ganadería bovina.The tick is a major problem for cattle producers in subtropical and tropical areas where ticks, especially Boophilus microplus, and the disease agents that they transmit, are a constraint to cost-effective production. The aim of the present review is to present the most important findings of acaricide resistance in the B. microplus tick. The definition, development, evolution and diagnosis of tick resistance are presented. The distribution of tick resistance in the world, especially in Mexico is also presented. It is concluded that tick resistance is an important problem for cattle production and strategies need to be developed to reduce the impact on cattle.

  14. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  15. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

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    Castro, Karina Neoob de Carvalho; Lima, David Fernandes; Wolschick, Dolores; Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira de; Santos, Raimunda Cardoso Dos; Santos, Francisco José de Seixas Dos; Veras, Leiz Maria Costa; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL-1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL-1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50) of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m), respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL-1) and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL-1) of R.(B.) microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL-1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE. PMID:27334829

  16. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Karina Neoob de Carvalho Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE and ethanolic extracts (EE and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi, respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL–1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL–1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50 of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m, respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL–1 and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL–1 of R.(B. microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL–1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE.

  17. Commercialisation of a recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willadsen, P; Bird, P; Cobon, G S; Hungerford, J

    1995-01-01

    Increasingly, there is need for methods to control cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) infestations by the use of non-chemical technology. This need is brought about by a mixture of market forces and the failure or inadequacy of existing technology. A recombinant vaccine has now been developed against the tick. This vaccine relies on the uptake with the blood meal of antibody directed against a critical protein in the tick gut. The isolation of the vaccine antigen, Bm86, and its production as a recombinant protein is briefly described. The vaccine has been tested in the field, has been taken through the full registration process and is now in commercial use in Australia. A related development has occurred in Cuba. The potential for improvement of the current vaccine and for the development of similar vaccines against other haematophagous parasites is discussed. PMID:7784128

  18. Acaricidal activity of Palicourea marcgravii, a species from the Amazon forest, on cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

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    Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Heinzen, Horacio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2011-06-30

    Leaves of Palicourea marcgravii were extracted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol in order to evaluate their acaricidal activity on larvae and adult stages of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest bioactivity of the tested extracts, which contained 0.12% monofluoroacetic acid. On engorged female, the ethyl acetate extract showed a lethal concentration 50% - LC(50)=30.08 mg ml(-1), inhibitory concentration 50% - IC(50)=5.79 mg ml(-1) and lethal time 50% - LT(50)=4.72 days; 100% reproduction was controlled at concentrations of 50 mg ml(-1) and on larvae the ethyl acetate extract showed a LC(50)=2.46 mg ml(-1). No alkaloids were detected in any of the extracts. This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of P. marcgravii extracts against R. microplus as well as the acaricidal properties of a plant species containing monofluoroacetic acid. PMID:21411227

  19. Toxicity of Piper aduncum L. (Piperales: Piperaceae) from the Amazon forest for the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; de Souza, Hellen Emília Menezes; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, Maria Verônica; Mato, Mauricio; Albrecht, Francine; de Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2009-10-14

    The mortality of 14-21-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae, and the mortality and fertility of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of spiked pepper (Piper aduncum) were evaluated, using a completely randomized design with five treatment groups, two control groups, and two replicates for the larvae and five replicates for the adult females. Similar methodology was used to investigate the toxicity of the essential oil hydro-distillate (94.84% dillapiole) obtained from the P. aduncum crude hexane extract. The LC(50) of the hexane extract was 9.30 mg ml(-1) for larvae and the reproduction reduction ranged from 12.48% to 54.22%, while 0.1mg/ml(-1) of the essential oil induced 100% mortality in larvae. Literature reports on natural products active against R. microplus were listed and compared with the results presented here. These results indicate that P. aduncum extracts, and particularly its essential oil, are potential alternative control agents for R. microplus. PMID:19573994

  20. Fenvalerate resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

    2016-09-01

    Larval packet test was used for evaluating the resistance levels in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from different districts of central plain zone of Punjab state, India against fenvalerate. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larvae plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of fenvalerate were utilized for the estimation of lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and 95 % (LC95) values against various field isolates of R. (B.) microplus. The slope of mortality (95 % confidence levels) varied from 0.730 ± 0.097 (0.419-1.043) to 1.455 ± 0.281 (0.558-2.352) and the value of R(2) varied from 0.881 to 0.997. From the regression equation the values of LC50 and LC95 were recorded in range of 184.39-1,338.01 and 3,253.33-112,706.26 ppm, respectively. Among the various tick isolates resistance factors in range of 1.56-54.34 were determined and all field isolates studied were found resistant against fenvalerate. Two field isolates (Jalandhar and Ludhiana) showed level I resistance; three (Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib and Amritsar) showed level II and Kapurthala isolate showed level IV resistance. The data generated on fenvalerate resistant status will help in judicious use of the drug and formulation of effective tick control strategy for the region. PMID:27605769

  1. Prevalencia de lecherías con Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides y factores de riesgo asociados a su presencia en el Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Marbel Villarroel-Alvarez; Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; Fidel Villegas-Anze; Hugo Fragoso-Sánchez; Alejandrina Ortiz-Nájera; Salvador Neri-Orantes

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de sección cruzada para determinar la prevalencia de ranchos con garrapatas Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides sintéticos (PS), así como posibles factores de riesgo en la Zona Integrada del Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Se muestrearon 83 ranchos, donde se colectaron al menos 10 teleoginas de B. microplus para evaluar en su progenie la respuesta a los PS. Se utilizó la prueba de paquete de larvas, con la dosis discriminante para diagnosticar resistencia ...

  2. Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Bendele Kylie G; Guerrero Felix D; Dowd Scot E; Pérez de León Adalberto A; Andreotti Renato; Scoles Glen A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique to cha...

  3. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  4. Tripanosomatídeos similares a Trypanosoma theileri no carrapato dos bovinos Boophilus microplus Tripanosomatides like Trypanosoma theileri in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de formas epimastigotas de um tripanosomatideo na hemolinfa do carrapato do bovino Boophilus microplus no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Evidências morfológicas sugerem tratar-se de Trypanosoma theileri , espécie descrita como não patogênica aos bovinos e que usualmente é transmitida por tabanídeos.Findings of epimastigotes forms of a tripanosomatide is reported in the hemolymph of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Morphological evidences suggest they are similar to Trypanosoma theileri, a species described as non pathogenic to cattle, and usually transmitted by tabanids.

  5. Evidence for the utility of the Bm86 antigen from Boophilus microplus in vaccination against other tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, S; Zeinstra, L; Taoufik, O; Willadsen, P; Jongejan, F

    2001-01-01

    The Bm86 antigen, as originally identified in Boophilus microplus, is the basis of commercial tick vaccines against this tick species. The potential for using this antigen or homologues of the antigen in vaccination against other tick species has been assessed. We have conducted vaccine trials in cattle using the B. microplus-derived recombinant Bm86 vaccine (TickGARD) using pairs of vaccinated calves and control calves. These were infested with B. microplus and Boophilus decoloratus larvae simultaneously. For both species, the numbers of engorged female adult ticks, their weight and egg-laying capacity were all reduced, leading to a reduction in reproductive capacity of 74% for B. microplus and 70% for B. decoloratus. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were fed both as immatures as well as adults on vaccinated calves and non-vaccinated controls. There was an overall 50% reduction in the total weight of nymphs engorging on vaccinated calves, and a suggestion of a subsequent effect on feeding adults. For Hyalomma dromedarii there was a 95% reduction in the number of nymphs engorging and a further 55% reduction in weight of those ticks surviving. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum ticks were fed simultaneously both as immatures and subsequently as adults. There was no evidence for a significant vaccination effect. Finally, the amino acid sequence of a Bm86 homologue found in H. a. anatolicum unequivocally demonstrated the conservation of this molecule in this species. Our strategy for the development of multivalent anti-tick vaccines is discussed in relation to these findings. PMID:11523920

  6. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen Imunoproteção de bovinos contra Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus com antígeno recombinante Bm86-Campo Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B. microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B. microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG strain of R. (B. microplus was produced using the Pichiapastoris expression system to test its ability to immunoprotect cattle against tick infestation. Secretion of rBm86-CG by P. pastoris through the bioprocess reported here simplified purification of the antigen. A specific humoral immune response was detected by ELISA in vaccinated cattle. Immunoblot results revealed that polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated cattle recognized a protein in larval extracts with a molecular weight corresponding to Bm86. The rBm86-CG antigen showed 31% efficacy against the Campo Grande strain of R. (B. microplus infesting vaccinated cattle. The rBm86-CG is an antigen that could be used in a polyvalent vaccine as part of an integrated program for the control of R. (B. microplus in the region that includes Mato Grosso do Sul.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é, sem dúvidas, o ectoparasito economicamente mais importante para o gado a nível mundial. A utilização inadequada de acaricidas tem impulsionado a evolução da resistência em populações de R. (B. microplus. Vacinas contra o carrapato representam uma tecnologia que pode ser combinada com acaricidas em programas de controle integrado para diminuir o impacto de R. (B. microplus. A forma recombinante da Bm86 da cepa Campo Grande (rBm86-CG de R. (B. microplus foi produzido utilizando o sistema de expressão em Pichia pastoris para testar sua capacidade de imunoproteção ao gado contra a infestação de

  7. Control de garrapatas Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus en bovinos con el inmunógeno Herber biogar - Control of Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks in bovine with the Herber biogar inmunógeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botello A.R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de controlar la garrapata Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus por medio del inmunógeno Herber biogar en bovinos en el municipio de Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.SummaryThis research was conducted with the aim of controlling the tickRiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus through Herber biogar immunogen incattle in the town of Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.

  8. Control de garrapatas Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en bovinos con el inmunógeno Herber biogar - Control of Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in bovine with the Herber biogar inmunógeno

    OpenAIRE

    Botello A.R.; Botello A.L.; Fajardo H.; Pérez Kirenia C.; Gómez I.A.; Borroto C.N.; Marisela Suárez; Pérez Dunia A.; Linares Belkis R.; Colicchia Maribel R.; Peraza Paula S.; Rodríguez Y.V.; González A.O.; Rodríguez A.N.; Gort A.M.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de controlar la garrapata Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus por medio del inmunógeno Herber biogar en bovinos en el municipio de Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.SummaryThis research was conducted with the aim of controlling the tickRiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus through Herber biogar immunogen incattle in the town of Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.

  9. Identificación de un polimorfismo del gen Est9 relacionado con resistencia a piretroides en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Diaz R.; Gustavo Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Mediante procedimientos de PCR-RFLP, detectar un polimorfismo en el gen Est9 de garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistentes a piretroides en Ibagué, Colombia, determinando el grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes. Materiales y métodos. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. (Boophilus) microplus fenotípicamente susceptibles, resistentes o medianamente resistentes a piretroides en una prueba de Drummond modificada, fue amplificado por PCR con c...

  10. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen Imunoproteção de bovinos contra Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus com antígeno recombinante Bm86-Campo Grande

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha; Adalberto Angel Pérez de León; Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite; Luciano da Silva Pinto; Alceu Gonçalves dos Santos Júnior; Renato Andreotti

    2012-01-01

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B.) microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B.) microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG) strai...

  11. Ação larvicida de derivados arilsulfonílicos da (+- cânfora e da (+- isopinocanfona sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus Larvicidal action of (+-camphor and (+- isopinocamphone arilsulphonyl derivatives on Boophilus microplus cattle tick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S. Chagas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a atividade larvicida de 33 derivados arilsulfonílicos da (+-cânfora e da (+-isopinocanfona no carrapato B. microplus, na busca de princípios ativos menos tóxicos para o seu controle. Os produtos foram obtidos por clorossulfonação da (+-cânfora e da (+-isopinocanfona. Eles foram submetidos à solubilização e testados separadamente e em conjunto contra larvas de carrapato encerradas em envelopes contendo papéis impregnados e acondicionadas em estufa climatizada. A mortalidade média não atingiu 5% em todos os testes realizados, indicando que a clorossulfonação não é a rota de síntese mais adequada para a obtenção de derivados sintéticos com efeito larvicida sobre B. microplus. Os 33 produtos testados sob a forma de triagem biológica não podem ser considerados como potenciais acaricidas.It was investigated the acaricidal activity of (+- camphor and (+- isopinocamphone arilsulphonyl derivatives against Boophilus microplus cattle tick. The products were obtained through the camphor and isopinocamphone clorosulfonation. Thirty-three products were submitted to solubilization and tested alone and together, against tick larvae. Ticks were caught in filter paper envelopes impregnated with products, which were incubated under controlled conditions. The average mortality did not reach 5% in all trials, indicating that clorosulfonation is not an appropiate procedure to obtain derivatives with larvicidal effect against B. microplus. The 33 products tested in the biological screening could not be considered as potential acaricides.

  12. A Novel Carbamate Insecticide with Superior Selectivity for Cattle Tick (Boophilus microplus) and Sand Fly (Phlebotomus papatasi) Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, and the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Pp), are vectors of infectious agents affecting cattle and humans, respectively. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitor profile of acetylcholinesterases from R. microplus(BmAChE1) and Pp (PpAchE) for c...

  13. Polymorphism of the bm86 gene in South American strains of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossai, Sidimar; Peconick, Ana P; Sales-Junior, Policarpo A; Marcelino, Francismar C; Vargas, Marlene I; Neves, Elisangela S; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2005-01-01

    Thirty Boophilus microplus strains from various geographic regions of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela and Colombia were analyzed for the bm86 and bm95 gene. A fragment of cDNA of 794 base pairs of the parasite larvae, included between nucleotides 278-1071s, was amplified and cloned on the pGEM-T vector. Two random clones were sequenced for each population and the nucleotides 278-1071 and predicted amino acid sequences compared with the bm86 and bm95 genes. Variations from 1.76 to 3.65% were detected in the nucleotides sequence when compared with the homologous sequence of the bm86 gene and a 3.4-6.08% in the homologous amino acid sequence of the Bm86 protein. When the sequences obtained were compared with the bm95 gene, variations from 0.50 to 3.15% were detected. Variations from 1.14 to 4.56% were detected for the Bm95 protein homologous sequences in the deduced amino acid sequence. Only five of the 30 strains analyzed presented two different types of alleles expressed and the two alleles of the Alegre population and allele 1 of the Betim population were the most divergent of all those analyzed. PMID:16323051

  14. AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DE FITOTERÁPICOS NO CONTROLE DE RHIPICEPHALUS BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Augusto Nicolino; Rafael Mendonça Paranhos; Willian Maciel

    2013-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines is considered an important alternative to control pests, and can reduce economic and environmental impacts the use of synthetic pesticides. The present study aimed at comparing the in vitro action of essential oils against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Essential oil was used Azadiracta indica (Neem), Cymbopogom nardus L. Rendle (Citronella) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemon-grass) in the following concentrations: 12.5%, 6%, 3% and 1%. Maximu...

  15. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería; Emily Lizett Esparza Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transm...

  16. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Neoob de Carvalho Castro; David Fernandes Lima; Dolores Wolschick; Ivanilza Moreira de Andrade; Raimunda Cardoso dos Santos; Francisco José de Seixas dos Santos; Leiz Maria Costa Veras; Lívio Martins Costa-Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg...

  17. Boophiline, an Antimicrobial Sterol Amide from the Cattle Tick Boophilus microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Potterat, Olivier; Hostettmann, Kurt; Höltzel, Alexandra; Jung, Günther; Diehl, Peter A.; Petrini, Orlando

    2008-01-01

    Boophiline (1), a new sterol amide was isolated from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Ixodidae). The structure was assigned as N-[3-(sulfooxy)-25ξ-cholest-5-en-26-oyl]-L-isoleucine by detailed 2D NMR investigations in conjunction with FAB mass spectrometry and acidic hydrolyses. Complete assignment of the diastereotopic methylene protons of the ring system could be deduced from the NMR data. In agar dilution assays, 1 exhibited antifungal properties against Cladosporium cucumerinum and an...

  18. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Pérez de León, Adalberto Angel; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Dos Santos Júnior, Alceu Gonçalves; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B.) microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B.) microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG) strain of R. (B.) microplus was produced using the Pichiapastoris expression system to test its ability to immunoprotect cattle against tick infestation. Secretion of rBm86-CG by P. pastoris through the bioprocess reported here simplified purification of the antigen. A specific humoral immune response was detected by ELISA in vaccinated cattle. Immunoblot results revealed that polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated cattle recognized a protein in larval extracts with a molecular weight corresponding to Bm86. The rBm86-CG antigen showed 31% efficacy against the Campo Grande strain of R. (B.) microplus infesting vaccinated cattle. The rBm86-CG is an antigen that could be used in a polyvalent vaccine as part of an integrated program for the control of R. (B.) microplus in the region that includes Mato Grosso do Sul. PMID:23070436

  19. Esterase mediated resistance in deltamethrin resistant reference tick colony of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Snehil; Ajith Kumar, K G; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, Sachin; Saravanan, B C; Ravikumar, Gandham; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of acaricide resistance is considered as one of the important facets of integrated tick management. In an attempt of development of resistance monitoring indicators, in the present study two reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus maintained in the Entomology laboratory, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, India, were studied to determine the possible contributing factors involved in development of resistance to deltamethrin. Electrophoretic profiling of esterase enzymes detected high activities of EST-1 in reference resistant tick colony designated as IVRI-IV whereas it was not detectable in reference susceptible IVRI-I line of R. (B.) microplus. Esterases were further characterized as carboxylesterase or acetylcholinesterase based on inhibitor study using PMSF, eserine sulphate, malathion, TPP and copper sulphate. It was concluded that an acetylcholinesterase, EST-1, possibly plays an important role for development of deltamethrin resistance in IVRI-IV colony of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:26979585

  20. Immunological control of ticks through vaccination with Boophilus microplus gut antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; García-García, J C

    2000-01-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the scientific community. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful. Recently, vaccination with recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigens has been shown to control tick infestations. Our Bm86-containing vaccine formulation (Gavac) has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus, and chemically sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America, and Iran. Preliminary results with Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. suggest partial cross protection. In field trials, vaccination with Gavac controlled B. microplus and B. annulatus infestations and reduced the transmission of babesiosis, resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. Different degrees of susceptibility to the vaccination with Bm86 and sequence variations in the Bm86 locus have been reported. The Bm95 antigen was isolated from the Argentinean Bm86-resistant B. microplus strain A. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions with similar results to that obtained with Gavac. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen in protecting cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage and possibilities for the immunological control of ticks. PMID:11193686

  1. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles Donald P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifying additional methods to utilize Bm86 to reduce R. microplus infestation and babesia transmission. Additionally, the role played by Bm86 in R. microplus fitness during B. bovis infection is unknown. Results Here we describe in two independent experiments that RNA interference-mediated silencing of Bm86 decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Notably, Bm86 silencing decreased the number and survival of engorged females, and decreased the weight of egg masses. However, gene silencing had no significant effect on the efficiency of transovarial transmission of B. bovis from surviving female ticks to their larval offspring. The results also show that Bm86 is expressed, in addition to gut cells, in larvae, nymphs, adult males and ovaries of partially engorged adult R. microplus females, and its expression was significantly down-regulated in ovaries of ticks fed on B. bovis-infected cattle. Conclusion The R. microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role during tick feeding and after repletion during blood digestion in ticks fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Therefore, the data indirectly support the rationale for using Bm86-based vaccines, perhaps in combination with acaricides, to control tick infestation particularly in B. bovis endemic areas.

  2. Expression of recombinant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. annulatus and R. decoloratus Bm86 orthologs as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan Frans; Hope Michelle; Nijhof Ard M; Naranjo Victoria; de la Lastra José; Canales Mario; de la Fuente José

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in Africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The R. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant DNA technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Results In this study, the genes for Bm86 (R. microplus), Ba86 (R. annulatus) and Bd86 (...

  3. Partial sequencing of Bm86 gene for studying the phylogeny of an Indian isolate of Rhipicephalus(Boophilus) microplus tick

    OpenAIRE

    Anbarasi, P.; Latha, B. R.; Dhinakar Raj, G.; Sreekumar, C.; Senthuran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tick gut glycoprotein, designated as Bm86, found on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells of Boophilus microplus, which is a concealed antigen, has been used as vaccine candidate molecule for immunization against ticks. To better understand the molecular diversity of Bm86 gene in ticks, a portion of the cDNA was sequenced from an Indian isolate of B. microplus. Comparison of nucleotide sequence revealed that Indian isolate had 97 % homology (18 polymorphisms) with...

  4. Infectividad de Metarhizium anisopliae en contra de cepas de garrapata Boophilus microplus sensible y resistente a los organofosforados

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Fernández-Ruvalcaba; Elyes Zhioua; Zeferino García-Vázquez

    2005-01-01

    La infectividad del hongo entomopatogénico Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) fue probada en contra de una cepa de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) sensible, y otra resistente a los organofosforados, por medio de un ensayo in vitro con hembras ingurgitadas de B. microplus recién desprendidas del bovino, utilizando la cepa ECS1 de M. anisopliae. El micromiceto M. anisopliae demostró ser altamente infectivo, tanto para la cepa sensible como para la resistente a los organofosforados a la conc...

  5. Avaliação in vitro de uma cepa de campo de Boophilus microplus (Acari : Ixodidae resistente à amitraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría Vargas Minerva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos acaricidas químicos ainda se constitui no principal instrumento de controle do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus. No sul do Brasil, o amitraz aplicado por imersão e aspersão é o ingrediente ativo mais utilizado, nos últimos anos, contra as cepas de carrapatos resistentes aos organofosforados (OF e piretróides sintéticos (PS. Em conseqüência, torna-se importante a realização de investigações que possam contribuir para prolongar a vida útil desse ixodicida. No presente estudo, foi analisado o comportamento toxicológico de uma cepa de B. microplus colhida na localidade de Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, usando-se químicos da família dos OF, PS, misturas OF/PS, além do amitraz. Os resultados indicaram que a cepa denominada "Santa Luiza" apresentou fatores de resistência (FR que variaram entre 2,3 e 3,95 para OF, 23,3 e 147,56 para PS e de 3,76 a 21.57 para amitraz em testes realizados com larvas de carrapatos. A caracterização e purificação de uma cepa de B. microplus resistente ao amitraz permitem seu uso como cepa de referência para a avaliação biológica de ixodicidas alternativos, além de padronizar e validar métodos de diagnósticos toxicológicos que possam detectar resistência frente a esse acaricida.

  6. Immunization of cattle with synthetic peptides derived from the Boophilus microplus gut protein (Bm86).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patarroyo, J H; Portela, R W; De Castro, R O; Pimentel, J Couto; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E; Vargas, M I; Prates, A A; Mendes, M A Dias

    2002-09-25

    Three synthetic peptides (SBm4912, SBm7462 and SBm19733), derived from the Bm86 glycoprotein from Boophilus microplus gut, were constructed and used to immunize cattle from a tick-free area. The immunized animals received three subcutaneous doses of the peptides, with saponin as adjuvant, at 30-day intervals. The immune response was evaluated by IgG elicited against the peptides by the detection of anti-Bm86 specific antibodies in situ and by Western blotting analysis. After tick challenge, reduction in the number, weight and oviposition capacity of engorged females was observed in the tick population that had fed on immunized animals. The results pointed a high efficacy (81.05%) for the SBm7462 synthetic peptide in relation to the others (p<0.01), demonstrating the efficiency of the immune response elicited by synthetic peptides to control the cattle tick B. microplus. PMID:12127414

  7. First Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma marginale in Cattle and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks in Cebu, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YBAÑEZ, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; YBAÑEZ, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; RATILLA, Jowarren Catingan; PEREZ, Zandro Obligado; GABOTERO, Shirleny Reyes; Hakimi, Hassan; KAWAZU, Shin-Ichiro; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; INOKUMA, Hisashi; 河津, 信一郎; 松本, 高太郎; 横山, 直明; 猪熊,壽

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale has been detected in the Philippines only by peripheral blood smear examination and serological methods. This study generally aimed to molecularly detect and characterize A. marginale in cattle and ticks in Cebu, Philippines. A total of 12 bovine blood samples and 60 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were collected on the Cebu Island in 2011. 16S rRNA-based screening-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed 8 cattle (66.7%) and 8 ticks (13.3%) to be positive for A. marginal...

  8. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant Boophilus microplus Bm86 antigen expressed by transformed Pichia pastoris cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesino, R; Cremata, J; Rodríguez, M; Besada, V; Falcón, V; de la Fuente, J

    1996-02-01

    In the present paper we report the biochemical characteristics of the recombinant tick (Boophilus microplus) gut antigen Bm86 that previously has been cloned, expressed and recovered at high levels in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The results demonstrate that rBm86 had a modification at position 92 (Thr replaced by Ile) and aggregated, forming particles ranging between 17 and 40 nm. The rBm86 was N-glycosylated, having at least two non-glycosylated sequons (Asn-329 and Asn-363) and a ratio of only 0.4/65 (free Cys/total Cys)/mol of protein. PMID:8867893

  9. [Evaluation of the biological control potential of Metarhizium anisopliae toward Boophilus microplus in pen trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahiense, Thiago C; Fernandes, Everton K K; Angelo, Isabele da C; Perinotto, Wendell M de S; Bittencourt, Vãnia R E P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control Boophilus microplus tick in pen trials. Infested calves were held in individual pen and treated with fungus suspension through aspersion bath. The results were evaluated based on ticks' mortality rate for 28 days after treatment, and on the analysis of biology of tick's samples which were transferred to an incubation chamber. It was reported 33% of mortality during the total period analyzed, and the production of eggs and nutritional rates were decreased only for a short period after treatment. PMID:18373901

  10. AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DE FITOTERÁPICOS NO CONTROLE DE RHIPICEPHALUS BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS

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    Carlos Augusto Nicolino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal medicines is considered an important alternative to control pests, and can reduce economic and environmental impacts the use of synthetic pesticides. The present study aimed at comparing the in vitro action of essential oils against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Essential oil was used Azadiracta indica (Neem, Cymbopogom nardus L. Rendle (Citronella and Cymbopogon citratus (lemon-grass in the following concentrations: 12.5%, 6%, 3% and 1%. Maximum efficiency (100% was observed for all plants at concentrations of 12.5%. At the concentration of 6% only the essential oils of neem and citronella apresntaram 100% efficiency. Citronella still showed maximum efficiency at a concentration of 3% and still got 95.30% in the lowest concentration (1%. It is concluded that the use of essential oils can be an important alternative in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus.O uso de fitoterápicos é considerado uma alternativa importante no controle de parasitas, e podem reduzir impactos econômicos e ambientais ao uso de pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar comparativamente a ação in vitro de óleos essenciais contra fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Foi utilizado óleo essencial de Azadiracta indica (Neem, Cymbopogom nardus L. Rendle (Citronela e Cymbopogon citratus (Capim-cidreira nas seguintes concentrações: 12,5%, 6%, 3% e 1%. Eficácia máxima (100% foi observada por todas as plantas nas concentrações de 12,5%. Na concentração de 6% somente os óleos essenciais de neem e citronela apresentaram eficácia de 100%. A citronela ainda apresentou eficácia máxima na concentração de 3% e ainda obteve 95,30% na menor concentração (1%. Conclui-se que a utilização de óleos essenciais pode ser uma alternativa importante no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus.

  11. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

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    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  12. Transovarial Transmission Efficiency of Babesia bovis Tick Stages Acquired by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus during Acute Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasite Babesia bovis, a reemerging threat to U.S. cattle, is acquired by adult female ticks of the subgenus Boophilus, and is transovarially transmitted as the kinete stage to developing larval offspring. Sporozoites develop within larvae and are transmitted during larval feeding on ...

  13. Differential protein expression in ovaries of uninfected and Babesia-infected southern cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to investigate differences in protein expression in ovarian tissues from Babesia bovis-infected and uninfected southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Soluble and membrane proteins were extracted from ovaries of adult female ticks,...

  14. Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae em laboratório Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae in laboratory

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    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais foram estudados com o objetivo de avaliar suas eficiências no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em laboratório. Fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato foram coletadas de bovinos e mantidas em placas de Petri. Foram utilizados extratos orgânicos alcoólicos 2% (peso/volume de sementes de Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (graviola; flores de Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (jambo; folhas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (capim-santo; folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (nim; e extrato hexânico na mesma concentração de A. indica (sementes. Os grupos-controle foram compostos por fêmeas sem tratamento e fêmeas tratadas com água destilada e esterilizada e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a uma concentração de 1%. O extrato de A. muricata apresentou o maior poder acaricida, com eficácia de 100%, seguido dos extratos de S. malaccensis (75 e 59,24% e A. indica (65 e 38,49%. Houve 100% de redução na eclosão das larvas quando se utilizou o extrato de sementes de A. muricata.Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (soursop; flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (iamb, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (holy grass, leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (neem and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume of A. indica (seeds. The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24% and A. indica (65 and 38.49%. The seed extract of A. muricata

  15. Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing

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    Bendele Kylie G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP technique to characterize its bacterial diversity. Pyrosequencing was performed on adult males and females, eggs, and gut and ovary tissues from adult females derived from samples of R. microplus collected during outbreaks in southern Texas. Results Raw data from bTEFAP were screened and trimmed based upon quality scores and binned into individual sample collections. Bacteria identified to the species level include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus sciuri, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Finegoldia magna. One hundred twenty-one bacterial genera were detected in all the life stages and tissues sampled. The total number of genera identified by tick sample comprised: 53 in adult males, 61 in adult females, 11 in gut tissue, 7 in ovarian tissue, and 54 in the eggs. Notable genera detected in the cattle tick include Wolbachia, Coxiella, and Borrelia. The molecular approach applied in this study allowed us to assess the relative abundance of the microbiota associated with R. microplus. Conclusions This report represents the first survey of the bacteriome in the cattle tick using non-culture based molecular approaches. Comparisons of our results with previous bacterial surveys provide an indication of geographic variation in the assemblages of bacteria associated with R. microplus. Additional reports on the identification of new bacterial species maintained in nature by R. microplus that may be

  16. Allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Jongejan Frans

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The morphological and genetic differences among R. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from America/Africa and those from Australia being different species. To test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we performed a series of experiments to characterize the reproductive performance of crosses between R. microplus from Australia, Africa and America and the genetic diversity of strains from Australia, Asia, Africa and America. Results The results showed that the crosses between Australian and Argentinean or Mozambican strains of boophilid ticks are infertile while crosses between Argentinean and Mozambican strains are fertile. These results showed that tick strains from Africa (Mozambique and America (Argentina are the same species, while ticks from Australia may actually represent a separate species. The genetic analysis of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and microsatellite loci were not conclusive when taken separately, but provided evidence that Australian tick strains were genetically different from Asian, African and American strains. Conclusion The results reported herein support the hypothesis that at least two different species share the name R. microplus. These species could be redefined as R. microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (for American and African strains and probably the old R. australis Fuller, 1899 (for Australian strains, which needs to be redescribed. However, experiments with a larger number of tick strains from different geographic locations are needed to corroborate these results.

  17. Identification of a synthetic peptide inducing cross-reactive antibodies binding to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus BM86 homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Nadja; Diaz, Diana; Amacker, Mario; Odongo, David O; Beier, Konstantin; Nitsch, Cordula; Bishop, Richard P; Daubenberger, Claudia A

    2009-12-10

    The BM86 antigen, originally identified in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is the basis of the only commercialized anti-tick vaccine. The long-term goal of our study is to improve BM86 based vaccines by induction of high levels of tick gut binding antibodies that are also cross-reactive with a range of BM86 homologues expressed in other important tick species. Here we have used a BD86 derived synthetic peptide, BD86-3, to raise a series of mouse monoclonal antibodies. One of these mAbs, named 12.1, recognized BM86 homologues in immuno-histochemical analyses in four out of five tick species including R. (B.) microplus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Our results indicate that broadly cross-reactive tick gut binding antibodies can be induced after immunization with a synthetic peptide derived from the protein BD86. PMID:19808026

  18. Control of Boophilus microplus populations in grazing cattle vaccinated with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M L; Mouris, A E; Labarta, V; Luaces, L L; Rubiera, R; Cordovés, C; Sánchez, P A; Ramos, E; Soto, A

    1995-04-01

    Current methods for the control of cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, we developed a vaccine against B. microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 (rBm86) antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec) and it was shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals under controlled conditions. Here we show that, under field conditions in grazing cattle, the vaccine is able to control B. microplus populations. Two parasite-free farms were employed for the study. In the first farm, animals were vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine, while, in the second, animals received a saline injection in adjuvant. After immunization, animals were artificially infected and the infestation rate was recorded. Over the 33 weeks of the experiment, the infestation rate was lower in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. At the end of the experiment it was necessary to use chemicals in the control farm after serious losses in production and animals. PMID:7660571

  19. Resistance to cypermethrin and amitraz in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on the Santa Catarina Plateau, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Luana Paula Haubold Neis; Souza, Antonio Pereira de; Bellato, Valdomiro; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Nunes, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Cardoso, Helena Mondardo

    2012-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistance to cipermetrina and amitraz, were collected engorged tick females from cattle on 20 farms on the Santa Catarina Plateau, in southern Brazil, between January of 2004 and May of 2006. Were also received 20 groups of engorged R. (B.) microplus females, collected by cattle farmers requesting acaricidal efficacy (AE) testing. Were performed in vitro tests, which consisted of immersing engorged females in cypermethrin (0.015%) and in amitraz (0.025%). An AE >95% was considered indicative of effectiveness. Of the 20 collected groups, 18 (90%) showed cypermethrin resistance and 1 (5%) showed amitraz resistance. Of the 20 received groups, 19 (95%) showed cypermethrin resistance and 2 (10%) showed amitraz resistance. The AE of cypermethrin was found to be >95%, 85-94%, and 55-64%, respectively, in 4 (57.1%), 2 (28.6%), and 1 (14.3%) of 7 reference groups, collected in the 1997-2001 period. The AE of amitraz was >95% in all of those groups. Among the groups of specimens received for analysis in that period, the AE of amitraz was >95% in 6 (85.71%) and 75-84% in 1 (14.28%). R. (B.) microplus resistance to acaricides is increasing on the Santa Catarina Plateau. PMID:22832753

  20. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expressão e caracterização da Bm86-CG em Pichia pastoris

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    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (GavacTM and TickGardPLUS that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks.O carrapato-do-boi Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas econômicas. Seu controle é principalmente químico e apresenta limitações quanto ao desenvolvimento de resistência aos princípios ativos. As vacinas podem auxiliar no controle deste parasita diminuindo as aplicações de carrapaticidas. Considerando isso, foi realizada a subclonagem do gene da proteína Bm86-CG, proteína homologa a que atualmente é a base das vacinas desenvolvidas (GavacTM e TickGardPLUS contra o carrapato-do-boi, no vetor de expressão pPIC9, para ser transformado em levedura, Pichia pastoris. Esta proteína foi caracterizada pela expressão da cepa recombinante Mut+ que expressou maior quantidade de proteína. A proteína expressa, rBm86-CG, foi reconhecida no ensaio de Western-blot pelos soros policlonais anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti

  1. Toxicological effects and resistance to pyrethroids in Boophilus microplus from Goiás, Brazil Efeitos toxicológicos e resistência a piretróides em Boophilus microplus de Goiás

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    F.F. Fernandes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor the susceptibility of Boophilus microplus to acaricides and improve control measures, the effects of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin on larvae obtained in the city of Goiânia in the Brazilian state of Goiás were studied. Although these pyrethroids are already sold as acaricides, their cost-benefit efficiency has been questioned. Fasting 14-21 day-old larvae were immersed in solutions of the acaricides under test, maintained at 27±1° C, and relative humidity over 80%, and observed under the stereoscope within an apparatus originally designed for studying the non-parasitic phase of the tick life cycle. The observed toxicological effects were: excitability, repetitive motion, decreased motor ability, detachment, paralysis, knock-down and cuticular proliferation of liquids and gases. The materials used in the manufacture of this apparatus consisted of disposable Petri dishes, "organza" cloth and paraffin, none of which are toxic to tick larvae. Mean death rates after 24h were 76.3%, 87.5%, 77.6%, 91.2%, 86.2% and 100% for 25 and 50ppm deltamethrin, 150 and 300ppm cypermethrin and 1250 and 2500ppm permethrin, respectively. The ticks were resistant to commercial concentrations of deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Only 2500ppm permethrin produced the mortality recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture.Estudaram-se os efeitos de cipermetrina, deltametrina e permetrina sobre larvas de uma cepa de campo de Goiânia, com o objetivo de monitorar a susceptibilidade de Boophilus microplus para esses acaricidas e fomentar medidas de controle. Larvas em jejum com 14 a 21 dias, imersas em soluções desses piretróides, foram mantidas a 27±1°C e UR% > ou = 80% e observadas por 24h ao estereoscópio, contidas em dispositivo desenvolvido originalmente para estudos da fase não parasitária do ciclo evolutivo. O material utilizado em sua confecção, placa de petri descartável, tecido organza e parafina, não foi t

  2. Distribution Patterns of Three Sodium Channel Mutations Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Microplus Populations from North and South America, South Africa and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids (SP) in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is widespread throughout its distribution area. Three single nucleotide substitutions identified in the Domains II and III of the sodium channel gene of R. (B.) microplus are known to be associated with t...

  3. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick ...

  4. Gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick Boophilus microplus by RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Ard M; Taoufik, Amar; de la Fuente, José; Kocan, Katherine M; de Vries, Erik; Jongejan, Frans

    2007-05-01

    The use of RNA interference (RNAi) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of RNAi to the one-host tick, Boophilus microplus, has not been reported. We evaluated the application of RNAi in B. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin. Gene-specific double-stranded (dsRNA) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing was confirmed by real time PCR. Gene silencing occurred in injected unfed females after they were allowed to feed. Injection of dsRNA into engorged females caused gene silencing in the subsequently oviposited eggs and larvae that hatched from these eggs, but not in adults that developed from these larvae. dsRNA injected into engorged females could be detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in eggs 14 days from the beginning of oviposition, demonstrating that unprocessed dsRNA was incorporated in the eggs. Eggs produced by engorged females injected with subolesin dsRNA were abnormal, suggesting that subolesin may play a role in embryonic development. The injection of dsRNA into engorged females to obtain gene-specific silencing in eggs and larvae is a novel method which can be used to study gene function in tick embryogenesis. PMID:17196597

  5. Breeding for resistance to Boophilus microplus in Australian Illawarra Shorthorn and Brahman x Australian Illawarra Shorthorn cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utech, K B; Wharton, R H

    1982-02-01

    Breeding for resistance to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was undertaken in a herd of Australian Illawarra Shorthorn (AIS) cattle from 1961 to 1978 and in a herd of Braham x AIS cattle from 1970 to 1979. Breeder cows and their progeny were assessed for tick resistance during October to January. Resistance levels were determined as the average percentage mortality of female ticks from two artificial infestations with cohorts of c 20,000 larvae. Resistance increased from 89.2% to 99% in the AIS breeding herd, as a result of the yearly introductions of more resistant individuals and culling of less resistant ones. Concurrently resistance in the AIS progeny increased from 93.7% to 97.7%, thus demonstrating that the selection and breeding of the cows and bulls resulted in genetic improvement in the resistance of the progeny. Milk production tests on heifers from the selected AIS herd during 1975 to 79 indicated that selection for tick resistance did not select against milk production. Resistance of the Brahman x AIS increased from 98.4% to 99.3% in the breeding herd and from 97.6% to 99.6% in the progeny. Female calves of both breeds were more resistant than males. PMID:7082236

  6. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Leandro de Oliveira Souza; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Koller, Wilson Werner; Andreotti, Renato

    2016-06-01

    The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais) and the Distrito Federal (DF) of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported. PMID:27334816

  7. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Souza Higa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais and the Distrito Federal (DF of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported.

  8. Resistencia a los acaricidas en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: situación actual y mecanismos de resistencia

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Trees, Alexander J.

    2012-01-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus es una plaga endémica de ganado en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo, causando grandes pérdidas económicas a los productores de ganado. Acaricidas químicos han desempeñado un papel fundamental en el control de R. (B). microplus; sin embargo, como consecuencia de su uso extensivo, esta especie ha desarrollado resistencia a todas las clases principales de acaricidas en todo el mundo. Resistencia a organofosforados, piretroides sintéticos y ami...

  9. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expressão e caracterização da Bm86-CG em Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha; Renato Andreotti; Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite

    2011-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (GavacTM and TickGardPLUS) that have been developed against cattle ticks. The ...

  10. The male genital accessory gland complex of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARCIA-FERNANDEZ CASIMIRO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A topographical and histological study of the male genital accessory gland complex of Boophilus microplus was undertaken. Ten lobes were found, the most prominent of which is the single dorso-median lobe, subdivided into antero-dorsal and postero-dorsal lobes. The other lobes are: a pair of postero-ventral lobes, a pair of lateral lobes (subdivided into dorso-lateral and postero-lateral lobes, a pair of antero-ventral lobes, a single medio-ventral lobe and a pair of latero-ventral lobes. These lobes were observed to present individual topographical and histological characteristics, with independent openings, hence the conclusion is that they form a gland complex. The secretory nature of the dorso-median lobe duct was also analysed.

  11. Alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in response to exposure to the insect growth regulator fluazuron

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício Nascimento Gaudêncio; Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves; Mariana Gomes Lima; Patrícia Silva Gôlo; Isabele da Costa Angelo; Rosane Nora Castro; Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca; Fabio Barbour Scott; Jairo Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aiming to characterize the potential off-target effects of fluazuron on ticks, biochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate changes in the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks after exposure to fluazuron. Hemolymph and fat body were collected from female ticks before and after (4, 8 and 15 days) exposure to fluazuron. Spectrophotometric analyses were done to quantify glucose concentration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the hemolymph and...

  12. Vaccination with recombinant Boophilus annulatus Bm86 ortholog protein, Ba86, protects cattle against B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan Frans; Naranjo Victoria; Almazán Consuelo; Canales Mario; de la Fuente José

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The cattle ticks, Boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant B. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Recently, the gene coding for B. annulatus Bm86 ortholog, Ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast Pichia past...

  13. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Almazan, C.; Lagunes, R.; Villar, M.; Canales, M.; R Rosario-Cruz; Jongejan, F; de la Fuente, J.

    2009-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, ...

  14. Binding and storage of heme by vitellin from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logullo, C; Moraes, J; Dansa-Petretski, M; Vaz, I S; Masuda, A; Sorgine, M H F; Braz, G R; Masuda, H; Oliveira, P L

    2002-12-01

    We have previously shown (, Curr. Biol. 9, 703-706) that the cattle tick Boophilus microplus does not synthesize heme, relying solely on the recovery of the heme from the diet to make all its hemeproteins. Here we present evidence that Vitellin (VN(1)), the main tick yolk protein, is a reservoir of heme for embryo development. VN was isolated from eggs at different days throughout embryogenesis. Immediately after oviposition, Boophilus VN contains approximately one mol of heme/mol of protein. During embryo development about one third of egg VN is degraded. The remaining VN molecules bind part of the heme released. These results suggest that VN functions as a heme reservoir, binding any free heme that exceeds the amount needed for development. In vitro measurement of the binding of heme to VN showed that each VN molecule binds up to 31 heme molecules. The association of heme with VN strongly inhibits heme-induced lipid peroxidation, suggesting that binding of heme is an important antioxidant mechanism to protect embryo cells from oxidative damage. This mechanism allows this hematophagous arthropod to safely store heme obtained from a blood meal inside their eggs for future use. Taken together our data suggest that, besides its known roles, VN also plays additional functions as a heme deposit and an antioxidant protective molecule. PMID:12429132

  15. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Rmi a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crustaceans. Model arthropod genomes such as Drosophila and Anopheles are too taxonomically distant for a reference in tick genomic sequence analysis. This study focuses on the de-novo assembly of two R. microplus BAC sequences from the understudied R microplus genome. Based on available R. microplus sequenced resources and comparative analysis, tick genomic structure and functional predictions identify complex gene structures and genomic targets expressed during tick-cattle interaction. Results In our BAC analyses we have assembled, using the correct positioning of BAC end sequences and transcript sequences, two challenging genomic regions. Cot DNA fractions compared to the BAC sequences confirmed a highly repetitive BAC sequence BM-012-E08 and a low repetitive BAC sequence BM-005-G14 which was gene rich and contained short interspersed elements (SINEs. Based directly on the BAC and Cot data comparisons, the genome wide frequency of the SINE Ruka element was estimated. Using a conservative approach to the assembly of the highly repetitive BM-012-E08, the sequence was de-convoluted into three repeat units, each unit containing an 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA encoding gene sequence (rDNA, related internal transcribed spacer and complex intergenic region. In the low repetitive BM-005-G14, a novel gene complex was found between to 2 genes on the same strand. Nested in the second intron of a large 9 Kb papilin gene was a helicase gene. This helicase overlapped in two exonic regions with the papilin. Both these genes were shown expressed in different tick life stage important in ectoparasite interaction with the host. Tick specific sequence

  16. Acaricidal activity of Amburana cearensis on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Anne Caroline dos Santos Dantas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of Amburana cearensis against engorged females of Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus microplus . The crude ethanolic extract from the leaves of A. cearensis was submitted to partition with organic solvents (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate in order of increasing polarity; and evaluated using three treatments at concentrations of 5, 10 and 25mg ml-1. To evaluate the acaricidal activity, engorged females were submitted to the adult immersion test. Parameters analyzed were the weight of females; weight of egg mass; percentage of hatch; reproductive efficiency; expected rate of reproduction; and efficacy. For each extract and concentrating fraction, tests were performed in triplicate. Among all fractions, the hexane (2.5% achieved the best results in all parameters analyzed: 52.7% of inhibition of oviposition; 39% of hatching rate; 3,271 index of reproductive efficiency; and 67.0% effectiveness. The extract obtained gradual dose response with increasing concentration; and could be used as an aid in the control of R. ( B. microplus therapy.

  17. [Prokaryotic expression of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus and optimization of the expression condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mi-Ling; Guan, Gui-Quan; Li, You-Quan; Liu, Ai-Hong; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Niu, Qing-Li; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun

    2009-12-01

    A pair of specific primers was designed based on the reported Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus,the Bm86 gene was cloned by PCR using the plasmid pMD18-T-Bm86 as templates, and subcloned into the prokaryotic plasmid pGEX-4T-1. The recombined plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) and followed by expression of the protein induced by different concentration of IPTG for different time. SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-1/Bm86 expressed a fusion protein Bm86-GST (Mr 94 000) after being induced with IPTG. High level expression of Bm86-GST was found at 1 mmol/L IPTG condition a fter incubation for 8 h at 37 degree C, and the expression level of the recombinant Bm86-GST reached up to 29% of total E coli proteins Western-blotting analysis showed that the recombinant Bm86-GST was recognized by the rabbit anti-B. microplus positive serum. PMID:20232640

  18. Vaccination with recombinant Boophilus annulatus Bm86 ortholog protein, Ba86, protects cattle against B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongejan Frans

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle ticks, Boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant B. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Recently, the gene coding for B. annulatus Bm86 ortholog, Ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris. Results Recombinant Ba86 (Israel strain was used to immunize cattle to test its efficacy for the control of B. annulatus (Mercedes, Texas, USA strain and B. microplus (Susceptible, Mexico strain infestations. Bm86 (Gavac and Mozambique strain and adjuvant/saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vaccination with Ba86 reduced tick infestations (71% and 40%, weight (8% and 15%, oviposition (22% and 5% and egg fertility (25% and 50% for B. annulatus and B. microplus, respectively. The efficacy of both Ba86 and Bm86 was higher for B. annulatus than for B. microplus. The efficacy of Ba86 was higher for B. annulatus (83.0% than for B. microplus (71.5%. The efficacy of Bm86 (Gavac; 85.2% but not Bm86 (Mozambique strain; 70.4% was higher than that of Ba86 (71.5% on B. microplus. However, the efficacy of Bm86 (both Gavac and Mozambique strain; 99.6% was higher than that of Ba86 (83.0% on B. annulatus. Conclusion These experiments showed the efficacy of recombinant Ba86 for the control of B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations in cattle and suggested that physiological differences between B. microplus and B. annulatus and those encoded in the sequence of Bm86 orthologs may be responsible for the differences in susceptibility of these tick species to Bm86 vaccines.

  19. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Andreotti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to obtain an epidemiological view of acaricide resistance in populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Twenty-four tick samples were collected from municipalities in the State where farmers had reported concerns about resistance to or failure of tick control. These ticks were subjected to in vitro resistance detection assays using the adult immersion test (AIT. The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin and amitraz treatments on samples collected throughout the State was generally poor. AIT showed efficacy > 90% from the use of DDVP + chlorfenvinphos (20 out of 21 municipalities, dichlorvos + cypermethrin (10 out of 16 municipalities and cypermethrin + citronella + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide (20 out of 21 municipalities. PCR assays were used to detect the presence of pyrethroid resistance-associated sodium channel gene mutation. Larvae from three different populations that had previously been diagnosed as pyrethroid-resistant, through AIT, were evaluated. The PCR assays showed that the pyrethroid resistance-associated gene mutation was absent from these three populations. This study confirms that the emergence of resistance is a constant challenge for the livestock industry, and that development of resistance continues to be a major driver for new antiparasitic drugs to be developed.Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se obter uma visão epidemiológica da resistência aos acaricidas nas populações de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Vinte e quatro amostras de carrapatos foram coletadas em cidades do estado onde os fazendeiros relataram preocupação com resistência ou falha no controle dos carrapatos. Estes carrapatos foram submetidos a testes de detecção de resistência in vitro usando o teste de imersão de adultos (TIA. A eficácia do tratamento com alfa-cipermetrina, cipermetrina e amitraz foi geralmente pobre

  20. Transmisión de cepas atenuadas de babesia bigemina y babesia bovis por garrapatas rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo E. Rojas Ramírez; Juan J. Mosqueda Gualito; Jesús A. Álvarez Martínez; Rubén Hernández Ortíz; Juan A. Ramos Aragón; Carmen Rojas Martínez; Germinal J. Cantó Alarcón; Carlos A. Vega y Murguía; Julio V. Figueroa Millán

    2011-01-01

    Para evaluar la transmisión por garrapatas Rhipicephalus microplus (R. microplus) de una clona atenuada de Babesia bovis (BOR) y una cepa atenuada de Babesia bigemina (BIS), doce bovinos se dividieron en cuatro grupos e infestados de forma escalonada con larvas de R. microplus libres de Babesia spp. Un becerro de cada grupo se inoculó con 1x108 eritrocitos infectados (EI) con BIS, BOR, y cepas virulentas de B. bigemina y B. bovis, respectivamente. Se realizaron dos inoculaciones seriadas adic...

  1. Borrelia theileri: observação em carrapatos do gênero Boophilus microplus no município de Guaíba, RS, Brasil Borrelia theileri: observation on Boophilus microplus ticks in Guaiba, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Martins

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Espiroquetas da espécie Borrelia theileri identificadas em uma estirpe de carrapatos Boophilus microplus provenientes do município de Guaíba, RS. A observação ocorreu no exame de hemolinfa de fêmeas adultas com 10 dias pós-repleçâo, corada por Giemsa. Não foram observadas espiroquetas em ovos provenientes de teleóginas infectadas. A detecção da estirpe infectada sugere a presença de borreliose em rebanhos bovinos, fato que eventualmente pode interferir em resultados de diagnóstico ou tornar-se motivo de preocupação em produtos derivados de sangue bovino tais como vacinas vivas contra anaplasmose e babesiose bovina.Spirochetes of species Borrelia theileri were identifica in afield-strain of the caule tick Boophilus microplus, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil. Hemolymph smears from females 10 days post-repletion were collected by gentty section of the tarsal-metatarsaijoint, and dropped onto a microscope slide, and stained by Giemsa. No spirochetes were observed in eggs squashed and stained by Giemsa from the same infected strain. The detection of B. microplus adult females infected with Borrelia theileri suggesfs the likely presence of borreliosis in bovine heras what might eventually interfere with the interpretation of diagnosis results or become cause for concern in blood products such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis live vaccines.

  2. Bmcystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor characterized from the tick Boophilus microplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a blood-sucking animal, which is responsible for Babesia spp and Anaplasma marginale transmission for cattle. From a B. microplus fat body cDNA library, 465 selected clones were sequenced randomly and resulted in 60 Contigs. An open reading frame (ORF) contains 98 amino acids named Bmcystatin, due to 70% amino acid identity to a classical type 1 cystatin from Ixodes scapularis tick (GenBank Accession No. DQ066227). The Bmcystatin amino acid sequence analysis showed two cysteine residues, theoretical pI of 5.92 and Mr of 11kDa. Bmcystatin gene was cloned in pET 26b vector and the protein expressed using bacteria Escherichia coli BL21 SI. Recombinant Bmcystatin (rBmcystatin) purified by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA-agarose column and ionic exchange chromatography on HiTrap Q column presented molecular mass of 11kDa, by SDS-PAGE and the N-terminal amino acid sequenced revealed unprocessed N-terminal containing part of pelB signal sequence. Purified rBmcystatin showed to be a C1 cysteine peptidase inhibitor with Ki value of 0.1 and 0.6nM for human cathepsin L and VTDCE (vitellin degrading cysteine endopeptidase), respectively. The rBmcystatin expression analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification of a specific DNA sequence (294bp) in the fat body and ovary cDNA preparation. On the other hand, a protein band was detected in the fat body, ovary, and the salivary gland extracts using anti-Bmcystatin antibody by Western blot. The present results suggest a possible role of Bmcystatin in the ovary, even though the gene was cloned from the fat body, which could be another site of this protein synthesis

  3. Variation among Bm86 sequences in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks collected from cattle across Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, S; Kaewmongkol, G; Inthong, N; Lakkitjaroen, N; Sirinarumitr, T; Berry, C M; Jonsson, N N; Stich, R W; Jittapalapong, S

    2015-06-01

    Anti-tick vaccines based on recombinant homologues Bm86 and Bm95 have become a more cost-effective and sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides commonly used to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. However, Bm86 polymorphism among geographically separate ticks is reportedly associated with reduced effectiveness of these vaccines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation of Bm86 among cattle ticks collected from Northern, Northeastern, Central and Southern areas across Thailand. Bm86 cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences representing 29 female tick midgut samples were 95.6-97.0 and 91.5-93.5 % identical to the nucleotide and amino acid reference sequences, respectively, of the Australian Yeerongpilly vaccine strain. Multiple sequence analyses of these Bm86 variants indicated geographical relationships and polymorphism among Thai cattle ticks. Two larger groups of cattle tick strains were discernable based on this phylogenetic analysis of Bm86, a Thai group and a Latin American group. Thai female and male cattle ticks (50 pairs) were also subjected to detailed morphological characterization to confirm their identity. The majority of female ticks had morphological features consistent with those described for R. (B.) microplus, whereas, curiously, the majority of male ticks were more consistent with the recently re-instated R. (B.) australis. A number of these ticks had features consistent with both species. Further investigations are warranted to test the efficacies of rBm86-based vaccines to homologous and heterologous challenge infestations with Thai tick strains and for in-depth study of the phylogeny of Thai cattle ticks. PMID:25777941

  4. Comportamento de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Boophilus microplus The drop-off behaviour of engorged females of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Hocayen de Paula

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Boophilus microplus foi avaliada na Estação Experimental da Embrapa Gado de Leite, em Coronel Pacheco- MG, Brasil. O objetivo foi avaliar as vantagens da modificação do horário de ordenha dos bovinos, considerando a higienização do pasto, em relação ao carrapato. O experimento constou de uma fase de verão/outono e uma de inverno, para testar diferenças no ritmo de queda dos carrapatos entre as duas estações. Os resultados mostraram diferenças significativas entre as fases. No verão/outono, as fêmeas ingurgitadas apresentaram maior porcentagem de queda entre 7 e 10 horas (35,3% e no inverno entre 6 e 9 horas (19,69% e entre 14 e 17 horas (21,79%. A porcentagem de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas no período foi de 35,15% para o sistema de ordenha de 5-8h e 13-16h e de 45,48% para o sistema de ordenha de 8-11h e 16-19h, durante os meses de verão/outono. Nos meses de inverno, o porcentual de queda foi de 40,51% e de 32,71% para os dois horários de ordenha respectivamente. Considerando o tempo que os animais permanecem estabulados para a suplementação no cocho durante o período entre as ordenhas na época seca do ano na região (maio a setembro, a porcentagem de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas foi de 55,83% para o sistema de ordenha de 5 a 16h e de 52,36% para o sistema de ordenha de 8 a 19h.A description of the drop-off behaviour of engorged females of the tick Boophilus microplus was carried out as a result of an experiment at the Experimental Station, Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, MG, Brazil. Its objective was to evaluate any repercussions of changing the time of milking of cattle in terms of reduced recontamination of the pastures with the tick. Such possible changes in this daily cattle management routine have recently become a reality since the advent of refrigerated on-farm storage of the milk and non-daily collection by tanker truck. The field experiment

  5. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles Donald P; Ueti Massaro W; Bastos Reginaldo G; Scoles Glen A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifyin...

  6. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Erlinda; Suárez Marisela; Lleonart Ricardo; Méndez Luis; Rodríguez Elsa; Machado Héctor; Joglar Marisdania; Alfonso Aymé; Valdés Mario; Pérez Danny; Sánchez Dunia; Montero Carlos; Vargas Milagros; Estrada Mario P; Rodríguez-Mallón Alina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core el...

  7. Efficacy of amitraz (Taktic 12.5% EC) as a dip for the control of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J E; Davey, R B; Ahrens, E H; Pound, J M; Drummond, R O

    1998-12-01

    Four groups of cattle infested with Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were each dipped in a different concentration of amitraz diluted from a 12.5% EC formulation to determine the efficacy and performance of the product in an 11,400 l dipping vat. Except for the period when heifers were dipped, animals were restrained in stanchions placed individually inside 3.3 x 3.3 m2 stalls within an open-sided barn. The amitraz in the vat was stabilized with hydrated lime to maintain a pH of ca. 12. Analyses of vat samples showed that concentrations of amitraz in the vat were 7.6 to 13% lower than the targeted concentrations of 0.010, 0.015, 0.020, and 0.025% active ingredient (AI) for dilutions prepared according to instructions on the manufacturer's label. The large quantity of hydrated lime added to the vat (10 kg/1000 l) interfered with the HPLC analysis of vat samples. Therapeutic efficacy of each of the four observed concentrations (0.0088, 0.0131, 0.0174, and 0.0231% AI) of amitraz was excellent (> 99% control). However, the rapid detachment of all ticks from an animal within a few hours after treatment with amitraz, that has been frequently observed, was not pronounced in the present study. Only 47% of the B. microplus detached in the first 4 h post-treatment, and 84% detached within the first 24 h. All of the treatments, except the lowest concentration, provided protection of cattle against re-infestation by B. microplus larvae for 14 days post-treatment. Possibly as a result of the formation of a compact layer of lime and amitraz on the bottom after the vat was undisturbed for six weeks, intense agitation was required to re-suspend the active ingredient. PMID:9879580

  8. Possible risk factors on Queensland dairy farms for acaricide resistance in cattle tick (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Mayer, D G; Green, P E

    2000-02-29

    A case control study was carried out within a cross-sectional survey designed to investigate the management by Queensland dairy farmers of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Although 199 farmers were surveyed, data on acaricide resistance were only obtained from 66 farms. Multiple models were used to predict the probability of acaricide resistance associated with 30 putative risk factors. The region of the state in which the farm was located and the frequency of acaricide application were consistently associated with acaricide resistance. The risk of resistance to all synthetic pyrethroids (Parkhurst strain) was highest in Central Queensland and increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, when spray races were used and when buffalo fly treatments with a synthetic pyrethroid were applied frequently. The probability of resistance to amitraz (Ulam strain) was highest in Central Queensland, increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, and decreased on farms when a hand-spray apparatus was used to apply acaricides to cattle. The probability of resistance to flumethrin (Lamington strain) was highest in the Wide Bay-Burnett region. PMID:10681025

  9. Seroepidemiological study of Babesia bovis in support of the Uruguayan Boophilus microplus control programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine blood samples were collected from a region endemic for Boophilus microplus and consisting of 125 ranches with a cattle population of 76,918. A total of 1,728 cattle were bled (1,485 adults and 243 calves less from 1 year of age) from 27 ranches. This sample size was determined to provide incidence and prevalence values with a precision of ±10% at a confidence level of 95%. The FAO/IAEA ELISA kit was used to detect antibody to Babesia bovis. Dispersion (proportion of ranches with babesia infection) was estimated to be 70.5% ± 8.8 (SD). A positive ranch was defined as having one or more test-positive animals. Apparent prevalence (proportion of cattle with a positive test result) within the region was estimated to be 3.5% ± 0.3, with a range from 0 to 18.5%. Incidence based on apparent prevalence in calves less than 1 year of age was estimated to be 2.8%. The dispersion, apparent prevalence, and incidence data for this region of Uruguay will be compared through a repeated sampling of cattle in this area during a three-year period to assess the effectiveness of the eradication/control campaign. (author)

  10. Pharmacological characterization of a tyramine receptor from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R

    2015-08-01

    The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control methods include the use of chemical acaricides including amitraz, a formamidine insecticide, which is proposed to activate octopamine receptors. Previous studies have identified a putative octopamine receptor from the southern cattle tick in Australia and the Americas. Furthermore, this putative octopamine receptor could play a role in acaricide resistance to amitraz. Recently, sequence data indicated that this putative octopamine receptor is probably a type-1 tyramine receptor (TAR1). In this study, the putative TAR1 was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and the expressed receptor resulted in a 39-fold higher potency for tyramine compared to octopamine. Furthermore, the expressed receptor was strongly antagonized by yohimbine and cyproheptadine, and mildly antagonized by mianserin and phentolamine. Tolazoline and naphazoline had agonistic or modulatory activity against the expressed receptor, as did the amitraz metabolite, BTS-27271; however, this was only observed in the presence of tyramine. The southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor may serve as a target for the development of anti-parasitic compounds, in addition to being a likely target of formamidine insecticides. PMID:25958152

  11. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Andreotti, Renato; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2011-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (Gavac(TM) and TickGard(PLUS)) that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG) was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks. PMID:21722483

  12. Vaccination of cattle against the Boophilus microplus using a mucin-like membrane glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, R V; Riding, G A; Jarmey, J M; Pearson, R D; Willadsen, P

    1998-07-01

    An antigen, BMA7, which induced partial immunity against tick infestation has been isolated from Boophilus microplus using two different protein fractionation protocols, accompanied by vaccination and parasite challenge trails. The antigen is a 63 kDa glycoprotein isolated from semi-engorged adult female ticks. Though significant, the induced immunity is less striking than that previously reported for antigen Bm86 from the same parasite. However, co-vaccination with Bm86 and BMA7 can enhance immunity over that seen with a commercial vaccine based on Bm86 alone. Limited peptide sequence information shows significant variation in the BMA7 protein occurs. The antigen has approximately 36 kDa of glycosylation, in both N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharides. There is evidence that both polypeptide and oligosaccharide are antigenic, but the chemical nature of the protective antigenic sites is not clear. There is little or no immunological response to the antigen during natural infestation with parasites, suggesting the antigen is 'concealed' and protective immunity dependent on artificial vaccination. The antigen has some similarities with the vertebrate mucins. It is widely distributed in tick tissues and membrane bound but its function is currently unknown. PMID:9717194

  13. Identificación de un polimorfismo del gen Est9 relacionado con resistencia a piretroides en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Diaz R.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Mediante procedimientos de PCR-RFLP, detectar un polimorfismo en el gen Est9 de garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides en Ibagué, Colombia, determinando el grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes. Materiales y métodos. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. (Boophilus microplus fenotípicamente susceptibles, resistentes o medianamente resistentes a piretroides en una prueba de Drummond modificada, fue amplificado por PCR con cebadores específicos para obtener un fragmento de 372 pb del gen Est9, que fue sometido a digestión con la enzima EcoRI para estudiar los RFLPs generados y poder diferenciar los respectivos genotipos. El grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes se determinó mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados. Luego de digerir el fragmento con la endonucleasa, se generaron dos segmentos en teleoginas con algún nivel de resistencia, mientras en las teleoginas susceptibles no hubo división del fragmento de 372 pb, demostrándose así la presencia de una mutación puntual y los genotipos homocigoto natural, homocigoto mutante y heterocigoto. Las diferencias altamente significativas (p<0.01 entre teleoginas susceptibles y aquellas con algún nivel de resistencia, mostraron una relación directa entre el genotipo y el fenotipo con un nivel de confianza de p=0.0009852. Conclusiones. Se comprobó, por primera vez en Colombia, la presencia de una mutación puntual en el gen Est9 de garrapatas R. (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides, sugiriendo la necesidad de realizar estudios para detectar alteraciones moleculares en otros genes relacionados con quimioresistencia.

  14. Partial sequencing of Bm86 gene for studying the phylogeny of an Indian isolate of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, P; Latha, B R; Dhinakar Raj, G; Sreekumar, C; Senthuran, S

    2014-09-01

    Tick gut glycoprotein, designated as Bm86, found on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells of Boophilus microplus, which is a concealed antigen, has been used as vaccine candidate molecule for immunization against ticks. To better understand the molecular diversity of Bm86 gene in ticks, a portion of the cDNA was sequenced from an Indian isolate of B. microplus. Comparison of nucleotide sequence revealed that Indian isolate had 97 % homology (18 polymorphisms) with that of the Australian isolate and 96 % homology (20 polymorphisms) with that of the Cuban vaccine strain. Further, the Indian isolate differed from the Cuban vaccine isolate at 7 amino acid loci, including 5 substitutions (at residues 88, 94, 175, 176 and 177) and 2 deletions (at 183 and 184). However, protein prediction studies did not show any difference in the putative antigenic epitopes of the protein expressed. PMID:25035581

  15. Suscetibilidade de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus a carrapaticidas em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to acaricides in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O carrapato bovino, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, destaca-se dentre os ectoparasitas de importância econômica à pecuária nacional, tornando-se necessária a adoção de medidas de controle, particularmente em rebanhos Bos taurus e seus cruzamentos. O controle do carrapato tem sido cada vez mais difícil devido à constatação de populações resistentes aos diversos produtos em uso. Neste estudo, teve-se por objetivo conhecer a suscetibilidade desse carrapato a acaricidas em Mato Grosso do Sul. De outubro de 2003 a outubro de 2006, testes carrapaticidogramas foram realizados em onze das principais regiões pecuárias do estado. Nos testes de suscetibilidade, foi utilizada a técnica de imersão de adultos, com posterior avaliação de parâmetros biológicos. Foram testados doze acaricidas comerciais, abrangendo sete princípios ativos (isoladamente ou em associação, pertencentes a três grupos químicos: amidinas (amitraz, piretróides sintéticos (cipermetrina e organofosforados (clorfenvinfós, clorpirifós, diazinon, diclorvós e etion. Baixa suscetibilidade foi detectada em todas as propriedades, evidenciando uma reduzida eficácia de todos os grupos químicos testados. Apesar da grande variação de suscetibilidade demonstrada pelas distintas populações a cada acaricida testado, foi possível observar um gradiente de eficácia desses produtos. Independente da classe, a eficácia média dos produtos com um único princípio ativo (19,94%-64,27% foi, de modo geral, menor que a das associações, tanto entre piretróide e organofosforados (46,38%-82,68%, como exclusivamente entre organofosforados (85,28%-97,68%. A associação contendo piretróide, organofosforados, sinergista e repelente (cipermetrina + clorpirifós + butóxido de piperonila + citronelal apresentou 100% de eficácia, embora testada em menor número de populações. Embora comparações com cepas suscetíveis não tenham sido efetuadas, a baixa suscetibilidade

  16. Efecto ixodicida de los extractos etanólicos de algunas plantas sobre garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela Rodríguez S.; Carlos Rodríguez M.; Anastasia Cruz C.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar in vitro, el efecto ixodicida del extracto etanólico de cinco plantas; Brugmasia arborea, Sambucus nigra, Nicotiana tabacum, Bidens pilosa y Ambrosia cumanenses sobre garrapatas adultas de la especie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Materiales y métodos. El extracto de cada planta fue obtenido mediante la técnica de lixiviación. Para las pruebas, se utilizaron garrapatas adultas de dos tamaños (pequeñas y medianas), que fueron expuestas a los extractos de cada planta, ut...

  17. Silencing of a putative immunophilin gene in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus increases the infection rate of Babesia bovis in larval progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is involved in the transmission of the protozoan Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Interactions between ticks and protozoa are poorly understood and the investigation of tick genes that affect tick fitness and protozoan inf...

  18. Molecular characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 homologue from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min; Zhou, Jinlin; Hatta, Takeshi; Umemiya, Rika; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Xuan, Xuenan; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2007-05-15

    One sequence in the EST database of a midgut cDNA library prepared from semi-engorged female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks has been found to be a homologue of the Bm86 gene of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. The full-length sequence containing a 1785 bp open reading fragment (ORF) was obtained and designated as the Hl86 gene. The predicted amino acid sequence of the Hl86 gene shows a 37% identity to the Bm86 gene. Hl86 is predicted to be a GPI-anchored membrane-bound glycoprotein with a 19-amino acid signal sequence and a 22-amino acid hydrophobic region adjacent to the carboxyl terminus. The most important feature that Hl86 has in common with Bm86 is the repeated pattern of 6 cysteine residues forming epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. RT-PCR analysis showed that Hl86 mRNA transcripts are expressed in all the life cycles of H. longicornis, and the expression was found in the midgut of the adult tick. The Hl86 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a gene10 fusion protein. Mouse anti-recombinant Hl86 serum recognized an 86 kDa protein band in the midgut lysate of semi-engorged ticks in Western blot analysis and showed a strong reaction on the luminal surface of midgut cells in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Silencing of the Hl86 gene by RNAi led to a significant reduction in the engorged tick body weight. This is the first report of cloning and characterization of the Bm86 homologue in different genera and species of ixodid and argasid ticks since Bm86 was first reported in 1989. PMID:17363170

  19. Primer caso de resistencia al amitraz en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus en México

    OpenAIRE

    Noé Soberanes Céspedes; Minerva Santamaría Vargas; Hugo Fragoso Sánchez; Zeferino García Vázquez

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue documentar el primer caso de la resistencia de la garrapata B. microplus al Amitraz, en México. Se obtuvo una muestra de garrapatas B. microplus del municipio de Emiliano Zapata, Tabasco, con reportes de fallas de control con este acaricida. La cepa de garrapatas fue denominada “San Alfonso” y se utilizaron larvas (F1) provenientes de la generación parental de hembras repletas, éstas se probaron con dosis discriminate de Amitraz 0.0002 %, (Taktic®) en formulaci...

  20. Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas (Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus by zymograms analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda, Miranda, Estefan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida-SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y susceptibilidad a productos acaricidas. Los ensayos que se diseñaron para detectar las enzimas esterasa, fosfodiesterasa, glutatión peroxidasa y catalasa, fueron procesados como zimogramas en imágenes digitalizadas, a partir de las cuales se obtuvieron sus respectivos densitogramas, valorando las movilidades electroforéticas relativas (Rf, así como las diferentes masas moleculares (MM en miles de Daltons (kDa y actividades enzimáticas específicas (AEE. Se identificó una elevada actividad de esterasa en posición Rf 0.52 con una MM de 47 kDa en las cepas resistentes, con un incremento en AEE del 317 % cuando se compara con las garrapatas susceptibles a los acaricidas. También se identificó una fosfodiesterasa en Rf. 0.1 con MM de 130 kDa presente en las cepas resistentes, con un incremento de AEE del 340% con respecto al nivel basal de la cepa susceptible. Se concluyó que estos ensayos enzimáticos pueden ser utilizados como indicadores de resistencia a los acaricidas en poblaciones de garrapatas aisladas de campo, constituyendo un procedimiento rápido, eficaz y económico, como alternativa al complicado bioensayo actualmente utilizado. Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, is achieved by a complex bioassay which requires reference strains of ticks as well as field isolated ticks, cultured on living cattle restrained for weeks. In order to assess an alternate diagnostics procedure, enzymatic assays were performed on

  1. Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

    2012-05-14

    The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. PMID:22446633

  2. Integrated control of Boophilus microplus ticks in Cuba based on vaccination with the anti-tick vaccine Gavac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Manuel Rodriguez; Mèndez, Luis; Valdez, Mario; Redondo, Miguel; Espinosa, Carlos Montero; Vargas, Milagro; Cruz, Ricardo Lleonart; Barrios, Humberto Perez; Seoane, Guillermo; Ramirez, Emerio Serrano; Boue, Oscar; Vigil, Jorge Lodos; Machado, Héctor; Nordelo, Carlos Borroto; Piñeiro, Marisdania Joglar

    2004-01-01

    Boophilus microplus has developed resistance against a range of chemical acaricides which has stimulated the development of alternative methods such as vaccination against ticks. In Cuba, the Bm86-based recombinant vaccine Gavac has been successfully used in a number of controlled laboratory and field trials in cattle against B. microplus. In this paper, we have evaluated Gavac in a large scale field trial wherein 588,573 dairy cattle were vaccinated with the aim to reduce the number of acaricidal treatments. It was found that the number of acaricidal treatments could be reduced by 87% over a period of 8 years (1995--2003). Prior to the introduction of the vaccine, 54 clinical cases of babesiosis and six fatal cases were reported per 1000 animals. Six years later, the incidence of babesiosis was reduced to 1.9 cases per 1000 cattle and mortality reduced to 0.18 per 1000. The national consumption of acaricides in Cuba could be reduced by 82% after the implementation of the integrated anti-B. microplus control program. PMID:15651533

  3. Transmissão transovariana de Babesia bovis em Boophilus microplus: obtenção de cepa de carrapato livre de Babesia spp. Babesia bovis transovarian transmission in Boophilus microplus: obtention of a Babesia free tick strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Bettin dos Santos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou o estudo de parte do ciclo da Babesia bovis no seu hospedeiro invertebrado, o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Analisou-se a capacidade de infeccção e transmissão transovariana de B. bovis em partenóginas de B. microplus, alimentadas em bovinos portadores e enfermos por esse protozoário. No 18º dia após a infestação, coletaram-se partenóginas diretamente do corpo dos bovinos e teleóginas após o desprendimento natural, a partir do 21º dia. Todos os grupos foram incubados a 27ºC e umidade relativa superior a 70%. No 5º dia após o início da postura, realizou-se o exame de hemolinfa a fim de diagnosticar a infecção dos ínstares por B. bovis. A ausência de infecção detectada no exame de hemolinfa foi confirmada posteriormente com o teste biológico, revelando que partenóginas não transmitem B. bovis transovarianamente. Esses resultados oferecem uma técnica simplificada para a obtenção de cepas de carrapatos livres de B. bovis.In this experiment part of the life cycle of Babesia bovis in its invertebrate host, the tick Boophilus microplus was studied. In order to evaluate the capacity of infection and transmission of B. bovis were collected semi-engorged females of B. microplus fed on carrier and ill bovines. In the 18th day after infestation, semi-engorged females were collected directly from bovine bodies and after 21st day engorged females dropped on the ground. All the collected groups were incubated at 27°C and relative humidity greater than 70%. At the 5th day of oviposition the diagnosis was made by direct examination of haemolymph smears. The biological test reveled that B. bovis transovarial transmission doesn't happer in semi-engorged females. The results offer a simple techique to obtain strains of ticks free of B. bovis.

  4. Perspectives for the use of plant extracts to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Perspectivas para o uso de extratos de plantas para o controle do carrapato de bovinos Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Miranda Ferreira Borges

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to synthetic acaricides has given rise to the need for new scientific investigations on alternative ways to control this tick. In this regard, various studies on plants have been developed in an attempt to find extracts with acaricidal properties. Evaluations on plant extracts for controlling R. (B. microplus have grown intensely over the last decade. There are many advantages from using plant extracts: for example, they can be used in organic cattle farming or even replace synthetic acaricides and they are associated with lower environmental and food contamination, slower development of resistance and lower toxicity to animals and humans. In vitro studies on plant extracts have shown promising results, but most of these extracts have not been tested on animals to validate their use. Difficulties in preparing proper formulations, differences in the chemical composition of plants of the same species due to extrinsic and intrinsic factors and sparse information on active acaricide compounds are hindrances that need to be addressed in order to enable progress within this scientific field.A evolução da resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas sintéticos tem impulsionado novas investigações científicas sobre métodos alternativos para controlar este carrapato. Considerando isso, vários estudos com plantas têm sido desenvolvidos numa tentativa de encontrar extratos com propriedades acaricidas. Avalições de extratos de plantas para o controle de R. (B. microplus tem sido intensificadas nesta última década. Existem muitas vantagens com o uso de extratos de plantas no controle deste carrapato, como: eles podem ser utilizados na produção orgânica de bovinos, ou mesmo substituir os acaricidas sintéticos, além do mais, estão associados com baixa contaminação ambiental e dos alimentos, desenvolvimento mais lento de resistência e baixa toxicidade

  5. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; Lagunes, Rodolfo; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2010-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, we describe the analysis of R. microplus glutathione-S transferase, ubiquitin (UBQ), selenoprotein W, elongation factor-1 alpha, and subolesin (SUB) complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by RNA interference (RNAi) in R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus. Candidate protective antigens were selected for vaccination experiments based on the effect of gene knockdown on tick mortality, feeding, and fertility. Two cDNA clones encoding for UBQ and SUB were used for cattle vaccination and infestation with R. microplus and R. annulatus. Control groups were immunized with recombinant Bm86 or adjuvant/saline. The highest vaccine efficacy for the control of tick infestations was obtained for Bm86. Although with low immunogenic response, the results with the SUB vaccine encourage further investigations on the use of recombinant subolesin alone or in combination with other antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. The UBQ peptide showed low immunogenicity, and the results of the vaccination trial were inconclusive to assess the protective efficacy of this antigen. These experiments showed that RNAi could be used for the selection of candidate tick-protective antigens. However, vaccination trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of recombinant antigens in the control of tick infestations, a process that requires efficient recombinant protein production and formulation systems. PMID:19943063

  6. [Morphologic characterization and biological aspects of evolutive forms of Babesia bigemina (Smith and Kilborne, 1893) (Protozoa: Babesiidae) in Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Jairo D; Rossi, Maria Inês D; da Silva, Gil Vicente O; Pires, Fabiano A; Massard, Carlos L

    2005-01-01

    The development of Babesia bigemina in Boophilus microplus were studied in experimental conditions, using crossed-breed bovine from free-area of these parasites. Stages of the hemoparasites were observed in the tick vector, starting from the infected red-blood cells observed in the gut of engorged females, from the first 24 hours after detachment to the emergence of sporokinets in the larvas. In the period from 24 to 48 hours after detachment of the engorged females (DEF), the presence of some infected red-blood cells was verified, beside the occurrence of ray bodies and of vermiculars forms, known as oocynets. Since 72 hours after the DEF, the of okinets presence was observed in the cytoplasm of the epithelium cells besides of great sporokinets number in development. At same period, the presence of sporokinets of B. bigemina in the hemolymph samples was observed inside the hemocytes. After the fourth day of incubation beside the presence of the sporokinets was also verified in the Malpighi's tubes and ovaries. As well as in the ticks eggs from the sporokinets were also observed ticks eggs from the fourty day after the natural detachment of the engorged females of the host. PMID:16153336

  7. Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas (Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus by zymograms analysis).

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Miranda, Estefan; Osorio, Miranda Jorge; Cossío, Bayúgar, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida-SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y suscep...

  8. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  9. Gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick Boophilus microplus by RNA interference

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, A. M.; Taoufik, A.; de la Fuente, M.R.; Kocan, K M; de Vries, E; Jongejan, F

    2007-01-01

    The use of RNA interference (RNAi) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of RNAi to the one-host tick, Boophilus microplus, has not been reported. We evaluated the application of RNAi in B. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin. Gene-specific double-stranded (dsRNA) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing w...

  10. Use of biodegradable PLGA microspheres as a slow release delivery system for the Boophilus microplus synthetic vaccine SBm7462.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Junior, P A; Guzman, F; Vargas, M I; Sossai, S; Patarroyo V, A M; González, C Z L; Patarroyo, J H

    2005-09-15

    The synthetic anti-Boophilus microplus vaccine SBm7462 derived from the tick intestinal protein, Bm86, induced a protective immune response when emulsified in saponin and used in cattle. Using a mice model, and with the objective of improving the vaccine by continual peptide release, it was encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 microspheres and inoculated in BALB/c mice to assess the immunological response by detection of anti-peptide IgGs. Comparative studies were made with the peptide emulsified in saponin and with another synthetic vaccine, and the microsphere/peptide was characterized for efficiency of encapsulation, in vitro release profile, morphology, size, peptide integrity after encapsulation and stability in different pHs. The findings showed that saponin enhances a better immune response from SBm7462 and that the PLGA 50:50 microspheres are suitable for use with this peptide. PMID:16002149

  11. Comparative vaccination of cattle against Boophilus microplus with recombinant antigen Bm86 alone or in combination with recombinant Bm91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willadsen, P; Smith, D; Cobon, G; McKenna, R V

    1996-05-01

    Cattle were vaccinated either with a single recombinant tick antigen, Bm86 or with a combination of two recombinant antigens, Bm86 and Bm91 from the tick Boophilus microplus. In three experiments, the responses of cattle to subsequent challenge with the tick were assessed. The addition of the Bm91 antigen enhanced the efficacy of the vaccination over that with Bm86 alone to a statistically significant degree. Moreover, co-vaccination with two antigens did not impair the response of cattle to the Bm86 antigen. Finally, responses of individual cattle to the two antigens were independent. All of these results may be relevant to the increase in efficacy expected from a dual antigen vaccine. PMID:9229376

  12. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae as a parasite of pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus and cattle in Brazil's Central Pantanal Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus como parasita de veado-campeiro (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus e do gado bovino no Pantanal Central do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Pantanal, domestic and wild animals share the same habitats; their parasites and environment interact in a complex and dynamic way. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most important cattle tick in Brazil. In the past two decades, some traditional management practices are being replaced with the aim of intensifying cattle production. Forested areas are being replaced by exotic pasture and ranch owners are replacing Nelore for European breeds. The pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus is a medium-sized cervid that occurs in grasslands of South America. Between December 2005 and January 2007, we captured and collected ticks from 15 pampas deer and 172 bovines. The abundance, intensity, and prevalence of ticks found in cattle were lower than those in pampas deer (p No Pantanal Brasileiro, onde animais domésticos e selvagens compartilham os mesmos habitats; hospedeiros, parasitas e ambientes encontram-se em interação complexa e dinâmica. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é o carrapato bovino mais importante no Brasil. Nas últimas duas décadas práticas de manejo vem sendo substituídas com objetivo de aumentar a produtividade. Áreas de florestas estão sendo substituídas por pastagens exóticas e os produtores começam a utilizar raças européias no lugar do Nelore. O veado-campeiro é um cervídeo que ocorre em áreas de campo na América do sul. Entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2007, foram coletados carrapatos de 20 veados-campeiros e 172 bovinos. Os valores de abundância, intensidade parasitária e prevalência de carrapatos no gado foram menores que os valores encontrados no veado-campeiro (p < 0,05, indicando que o veado-campeiro é mais susceptível que o bovino. O elevado número de fêmeas ingurgitadas coletadas, sua capacidade de ovipor e o percentual de eclosão indicam que a população veado-campeiro na região de estudo é suficiente para manter o R. (B. microplus, desta maneira participando na

  13. Immune response in mice and cattle after immunization with a Boophilus microplus DNA vaccine containing bm86 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lina María; Orduz, Sergio; López, Elkin D; Guzmán, Fanny; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Armengol, Gemma

    2007-03-15

    Plasmid pBMC2 encoding antigen Bm86 from a Colombian strain of cattle tick Boophilus microplus, was used for DNA-mediated immunization of BALB/c mice, employing doses of 10 and 50microg, delivered by intradermic and intramuscular routes. Anti-Bm86 antibody levels were significantly higher compared to control mice treated with PBS. In the evaluation of immunoglobulin isotypes, significant levels of IgG2a and IgG2b were observed in mice immunized with 50microg of pBMC2. Measurement of interleukine (IL) levels (IL-4, IL-5, IL-12(p40)) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the sera of mice immunized with pBMC2 indicated high levels of IL-4 and IL-5, although there were also significant levels of IFN-gamma. Mice immunized with pBMC2 showed antigen-specific stimulation of splenocytes according to the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and IFN-gamma secretion. In all trials, mice injected intramuscularly with 50microg of pBMC2 presented the highest immune response. Moreover, cattle immunized with this DNA vaccine showed antibody production significantly different to the negative control. In conclusion, these results suggest the potential of DNA immunization with pBMC2 to induce humoral and cellular immune responses against B. microplus. PMID:17055651

  14. Expression of recombinant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. annulatus and R. decoloratus Bm86 orthologs as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongejan Frans

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in Africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The R. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant DNA technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Results In this study, the genes for Bm86 (R. microplus, Ba86 (R. annulatus and Bd86 (R. decoloratus were cloned and characterized from African or Asian tick strains and the recombinant proteins were secreted and purified from P. pastoris. The secretion of recombinant Bm86 ortholog proteins in P. pastoris allowed for a simple purification process rendering a final product with high recovery (35–42% and purity (80–85% and likely to result in a more reproducible conformation closely resembling the native protein. Rabbit immunization experiments with recombinant proteins showed immune cross-reactivity between Bm86 ortholog proteins. Conclusion These experiments support the development and testing of vaccines containing recombinant Bm86, Ba86 and Bd86 secreted in P. pastoris for the control of tick infestations in Africa.

  15. Sequence variations in the Boophilus microplus Bm86 locus and implications for immunoprotection in cattle vaccinated with this antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, J C; Gonzalez, I L; González, D M; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; Lamberti, J; D'Agostino, B; Citroni, D; Fragoso, H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-11-01

    Cattle tick infestations constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful, hampered by the selection of chemical-resistant tick populations. The Boophilus microplus Bm86 protein was isolated from tick gut epithelial cells and shown to induce a protective response against tick infestations in vaccinated cattle. Vaccine preparations including the recombinant Bm86 are used to control cattle tick infestations in the field as an alternative measure to reduce the losses produced by this ectoparasite. The principle for the immunological control of tick infestations relies on a polyclonal antibody response against the target antigen and, therefore, should be difficult to select for tick-resistant populations. However, sequence variations in the Bm86 locus, among other factors, could affect the effectiveness of Bm86-containing vaccines. In the present study we have addressed this issue, employing data obtained with B. microplus strains from Australia, Mexico, Cuba, Argentina and Venezuela. The results showed a tendency in the inverse correlation between the efficacy of the vaccination with Bm86 and the sequence variations in the Bm86 locus (R2 = 0.7). The mutation fixation index in the Bm86 locus was calculated and shown to be between 0.02 and 0.1 amino acids per year. Possible implications of these findings for the immunoprotection of cattle against tick infestations employing the Bm86 antigen are discussed. PMID:10668863

  16. Integrated control of acaricide-resistant Boophilus microplus populations on grazing cattle in Mexico using vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, M; Fragoso, H; Ortíz, M; Montero, C; Lona, J; Medellín, J A; Fría, R; Hernández, V; Franco, R; Machado, H; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-10-01

    Throughout most of the twentieth century, tick infestations on cattle have been controlled with chemical acaricides, typically administered by dipping or spraying. This approach can cause environmental and residue problems and has created a high incidence of acaricide resistance within tick populations in the field. Recently we developed a vaccine against Boophilus microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac), (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) which has been shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals. Here we show for the first time under field conditions a near 100% control of B. microplus populations resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates, by an integrated system employing vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments. This method effectively controls tick infestations while reducing the number of chemical acaricide treatments and consequently the rise of B. microplus populations resistant to chemical acaricides. PMID:10581714

  17. Invitro acaricidal activity of ethnoveterinary plants and green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banumathi, Balan; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-01-30

    The present study was designed to investigate the invitro acaricidal effects of seven ethnoveterinary plants, zinc acetate and green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles against the Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The selected ethnoveterinary plants were extracted using ethanol and aqueous (water) solvents at 0.02mg/ml and 0.04mg/ml concentrations. Of these seven plants, Lobelia leschenaultiana showed the highest percentage of tick mortality. The ethanol extracts of L. leschenaultiana showed 93.33% mortality at 0.04mg/ml and its LC50 was 0.05mg/ml. However, zinc acetate exhibited 70% mortality at 0.04mg/ml (LC50: 0.0192mg/ml). Further, we synthesized ZnO nanoparticle using the leaf extracts of L. leschenaultiana and zinc acetate as the precursor material to control R. (B.) microplus. The structural characterization of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (Ll-ZnO NPs) was performed by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microsopy (TEM). UV-vis spectra showed the absorption band at 383nm. XRD analysis clearly showed the crystalline nature of Ll-ZnO NPs with various Bragg's reflection peaks at 100, 002, 101, 102, 110, 103, 200, 201 and 202 planes. FTIR analysis showed the possible functional groups of Ll-ZnO NPs with strong band at 3420.63 and 2922.48cm(-1). SEM and TEM analysis revealed that the Ll-ZnO NPs were spherical and hexagonal in shape with particle size ranging between 20 and 65nm. The mortality of R. (B.) microplus after treatment with Ll-ZnO NPs was 35, 57.5 and 82.5% at 0.001, 0.002 and 0.004mg/ml. On the otherhand, 100% mortality of R. (B.) microplus was observed at 0.008mg/ml (LC50: 0.0017mg/ml). The results indicated that the Ll-ZnO NPs have good acaricidal properties compared to L. leschenaultiana leaf extract and zinc acetate. PMID:26801601

  18. Resistance to cypermethrin and amitraz in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus on the Santa Catarina Plateau, Brazil Situação da resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus à cipermetrina e amitraz no Planalto Catarinense, Brasil

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    Luana Paula Haubold Neis Veiga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus resistance to cipermetrina and amitraz, were collected engorged tick females from cattle on 20 farms on the Santa Catarina Plateau, in southern Brazil, between January of 2004 and May of 2006. Were also received 20 groups of engorged R. (B. microplus females, collected by cattle farmers requesting acaricidal efficacy (AE testing. Were performed in vitro tests, which consisted of immersing engorged females in cypermethrin (0.015% and in amitraz (0.025%. An AE >95% was considered indicative of effectiveness. Of the 20 collected groups, 18 (90% showed cypermethrin resistance and 1 (5% showed amitraz resistance. Of the 20 received groups, 19 (95% showed cypermethrin resistance and 2 (10% showed amitraz resistance. The AE of cypermethrin was found to be >95%, 85-94%, and 55-64%, respectively, in 4 (57.1%, 2 (28.6%, and 1 (14.3% of 7 reference groups, collected in the 1997-2001 period. The AE of amitraz was >95% in all of those groups. Among the groups of specimens received for analysis in that period, the AE of amitraz was >95% in 6 (85.71% and 75-84% in 1 (14.28%. R. (B. microplus resistance to acaricides is increasing on the Santa Catarina Plateau.Com os objetivos de avaliar a resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus à cipermetrina e ao amitraz no Planalto Catarinense, no período de janeiro de 2004 a maio de 2006, foram coletadas teleóginas em bovinos de 20 propriedades onde os produtores autorizaram a coleta (amostras por conveniência e recebidas teleóginas de mais 20 propriedades com objetivo de diagnóstico de eficácia. Os testes in vitro foram realizados por imersão de teleóginas em cipermetrina (0,015% e amitraz (0,025%. Considerando a eficácia igual ou superior a 95%, das 20 propriedades amostradas, 18 (90% apresentaram resistência à cipermetrina e uma (5% ao amitraz. Das 20 propriedades com teleóginas para diagnóstico, 19 (95% apresentaram resist

  19. Use of biotherapic in the control of the natural infestation by Boophilus microplus: pilot study Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen; José Luiz Moletta; Nilceu Lemos Silva; Alessandro Pelegrine Minho

    2008-01-01

    In the control of tick-borne disease (TBD), resistance to chemical products has been reported and a concern with the preservation of the environment requires alternative procedures to control infestation by Boophilus microplus worldwide. The use of biotherapic preparations is one of such alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a biotherapic mixture including B. microplus in naturally infested cattle. 27 animals were divided in 3 groups (n=9): I – control, re...

  20. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Alejandro Cabezas; Zweygarth Erich; Ribeiro Mucio Flavio Barbosa; da Silveira Julia Angelica Gonçalves; de la Fuente Jose; Grubhoffer Libor; Valdés James J; Passos Lygia Maria Friche

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus engorged females that had been collected from natur...

  1. CattleTickBase: An integrated Internet-based bioinformatics resource for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rhipicephalus microplus genome is large and complex in structure, making a genome sequence difficult to assemble and costly to resource the required bioinformatics. In light of this, a consortium of international collaborators was formed to pool resources to begin sequencing this genome. We have...

  2. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project first submission of genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence difficult. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used to reduce the repetitive fraction of the tick genome and enrich for the fraction of DNA with gene-containing regions. The Cot-selected ...

  3. Acaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae) against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Prerna, Mranalini; Singh, Harkirat; Dumka, V K; Sharma, S K

    2016-06-01

    Resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against synthetic pyrethroids was assessed by larval packet test which revealed level I and II resistance against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test was employed to study the acaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo (sheesham) against these ticks. Mortality and fecundity of ticks exposed to sheesham leaf aqueous (SLA) and ethanolic (SLE) extracts were evaluated at concentrations of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% and controls (distilled water and 10% ethanol). Higher acaricidal activity was recorded in SLA with a lower LC50 (95% CL) value of 1.58% (0.92-2.71%) than SLE [5.25% (4.91-5.63%)]. A significant decrease in egg mass weight and reproductive index was recorded in treated ticks along with an increase in percent inhibition of oviposition. A complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with higher concentrations of SLA, whereas, SLE exhibited no effect on hatching percentage. PMID:27234528

  4. Alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in response to exposure to the insect growth regulator fluazuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudêncio, Fabrício Nascimento; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Lima, Mariana Gomes; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Castro, Rosane Nora; Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique da; Scott, Fabio Barbour; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2016-03-01

    Aiming to characterize the potential off-target effects of fluazuron on ticks, biochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate changes in the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks after exposure to fluazuron. Hemolymph and fat body were collected from female ticks before and after (4, 8 and 15 days) exposure to fluazuron. Spectrophotometric analyses were done to quantify glucose concentration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the hemolymph and the concentration of glycogen in the tick's fat body. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was employed to determine the concentration of carboxylic acids in the hemolymph and to evaluate changes in intermediary metabolic processes requiring oxygen consumption. Increases in the levels of LDH activity and lactic acid concentration indicated that fluazuron enhanced fermentative metabolism in ticks. Exposure to fluazuron was also found to increase glucose concentrations in the hemolymph over time, although no significant differences were noted daily. In addition to expanding the body of knowledge about the mode of action of fluazuron, investigations into these mechanisms may also be useful in discovering new and as yet unexplored secondary effects. PMID:26982563

  5. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craik Charles S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

  6. IN VITRO EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL ACARICIDES INDICATE RESISTANT POPULATIONS OF RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS IN NORTHERN REGION OF MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eckstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are responsible for high economic and production losses on cattle production, and the use of acaricides is the main form of control applied. In recent decades, the resistance of ticks to acaricides was exacerbated by incorrect use of products, compromising the effectiveness of treatments. This study aimed to determine in vitro effectiveness of commercial acaricides in six populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in northern region of Mato Grosso. On average 100 engorged females were collected from each herd, which were selected and separated into homogeneous groups, sanitized, and immersed to acaricide diluted according to the manufacturer's statement, on sequence there was incubated. After the incubation was obtained from female reproductive efficiency and effectiveness of the tested acaricides. The association cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos + citronellal showed satisfactory efficiency (> 95% in all the properties (mean 99.86% in properties, followed by trichlorfon (83.45%, amitraz (72.33%, neem oil (67.23% and cypermethrin (22.97%, which was not effective in any property. It indicates the use of the association cypermethrin +chlorpyrifos+ citronellal on evaluated properties for control of cattle tick effectively.

  7. Control of Boophilus microplus ticks in cattle calves by immunization with a recombinant Bm86 glucoprotein antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf-Allah, S S

    1999-06-01

    Forty Egyptian native cattle calves of 4-6 months old randomly allocated into two groups of twenty animals each were used to assess the effect of immunization of animals with a recombinant Bm86 antigen derived from Boophilus microplus ticks on induction of immunity that could protect calves during tick season. The immunization protocol involved two injections administered intramuscularly, the first was applied with complete Freund's adjuvant and the second was given with incomplete Freund's adjuvant two months later. Control calves were given saline plus adjuvant. Immunization reduced the number of adult ticks developing from a subsequent challenge infestation by 78% in immunized calves. Vaccination also, significantly reduced the weight of adult ticks in immunized calves (30.51%). The results of skin delayed hypersensitivity reaction revealed that the diameter of sites injected with the recombinant Bm86 antigen was significantly larger in immunized calves than those in controls. Analysis of the immune response indicated that there was a significant increase in the level of IgG and IgA antibodies in serum of immunized calves and protection from reinfestation was correlated with the levels of circulating antibodies. PMID:10422372

  8. Field studies and cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination with Gavac against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Montero, C; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enriquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R; de Armas, C A; Rey, S; Rodríguez, J L; Artiles, M; García, L

    1998-02-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remains a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. These vaccines have been shown to control tick infestations in the field. However, extensive field studies investigating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of vaccination have not been reported and are needed to appraise the effect of this new approach for tick control. Here is reported the results of the application of Gavac in a field trial including more than 260,000 animals in Cuba. In this study the correlation between the antibody response to vaccination and the effect on ticks fertility is determined. Physiological status of the animals was found to affect the primary response to vaccination but not the antibody titers after revaccination. A cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of $23.4 animal-1 year-1. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for tick control. PMID:9607057

  9. Simulation of control strategies for the cattle tick Boophilus microplus employing vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarta, V; Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M; Lleonart, R; Luaces, L L; de la Fuente, J

    1996-05-01

    Current strategies for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus include the use of chemicals as the principal control method. These methods, however, have met with partially successful results. The recent development of immunological methods for the control of the cattle tick has opened new possibilities for the design of control strategies. Employing the results obtained by us in experiments testing the effect of vaccination with the recombinant vaccine, Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.), on tick populations, we have developed a model to evaluate, through a computer program, the efficacy of the vaccine as a control method. The action of the vaccine on the control of tick populations was simulated and the specific serum antibody titers required to decrease the tick population in the field were calculated. The specific serum antibody titer required to decrease the tick population in the field after the first vaccination scheme was found to be > or = 57,200 and the antibody titer required to maintain this effect when the vaccine is already acting and after successive revaccinations was found to be > or = 27,500. Considerations about revaccination schemes and combination between vaccination and acaricide treatments as possible control strategies are discussed. PMID:8792587

  10. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus embryogenesis and starvation larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.G. de; Mentizingen, L.G.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab.de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, C.P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Daffre, S.; Esteves, E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is considered a key rate controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis pathway. Gluconeogenesis is a highly regulated process, catalyzed by several enzymes subject to regulation by insulin. Normally, insulin rapidly and substantially inhibits PEPCK gene transcription and the PEPCK activity is proportional to the rate of gene transcription. The transcriptional regulation of the PEPCK gene has been extensively studied. CREM is the transcription factor that bind efficiently to the putative cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in PEPCK gene. Several other transcription factors can bind to this element and activate transcription. In oviparous animals, such as bovine tick R. microplus, the embryonic development occurs outside the maternal organism, implying that all the nutrients necessary for embryogenesis must be present in the oocytes. We observed the relationship between the main energy sources and the morphogenetic changes that occur during R. microplus tick embryogenesis. Energy homeostasis is maintained by glycogen mobilization in the beginning of embryogenesis, as its content is drastically decreased during the first five days of development. Afterwards, the activity of the gluconeogenesis enzyme PEPCK increases enormously, as indicated by a concomitant increase in glucose content (Moraes et al., 2007). Here, we analyzed PEPCK gene transcription by qPCR during the embryogenesis and starvation larvae. The PEPCK transcription was higher at first and 15th day eggs of the development. In larvae the levels of PEPCK transcripts is increased at fifth day after hatch. However, the activity is continuous increased in larvae the form first up to 15th day. Now we are investigating the involvement of CREM in the PEPCK gene transcription in these cells. In this sense, we obtained CREM sequence from TIGR ESTs R. microplus bank and designed the specific primers to qPCR. Taken together our results suggest the involvement of PEPCK to the

  11. Abordagem sobre o controle do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Studies of the management of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Tânia Regina B. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul a infestação dos bovinos por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ocorre, principalmente, entre os meses de outubro e abril, devido às condições climáticas. Além do conhecimento do ciclo biológico desse parasito, também é fundamental conhecer a epidemiologia, para estabelecer estratégias de controle. No Rio Grande do Sul, e também no Brasil, existem poucos estudos epidemiológicos a respeito da resistência aos acaricidas. Além disso, a grande área geográfica e a deficiência estrutural quanto ao uso e acesso a bancos de dados dificultam a obtenção de dados confiáveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar um inquérito abordando a percepção dos produtores da região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, quanto à identificação de populações de R. (B. microplus difíceis de controlar com acaricidas e os fatores de risco para a seleção de populações de carrapatos resistentes. Para execução do trabalho foram coletados dados sobre o controle do carrapato de bovinos de corte, em 85 propriedades de sete municípios, localizados na região sul do Estado. Os resultados revelaram a existência de associação positiva entre a dificuldade de controlar o carrapato com os acaricidas e o grau de instrução do proprietário (até o ensino fundamental com OR=3,67 e p=0,01 e o número de aplicação de carrapaticida por ano (superior a 4 com OR=4,05 e p=0,006. Esses resultados indicam também que propriedades com mais de 100 bovinos de corte em criação extensiva, na região sul do rio Grande do Sul apresentam características que podem contribuir para uma maior vida útil dos carrapaticidas do que as verificadas em outras regiões do País.In the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, cattle become infested with Rhipicephalus (B. microplus mainly between October and April due to the climatic conditions. In addition to knowing its life cycle, knowledge of parasite's epidemiology is essential to

  12. Synthetic vaccine (SBm7462) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: preservation of immunogenic determinants in different strains from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peconick, A P; Sossai, S; Girão, F A; Rodrigues, M Q R B; Souza E Silva, C H; Guzman Q, F; Patarroyo V, A M; Vargas, M I; Patarroyo, J H

    2008-05-01

    The synthetic vaccine SBm7462 is based on three immunogenic epitopes (4822, 4823 and 4824) contained within protein Bm86 derived from the Australian Yeerongpilly strain of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Twenty strains of the tick originating from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Uruguay were analysed in order to identify differences compared with sequences present in components of vaccine SBm7462. For each parasite population, three cDNA fragments containing the nucleotides coding for the epitopes 4822, 4824 and 4823 were sequenced, and the amino acid sequences were deduced and compared with those of the homologous bm86 gene. The results indicate that the epitope sequences of vaccine SBm7462 are conserved in the South American populations of the tick. The conservation of such sequences is very important for the immunological response of different populations of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:18226809

  13. Dinâmica populacional de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) em bovinos leiteiros mantidos em manejo de pastejo rotativo de capim-elefante

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai N.; Labruna M.B.; Pires A.V.; Louvandini H.; Abdalla A.L.; Gennari S.G.

    2000-01-01

    De maio de 1996 a abril de 1998, avaliou-se a dinâmica do parasitismo pelo Boophilus microplus em 20 novilhas mestiças, submetidas ao manejo de rotação em piquetes de capim-elefante. Os animais, pesados a cada seis meses, foram distribuídos em dois grupos de 10, sendo realizados tratamentos acaricidas em um deles (grupo tratado). As curvas de infestação nos grupos controle e tratado apresentaram padrões semelhantes, com picos de parasitismo ocorrendo na mesma época. A menor carga parasitária ...

  14. Detección inmunoquímica de esterasas en dos cepas de la garrapata boophilus microplus (acarii: ixodidae) resistentes a ixodicidas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Rosario Cruz; Zeferino García Vázquez; John George Edward

    2000-01-01

    Se encontró una esterasa en Boophilus microplus con actividad incrementada, en dos cepas de garrapatas resistentes a acaricidas de la familia de los piretroides y organofosforados, que fue detectada después de ser separadas electroforéticamente. La proteína fue separada y utilizada en la preparación de un anticuerpo policlonal monoespecífico. La especificidad de este anticuerpo fue probada mediante un ensayo de inmunoelectrotransferencia, en extractos totales de dos cepas de garrapatas resist...

  15. Boophilus microplus: ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS Y MOLECULARES DE LA RESISTENCIA A LOS ACARICIDAS Y SU IMPACTO EN LA SALUD ANIMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Inés Domínguez-García; Rodrigo Rosario-Cruz; Consuelo Almazán-García; Jorge Alberto Saltijeral Oaxaca; José de la Fuente

    2010-01-01

    La aplicación de ixodicidas durante mucho tiempo ha sido la alternativa de elección para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, sin embargo, actualmente el uso de los ixodicidas tiene una eficacia limitada en la reducción de las infestaciones debido al desarrollo de poblaciones de garrapatas resistes. La resistencia a ixodicidas es un problema creciente que necesita ser atendido, por que en este momento está afectando la competitividad de la ganadería y la economía de miles de produc...

  16. Utilización del Boophilus microplus como remedio isopático en el control del ectoparásito en el Municipio de Aguazul (Casanare)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Niño Murcia; Edwin Gustavo Morales Arguello

    2005-01-01

    En este estudio se demostró la efectividad de un remedio isopático vía oral, para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, inocuo para los animales, medio ambiente y el hombre, evitando residuos de plaguicidas en el producto final. La investigación se realizó en una finca ubicada en el municipio de Aguazul (Casanare); localizada a los 05°10’23’’ de latitud norte y 72°33’17’’ de longitud oeste desde Greenwich, altitud: 300 msnm, temperatura media: 27ÚC. Precipitación anual media: 2.441 ...

  17. Persistencia de la eficacia de dos lactonas macrocíclicas contra infestaciones naturales de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en bovinos del trópico mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie de Jesús Arieta-Román; Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; José Alberto Rosado- Aguilara; Genny Trinidad Ramírez-Cruz; Gertrudis Basto-Estrella

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó la persistencia de la eficacia de ivermectina-3.15% (IVM-3.15%) y moxidectina-10% (MOX-10%) contra infestaciones naturales de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en bovinos del trópico mexicano. Para ello se utilizaron 33 bovinos hembras que fueron distribuidos en tres grupos (n=11) recibiendo los siguientes tratamientos: a) IVM-3.15% (0.63 mg/kg de peso vivo por vía subcutánea; b) MOX-10% (1 mg/kg de peso vivo por vía subcutánea); c) grupo testigo. El número de garrapatas adultas f...

  18. Control of ticks resistant to immunization with Bm86 in cattle vaccinated with the recombinant antigen Bm95 isolated from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, J C; Montero, C; Redondo, M; Vargas, M; Canales, M; Boue, O; Rodríguez, M; Joglar, M; Machado, H; González, I L; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; de la Fuente, J

    2000-04-28

    The recombinant Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac(TM) against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus has proved its efficacy in a number of experiments, especially when combined with acaricides in an integrated manner. However, tick isolates such as the Argentinean strain A, show low susceptibility to this vaccine. In this paper we report on the isolation of the Bm95 gene from the B. microplus strain A, which was cloned and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris producing a glycosylated and particulated recombinant protein. This new antigen was effective against different tick strains in a pen trial, including the B. microplus strain A, resistant to vaccination with Bm86. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions, lowering the number of ticks on vaccinated animals and, therefore, reducing the frequency of acaricide treatments. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen to protect cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. PMID:10717348

  19. Evolutionary conserved microRNAs are ubiquitously expressed compared to tick-specific miRNAs in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Tateno Yoshio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes modulating a large diversity of biological processes. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new opportunities to understand the biology of a number of species. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, causes significant economic losses in cattle production worldwide and this drives us to further understand their biology so that effective control measures can be developed. To be able to provide new insights into the biology of cattle ticks and to expand the repertoire of tick miRNAs we utilized Illumina technology to sequence the small RNA transcriptomes derived from various life stages and selected organs of R. microplus. Results To discover and profile cattle tick miRNAs we employed two complementary approaches, one aiming to find evolutionary conserved miRNAs and another focused on the discovery of novel cattle-tick specific miRNAs. We found 51 evolutionary conserved R. microplus miRNA loci, with 36 of these previously found in the tick Ixodes scapularis. The majority of the R. microplus miRNAs are perfectly conserved throughout evolution with 11, 5 and 15 of these conserved since the Nephrozoan (640 MYA, Protostomian (620MYA and Arthropoda (540 MYA ancestor, respectively. We then employed a de novo computational screening for novel tick miRNAs using the draft genome of I. scapularis and genomic contigs of R. microplus as templates. This identified 36 novel R. microplus miRNA loci of which 12 were conserved in I. scapularis. Overall we found 87 R. microplus miRNA loci, of these 15 showed the expression of both miRNA and miRNA* sequences. R. microplus miRNAs showed a variety of expression profiles, with the evolutionary-conserved miRNAs mainly expressed in all life stages at various levels, while the expression of novel tick-specific miRNAs was mostly limited to particular life stages and/or tick organs. Conclusions

  20. Perceptions of milk producers from Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, regarding Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control Percepção dos produtores de leite de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Semi-systematized interviews were conducted with 100 dairy cattle producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, with the aim of ascertaining their perceptions regarding the importance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and of combating it. Content analysis was performed and the frequency distribution of each of the variables was used to construct profiles of the producers interviewed. The production losses caused by ticks were perceived incompletely by the producers, who were unaware of the pathogen transmission caused by the parasite and the indirect losses through combating it, such as the cost of acaricide and labor. The combat operations were performed in a traditional manner, with an excessive number of inefficient treatments that aimed to control the level of infestation at that moment. The quality of the acaricide dipping/spraying applied was affected by the quality of the equipment used to apply the products, lack of knowledge of the mode of action of these products, lack of the specific information needed and lack of motivation caused by unawareness of the disadvantages of chemical combat. It was concluded that the lack of knowledge about combat methods and the acceptance of endemicity of the parasitosis were impediments to changing the realities encountered.Entrevistas semissistematizadas foram aplicadas a 100 produtores de bovinos leiteiros do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de verificar a sua percepção sobre a importância de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus e seu combate. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" e a distribuição de frequência de cada uma das variáveis para a construção de perfis dos produtores entrevistados. Os prejuízos causados à produção pelo carrapato são percebidos de forma incompleta pelos produtores, que ignoram a transmissão de patógenos pelo parasito e as perdas indiretas pelo combate, como o custo do carrapaticida e da mão de obra. O combate era feito

  1. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick in vitro feeding methods for functional (dsRNA) and vaccine candidate (antibody) screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-Tabor, Ala E; Bruyeres, Anthea G; Zhang, Bing; Rodriguez Valle, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks cause economic losses for cattle industries throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world estimated at $US2.5 billion annually. Lack of access to efficacious long-lasting vaccination regimes and increases in tick acaricide resistance have led to the investigation of targets for the development of novel tick vaccines and treatments. In vitro tick feeding has been used for many tick species to study the effect of new acaricides on the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. Few studies have reported the use of in vitro feeding for functional genomic studies using RNA interference and/or the effect of specific anti-tick antibodies. In particular, in vitro feeding reports for the cattle tick are limited due to its relatively short hypostome. Previously published methods were further modified to broaden optimal tick sizes/weights, feeding sources including bovine and ovine serum, optimisation of commercially available blood anti-coagulant tubes, and IgG concentrations for effective antibody delivery. Ticks are fed overnight and monitored for ∼5-6 weeks to determine egg output and success of larval emergence using a humidified incubator. Lithium-heparin blood tubes provided the most reliable anti-coagulant for bovine blood feeding compared with commercial citrated (CPDA) and EDTA tubes. Although >30mg semi-engorged ticks fed more reliably, ticks as small as 15mg also fed to repletion to lay viable eggs. Ticks which gained less than ∼10mg during in vitro feeding typically did not lay eggs. One mg/ml IgG from Bm86-vaccinated cattle produced a potent anti-tick effect in vitro (83% efficacy) similar to that observed in vivo. Alternatively, feeding of dsRNA targeting Bm86 did not demonstrate anti-tick effects (11% efficacy) compared with the potent effects of ubiquitin dsRNA. This study optimises R. microplus tick in vitro feeding methods which support the development of cattle tick vaccines and

  2. Efecto ixodicida de los extractos etanólicos de algunas plantas sobre garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ángela Rodríguez S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar in vitro, el efecto ixodicida del extracto etanólico de cinco plantas; Brugmasia arborea, Sambucus nigra, Nicotiana tabacum, Bidens pilosa y Ambrosia cumanenses sobre garrapatas adultas de la especie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Materiales y métodos. El extracto de cada planta fue obtenido mediante la técnica de lixiviación. Para las pruebas, se utilizaron garrapatas adultas de dos tamaños (pequeñas y medianas, que fueron expuestas a los extractos de cada planta, utilizando la técnica de inmersión de garrapatas adultas. A las 24 h de exposición, se realizó la lectura de mortalidad, donde se tomó como mínimo eficaz una mortalidad del 60%. Las pruebas iniciales se realizaron con extractos puros y cuando éstos mostraban eficacia se procedía a realizar diluciones crecientes, hasta encontrar la concentración mínima eficaz. Estas pruebas fueron realizadas en clima frio y cálido. Resultados. El extracto de N. tabacum, mostró efectividad en garrapata pequeña, hasta las diluciones 0.5:10 y 1:10 en clima frio y cálido, respectivamente y con 2.5:10 y 5:10 sobre garrapata mediana en clima frio y cálido, respectivamente; B. arbórea, mostró eficacia sobre garrapata pequeña hasta la dilución 7.5:10 en ambos climas; S. nigra y B. pilosa solo fueron eficaces en clima cálido sobre garrapatas pequeñas empleando extracto puro. A. cumanenses no fue eficaz en ninguna de las pruebas. Conclusiones. N. tabacum, mostró mayor eficacia y se observó que los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con las mayores concentraciones.

  3. Successful vaccination against Boophilus microplus and Babesia bovis using recombinat antigens

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    P. Willadsen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophils microplus and the agent of bovine babesiosis, Babesia bovis are unsatisfactory. Effective immunological control of both parasites would have great advantages. However, naturally acquired immunity to the tick is generally unable to prevent serious production losses. A vaccine against the tick, based on a novel form of immunization, is being developed. A protective antigen has been isolated from the tick, characterized and produced as an effective, recombinant protein. A vaccine incorporating this antigen is currently undergoing field trials. In the Australian situation, improved tick control will probably increase endemic instability with respect to B. bovis. Fortunately, a trivalent, recombinant B. bovis vaccine has also been developed. This too is now undergoing pre-registration field trials.

  4. IN VITRO EFFECT OF THE ASSOCIATION OF CITRONELLA, SANTA MARIA HERB (Chenopodium ambrosioides AND QUASSIA TINCTURE ON CATTLE TICK Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Fernanda Carlini Cunha dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an ectoparasite which causes high financial losses to the production of Brazilian cattle. The control of this parasite is accomplished by the administration of chemical products, but they are not adequately used, leading to high costs and stimulating the selection of resistant parasites. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to assess the in vitro efficiency of different formulations containing an association of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, Santa Maria herb (Chenopodium ambrosioides and quassia (Quassia amara tinctures on the bovine tick R. microplus. For this, engorged females of the parasite were submitted to the laboratory immersion test. The solutions containing all three plants were tested in different concentrations. Approximately 84% of the treatments presented efficiency equal or superior to 95%. The treatments with citronella in concentration equal or superior to 5% showed better results and the concentration of 10% showed maximum efficiency, independently of the concentrations of the other two plants. The high efficiency of the solutions was attributed mainly to the reduction of egg laying and hatching rate, and, in a minor scale, to death of the engorged females. It suggests that the phytotherapic solutions are able to induce alterations on the system and reproductive capacity of the females of R. microplus in in vitro tests, besides presenting a tickicide action.

  5. [Efficacy of extracts of plants in engorged females of Boophilus microplus from the mesoregion West of Maranhão, Brazil.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Francisco B; Vasconcelos, Pádua Suely Da S; Silva, Ana Maria M; Brandão, Vivian M; Da Silva, Iran A; Teixeira, Whaubtyfran C; Guerra, Rita De Maria S N; Dos Santos, Ana Clara G

    2008-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extracts of nim and citronela at 20% and eucalipto at 10% in Boophilus microplus engorged females collected in cattle naturally infected from the mesoregion West of Maranhão. At the laboratory the females were separated, weighted and distributed in six groups of 10, in duplicate. Each group was immersed in 10mL of the solution of the extracts, for two minutes. In the nim and citronela extracts there was 32% e 17%, respectively, while larval emergence the eucalipto extracts demonstrated 96% of efficacy. In the groups treated by Cipermetrina + Clorpirifós + Citronetal and Deltametrina (positive controls) the mortality occurred after 48h of treatment, while the groups immersed in distilled water (negative control) showed 100% of eggs mass and larval emergence. According to the results, it can be concluded that the extract of eucalipto could be used as acaricide in the control of B. microplus females since it was efficient in vitro, however to nim and citronela showed not efficacy. B. microplus females were not resistant to the chemical compounds used in this experiment. PMID:20059822

  6. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks and determination of the expression profile of Bm86

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    Jongejan Frans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. In most studies on ticks where (semi-quantitative RT-PCR is employed, normalization occurs with a single reference gene, usually β-actin, without validation of its presumed expression stability. The first goal of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. To demonstrate the usefulness of these results, an unresolved issue in tick vaccine development was examined. Commercial vaccines against R. microplus were developed based on the recombinant antigen Bm86, but despite a high degree of sequence homology, these vaccines are not effective against R. appendiculatus. In fact, Bm86-based vaccines give better protection against some tick species with lower Bm86 sequence homology. One possible explanation is the variation in Bm86 expression levels between R. microplus and R. appendiculatus. The most stable reference genes were therefore used for normalization of the Bm86 expression profile in all life stages of both species to examine whether antigen abundance plays a role in Bm86 vaccine susceptibility. Results The transcription levels of nine potential reference genes: β-actin (ACTB, β-tubulin (BTUB, elongation factor 1α (ELF1A, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, H3 histone family 3A (H3F3A, cyclophilin (PPIA, ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4 and TATA box binding protein (TBP were measured in all life stages of R. microplus and R. appendiculatus. ELF1A was found to be the most stable expressed gene in both species following analysis by both geNorm and Normfinder software applications, GST showed the least stability. The expression profile of Bm86 in R. appendiculatus and R. microplus revealed a more continuous Bm86 antigen abundance in R

  7. PI3K/PKB signaling in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryo cell line BME26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropods and important vectors of both human and animal diseases. In order to study the insulin triggered pathway and its possible roles during embryogenesis we are using a culture of embryonic Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus cells (BME26). Besides its metabolic role, insulin signaling pathway (ISP) is widely described as crucial for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis and development. In such cascade Phosphatidylinositol 3-OH Kinase (PI3K) is hierarchically located upstream Protein Kinase B (PKB). Exogenous insulin is able to increase the expression level of PI3K's regulatory sub unity (p85), as determined by Real Time RT-PCR. In the presence of PI3K inhibitors (Wortmannin or LY294002) these effects were reversed. This correlates well with the activation of PKB by phosphorylation, as it appears to be PI3K-dependent. Additionally, PI3K inhibition increased the expression level of two insulin-regulated downstream targets from glycogen metabolism (GSK3b) and gluneogenesis (PEPCK) pathways. GSK3b inhibition by phosphorylation diminished in cells treated with PI3K inhibitors. These results strongly suggest the presence of an insulin sensitive PI3K-PKB axis in BME26 cells. The further study of PI3K and PKB activity in egg homogenates during embryogenesis may help us to understand the role of ISP for R. micro plus development

  8. PI3K/PKB signaling in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryo cell line BME26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, L.; Fabres, A.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP)]. E-mail: leoabreu@uenf.br; Esteves, E.; Daffre, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropods and important vectors of both human and animal diseases. In order to study the insulin triggered pathway and its possible roles during embryogenesis we are using a culture of embryonic Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus cells (BME26). Besides its metabolic role, insulin signaling pathway (ISP) is widely described as crucial for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis and development. In such cascade Phosphatidylinositol 3-OH Kinase (PI3K) is hierarchically located upstream Protein Kinase B (PKB). Exogenous insulin is able to increase the expression level of PI3K's regulatory sub unity (p85), as determined by Real Time RT-PCR. In the presence of PI3K inhibitors (Wortmannin or LY294002) these effects were reversed. This correlates well with the activation of PKB by phosphorylation, as it appears to be PI3K-dependent. Additionally, PI3K inhibition increased the expression level of two insulin-regulated downstream targets from glycogen metabolism (GSK3b) and gluneogenesis (PEPCK) pathways. GSK3b inhibition by phosphorylation diminished in cells treated with PI3K inhibitors. These results strongly suggest the presence of an insulin sensitive PI3K-PKB axis in BME26 cells. The further study of PI3K and PKB activity in egg homogenates during embryogenesis may help us to understand the role of ISP for R. micro plus development.

  9. Reassociation kinetics-based approach for partial genome sequencing of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Bellgard Matthew

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence fiscally and technically problematic. To selectively obtain gene-enriched regions of this tick's genome, Cot filtration was performed, and Cot-filtered DNA was sequenced via 454 FLX pyrosequencing. Results The sequenced Cot-filtered genomic DNA was assembled with an EST-based gene index of 14,586 unique entries where each EST served as a potential "seed" for scaffold formation. The new sequence assembly extended the lengths of 3,913 of the 14,586 gene index entries. Over half of the extensions corresponded to extensions of over 30 amino acids. To survey the repetitive elements in the tick genome, the complete sequences of five BAC clones were determined. Both Class I and II transposable elements were found. Comparison of the BAC and Cot filtration data indicates that Cot filtration was highly successful in filtering repetitive DNA out of the genomic DNA used in 454 sequencing. Conclusion Cot filtration is a very useful strategy to incorporate into genome sequencing projects on organisms with large genome sizes and which contain high percentages of repetitive, difficult to assemble, genomic DNA. Combining the Cot selection approach with 454 sequencing and assembly with a pre-existing EST database as seeds resulted in extensions of 27% of the members of the EST database.

  10. ESTUDO DA EFICÁCIA “IN VITRO” DO AMITRAZ E DA DELTAMETRINA COMO CARRAPATICIDA NO CONTROLE DE Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887 NA BACIA LEITEIRA DA MICRORREGIÃO DE GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF AMITRAZ AND DELTAMETHRIN AS ACARACIDES AGAINST Boophilus microplus (CAMESTRINI, 1887 IN THE DAIRY AREA OF GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS

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    Guido Fontgalland Coelho Linhares

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para avaliar a eficácia antiixodídica do amitraz e da deltametrina sobre o Boophilus microplus na bacia leiteira da microrregião de Goiânia - Goiás, foram realizados testes in vitro por imersão de teleóginas, colhidas diretamente de bovinos da região. Os princípios ativos foram ensaiados na concentração de 250 ppm, através da avaliação da percentagem de inibição da reprodução (%INR. Entre eles o amitraz apresentou a melhor eficácia, com valor de 97,11%, estando acima do valor mínimo exigido pelo Ministério da Agricultura para produtos carrapaticidas. A deltametrina apresentou o valor de 70,86%, revelando uma eficácia insatisfatória.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus; carrapaticida; amidinas; piretróides; bovinos.

    The efficacy of amitraz and deltamethrin as acaricides against Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 was evaluated through an in vitro immersion test using engorged female ticks collected in the dairy area of the microrregion of Goiânia, State of Goiás. The effectiveness of the experimental compounds, on concentrations of 250 ppm, was determined by the effect as measured in percentages of inhibited reproduction (%INR after treatments of the ticks with liquid formulations. The results were: amitraz showed the best efficacy with a percentage of inhibited reproduction (%ITR of 97.11%; for deltamethrin such value was 70.86%, which was considered very low to be used as an acaricide.

    KEY-WORDS: Boophilus microplus; acaricides; amidines; pyrethroids; cattle.

  11. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus from Bahia state North-Central region Eficiência de acaricidas sobreRhipicephalus (Boophilus microplusna região Centro-Norte, Bahia

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    José Tadeu Raynal

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B. microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas na pecuária brasileira, principalmente devido à redução no desempenho produtivo dos animais. A resistência do parasita a diferentes classes de acaricidas tem sido amplamente relatada, bem como os problemas de ocorrência de resíduos desses compostos em produtos de origem animal e no ambiente. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diversos acaricidas sobre populações de R. (B. microplus provenientes de propriedades rurais da Região Centro-Norte do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Teleóginas ingurgitadas foram colhidas em diferentes propriedades da região e submetidas a ensaio in vitro de eficiência de acaricidas, baseado na

  12. Infestación natural de hembras de Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) en dos genotipos de bovinos en el trópico húmedo de Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Alonso Díaz; Barud Josué López Silva; Ana Carolina Leme de Magalhães Labarthe; Roger Iván Rodríguez Vivas

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la dinámica poblacional anual de Boophilus microplus en dos genotipos de ganado bovino. El estudio se realizó en Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz, México (región trópico húmeda). Se utilizaron 20 toretes de diez meses de edad y 185 kg de peso, infestados naturalmente con garrapatas B. microplus. Se formaron dos grupos de diez animales cada uno, según el genotipo (¾ Bos taurus [½ Holstein, ¼ Simmental, ¼ Cebú] y ½ Bos taurus [½ Holstein, ½ Cebú]). ...

  13. Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas

    OpenAIRE

    Estefan Miranda Miranda; Jorge Miranda Osorio; Raquel Cossío Bayúgar

    2005-01-01

    La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida- SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y susce...

  14. Role of Rusa deer Cervus timorensis russa in the cycle of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, N; Bianchi, M; Chardonnet, L

    2001-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Rusa deer in the development of the cattle tick Boaphilus microplus in comparison with that of steers in the same pastures and under the same conditions of infestation. No difference was noted between a mixed steer/deer herd and a pure steer or pure deer herd in the infestation pattern of each host, suggesting that attachment to the alternative host is mechanical and not affected by the simultaneous presence of the primary host on the pasture. Deer are capable of producing engorged viable females, with weight and reproductive performances similar to or even better than females fed on steers. For moderate levels (1 million larvae per hectare) and high levels (32 million larvae per hectare) of pasture infestation, tick burdens on steers were not very different (e.g. average 1,911 and 2,681 ticks per m2 skin, respectively, on day 24). This may be because of saturation of steer skin sites at the moderate larval dose. Deer harboured 2.7-33 times fewer ticks than steers and produce no engorged females at the moderate larval level and 32 times fewer engorged females than steers at the high larval level. Infestation of deer was dose-dependent with averages of 12 and 399 ticks per m2 skin on day 25 at the moderate and high larval levels, respectively. At a high infestation level of the environment, Rusa deer may contribute, but to a limited extent, to infestation of pastures and, consequently, of cattle. However, their role in sustaining a viable tick population requires further investigation. PMID:11508531

  15. INCIDENCE OF Boophilus microplus AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN CROSSBRED STEERS FED OF SUNFLOWER INCIDÊNCIA DE Boophilus microplus E AVALIAÇÃO DOS PARÂMETROS SANGÜÍNEOS EM BOVINOS MESTIÇOS (HOLANDÊS x ZEBU ALIMENTADOS COM GIRASSOL

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    Sérgio Luíz S. Rezende

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sunflower meal and sunflower seeds to control Boophilus microplus in naturally infested steers. The experiment was developed in the Dairy Cattle Facilities of the Veterinary College - UFG. Two herds of steers (Holstein x zebu were allotted in a randomized block design in 2x10 factorial arrangement with six repetitions on Brachiaria decumbens pastures. After 14 days, weekly for two months, B. microplus females > 4 mm were counted, blood samples were collected and the animals were weighed. The B. microplus engorged females were collected to evaluate reproductive parameters. Blood samples were processed to determine: hematocrit, total protein, fibrinogen and leukocytes. The results had been submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages compared for the Scott-Knott test (5%. Tick counts, index (%, larval eclosion, hematocrit, total protein, fibrinogen and leukocytes were similar between treatments. The results do not corroborate the empirical reports concerning the effectiveness of the sunflower to control B. microplus in crossbred steers. KEY-WORDS: Blood values, oily seeds, parasites, tick count. Objetivou-se avaliar a ação do farelo ou das sementes de girassol no controle de Boophilus microplus em novilhos mestiços (holandês x zebu infestados naturalmente. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Setor de Bovinocultura do Departamento de Produção Animal da Escola de Veterinária (EV da UFG. Foram utilizados dois lotes de animais, distribuídos inteiramente ao acaso num fatorial 2 x 10 com seis repetições, em piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens, onde foram suplementados. Após quatorze dias de experimento e a cada sete dias, durante dois meses, num curral de manejo, efetuaram-se a contagem das fêmeas de B. microplus > 4 mm, as coletas de sangue e as pesagens dos bovinos. Colheram-se fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus para avaliação de parâmetros reprodutivos. Amostras de sangue

  16. Avaliação do potencial de controle biológico do Metarhizium anisopliae sobre Boophilus microplus em teste de estábulo Evaluation of the biological control potential of Metarhizium anisopliae toward Boophilus microplus in pen trials

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    Thiago C. Bahiense

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se por meio de um teste de estábulo a capacidade de Metarhizium anisopliae em controlar o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Foram realizados tratamentos em bovinos estabulados, utilizando este fungo aplicando-se suspensão conidial em banhos por aspersão. Os resultados foram obtidos pelo percentual de mortalidade de carrapatos durante 28 dias após o tratamento e pelos índices biológicos após incubação destes em câmara climatizada. Constatou-se 33% de mortalidade no período total observado, sendo o índice de produção de ovos e índice nutricional reduzidos somente em um curto período após o tratamento.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control Boophilus microplus tick in pen trials. Infested calves were held in individual pen and treated with fungus suspension through aspersion bath. The results were evaluated based on ticks' mortality rate for 28 days after treatment, and on the analysis of biology of tick's samples which were transferred to an incubation chamber. It was reported 33% of mortality during the total period analyzed, and the production of eggs and nutritional rates were decreased only for a short period after treatment.

  17. Use of biotherapic in the control of the natural infestation by Boophilus microplus: pilot study Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

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    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the control of tick-borne disease (TBD, resistance to chemical products has been reported and a concern with the preservation of the environment requires alternative procedures to control infestation by Boophilus microplus worldwide. The use of biotherapic preparations is one of such alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a biotherapic mixture including B. microplus in naturally infested cattle. 27 animals were divided in 3 groups (n=9: I – control, received no treatment; II- treated with amitraz dip; III- treated with a standard commercial mixture of biotherapic 12cH, p.o. Group III presented a statistically significant decrease of ticks when compared to the control group (p Keywords: Biotherapic; Tick; Alternative control; Cattle.   Uso do bioterapico no controle da infestação natural por Boophilus microplus: estudo piloto Resumo No controle de enfermidades transmitidas por carrapatos tem sido notada a resistência a produtos químicos. A preocupação com a conservação do meio ambiente tem exigido procedimentos alternativos para controlar a infestação por Boophilus microplus, em todo o mundo. O uso de bioterápicos representa uma dessas alternativas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de uma mistura de bioterápicos incluindo B. microplus, em gado bovino infestado naturalmente. 27 animais foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=9: I controle sem tratamento; II tratado com banho de amitraz; III tratado com mistura comercial de bioterápicos 12 cH, via oral. O grupo III apresentou uma diminuição estatísticamente significativa de carrapatos, em comparação com grupo controle (p Palavras-chave: Bioterapicos; Carrapato; Controles alternativos; Bovinos.   Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

  18. Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina, with an analysis of tick distribution among cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Canevari, José T; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2015-03-15

    Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina were evaluated for one year. In addition, tick distribution among cattle was analyzed to evaluate if partial selective treatment or culling the small proportion of most heavily infested animals were feasible options to control R. (B.) microplus. Two different treatments schemes based on two applications of fluazuron and one application of 3.15% ivermectin were performed. Treatments were made in late winter and spring so as to act on the small 1st spring generation of R. (B.) microplus, in order to preclude the rise of the larger autumn generation. The overall treatment effect was positively significant in both schemes. The number of ticks observed in the control group was significantly higher than in the treated groups on all post-treatment counts. Group 2 exhibited more than 80% of efficacy almost throughout the study period, whereas Group 1 exhibited an efficacy percentage higher than 80% in September, October, December, February, April and May, but not in November (73.4%), January (58.3%), March (45.2%) or June (53.4%). Absolute control was observed in Group 2 in the counts of September and October, and in Group 1 in the count of February. The control strategies evaluated in this work provide an acceptable control level with only three applications of acaricides; at the same time, they prevent the occurrence of the autumn peak of tick burdens, which is characteristic of R. (B.) microplus in northwestern Argentina. Tick distribution was markedly aggregated in all counts. Although ticks were not distributed evenly among calves, the individual composition of the most heavily infested group was not consistent throughout the study period. In addition, the level of aggregation varied with tick abundance. These results suggest that applying acaricides to a portion of the herd or culling the most infested individuals at a given moment of the

  19. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

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    Fernández Erlinda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core element of broad control programs against this ectoparasite, in which acquired immunity in cattle to Bm86 is combined with a rational use of acaricides. At present, the conventional vaccine scheme consists of three doses that should be administered at weeks 0, 4 and 7, followed by a booster every six months. Results In this study we assayed a reduction in the number of the initial doses of Gavacplus, evaluated the time course and the level of bovine anti-Bm86 antibodies elicited, and analyzed the vaccine effect on ticks engorging on immunized cattle under production conditions. Following three different immunization schemes, the bovines developed a strong and specific immune response characterized by elevated anti-Bm86 IgG titers. A reduction in the weight of engorging female ticks, in the weight of the eggs laid and also in R. microplus viable eggs percentage was obtained by using only two doses of Gavacplus administered at weeks 0 and 4, followed by a booster six months later. This reduction did not differ from the results obtained on ticks engorging on cattle immunized at weeks 0, 4 and 7. It was also demonstrated that anti-Bm86 antibody titers over 1:640, measured in bovines immunized at weeks 0 and 4, were sufficient to affect weight and reproductive potential of female ticks as compared with ticks engorging on unvaccinated animals. In addition, no statistically significant differences were detected in the average weight of eggs laid by ticks engorged on

  20. Evaluation in vitro of the infection times of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain Avaliação in vitro dos tempos de infecção de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus pelo nematoide entomopatogênico Steinernema glaseri estirpe CCA

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    Leandro Barbiéri de Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that ticks are susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic nematodes. These studies indicate different susceptibilities of ticks to infection by these fungi, depending on the tick species, development phase, entomopathogenic nematodes species and strains and the time the ticks are exposed to them. Usually this period ranges from 24 to 72 hours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infection times in vitro of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus females by the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema glaseri CCA strain, by analysis of the ticks' biological parameters. The results show that a 2-hour exposure time was sufficient for the engorged R. microplus females to be infected by S. glaseri CCA, but that a minimum exposure time of 24 hours was necessary to generate treatment efficacy above 90%.Os carrapatos são susceptíveis à infecção por nematoides entomopatogênicos. Essa susceptibilidade diverge quanto às espécies de carrapato estudadas, à fase evolutiva, às espécies e estirpes dos nematoides e ao tempo ao qual os carrapatos ficam expostos a estes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os tempos de infecção in vitro de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus pelo nematoide entomopatogênico Steinernema glaseri estirpe CCA, pela análise dos parâmetros biológicos do carrapato. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que um período de duas horas de exposição foi suficiente para que fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus fossem infectadas por S. glaseri CCA e que um período de exposição mínimo de 24h foi necessário para que houvesse infecção de fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus por S. glaseri estirpe CCA, capaz de gerar, in vitro, eficácia no tratamento superior a 90%.

  1. Principal component analysis on the perceptions of milk producers about Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control in Minas Gerais Análise de componente Principal da percepção dos produtores de leite sobre o controle do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus em Minas Gerais

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk producers in Lavras, Passos and Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, were interviewed with the aim of evaluating their perceptions and attitudes regarding control over Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Multivariate correlation between the variables was done by means of principal component analysis. The producers' perceptions and attitudes regarding R. (B. microplus were similar: most of them did not have any basic knowledge of tick biology or control, and they applied acaricide products through backpack spraying, without any defined technical criteria. Some of the results obtained were: I. a negative correlation between schooling level and the frequency of spraying cattle with acaricides; II. a positive correlation between milk production, quality of equipment for acaricide application and technological level of the farm; III. farm properties with greater production and technification tended to keep the intervals between acaricide applications constant over the course of the year. After applying principal component analysis, a positive correlation was observed between schooling level, technological level of the farm and perceptions regarding R. (B. microplus, but without any correlation with attitudes towards controlling this tick. It was concluded that higher technological level and schooling level improved the producers' perceptions relating to the biology of the tick R. (B. microplus, but did not achieve effectiveness with regard to using controls more rationally.Produtores de leite de Lavras, Passos e Divinópolis, MG, foram entrevistados com objetivo de avaliar sua percepção e atitude no controle do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. A análise da correlação multivariada entre as variáveis foi feita através de componentes principais (ACP. A percepção e atitude sobre o R. (B. microplus foram semelhantes entre os produtores, sendo que a maioria deles não tem o conhecimento básico sobre a biologia e o controle desse carrapato

  2. Percepção dos produtores de leite do município de Passos, MG, sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae, 2001 Perception of dairy farmers from Passos county, MG, Brazil, concerning the tick Boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae, 2001

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrevistas com 25 proprietários de rebanhos com produção diária acima de 500 litros de leite, sorteados da listagem da cooperativa de Passos/MG/Brasil, foram aplicadas para caracterizar suas percepções sobre a biologia do Boophilus microplus e suas atitudes no controle de carrapatos. A maioria desses produtores tem pelo menos o ensino médio completo e está na atividade há mais de dez anos. Os prejuízos biológicos produzidos pelos carrapatos são bem percebidos por eles; porém, não demonstraram conhecimento sobre a biologia do B. microplus e as desvantagens dos banhos carrapaticidas, principalmente com relação aos riscos toxicológicos. Esses produtores realizam controle de carrapatos sem critérios técnicos e com alta freqüência, baseando-se na avaliação subjetiva da infestação nos animais. Isto favorece o estabelecimento da resistência aos acaricidas e demonstra que a transferência de tecnologia sobre controle de carrapatos para o setor pecuário é falha.Twenty five dairy farms were randomly chosen from all farms producing more than 500 liters of milk/ day in Passos, MG, Brazil. The owners were interviewed to characterize their perceptions about the biology of B. microplus and their attitudes towards tick control. Most of the producers have a college degree and more than six year-experience in the activity. The biological damages caused by ticks are perceived by the farmers. Their tick control is performed without technical criteria and they did not show a proper knowledge on the biology of B. microplus nor on the toxicological risks of acaricides application. The results reveal a gap between the technology and farmers, favoring tick resistance to acaricides.

  3. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectiv...

  4. Toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle

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    Choudhury M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively.

  5. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, M K

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively. PMID:20502579

  6. Avaliação in vitro da ação do óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre o carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus In vitro evaluation of the action of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    F.C.C. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso indiscriminado de produtos químicos no controle do carrapato bovino constitui a principal causa do gradativo aumento do número de cepas resistentes deste parasita às bases disponíveis no mercado. A utilização de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais é uma prática antiga no controle de carrapatos, porém só recentemente tem recebido a devida atenção dos pesquisadores. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a eficácia in vitro do óleo de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus através do exame de biocarrapaticidograma. Foram testadas seis diluições do óleo de C. citratus (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 e 100% em uma população de carrapatos resistentes a amidínicos e piretróides sintéticos. A inibição de postura foi de 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 e 46%, a eclosão larval foi de 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 e 25% e a eficácia do tratamento foi de 32; 64; 83; 100; 88 e 82%, respectivamente. O óleo de C. citratus apresentou controle parcial do carrapato R. microplus in vitro, mesmo frente a populações resistentes a produtos químicos.The indiscriminate use of chemical products to control the cattle tick is the main cause of the gradual increase in the number of strains of this parasite that are resistant to the bases currently available in the market. The use of essential oils and plant extracts is an ancient practice for tick control; however, only recently has it received due attention by researchers. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus through immersion test. Six concentrations of Cymbopogon citratus oil (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 and 100% were tested against a tick population resistant to synthetic formamidines and pyrethroids. The inhibition of egg-laying was 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 and 46%, the hatching was 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 and 25%, and the treatment efficacy was 32

  7. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats

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    Cruz Alejandro Cabezas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B. microplus engorged females that had been collected from naturally infested cattle in a farm in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This agent was then established and cultured in IDE8 tick cells. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and gp36 genes. We used the maximum likelihood method to construct the phylogenetic trees. Results The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA showed that the Ehrlichia spp isolated in this study falls in a clade separated from any previously reported Ehrlichia spp. The molecular analysis of the ortholog of gp36, the major immunoreactive glycoproteins in E. canis and ortholog of the E. chaffeensis gp47, showed a unique tandem repeat of 9 amino acids (VPAASGDAQ when compared with those reported for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and the related mucin-like protein in E. ruminantium. Conclusions Based on the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA genes we concluded that this tick-derived microorganism isolated in Brazil is a new species, named E. mineirensis (UFMG-EV, with predicted novel antigenic properties in the gp36 ortholog glycoprotein. Further studies on this new Ehrlichia spp should address questions about its transmissibility by ticks and its pathogenicity for mammalian hosts.

  8. Avaliação in vitro da eficácia de acaricidas sobre Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae de bovinos no município de Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil In vitro valuation of acaricides efficiency to Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae from bovines at the region of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

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    Dunezeu Alves Campos Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O carrapato Boophilus microplus é a espécie de maior distribuição geográfica e importância econômica para os países produtores de bovinos em áreas tropicais e sub-tropicais do planeta. No Brasil, a Região Nordeste apresenta algumas áreas mais favoráveis para as infestações do gado. O controle químico ainda é a forma mais eficaz de combate deste ectoparasita, mas o manejo inadequado dos acaricidas tem contribuído com o aparecimento de resistência de populações aos produtos disponíveis no mercado. O município de Ilhéus, na Região Cacaueira da Bahia, vem incrementando sua atividade pecuária em substituição à lavoura cacaueira devastada. Foram realizados 30 testes de imersão in vitro (biocarrapaticidogramas com fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus colhidas em propriedades rurais aleatoriamente selecionadas num grupo de 96 entrevistadas na região. O estudo revelou a existência de resistência ou sensibilidade de populações de B. microplus frente aos carrapaticidas de contato mais utilizados nas propriedades de exploração pecuária da região de Ilhéus. Os quatro carrapaticidas testados apresentaram as seguintes eficiências médias: Amitraz - 30,95%; Deltametrina - 65,04%; Cipermetrina / diclorvos - 75,73%; e Triclorfon / coumaphos / cyfluthrin - 75,13%.The tick Boophilus microplus is the species with the greatest geographical distribution and economic importance for the countries situated at tropical and sub-tropical zones of the planet. In Brazil, the Northwest Region is showed as the most favorable to the cattle infestation. Chemical control is an efficient control method employed, but the inadequate handling of acaricides contributed for to the onset of resistant ticks to the available acaricides in the market. The county of Ilhéus, at the Cocoa's Region from Bahia, has been increasing the cattle activity instead of the devastated cocoa's plantations. Between April and September 2000, in vitro imersion tests

  9. A theoretical analysis of codon adaptation index of the Boophilus microplus bm86 gene directed to the optimization of a DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lina María; Armengol, Gemma; Habeych, Edwin; Orduz, Sergio

    2006-04-21

    DNA vaccines utilize host cell molecules for gene transcription and translation to proteins, and the interspecific difference of codon usage is one of the major obstacles for effective induction of specific and strong immune response. In an attempt to improve codon usage effects of DNA vaccine on protein expression, a quantitative study was conducted to clarify the relationship of codon usage in the tick gene bm86 and its potential expression in bovine cells. The calculated relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and codon adaptation index (CAI) values of bm86 from Boophilus microplus and a set of 14 highly expressed genes from Bos taurus indicated that some codons utilized frequently in bm86 are rarely used in B. taurus genes and vice versa. The different translational efficiencies obtained suggested that after DNA vaccination using the wild bm86 gene, the protein Bm86 would be expressed in bovines, but it would not be the optimum sequence. However, using the codon-optimized bm86 gene to bovines, whose sequence was theoretically designed, would probably improve the level of the immune response generated against ticks. PMID:16171828

  10. [Elaboration and evaluation of a candidate to the DNA vaccine using synthetic genes derived from the peptídeo SBm7462 against the carrapato Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Carla L; Mendonça, Bianca G; Tavares, Larissa C; Girão, Flávia A; Sossai, Sidimar; Peconick, Ana P; Carvalho, Gabriel D; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2008-09-01

    Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important arthropods in veterinary medicine due economic losses and health problems caused in cattle production. The vaccination represents optimum method evaluated with effective cost to prevent economic losses and to increase the duration and quality of life of the production animals. A synthetic peptide, SBm 7462, derived from Bm86, has been shown great results in control of ticks. The construction and synthesis of one nucleotide sequence based on this peptide might be useful for design a DNA vaccine that has many advances than peptide vaccine. A gene, called seq1, was constructed with a three repetition of nucleotide sequence of SBm 7462. It was cloned into a pCIneo vector expression in mammals and injected in BALB/c mouse. When mice were inoculated with the expression cassette they did not response in ELISA. They elevated antibody titles only when vaccinated with the synthetic peptide SBm7462®. And, the best titles of immunoglobulins were seen when the SBm7462® was administered subcutaneously. PMID:20059811

  11. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana: A New Potential Agent to Control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, a Cattle Tick of Veterinary Significance

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    Carlos Henrique Miguita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Guarea kunthiana fruits, guided by their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus—a major economic problem to the livestock industry worldwide—led to isolation of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol, a new protolimonoid, from the bioactive hexane phase obtained by partitioning the crude ethanol extract. An adult immersion test was performed. The compound strongly inhibited egg-laying and hatchability (99.2% effectiveness at a 0.01% concentration. Melianone, isolated from the same phase, yielded unremarkable results in the adult immersion test. From the dichloromethane phase, melianol, melianodiol, meliantriol, and a new protolimonoid, 3β-O-tigloylmeliantriol, were isolated, all of which, in the same manner as melianone, exhibited unremarkable results in the test. The structures of new and known compounds were mostly established by 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses and mass spectrometry data. This is the first report on the bioactivity of protolimonoids on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of R. (B. microplus. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol proved a promising candidate for the development of a biocontrol agent against the cattle tick investigated, as an alternative to environmentally hazardous synthetic acaricides.

  12. Expression and secretion in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger of a cell surface glycoprotein from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, by using the fungal amdS promoter system.

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, I F; Smith, D R; Sharp, P. J.; Cobon, G S; Hynes, M J

    1990-01-01

    A cell surface glycoprotein (Bm86) from cells of the digestive tract of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, which has been shown to elicit a protective immunological response in vaccinated cattle, was expressed and secreted in the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger by using the fungal amdS promoter system. The cloned gene coded for the Bm86 secretory signal and all of the Bm86 mature polypeptide except for the hydrophobic carboxy-terminal segment. High levels of Bm8...

  13. Evaluation of antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle submitted to rBm86 protein Boophilus microplus tick immunization and associated challenges influence Avaliação da produção de anticorpos anti Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos submetidos à imunização com proteína rBm86 de carrapato Boophilus microplus e influência dos desafios associados

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa; Adivaldo Henrique Fonseca; Natalino Hajime Yoshinari; Ana Luiza Alves Rosa Osório

    2003-01-01

    IgG antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in immunized cattle with rBm86 protein from Boophilus microplus was evaluated as well as the influence of the association between immunizations and stress through indirect ELISA test during one year. In the present study there was no influence of the isolated challenged used on the production of IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi. The rBm86 immunogen did not cause significant oscillation in the production of IgG antibodies against B. b...

  14. ANTI-IXODIDIC EVALUATION OF DIAZINON, COUMAPHOS AND CYPERMETHRIN THROUGH IN VITRO TESTS OF ENGORGED FEMALES OF Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887 IN THE DAIRY MICROREGION OF GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS AVALIAÇÃO ANTIIXODÍDICA DE DIAZINON, COUMAFÓS E CIPERMETRINA, ATRAVÉS DE TESTES “IN VITRO”, SOBRE FÊMEAS INGURGITADAS DE Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887 NA BACIA LEITEIRA DA MICRORREGIÃO DE GOIÂNIA-GOIÁS

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    Reinaldo Neves Sobrinho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The efficacy of the acaricides diazinon, coumaphos and cypermethrin against Boophilus microplus was evaluated in an attempt to study the susceptibility of this ixodid tick in the dairy region of Goiânia, GO. For this study it was collected engorged female ticks in 22 farms from March until June, 1996. In a laboratory the ticks were submitted to a conventional immersion method as an in vitro test. The acaricides and the respective concentration tested were as follows: diazinon 500 ppm, coumaphos 500 ppm and cipermethrin 150 ppm. The results showed an efficacy of 94.13% for diazinon, 91.20% for coumaphos and only 69.14% for cypermethrin.

    KEY-WORDS: Boophilus microplus; acaricide; cattle; organophosphorus; pyrethroids.

    Para avaliar a eficácia de alguns carrapaticidas sobre Boophilus microplus, colheram-se teleóginas desse ixodídeo em bovinos naturalmente infestados, em 22 propriedades da bacia leiteira de Goiânia, GO, entre março e junho de 1996. Utilizou-se a técnica de imersão das teleóginas in vitro, calculando-se a eficácia percentual das drogas, diazinon 500 ppm, coumafós 500 ppm e cipermetrina 150 ppm, pelos resultados de respectivas de inibição da reprodução: 94,13% (diazinon, 91,2% (coumafós e 69,14% (cipermetrina. Os índices alcançados permaneceram abaixo do mínimo de 95%, recomendado pelo Ministério da Agricultura e do Abastecimento para carrapaticidas, sendo, então, os três produtos reprovados pelos critérios daquele órgão.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus; acaricida; gado; organofosforados; piretroides.

  15. Perceptions about the biology of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus among milk producers in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais Percepção dos produtores de leite de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre a biologia do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred semi-systematized interviews were applied with the aim of surveying the perceptions of milk producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais regarding the biology of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Content analysis was conducted on each of the variables surveyed and their descriptions, highlighting the higher frequencies in order to construct profiles of perceptions about each of the matters surveyed. In addition, each of the producers was categorized regarding their readiness to proceed with efficient control, from the assessment of their responses. Among the variables surveyed were the tick lifespan, duration of parasitic life, time of greatest incidence, survival in pastures and egg-laying volume. These questions are considered important for defining the knowledge needed for rational combat. It was concluded that the information needed for adopting effective practices to combat ticks was insufficient among the milk farm properties in Divinópolis. Moreover, the producers interviewed had a good perception of what they observed in their daily routine, but did not have complementary information about the tick life cycle.Foram aplicadas 100 entrevistas semissistematizadas com o objetivo de levantar a percepção dos produtores de leite do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre a biologia do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" de cada uma das variáveis levantadas e sua descrição com destaque das maiores frequências para a construção de perfis de percepção sobre cada um dos aspectos levantados. Além disso, cada um dos produtores foram categorizados quanto a estar ou não apto a proceder um controle eficiente pela avaliação de suas respostas. Algumas das variáveis levantadas foram tempo de vida do carrapato, tempo de vida parasitária, época de maior incidência, sobrevivência nas pastagens e volume de postura, questões consideradas importantes

  16. Toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury M

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and ...

  17. Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) as a host for the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    1977-04-01

    The rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) is more resistant to the cattle tick (Boophlilus microplus) than are Britsh breed cattle in Papua New Guinea. The average yield of replete female ticks from deer was 1.6% (0.3-3.2%) as compared to 11.2% (3.4-23.1%) from calves. Ticks from deer were more slender, lighter in weight and produced fewer eggs (mean 1,800) than did ticks from calves (mean 2,200) but the deer was shown to be an effective host. A cervid population can maintain a tick population in the absence of bovine hosts thus presenting an important factor in eradication programs. Nutritional stress appears to result in a higher seasonal prevalence of infestation amongst males and non-pregnant females. PMID:864854

  18. INFLUÊNCIA DO PESO INICIAL E DA ESTAÇÃO DO ANO NA CONVERSÃO EM OVOS DE FÊMEAS DE Boophilus microplus (ACARI: IXODIDAE

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    Abraão Garcia Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do peso inicial da fêmea e da estação do ano na conversão em ovos de Boophilus microplus. O índice de eficiência reprodutiva (IER de 411 fêmeas pesando entre 31 e 360 mg foi correlacionado com seu peso inicial. Para avaliar a influência das diferentes estações do ano neste parâmetro biológico, dez fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus pesando acima de 150 mg foram colhidas, a cada duas semanas, e mantidas em condições climáticas controladas até a determinação do IER. Uma relação curvilinear foi observada entre o peso das fêmeas e o IER. Fêmeas pesando entre 151 e 360 mg tiveram IER’s mais altos (variando de 44,9% a 51,4% do que aquelas mais leves, as quais apresentaram uma menor capacidade de conversão em ovos (variando de 31,4% a 39,0%. Foi observado que a capacidade de as fêmeas converterem o peso em ovos variou sazonalmente. Os mais altos IER foram observados no período seco, de abril a setembro (47,6% a 58,3%, do que no período chuvoso, de outubro a março (40,2% a 43,6% (P<0,05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus, biologia, conversão em ovos, bovinos.

  19. Caracterização do controle de Haematobia irritans e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais

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    Luísa N. Domingues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle eficaz de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (carrapato-do-boi é um fator crucial à maior rentabilidade da pecuária brasileira, porém ainda constitui-se um desafio. Um maior conhecimento das práticas adotadas no combate destes parasitos faz-se necessário para que se possam estruturar estratégias de controle mais próximas da realidade do produtor rural e mais fáceis de serem executadas. Este estudo caracterizou, através de entrevistas, as práticas adotadas no controle desses ectoparasitos em 23 propriedades da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais. A maioria dos entrevistados reconheceu a importância desses parasitos para a atividade pecuária, entretanto, diversos problemas relativos ao controle parasitário foram observados. O controle da mosca-dos-chifres e do carrapato-do-boi era uma prática rotineira em, respectivamente, 17,4% e 95,7% das propriedades, geralmente realizado em função de elevado grau de infestação dos animais. Mais de seis aplicações de ectoparasiticidas eram realizadas por ano em todas as propriedades que empregavam tratamentos para o controle da mosca e em 76,5% daquelas que combatiam o carrapato. Os produtos eram aplicados principalmente com bombas costais manuais (63,6% e sem a contenção dos animais em 45,5% das propriedades. A diluição dos produtos segundo recomendações dos fabricantes era realizada por 45,4% dos entrevistados, porém, 63,6% aplicavam um volume de solução por animal menor do que o tecnicamente recomendado. Utilizava-se principalmente a associação de piretróides e organofosforados para o controle de ambos os parasitos. Apesar de utilizar rotineiramente ectoparasiticidas, o uso de equipamento de proteção individual (EPI não era comum entre os entrevistados. A maioria dos entrevistados conhecia algumas características epidemiológicas dos parasitos, entretanto, o controle parasitário adotado na

  20. Effect of the association of cattle and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) on populations of cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, N; Bianchi, M; De Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2002-10-01

    The wild population of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia (South Pacific) is nearly as large as the cattle population. The cattle tick is widespread and occurs all year round. Opinions are divided on the role of deer in the biological cycle of the tick: i) Do they maintain a sustainable tick population that is secondarily available for cattle? ii) Do they decrease the infestation of the environment by collecting larvae on the pasture, but preventing their development to the engorged female stage? or iii) Do they contribute to both situations? An experiment was conducted in three groups of pastures, each seeded with 450 000 larvae/ha and allowed to be grazed only by cattle, only by deer, and by a mixed herd of deer and cattle (deer representing 30% of the biomass), at approximately the same stocking rate (470-510 kg/ha). After 15 months of exposure, the tick burden per weight unit of host was 42 ticks/kg for the steers-only herd and 0.01/kg for the deer-only herd. The steers in the "mixed group" harbored 7 times fewer ticks (6.2/kg) than the cattle-only group, and the deer in the "mixed group," 130 times more (1.3/kg) than the deer-only group. Five emergency acaricide treatments had to be applied in the cattle-only group, but none in the other groups. The long-term sustainability of a viable tick population on deer as well as the potential benefit resulting from the association of deer and susceptible cattle in the tick control of cattle are highlighted. PMID:12381606

  1. Evaluation of antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle submitted to rBm86 protein Boophilus microplus tick immunization and associated challenges influence Avaliação da produção de anticorpos anti Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos submetidos à imunização com proteína rBm86 de carrapato Boophilus microplus e influência dos desafios associados

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    Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available IgG antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in immunized cattle with rBm86 protein from Boophilus microplus was evaluated as well as the influence of the association between immunizations and stress through indirect ELISA test during one year. In the present study there was no influence of the isolated challenged used on the production of IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi. The rBm86 immunogen did not cause significant oscillation in the production of IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi capable to interfere in the serological results for Lyme Borreliosis in cattle. This study demonstrated the possibility of transitory changes in the production of antibodies after the association of vaccine stimuli and stress, emphasizing the necessity of serological studies combined with epidemiological and management data.Avaliou-se a produção de anticorpos da classe Ig-G anti Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos imunizados com proteína recombinante Bm86 de Boophilus microplus, assim como a influência de imunizações e estresse associados por meio do teste ELISA indireto no período de um ano. Não houve interferência na produção de anticorpos IgG anti B. burgdorferi pelos desafios utilizados isoladamente no presente estudo. O imunógeno rBm86 não causou oscilações significantes na produção de anticorpos IgG anti B. burgdorferi capazes de interferir nos resultados sorológicos para Borreliose de Lyme em bovinos. O estudo demonstrou a possibilidade de alterações transitórias na produção de anticorpos após estímulos vacinais e de estresse associados, ressaltando a necessidade de estudos sorológicos em conjunto a dados epidemiológicos e de manejo.

  2. In vitro analysis of the action of acaricides on Boophilus microplus strains (Canestrini, 1887 taken from dairy cattle from northeast area of the São Paulo State/ Análise in vitro da ação de carrapaticidas em cepas de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 colhidas de bovinos leiteiros da região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo

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    Alvimar José da Costa

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Boophilus microplus ticks to nine insecticides was evaluated in vitro through immersion test. The insecticides contained the following compounds: Alphamethrin + Dichlorvos, Amitraz, Cypermethrin, Cypermethrin + Chlorphenvinphos, Coumaphos, Deltamethrin, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos + Chlorphenvinphos and Zetacypermethrin. Ticks were collected from dairy cows in 17 properties of the northeast of the Sao Paulo State. Only three formulations reached recommended effectiveness (³ 95,0%: Cypermethrin + Chlorphenvinphos in nine properties, with average 89,69% ± 15,49, Dichlorvos + Chlorphenvinphos in eight, with average 91,22% ± 11,50 and the Amitraz in seven, with 78,62% ± 24,47. The results did not differ significantly (P > 0,05 from each other.Avaliou-se por meio de teste de imersão “in vitro” a susceptibilidade do Boophilus microplus a nove carrapaticidas contendo os seguintes princípios ativos: Alfamethrina + Diclorvos, Amitraz, Cipermetrina, Cipermetrina + clorfenvinfós, Coumafós, Deltametrina, Diclorvos + Cipermetrina, Diclorvinil + Clorfenvinfós e Zetacipermetrina. A colheita dos carrapatos foi realizada em 17 propriedades de bovinos leiteiros da região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Das formulações avaliadas apenas três alcançaram eficácia superior à recomendada (³ 95,0 %: Cipermetrina + Clorfenvinfós em nove propriedades, com média 89,69 % ± 15,49, Diclorovinil + Clorfenvinfós em oito, com média 91,22% ± 11,50 e o Amitraz em sete, com 78,62% ± 24,47. Estatisticamente estes resultados não diferiram (P> 0,05 entre si.

  3. Effect of vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation on natural infestations of Boophilus microplus in grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M; Massard, C L; da Fonseca, A H; Ramos, N F; Machado, H; Labarta, V; de la Fuente, J

    1995-12-01

    Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Recent advances have introduced the possibility for the immunological control of the parasite through the use of recombinant vaccines. Recently, it was shown that the recombinant vaccine Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.) is able to control B. microplus populations in artificially infected grazing dairy cattle in Cuba. To assay the effect of the vaccine on a different B. microplus strain and under different ecological conditions, we conducted a trial in Brazil on grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle under natural infestation conditions. A farm in the northeast of the state of Sao Paulo was selected and two groups of animals per breed were included in the experiment and were maintained grazing on separate but similar pastures. For each breed, one group was vaccinated with the vaccine Gavac and the second group was not vaccinated and was employed as a control. In vaccinated cattle, during 36 weeks of experiment, the average infestation rate was maintained below 78 ticks per animal while average infestation peaks (mean +/- S.E.) of 144 +/- 44 ticks per animal (for dairy cross-bred cattle) and 195 +/- 42 ticks per animal (for beef cross-bred cattle) were recorded in the control groups. Tick infestation rates showed statistical significant differences (p = 0.04) between both experimental groups throughout the experiment. These results clearly showed, as in the Cuban study, that the vaccine controlled tick numbers in successive generations in the field. PMID:8701597

  4. Utilización del Boophilus microplus como remedio isopático en el control del ectoparásito en el Municipio de Aguazul (Casanare

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    Francisco Javier Niño Murcia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se demostró la efectividad de un remedio isopático vía oral, para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, inocuo para los animales, medio ambiente y el hombre, evitando residuos de plaguicidas en el producto final. La investigación se realizó en una finca ubicada en el municipio de Aguazul (Casanare; localizada a los 05°10’23’’ de latitud norte y 72°33’17’’ de longitud oeste desde Greenwich, altitud: 300 msnm, temperatura media: 27ÚC. Precipitación anual media: 2.441 mm. Se contó con 32 animales de doble propósito; con la propuesta adoptada por la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria, CORPOICA, en cuanto al Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP; acerca del control ejercido con base en niveles críticos, se inició con un conteo de garrapatas, con un tamaño entre 4.5 mm y 8 mm, por un lado del cuerpo del animal; animales con más de 20 garrapatas, entraban en el proceso de investigación, se les administró el remedio isopático, el cual correspondía al grupo A, y el placebo el cual correspondió con el grupo B, durante cuatro días consecutivos. Se administraron dos potencias del remedio, la primera con nueve centésimal (9 C, la cual no tuvo ningún efecto sobre la garrapata, la segunda potencia treinta centesimal (30 C, con la cual se observaron los resultados propuestos sobre la garrapata, se hace un segundo conteo de garrapatas con los mismos tamaños para verificar la efectividad de la segunda potencia; veinticinco días después de la administración, se hizo un último conteo de garrapatas con los mismos tamaños con los cuales se partió. Se utilizó la técnica experimental de doble ciego para obtener datos más veraces. El estudio estadístico se realizó por la técnica de análisis operacional de varianza de dos factores con varias muestras por grupo; los recuentos de garrapatas se trasformaron a la expresión logarítmica: t = Log 10 (X+1, donde X es el recuento de

  5. Identification of Tropomyosin and Its Immunological Properties from Larvae of Cattle Tick, Boophilus Annulatus

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    S Nabian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. The aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation.Methods: Immune sera against tick were collected from experimentally infested cattle with ticks. One and two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western blotting methods were used for the detection of immunogenic proteins in larval tick extract and eight of these proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry.Results: In non-reducing one-dimensional SDS- PAGE, some bounds between 12 to more than 250-kDa appeared. In two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, numerous spot appeared and the identified immuno­genic proteins by parallel immunoblotting weighted between 14 and 97 kDa. Amino acid sequences of protein spot with 37-kDa molecular weight had identity to tropomyosin based on Mas­cot search in NCBI.Conclusion: Anti tropomyosin antibodies can be induced in experimentally infested hosts with ticks and it seems that tropomyosin can be useful for the development of anti tick vaccines.

  6. Caracterização do controle de Haematobia irritans e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais Characterization of Haematobia irritans and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control in Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa N. Domingues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle eficaz de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (carrapato-do-boi é um fator crucial à maior rentabilidade da pecuária brasileira, porém ainda constitui-se um desafio. Um maior conhecimento das práticas adotadas no combate destes parasitos faz-se necessário para que se possam estruturar estratégias de controle mais próximas da realidade do produtor rural e mais fáceis de serem executadas. Este estudo caracterizou, através de entrevistas, as práticas adotadas no controle desses ectoparasitos em 23 propriedades da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais. A maioria dos entrevistados reconheceu a importância desses parasitos para a atividade pecuária, entretanto, diversos problemas relativos ao controle parasitário foram observados. O controle da mosca-dos-chifres e do carrapato-do-boi era uma prática rotineira em, respectivamente, 17,4% e 95,7% das propriedades, geralmente realizado em função de elevado grau de infestação dos animais. Mais de seis aplicações de ectoparasiticidas eram realizadas por ano em todas as propriedades que empregavam tratamentos para o controle da mosca e em 76,5% daquelas que combatiam o carrapato. Os produtos eram aplicados principalmente com bombas costais manuais (63,6% e sem a contenção dos animais em 45,5% das propriedades. A diluição dos produtos segundo recomendações dos fabricantes era realizada por 45,4% dos entrevistados, porém, 63,6% aplicavam um volume de solução por animal menor do que o tecnicamente recomendado. Utilizava-se principalmente a associação de piretróides e organofosforados para o controle de ambos os parasitos. Apesar de utilizar rotineiramente ectoparasiticidas, o uso de equipamento de proteção individual (EPI não era comum entre os entrevistados. A maioria dos entrevistados conhecia algumas características epidemiológicas dos parasitos, entretanto, o controle parasitário adotado na

  7. Expressed gene sequences from adult ovary and adult female gut genes over-expressed upon Babesia bovis infection of Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boophilus ticks are vectors of Babesia bovis, the protozoan causative agent of cattle fever, a disease which is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America and Australia. We utilized subtractive cDNA library synthesis techniques to o...

  8. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana: A New Potential Agent to Control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, a Cattle Tick of Veterinary Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Miguita; Carolina da Silva Barbosa; Lidilhone Hamerski; Ulana Chaves Sarmento; José Nicácio do Nascimento; Walmir Silva Garcez; Fernanda Rodrigues Garcez

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of Guarea kunthiana fruits, guided by their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus—a major economic problem to the livestock industry worldwide—led to isolation of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol, a new protolimonoid, from the bioactive hexane phase obtained by partitioning the crude ethanol extract. An adult immersion test was performed. The compound strongly inhibited egg-laying and hatchability (99.2% effect...

  9. [Molecular analysis of the antigenic sequence (SBm7462®) from Bm86 of the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and similarity with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peconick, Ana P; Sossai, Sidimar; Medeiros, Carla L; Carvalho, Gabriel D; Vargas, Marlene I; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2008-09-01

    The vaccination represents optimum method evaluated with effective cost to prevent economic losses and to increase the duration and quality of life of the production animals. . Diverse vaccines are produced from the intestinal protein Bm86 of the Rhipicephalus. (B.) microplus. The knowledge of the conservation of the gene bm86 is very important to evaluate the vaccine efficiency and the possibility of reaction crossed between different species of ticks. Samples of R. (B.) microplus come from different localities had been sequenced. The analyses of multiple alignments of the sequences had been made through the BioEdit program 7.0.5.3 version and the verification of polymorphism for visual inspection. In this work the alignment of all was become fulfilled sequences using itself BLAST in the search for similarity. Similarity was observed enters the sequenced fragments of R. (B.) microplus with the sequence of the protein Rs86 de Rhipicephalus sanguineus and with protein HA98 of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. The results give molecular support to synthetic the vaccine use based in the gene bm86 (SBm7462®) to be used in different species of ticks. PMID:20059809

  10. Acaricidal effects of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) and a combination of fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), administered at different routes, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian G; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Ruivo, Maycon A; Alcantara Colli, Marcos Henrique; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Martinez, Antonio Campanha; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg), administered as a pour-on, in comparison to an injectable formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in naturally and experimentally infested cattle. Two studies were conducted with different tick strains, one with artificial infestations (Stall Test, using leight animals per group) and one with natural infestations (utilizing ten animals per group). In both studies, the animals were randomized, according to average tick counts performed on days -3, -2 and -1, into four groups: T01, negative control (saline solution); T02, pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg); T03: subcutaneous fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg); and T04 subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Based on obtained results, and considering the utilized tick strains, it was possible to conclude that the pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) formulation demonstrated high acaricidal efficacy, with protection periods ranging from 49 to 77 days against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. On the other hand, for the injectable fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg) formulation, it was not possible to observe elevated anti-R. (B.) microplus effect on both artificial and experimental infestation studies. Results observed for this combination were similar or inferior to those obtained by subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Future studies with this formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), regarding pharmacokinetic and/or bioavailability profiles, or even studies analyzing both this active principles separately, are needed, seeking to better understand the effects of such combination against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle. PMID:25728230

  11. A Mitochondrial Membrane Exopolyphosphatase Is Modulated by, and Plays a Role in, the Energy Metabolism of Hard Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Embryos

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    Carlos Logullo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The physiological roles of polyphosphates (polyP recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the relationship between the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase (PPX and the energy metabolism of hard tick Rhipicephalus microplus embryos are investigated. Mitochondrial respiration was activated by adenosine diphosphate using polyP as the only source of inorganic phosphate (Pi and this activation was much greater using polyP3 than polyP15. After mitochondrial subfractionation, most of the PPX activity was recovered in the membrane fraction and its kinetic analysis revealed that the affinity for polyP3 was 10 times stronger than that for polyP15. Membrane PPX activity was also increased in the presence of the respiratory substrate pyruvic acid and after addition of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Furthermore, these stimulatory effects disappeared upon addition of the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor potassium cyanide and the activity was completely inhibited by 20 µg/mL heparin. The activity was either increased or decreased by 50% upon addition of dithiothreitol or hydrogen peroxide, respectively, suggesting redox regulation. These results indicate a PPX activity that is regulated during mitochondrial respiration and that plays a role in adenosine-5’-triphosphate synthesis in hard tick embryos.

  12. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry. PMID:26359641

  13. Molecular analysis of Boophilus spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) tick strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, J; García-García, J C; González, D M; Izquierdo, G; Ochagavia, M E

    2000-10-01

    Boophilus spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitize cattle and other farm and wild animals in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Ticks belonging to the genus Boophilus have undergone evolutionary processes associated with habitat adaptation following biogeographical separation, resulting in strains with marked morphological differences. We have characterized at the molecular level B. microplus strains from Latin America and Australia, employing sequences derived from the bm86 coding region, an intron located within the bm86 gene, and DNA short tandem repeats (STR). A B. annulatus strain was employed for comparison. The results indicated that variation within the bm86 coding region is higher between B. microplus strains than between some B. microplus strains and B. annulatus. The sequence of the intron was not informative for phylogenetic analysis, varying among individuals of the same strain. Two STRs were identified in B. microplus (STRs BmM1 and BmM2) and one in B. annulatus (STR Ba1). Southern hybridization experiments with STRs BmM1 and BmM2 as a probe revealed the prevalence of dispersed moderately repeated DNA in the genome of B. microplus. The analysis of polymorphism at STR locus BmM1 evidenced differences within and between populations of B. microplus. These results support at the molecular level the existing differences between B. microplus strains and suggest tools to characterize these populations. PMID:10962158

  14. Acaricidal activity of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantea against Rhipicephalus microplus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sampath Marimuthu; Moorthy Iyappan; Chinnadurai Siva; Loganathan Karthik; Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Arivarasan Vishnu Kirthi; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Kanayairam Velayutham; Asokan Bagavan; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acaricidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) synthesized from flower aqueous extract of Calotropis gigantea (C. gigantea) against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus [R. (B.) microplus] and the adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa (H. bispinosa). Methods: The lyophilized C. gigantea flower aqueous extract of 50 mg was added with 100 mL of TiO(OH)2 (10 mM) and magnetically stirred for 6 h. Synthesized TiO2 NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The synthesised TiO2 NPs were tested against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus and adult of H. bispinosa were exposed to filter paper impregnated method. Results:XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles with the mean size of 10.52 nm. The functional groups for synthesized TiO2 NPs were 1 405.19, and 1 053.45 cm-1 for-NH2 bending, primary amines and amides and 1 053.84 and 1 078.45 cm-1 for C-O. SEM micrographs of the synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the aggregated and spherical in shape. The maximum efficacy was observed in the aqueous flower extract of C. gigantea and synthesized TiO2 NPs against R. (B.) microplus (LC50=24.63 and 5.43 mg/L and r2=0.960 and 0.988) and against H. bispinosa (LC50=35.22 and 9.15 mg/L and r2=0.969 and 0.969), respectively. Conclusions: The synthesized TiO2 NPs were highly stable and had significant acaricidal activity against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus and adult of H. bispinosa. This study provides the first report of synthesized TiO2 NPs and possessed excellent anti-parasitic activity.

  15. Comparison of efficiency and reproductive aptitude indexes between a reference and field strains of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, in Sinaloa, Mexico Comparação dos índices de eficiência e aptidão reprodutiva entre uma cepa de referência e outra de campo do carrapato do gado, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, em Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soila Gaxiola-Camacho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the reproductive behavior of two strains of R. (B. microplus, one wild-caught (Native and one reference strain (Media Joya for two years, measuring the reproductive efficiency index (REI and reproductive aptitude index (RAI. Engorged ticks from each strain were collected monthly from February 2002 to February 2004. These were weighed and kept in the laboratory until egg-laying. Oogenic masses were individually weighed and incubated until larvae emergence. REI and RAI were calculated from each sample, grouping ticks by weight in 100 mg range classes. An analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple rank tests were carried out on the data (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a conduta reprodutiva de duas cepas de R. (B. microplus, uma coletada no campo (Nativa e outra de referência (Média Jóia, por dois anos, calculando o índice de eficiência reprodutiva (REI e o índice de aptidão reprodutiva (RAI. Foram coletados mensalmente carrapatos fêmeas engurgitadas de cada cepa no período de Fevereiro de 2002 a Fevereiro de 2004. Estas foram pesadas e conservadas no laboratório até ovipositar. As massas de ovos foram pesadas individualmente e incubadas até a eclosão das larvas. O REI e o RAI foram calculados para cada coleta, agrupando os carrapatos em classe de peso de 100 mg. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e prova de classe múltipla de Duncan (P < 0,05. Foram calculados os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson (P < 0,01 para estimar a associação entre o peso dos carrapatos engurgitados e o peso e número de ovos postos e eclosionados. A cepa Nativa mostrou um peso ao engurgitamento mais alto do que a cepa Média Jóia. Os valores de REI e de RAI em ambas cepas foram similares em todos as classes de peso, mostrando tendência cuadrática na Média Jóia e linear-cuadrática na cepa Nativa (P < 0,05. Ambos os índices por classe de peso no engurgitamento foram sempre mais

  16. Effects of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) and a combination of fluazuron (3.0 mg/kg) + abamectin (0.5 mg/kg) on the reproductive parameters of a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on experimentally infested cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Cruz, André Cayeiro; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-08-01

    The current study assessed the deleterious effects of two formulations of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg fluazuron and a combination of 3.0 mg/kg fluazuron + 0.5 mg/kg abamectin) on the reproductive parameters of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus females that naturally detached from experimentally infested cattle in two experiments. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) showed deleterious effects only on the hatchability percentage in the period of 2-7 post-treatment days of this ectoparasite's engorged females. On the other hand, the fluazuron (3.0 mg/kg) + abamectin (0.5 mg/kg) combination presented harmful effects over reproductive parameters of this tick species. Further studies should be performed with a known tick population (reference susceptible strain) to determine the effect of these formulations on the reproductive parameters and to elucidate if this field population is fluazuron resistant. PMID:24837997

  17. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used ...

  18. Repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against cattle tick larvae (Rhipicephalus australis) when formulated as emulsions and in β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Wei Tsun; Bhandari, Bhesh; Jackson, Louise; James, Peter

    2016-07-30

    Rhipicephalus australis (formerly Boophilus microplus) is a one host tick responsible for major economic loss in tropical and subtropical cattle production enterprises. Control is largely dependent on the application of acaricides but resistance has developed to most currently registered chemical groups. Repellent compounds that prevent initial attachment of tick larvae offer a potential alternative to control with chemical toxicants. The repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (TTO) emulsions and two β-cyclodextrin complex formulations, a slow release form (SR) and a modified faster release form (FR), were examined in a series of laboratory studies. Emulsions containing 4% and 5% TTO applied to cattle hair in laboratory studies completely repelled ascending tick larvae for 24h whereas 2% and 3% formulations provided 80% protection. At 48h, 5% TTO provided 78% repellency but lower concentrations repelled less than 60% of larvae. In a study conducted over 15 days, 3% TTO emulsion applied to cattle hair provided close to 100% repellency for 2 days, but then protection fell to 23% by day 15. The FR formulation gave significantly greater repellency than the emulsion and the SR formulation from day 3 until the end of the study (Prepellency at day 3 (99.5%), then decreasing over the period of the study to 49% repellency at day 15. Proof of concept is established for the use of appropriately designed controlled-release formulations to extend the period of repellency provided by TTO against R. australis larvae. PMID:27369582

  19. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement of... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation...

  20. Virulence of Isaria sp. and Purpureocillium lilacinum to Rhipicephalus microplus tick under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Isabele C; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Bahiense, Thiago C; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Golo, Patricia S; Moraes, Ana Paula R; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2012-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) is an ectoparasite accountable for great economic losses. The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control arthropods has shown promising responses. The present study evaluated the virulence of Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fr., Isaria fumosorosea (Wize) Brown and Smith, and Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) (Thom.) Samson to engorged females, eggs, and larvae of R. microplus. There were four treatment groups (10(5), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) conidia ml(-1)) and the control group (water and Tween 80, 0.1% v/v). The treatment was based on immersion of the specimen in 1 ml of the suspension or control solution. The study observed changes in egg viability and larval mortality after treatment. The results showed that I. farinosa, P. lilacinum, and I. fumosorosea caused alterations in the biological parameters of R. microplus ticks. I. fumosorosea presented the greatest potential to control R. microplus engorged females in vitro, causing a 49% decrease in nutritional index. All fungal isolates presented significant reduction in the egg production index. I. farinosa reduced the hatching percentage if the eggs were treated with the two highest conidial concentrations. All conidial concentrations of I. fumosorosea were able to reduce the hatching percentage significantly. All tested isolates showed pathogenicity toward unfed R. microplus larvae. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the effect in vitro of I. farinosa, I. fumosorosea, and P. lilacinum to different developmental stages of R. microplus ticks. PMID:22710525

  1. Acaricide activity in vitro of Acmella oleracea against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, K N C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L C; Leite, J R S A; Santos, R C; Paz Neto, A A; Costa-Júnior, L M

    2014-10-01

    Cattle tick control has been limited by the resistance of these parasites to synthetic acaricides. Natural products are a possible alternative as they have different mechanisms of action. Acmella oleracea is a native plant with a large cultivated area in the Amazon region and could be easily used for large-scale preparation of a commercial product. This study evaluated the in vitro action of the hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea on larvae and engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Spilanthol was the major constituent with a content of 14.8% in the extract. The hexane extract of A. oleracea was highly effective against larvae of R. microplus with an LC50 of 0.8 mg mL(-1). Against engorged females, hexane extract of A. oleracea reduced oviposition and hatchability of eggs with an LC50 of 79.7 mg mL(-1). Larvae and engorged females were killed by the hexane extract with high efficiency (>95%) at concentrations of 3.1 and 150.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the hexane extract of A. oleracea has significant activity against R. microplus and has potential to be developed into formulations for tick control. PMID:25033813

  2. A revision of two distinct species of Rhipicephalus: R. microplus and R. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus species are monoxenous ticks with seasonal distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. For many years, Rhipicephalus microplus was considered as a single species; however, further analysis split these ticks into two distinct species. Because R. microplus and R. australis share similar attributes, it is hard to discriminate these two species and explain the changes in the classification of these parasites over the past decades. The reappearance of R. australis is an outcome of new research, which has afforded to better characterize these probably cryptic species. Evidence based on morphological features, the lack of conspecificity, microsatellite markers, mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal DNA, and mitochondrial genome supports the re-classification of R. microplus as different species. Therefore, populations of R. microplus from Australia, Cambodia, Philippines, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Borneo, New Guinea, Tahiti and parts of Southeast Asia were recently reinstated as R. australis . Moreover, a better knowledge on the speciation between these two species could pave the way to important advances in tick control strategies.

  3. Lesser protein degradation machinery correlates with higher BM86 tick vaccine efficacy in Rhipicephalus annulatus when compared to Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popara, Marina; Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; de Mera, Isabel G Fernández; Marina, Anabel; del Valle, Mercedes; Almazán, Consuelo; Domingos, Ana; de la Fuente, José

    2013-10-01

    Infestations with cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus, economically impact cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Vaccines containing the recombinant R. microplus BM86 gut antigen were developed and commercialized to induce an immunological protection in cattle against tick infestations. These vaccines demonstrated that tick control by vaccination is cost-effective, reduces environmental contamination and prevents the selection of drug resistant ticks that result from repeated acaricide applications. The protection elicited by BM86-containing vaccines against tick infestations is mediated by a collaborative action between the complement system and IgG antibodies. The efficacy of the vaccination with BM86 and other tick antigens is always higher for R. annulatus than against R. microplus, suggesting that tick genetic and/or physiological factors may affect tick vaccine efficacy. These factors may be related to BM86 protein levels or tick physiological processes such as feeding and protein degradation that could result in more efficient antibody-antigen interactions and vaccine efficacy. To test this hypothesis, we compared the proteome in R. annulatus and R. microplus female ticks after feeding on BM86-vaccinated and control cattle. The results showed that cattle proteins were under represented in R. annulatus when compared to R. microplus, suggesting that R. annulatus ticks ingested less blood, a difference that increased when feeding on vaccinated cattle, probably reflecting the effect of antibody-BM86 interactions on this process. The results also showed that tick protein degradation machinery was under represented in R. annulatus when compared to R. microplus. BM86 mRNA and protein levels were similar in both tick species, suggesting that lesser protease activity in R. annulatus results in more efficient antibody-antigen interactions and higher vaccine efficacy. These results have important

  4. Histoarchitecture of the Ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus during Pre- and Postengorgement Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelekha Kanapadinchareveetil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B. annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B. microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium.

  5. A simulation study of the effects of acaricides and vaccination on Boophilus cattle-tick populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodos, J; Ochagavia, M E; Rodriguez, M; De La Fuente, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation model to evaluate different control strategies for Boophilus microplus. The model combines a dynamic life-history module for tick-population dynamics with other modules for vaccination, sterile-hybrid larval release and use of acaricide dipping vats. The tick life-history module considers the cattle's nutritional level and allows for distribution of ticks by age at all stages of growth. Appropriately, the model was sensitive to host resistance and to host-nutritional status. The validity of the life-history module--as well as that of the vaccination and acaricide dipping--vats modules--was demonstrated by comparing simulated and real data for several geographical locations in Cuba and Brazil. Optimum tick-control strategies for the first year of vaccination were designed and the effect of long-term vaccination on tick population was also studied. PMID:10022052

  6. Vaccination against ticks (Boophilus spp.): the experience with the Bm86-based vaccine Gavac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Montero, C; Redondo, M; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enríquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R

    1999-11-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant B. microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. Our vaccine formulation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) has been registered and is commercially available in Cuba, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Brazil and Mexico. In controlled pen trials, Gavac has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus and chemical-sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America and Iran. In controlled field trials in Cuba, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, Gavac has shown a 55-100% efficacy in the control of B. microplus infestations in grazing cattle 12-36 weeks after the first vaccination. Field trials under production conditions have been conducted in Cuba, Colombia, Brazil and Mexico in pure and cross-bred cattle herds. The application of Gavac has increased the time between acaricide treatments by an average of 32 /-21 days (P = 0.0005) resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. In Cuba, a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in more than 260000 animals. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number of acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of 23.4 dollars animal(-1) year (-1). These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations. PMID:10596754

  7. Vaccination of cattle with TickGARD induces cross-reactive antibodies binding to conserved linear peptides of Bm86 homologues in Boophilus decoloratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, David; Kamau, Lucy; Skilton, Robert; Mwaura, Stephen; Nitsch, Cordula; Musoke, Anthony; Taracha, Evans; Daubenberger, Claudia; Bishop, Richard

    2007-01-26

    Vaccines based on recombinant Bm86 gut antigen from Boophilus microplus are a useful component of integrated control strategies against B. microplus infestations of cattle. The capacity of such vaccines to control heterologous infestations by two African tick species was investigated. The mean weight of engorged female ticks and mean egg mass per tick were significantly reduced in B. decoloratus infestations, but there was no effect of the vaccine against adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. We cloned, sequenced and expressed two Bm86 homologues (Bd86) from B. decoloratus. Amino acid sequence identity between Bd86 homologues (Bd86-1 and Bd86-2) and Bm86 was 86% and 85%, respectively, compared to 93% identity between the variants. Native Bd86 protein in B. decoloratus tick mid-gut sections and recombinant Bd86-1 reacted strongly with sera from TickGARD vaccinated cattle. TickGARD can therefore protect against a heterologous tick species with multiple antigen sequences. Epitope mapping using sera from TickGARD-vaccinated cattle identified two linear peptides conserved between the Bd86 homologues and Bm86. These epitopes represent candidate synthetic peptide vaccines for control of Boophilus spp. and the pathogens transmitted by these tick vectors. PMID:17070625

  8. Acaricidal activity of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantea against Rhipicephalus microplus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sampath; Marimuthu; Abdul; Abdul; Rahuman; Chidambaram; Jayaseelan; Arivarasan; Vishnu; Kirthi; Thirunavukkarasu; Santhoshkumar; Kanayairam; Velayutham; Asokan; Bagavan; Chinnaperumal; Kamaraj; Gandhi; Elango; Moorthy; Iyappan; Chinnadurai; Siva; Loganathan; Karthik; Kokati; Venkata; Bhaskara; Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the acaricidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles(TiO2 NPs)synthesized from flower aqueous extract of Calotropis gigantea(C.gigantea)against the larvae of Rhipicephalus(Boophilus)microplus[R.(B.)microplus]and the adult of Haemaphrysalis bispinosa(H.bispinosa).Methods:The lyophilized C.gigantea flower aqueous extract of 50 mg was added with 100 mL of TiO(OH2)(10 mM)and magnetically stirred for 6 h.Synthesized TiO2 NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD).Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),Scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX).The synthesised TiO2 NPs were tested against the larvae of R(B.)microplus and adult of H.bispinosa were exposed to filter paper impregnated method.Results:XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles with the mean size of 10.52 nm.The functional groups for synthesized TiO2NPs were 1405.19,and 1053.45 cm-1for-NH2 bending,primary amines and amides and 1053.84and 1078.45 cm-1for C-O.SEM micrographs of the synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the aggregated and spherical in shape.The maximum efficacy was observed in the aqueous flower extract of C.gigantea and synthesized TiO2 NPs against R.(B.)microplus(LC50=24.63 and 5.43 mg/L and r2=0.960 and 0.988)and against H.bispinosa(LC50=35.22 and 9.15 mg/L and r2=0.969 and 0.969).respectively.Conclusions:The synthesized TiO2 NPs were highly stable and had significant acaricidal activity against the larvae of R.(B.)microplus and adult of H.bispinosa.This study provides the first report of synthesized TiO2 NPs and possessed excellent anti-parasitic activity.

  9. EFICACIA DE LA MEZCLA DE DOS CEPAS DE Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) PARA EL CONTROL DE Rhipicephalus microplus EN INFESTACIONES NATURALES EN BOVINOS

    OpenAIRE

    Uriel Jesús Rodríguez-Alcocer; Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi; Edelmira Galindo-Velasco; Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de Metarhizium anisopliae para el control de Rhipicephalus microplus en ganado bovino infestado naturalmente. El estudio se realizó en una unidad de producción de ganado bovino ubicada en el trópico Mexicano. Se formaron dos grupos de 10 bovinos basado en el número de garrapatas R. microplus adultas y fases juveniles (larvas y ninfas). Los animales del grupo tratado (promedio de 73.4 y 27.5 garrapatas adultas y juveniles respectivamente...

  10. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. PMID:23084038

  11. Nuclear glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3) in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is recognized as a key component of a large number of cellular processes and diseases. Several mechanisms play a part in controlling the actions of GSK3, including phosphorylation, protein complex formation, and subcellular distribution. Recent observations point to functions for phosphorylases several transcription factors in the nucleus. Also, GSK3b participate of the canonical W nt signalling pathway, which has been studied intensively in embryonic and cancer cells. Like in many other signaling pathways, most components in W nt signal transduction were highly conserved during the evolution. More than 40 proteins have been reported to be phosphorylated by GSK3, including over a dozen transcription factors. Although the mechanisms regulating GSK3 are not fully understood, precise control appears to be achieved by a combination of phosphorylation, localization, and interactions with GSK3-binding proteins. Although GSK3 is traditionally considered a cytosolic protein, it is also present in nuclei. Nuclear GSK3 is particularly interesting because of the many transcription factors that it regulates enabling GSK3 to influence many signaling pathways that converge on these transcription factors, thereby regulating the expression of many genes. Our group identified that GSK-3 β could be detected in different stage eggs of R. micro plus. In this work we detected the GSK-3 in isolated nuclear fraction from the egg homogenates of R. micro plus by western-blot analysis, using anti-GSK- 3 β antibodies. The enzyme activity was also detected radiochemically throughout embryogenesis in same fraction. The GSK-3 activity was inhibiting by using SB 216763 (selective molecule inhibitors of GSK-3). Taken together our results suggest that GSK-3 β isoform probably is involved in gene transcription factors during R. micro plus embryo development

  12. Reproductive and safety assessment of vaccination with Gavac against the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, O; Redondo, M; Montero, C; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-06-01

    Recent developments in cattle tick control have incorporated the use of recombinant Bm86 vaccines against this ectoparasite. The vaccine developed by our group (Gavac) contains an antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris, and has been successfully employed for the control of tick infestations and transmission of tick-borne diseases. Here, we examined the safety and effect of the Gavac vaccine on reproductive parameters in cattle. Toxicity tests in mice and guinea pigs demonstrated the safety of Gavac. To study the adverse effects of vaccination on reproduction, a field trial involving 9,500 animals in Cuba was conducted. The cattle at 3 farms were vaccinated while those on a fourth farm were left unvaccinated and served as the control. Following vaccination, the control of tick infestation and the transmission of babesiosis were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the vaccine. No adverse effects were observed in any of the reproductive parameters studied when comparing the data before and after vaccination with Gavac and between the vaccinated farms and the control farm. These results demonstrate that under the conditions of our study vaccination with Gavac is safe for use on cattle. PMID:10729081

  13. Cloning and expression of a protective antigen from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rand, K N; Moore, T.; Sriskantha, A; Spring, K; Tellam, R; P. Willadsen; Cobon, G S

    1989-01-01

    Glycoproteins located on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of tick gut epithelial cells, when used to vaccinate cattle, are capable of stimulating an immune response that protects cattle against subsequent tick infestation. One such tick gut glycoprotein, designated Bm86, has been purified to homogeneity and the amino acid sequences of peptide fragments generated by endoproteinase Lys-C digestion have been determined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a cDNA that e...

  14. Analysis of Babesia bovis-induced gene expression changes in the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world's tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite ...

  15. Nuclear glycogen synthase kinase-3 {beta} (GSK-3) in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzingen, Leticia; Andrade, Josiana G. de; Logullo, Carlos [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, Caroline P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is recognized as a key component of a large number of cellular processes and diseases. Several mechanisms play a part in controlling the actions of GSK3, including phosphorylation, protein complex formation, and subcellular distribution. Recent observations point to functions for phosphorylases several transcription factors in the nucleus. Also, GSK3b participate of the canonical W nt signalling pathway, which has been studied intensively in embryonic and cancer cells. Like in many other signaling pathways, most components in W nt signal transduction were highly conserved during the evolution. More than 40 proteins have been reported to be phosphorylated by GSK3, including over a dozen transcription factors. Although the mechanisms regulating GSK3 are not fully understood, precise control appears to be achieved by a combination of phosphorylation, localization, and interactions with GSK3-binding proteins. Although GSK3 is traditionally considered a cytosolic protein, it is also present in nuclei. Nuclear GSK3 is particularly interesting because of the many transcription factors that it regulates enabling GSK3 to influence many signaling pathways that converge on these transcription factors, thereby regulating the expression of many genes. Our group identified that GSK-3 {beta} could be detected in different stage eggs of R. micro plus. In this work we detected the GSK-3 in isolated nuclear fraction from the egg homogenates of R. micro plus by western-blot analysis, using anti-GSK- 3 {beta} antibodies. The enzyme activity was also detected radiochemically throughout embryogenesis in same fraction. The GSK-3 activity was inhibiting by using SB 216763 (selective molecule inhibitors of GSK-3). Taken together our results suggest that GSK-3 {beta} isoform probably is involved in gene transcription factors during R. micro plus embryo development.

  16. Immunity against Boophilus annulatus induced by the Bm86 (Tick-GARD) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipano, Eugene; Alekceev, Eugene; Galker, Felicia; Fish, Lea; Samish, Michael; Shkap, Varda

    2003-01-01

    Friesian cattle were immunized with two inoculations of anti-tick Bm86 (Tick-GARD) vaccine and were challenged 30 or 90 d later with Boophilus annulatus larvae derived from 1.2 g of eggs. No nymphs or adult ticks were found on the immunized cattle during four weeks after challenge. Repeated infestations (2 to 4) with larvae on three other calves during a period of 160 and 390 d after the immunization did not result in development of nymphal and adult stages. In control, non-immunized cattle infested with corresponding batches of larvae 1380 to 4653 replete adult female ticks were collected. Larvae issued from Babesia bovis-infected female ticks transmitted the infection to Bm86-immunized cattle, but the progeny of B. bigemina-infected females did not. Since B. bigemina is transmitted exclusively by nymphal stages of Bo. annulatus these results support the observation that immunity induced by Bm86 affects the larval stage of this tick. PMID:14580066

  17. Exploring the use of an anti-tick vaccine as a tool for the integrated eradication of the cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Almazán, Consuelo; Allen, Andrew; Jory, Lauren; Yeater, Kathleen; Messenger, Matthew; Ellis, Dee; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2012-08-17

    Bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever, is a tick-borne protozoal disease foreign to the United States. It was eradicated by eliminating the vector species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, through the efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP), with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone (PQZ) in south Texas along the border with Mexico. Keeping the U.S. free of cattle fever ticks in a sustainable manner is a critical national agricultural biosecurity issue. The efficacy of a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine commercialized outside of the U.S. was evaluated against a strain of R. annulatus originated from an outbreak in Texas. Vaccination controlled 99.9 and 91.4% of the ticks 8 weeks and 5.5 months after the initial vaccination, respectively. Computer modeling of habitat suitability within the PQZ typically at risk of re-infestation with R. annulatus from Mexico predicted that at a level of control greater than 40%, eradication would be maintained indefinitely. Efficacy and computer modeling data indicate that the integration of vaccination using a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine with standard eradication practices within the northwestern half of the PQZ could incentivize producers to maintain cattle on pasture thereby avoiding the need to vacate infested premises. Implementing this epidemiologically proactive strategy offers the opportunity to prevent R. annulatus outbreaks in the U.S., which would represent a significant shift in the way the CFTEP operates. PMID:22687762

  18. Humoral immune response of dairy cattle immunized with rBm95 (KU-VAC1) derived from Thai Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapalapong, S; Kaewhom, P; Kengradomkij, C; Saratapan, N; Canales, M; de la Fuente, J; Stich, R W

    2010-04-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an important cause of economic losses in Thailand through direct effects of feeding on cattle and pathogen transmission. Current tick control methods rely on expensive chemical acaricides that result in environmental contamination, residues in food animal products and acaricide-resistant ticks. Anti-tick vaccines based on concealed antigens have shown promising results in the control of cattle tick. Thus, recombinant Bm95 (rBm95) from Thai R. microplus (KU-VAC1) was cloned and expressed to test as an anti-tick vaccine in Thailand. The objective of this study was to compare antibody responses induced by KU-VAC1 to that obtained after vaccination with Gavac that is based on the Bm86 homologue. Four groups of six cattle each were immunized with KU-VAC1, Gavac, adjuvant or phosphate-buffered saline, and boosted three times at 21-day intervals. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay were used to measure the humoral antibody responses specific to Thai rBm95. Cattle immunized with either KU-VAC1 or Gavac showed significantly greater antibody production than the controls. Antibody titres were detected after the first immunization and peaked after the seventh week. These results indicated that KU-VAC1 and Gavac are similarly immunogenic, and that further studies are warranted to compare performance parameters of ticks fed on immunized cattle. PMID:20537117

  19. The effects of a pour-on formulation of fluazuron 2.5 % and flumethrin 1 % on populations of Rhipicephalus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus microplus both on and off bovine (Bonsmara breed) hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Liebenberg, Julian E; Nyangiwe, Nnkululeko; Austin, Clinton; Horak, Ivan G; Bhushan, Chandra

    2013-08-01

    The present study demonstrated the efficacy of a pour-on formulation of fluazuron 2.5 % and flumethrin 1 % (Drastic Deadline eXtreme®) against Rhipicephalus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus microplus on cattle on pasture previously grazed by experimentally infested animals. Six tick-free cattle were placed on the pasture and treated 7 days later (Day 0) with the pour-on. They were retreated on Days 63, 126 and 189 and monthly tick counts were done. Mean numbers of adult R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus decreased from 53 and 14 on Days 56 and 112 respectively to 2 or less on all other occasions including Day 254. Compared to the numbers of R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus larvae collected from vegetation in the previous year, larval numbers declined by 40.7 % on Day 28, and thereafter reduction remained between 84 % and 100 %. Pairs of tracer calves placed on the pasture for 7 days each month were then held in pens and adult ticks that detached collected. Reduction in the numbers of R. decoloratus collected from tracer animals was 75 % on Day 56 and remained above 93 % except for Day 224 when it temporarily decreased to 78.5 %. Reduction in the numbers of R. microplus was 97.5 % on Day 28 and remained above 98 % until the conclusion of the study on Day 254. Treatment with the pour-on formulation of fluazuron and flumethrin resulted in a marked decrease in the numbers of R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus on treated cattle followed by a reduction in the numbers of larvae questing on the vegetation and ticks picked up by tracer calves. No other potential host species for R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus were present in the camps. PMID:23749085

  20. Bm86 antigen induces a protective immune response against Boophilus microplus following DNA and protein vaccination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, R; McKenna, R V; Cobon, G; Tennent, J; Zakrzewski, H; Gale, K; Wood, P R; Scheerlinck, J P; Willadsen, P

    1999-11-30

    Vaccination of sheep with a plasmid bearing the full length gene for the tick antigen Bm86 either alone or co-administered with plasmid carrying the ovine genes for the cytokines, granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin (IL)-1beta induced a relatively low level of protection against subsequent tick infestation. This tick damage reached statistical significance only for the groups which were vaccinated with plasmid encoding for Bm86, co-administered with plasmid encoding for ovine GM-CSF. Antibody titres measured against Bm86 were also low in all groups injected with the Bm86 DNA vaccine. Antibody production and anti-tick effect were significantly less than that achieved by two vaccinations with recombinant Bm86 protein. In all cases only a low level of antigen-specific stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was recorded, as measured either by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine or the release of IFN-gamma. Injection of DNA encoding for Bm86, either alone or with co-administered cytokine genes, did however prime for a strong subsequent antibody response following a single injection of recombinant Bm86 protein in adjuvant. Antibody production nevertheless appeared to be slightly less effective than following two vaccinations with recombinant protein. The persistence of antibody following vaccination was the same regardless of the method of primary sensitization. In all cases the half-life of the antibody response was approximately 40-50 days indicating that, in contrast to results reported in mice, DNA vaccination in sheep did not result in sustained antibody production. PMID:10587297

  1. Persistently Infected Calves as Reservoirs for Acquisition and Transovarial Transmission of Babesia bovis by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babesia bovis is a deadly disease of cattle resulting in severe economic losses in the vast regions of the world where it is endemic. If re-introduced into the United States, babesiosis would cause significant mortality in the naïve cattle population. In order to address the risk to U.S. cattle, i...

  2. Ixodid ticks of traditionally managed cattle in central Nigeria: where Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus does not dare (yet?)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorusso, Vincenzo; Picozzi, Kim; de Bronsvoort, Barend Mc; Majekodunmi, Ayodele; Dongkum, Charles; Balak, Gyang; Igweh, Augustine; Welburn, Susan C

    2013-01-01

    Background Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central Nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically. Methods The study was carried out in September 2010 in 9 villages belonging to three neighbouring local government areas in Plateau ...

  3. First report of fluazuron resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus: a field tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, José; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Webster, Anelise; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Scheffer, Ramon; Souza, Ugo Araújo; Corassini, Vivian Bamberg; Vargas, Rafael; dos Santos, Julsan Silveira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza

    2014-03-17

    The control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is based mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, which has contributed to the emerging problem of selection of resistant tick populations. Currently, there are six main classes of acaricides commercially available in Brazil to control cattle ticks, with fluazuron, a tick growth regulator with acaricidal properties, being the only active ingredient with no previous reports of resistance. Ticks (designated the Jaguar strain) were collected in a beef cattle ranch located at Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil, after a complaint of fluazuron treatment failure. To characterise the resistance of this strain against acaricides, larval tests were performed and showed that the Jaguar strain was resistant to all of the drugs tested: cypermethrin (resistance ratio, RR=31.242), chlorpyriphos (RR=103.926), fipronil (RR=4.441), amitraz (RR=11.907) and ivermectin (3.081). A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fluazuron treatment in heifers that had been experimentally infested with the Jaguar or a susceptible strain. Between 14 and 28 days after treatment, the average efficacy in cattle experimentally infested with the susceptible strain was 96%, while for the Jaguar strain the efficacy was zero. Additionally, the Jaguar strain response to fluazuron was evaluated in vitro using a modified adult immersion test (AIT) and the artificial feeding assay (AFA). With the AIT, 50 ppm of fluazuron inhibited 99% of larvae hatching in the susceptible strain (POA) and less than 50% in the Jaguar strain. Results of the AFA showed a larval hatching rate of 67% at 2.5 ppm of fluazuron with the Jaguar strain; conversely, only 3% of larvae of the susceptible strain hatched at the same fluazuron concentration. The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil. PMID:24560364

  4. The host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. To this end the R. (B. decoloratus burdens of ten buffaloes examined in three north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province (KZN nature reserves were compared with those of medium-sized to large antelope species in these reserves and in the southern Kruger National Park (KNP, Mpumalanga Province. The R. (B. decoloratus burdens of the buffaloes were considerably smaller than those of the antelopes in the KNP, but not those in the KZN reserves. The life-stage structure of the R. (B. decoloratus populations on the buffaloes, in which larvae predominated, was closer to that of this tick on blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, a tick-resistant animal, than to that on other antelopes. A single buffalo examined in the KNP was not infested with R. (B. decoloratus, whereas a giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis, examined at the same locality and time, harboured a small number of ticks. In a nature reserve in Mpumalanga Province adjacent to the KNP, two immobilized buffaloes, from which only adult ticks were collected, were not infested with R. (B. decoloratus, whereas greater kudus, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, examined during the same time of year in the KNP harboured large numbers of adult ticks of this species. African buffaloes would thus appear to be resistant to infestation with R. (B. decoloratus, and this resistance is expressed as the prevention of the majority of tick larvae from developing to nymphs.

  5. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is an important factor on animal resistance to ticks. Rhipicephalus microplus is the most pathogenic cattle tick in Brazil causing death in susceptible animals. Cortisol is the hormone of stress. The influence of grooming on tick infestation and serum cortisol level was studied in 16 Holstein heifers from fifth to eight-month-old. They were infested with 10,000 larvae in June/20/2011. Half of them used a necklace made of wood strips and had an infestation chamber made by cotton cloth covering about 50 cm diameter of the shaved flank, fixed at the skin in both sides with adhesive to prevent larvae to escape from the infestation chamber and the amount of larvae was divided into the two chambers. Such artifacts had the purpose to avoid grooming. The heifers remained all the tick parasitic life cycle in individual pens inside a closed shed at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. Tick females bigger than 4.5 mm were counted in the right side from day 20 to 22 after the artificial infestation. The tick recovery rate was calculated by adding and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that 5,000 female larvae had infested the cattle. Immediately before infestation (day 0 and in day2, day8, and day17 after infestation, blood samples were collected using vacuum tubes, in the morning (8:30 – 10:00 A.M.. Cortisol was measured by immunoassay (EIA and the D.O. (optical density at 420 nm was converted in ng of cortisol/mL of serum sample. The experimental design was randomized with 8 replications. Data from serum cortisol were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using the presence of the artifacts (necklace and chamber and sampling day as independent variables and serum cortisol as the dependent variable. In the analyse of tick recovery rate, the presence of artifacts was the independent variable and tick recovery rate the dependent variable. The presence of

  6. Assessment of bovine immunoprotecion against Rhipicephalus microplus using Bm86-CG antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a major pest of cattle in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In addition to direct effects associated with its obligate parasitic way of life, R. microplus also transmits the pathogens that cause bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Commercially ...

  7. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  8. Rickettsia sp. strain colombianensi (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae): a new proposed Rickettsia detected in Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae) from iguanas and free-living larvae ticks from vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jorge; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A; Mattar, Salim

    2012-07-01

    From January to December 2009, 55 Amblyomma dissimile (Koch) ticks removed from iguanas in the municipality of Monteria and 3,114 ticks [458 Amblyomma sp. larvae, 2,636 Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) larvae and 20 Amblyomma sp. nymphs] collected over vegetation in Los Cordobas were included in the study. The ticks were pooled into groups from which DNA was extracted. For initial screening of Rickettsia sp., each pool was analyzed by gltA real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive pools were further studied using gltA, ompA, and ompB conventional PCR assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were also conducted. Rickettsial DNA was found in 28 pools of ticks (16 A. dissimile pools and 12 free-living larvae pools) out of 113 (24.7%) using real-time PCR. The same 28 pools were also positive using conventional PCR assays aimed to amplify gltA, ompA, and ompB. For each gene analyzed, PCR products obtained from 4/28 pools (two pools of A. dissimile, one pool of Amblyomma sp. larvae and one pool of Rh. microplus larvae) were randomly chosen and sequenced twice. Nucleotide sequences generated were identical to each other for each of the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB, and showed 99.4, 95.6, and 96.4% identity with those of Rickettsia tamurae. They were deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers JF905456, JF905458, and JF905457, respectively. In conclusion, we present the first molecular evidence of a novel Rickettsia (Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi) infecting A. dissimile ticks collected from iguanas, and also Rh. microplus and unspeciated Amblyomma larvae from vegetation in Colombia. PMID:22897060

  9. ANTI-TICK EFFECT OBSERVED IN MATURE PLANTS O TROPICAL LEGUMES Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS CRUZ-VAZQUEZ; MANUEL FERNANDEZ-RUVALCABA; JAIME SOLANO-VERGARA; ZEFERINO GARCIA-VAZQUEZ

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT The anti-tick effect of Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata was evaluated for mature plants on plots experimentally infested with larvae of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Cenchurus ciliaris was used as control grass. The effect was evaluated counting the total number of live tick larvae recovered by the double flannel flag technique from the experimental plots during a four week period. The effect observed in both Stylosanthes species did not show significant differenc...

  10. Extensive larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vandana Rai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans is characterized by tortuous migratory lesions of the skin caused by larvae of nematodes. A 26-year-old fisherman presented to us with complaints of an itchy eruption on his back and arms of two months′ duration. Clinical examination revealed multiple wavy serpentine tracts and fork like lesions with a raised absolute eosinophil count of 3800 cells/cmm. Biopsy was inconclusive. This case is reported to highlight the extensive involvement by larva migrans.

  11. Extensive larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vandana Rai

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans is characterized by tortuous migratory lesions of the skin caused by larvae of nematodes. A 26-year-old fisherman presented to us with complaints of an itchy eruption on his back and arms of two months′ duration. Clinical examination revealed multiple wavy serpentine tracts and fork like lesions with a raised absolute eosinophil count of 3800 cells/cmm. Biopsy was inconclusive. This case is reported to highlight the extensive involvement by larva migrans.

  12. High efficacy of a 20 amino acid peptide of the acidic ribosomal protein P0 against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina; Encinosa, Pedro E; Méndez-Pérez, Lídice; Bello, Yamil; Rodríguez Fernández, Rafmary; Garay, Hilda; Cabrales, Ania; Méndez, Luis; Borroto, Carlos; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Current strategies to control cattle ticks use integrated control programs (ICP) that include vaccination. Reduction in the use of chemicals and in the cost of tick control, the delay or elimination of acaricide resistance and the decreasing of environmental pollution are the advantages of using these programs. This integrated program is potentially applicable to all genotypes of chemical resistant ticks. However, the problem here is to improve the efficacy of anti-tick vaccines. The P0 protein is a structural component of the ribosome of all organisms. We have identified an immunogenic region of ribosomal protein P0 from Rhipicephalus spp. ticks that is not very conserved compared to the orthologous protein in their hosts. A synthetic 20 amino acid peptide from this sequence was effective as a vaccine against Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestations in an immunization and challenge experiment using rabbits. In this paper, the same peptide used as vaccine against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus shows a significant diminution in the number of engorged females recovered, in the weight of females and the weight of egg masses. The number of eggs hatched was also significantly reduced for the vaccinated group, with an overall effectivity for the antigen pP0 of 96%. These results, together with the conserved sequence of the P0 peptide among ticks, suggest that this antigen could be a good broad spectrum vaccine candidate. It would be expected to be active against many species of ticks and thus has promise in an ICP for effective control of ticks and thereby to improve the efficiency and productivity of the livestock industry. PMID:25958782

  13. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  14. VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA DA ADOÇÃO DO CONTROLE ESTRATÉGICO DO CARRAPATO RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (CANESTRINI, 1887 EM REBANHOS BOVINOS LEITEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Monteiro de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade econômica do programa de controle estratégico do carrapato em bovinos leiteiros adotado pela Embrapa Gado de Leite. O programa se fundamenta na racionalização do uso de carrapaticidas com a realização de tratamentos no período em que a população de carrapatos encontra-se reduzida; na escolha do produto mais adequado para o combate da população de carrapatos, por meio da realização de testes de sensibilidade dos carrapatos aos carrapaticidas; e, pela utilização do carrapaticida na diluição recomendada e quantidade suficiente para banhar todo o corpo do animal. O estudo foi realizado junto a 104 produtores rurais, criadores de gado de leite, em 27 municípios da região central e norte do estado de Minas Gerais. As informações foram coletadas por meio de questionário, no período de setembro a novembro de 2010. Constatou-se que em 68% dos rebanhos, a infestação por TPB é a que mais afeta os animais. Por causa desse e outros problemas, 79% dos consultados resolveram aderir ao Programa por recomendação do técnico e outros 70% por causa das altas infestações nos animais. Setenta e nove por cento aderiram e seguiram o Programa, de maneira correta. Nessas fazendas, a maior parte da mão de obra é contratada (46%, o sistema de exploração da atividade leiteira é o semi-intensivo (84%, o padrão racial do rebanho é o cruzamento Girolando (95% e em, 45%, a produção média diária de leite varia entre 40 a 400 litros. Antes da adesão ao Programa, em 89% das propriedades, as vacas lactantes eram as mais afetadas, seguidas de bezerros. Para escolher o carrapaticida, 41% dos produtores baseavam a escolha na indicação do balconista. Após a adesão ao Programa, 94% dos fazendeiros seguiram as orientações repassadas pelos técnicos. O primeiro motivo citado (78% para permanência com o plano de controle foi a credibilidade no teste de sensibilidade dos carrapatos aos acaricidas. Com isso, 90% notaram a diminuição dos ataques pelo parasito, mudando a maneira de realizar os banhos (100% dos produtores. Houve a redução de 57% dos gastos em reais com a compra de carrapaticidas por mês e de 33% da quantidade de tratamentos por ano. Em relação à TPB, houve queda de 60% do número médio de casos e 100% da média do número de mortes em bezerros. Portanto, os resultados indicaram que a adoção do controle estratégico do carrapato em bovinos leiteiros possibilitou a redução das despesas dos produtores com aquisição de carrapaticidas químicos. Além disso, a adoção do controle estratégico possibilitou a redução de prejuízos diretos e indiretos causados pelo carrapato, com reflexos positivos sobre a produção e a qualidade do leite e derivados.

  15. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling tick [Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus] resistance on bovine cjrp,psp,es 5, 7 and 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds have diverged at approximately 10.000 years ago, the differences in the process of domestication and subsequent selection for desired phenotypes is presumed to have contributed the phenotypic and genetic differences between these subspecies. Of particu...

  16. 微小牛蜱Bm86基因的真核表达%Eukaryotic expression of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卉; 任巧云; 罗建勋; 殷宏; 关贵全; 马米玲; 刘志杰; 刘爱红; 党志胜; 高金亮

    2005-01-01

    采用RT-PCR技术从微小牛蜱饥饿幼蜱破解物中扩增到Bm86基因,将其与巴斯德毕赤酵母分泌型表达载体pPIC9K重组构建了重组表达载体pPIC9K-Bm86,测序正确后将其用SacⅠ内切酶线性化后采用电穿孔法转化巴斯德毕赤酵母菌GS115,经G418抗性筛选高拷贝重组菌株后用甲醇诱导表达,SDS-PAGE和Western-blotting分析结果表明,诱导表达的培养上清液中表达出具有反应活性的68 ku重组Bm86蛋白,目的蛋白约占培养上清液中蛋白总量的32%以上,诱导96 h目的蛋白的表达量为0.36 mg/mL.

  17. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks and determination of the expression profile of Bm86

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan Frans; Postigo Milagros; Balk Jesper A; Nijhof Ard M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. In most studies on ticks where (semi-)quantitative RT-PCR is employed, normalization occurs with a single reference gene, usually β-actin, without validation of its presumed expression stability. The first goal of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus ...

  18. Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus intestine protein variants Bm86 Campo Grande strain, Bm86 and Bm95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Renato; Pedroso, Marisela S; Caetano, Alexandre R; Martins, Natália F

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and Gavac, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of potential MHC class-I binding regions in the antigens. Pair-wise alignment revealed that the similarity between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm86 is 0.2% higher than that between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm95 antigens. The identities were 96.5% and 96.3% respectively. Major suggestive differences in hydrophobicity were predicted among the sequences in two specific regions. PMID:18823577

  19. Boophilus microplus: estado actual de la resistencia a los acaricidas en la frontera México Estados Unidos y su impacto en la relación comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ramón González Sáenz Pardo; Rubén Hernández Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda la importancia de las exportaciones de ganado bovino en pie a los Estados Unidos de América, destacando el valor comercial que representa para México la entrada de divisas por 700 millones USD anuales por este concepto. La comercialización de ganado se ve frenada por barreras no arancelarias, tales como la tuberculosis (TB), brucelosis y las garrapatas. Se ha formado un grupo binacional de expertos para tratar estos temas. En el tema de garrapatas se han establecido sistemas de cola...

  20. The penultimate arginine of the carboxy terminus determines slow desensitisation in a P2X receptor from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    P2X ion channels have been functionally characterised from a range of eukaryotes. Whilst these receptors can be broadly classified into fast and slow desensitising, the molecular mechanisms underlying current desensitisation are not fully understood. Here we describe the characterisation of a P2X ch...

  1. Assessing bovine babesiosis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks and 3 to 9-month-old cattle in the middle Magdalena region, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos-Tobón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.

  2. Disseminated Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Kaliaperumal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old male agricultural labourer presented with generalized itchy lesions over the back and extremities of 5 days duration. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple erythematous linear to serpentine lesions (numbering about 40 about 1-2 mm in width and ranging in length from 7 to 9 cm. The patient had eosinophilia and classical skin lesions, which responded very well to albendazole therapy. All these features supported the clinical diagnosis of dissenmintal cutaneous larva migrans.

  3. An integrative approach to understanding pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus and R. decoloratus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyk, Roelof Dj van; Baron, Samantha; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus decoloratus species occur in regions with savannah and temperate climates, typically in grassland and wooded areas used as cattle pasture. Both species are associated with the transmission of Anaplasma and Babesia spp., impacting livestock health and quality of livestock-associated products. In Africa, tick control is predominantly mediated with the use of acaricides, such as synthetic pyrethroids. After several years on the market, reports of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids escalated but limited field data and validation studies have been conducted to determine the extent of acaricide resistance in Africa. Without this data, knowledge-based tick control will remain problematic and selection pressure will remain high increasing the rate of resistance acquisition. To date, several pyrethroid resistance associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported for arthropods within the voltage-gated sodium channel. Three SNPs have been identified within this channel in pyrethroid resistant R. microplus ticks, but none has been reported for R. decoloratus. This study is the first to report the presence of a shared SNP within the voltage-gated sodium channel in both R. microplus and R. decoloratus, which is directly linked to pyrethroid resistance in R. microplus. As the mode of action by which these SNPs mediate pyrethroid resistance remains unknown, this study aims to set hypotheses by means of predictive structural modelling. This not only paves the way forward to elucidating the underlying biological mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance, but also improvement of existing acaricides and ultimately sustainable tick control management. PMID:26851840

  4. Avaliação in vitro da ação do óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus) sobre o carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus In vitro evaluation of the action of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    F.C.C. Santos; F.S.F Vogel

    2012-01-01

    O uso indiscriminado de produtos químicos no controle do carrapato bovino constitui a principal causa do gradativo aumento do número de cepas resistentes deste parasita às bases disponíveis no mercado. A utilização de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais é uma prática antiga no controle de carrapatos, porém só recentemente tem recebido a devida atenção dos pesquisadores. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a eficácia in vitro do óleo de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus) sobre fêmeas ingu...

  5. Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus intestine protein variants BM86 Campo Grande strain, BM86 and BM95 Comparação da previsão de ligação das variantes de proteína de intestino de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Bm86 cepa Campo Grande, Bm86 e Bm95

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Andreotti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and GavacTM, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of potential MHC class-I binding regions in the antigens. Pair-wise alignment revealed that the similarity between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm86 is 0.2% higher than that between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm95 antigens. The identities were 96.5% and 96.3% respectively. Major suggestive differences in hydrophobicity were predicted among the sequences in two specific regions.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a seqüência de Bm86 cepa Campo Grande comparando-a com os antígenos Bm86 e Bm95 das preparações TickGardPLUS e GavacTM, respectivamente. O produto de PCR foi clonado em PMOSBlue e seqüenciado. Para calcular os conteúdos de alfa-hélice e fita beta do polipeptídio previsto, foi utilizada a ferramenta de prognóstico de estrutura secundária PSIPRED. O perfil de hidrofobicidade foi calculado usando os algoritmos de Hopp e Woods, além da identificação das possíveis regiões de ligação com MHC classe I nos antígenos. O alinhamento "pair-wise" revelou que a similaridade entre Bm86 cepa Campo Grande e Bm86 é 0,2% maior que aquela entre Bm86 cepa Campo Grande e Bm95. As identidades foram de 96,5% e 96,3%, respectivamente. Com relação à hidrofobicidade, os resultados sugerem que a maior diferença entre as seqüências está localizada em duas regiões específicas.

  6. Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus intestine protein variants BM86 Campo Grande strain, BM86 and BM95 Comparação da previsão de ligação das variantes de proteína de intestino de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 cepa Campo Grande, Bm86 e Bm95

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Andreotti; Marisela S. Pedroso; Caetano, Alexandre R; Natália F. Martins

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and GavacTM, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of po...

  7. Sequence variation of Bm86 in cattle fever ticks isolated from outbreaks in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus cattle infestations have significantly expanded beyond the original quarantine zone established in south Texas as part of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Major obstacles for containment of ticks...

  8. An update on distribution models for Rhipicephalus microplus in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. De Clercq

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, which reached the West African region approximately 8 years ago, has established viable populations in Côte d’Ivoire and Benin and spread rapidly from the assumed points of introduction. However, existing maps of its distribution range do not agree on the areas at risk, most probably due to suboptimal modelling approaches. Therefore, we undertook a re-investigation of the potential distribution range based on a high-quality dataset from West Africa that includes information on 104 farms located all over Benin. Focussing on climate suitability and applying advanced modelling, a subset of representative and uncorrelated climate variables was selected and fed into Maxent software to obtain an estimate of climate suitability for West Africa. The resulting map was validated using an independent dataset of 13 farms along the apparent distribution edge. The entire southern part of West Africa (covering southern Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Ghana features high climate suitability for R. microplus. All of Côte d’Ivoire is inside the distribution range of this tick and the southern rim of Burkina Faso is expected to be suitable for the establishment of R. microplus populations. The validation of the distribution, dated one year after the initial field visit, confirmed the predicted distribution range, although a small number of individuals of R. microplus were found north of the predicted limit. These low numbers might indicate that the climate is not suitable for the establishment of a viable tick population. An alternative explanation is the recent introduction by nomadic cattle herds passing through this location. In this region of the world, it is quite common for cattle owners to lead their livestock over distances of more than 500 km in search of food and water.

  9. Microgavage of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L; Rawls, John F

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development(1-5), physiology(6-11), disease(12-16), and host-microbe interactions(17-25). Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae(26). Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results. We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be

  10. Larva therapy in wound management.

    OpenAIRE

    Courtenay, M; Church, J C; Ryan, T J

    2000-01-01

    The use of maggots for wound debridement has a long history and has lately gained ground in several countries. We collected prospective data to examine the current use of larva therapy (LT) in the UK. Quantitative information was collected on 70 patients treated in nine hospitals. LT is used primarily to treat leg ulcers and generally involves three applications of larvae at two to three day intervals. This method is judged effective in wound debridement and promotes the growth of granulation...

  11. Functional genomics studies of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks in response to infection with the cattle protozoan parasite, Babesia bigemina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antunes, S.; Galindo, R. C.; Almazán, C.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Shkap, V.; do Rosário, A.; de la Fuente, J.; Domingos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2012), s. 187-195. ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Genomics * Babesia * Rhipicephalus * Boophilus * RNA interference * Vaccine Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020751912000033

  12. Prevalence of Resistant Strains of Rhipicephalus microplus to Acaricides in Cattle Ranch in the Tropical Region of Tecpan of Galeana, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olivares-Pérez*, S. Rojas-Hernández, M.T. Valencia-Almazan, I. Gutiérrez-Segura and E.J. Míreles-Martínez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tick and tick borne diseases cause many problems to the cattle industry worldwide. The prevalence of resistant strains of Rhipicephalus microplus to different acaricides on cattle farms in the tropical region of Tecpan of Galeana, Guerrero, Mexico, and risk factors related to prevalence of resistant strains of R. microplus. Sixty one ranches infested were sampled; in each ranch were collected 30-50 fully-engorged female R. microplus ticks, of 10 cattle randomly selected, and evaluated in their progeny resistance to acaricides, using the larval packet test. The prevalence of resistant strains was total pyrethroids and amitraz. In organophosphorus 31.1, 48.3 and 82.2% of strains were resistant to clorpyriphos, coumaphos and diazinon, respectively. Risk factors favored (P<0.05 the development of resistant strains of acaricides. We concluded that the resistance of R. microplus to acaricides used to control a problem, and risk factors (livestock management have accelerated the development of resistance.

  13. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form. PMID:27369577

  14. Cutaneous larva migrans--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L L

    2005-04-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption is an uncommon parasitic skin infection caused by the filariform larvae of dog or cat hook worms. We report a case of larva migrans on the anterior abdominal wall, in a 52 year old lady, who did gardening as a hobby. PMID:15928447

  15. Cutaneous Larva Migrans - A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy L; Rao L

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption is an uncommon parasitic skin infection caused by the filariform larvae of dog or cat hook worms. We report a case of larva migrans on the anterior abdominal wall, in a 52 year old lady, who did gardening as a hobby.

  16. Cutaneous Larva Migrans - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption is an uncommon parasitic skin infection caused by the filariform larvae of dog or cat hook worms. We report a case of larva migrans on the anterior abdominal wall, in a 52 year old lady, who did gardening as a hobby.

  17. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  18. The known distribution and ecological preferences of the tick subgenus Boophilus (Acari : Ixodidae) in Africa and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A compilation of the known distribution of Boophilus ticks in Africa and Latin America is presented, together with details on climate preferences. B. annulatus is recorded mainly in the western part of a strip from the equator to parallel 20 degrees N. It associates with woodlands and forests (lowland rain forest and secondary grassland). This species is also present in the Mediterranean region, associated to woodland and open areas. B. decoloratus extends southern to parallel 20 degrees N, i...

  19. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  20. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x103 spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5±0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D10 (3.1±0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  1. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  2. Injectable fipronil for cattle: Plasma disposition and efficacy against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Yara P; Ferreira, Thais P; Magalhães, Viviane S; Correia, Thais R; Scott, Fábio B

    2016-04-15

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole class insecticide. It is widely used as an insecticide in agriculture and in the control of ectoparasites in veterinary medicine. The application of fipronil in an injectable form (subcutaneously) becomes an innovation, since there is no commercially available preparation containing fipronil herein. The present study aimed at fipronil usage, applied subcutaneously in cattle, to control Rhipicephalus microplus. The assessing criteria used in the research have been the construction of the plasma concentration curve and efficacy studies. A method using High Performance Liquid Chromatograph with ultraviolet detection was developed for determination of fipronil in bovine plasma samples, providing a fast and simple process with good reproducibility and low limit of quantification. The validation of the analytical method showed linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity and stability, thus proving it as suitable for routine analysis. This method showed to be an important investigative tool in the analysis of fipronil plasma concentration in cattle. Fipronil administered via subcutaneous in bovine reached the systemic circulation (Cmax=378.06±137.44 ng/mL), was quickly absorbed (t(max)=10±0.87 h), and its elimination occurred slowly (t(1/2)=12 days), while maintaining quantifiable blood plasma levels (23.79±12.16 ng/mL) for up to 21 days after the treatment with a 1 mg/kg dosage. The in vivo efficacy tests proved that fipronil applied subcutaneously in a single dose of 1 mg/kg in cattle exhibited a mean efficacy of 82.41% against R. microplus. The potential of subcutaneous injection as an alternative treatment route in cattle encourage the development of an injectable formulation of fipronil. PMID:26995714

  3. Cytotoxic effects of extract of Acmella oleraceae (Jambú) in Rhipicephalus microplus females ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; de Carvalho Castro, Karina Neoob; Anholeto, Luis Adriano; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2016-08-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of different concentrations of the hexane extract of A. oleraceae (HEAO) (Jambú) on the germ cells of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus microplus female ticks, through a morpho-histological study, evaluating the effectiveness of the extract in the genesis of the individuals. To perform this analysis, 100 semi-engorged females were divided into five groups with 20 individuals each: groups I and II, respectively constituted by distilled water control and 50% ethanol + 1% DMSO, and groups III, IV, and V constituted by treatment with HEAO in the concentrations of 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg/mL, respectively. All the ticks were immersed in the different concentrations of the extract or in distilled water for 5 minutes, dried and conditioned in BOD incubator for 7 days. The individuals of the treatment groups revealed the action of this extract showing alterations in the germ cells of the females from the different groups when compared with those from the groups I and II (control groups). These alterations were mainly related to the size and shape of the oocytes; number of yolk granules; presence, number, size and location of vacuoles in the cytoplasm of all the germ cells; and the presence of nuclear alterations in these cells as well. Thus, it was demonstrated that the concentrations of HEAO affected the germ cells of R. microplus ticks. The effects of the extract are similar to those caused by renowned and efficient chemical products used to control these ticks. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:744-753, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27271726

  4. Biology of Paenibacillus larvae, a deadly pathogen of honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Julia; Knispel, Henriette; Hertlein, Gillian; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2016-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees, a notifiable disease in many countries. Hence, P. larvae can be considered as an entomopathogen of considerable relevance in veterinary medicine. P. larvae is a highly specialized pathogen with only one established host, the honey bee larva. No other natural environment supporting germination and proliferation of P. larvae is known. Over the last decade, tremendous progress in the understanding of P. larvae and its interactions with honey bee larvae at a molecular level has been made. In this review, we will present the recent highlights and developments in P. larvae research and discuss the impact of some of the findings in a broader context to demonstrate what we can learn from studying "exotic" pathogens. PMID:27394713

  5. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances.

  6. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  7. Molecular Characterization of Ancylostoma braziliense Larvae in a Patient with Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    OpenAIRE

    Joncour, Alexandre Le; Lacour, Sandrine A.; Lecso, Gabriel; Regnier, Stéphanie; Guillot, Jacques; Caumes, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans diagnosed microscopically. Viable hookworm larvae were found by microscopic examination of a skin scraping from follicular lesions. Amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 allowed the specific identification of the larvae as Ancylostoma braziliense.

  8. A model to simulate the effect of vaccination against Boophilus ticks on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodos, J; Boue, O; de la Fuente, J

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes a vaccination model to simulate the effect of cattle vaccination with concealed antigens on Boophilus tick spp. The model considers the vaccination effect in three parts: antibody titer, accumulation of damaging vaccination effects by parasite stages, and the effect of accumulated damage on all tick life stages. Biological parameters for ticks and hosts, as well as parameters describing tick-host interaction, were included. The validity of this model, integrated with the TICKSIM simulation program, was demonstrated for the Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac by comparing simulated and real data for several geographic locations in the Americas. All model parameters were estimated using field data collected in the different geographic locations. The model sensitivity to changes in antibody titer level and titer half-life was studied, and the impact on tick population density of changes in these parameters was evaluated. Simulation results showed that to achieve a higher level of tick control, an increase in the maximum antibody titer levels was more important than extending titer half-life in geographical locations with short seasonal peaks of tick infestation. The TICKSIM program, integrated with the new vaccination model, proved to be a framework for designing and evaluating tick control strategies, including vaccination with GavacTM. PMID:10669101

  9. 微小牛蜱Bm86基因的原核表达与表达条件的优化%Prokaryotic Expression of Bm86 Gene of Boophilus microplus and Optimization of the Expression Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马米玲; 关贵全; 李有全; 刘爱红; 任巧云; 牛庆丽; 殷宏; 罗建勋

    2009-01-01

    根据微小牛蜱Bin86基因序列设计引物,在重组质粒pMD18-T-Bin86中克隆,并将其定向亚克隆入原核表达载体pGEX-4T-1,转化至大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)株,用不同浓度异丙基-β-D-硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)在不同时间进行诱导表达.十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)检测结果表明,37℃条件下经1 mmol/L IPTG诱导8 h后,目的 重组蛋白表达量最大,表达相对分子质量(Mr)约为94000的包涵体蛋白,与预期大小一致,目的 蛋白约占蛋白总量的29%.蛋白质印迹(Western blotting)分析表明,该重组蛋白可被兔抗微小牛蜱全蜱阳性血清所识别.

  10. Cloning of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus and construction of recombinant expression vector%微小牛蜱Bm86基因的克隆及真核表达载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卉; 任巧云; 殷宏; 罗建勋; 刘磊; 党志胜; 高金亮; 关贵全; 刘志杰; 刘爱红; 马米玲

    2005-01-01

    为了克隆微小牛蜱Bm86基因及构建该基因的表达载体,以微小牛蜱饥饿幼蜱的破解物提取的总RNA为模板,参照已发表的微小牛蜱Bm86基因的核苷酸序列,设计了1对引物,采用 RT-PCR技术获得微小牛蜱Bm86基因;将Bm86基因克隆入载体,并进行序列分析,结果证明,克隆的Bm86基因序列与GenBank上登录的Bm86基因序列的同源性达97.4%,而且该序列包含完整的开放阅读框.将该基因克隆入真核表达载体pPIC9K,构建并获得了重组真核表达载体pPIC9K-Bm86.

  11. Cloning and expression of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus in E.coli%微小牛蜱Bm86基因的克隆与原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊瑞泉; 任巧云; 刘爱红; 罗建勋; 杨孝朴; 殷宏; 高金亮; 关贵全; 刘志杰; 党志胜; 马米玲

    2007-01-01

    根据已发表的Bm86基因序列,设计表达型引物,利用RT-PCR技术,从微小牛蜱饥饿幼蜱的研磨物中扩增Bm86基因,将PCR产物连入pGEM-T Easy载体,构建重组克隆载体pGEM-T easy-Bm86.测序分析表明:克隆的微小牛蜱Bm86基因序列与GenBank上登录的Bm86基因的核苷酸和氨基酸序列的同源性分别为97 %和95.6 %.然后对重组克隆载体pGEM-T easy-Bm86进行双酶切,获得带有粘性末端的Bm86基因片段,并将此片段定向亚克隆入原核表达载体pGEX-4T-1,构建重组原核表达载体pGEX-4T-1-Bm86,将其转化到BL21宿主菌中,用IPTG进行诱导表达.SDS-PAGE检测表明表达产物为分子量为88Ku的融合蛋白,目的蛋白约占蛋白总量的39 %,表达量约为1.08mg/mL.Western blot分析表明此表达产物能被兔抗微小牛蜱阳性血清所识别.

  12. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  13. Control de Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) mediante el uso del hongo entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). Revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi; Roger Ivan Rodríguez-Vivas; Edelmira Galindo-Velasco; Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez; Carlos Cruz-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Las infestaciones de la garrapata del ganado, Rhipicephalus microplus, producen el mayor problema global de ectoparásitos en ganado de regiones tropicales y subtropicales, provocan importantes pérdidas económicas en la producción de carne, leche y pieles, además incrementan los gastos derivados de los programas de control, y son capaces de transmitir Babesia bovis, B. bigemina y Anaplasma marginale. El control de R. microplus se basa principalmente en el uso de ixodicidas, sin embargo, su uso...

  14. Directional flow sensing by passively stable larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Christman, Adam J; Gerbi, Gregory P; Hunter, Elias J; Diez, F Javier

    2015-09-01

    Mollusk larvae have a stable, velum-up orientation that may influence how they sense and react to hydrodynamic signals applied in different directions. Directional sensing abilities and responses could affect how a larva interacts with anisotropic fluid motions, including those in feeding currents and in boundary layers encountered during settlement. Oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) were exposed to simple shear in a Couette device and to solid-body rotation in a single rotating cylinder. Both devices were operated in two different orientations, one with the axis of rotation parallel to the gravity vector, and one with the axis perpendicular. Larvae and flow were observed simultaneously with near-infrared particle-image velocimetry, and behavior was quantified as a response to strain rate, vorticity and centripetal acceleration. Only flows rotating about a horizontal axis elicited the diving response observed previously for oyster larvae in turbulence. The results provide strong evidence that the turbulence-sensing mechanism relies on gravity-detecting organs (statocysts) rather than mechanosensors (cilia). Flow sensing with statocysts sets oyster larvae apart from zooplankters such as copepods and protists that use external mechanosensors in sensing spatial velocity gradients generated by prey or predators. Sensing flow-induced changes in orientation, rather than flow deformation, would enable more efficient control of vertical movements. Statocysts provide larvae with a mechanism of maintaining their upward swimming when rotated by vortices and initiating dives toward the seabed in response to the strong turbulence associated with adult habitats. PMID:26333930

  15. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to th...

  16. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  17. Habitat selection by emperor fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Y; Shibuno, T.; Lecchini, David; Watanabe, Y.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great puzzles of coral reef fish ecology is how pelagic larvae locate the habitat in which they settle. The present study explored whether offshore emperor fish (Lethrinidae) larvae selected a specific reef and/or habitat at settlement. Although older juveniles are known to use back-reef seagrass beds as a potential nursery habitat, information is scarce regarding pre-settlement larvae. Using light traps anchored on the reef slopes at seagrass-replete and seagrass-free reefs (lshig...

  18. Non-Classical Gluconeogenesis-Dependent Glucose Metabolism in Rhipicephalus microplus Embryonic Cell Line BME26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Martins da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated several genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism, the major pathways for carbohydrate catabolism and anabolism, in the BME26 Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell line. Genetic and catalytic control of the genes and enzymes associated with these pathways are modulated by alterations in energy resource availability (primarily glucose. BME26 cells in media were investigated using three different glucose concentrations, and changes in the transcription levels of target genes in response to carbohydrate utilization were assessed. The results indicate that several genes, such as glycogen synthase (GS, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and glucose-6 phosphatase (GP displayed mutual regulation in response to glucose treatment. Surprisingly, the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes was found to increase alongside that of glycolytic enzymes, especially pyruvate kinase, with high glucose treatment. In addition, RNAi data from this study revealed that the transcription of gluconeogenic genes in BME26 cells is controlled by GSK-3. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of how glucose metabolism is regulated at the genetic level in tick cells.

  19. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue. PMID:26179750

  20. Visceral larva migrans caused by Trichuris vulpis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakano, T; Hamamoto, K.; Kobayashi, Y; Sakata, Y; Tsuji, M.; Usui, T.

    1980-01-01

    Two brothers with visceral larva migrans caused by Trichuris vulpis were diagnosed after they had been investigated for an eosinophilia. Both patients were almost asymptomatic. The diagnosis of visceral larva migrans was based on the results of immunoelectrophoretic studies and no liver biopsy was performed. After administration of thiabendazole, the number of eosinophils and serum total IgE levels gradually decreased, and the patients have remained well.

  1. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  2. Attraction to and learning from social cues in fruitfly larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2013-01-01

    We examined the use of social information in fruitfly larvae, which represent an ideal model system owing to their robust learning abilities, small number of neurons and well-studied neurogenetics. Focal larvae showed attraction to the distinct odour emanating from food occupied by other larvae. In controlled learning experiments, focal larvae preferred novel odours previously paired with food occupied by other larvae over novel odours previously paired with unoccupied food. When we gave grou...

  3. Late presentation of cutaneous larva migrans: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous larva migrans is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas. A history of recent travel to the tropics is usually elicited. Case presentation A case of cutaneous larva migrans is described in which symptoms did not appear until five months after travel to Tanzania. Conclusion Although the lesion of cutaneous larva migrans may appear immediately, the larvae may lie dormant for many months and presentation may therefore occur a long time a...

  4. High resolution predictive mapping of Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus in south Texas after vaccination with the anti-tick vaccine Gavac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional anti-tick vaccines based on the tick gut antigen Bm86 exist commercially (TickGARD and Gavac) and could serve as an alternative to the use of acaricides to eradicate ticks, but their level of efficacy against R. microplus is too low for eradication if used alone. Therefore, the current ...

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05. The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus.

  6. Characterisation of divergent flavivirus NS3 and NS5 protein sequences detected in Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Maruyama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcripts similar to those that encode the nonstructural (NS proteins NS3 and NS5 from flaviviruses were found in a salivary gland (SG complementary DNA (cDNA library from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Tick extracts were cultured with cells to enable the isolation of viruses capable of replicating in cultured invertebrate and vertebrate cells. Deep sequencing of the viral RNA isolated from culture supernatants provided the complete coding sequences for the NS3 and NS5 proteins and their molecular characterisation confirmed similarity with the NS3 and NS5 sequences from other flaviviruses. Despite this similarity, phylogenetic analyses revealed that this potentially novel virus may be a highly divergent member of the genus Flavivirus. Interestingly, we detected the divergent NS3 and NS5 sequences in ticks collected from several dairy farms widely distributed throughout three regions of Brazil. This is the first report of flavivirus-like transcripts in R. microplus ticks. This novel virus is a potential arbovirus because it replicated in arthropod and mammalian cells; furthermore, it was detected in a cDNA library from tick SGs and therefore may be present in tick saliva. It is important to determine whether and by what means this potential virus is transmissible and to monitor the virus as a potential emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen.

  7. Effect of gamma rays on the larvae of Rhipicephalus bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhipicephalus bursa larvae were exposed to a single acute gamma-irradiation from cobalt 60 source in doses from 0.5 to 40 kiloroentgen (kr). Doses higher than 20 kr rilled the larvae, lower than 10 kr produced disturbances in tick development, dependent on radiation; larvae irradiated with 2 to 3 kr started sucking blood as larvae ordinarily do, but could not undergo metamorphosis; larvae irradiated with lower doses (0.5 and 1 kr) had a prolonged metamorphosis, the onset of oviposition was delayed and the percentage of hatched second generation larvae was reduced. (A.B.)

  8. ANTI-TICK EFFECT OBSERVED IN MATURE PLANTS O TROPICAL LEGUMES Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS CRUZ-VAZQUEZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The anti-tick effect of Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata was evaluated for mature plants on plots experimentally infested with larvae of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Cenchurus ciliaris was used as control grass. The effect was evaluated counting the total number of live tick larvae recovered by the double flannel flag technique from the experimental plots during a four week period. The effect observed in both Stylosanthes species did not show significant differences (p > 0.05 between them and the larval survival percentage was 5.1 % for S. humilis and 7.5 % for S. hamata. In the first specie the anti-tick effect was lower than the one reported for young plants, but in S. hamata this effect was similar in young and mature plants. Further studies are necessary to complement the knowledge about this plant and to establish their use in field conditions..RESUMEN El efecto anti-garrapata de plantas maduras de las leguminosas tropicales Stylosanthes humilis y Stylosanthes hamata , fue evaluado en parcelas experimentalmente infestadas con larvas de garrapata Boophilus microplus, utilizando al pasto Cenchurus ciliaris como tratamiento testigo. El efecto fue evaluado contando el número total de larvas vivas recuperadas de las parcelas experimentales por la técnica de bandera de doble recorrido durante un periodo de cuatro semanas. El efecto anti-garrapata observado en ambas especies de Stylosanthes no mostró diferencias entre ellas (p<0.05, el porcentaje de sobrevivencia de larvas fue del 5.1% para S. humilis y 7.5% para S. hamata. En la primera especie el efecto anti-garrapata fue menor que el reportado en plantas jóvenes, pero en S. hamata este efecto fue similar en plantas maduras y jóvenes. Es necesario realizar más estudios para complementar el conocimiento que se tiene acerca de estas plantas y establecer su uso en condiciones de campo

  9. Dispersal strategies in sponge larvae: integrating the life history of larvae and the hydrologic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Simone; Uriz, María-J; Turon, Xavier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2006-08-01

    While known to be uniformly non-feeding, short-lived, and potentially short dispersing, sponge larvae display different behaviours (swimming ability and taxis). Our aim was to show whether sponge larvae with different behaviours exhibit different dispersal strategies under variable intensity of water movements. We first assessed the distribution of larvae of six taxa: Dictyoceratida spp., Dysidea avara, Crambe crambe, Phorbas tenacior, Scopalina lophyropoda, and Cliona viridis, collected through plankton sampling, and the abundance of the corresponding adult sponges across three hard bottom communities and a sandy bottom from a north-west Mediterranean rocky shore. We then tested adult-larvae couplings (abundance of larvae vs abundance of adults) under increasing levels of water movements (surge) to assess the importance of this environmental factor in driving differences in dispersal strategies. Adults of Dictyoceratida spp., D. avara, and P. tenacior were most abundant in semi-dark caves (SDC), C. crambe and C. viridis in communities of sciaphilic algae (SA), whereas the distribution of S. lophyropoda was extremely patchy, being present almost only in the SA community of one of the five stations studied. Larvae of Dictyoceratida spp. and P. tenacior were more abundant in the SDC, whereas D. avara and C. crambe were homogeneously distributed across the communities. The larvae of C. viridis were more abundant in the SA communities and the S. lophyropoda larvae were mostly present in one station and one community (SA). Increased water movement did not modify the adult-larvae coupling for Dictyoceratida spp., D. avara, and C. crambe, whereas it broke up the positive association for P. tenacior and to some extent S. lophyropoda. For C. viridis, possible variability in adult-larvae coupling was not tested because the larvae were collected on only one day under calm sea conditions. We confirm that efficient-swimming larvae with some cue response can actively counteract

  10. Distribution of cattle fever tick infestations detected in the U.S. along the Texas/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species identification and coordinates of geographical premises for infestations of cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say) and R. (B.) microplus (Canestrini) were determined for 782 specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory during the eleven years betw...

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01650-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8.g Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus B... 34 2.0 3 ( FG285891 ) 1108770704094 New World Screwworm Egg 926...nosize Bicyclus anynan... 30 2.6 4 ( FG294764 ) 1108770717863 New World Screwworm

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names TF to U

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  14. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes-Pisces) of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    the Indian Ocean, their regional, seasonal as well as diurnal variations. Engyprosopon grandisquamis dominated contributing to 23.2% of the total larvae. Numerically the incidence of bothid larvae suggested a uniform pattern of distribution during the two...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring...

  16. Filiform papilla of holstein’s tongue and its relation with the Rhipicephalus microplus tick resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies describe anatomical, morphological and histological analysis of domestic and wild animals tongue. The tongue is an extendable muscular organ that performs gripping, chewing, and swallowing food actions and executes tasting and mechanical body self-cleaning functions (grooming. The distribution of these tongue characteristics may vary, according to different species, but studies made with different animals classes reveal the filiform papilla acting in mechanical body cleaning function. In order to evaluate these mechanical functions, especially the self-cleaning one, we proposed to investigate filiform papillae length or its base dimensions would be related to the heifers resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Biopsies were performed in eight (8 Holstein heifers’ tongues, with a 6 mm diameter punch, in the anterior third of tongues, at the distance of 3 cm from its tip. The animals were anesthetized with xylazine hydrochloride 2%, a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant and received local anesthetic, hydrochloride 2.0 g lidocaine. After tissue removal, the local lesions received an ointment of triamcinolone acetonide, 1.0 mg g-1. The Holstein heifers were one year and half old and naturally infested with ticks in a paddock situated at “Instituto de Zootecnia”. We monitored their natural infestation by counting females ticks, greater than 4.5 mm, presents in every animal, in four weekly evaluations (from 8 to 28 December – 2011. These samples were submitted to technical process of fixation and dehydration (as required by in the scanning electron microscope study, in the laboratory NAP/MEPA - ESALQ-USP. The papillae were visualized and measured with the aid of the measurement tool between two points of the software in the scanning electron microscope Zeiss LEO 435VP. Statistically analyses were performed by the SPSSP 12.0 program in a complete randomized design. We employed the Oneway method for variance analysis to

  17. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  18. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species....

  19. Image Enhancement for Tracking the Translucent Larvae of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Sukant; Li, Wen-Ke; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae are model systems for studies of development, synaptic transmission, sensory physiology, locomotion, drug discovery, and learning and memory. A detailed behavioral understanding of larvae can advance all these fields of neuroscience. Automated tracking can expand fine-grained behavioral analysis, yet its full potential remains to be implemented for the larvae. All published methods are unable to track the larvae near high contrast objects, including the petri-di...

  20. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  1. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...

  2. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana G; Barbieri, Fábio S; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Oliveira, Márcia C S; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales

    2011-01-01

    The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35-76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate (OP) associations (68.91-81.47%) and amidine (51.35-100%). For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the milbemycin (94.84-100%) was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21-100%) and the avermectins (81.34-100%). The phenylpyrazole (PZ) group had similar efficacy (99.90%) to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed. PMID:21547224

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus larvae MEX14, Isolated from Honey Bee Larvae from the Xochimilco Quarter in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz de la Rosa, D; Pérez de la Rosa, J J; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Miranda-Miranda, E; Lozano, L; Bravo-Díaz, M A; Rocha-Martínez, M K; Sachman-Ruiz, B

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae strain MEX14 is a facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium that infects Apis mellifera larvae. Strain MEX14 was isolated from domestic bee larvae collected in a backyard in Mexico City. The estimated genome size was determined to be 4.18 Mb, and it harbors 4,806 protein coding genes (CDSs). PMID:26316636

  4. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana G. Brito; Barbieri, Fábio S.; Rocha, Rodrigo B.; Márcia C. S. Oliveira; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales

    2011-01-01

    The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate...

  5. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  6. Cutaneous Larva Migrans - a Typical Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, G.; João, A

    2013-01-01

    A larva migrans cutânea é frequente em regiões tropicais e sub-tropicais e é causada pela migração de larvas de nemátodos na pele. O diagnóstico é efectuado essencialmente pelas características epidemiológicas da dermatose e pela sua semiologia clínica. Geralmente o tratamento é bem sucedido com albendazol ou ivermectina. Descreve-se o caso clínico de uma mulher de 54 anos que regressou de férias na Jamaica há cerca de 15 dias. A doente iniciou no local, uma pápula eritematosa, bem deli...

  7. The Biology of Decapod Crustacean Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    About 90% of the extant species of the Decapoda live in oceans and adjacent coastal and estuarine regions, and most of them pass through a complex life history comprising a benthic (juvenile-adult) and a planktonic (larval) phase. The larvae show a wide array of adaptations to the pelagic environment, including modifications in functio-nal morphology, anatomy, the molting cycle, nutrition, growth, chemical composi-tion, meta-bo-lism, energy partitioning, ecology, and behavior. Due to these ad...

  8. The early stress responses in fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mola, Lucrezia

    2016-05-01

    During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied. Indeed the immune system of this species is the best known among marine teleosts. In this review the data on main signal molecules of stress carried out on larvae of fish are considered and discussed. For sea bass active roles in the early immunological responses of some well-known molecules involved in the stress, such as ACTH, nitric oxide, CRF, HSP-70 and cortisol have been proposed. These molecules and/or their receptors are biologically active mainly in the gut before complete differentiation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), probably acting in an autocrine/paracrine way. An intriguing idea emerges from all results of these researches; the molecules involved in stress responses, expressed in the adult cells of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, during the larval life of fish are present in several other localizations, where they perform probably the same role. It may be hypothesized that the functions performed by hypothalamic-pituitary system are particularly important for the survival of the larva and therefore they comprises several other localizations of body. Indeed the larval stages of fish are very crucial phases that include many physiological changes and several possible stress both internal and environmental. PMID:26968620

  9. Microbiology and immunology of fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Vadstein, Olav; Bergh, Øivind; Gatesoupe, François-Joel; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Mulero, Victoriano; Picchietti, Simona; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Makridis, Pavlos; Olsen, Yngvar; Dierckens, Kristof; Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For most marine aquaculture species, one of the main bottlenecks is the stable production of high quality juveniles. The high and unpredictable mortality in the first weeks after hatching of marine fish larvae remains a challenging problem that needs to be solved. The severity of the problem differs between species, but cannot be considered adequately solved for any species. Both scientific evidence and experience in hatcheries for a variety of fish, shrimp and shellfish species are accumulat...

  10. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  11. Immunologic and molecular identification of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The suitability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as hosts for the cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, has been well documented. These ticks have a wide host range, and both transmit Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, the agents resp...

  12. Acaricidal Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst. Alston against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Adarsh Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst. Alston (family: Vitaceae against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus was assessed using adult immersion test (AIT. The per cent of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity, and blocking of hatching of eggs were studied at different concentrations. The extract at 10% concentration showed 88.96% inhibition of fecundity, 58.32% of adult tick mortality, and 50% inhibition of hatching. Peak mortality rate was observed after day 5 of treatment. Mortality of engorged female ticks, inhibition of fecundity, and hatching of eggs were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of the extract against R. (B. annulatus was 10.46%. The HPTLC profiling of the petroleum ether extract revealed the presence of at least seven polyvalent components. In the petroleum ether extract, nicotine was identified as one of the components up to a concentration of 5.4%. However, nicotine did not reveal any acaricidal activity up to 20000 ppm (2%. Coconut oil, used as diluent for dissolving the extract, did not reveal any acaricidal effects. The results are indicative of the involvement of synergistic or additive action of the bioactive components in the tick mortality and inhibition of the oviposition.

  13. Acaricidal activity of the organic extracts of thirteen South African plants against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Gerda; Ramafuthula, Mary; Maselela, Vusi; Mokoena, Moses; Senabe, Jeremiah; Leboho, Tlabo; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Eloff, Jacobus N; Wellington, Kevin W

    2016-07-15

    The African blue tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, is a common tick species found in South Africa and affects cattle production as well as vectoring pathogens in regions of Africa and Asia. In an attempt to develop a non-toxic, lower cost and environmentally friendly tick control method, twenty-six plant extracts were prepared from thirteen plant species using 99.5% acetone and 99% ethanol. The adapted Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT) was used to test the efficacy of the extracts. A 1% solution of each of the plant extracts was prepared for efficacy testing and the ethanol extracts were found to have better acaricidal activity than the acetone extracts. The ethanol extract from the leaves and flowers of Calpurnia aurea had the best activity [corrected mortality (CM)=82.9%] which was followed by the stem extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CM=80.4%). The plant species were screened against Vero cells and were found to have low toxicity. From this study it is apparent that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against R. (B.) decoloratus. PMID:27270388

  14. Mitigation of Resistance Through Mixtures of Traditional Pesticides, Anti-tick Vaccines, and New Acaricides Developed by the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 70 years, the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has developed resistance to every acaricide available for its control. Recently, populations of R. microplus have evolved simultaneous resistance to multiple classes of acaricides. These multi-resistant population...

  15. Requirements for in vitro germination of Paenibacillus larvae spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Israel; Phui, Andy; Elekonich, Michelle M; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2013-03-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a disease affecting honey bee larvae. First- and second-instar larvae become infected when they ingest food contaminated with P. larvae spores. The spores then germinate into vegetative cells that proliferate in the midgut of the honey bee. Although AFB affects honey bees only in the larval stage, P. larvae spores can be distributed throughout the hive. Because spore germination is critical for AFB establishment, we analyzed the requirements for P. larvae spore germination in vitro. We found that P. larvae spores germinated only in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid under physiologic pH and temperature conditions. This suggests that the simultaneous presence of these signals is necessary for spore germination in vivo. Furthermore, the germination profiles of environmentally derived spores were identical to those of spores from a biochemically typed strain. Because l-tyrosine and uric acid are the only required germinants in vitro, we screened amino acid and purine analogs for their ability to act as antagonists of P. larvae spore germination. Indole and phenol, the side chains of tyrosine and tryptophan, strongly inhibited P. larvae spore germination. Methylation of the N-1 (but not the C-3) position of indole eliminated its ability to inhibit germination. Identification of the activators and inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination provides a basis for developing new tools to control AFB. PMID:23264573

  16. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  17. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles. PMID:26313007

  18. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Robert Scott; Lopez, Dawn; Evans, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and a general immunity is achieved by larvae as they age, the basis of which has not been identified. To quickly identify a pool of candidate genes responsive to P. larvae infection, we sequenced transcripts from larvae inoculated with P. larvae at 12 hours post-emergence and incubated for 72 hours, and compared expression levels to a control cohort. We identified 75 genes with significantly higher expression and six genes with significantly lower expression. In addition to several antimicrobial peptides, two genes encoding peritrophic-matrix domains were also up-regulated. Extracellular matrix proteins, proteases/protease inhibitors, and members of the Osiris gene family were prevalent among differentially regulated genes. However, analysis of Drosophila homologs of differentially expressed genes revealed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with developmental asynchrony as a likely confounder of our results. We therefore used qPCR to measure the consistency of gene expression changes for a subset of differentially expressed genes. A replicate experiment sampled at both 48 and 72 hours post infection allowed further discrimination of genes likely to be involved in host response. The consistently responsive genes in our test set included a hymenopteran-specific protein tyrosine kinase, a hymenopteran specific serine endopeptidase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP9Q1), and a homolog of trynity, a zona pellucida domain protein. Of the known honey bee antimicrobial peptides, apidaecin was responsive at both time-points studied whereas hymenoptaecin was more consistent in its level of change between biological replicates and had the greatest increase in expression by RNA-seq analysis

  19. Nutritional components affecting skeletal development in fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Cahu, Chantal; Zambonino, Jose-luis; Takeuchi, Toshio

    2003-01-01

    Marine fish larvae undergo major functional and morphological changes during the developmental stages and several factors can interfere with the normal development of larvae and affect fry quality. Skeletal malformations, such as spinal malformation-scoliosis, lordosis, coiled vertebral column-, missing or additional fin rays, bending opercle or jaw malformations, are frequently observed in hatchery-reared larvae. This paper reviews the effects of some nutritional components on skeletal devel...

  20. Diversity of parasitoid Lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    FENI YUSMARIKA; YAHERWANDI; RUSDI RUSLI; NOVRI NELLY

    2010-01-01

    Nelly N, Rusli R, Yaherwandi, Yusmarika F (2010) Diversity of parasitoid Lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae. Biodiversitas 11: 93-96. Diversity of parasitoid lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae was conducted in several Brassicaceae areas in West Sumatra. The objective of the research was to study the diversity of parasitoid lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae. Sampling was conducted on Brassicaceae plants: cabbage, cauliflower, petsai and sawi. It was taken five samples in every plot, by ...

  1. Identification of West African estuarine shrimp and crab larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan, G.E.; Powell, C. B.; A.I. Hart

    1985-01-01

    The paper deals with the decapod crustacean larvae likely to be found in fresh and brackish waters in tropical west Africa. It summarizes results from an ongoing program of describing larvae hatched directly from adults of known species, to provide the identification keys necessary for applied research on nursery grounds, plankton ecology and pollution effects. A preliminary key to stage - 1 larvae is given for approximately 40 species. In includes all the genera, and nearly all the species, ...

  2. Larva migrans cutanea: reporte de cuatro casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvis Vivian Pérez Ruch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la larva migrans cutánea es una parasitosis que constituye una zoonosis frecuente en zonas tropicales, producida por la penetración y desplazamiento a través de la piel de larvas de nemátodos, como Ancylostoma brazilensis y Ancylostoma caninum. El cuadro clínico es característico y se diagnostica mediante la observación macroscópica de las lesiones serpiginosas debajo de la piel. Los antecedentes están dados por contacto con tierra o arena contaminadas como ocurre en niños que juegan en esos lugares. Objetivo: reportar los hallazgos de esta parasitosis en infantes pertenecientes a dos áreas de salud del municipio Camagüey, durante el período 2010 - 2013. Caso Clínico: en el laboratorio de Microbiología de la policlínica de especialidades pediátricas, se diagnosticaron cuatro niños con larva migrans cutánea de 1, 2, 7 y 11 años de edad, el primero con localización perineal, el segundo, en la espalda, el tercero en glúteos, miembros inferiores y superiores y el cuarto en región glútea y vulvar. En los cuatro casos las lesiones fueron características y se observó el trayecto ondulado del parásito a través de la piel. Los cuatros pacientes evolucionaron satisfactoriamente con tratamiento antiparásito. Conclusiones: dada la molestia, e irritabilidad que ocasiona esta parasitosis, así como la posible evolución tórpida de la misma es importante que en las áreas de 218 salud se tenga en cuenta para su oportuno diagnóstico y tratamiento satisfactorio en bien de los pacientes afectados.

  3. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  4. Learning and Memory in Zebrafish Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Christopher Roberts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory.

  5. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, C; Senecal, J; Gros Calvo, M; Ahrens, L; Josefsson, S; Wiberg, K; Vinnerås, B

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (pesticides into the environment. PMID:27177134

  6. Biodiversity of Insect Larvae in Streams at Jobolarangan Forest

    OpenAIRE

    MANAN EFENDI; EDWI MAHAJOENO; ARDIANSYAH

    2001-01-01

    Insect larvae are macro-invertebrate that becomes the most perfect indicator of aquatic-environmental health. Natural streams usually determined by its insect-larvae community in a good condition, in which their taxonomic diversity and richness are high. The objective of the research was to know the taxonomic diversity and richness of insect-larvae family in streams at Jobolarangan forest. The larvae were sampled using net-surber (dip-net) in three location of streams, i.e.: Parkiran (1773 m ...

  7. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  8. BACTERIAL FLORA OF RAINBOW TROUT LARVAE AND FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available There are no information in available literature about the structure of bacterial flora in rainbow trout larvae and fry in the first days of their lives. The objective of our work has been to follow bacteroflora between the third and the eighth week of their lives. During 35 days of experiment bacteroflora of rainbow trout has been examined, along with following physico–chemical characteristics of water quality as well as it’s influence on health. Samples for bacteriological examination were taken from gill, heart and kidney areas and innoculated on the plates. Bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, slides with Gram staining, and afterwords biochemical tests were performed. For identification, APILAB Plus programme (bio Mérieux, France was used. Bacterial population of rainbow trout larvae and fry changed in dependence with their age. Physico–chemical characteristics of water ranged within optimal values. Most of bacterial colonies originated from gill isolates (64,4 %, than from heart (21,8 % and kidney areas (13,8 %. The bacterial flora of larvae in incubator was composed mostly of Gram–positive bacteria (75,1 %, genera: Renibacterium (25 %, Lactobacillus (16,7 %, Staphilococcus (16,7 % and Corynebacterium (16,7 %. The transfer of larvae from incubator into the pools resulted in reducing bacterial flora (–66,7 % after 45 minute stay in the pool. Gram–negative bacteria, which have been represented in larvae in incubator with low percent (24, 9 %, after the transfer of larvae to the pools became dominant and represented more than 95 % of rainbow trout larvae and fry bacterial flora. Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram–negative genera in larvae in incubator, whereas Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Pasteurella were the main isolates from rainbow trout larvae and fry until the end of experiment. Bacterial flora of larvae in incubator mostly consists of Gram–positive bacteria

  9. Effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on gnathostoma spinigerum larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnathostoma spinigerum infective larvae were found to be very resistant to gamma ray. The larvae were still viable, motile and capable to infect white mice with no observable abnormality in both internal and external structures and their sizes after exposure to 0-7.0 KGy of gamma ray. At doses of 0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 KGy, the infective rates were 72%, 78%, 64%, 54%, 28%, 42%, 26%, 14% and 5% respectively. The infective rates of the irradiated larvae exposed to 8 KGy and 10 KGy of irradiation in mice became zero. The reduction of motility and infectivity was first observed after exposure of larvae to 1.5 KGy of gamma ray. It was also found that motility and infectivity decreased in relationship to the higher doses of gamma ray. At 10.0 KGy of irradiation which was the highest dose used in this experiment could not devitalize the larvae but inhibit infectivity. Irradiation of the larvae mixed in food prepared from fishes at 8 KGy was proved to inhibit the infectivity. On the study, the dose of 8.0 KGy was suggested to be the minimum effective dose that inhibited the infectivity of the infective stage. To confirm the effective dose, the mixture of the infective larvae and Somfuk, a local food, was treated by 8 KGy and these irradiated larvae precisely lost their infectivity in mice

  10. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  11. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Paenibacillus larvae Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheflo, Michael A; Gardner, Adam V; Merrill, Bryan D; Fisher, Joshua N B; Lunt, Bryce L; Breakwell, Donald P; Grose, Julianne H; Burnett, Sandra H

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is a pathogen of honeybees that causes American foulbrood (AFB). We isolated bacteriophages from soil containing bee debris collected near beehives in Utah. We announce five high-quality complete genome sequences, which represent the first completed genome sequences submitted to GenBank for any P. larvae bacteriophage. PMID:24233582

  12. Bacteria Present in Comadia redtenbacheri Larvae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, L; Llanderal-Cázares, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Aranda-Ocampo, S

    2015-09-01

    The external and internal culturable bacterial community present in the larvae of Comadia redtenbacheri Hammerschmidt, an edible insect, was studied. Characterization of the isolates determined the existence of 18 morphotypes and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the existence of Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus safensis, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus pseudomycoides, Corynebacterium variabile, Enterococcus sp., Gordonia sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cereus. Greater diversity of bacteria was found in those larvae obtained from vendors than in those directly taken from Agave plants in nature. Many of the larvae obtained from vendors presented signs of potential disease, and after the analysis, results showed a greater bacterial community compared with the larvae with a healthy appearance. This indicates that bacterial flora can vary in accordance with how the larvae are handled during extraction, collection, and transport. PMID:26336239

  13. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  14. Evaluation of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) exotrophic larvae as live feed for marine decapod crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Repolho, Tiago Filipe Baptista da Rosa, 1974-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Marinha e Aquacultura), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 In the present study, we have evaluated 4‐arm exotrophic larvae of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) as live feed in marine decapod crustacean larviculture, in comparison to Artemia spp. naupliar stages, a commonly used live prey in marine hatcheries. We therefore investigated several key parameters to assess the potential of P. lividus plutei as l...

  15. How to kill the honey bee larva: genomic potential and virulence mechanisms of Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Marvin; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Fünfhaus, Anne; Voss, Jörn; Gollnow, Kathleen; Poppinga, Lena; Liesegang, Heiko; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Genersch, Elke; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram positive bacterial pathogen, causes American Foulbrood (AFB), which is the most serious infectious disease of honey bees. In order to investigate the genomic potential of P. larvae, two strains belonging to two different genotypes were sequenced and used for comparative genome analysis. The complete genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25430 (genotype ERIC II) consisted of 4,056,006 bp and harbored 3,928 predicted protein-encoding genes. The draft genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25719 (genotype ERIC I) comprised 4,579,589 bp and contained 4,868 protein-encoding genes. Both strains harbored a 9.7 kb plasmid and encoded a large number of virulence-associated proteins such as toxins and collagenases. In addition, genes encoding large multimodular enzymes producing nonribosomally peptides or polyketides were identified. In the genome of strain DSM 25719 seven toxin associated loci were identified and analyzed. Five of them encoded putatively functional toxins. The genome of strain DSM 25430 harbored several toxin loci that showed similarity to corresponding loci in the genome of strain DSM 25719, but were non-functional due to point mutations or disruption by transposases. Although both strains cause AFB, significant differences between the genomes were observed including genome size, number and composition of transposases, insertion elements, predicted phage regions, and strain-specific island-like regions. Transposases, integrases and recombinases are important drivers for genome plasticity. A total of 390 and 273 mobile elements were found in strain DSM 25430 and strain DSM 25719, respectively. Comparative genomics of both strains revealed acquisition of virulence factors by horizontal gene transfer and provided insights into evolution and pathogenicity. PMID:24599066

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of surface proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae and intestinal infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Cui, Jing; Liu, Xiao Lin; Jiang, Peng; Sun, Ge Ge; Zhang, Xi; Long, Shao Rong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2015-10-01

    The critical step for Trichinella spiralis infection is that muscle larvae (ML) are activated to intestinal infective larvae (IIL) and invade intestinal epithelium to further develop. The IIL is its first invasive stage, surface proteins are directly exposed to host environment and are crucial for larval invasion and development. In this study, shotgun LC-MS/MS was used to analyze surface protein profiles of ML and IIL. Totally, 41 proteins common to both larvae, and 85 ML biased and 113 IIL biased proteins. Some proteins (e.g., putative scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain protein and putative onchocystatin) were involved in host-parasite interactions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that proteins involved in generation of precursor metabolites and energy; and nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolic process were enriched in IIL at level 4. Some IIL biased proteins might play important role in larval invasion and development. qPCR results confirmed the high expression of some genes in IIL. Our study provides new insights into larval invasion, host-Trichinella interaction and for screening vaccine candidate antigens. PMID:26184560

  17. Larva migrans within scalp sebaceous gland Larva migrans em glândula sebácea do couro cabeludo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Calheiros Guimarães

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of larva migrans or serpiginous linear dermatitis on the scalp of a teenager is reported. An ancylostomid larva was found within a sebaceous gland acinus. The unusual skin site for larva migrans as well as the penetration through the sebaceous gland are highlighted. The probable mechanism by which the parasite reached the skin adnexa is discussed.Relata-se caso de larva migrans ou dermatite linear serpiginosa no couro cabeludo de adolescente, no qual o ancilostomídeo foi encontrado no interior de glândula sebácea. Destaca-se a possibilidade do helminto sediar-se em locais pouco usuais, das glândulas sebáceas serem via de penetração de larvas na pele e discute-se o provável mecanismo pelo qual o agente implantou-se no anexo cutâneo.

  18. Biodiversity of Insect Larvae in Streams at Jobolarangan Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANAN EFENDI

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect larvae are macro-invertebrate that becomes the most perfect indicator of aquatic-environmental health. Natural streams usually determined by its insect-larvae community in a good condition, in which their taxonomic diversity and richness are high. The objective of the research was to know the taxonomic diversity and richness of insect-larvae family in streams at Jobolarangan forest. The larvae were sampled using net-surber (dip-net in three location of streams, i.e.: Parkiran (1773 m asl., Mrutu (1875 m asl., and Air Terjun (1600 m asl.. The screened insect-larvae were grouped its family and counted their individual number. The diversity was counted using Shanon-Weiner diversity indices. In this research was found 12 families of insect-larvae consisted of two families of Odonata order, 3 families of Coleopteran order, and a family of Lepidoptera. Nine families identified, while the three insect-larvae i.e. 2 of Coleoptera and 1 of Lepidoptera were not identified yet. The Parkiran station indicated the highest diversity index of 0.1436.

  19. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%, followed by SP + organophosphate (OP associations (68.91–81.47% and amidine (51.35–100%. For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs, the milbemycin (94.84–100% was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21–100% and the avermectins (81.34–100%. The phenylpyrazole (PZ group had similar efficacy (99.90% to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed.

  20. Loss of in vitro Efficacy of Topical Commercial Acaricides on Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) From Antioquian Farms, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta, Jonathan M; Chaparro, Jenny J; Lopez-Arias, Anderson; Arroyave, Sara Arias; Villar, David

    2015-11-01

    In Antioquia, the problems to control Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) tick infestations have spread and ranchers claim conventional treatments are no longer effective. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of commercial topical products was tested with ticks obtained from two dairy farms in Antioquia with severe repeated infestations. About 800 engorged ticks were collected directly from animals in two separate visits at the beginning and end of the same month. The adult immersion test was used, which exposed groups of 40 ticks from each collection at the recommended concentration for five commercial products and combinations for 5 min. Efficacy was determined by comparing the reproductive index (fecundity × fertility) of each treated group to that of the control group. The values of all reproductive parameters obtained with ticks from the two collection dates were very similar. Cypermethrin (150 ppm) and amitraz (208 ppm) separately showed very low efficacies of only 10-20% at one farm, and zero at the other. The combination of chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin was the only product with an efficacy >50% at both farms and field observations corroborated to be still capable of eliminating infestations. Exposure to fluazuron at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 500 ppm for 1 min reduced fertility in all groups by ≥99%, as would be expected for very susceptible strains. However, reduction of oviposition only occurred at the 500 ppm concentration. In conclusion, there is a high degree of resistance to all products tested except for fluazuron. PMID:26336268

  1. Partial selective treatment of Rhipicephalus microplus and breed resistance variation in beef cows in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Fortes, Fernanda Silva; Buzatti, Andréia; Kloster, Fernando Staude; Sprenger, Lew Kan; Coimbra, Eliane; Soares, Luis Dorneles

    2013-02-18

    Rhipicephalus microplus infestation causes heavy losses in cattle. The majority of farmers control the cattle tick by using long-acting drugs throughout the year, which evidently increases selection pressure for drug resistance. Partial selective treatment (PST) may be used to directly reduce selection pressure by treating only the portion of the herd that is most infested. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of PST in two herds of beef cows and the effect of breed tolerance. The Santiago (n=306 animals) and the São Francisco de Assis (n=204 animals) herds were composed of up to eight pure breeds of Bos taurus and Bos indicus and their crosses and were evaluated during the first and second (8 months) tick generations. Ticks larger than 4.5mm were counted on one side of the animal, and the animals were treated when numbers exceeded 20 ticks per host. On both farms, the tick-tolerant breeds with a high proportion of B. indicus (Braford, Brangus, and Nellore) consistently carried fewer ticks than Charolais. The economical evaluation showed an average profit margin in the use of PST of 674.25% and 1394.5% on the Santiago and São Francisco de Assis farms, respectively, in comparison to all-herd treatment. These results indicate that PST is a reliable tool for health management and may be used as a standard protocol for tick control with significant economic benefits on farms. In addition, the maintenance of the highest possible tolerant/resilient breeds is also an essential factor that should be considered in today's more sustainable animal production systems. PMID:23219046

  2. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented

  3. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  4. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  5. Anguilliform larvae collected off North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.W.; Casazza, T.L.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distinctive larval stage of eels (leptocephalus) facilitates dispersal through prolonged life in the open ocean. Leptocephali are abundant and diverse off North Carolina, yet data on distributions and biology are lacking. The water column (from surface to 1,293 m) was sampled in or near the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, and Cape Fear, North Carolina during summer through fall of 1999-2005, and leptocephali were collected by neuston net, plankton net, Tucker trawl, and dip net. Additional samples were collected nearly monthly from a transect across southern Onslow Bay, North Carolina (from surface to 91 m) from April 2000 to December 2001 by bongo and neuston nets, Methot frame trawl, and Tucker trawl. Overall, 584 tows were completed, and 224 of these yielded larval eels. The 1,295 eel leptocephali collected (combining all methods and areas) represented at least 63 species (nine families). Thirteen species were not known previously from the area. Dominant families for all areas were Congridae (44% of individuals, 11 species), Ophichthidae (30% of individuals, 27 species), and Muraenidae (22% of individuals, ten species). Nine taxa accounted for 70% of the overall leptocephalus catches (in order of decreasing abundance): Paraconger caudilimbatus (Poey), Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz complex, Ariosoma balearicum (Delaroche), Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau), Callechelys muraena Jordan and Evermann, Letharchus aliculatus McCosker, Rhynchoconger flavus (Goode and Bean), Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode and Bean), Rhynchoconger gracilior (Ginsburg). The top three species represented 52% of the total eel larvae collected. Most leptocephali were collected at night (79%) and at depths > 45 m. Eighty percent of the eels collected in discrete depth Tucker trawls at night ranged from mean depths of 59-353 m. A substantial number (38% of discrete depth sample total) of larval eels were also collected at the surface (neuston net) at night. Daytime leptocephalus

  6. The larvae of decapods and fishes of Amba estuary, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Govindan, K.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.

    Larvae of fishes and decapods found in zooplankton collections from two stations (Mankule and Patalganga) in Amba estuary adjoining Mumbai harbour were studied during 1989-90 covering three seasons. The percentage contributions of decapods and fish...

  7. Microbial modulation of behavior and stress responses in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Bryda, Elizabeth C; Gillespie, Catherine H; Ericsson, Aaron C

    2016-09-15

    The influence of the microbiota on behavior and stress responses is poorly understood. Zebrafish larvae have unique characteristics that are advantageous for neuroimmune research, however, they are currently underutilized for such studies. Here, we used germ-free zebrafish to determine the effects of the microbiota on behavior and stress testing. The absence of a microbiota dramatically altered locomotor and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, characteristic responses to an acute stressor were also obliterated in larvae lacking exposure to microbes. Lastly, treatment with the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum was sufficient to attenuate anxiety-related behavior in conventionally-raised zebrafish larvae. These results underscore the importance of the microbiota in communicating to the CNS via the microbiome-gut-brain axis and set a foundation for using zebrafish larvae for neuroimmune research. PMID:27217102

  8. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; de Schryver, P.

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic...... gonadotropin), which afford gametes for in vitro fertilization studies. The maturing process may lead to mass hatchings of up to ½ million larvae of which some survive the entire yolk sac phase. However, the rearing of larvae suffers from high larval mortalities, and water quality might be a crucial factor for...... larval survival in rearing systems. By applying antibiotic treatment as a research tool, it was possible to determine the extent of microbial interference in the production of high numbers of good quality larvae. By controlling microbiota during egg and larval incubation, the egg hatching success and...

  9. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors in honeybee larval infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae se...

  10. Maya Index and Larva Density Aedes Aegypti Toward Dengue Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sang G. Purnama; Tri Baskoro

    2012-01-01

    South Denpasar District was of there as with the highest dengue cases in Bali province. The number of mosquito breeding places and larvae density become risk factor that influenced the spreading of mosquitoes. Maya index was an indicator to measure the amount of waterreservoirs can be breeding places for mosquitoes. Knowing the relationship between maya index and density of larvae and pupae of Ae.aegypti toward dengue infection in South Denpasar District. The study was observational analytic ...

  11. Decapod larvae dynamics on Berlengas Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO) - Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lénia Da Fonseca Alexandre Rato; Henrique Queiroga

    2014-01-01

    Berlengas Biosphere Reserve of UNESCO (BBR) is located on the west coast of Portugal and is an important hotspot of biodiversity that needs to be described and monitored. Despite that, few or none studies had focus on decapod larvae populations. The present study intends to evaluate spatial and temporal dynamics of decapod larvae and its relation with oceanographic features. Sampling campaigns were performed between June 2010 and August 2012. Zooplankton samples were collected on a Bongo...

  12. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. ...

  13. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen,; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; De Schryver, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which afford gametes for in vitro fertilization studies. The maturing process may lead to mass hatchings of up to ½ million larvae of which some survive the entire yolk sac phase. Howe...

  14. Recording Field Potentials From Zebrafish Larvae During Escape Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Monesson-Olson, Bryan D.; Troconis, Eileen L.; Trapani, Josef G.

    2014-01-01

    Among vertebrates, startle responses are a ubiquitous method for alerting, and avoiding or escaping from alarming or dangerous stimuli. In zebrafish larvae, fast escape behavior is easily evoked through either acoustic or tactile stimuli. For example, a light touch to the head will excite trigeminal neurons that in turn excite a large reticulospinal neuron in the hindbrain called the Mauthner cell (M-cell). The M-cell action potential then travels down the contralateral trunk of the larva exc...

  15. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  16. Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L.; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W.; Crandall, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remar...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gende, L. B.; Pires, Sância; Fernandez, N.J.; Damiani, M; Churio, M.S.; Fritz, R.; Eguaras, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    American foulbrood is a serious bacterial disease that affects Apis mellifera colonies; the causative agent is Paenibacillus larvae [1 ]. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oils against P. larvae. Oils from 21 botanical species were analyzed by gas chromatography (CG and CG/EM). All essential oils were classified according to the composition of their main components in two groups: benzene ring compounds (BRC) and terpene com...

  18. Using Real-time PCR for Identification of Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was identification of Paenibacillus larvae that causes American foulbrood disease (AFB in colony of bees (Apis mellifera. Bacterial isolates originated from honey samples, because presence of P. larvae in honey is treated as early diagnostic of AFB. Intense proteolytic activity and no catalase activity are typical for Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria P. larvae. We diluted honey (1:2, heated at 80 °C for 10 min and inoculated on semiselective medium MYPGP agar with nalidixic acid. Plates were cultivated at 37 °C for 48 – 72 h under the aerobic conditions. Selected colonies were transferred on MYT agar and cultivated 24 h. We analysed 30 honey samples and found 27 bacterial isolates. All isolates were Gram positive and mainly rod-shaped. No catalase activity was documented for 6 from 27 isolates. Identification was finished by real-time PCR to detect the 16S rRNA gene of Paenibacillus larvae with real-time cycler Rotor-Gene 6000. As DNA template we used genomic DNA isolated with commercial kit and DNA lysate obtaining by boiled cells. We used 2 strains of P. larvae from CCM (Czech Collection of Microorganisms as positive control. The reliable method of detection P. larvae has important rule for beekeeping.

  19. Differential immunological responses induced by infection with female muscle larvae and newborn larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Asano, K; Liu, M Y; Takahashi, Y

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella pseudospiralis infection can modulate the immunological response of autoimmune and allergic diseases leading to the amelioration of these diseases. The present study was undertaken to compare immunity induced by adult worms and muscle larvae. Higher eosinophilia was observed from newborn larva (NBL) infection than from adult females while higher levels of IgE were observed in adult female infections over those induced by NBL. The IgG1 response to ES antigen was more prominent in infections with adult females. The IgG2 responses to larval crude antigen were prominent against NBL. The Th2 cytokine, IL-4 cytokine was elevated in adult female infection following re-stimulation with adult crude antigen and ES. Both infections induced strong IFN-γ responses. The present study demonstrates that adult female worms induced stronger Th2 responses (IgG1, IgE and IL-4 responses) than NBL. Further examination of the mechanisms involved in immune modulation may be helpful for identifying Trichinella-derived molecules responsible for regulating autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:23433605

  20. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera) as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae), an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera) Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae), um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Trivinho-Strixino; Fabio Laurindo da Silva; Francisco Valente-Neto

    2012-01-01

    First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera) as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae), an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera). This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes) were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalop...

  1. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera. This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalopteran larvae had 24 Temnocephala sp. associated. Furthermore, eight of these Temnocephala worms had chironomid larvae in their gut contents, an interaction previously unknown. Gut content analyses revealed Corynoneura as the commonest chironomid, but larvae of Larsia, Rheotanytarsus and Tanytarsus were recorded as well. This study included Corydalus and Protochauliodes as hosts for Temnocephala, which might be important for this worm dispersion and population dynamics.

  2. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  3. Amostragem por larva-única na vigilância de Aedes aegypti Single-larva sampling for Aedes aegypti surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Bracco

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a metodologia de amostragem por larva-única na vigilância entomológica do Aedes aegypti, foram pesquisados domicílios do Município de Araraquara, SP (Brasil. Nos criadouros que continham larvas de Aedes uma delas foi coletada. Como controle, após a coleta da larva-única, todas as larvas foram coletadas para identificação posterior. Esse processo foi repetido no laboratório. Dos 447 domicílios visitados, apenas 12 foram considerados positivos e 20 criadouros foram identificados; destes, 13 continham larvas de Aedes; 5, larvas de Aedes e Culex e 2, larvas de Culex. Os resultados mostram o reconhecimento correto, no campo, de todos os criadouros, evidenciando que o método poderia ser utilizado na vigilância entomológica de municípios sem infestação domiciliar ou infestados apenas com uma única espécie de Aedes.Buildings in Araraquara city, Southeastern Brazil, were searched during a year for the presence of Aedes larvae using single larva sampling in order to check the single-larva methodology. In those breeding places in wich Aedes larvae were found, one of them was collected. As a control, after the single larva had been collected, all the larvae from the breeding place were collected for later identification. This process was repeated in the laboratory. Of the 447 domiciles searched, 12 were considered positive and 20 breeding places were found. Of the breeding places, 13 contained Aedes larvae, 5 both Aedes and Culex larvae and 2 Culex larvae only. The results show that all the breeding places in the field were properly recognited showing the method may be used for Aedes surveillance in cities infested with one species only or without any domiciliary infestation.

  4. Descrição da larva de Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae Description of the larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Santos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius, 1775 is described and figured based on exuviae of last instar of reared specimes collected on still waters in São João river, Silva Jardim (22º38' - 42º18', Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The relationship among the larva of D. obscura and larvae of Celithemis are discussed.

  5. Unexpected high losses of Anopheles gambiae larvae due to rainfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krijn P Paaijmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immature stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae experience high mortality, but its cause is poorly understood. Here we study the impact of rainfall, one of the abiotic factors to which the immatures are frequently exposed, on their mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that rainfall significantly affected larval mosquitoes by flushing them out of their aquatic habitat and killing them. Outdoor experiments under natural conditions in Kenya revealed that the additional nightly loss of larvae caused by rainfall was on average 17.5% for the youngest (L1 larvae and 4.8% for the oldest (L4 larvae; an additional 10.5% (increase from 0.9 to 11.4% of the L1 larvae and 3.3% (from 0.1 to 3.4% of the L4 larvae were flushed away and larval mortality increased by 6.9% (from 4.6 to 11.5% and 1.5% (from 4.1 to 5.6% for L1 and L4 larvae, respectively, compared to nights without rain. On rainy nights, 1.3% and 0.7% of L1 and L4 larvae, respectively, were lost due to ejection from the breeding site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that immature populations of malaria mosquitoes suffer high losses during rainfall events. As these populations are likely to experience several rain showers during their lifespan, rainfall will have a profound effect on the productivity of mosquito breeding sites and, as a result, on the transmission of malaria. These findings are discussed in the light of malaria risk and changing rainfall patterns in response to climate change.

  6. REARING CARP LARVAE (Cyprinus carpio IN CLOSED RECIRCULATORY SYSTEM (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Opačak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Postembryonic rearing of carp larvae in closed recirculatory system was conducted in 2009 at the fish farm Ribnjak LLC, Donji Miholjac, Croatia. The research was conducted in two test groups (A and B with three iterations in each with a control group (C. Test group A (3 tanks x 250 l consisted of 150 000 larvae (density of 200 larvae•l-1, test group B (3 tanks x 500 l consisted of 600 000 larvae (density of 400 larvae•l-1, and the control group (C was a mud fish pond T-6 which was stocked by 800 000 larvae•ha-1 under standard production conditions. In this research, basic physical and chemical water parameters were controlled (temperature, oxygen, pH, total ammonia and nitrites. Initial measuring of carp larvae total length (TL was conducted prior to their placement into tanks (N=120. On the fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth day of research 20 larvae (N=140 were taken out of every tank as well as out of control group and measured. Feeding with live feed began on the third day after hatching (larval TL 6.00±0.36 mm. Ten minutes after feeding live feed to larvae for the first time, 20 larvae (N=120 were taken out of every tank and a high portion of larvae that accepted live feed (89.17±3.76% was determined by a magnifying glass. Feeding artificial feed began on the seventh day after the hatching. After ten minutes, a high portion of larvae who accepted artificial feed (96.67±2.58% was determined. Since the end of the research, the determined length increment (ITL per day was 0.41±0.04 mm, a very high survival rate was established (group A: 96%, group B: 93%. Feeding frequency was four times a day in five-hour intervals (at 06:00, 11:00,16:00 and 21:00 hours. The research was terminated after ten feeding days due to deteriorating condition of zoohygienic filter. The total of 3807 g of live feed and 1080 g of artificial feed was used.

  7. Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich

    2009-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

  8. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments. PMID:25195467

  9. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The migratory pattern of Toxocara canis was investigated following infection of pigs with 60 000 infective eggs. Groups of six pigs were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 28 days after infection (p.i.), and the number of larvae in selected organs and muscles was determined by digestion. A group of uninfec...... in the pig. However, the importance of the pig as a paratenic host is probably minor, because of the relatively early death of most of the larvae....... uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around the...... recovered from the brain on days 14 and 21, with a maximum on day 14 p.i. No larvae were found in the eyes. Severe pathological changes were observed in the liver and lungs, especially on day 14 p.i.; also, development of granulomas was observed in the kidneys. Finally, a strong specific antibody response...

  10. Larva migrans in India: veterinary and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajnish; Singh, B B; Gill, J P S

    2015-12-01

    Despite an important public health problem in developing world like India, larva migrans remains a neglected zoonosis. Cutaneous larva migrans, Visceral larva migrans, and Ocular larva migrans are the important clinical manifestations seen in humans in India. Although many nematode parasites have the ability to cause the infection, the disease primarily occurs due to Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis. Presence of the infection in dogs is an indirect indication of its incidence in humans in endemic regions. In India, sporadic cases of this neglected but important parasitic zoonosis are the main implications of lack of diagnostic methods and under-reporting of human cases. Tropical climate in addition to overcrowding, poor hygiene and sanitation problems, stray dogs, open defecation by dogs and improper faecal disposal are the important factors for persistence of this disease in the country. Sanitary and hygienic measures, improved diagnostic techniques and surveillance programme in dogs as well as humans should be adopted for its effective control. Comprehensive collaborative efforts by physicians and veterinarians are required to tackle this problem in order to attain optimal health for humans, animals and the environment. Moreover, recognition of larva migrans as an important public health problem is the most important step to combat this neglected disease in developing countries like India. PMID:26688621

  11. Comparative analysis of Paenibacillus larvae genotypes isolated in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Douglas W

    2015-08-01

    Ninety-six strains of Paenibacillus larvae, causative agent of American foulbrood in honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae, collected from Connecticut, USA (CT), honey bees, and 12 P. larvae strains not from CT, were genotyped via ERIC-PCR and XbaI-RFLP analysis. All CT-isolates, five strains isolated in South America, three strains from North America (not CT), and one strain isolated in Australia grouped into the ERIC I genotype. Three P. larvae formerly subsp. pulvifaciens strains grouped into ERIC III and IV genotypes. XbaI-RFLP genotyping showed three genotypes within the CT-isolates, and two were identified as XbaI-RFLP Type I and III. The third XbaI-RFLP genotype (Type Ib) represented one of four new XbaI-RFLP genotypes identified. Comparison of genotype results for the P. larvae strains tested was used to develop a correlation between ERIC-PCR genotyping and XbaI-RFLP genotyping. Sixteen CT-isolates were tetracycline-resistant and demonstrated PCR amplification using oligonucleotide primers for tetL. All 16 isolates grouped within XbaI-RFLP Type Ib, suggesting limited introduction of a tetracycline-resistant strain into CT. PMID:25929327

  12. Developmental arrest in Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae causes high expression of enzymes involved in thymidylate biosynthesis, similar to that found in Trichinella muscle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wińska, P; Gołos, B; Cieśla, J; Zieliński, Z; Fraczyk, T; Wałajtys-Rode, E; Rode, W

    2005-08-01

    Crude extract specific activities of thymidylate synthase, dUTPase, thymidine kinase and dihydrofolate reductase were high during the development of Caenorhabditis elegans, the dauer larva activities being similar to those previously determined in Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis muscle larvae (with the exception of thymidine kinase, not detected in Trichinella). High thymidylate synthase expression in developmentally arrested larvae, demonstrated also at the mRNA and protein levels, is in agreement with a global cell cycle arrest of dauer larvae and indicates this unusual cell cycle regulation pattern can be shared by developmentally arrested larvae of C. elegans and the two Trichnella species. Hence, the phenomenon may be characteristic for developmentally arrested larvae of different nematodes, rather than specific for the parasitic Trichinella muscle larvae. Endogenous C. elegans thymidylate synthase was purified and its molecular properties compared with those of the recombinant protein, expression of the latter in E. coli cells confirming the NCBI database sequence identity. PMID:16145941

  13. Paenibacillus larvae-Directed Bacteriophage HB10c2 and Its Application in American Foulbrood-Affected Honey Bee Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beims, Hannes; Wittmann, Johannes; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Rohde, Christine; Günther, Gabi; Rohde, Manfred; von der Ohe, Werner; Steinert, Michael

    2015-08-15

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most serious honey bee brood bacterial disease. We isolated and characterized P. larvae-directed bacteriophages and developed criteria for safe phage therapy. Whole-genome analysis of a highly lytic virus of the family Siphoviridae (HB10c2) provided a detailed safety profile and uncovered its lysogenic nature and a putative beta-lactamase-like protein. To rate its antagonistic activity against the pathogens targeted and to specify potentially harmful effects on the bee population and the environment, P. larvae genotypes ERIC I to IV, representatives of the bee gut microbiota, and a broad panel of members of the order Bacillales were analyzed for phage HB10c2-induced lysis. Breeding assays with infected bee larvae revealed that the in vitro phage activity observed was not predictive of the real-life scenario and therapeutic efficacy. On the basis of the disclosed P. larvae-bacteriophage coevolution, we discuss the future prospects of AFB phage therapy. PMID:26048941

  14. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both horizontal and vertical variability in hydrography and abundances of potential copepod prey The investigation was carried out at a frontal zone along the Norwegian Trench in the northern North Sea, and was based on a series of cross-bathymetric sampling transects. Tows with a large ring net and an opening-closing net were used for describing fish larval horizontal and vertical distributions, while a submersible pump was used for describing vertical distributions of copepods. Hydrographic profiles and current velocity measurements were used to outline variability in temperature, salinity and current structure. Measurements demonstrated a distinct bottom front at the southern slope of the Trench with deepening isopycnals and high chlorphyll a concentrations. Abundances of both gadoid fish larvae and copepods peaked in vicinity of the front around mid-depth, and findings points to an inter-connection between the vertical and horizontal distributions of each species. However, the three-dimensional pattern of distribution differed significantly among species of larvae and species of copepods. The study underlines the complexity of bio-physical interrelationships in the frontal zone, and indicates that the zone encompasses specific ecological niches to which each species of fish larvae is adapted.

  15. Nutrient effects of broodstocks on the larvae in Patinopecten yessoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yucen; Zhang, Tao; Qiu, Tianlong; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Xiaofang

    2015-07-01

    Patinopecten yessoensis is a commercial valuable species. This study deals with the effect of nutrient effects of the broodstock (mainly ovaries) on the larvae. Concentrations of total carbohydrate, total protein and total lipid in the gonads of P. yessoensis from three Hatcheries (Hatchery 1, Hatchery 2, and Hatchery 3) were determined before and after spawning. The relationship between the nutrient concentration in ovaries before spawning (BC) and that of larvae (LC) was assessed as well as the change in nutrient levels in ovaries after spawning (DC). Results indicate that the BC of total carbohydrate (7.66%) and total lipid (14.48%) in ovaries were significantly higher than in testes (5.20%, 5.20% respectively), whereas the BC of total protein in the ovaries was lower (61.76%) than in the testes (81.67%). The different gonadal composition suggests the different nutrient demands between male and female broodstocks in breeding season. Patinopecten yessoensis gonads contained a higher proportion of lipids, in comparison to other bivalves, which might be a response to the low ambient water temperatures. Further analysis of fatty acids showed that the concentrations of n-3PUFA, EPA and DHA in larvae (LC) were positively correlated with BC and DC, indicating the significant nutrient influence of broodstocks on the larvae. As these fatty acids are important in metabolism, and have been demonstrated to be influential to the viability of the larvae, larval growth and the settlement, spat growth, and juvenile survival in many bivalves, they could possibly be used as indexes to evaluate, and predict condition of broodstocks and larvae.

  16. Culture of Eriocheir sinensis Larvae in Ponds in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang RUAN; Liangcheng HU; Hai ZHOU; Dawen MA; Yabin TANG

    2016-01-01

    A total of 15 pools were selected from a greenhouse, and they were randomly and evenly divided into three groups. In each group, one stocking density of Eriocheir sinensis was arranged. The results showed that after 45-d culture, the crab number per kilogram reached about 300 with survival rate of about 20%; the initial stocking density had significantly effect on the body size of E. sinensis on sel , instead on the survival rate of E. sinensis larvae. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct the culture of E. sinensis larvae in a pool in greenhouse.

  17. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Bava; Lucia G Gonzalez; Celeste M Seley; Gisela P Lpez; Alcides Troncoso

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis. CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion, intense itching and history of foreign travel. CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can be easily prevented by wearing 'protective' footwear. A case of CLM is described in this article.

  18. Sun-Compass Orientation in Mediterranean Fish Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Faillettaz; Agathe Blandin; Claire B. Paris; Philippe Koubbi; Jean-Olivier Irisson

    2015-01-01

    Mortality is very high during the pelagic larval phase of fishes but the factors that determine recruitment success remain unclear and hard to predict. Because of their bipartite life history , larvae of coastal species have to head back to the shore at the end of their pelagic episode , to settle. These settlement-stage larvae are known to display strong sensory and motile abilities, but most work has been focused on tropical, insular environments and on the influence of coast-related cues o...

  19. Catching large herring larvae: Gear applicability and larval distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1988-01-01

    third when speed was increased by one knot. The efficiency of the MIK did not change in the speed range investigated, and this gear was in every case more efficient than the IKMT. Larvae were found to be patchily distributed at the scale of sampling, and the degree of patchiness did not increase when...... stations 5 nm apart were compared. At night, herring larvae are confined to the 20-40-metre water layer, whereas a migration to upper water layers at dawn and dusk was observed....

  20. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Bava; Lucia; G; Gonzalez; Celeste; M; Seley; Gisela; P; Lopez; Alcides; Troncoso

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans(CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis.CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas,and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it.The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion,intense itching and history of foreign travel.CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can be easily prevented by wearing ’protective’ footwear.A case of CLM is described in this article.

  1. A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    BAVA Javier; Gonzalez, Lucia G; Seley, Celeste M; López, Gisela P; Troncoso, Alcides

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis. CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion, intense itching and history of foreign travel. CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can ...

  2. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, H.

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  3. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera. This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalopteran larvae had 24 Temnocephala sp. associated. Furthermore, eight of these Temnocephala worms had chironomid larvae in their gut contents, an interaction previously unknown. Gut content analyses revealed Corynoneura as the commonest chironomid, but larvae of Larsia, Rheotanytarsus and Tanytarsus were recorded as well. This study included Corydalus and Protochauliodes as hosts for Temnocephala, which might be important for this worm dispersion and population dynamics.Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera. Este estudo constitui o primeiro registro de Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte em larvas de Megaloptera, como um possível predador de larvas de Chironomidae. Vinte e oito larvas de Corydalidae (Corydalus e Protochauliodes foram examinadas sobre estereomicroscópio na busca por Temnocephala e larvas de Chironomidae, das quais cinco larvas de Megaloptera continham 24 Temnocephala sp. associadas. Além disso, oito Temnocephala possuíam em seu conteúdo estomacal larvas de Chironomidae, uma interação desconhecida anteriormente. A análise do conteúdo estomacal revelou Corynoneura como o quironomídeo mais abundante, e também algumas larvas de Larsia, Rheotanytarsus e Tanytarsus. Este estudo inclui Corydalus e Protochauliodes como hospedeiros de Temnocephala, os quais podem ser importantes

  4. Phage Therapy is Effective in Protecting Honeybee Larvae from American Foulbrood Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani-Nezami, Sara; LeBlanc, Lucy; Yost, Diane G; Amy, Penny S

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood disease has a major impact on honeybees (Apis melifera) worldwide. It is caused by a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Paenibacillus larvae. The disease can only affect larval honeybees, and the bacterial endospores are the infective unit of the disease. Antibiotics are not sufficient to combat the disease due to increasing resistance among P. larvae strains. Because of the durability and virulence of P. larvae endospores, infections spread rapidly, and beekeepers are often forced to burn beehives and equipment. To date, very little information is available on the use of bacteriophage therapy in rescuing and preventing American foulbrood disease, therefore the goal of this study was to test the efficacy of phage therapy against P. larvae infection. Out of 32 previously isolated P. larvae phages, three designated F, WA, and XIII were tested on artificially reared honeybee larvae infected with P. larvae strain NRRL B-3650 spores. The presence of P. larvae DNA in dead larvae was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification. Survival rates for phage-treated larvae were approximately the same as for larvae never infected with spores (84%), i.e., the phages had no deleterious effect on the larvae. Additionally, prophylactic treatment of larvae with phages before spore infection was more effective than administering phages after infection, although survival in both cases was higher than spores alone (45%). Further testing to determine the optimal combination and concentration of phages, and testing in actual hive conditions are needed. PMID:26136497

  5. Low-molecular-weight metabolites secreted by Paenibacillus larvae as potential virulence factors of American foulbrood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Hedwig-Annabell; Fuchs, Sebastian W; Bode, Helge B; Grünewald, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae causes a severe and highly infective bee disease, American foulbrood (AFB). Despite the large economic losses induced by AFB, the virulence factors produced by P. larvae are as yet unknown. To identify such virulence factors, we experimentally infected young, susceptible larvae of the honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica, with different P. larvae isolates. Honeybee larvae were reared in vitro in 24-well plates in the laboratory after isolation from the brood comb. We identified genotype-specific differences in the etiopathology of AFB between the tested isolates of P. larvae, which were revealed by differences in the median lethal times. Furthermore, we confirmed that extracts of P. larvae cultures contain low-molecular-weight compounds, which are toxic to honeybee larvae. Our data indicate that P. larvae secretes metabolites into the medium with a potent honeybee toxic activity pointing to a novel pathogenic factor(s) of P. larvae. Genome mining of P. larvae subsp. larvae BRL-230010 led to the identification of several biosynthesis gene clusters putatively involved in natural product biosynthesis, highlighting the potential of P. larvae to produce such compounds. PMID:24509920

  6. Monthly variations of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera: Oestridae larvae infesting donkeys in Egypt: Morphological and molecular identification of third stage larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosaad A. Hilali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and monthly intensity of Rhinoestrus (R spp. among donkeys slaughtered at Giza Zoo abattoir, Egypt. A total of 144 donkeys were examined at postmortem through two visits per month from January 2010 to December 2010. All donkeys were infested with one or more larval stages during all months of the examination period (100%. The 1st and 2nd stage larvae (L1 and L2 were mostly observed in the turbinate bones and seldom in the nasal passages, whereas the 3rd stage larvae (L3 were observed mostly in ethmoid and lamina cribrosa and rarely in nasal passages and pharynx. The highest monthly intensity of infestation with the total number of larval stages was recorded in January and August, while the lowest occurred in September. L1 was observed during all months with two peaks in January and June. L2 occurred from February to April, July, and August. L3 was present from March to May, August, and September. The ranked size of infestation with the total number of the 3 larval stages of Rhinoestrus spp. showed that a total of 107 donkeys had 1–10 larvae; 34 had 11–30 larvae; and 3 harbored 31–50 larvae. The morphology and molecular characterization of the third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. were investigated. Morphologically, two morphotypes (1 and 2 of Rhinoestrus spp. (R. usbekistanicus like and the other R. purpureus like were reported. Whereas molecular sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome-oxidase subunit I showed 99% homology with those of R. usbekistanicus. In conclusion, Rhinoestrus spp. present in Egypt is mainly R. usbekistanicus, which includes two morphotypes, R. usbekistanicus like and R. purpureus like.

  7. 新疆南疆微小牛蜱Bm86/Bm91双基因原核表达载体的构建%Construction of Prokaryotic Expression Vector of Bm86 and Bm91 Dual Genes of Boophilus microplus in South Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代艳艳; 赵丽; 周桐; 罗福江; 周玉琴; 王帅; 刘永宏

    2014-01-01

    为构建微小牛蜱Bm86和Bm91双基因原核表达载体,以新疆生产建设兵团塔里木畜牧科技重点实验室获得的Bm86和Bm91克隆基因阳性菌或质粒DNA为模板,参照GenBank登录的微小牛蜱Bm86和Bm91基因序列和所用载体序列,设计可以扩增Bm86和Bm91基因完整阅读框架的引物,然后对新疆南疆微小牛蜱Bm86和Bm91基因进行PCR扩增、纯化、酶切后连接,构建双基因重组质粒pET-32a-Bm并鉴定.结果显示,成功构建Bm86和Bm91双基因重组质粒pET-32a-Bm,经测序鉴定和初始获得的Bm86和Bm91基因序列一致,未发生变异.

  8. The Blue Neck Syndrome : Nematode Larvae in Skin Scrapings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugathan P

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-inflammatory type of pigmentation of the neck associated with nematode larvae on affected skin is described. The name ′Blue neck syndrome′ is suggested for this condition because of the characteristic clinical appearance. Antinematode agents such as albendazole and neem oil have been found to be effective in the treatment.

  9. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  10. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Qin, Fang; Xu, Peng; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-02-01

    The enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl by a single dose of exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory condition were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. Exposure of enantiopure R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae exhibited significant enantiomerization, with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa, which might be attributed to the chiral pesticide catalyzed by a certain enzyme in Tenebrio molitor larvae. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 d. In addition, bioaccumulation of rac-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of S-metalaxyl. These results showed that enantioselectivity was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of metalaxyl enantiomers. PMID:24302540

  11. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  12. CHIRONOMUS PLUMOSUS LARVAE - A SUITABLE NUTRIENT FOR FRESHWATER FARMED FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bogut

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude protein, fat, water, ash, dry matter and essential amino and fatty acids were analyzed from freshly collected Chironomus plumosus larvae in order to evaluate their suitability as a component for farmed fish diet. The analyses were performed in intact living organisms and in the dry matter. Essential amino acids were determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer, while fatty acids were determined by Chronopack CP 9000 chromatograph with flame ionization detector. Crude protein content was 7.6% and 55.7% in fresh larvae and dry matter, respectively, being a value adequate for growth needs of all freshwater fish sorts and categories. Most essential amino acids in fresh larvae and dry matter are present in quantities adequate for feeding majority of omnivorous and carnivorous freshwater fish species. Crude fat content was 1.3% and 9.7% in fresh larvae and dry matter, respectively, being energetically sufficient for all warm-water living fish. The crude fat contains 26.12% saturated, 30.42% monounsaturated and 34.03% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Among the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, the most abundant is linolenic (7.21%, followed by eicosapentanoic (4.36%, docosahexaenoic (2.49% and docosapentaenoic (1.16% acid. The measured quantity of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids (essential for omnivorous fish, as well as ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acid ratio (0.81, completely meets nutritional requirements of carp and tench.

  13. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-07-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. PMID:26587275

  14. Nonlinear ecological processes driving the distribution of marine decapod larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M.; Carbonell, A.; Tor, A.; Alvarez-Berastegui, D.; Balbín, R.; dos Santos, A.; Alemany, F.

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of the natural processes lead to many nonlinear interacting factors that influence the distribution and survival of marine pelagic species, particularly in their larval phase. The management of these ecosystems requires techniques that unveil those interactions by studying the system globally, including all relevant variables and combining both community and environmental data in a single step. Specifically, we apply an unsupervised neural network, the Self-Organising Map (SOM), to a combined dataset of environmental and decapod larvae community data from the Balearic sea, obtained in two years with contrasting environmental scenarios, as an Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) technique that provides a global and more detailed view of both the environmental processes and their influence on the distribution of such planktonic community. We examine the parental influence on the initial larval distribution by aggregating data by adult habitat, which also increments the signal to noise ratio (mean data patterns over noise due to outliers or measurement errors), and consider the distribution of larvae by development stage (as a proxy of age and hence of potential dispersion). The joined study of parental effect, drifting or concentration events determined by dynamical processes in the whole water column, and lifespan, draws the possible paths followed by larvae, and highlights the more influencing variables in their distribution. Investigation of the different aspects of dynamic height (absolute values, gradients or edges and correlations) clarified the effect of the oceanographic processes on decapods' larvae.

  15. Skeletogenesis in sea urchin larvae under modified gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthy, H.-J.; Gasset, G.; Tixador, R.; Eche, B.; Schatt, P.; Dessommes, A.; Marthy, U.; Bacchieri, R.

    From many points of view, skeletogenesis in sea urchins has been well described. Based on this scientific background and considering practical aspects of sea urchin development (i.e. availability of material, size of larvae, etc.), we wanted to know whether orderly skeletogenesis requires the presence of gravity. The objective has been approached by three experiments successfully performed under genuine microgravity conditions (in the STS-65 IML-2 mission of 1994; in the Photon-10 IBIS mission of 1995 and in the STS-76 S/MM-03 mission of 1996). Larvae of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis were allowed to develop in microgravity conditions for several days from blastula stage onwards (onset of skeletogenesis). At the end of the missions, the recovered skeletal structures were studied with respect to their mineral composition, architecture and size. Live larvae were also recovered for post-flight culture. The results obtained clearly show that the process of mineralisation is independent of gravity: that is, the skeletogenic cells differentiate correctly in microgravity. However, abnormal skeleton architectures were encountered, particularly in the IML-2 mission, indicating that the process of positioning of the skeletogenic cells may be affected, directly or indirectly, by environmental factors, including gravity. Larvae exposed to microgravity from blastula to prism/early pluteus stage for about 2 weeks (IBIS mission), developed on the ground over the next 2 months into normal metamorphosing individuals.

  16. Genome Sequences of Six Paenibacillus larvae Siphoviridae Phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Susan; Bruff, Emily; DeFoor, William; Dums, Jacob; Groth, Adam; Hatfield, Taylor; Iyer, Aruna; Joshi, Kalyani; McAdams, Sarah; Miles, Devon; Miller, Delanie; Oufkir, Abdoullah; Raynor, Brinkley; Riley, Sara; Roland, Shelby; Rozier, Horace; Talley, Sarah; Miller, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Six sequenced and annotated genomes of Paenibacillus larvae phages isolated from the combs of American foulbrood-diseased beehives are 37 to 45 kbp and have approximately 42% G+C content and 60 to 74 protein-coding genes. Phage Lily is most divergent from Diva, Rani, Redbud, Shelly, and Sitara. PMID:26089405

  17. The Colonization Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in Tilapia Larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giatsis, C.; Sipkema, D.; Smidt, H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an e

  18. Insect Larvae: A New Platform to Produce Commercial Recombinant Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targovnik, Alexandra M; Arregui, Mariana B; Bracco, Lautaro F; Urtasun, Nicolas; Baieli, Maria F; Segura, Maria M; Simonella, Maria A; Fogar, Mariela; Wolman, Federico J; Cascone, Osvaldo; Miranda, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    In Biotechnology, the expression of recombinant proteins is a constantly growing field and different hosts are used for this purpose. Some valuable proteins cannot be produced using traditional systems. Insects from the order Lepidoptera infected with recombinant baculovirus have appeared as a good choice to express high levels of proteins, especially those with post-translational modifications. Lepidopteran insects, which are extensively distributed in the world, can be used as small protein factories, the new biofactories. Species like Bombyx mori (silkworm) have been analyzed in Asian countries to produce a great number of recombinant proteins for use in basic and applied science and industry. Many proteins expressed in this larva have been commercialized. Several recombinant proteins produced in silkworms have already been commercialized. On the other hand, species like Spodoptera frugiperda, Heliothis virescens, Rachiplusia nu, Helicoverpa zea and Trichoplusia ni are widely distributed in both the occidental world and Europe. The expression of recombinant proteins in larvae has the advantage of its low cost in comparison with insect cell cultures. A wide variety of recombinant proteins, including enzymes, hormones and vaccines, have been efficiently expressed with intact biological activity. The expression of pharmaceutically proteins, using insect larvae or cocoons, has become very attractive. This review describes the use of insect larvae as an alternative to produce commercial recombinant proteins. PMID:26956108

  19. Performance of two Bm86 antigen vaccin formulation against tick using crossbreed bovines in stall test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Cattle tick control remains a serious problem for cattle farms in Brazil due to the limited success achieved with chemicals. In Brazil, the use of vaccines for tick control associated with the use of chemicals and pasture rotation may open possibilities for integrated control. However, it is important to know whether regional Boophilus microplus strains are sensitive to antibodies produced by the available antigens: antigen preparations Gavac™ and TickGard(PLUS). The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of two Bm86 antigen vaccine formulation against tick using crossbred bovines in stall test antigen against a regional B. microplus strain. The experiment was carried out in central Brazil (20 degrees 27'S, 54 degrees 37'W). A trial was conducted in stall conditions on crossbred cattle under controlled infestation. Two groups of 16 animals each, homogeneous in weight and sex, were vaccinated with Gavac™ or TickGard(PLUS), two groups of eight animals as control. Challenge was performed on three alternate days, with 5,000 larvae each time, beginning 21 days after the second injection. The antibody response was measured by ELISA and vaccinated animals presented immune response considering IgG levels. The results showed 49.2% and 46.4% protection efficacy for Gavac™ and TickGard(PLUS), respectively. PMID:16978472

  20. The potential for ontogenetic vertical migration by larvae of bathyal echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Cm; Devin, Mg; Jaeckle, Wb; Ekaratne, Suk; George, Sb

    1996-01-01

    Planktotrophy is a relatively common developmental mode among bathyal and abyssal echinoderms, but the sources of food used by deep-sea planktotrophic larvae remain generally unknown. Very few deep-sea echinoderm larvae have been collected in plankton samples, so we do not know whether larvae migrate to the euphotic zone to feed or if they rely on bacteria or detritus at greater depths. We approached this question indirectly by investigating whether larvae of bathyal echinoids can tolerate th...

  1. S1 guideline diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous larva migrans (creeping disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Sunderkötter, C.; von Stebut, E.; Schöfer, H.; Mempel, M; Reinel, D; Wolf, G.; Meyer, V.; Nast, A; Burchard, GD

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans is a skin infection with a typical clinical appearance caused by active penetration of nematode larvae and their subsequent epidermal migration. The typical clinical appearance is caused by hookworm larvae, usually Ancylostoma braziliense but sometimes other canine or feline types of hookworm.This guideline aims to enhance patient care by optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of infections due to creeping disease (cutaneous larva migrans) and to raise awareness among ...

  2. Interrelationships among egg, larvae and maternal characteristics in Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus

    OpenAIRE

    Rajab Mohammad Nazari; Mohammad Reza Ghomi; Laura Aquiloni

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe the correlations among egg, larvae and maternal characteristics of Persian sturgeon. A total of 41 females were used and the variables including fertilization rate, incubation survival rate, larvae survival rate during yolk sac absorption (before feeding), and larvae survival rate after first feeding were determined. As a result, fertilization rate was positively correlated with three variables: incubation survival, larvae survival during yolk sac absorption, a...

  3. Predation on anchovy larvae by a pelagic chaetognatha, Sagitta nagae in the Sagami Bay, central Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Terazaki, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Anchovy larvae were detected in the gut of Sagitta nagae collected near Oshima Island in Sagami Bay during the night on 23 May 1996. S. nagae attacked the anchovy larvae actively when they encountered the aggregation of larvae. Generally, large animals consumed larger prey and there is a good correlation between body length of S. nagae and their prey size. Many S. nagae caught anchovy larvae from tail.

  4. Monitoring tectal neuronal activities and motor behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, Germán; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2013-09-01

    To understand how visuomotor behaviors are controlled by the nervous system, it is necessary to monitor the activity of large populations of neurons with single-cell resolution over a large area of the brain in a relatively simple, behaving organism. The zebrafish larva, a small lower vertebrate with transparent skin, serves as an excellent model for this purpose. Immediately after the larva hatches, it needs to catch prey and avoid predators. This strong evolutionary pressure leads to the rapid development of functional sensory systems, particularly vision. By 5 d postfertilization (dpf), tectal cells show distinct visually evoked patterns of activation, and the larvae are able to perform a variety of visuomotor behaviors. During the early larval stage, zebrafish breathe mainly through the skin and can be restrained under the microscope using a drop of low-melting-point agarose, without the use of anesthetics. Moreover, the transparency of the skin, the small diameter of the neurons (4-5 µm), and the high-neuronal density enable the use of in vivo noninvasive imaging techniques to monitor neuronal activities of up to ∼500 cells within the central nervous system, still with single-cell resolution. This article describes a method for simultaneously monitoring spontaneous and visually evoked activities of large populations of neurons in the optic tectum of the zebrafish larva, using a synthetic calcium dye (Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM) and a conventional confocal or two-photon scanning fluorescence microscope, together with a method for measuring the tail motor behavior of the head-immobilized zebrafish larva. PMID:24003199

  5. Bm86 homologues and novel ATAQ proteins with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains from hard and soft ticks ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, Ard M; Balk, Jesper A.; Postigo, Milagros; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Taoufik, Amar; Jongejan, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. Two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant Bm86 protein from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. Partial protection of the Bm86 vaccine against other Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) and Hyalomma tick species suggest...

  6. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Badra Soraya Jabur; Pereira Luiz Eloy; Szabó Matias Pablo Juan

    1999-01-01

    Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivir...

  7. Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Coleoptera, Megalopodidae, Megalopodinae: morfologia da larva e do adulto Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Coleoptera, Megalopodidae, Megalopodinae: larva and adult morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa B. Carvalho

    Full Text Available A larva de Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Klug, 1824, coletada em Capsicum baccatum L. (Solanaceae, é descrita e ilustrada. A redescrição do adulto inclui caracteres das peças bucais, venação da asa, endosternitos e terminálias masculina e feminina. Pela primeira vez uma larva da subfamília Megalopodinae é descrita.The larva of Agathomerus (Agathomeroides flavomaculatus (Klug, 1824, collected in Capsicum baccatum L. (Solanaceae, is described and illustrated. The adult redescription includes characters of mouthparts, wing venation, endosternites and male and female terminalia. For the first time a larva of subfamily Megalopodinae is described.

  8. Feeding habits of Pacific cod larvae and juveniles in Mutsu Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takatsu, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Toshikuni; MUTOH, Takashi; Takahashi, Toyomi

    1995-01-01

    The diets and prey widths of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) larvae and juveniles were examined in Mutsu Bay. In early March, 11 yolk-sac larvae were caught in midwater of the bay mouth. Five of 11 larvae captured had not opened their mouths, and the remaining six had not fed. Post-larvae ≤ 7mm in total length (TL) fed on copepod nauplii, particularly Pseudocalanus nauplii. Prey items of post-larvae >7mm TL were chiefly crustacean eggs, and Pseudocalanus spp. copepodites and adults. From Ap...

  9. Age of Atlantic halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) at first feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Harboe, Torstein; Næss, Tore Håkon; Naas, Kjell Emil; Rabben, Håvard; Skjolddal, Lillian

    1990-01-01

    Halibut larvae at different age (150 to 315 day-degrees) were transferred to outdoor startfeeding tanks each with two internal plastic bags (100 litre). The larvae were fed wild zooplankton. One bag was sampled after 24 hours, and the other after nine days. Numbers of larvae with food in the gut, without food in gut and dead larvae, were counted for each larval age tested. The results showed that some larvae captured prey at an age of 150 day-degrees. However, at this age few ...

  10. [Ingestion and digestion of seven species of microalgae by larvae of Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Súarez, V; Aldana Aranda, D

    2000-12-01

    The potential nutritional value of seven microalgal diets as measured by their ingestibility and digestibility to queen conch Strombus gigas larvae was tested with 30 day old larvae reared at 28 degrees C and fed at 1000 cells x ml(-1). The algae were Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii Isochrysis aff. galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas coccoides, Chaetoceros sp. and Thalassiosira fluviatilis. Ingestion and digestion were measured by the four nutritional stages studied with epifluorescence microscopy with live larvae. Temporal and absolute indices showed that larvae fed Chaetoceros sp. and T. fluviatilis had lower ingestion and digestion levels. The other algae are recommend to feed S. gigas larvae. PMID:15266796

  11. Reduction of muscle larvae burden in rats experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machnicka-Rowinska B.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats infected with 500 to 2,500 Trichinella spiralis larvae the muscle larvae intensity (larvae per gram-l.p.g. was measured from 20 to 180 day post infection (d.p.i. The l.p.g. increased to day 40-50 p.i. and decreased thereafter. The highest reduction took place between 6 0 and 120 d.p.i. with intermediate inoculum of T. spiralis larvae. The mechanism of the reduction of T. spiralis larvae in muscles is suggested to depend on pericapsular-intercapsular host cells infiltrations attracted by parasite antigens.

  12. Validation and efficacy of transgenerational mass marking of otoliths in viviparous fish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, M; Buckley, R M; Leclair, L L; Hauser, L

    2010-07-01

    Transgenerational mass marking of viviparous fish larvae in vivo was validated by intra-muscular injection of elemental strontium chloride (SrCl(2)) in gestating females and detection of the Sr in the otoliths of developing larvae. All otoliths of brown rockfish Sebastes auriculatus larvae produced from SrCl(2)-injected females showed enriched Sr:Ca ratios near the otolith edges, and the signatures did not appear to be affected by the anterior, centre and posterior positions of larvae within the ovary. Results from the present study indicate that transgenerational marking is a highly reliable technique for marking large numbers of extremely small viviparous fish larvae. PMID:20646154

  13. Description of the larva of Gynacantha millardi Selys, 1891 (Odonata: Aeshnidae) from Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Prosenjit; Chandra, Kailash

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Gynacantha millardi Selys is described here from female larvae and male and female exuviae collected from Chhattisgarh, India. Unlike other Gynacantha larvae known so far, G. millardi has 7 palpal setae almost equal in length; in other species, the palpal setae are of different lengths. The larvae lack a tooth on each side of the median cleft and have a distinct blunt tooth on the inner margin corner of each labial palp. The larvae were found in a semi-stagnant forest pool with enormous growth of aquatic vegetation. PMID:27395672

  14. Starving honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae signal pheromonally to worker bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu Jiang; Zhang, Xue Chuan; Jiang, Wu Jun; Barron, Andrew B.; Zhang, Jian Hui; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative brood care is diagnostic of animal societies. This is particularly true for the advanced social insects, and the honey bee is the best understood of the insect societies. A brood pheromone signaling the presence of larvae in a bee colony has been characterised and well studied, but here we explored whether honey bee larvae actively signal their food needs pheromonally to workers. We show that starving honey bee larvae signal to workers via increased production of the volatile pheromone E-β-ocimene. Analysis of volatile pheromones produced by food-deprived and fed larvae with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that starving larvae produced more E-β-ocimene. Behavioural analyses showed that adding E-β-ocimene to empty cells increased the number of worker visits to those cells, and similarly adding E-β-ocimene to larvae increased worker visitation rate to the larvae. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis identified 3 genes in the E-β-ocimene biosynthetic pathway that were upregulated in larvae following 30 minutes of starvation, and these genes also upregulated in 2-day old larvae compared to 4-day old larvae (2-day old larvae produce the most E-β-ocimene). This identifies a pheromonal mechanism by which brood can beg for food from workers to influence the allocation of resources within the colony. PMID:26924295

  15. Starving honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae signal pheromonally to worker bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu Jiang; Zhang, Xue Chuan; Jiang, Wu Jun; Barron, Andrew B; Zhang, Jian Hui; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative brood care is diagnostic of animal societies. This is particularly true for the advanced social insects, and the honey bee is the best understood of the insect societies. A brood pheromone signaling the presence of larvae in a bee colony has been characterised and well studied, but here we explored whether honey bee larvae actively signal their food needs pheromonally to workers. We show that starving honey bee larvae signal to workers via increased production of the volatile pheromone E-β-ocimene. Analysis of volatile pheromones produced by food-deprived and fed larvae with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that starving larvae produced more E-β-ocimene. Behavioural analyses showed that adding E-β-ocimene to empty cells increased the number of worker visits to those cells, and similarly adding E-β-ocimene to larvae increased worker visitation rate to the larvae. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis identified 3 genes in the E-β-ocimene biosynthetic pathway that were upregulated in larvae following 30 minutes of starvation, and these genes also upregulated in 2-day old larvae compared to 4-day old larvae (2-day old larvae produce the most E-β-ocimene). This identifies a pheromonal mechanism by which brood can beg for food from workers to influence the allocation of resources within the colony. PMID:26924295

  16. Enhanced ammonia content in compost leachate processed by black soldier fly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrence R; Popa, Radu

    2012-03-01

    Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens), feeding on leachate from decaying vegetable and food scrap waste, increase ammonia (NH (4) (+) ) concentration five- to sixfold relative to leachate unprocessed by larvae. NH (4) (+) in larva-processed leachate reached levels as high as ∼100 mM. Most of this NH (4) (+) appears to have come from organic nitrogen within the frass produced by the larvae as they fed on leachate. In nitrate-enriched solutions, BSF larvae also facilitate dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. The markedly higher concentration of NH (4) (+) recovered in leachates processed with BSF larvae and concomitant diversion of nutrients into insect biomass (itself a valuable feedstock) indicate that the use of BSF larvae in processing leachate of decaying organic waste could be advantageous in offsetting capital and environmental costs incurred in composting. PMID:22238016

  17. VISCERAL LARVA MIGRANS AND TROPICAL PYOMYOSITIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tropical pyomyositis in a boy who presented with a severe febrile illness associated with diffuse erythema, and swelling in many areas of the body which revealed on operation extensive necrotic areas of various muscles that required repeated débridement. The patient gave a history of contact with dogs, and an ELISA test for Toxocara canis was positive. He also presented eosinophilia and high serum IgE levels. Staphylococcus aureus was the sole bacteria isolated from the muscles affected. We suggest that tropical pyomyositis may be caused by the presence of migrating larvae of this or other parasites in the muscles. The immunologic and structural alterations caused by the larvae, in the presence of concomitant bacteremia, would favour seeding of the bacteria and the development of pyomyositis.

  18. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure. PMID:27405123

  19. Tracking radioactive larvae of Strongyloides ratti in the host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infective larvae of homogonic Strongyloides ratti grown in faecal culture with 32P or 75Se acquired a significant amount of radioactivity which was firmly attached to them. Heating removed most of the 32P but left 75Se in place. Subcutaneous injection of virgin and nursing mother rats with living and heat-killed ratioactive larvae resulted in a pattern of labelling in the small intestine of injected animals and, in the case of 75Se, those of suckling pups, which can only be explained if labelled worms follow the natural migratory routes. The use of this tool in migratory studies is discussed, with precautions to allow for flaws in the technique. (author)

  20. Identification of common excitatory motoneurons in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Eiji; Komatsu, Akira; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2007-05-01

    In insects, four types of motoneurons have long been known, including fast motoneurons, slow motoneurons, common inhibitory motoneurons, and DUM neurons. They innervate the same muscle and control its contraction together. Recent studies in Drosophila have suggested the existence of another type of motoneuron, the common excitatory motoneuron. Here, we found that shakB-GAL4 produced by labels this type of motoneuron in Drosophila larvae. We found that Drosophila larvae have two common excitatory motoneurons in each abdominal segment, RP2 for dorsal muscles and MNSNb/d-Is for ventral muscles. They innervate most of the internal longitudinal or oblique muscles on the dorsal or ventral body wall with type-Is terminals and use glutamate as a transmitter. Electrophysiological recording indicated that stimulation of the RP2 axon evoked excitatory junctional potential in a dorsal muscle. PMID:17867850

  1. Immunogenic effects of irradiated Haemonchus contortus larvae in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against parasitic disease has been reported in literature. Use of irradiated larvae as vaccines enables advantage to be taken of the special immunological properties of living parasites; radiation treatment can largely suppress the pathogenic effects of the vaccines and the reproductive capacity of the parasites involved. Attempts to produce a radiation-attenuated vaccine against Haemonchus contortus infection in adult goats are discussed here. H. contortus infection in ruminants is prevalent in the Philippines, especially among cattle and goats. The results presented indicate that a certain degree of resistance against H. contortus infection can be induced in adult goats immunized with irradiated larvae. The shelf-life of the vaccine was also determined. (author)

  2. Microvascular system forming in skeletal muscle near trichinella larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine structure and dynamics of formation of the microcirculatory system about the larvae of the two Trichinella species, providing for the rapid entry of nutrient substances to the larvae, were investigated in the muscles of white mice. Hitological, hitochemical, autoradiographic, and electron-microscopic methods were used in the investigation. At a certain period of the experiment, the greatest quantity of RNA was found in the endotheliocyte cytoplasm, tritium-thymidine label was incorporated into the nuclei, and mitoses were visible. The transition to tissue parasitism was accompanied by a complication of the relationships with the host and the formation of a more complex independent microcirculatory system, which ensures a more intensive influx of blood

  3. Maya Index and Larva Density Aedes Aegypti Toward Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang G. Purnama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South Denpasar District was of there as with the highest dengue cases in Bali province. The number of mosquito breeding places and larvae density become risk factor that influenced the spreading of mosquitoes. Maya index was an indicator to measure the amount of waterreservoirs can be breeding places for mosquitoes. Knowing the relationship between maya index and density of larvae and pupae of Ae.aegypti toward dengue infection in South Denpasar District. The study was observational analytic with case-control design. Data was collected through interviews and field observations to 150 respondents. The survey entomologist with indicators maya index, house index (HI, container index (CI, breteau index (BI and pupa index (PI to see the density of larvae and pupae in survey area. Dengue transmission risk was categorized mild, moderate and severe based on density figure. Water storage containers inspected in 1215 containers that as many as 675 containers in the case and 540 containers in control. Water reservoirs (TPA that the most larvae was tub (29.27%, dispenser (18.29%, container tirta (10.98%, wells (10.98%. Maya index status was lower in the case (24% smaller thancontrols (37.33%. Value of HI = 23.33; CI=10.69; BI=55; PI=15.33. Based on HI and CI indicator South Denpasar District means have moderate the risk of transmission spread of dengue disease. Based on the BI, have a high risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease. Based on the maya index showed house cases have highest risk as breeding place compare than control house. House index, Breteau index, container index, pupa index and maya index have correlation with dengue infection. Kind of breeding place have the high risk is bath tub

  4. What do barnacle larvae feed on ? Implications in biofouling ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.; Anil, A.C.

    (Figure 5). Analysis of variance also indicated a significant variation in barnacle recruitment among different sampling months (ANOVA: p≤0.05). DISCUSSION The mode of nutrition in larval forms plays an important role in their capability..., though the larvae raised in the microcosm experienced nutritional stress which was shown by lower ratios of RNA: DNA (Desai & Anil, 2002). This study further indicates their capability to feed on food materials other than diatoms. As the fecal...

  5. CHIRONOMUS PLUMOSUS LARVAE - A SUITABLE NUTRIENT FOR FRESHWATER FARMED FISH

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Rajković; Zdeněk Adámek; Elizabeta Has-Schön; Ivan Bogut; Dalida Galović

    2007-01-01

    Crude protein, fat, water, ash, dry matter and essential amino and fatty acids were analyzed from freshly collected Chironomus plumosus larvae in order to evaluate their suitability as a component for farmed fish diet. The analyses were performed in intact living organisms and in the dry matter. Essential amino acidswere determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer, while fatty acids were determined by Chronopack CP 9000 chromatograph with flame ionization detector. Crude protein content was...

  6. Endogenous Dopamine Suppresses Initiation of Swimming in Prefeeding Zebrafish Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Thirumalai, Vatsala; Cline, Hollis T.

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine is a key neuromodulator of locomotory circuits, yet the role that dopamine plays during development of these circuits is less well understood. Here, we describe a suppressive effect of dopamine on swim circuits in larval zebrafish. Zebrafish larvae exhibit marked changes in swimming behavior between 3 days postfertilization (dpf) and 5dpf. We found that swim episodes were fewer and of longer durations at 3 than at 5dpf. At 3dpf, application of dopamine as well as bupropion, a dopamin...

  7. Recording field potentials from zebrafish larvae during escape responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monesson-Olson, Bryan D; Troconis, Eileen L; Trapani, Josef G

    2014-01-01

    Among vertebrates, startle responses are a ubiquitous method for alerting, and avoiding or escaping from alarming or dangerous stimuli. In zebrafish larvae, fast escape behavior is easily evoked through either acoustic or tactile stimuli. For example, a light touch to the head will excite trigeminal neurons that in turn excite a large reticulospinal neuron in the hindbrain called the Mauthner cell (M-cell). The M-cell action potential then travels down the contralateral trunk of the larva exciting motoneurons, which subsequently excite the entire axial musculature, producing a large amplitude body bend away from the source of the stimulus. This body conformation is known as the "C-bend" due to the shape of the larva during the behavior. As a result of the semi-synchronized activation of the M-cell, the population of motor neurons, and the axial trunk muscles, a large field potential is generated and can be recorded from free-swimming or fixed-position larvae. Undergraduate laboratories that record field potentials during escape responses in larval zebrafish are relatively simple to setup and allow students to observe and study the escape reflex circuit. Furthermore, by testing hypotheses, analyzing data and writing journal-style laboratory reports, students have multiple opportunities to learn about many neuroscience topics including vertebrate reflexes; sensory transduction; synaptic-, neuro-, and muscle-physiology; the M-cell mediated escape response; and the zebrafish as a model organism. Here, we detail the equipment, software, and recording setup necessary to observe field potentials in an undergraduate teaching lab. Additionally, we discuss potential advanced laboratory exercises and pedagogical outcomes. Finally, we note possible low-cost alternatives for recording field potentials. PMID:25565920

  8. Larva currens in a case of Organophosphorous poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old healthy farmer consumed organophosphorous poison. On third day he developed diarrhoea and on fourth day linear serpiginous ulcers appeared on both buttocks. Clinically lesions were considered as decubitus ulcers. By stool examination and other laboratory investigations it was diagnosed as cutaneous larva currens due to S trongyloides stercoralis in a case of organophosphorus poisoning. Patient responded very well to a course of albendazole.

  9. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  10. KARAKTERISTIK TEMPAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN DAN DENSITAS LARVA ANOPHELES SUBPICTUS KABUPATEN BULUKUMBA

    OpenAIRE

    Faatimah, Dewi; Ishak, Hasanuddin; Selomo, Makmur

    2015-01-01

    Kabupaten Bulukumba merupakan salah satu daerah endemis malaria yang ada di Sulawesi Selatan dengan angka kesakitan (api) per 1.000 penduduk dengan 11 kasus (API 0,47???) tahun 2013. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengatahui gambaran densitas larva Anopheles subpictus dan Anopheles barbirostis berdasarkan suhu, pH, salinitas, dan jenis vegetasi air yang ada. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian observasional dengan pendekatan deskritif. Sampel tempat perindukan dalam penelitian ini termasu...

  11. Suscetibilidade de larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus a diferentes inseticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stênio Nunes Alves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a suscetibilidade de larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus a dois piretróides (Cipermetrina e Deltametrina, dois derivados da Avermectina (ivermectina e abamectina e a um organofosforado (Temefós. MÉTODOS: Larvas de 3º e 4º instares de C. quinquefasciatus foram expostas a diferentes concentrações destes (onze repetições seguindo o protocolo da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Uma hora após a exposição, as larvas foram lavadas em água desclorada, transferidas para recipientes plásticos contendo água sem cloro, alimentadas e observadas por períodos de 24h, até se transformarem em adultos. Para a determinação das concentrações letais, os valores foram submetidos à análise de regressão usando o modelo probit pelo programa Minitab 15. RESULTADOS: Diferenças entre as estimativas da CL50 e CL90 justificaram que a população de mosquitos testada apresenta heterogeneidade em resposta aos inseticidas, sendo a maior concentração utilizada para a CL50, a partir da análise de probit para o Temefós. Todos os inseticidas avaliados causaram mortalidade mais acentuada nas primeiras 24h exceto quando expostas à ivermectina. CONCLUSÕES: As larvas são suscetíveis a todos os inseticidas testados e há uma necessidade de um monitoramento dos inseticidas utilizados.

  12. The Colonization Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in Tilapia Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that sha...

  13. Effects of dietary vitamin C on fish and crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary needs for ascorbic acid (AA) at startfeeding, the AA content in the various live diets currently applied in aquaculture (algae, rotifers, Artemia ) was studied. Application of boosting techniques using ascorbyl palmitate (AP) as the vitamin C source enabled the transfer of elevated levels of bioactive vitamin C (up to 2500µg AA.g DW-1) via the live food chain into larvae of fish (Clarias gariepinus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Scophthalmus maximus), shrimp (Pennaeus v...

  14. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukant Khurana; Mohammed Bin AbuBaker; Obaid Siddiqi

    2009-10-01

    Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) and long term (LTM) as a function of training cycles. The same method of analysis when applied to learning mutants dunce, amnesiac, rutabaga and radish reveals memory deficits characteristic of the mutant strains.

  15. Using black soldier fly larvae for processing organic leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R

    2012-04-01

    A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass. PMID:22606806

  16. Chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity in Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider 1799) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, M R; Bandara, M G D K; Ratnasooriya, W D; Lakraj, G P

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of continuous exposure to a widely used organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, on survival, growth, development, and activity of larvae of the Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus Schneider 1799. Larvae were continuously exposed to six different concentrations (1-1,500 μg l(-1)) of commercial-grade chlorpyrifos for 14 days and monitored for 1 additional week. Chlorpyrifos at ≥1,000 μg l(-1) caused significantly high and dose-dependent mortality, and the weekly LC50(7 day-21 day) values ranged from 3,003 to 462 μg l(-1). Larvae surviving exposure to ≥500 μg l(-1) chlorpyrifos showed significant growth impairment, delays in metamorphosis, and decreased swimming activity. Tail abnormalities were the most common morphologic deformity at concentrations of 1,000 and 1,500 μg l(-1) chlorpyrifos. The findings of the present study highlight the need to recognize the potential risk that agrochemicals pose to amphibians inhabiting agricultural landscapes in Sri Lanka and other Asian countries. PMID:20669016

  17. Ecophysiology of dorsal versus ventral cuticle in flattened sawfly larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boevé, Jean-Luc; Angeli, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Platycampus larvae are highly cryptic leaf feeders characterised by a dorso-ventrally flattened body, the dorsal integument resembling a shield. Dorsal and ventral cuticles from Platycampus luridiventris were compared by histology and gel electrophoresis. By Azan-staining, a red and a blue layer were distinguished in the dorsal cuticle, while the ventral cuticle showed one, almost uniform blue layer, as in both cuticles of control species. The two cuticles from P. luridiventris had similar amounts and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles of soluble proteins, but not insoluble proteins. One insoluble protein (MW ≈ 41 kDa) was visible as a large band in the ventral cuticle only. It is likely that this protein renders the cuticle elastic, and that the dorsal, red layer is the exocuticle, mainly composed of insoluble proteins. We discuss eco-physiological implications of the exocuticle in insects. Further, data from the literature indicate that the defence strategy in P. luridiventris larvae relies on being visually cryptic towards avian predators and tactically cryptic towards arthropod predators and parasitoids. Crypsis in both senses is favoured by the shield effect, itself based on an abnormally thick dorsal exocuticle. Although the larvae are external feeders, they may be considered as hidden from an ecological perspective.

  18. The larva of Drusus vinconi Sipahiler, 1992 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Waringer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Drusus vinconi Sipahiler, 1992. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of D. vinconi keys together with D. annulatus (Stephens, 1837, D. biguttatus (Pictet, 1834, D. ingridae Sipahiler, 1993, Hadimina torosensis Sipahiler, 2002 and Leptodrusus budtzi (Ulmer, 1913. These species differ in the contours of the pronotum in lateral view, the presence/absence of the pronotal transverse groove, the shape of the median notch of the pronotum (in anterior view, pronotal sculpturing, presence/absence of the lateral carina of the head capsule, the number of proximo-dorsal setae on the mid-and hind femora, where the lateral fringe starts on the abdomen, and in geographic distribution. With respect to zoogeography, Drusus vinconi is a (micro-endemic of the Western Pyrenees. The species prefers stony substratum in springs and springbrooks of the montane and subalpine region (Graf et al. 2008; Sipahiler 1992, 1993. As a grazer, the larvae of D. vinconi feed on biofilm and epilithic algae.

  19. Prevalence of American Foulbrood and Paenibacillus Larvae Genotypes in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina V. RUSENOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the prevalence of American foulbrood and Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in Bulgaria. For this purpose, data concerning American foulbrood outbreaks were used. Also, available data on the number of destroyed bee families covering a twenty-five-year period (1989 - 2013 was collected from the register of Bulgarian Food Safety Agency. In addition, Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in 15 apiaries were established by rep - PCR with BOXA1R and MBOREP1 primers. Results showed broad incidence of the disease, particularly at the beginning of the analysed period, with a tendency to reduction of affected apiaries and bee families at the end of the period. A statistically significant prevalence of American foulbrood in South Bulgaria compared to the northern regions was observed. Genotyping of Paenibacillus larvae revealed two genotypes: ab and AB, with the preponderance of the more virulent AB in South Bulgaria. The obtained results showed the need for conducting regular mandatory screening of bee colonies for early diagnostics of the disease and the implementation of relevant measures for American foulbrood prevention and control.

  20. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study. PMID:26580574

  1. Development and functional morphology of the mouthparts and foregut in larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii (Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cristina Pantoja; Souza, Adelson Silva de; Maciel, Murilo; Maciel, Cristiana R; Abrunhosa, Fernando Araújo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the mouthparts and foregut of the larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium jelskii was investigated to determine their functional roles in feeding, in order to understand the larval feeding behaviour and the changes that occur during its development. The mouthparts and foregut of the zoea I and II are morphologically similar, rudimentary and non-functional in feeding. Only in the final larval stage, zoea III, do the external mouthparts and foregut become structurally more complex and thus likely to play a potential role in feeding. Two behavioral trials (point of no return, point of reserve saturation) evaluated the resistance to starvation in zoea I, II, and III. The results indicate that they have sufficient nutritional reserves to permit them to complete metamorphosis without feeding. Overall, our results suggest that the zoea I and II of Macrobrachium jelskii engage in obligate lecithotrophy and zoea III in facultative lecithotrophy. PMID:26899315

  2. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae, during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm. The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the larvae (standard length = 6.25 ± 0.13 mm showed the following structural and behavioral characteristics that made them become active predators able to overcome a larval critical phase, the beginning of exogenous feeding: presence of pigmented eyes, terminal and wide mouth, developed oral dentition, developing digestive tube, yolk sac reduction, fins and swim bladder formation, horizontal swimming, cannibalism, and predation. Intense cannibalism among larvae was verified from 26 to 72 hours. At the end of the metamorphosis - 172 hours after hatching - the larvae measuring 11.94 + 0.80 mm in standard length presented a flexed notochord, caudal fin bifurcation, dorsal and anal fin formation, synchronized movements, and formation of shoals, characteristics that together allow enhanced perception and locomotio in exploration of the environment, determining the best moment for transfering to the fishponds. New studies can contribute to commercial fish farming by improving feeding management, performance, survival, and productivity of this species.Objetivou-se estudar o desenvolvimento morfológico e os comportamentos natatório e alimentar de larvas de piracanjuba, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae no período de 0 a 172 horas após a eclosão (comprimento-padrão = 3,62 - 11,94 mm. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas com auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico trinocular e as comportamentais, por meio de

  3. Mananoligossacarídeo em dietas para larvas de tilápia Mannanoligosaccharides in diets for tilapia larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Kalko Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar níveis crescentes de mananoligossacarídeo (MOS na dieta de larvas de tilápias-do-nilo (linhagem Supreme® na fase de reversão sexual durante 30 dias. Larvas de tilápia-do-nilo (n=1500, P=0,01 g ± 0,001 g foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em 30 tanques de 100 litros. Os peixes foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, composto por seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. A dieta controle (isenta de MOS foi elaborada para conter aproximadamente 35% de proteína bruta e 3.100 kcal de ED/kg. As demais foram suplementadas com 0; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75% de MOS em substituição ao milho da dieta controle. Com o aumento nos níveis de MOS nas dietas, foi observado aumento linear sobre o comprimento do intestino, a altura das vilosidades intestinais e a densidade dos vilos. Não houve diferença na composição corporal, no ganho em peso, no peso final, no comprimento final, no fator de condição, na taxa de sobrevivência e no número de células caliciformes do intestino das larvas. Os níveis de MOS tiveram efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar, cujos melhores resultados foram obtidos com 0,34% de MOS. A utilização de MOS no nível de 0,34% em dietas para larvas de tilápia-do-nilo melhora a conversão alimentar e promove aumento do comprimento do intestino, da altura das vilosidades e da densidade de vilos intestinal.This experiment was conducted to evaluate increasing levels of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS in the diet of Nile tilapia larvae (Supreme® at the sex reversal stage for 30 days. Nile tilapia larvae (n = 1500, p = 0.01 ± 0.001 g, were randomly distributed in 30 tanks of 100 liters each, for 30 days. The fish were distributed in a randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. The control diet (no MOS was elaborated to contain approximately 35% of crude protein and 3,100 kcal DE/kg. Mannanoligosaccharides were included in the other diets

  4. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [75Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [75Se]selenomethionine. When the 75Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  5. Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadulina Albina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Results Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2’-thiodiethanol (TDE, which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4’6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI. Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental

  6. Morphological and behavioral development of the piracanjuba larvae Desenvolvimento morfológico e comportamental de larvas de piracanjuba

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Maria Reis Raposo Maciel; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira Lanna; Alaor Maciel Junior; Juarez Lopes Donzele; Clóvis Andrade Neves; Eliane Menin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the morphologic development and the swimming and feeding behaviors of piracanjuba larvae, Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes (1849) (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae), during the period from zero to 172 hours after hatching (standard length = 3.62 - 11.94 mm). The morphological analyses were accomplished by using a trinocular stereo microscope, while the behavioral analyses were performed through periodic observations. In 28 hours after hatching, the ...

  7. Exposure to lead induces hypoxia-like responses in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, T.M.; Blackstone, B.J.; Nixdorf, W.L.; Taylor, D.H.

    1999-10-01

    Amphibians collected around mining sites, areas with extensive automobile traffic, and shooting ranges have been documented to contain high levels of lead. Lead-exposed amphibians might respond as if in hypoxic conditions because exposure is known to decrease hemoglobin levels, damage erythrocytes, and alter respiratory surfaces. Therefore, the authors exposed bullfrog larvae to either 0 or 780 {micro}g/L Pb and either 3.50 or 7.85 mg/L oxygen for 7 d and monitored activity, trips to the surface, and buccal ventilation rates. Activity was significantly decreased in larvae exposed to low oxygen, Pb, or both compared to activity of larvae in high oxygen with no Pb. Larvae exposed to both Pb and low oxygen displayed higher buccal ventilation rates than larvae exposed to either treatment separately. Lead-exposed larvae surfaced significantly more often than unexposed larvae even under high-oxygen conditions. Lead-exposed larvae decreased in mass during the exposure period, whereas unexposed larvae increased in mass. Lead exposure could decrease survival of larvae in the field not only because of physiological problems due to decreased oxygen uptake but also because of greater predation pressure due to increased presence at the surface and reduced growth rates.

  8. Production of the catechol type siderophore bacillibactin by the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertlein, Gillian; Müller, Sebastian; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Poppinga, Lena; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Genersch, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood. This bacterial infection of honey bee brood is a notifiable epizootic posing a serious threat to global honey bee health because not only individual larvae but also entire colonies succumb to the disease. In the recent past considerable progress has been made in elucidating molecular aspects of host pathogen interactions during pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Especially the sequencing and annotation of the complete genome of P. larvae was a major step forward and revealed the existence of several giant gene clusters coding for non-ribosomal peptide synthetases which might act as putative virulence factors. We here present the detailed analysis of one of these clusters which we demonstrated to be responsible for the biosynthesis of bacillibactin, a P. larvae siderophore. We first established culture conditions allowing the growth of P. larvae under iron-limited conditions and triggering siderophore production by P. larvae. Using a gene disruption strategy we linked siderophore production to the expression of an uninterrupted bacillibactin gene cluster. In silico analysis predicted the structure of a trimeric trithreonyl lactone (DHB-Gly-Thr)3 similar to the structure of bacillibactin produced by several Bacillus species. Mass spectrometric analysis unambiguously confirmed that the siderophore produced by P. larvae is identical to bacillibactin. Exposure bioassays demonstrated that P. larvae bacillibactin is not required for full virulence of P. larvae in laboratory exposure bioassays. This observation is consistent with results obtained for bacillibactin in other pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25237888

  9. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H J; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the larvae of this species. In a second experiment, the gut contents of the fish larvae fed were calculated as they changed during development. In a third experiment, the gut evacuation rate of fish larvae ...

  10. Viral encephalitis of tilapia larvae: primary characterization of a novel herpes-like virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlapobersky, Mark; Sinyakov, Michael S; Katzenellenbogen, Mark; Sarid, Ronit; Don, Jeremy; Avtalion, Ramy R

    2010-04-10

    We report here an outbreak of an acute disease that caused high mortality rate in laboratory-reared tilapia larvae. The disease was initially observed in inbred gynogenetic line of blue tilapia larvae (Oreochromis aureus) and could be transmitted to larvae of other tilapia species. Based on the clinical manifestation (a whirling syndrome), we refer to the disease as viral encephalitis of tilapia larvae. The disease-associated DNA virus is described and accordingly designated tilapia larvae encephalitis virus (TLEV). A primary morphological, biophysical and molecular characterization of TLEV is presented. By virtue of these properties, the newly discovered virus is a herpes-like virus. Phylogenetic analysis, albeit limited, confirms this assumption and places TLEV within the family of Herpesviridae and distantly from the families Alloherpesviridae and Iridoviridae. By using PCR with virus-specific primers, diseased larvae and adult TLEV carriers were also identified in tilapia delivered from external hatcheries. PMID:20117816

  11. A behavioral method for separation of house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae from processed pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicková, Helena; Kozánek, Milan; Morávek, Ivan; Takác, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A behavioral method applicable in biodegradation facilities for separation of house fly (Musca domestica L.) larvae from processed pig manure is presented. The method is based on placing a cover over the larval rearing tray, while escaping larvae are collected in collection trays. Separation units must be placed in a dark room to avoid negative phototactic responses of the larvae. After 24 h of separation, over 70% of the larvae escaped from processed manure and were collected in collection trays. Most of the larvae pupated within 48 h after separation. Mean weight of pupae recovered from manure residue was not significantly different from mean weight of pupae of separated individuals. Eclosion rate of pupae recovered from manure residue was significantly lower than eclosion of separated individuals, and was strongly related to separation success. Factors responsible for escape behavior of larvae are discussed. PMID:22420256

  12. Effect of electronic beam irradiation on last instar larvae of lasioderma serricorne fabricius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic beam irradiation effects on the last instar larvae of cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne Fabricius) in tobacco were studied, and the mortality in 42 days, lethal time, pupation rate, emergence rate and reproductive capacity after irradiation were measured. The results showed that the mortality increased with the increase of irradiation dosage, but the larvae did not dead immediately. The last instar larvae irradiated by the dosages higher than 480 Gy could prevent the development of larvae to adults. No new generation was found after 300 Gy treatment of the last instar larvae. So 300 Gy irradiation could be considered as a suitable dose to prevent the reproduction of cigarette beetle of the last instar larvae in the tobacco. (authors)

  13. Drosophila melanogaster larvae control amylase secretion according to the hardness of food

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Honami; Suzuki, Masataka G.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae excrete amylase and perform external digestion of their food. In this study, to investigate whether their external digestion ability varies in response to changes in the external environment, we measured the relative amount of amylase excreted by larvae using a new method: the iodine starch agar method (ISAM). Analysis using this method revealed that the amount of amylase excreted by larvae increased in accordance with the increase in the agar concentration. In ...

  14. Kaolin as a possible treatment against lepidopteran larvae and mites in organic fruit production

    OpenAIRE

    Jaastad, G.; Røen, D.; Hovland, B.; Opedal, O.

    2006-01-01

    Few control methods are available in Norwegian organic fruit production that can prevent damage by early and late larvae. Also phytophagous mites are difficult to control without harming the beneficial mites. Proc-essed kaolin function by coating trees and thus creating a physical barrier to infestation, impeding move-ment, feeding and egg-laying. Kaolin may reduce feeding and movement of over-wintering tortricide larvae and other larvae that hatch early in spring and have a repellent effect ...

  15. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) of the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    of collection. All other species exhibited different degree of preference to day or night in different regions. This may be due to the ecological factors prevailing in such regions which may have influence in their growth and distribution. BOTHID LARVAE - GULF... water movements but not with strong currents. The effect and pattern of the prevailing current is one of the important factors that decides the distribution of the larvae. The abundance of bothid larvae in the Gulf of Thailand compared to the South...

  16. Rearing of catfish (Clarias batrachus Lin.) larvae with live and prepared feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmin, A.; Mollah, M.F.A; Haylor, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    Provision or live feed (Tubificid worms) attributed significantly better weight gain in the five days old Clarias batrachus larvae when reared for another 28 days compared to those fed mixed feed (live and artificial) and artificial feed only. Larvae fed mixed feed showed significantly better weight gain compared to those fed only artificial feed and the survival rate was similar to those fed only live feed. Both the weight gain and survival rate were the lowest for the larvae reared only on ...

  17. Survival, Growth and Reproduction of Cryopreserved Larvae from a Marine Invertebrate, the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

    OpenAIRE

    Suquet, Marc; Labbé, Catherine; Puyo, Sophie; Mingant, Christian; Quittet, Benjamin; Boulais, Myrina; Queau, Isabelle; Ratiskol, Dominique; Diss, Blandine; Haffray, Pierrick

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first demonstration of successful post-thawing development to reproduction stage of diploid cryopreserved larvae in an aquatic invertebrate. Survival, growth and reproductive performances were studied in juvenile and adult Pacific oysters grown from cryopreserved embryos. Cryopreservation was performed at three early stages: trochophore (13 +/- 2 hours post fertilization: hpf), early D-larvae (24 +/- 2 hpf) and late D-larvae (43 +/- 2 hpf). From the beginning (88 days) at th...

  18. Effect og bioactive products on innate immunity and development of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Rut Hermannsdóttir

    2008-01-01

    Halibut larvae were treated with various bioactive products and the effects on selected components of the innate immune system investigated. Effects on growth, survival and normal development of larvae were also studied. The bioactive products which were tested were chitosan and protein hydrolysates from cod, blue whiting and pollock. The larvae where treated with bioactive products from the onset of feeding or from 4-5 weeks after the onset of feeding and throughout the first feeding period....

  19. Screening alternative antibiotics against oxytetracycline-susceptible and -resistant Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Kochansky, Jan; Knox, David; Feldlaufer, Mark; Pettis, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    International audience Since resistance of the causative organism of American foulbrood, Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, to oxytetracycline (OTC) is becoming widespread in the United States, we began a search for effective alternative antibiotics. We investigated the sensitivity of P. l. larvae to 27 antibiotics, which were primarily ones already registered with the US Food and Drug Administration for agricultural uses. Bacterial resistance to OTC also conferred resistance to other tet...

  20. KERENTANAN LARVA AEDES AEGYPTI TERHADAP TEMEFOS DI TIGA KELURAHAN ENDEMIS DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE KOTA SUKABUMI

    OpenAIRE

    Hubullah Fuadzy; Dewi Nur Hodijah; Asep Jajang; Mutiara Widawati

    2015-01-01

    AbstractResistance of Aedes aegypti larvae against temephos influeneed the efforts of Dengue Fever vector control . The purpose of this study was to determine the status of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti larvae against temephos in three Dengue Fever endemic areas in Sukabumi. Design laboratory experiment with random design. approach group. Sample of Ae. aegypti larvae instar 3 and 4 had been taken from Subdistrict Baros, Sriwedari, Nangeleng. Susceptibility test, in performed according to Worl...

  1. On the edge: pharmacological evidence for anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Richendrfer, H.; Pelkowski, S.D.; Colwill, R.M.; Creton, R.

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish larvae are ideally suited for high-throughput analyses of vertebrate behavior. The larvae can be examined in multiwell plates and display a range of behaviors during early development. Previous studies have shown that zebrafish larvae display a preference for the edge of the well and several lines of evidence suggest this edge preference (thigmotaxis) may be a measure of anxiety. In the present study, we further examined the relation between edge preference and anxiety by imaging ze...

  2. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Sacchi L.; Corona S.; Gajadhar A.A.; Pozio E.

    2001-01-01

    The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear), T. spiralis (horses and humans), T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse) and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse) were examined. Analysi...

  3. Dynamic of decapod crustacean larvae on the entrance of Guanabara bay

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Lohengrin Dias de Almeida; Bonecker Sérgio Luiz Costa; Valentin Jean Louis

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we observed seasonal variations in the density of decapod larvae as well as changes in density related to diurnal and tidal cycles. Among the decapod larvae collected, portunids and grapsids were the most abundant, especially during nocturnal ebb tides and near the surface. The same results were obtained in late winter (September) and late summer (March). These results demonstrated a flow of decapod larvae from Guanabara Bay to adjacent coastal waters. Luciferid (Lucifer...

  4. Humidity Detection and Hygropreference Behavior in Larvae of the Tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, Marc; Hanson, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Water is a critical resource for any terrestrial animal, especially for a soft-bodied insect such as larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Strategies for coping with a dry environment might include seeking out regions of high relative humidity that reduce desiccative stress, or to find and imbibe liquid water. Desiccated larvae placed in a linear arena with a humidity gradient preferred the humid end, whereas un-desiccated larvae did not. This behavior wa...

  5. Jenis – Jenis Larva Nyamuk di Kelurahan Baru–Ladang Bambu, Kecamatan Medan Tuntungan

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasegaran, Logeswaran

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the cause of some dangerous disease to humans. Larvae is an important stage in mosquitoes life cycle and it is important to identify its presence and stop its development. This study aims to identify the type of mosquito larvaes which are found in Kelurahan Baru – Ladang Bambu, Kecamatan Medan Tuntungan . Sample mosquito larvaes collected in Kelurahan Baru – Ladang Bambu, Kecamatan Medan Tuntungan and examined under microscope to identify the species with the help of identifica...

  6. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  7. Differences in vertical and horizontal distribution of fish larvae and zooplankton, related to hydrography

    OpenAIRE

    Höffle, Hannes; Nash, Richard D. M.; Falkenhaug, Tone; Munk, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Planktonic fish larvae have little influence on their horizontal distribution, while they are able to control their vertical position in the water column. While prey and light are among the factors with an apparent influence on the vertical distribution, the effects of other factors are less clear. Notably, distributional differences between larvae of different fish species are poorly understood. Information on the horizontal distribution of larvae of 27 species and the vertical distribution ...

  8. Descrição da larva de Erythemis mithroides (Brauer e notas sobre outras larvas conhecidas do gênero (Odonata, Libellulidae Description of the larva of Erythemis mithroides (Brauer and notes on other known larvae of the genus (Odonata, Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Costa

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The last instar larva of Erythemis mithroides (Brauer, 1900 is described and figured based on exuviae of reared specimens. A comparative analysis of this immature stage and the known larvae of the genus are furnished according to the data available in the literature and of specimens of E credula (Hagen, 1861 and E. vesiculosa (Fab., 1775 permiting a diagnose for the larvae of the genus Erylhemis Hagen, 1861.

  9. Thyroid endocrine disruption of acetochlor on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Hu, Jingjin; Li, Shuying; Ma, Youning; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide acetochlor is widely used and detected in the environment and biota, and has been suspected to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system, but underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. In the present study, zebrafish larvae (7 days post-fertilization) were exposed to a series concentration of acetochlor (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300 µg l(-1) ) within a 14-day window until 21 days post-fertilization. Thyroid hormones and mRNA expression profiles of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were analyzed. Exposure to the positive control, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ), altered the mRNA expression, suggesting that the HPT axis in the critical window of zebrafish responded to chemical exposure and could be used to evaluate the effects of chemicals on the thyroid endocrine system. The mRNA expressions of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (tshβ, slc5a5 and tpo) were upregulated significantly with acetochlor treatment, which might be responsible for the increased thyroxine concentrations. The downregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (dio1 and ugt1ab) and transport (ttr) in zebrafish larvae exposed to acetochlor might further explain the increased thyroxine levels and decreased T3 levels. The mRNA expression of the thyroid hormone receptor (trα) was also upregulated upon acetochlor exposure. Results suggested that acetochlor altered mRNA expression of the HPT axis-related genes and changed the whole body thyroid hormone levels in zebrafish larvae. It demonstrated that acetochlor could cause endocrine disruption of the thyroid system by simulating the biological activity of T3 . Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26397822

  10. Volatiles induced by the larvae of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in maize plants affect behavior of conspecific larvae and female adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Hong Huang; Feng-Ming Yan; John A.Byers; Rong-Jiang Wang; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) volatiles induced by larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), on the orientation behaviors of Asian corn borer larvae and oviposition of the females were investigated. Nineteen volatile chemicals, with terpenes being the major components, were identified from maize plants attacked by third instar Asian corn borer larvae. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed some electroantennographic differences between female and male Asian corn borer antennae in response to larvae-induced maize volatiles; female responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and three unknown compounds while the male only responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal and one unknown compound. In laboratory orientation bioassays, Asian corn borer neonate larvae were attracted to extracts collected from Asian corn borer-damaged plants as well as to synthetic famesene, but were repelled by (Z)-3-hexen- 1-ol. In laboratory oviposition bioassays, gravid females laid fewer eggs on plants damaged by larvae than on mechanically damaged plants or undamaged plants. Adult Asian corn borer females deposited fewer eggs on wax paper treated with (E)-2-hexenal or (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol than on wax paper treated with hexane (control). The results suggest that Asian corn borer can affect the behaviors of conspecific larvae and adults by changing host plant volatiles.

  11. Catching large herring larvae: Gear applicability and larval distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1988-01-01

    given to the influence of gear speed on catching effectiveness. An additional objective was to investigate larval distributional patterns of potential importance to sampling strategy. Gear speed had a pronounced influence on the efficiency of the IKMT. Catches per unit volume filtered decreased to one...... third when speed was increased by one knot. The efficiency of the MIK did not change in the speed range investigated, and this gear was in every case more efficient than the IKMT. Larvae were found to be patchily distributed at the scale of sampling, and the degree of patchiness did not increase when...

  12. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species.

  13. Immunization with irradiated larvae against Dictyocaulus filaria in young lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species. (Auth.)

  14. A linear model for the dynamics of fish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Ghouali

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a linear model for the growth and the dispersion of fish larvae of certain species. Dispersion is modeled as entailed by the combination of transport and vertical diffusion. We generalize the work of Boushaba, Arino and Boussouar [5,6] in the sense that horizontal velocities are uniform throughout the water column; but we deal with vertical component velocity and vertical diffusion depending on the space variables and on time, which was not the case in [5,6]. This new vision leads us to non-autonomous problems, the aim of this work is to show the existence, uniqueness, and positivity of solutions.

  15. Feeding rates of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita on fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    prey captured by A. aurita during 2.5 h of feeding at extremely high prey concentration (> 200 prey l(-1)). Clearance rate in darkness scaled with jellyfish diameter to a power of similar to 1.7 for jellyfish 3.9-9.5 cm in diameter. The jellyfish did not alter their umbrella pulse frequency in response...... to presence of fish larvae. There were no significant differences between A. aurita feeding rates in light and darkness for yolk sac prey ages 0-7 days (at 7.5 degrees C). Although prey vision and escape abilities of fish may develop rapidly during early larval ontogeny, these factors apparently have...

  16. Drosophila melanogaster larvae make nutritional choices that minimize developmental time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marisa A; Martins, Nelson E; Balancé, Lara F; Broom, Lara N; Dias, António J S; Fernandes, Ana Sofia D; Rodrigues, Fábio; Sucena, Élio; Mirth, Christen K

    2015-10-01

    Organisms from slime moulds to humans carefully regulate their macronutrient intake to optimize a wide range of life history characters including survival, stress resistance, and reproductive success. However, life history characters often differ in their response to nutrition, forcing organisms to make foraging decisions while balancing the trade-offs between these effects. To date, we have a limited understanding of how the nutritional environment shapes the relationship between life history characters and foraging decisions. To gain insight into the problem, we used a geometric framework for nutrition to assess how the protein and carbohydrate content of the larval diet affected key life history traits in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In no-choice assays, survival from egg to pupae, female and male body size, and ovariole number - a proxy for female fecundity - were maximized at the highest protein to carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (1.5:1). In contrast, development time was minimized at intermediate P:C ratios, around 1:2. Next, we subjected larvae to two-choice tests to determine how they regulated their protein and carbohydrate intake in relation to these life history traits. Our results show that larvae targeted their consumption to P:C ratios that minimized development time. Finally, we examined whether adult females also chose to lay their eggs in the P:C ratios that minimized developmental time. Using a three-choice assay, we found that adult females preferentially laid their eggs in food P:C ratios that were suboptimal for all larval life history traits. Our results demonstrate that D. melanogaster larvae make foraging decisions that trade-off developmental time with body size, ovariole number, and survival. In addition, adult females make oviposition decisions that do not appear to benefit the larvae. We propose that these decisions may reflect the living nature of the larval nutritional environment in rotting fruit. These studies illustrate the

  17. The use of morphological and histological features as nutritional condition indices of Pagrus pagrus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vera Diaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrical and histological techniques were employed to characterize Pagrus pagrus larvae nutritional condition. Larvae were reared in laboratory under controlled conditions with the main objective of testing whether these methodologies allowed finding differences between larvae from different feeding treatments. Once yolk was consumed (three days after hatching larvae were assigned to a feeding treatment: starved during the whole experiment; delayed feeding, starved during three days; fed during the entire experiment. Algae (Nannochloropsis oculata and rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis were provided to larvae for feed treatments. Larvae were fixed daily; for morphometrical purposes in 5% formaldehyde solution, and in Bouin for histological sections. Results herein obtained showed that both methodologies are sensitive enough to distinguish larvae characterized by different nutritional condition states obtained from the feeding treatments. Consequently, these methodologies could be employed in wild red porgy larvae in order to asses their nutritional condition. These techniques could also be employed to check larval quality obtained with aquaculture purposes to estimate the effects of changes in rearing protocols or kind of food supply and thus, to guaranty a higher survival of early developmental stages of reared larvae.

  18. The Effects of Shrimp Gut Probiotic Bacteria on the Shrimp Larvae (Penaeus Chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The survival rates of shrimp larvae in different stage are higher than those of control groups when probiotic bacteria strains X4B-1 and X1B-1 which are isolated from gut of adult shrimp are added into the little volume rearing sea water of shrimp larvae. The effects of probiotic bacteria are evaluated by challenge test (pathogenic bacteria Z3G2 isolated from disease shrimp larvae in the hatchery of Jimo town) and low salinity stress resistance tests on shrimp larvae, the survival rate and lengths of the shrimp larvae in the experiment are determined. Results indicate that 1. The survival rate, ability of resistant to low salinity, lengths of the delivered shrimp larvae are improved after the strains of probiotic bacteria, X4B-1 or X1B-1, are added into the rearing sea water of hatchery. 2. The addition of the probiotic bacteria could not influence the change of the bacteria number, NH3-N and COD value in the rearing sea water. 3. The probiotic bacteria used in the experiment have many enzymes such as Lipase, Amylase, Gelatinase and Lecithinase. These enzymes may help the probiotic bacteria to digest the food components fed to shrimp larvae and increase the digestive efficiency of post larvae. This may be one of the reasons why these probiotic bacteria are beneficial to the shrimp larvae.

  19. House fly oviposition inhibition by larvae ofHermetia illucens, the black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C

    1984-06-01

    Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present. PMID:24318779

  20. Cutaneous larva migrans in northern climates. A souvenir of your dream vacation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelglass, J.W.; Douglass, M.C.; Stiefler, R.; Tessler, M.

    1982-09-01

    Three young women recently returned to the metropolitan Detroit area with cutaneous larva migrans. All three had vacationed at a popular club resort on the Caribbean island of Martinique. Cutaneous larva migrans is frequently seen in the southern United States, Central and South America, and other subtropical areas but rarely in northern climates. Several organisms can cause cutaneous larva migrans, or creeping eruption. The larvae of the nematode Ancylostoma braziliense are most often the causative organisms. Travel habits of Americans make it necessary for practitioners in northern climates to be familiar with diseases contracted primarily in warmer locations. The life cycle of causative organisms and current therapy are reviewed.

  1. Secreted and immunogenic proteins produced by the honeybee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Evans, Jay D; Zunino, Pablo

    2010-03-24

    American Foulbrood is a severe disease affecting larvae of honeybee Apis mellifera, causing significant decrease in the honeybee population, beekeeping industries and agricultural production. In spite of its importance, little is known about the virulence factors secreted by Paenibacillus larvae during larval infection. The aim of the present work was to perform a first approach to the identification and characterization of P. larvae secretome. P. larvae secreted proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF. Protein toxicity was evaluated using an experimental model based on feeding of A. mellifera larvae and immunogenicity was evaluated by Western blot, using an antiserum raised against cells and spores of P. larvae. Ten different proteins were identified among P. larvae secreted proteins, including proteins involved in transcription, metabolism, translation, cell envelope, transport, protein folding, degradation of polysaccharides and motility. Although most of these proteins are cytosolic, many of them have been previously detected in the extracellular medium of different Bacillus spp. cultures and have been related to virulence. The secreted proteins resulted highly toxic and immunogenic when larvae were exposed using an experimental model. This is the first description of proteins secreted by the honeybee pathogen P. larvae. This information may be relevant for the elucidation of bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms. PMID:19781868

  2. Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Morón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico. Larvae of four species of Cyclocephala are described for the first time based on specimens collected in Mexican localities: C. barrerai Martínez, 1969 from Puebla, C. sinaloae Howden & Endrödi, 1966 from Sinaloa, C. fasciolata Bates, 1888 from Veracruz, and C. jalapensis Casey, 1915 from Hidalgo. Larva of C. lunulata Burmeister, 1847, is redescribed based on specimens from the Mexican states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Diagnostic structures are illustrated and the differences and similarities of each species with other previously described larvae of the genus are commented.

  3. Paenilarvins: Iturin family lipopeptides from the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sakshi; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Beims, Hannes; Mohr, Kathrin I; Stadler, Marc; Djukic, Marvin; von der Ohe, Werner; Steinert, Michael; Daniel, Rolf; Müller, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The bacterium Paenibacillus larvae has been extensively studied as it is an appalling honey bee pathogen. In the present work, we screened crude extracts derived from fermentations of P. larvae genotypes ERIC I and II for antimicrobial activity, following the detection of four putative secondary metabolite gene clusters that show high sequence homology to known biosynthetic gene clusters for the biosynthesis of antibiotics. Low molecular weight metabolites produced by P. larvae have recently been shown to have toxic effects on honey bee larvae. Moreover, a novel tripeptide, sevadicin, was recently characterized from laboratory cultures of P. larvae. In this study, paenilarvins, which are iturinic lipopeptides exhibiting strong antifungal activities, were obtained by bioassay-guided fractionation from cultures of P. larvae, genotype ERIC II. Their molecular structures were determined by extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry, and other methods. Paenilarvins are the first antifungal secondary metabolites to be identified from P. larvae. In preliminary experiments, these lipopeptides also affected honey bee larvae and might thus play a role in P. larvae survival and pathogenesis. However, further studies are needed to investigate their function. PMID:25069424

  4. Electrophoretic protein pattern of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata larvae untreated and treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the variation induced in electrophoretic protein pattern of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata (first and third instar larvae) irradiated with 30, 45, 60 and 75 Gy comparing with unirradiated larvae. SDS- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE) showed a variable number of 14 electrophoretic protein bands in the whole body tissue of first instar larvae with molecular weight ranged between 80.439 to 10.542 kDa .In control (unirradiated larvae) the number of detected bands was 12 bands, while in larvae irradiated with 30 and 45 Gy the number of detected bands was 13 bands. Two new bands were detected and one band was disappeared as compared with control. Irradiation of larvae with 60 and 75 Gy led to the appearance of 12 bands; a new band was appeared and another one was disappeared as compared with control. So, there were 11 monomorphic bands, two poly morphic bands and one unique band. The electrophoretic protein bands of the whole body tissue of the third instar larvae showed also a variable No. of 14 bands with molecular weight ranged between 79.932 to 12.077 kDa. In control (unirradiated larvae) the number of detected bands was 13 bands. In larvae irradiated with 30,45 and 60 Gy the number of bands was 14 bands, one new band was detected in larvae irradiated with 30, 45, 60 and 75 Gy and one band disappeared in larvae irradiated with 75 Gy. Also, the number of detected bands was 13 bands comparing with control. So, there are 12 monomorphic band and two polymorphic band comparing with the polymorphism of protein bands in first and third instar larvae of Sbullata it was noticed that in first instar larvae, there were 11 monomorphic bands compared to 12 bands in third instar larvae. One unique band was appeared in first instar larvae and disappeared in third ones. The percentage of polymorphism was 21.429% and 14.286% in the 1st and 3rd instar larvae, respectively. The quantitative analysis also clearly indicated

  5. Uptake and metabolism of dissolved amino acids by larvae and embryos of three gastropod species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved organic matter is a potential nutritional resource for soft-bodied marine invertebrates. Experiments were done with developmental stages of three gastropod species to examine uptake kinetics and metabolism of dissolved amino acids. Free-swimming larvae of Crepidula fornicata and Thais-haemastoma were fed before experiments or starved for 48 hours before experiments to see whether nutritional state affected uptake of 14C-glycine of 14C-alanine. Time course of amino acid uptake was linear from 0-100 minutes for fed and starved larvae of both species. Uptake rates of starved T. haemastoma larvae were similar to or greater than rates for fed larvae, while uptake rates of starved C. fornicata larvae are similar to or less than rates for fed larvae. Starvation may enhance uptake by T. haemastoma larvae. 14CO2 was detected 10 minutes after larval exposure to labeled amino acids began, indicating rapid catabolism of amino acids. Label was found in protein extracted from larvae, indicating that absorbed glycine and alanine can be used for protein synthesis. A greater percent of glycine and alanine was converted to CO2 by starved larvae of both species. Encapsulated embryos of Nucella lapillus were used to study uptake and metabolism of amino acids because encapsulated embryos are in a bacteria-free environment. Uptake by embryos was linear from 10-90 minutes. Because capsules were bacteria-free embryos were the agents responsible for uptake and metabolism of labeled amino acids

  6. BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHITINSYNTHESIS INHIBITOR (TRIFLUMURON) ON ANOPHELINE LARVAE

    OpenAIRE

    E. Farashiani; H. Ladonni

    1999-01-01

    Triflumuron (Bay sir 8514) is one of many benzoylated ureas, which inhibit chitin synthesis during insect molting and are commonly referred to as insect growth regulators or I. G. Rs. The post emergence efficacy of triflumuron (SC 48%) was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles stephensi. The first instar larvae were exposed to tirflumuron at LC50 level (0.0001 mg/l) in a continues exposure time. Among 1000 larvae listed 570 were passed to pupal stage (43% morality at the larvae of stage). The...

  7. Larva migrans cutânea: ocorrência de casos humanos e identificação de larvas de Ancylostoma spp em parque público do município de Taciba, São Paulo Cutaneous larva migrans: reports of pediatric cases and contamination by Ancylostoma spp larvae in public parks in Taciba, São Paulo State

    OpenAIRE

    Vamilton Alvares Santarém; Rogério Giuffrida; Gabriel Arantes Zanin

    2004-01-01

    Descreve-se a ocorrência de larva migrans cutânea em crianças de Taciba, São Paulo, Brasil, pelo contato com areia de parques públicos, onde observou-se larvas de Ancylostoma spp. A enfermidade foi controlada após adotar-se medidas educacionais sanitárias, desativação e isolamento dos locais para reduzir acesso de animais e troca de areia.Cutaneous larva migrans in children from Taciba, São Paulo, Brazil, was related to contact with sand in public squares, where Ancylostoma spp larvae were de...

  8. Unusual pseudomyiasis with Musca domestica (housefly) larvae in a child with chronic otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar Iqbal; Satish Chandra Sharma; Hiba Sami; Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a disease caused by fly larvae and aural myiasis is a rare clinic condition often occurring in children or mentally retarded people. We report the case of an unusual presentation of a unilateral aural myiasis in a 3-year-old female child patient belonging to a slum with unilateral chronic otitis media caused by Musca domestica (housefly) larvae. Eight larvae were removed from the external auditory canal while five more larvae were located in the middle ear cavity and were removed t...

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia Kuehniella, mature larvae and acceptability of irradiated larvae by Bracon hebetor female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, mature 5th instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50-350 Gy at 50 Gy increment and the effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio were investigated. In addition, effects of irradiation on the rate of development to pupae and adults and the acceptance of irradiated larvae by B. hebetor females were examined. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella larvae increased with increasing dose. Pupation was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose, and completely prevented at 350 Gy dose. Adult emergence was only slightly different from pupation; emergence was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose and completely prevented at 300 Gy dose. Irradiation also negatively affected the rate of development of larvae to pupae and adults. While more than 98% of control larvae pupated within 10 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 79% in larvae exposed to 50 Gy and less than 4% in larvae exposed to 100 Gy dose. The rate of development to the adult stage was also similarly affected. While 97% of control insects emerged as adults in the 1st 20 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 53, 2 and zero percent in larvae exposed to 50, 100 and 150 Gy dose respectively. In addition, irradiation significantly affected male: female ratio; sex ratio was skewed in favor of males, and at 250 Gy dose all emerged moths were males. Furthermore, irradiation had no adverse effect on the degree of acceptance of mature larvae to parasitization; irradiated insects were as acceptable to B. hebetor females as unirradiated ones. (author)

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia Kuehniella, mature larvae and acceptability of irradiated larvae by Bracon hebetor females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, mature 5th instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50-350 Gy at 50 Gy increment and the effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio were investigated. In addition, effects of irradiation on the rate of development to pupae and adults and the acceptance of irradiated larvae by B. hebetor females were examined. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella larvae increased with increasing dose. Pupation was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose, and completely prevented at 350 Gy dose. Adult emergence was only slightly different from pupation; emergence was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose and completely prevented at 300 Gy dose. Irradiation also negatively affected the rate of development of larvae to pupae and adults. While more than 98% of control larvae pupated within 10 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 79% in larvae exposed to 50 Gy and less than 4% in larvae exposed to 100 Gy dose. The rate of development to the adult stage was also similarly affected. While 97% of control insects emerged as adults in the 1st 20 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 53, 2 and zero percent in larvae exposed to 50, 100 and 150 Gy dose respectively. In addition, irradiation significantly affected male: female ratio; sex ratio was skewed in favor of males, and at 250 Gy dose all emerged moths were males. Furthermore, irradiation had no adverse effect on the degree of acceptance of mature larvae to parasitization; irradiated insects were as acceptable to B. hebetor females as unirradiated ones. (author)

  11. Seasonal variation in toxicity of citral against Fasciola larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumari Sunita; Pradeep Kumar; Dinesh Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test whether the larvicidal activity of citral against Fasciola varies by season. Methods:Mortality of Fasciola larva in different month of year (2011-2012) in in vitro and in vivo condition were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 8 h exposure of citral. Results:In vitro toxicity of citral against redia was highest in between the June to August (8 h LC50: 2.58-2.62 mg/L), whereas against cercaria 8 h LC50 was in between 3.44-2.62 mg/L. Highest in vivo toxicity against redia was noted in between June to August (8h LC50: 4.20-5.09 mg/L). The lowest toxicity was observed from November to April. The highest temperature, free carbon dioxide, and lowest pH, dissolved oxygen were observed from June to August. Conclusions:The present study conclusively shows that varying a biotic factor can significantly alter the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of citral against sporocyst redia and cercaria larva.

  12. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koou, Sin-Ying; Chong, Chee-Seng; Vythilingam, Indra; Ng, Lee-Ching; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-01-01

    We report the first comprehensive insecticide susceptibility status ofAedes aegypti (L.) larvae from Singapore. The study indicated that Ae. aegypti is susceptible to temephos, although resistance (RR50 = 1.29-4.43-fold) couldbe developing. Of high concern is the detection of moderate to high resistance to permethrin (RR50 = 29-47-fold) and etofenprox (RR50 = 14-34-fold). Biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) remains effective. The insecticide susceptibility profile of Ae. aegypti larvae was found to be homogenous among the different sites studied across the island city. The addition of synergists piperonyl butoxide, S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, and triphenyl phosphate generally failed to enhance the toxicity of the insecticides investigated, suggesting an insignificant role of metabolic-based resistance, and a possible involvement of target site resistance. Further biochemical investigation of specific metabolic enzyme activities suggested that detoxifying enzymes, mono-oxygenases, esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and altered acetylcholinesterases, generally did not contribute to the resistance observed. This study clearly demonstrated that pyrethroid resistance is widespread among Ae. aegypti population and lowered susceptibility to organophosphates is developing. PMID:24605467

  13. Pathogenicity of Four Entomopathogenic Nematodes Species to G. mellonella Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Hyrsl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate and lethal insect parasites. In last decade they are widely used as biological control agents for pest insects of commercial crops, therefore research in this area is directly linked to agriculture. In this study, the pathogenicity of four nematode species (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema scarabaei and Steinernema feltiae was tested against Galleria mellonella larvae. Infective stage of EPNs together with their symbiotic bacteria kills insect host within 48 hours. The results show that mortality of insect host correlates with number of invaded infective juveniles (IJs. The invasion process is very fast, IJs enters insect host within a few hours. The importance of digestive tract as entering site was clearly demonstrated, larvae with empty gut are much more sensitive to nematode infection. Nemato-bacterial complex is very effective system overcoming insect immune defences. Encapsulation as the only one cellular reaction is activated, but in very low rate and was detected only during infection of H. bacteriophora.

  14. Vibrio harveyi effect under survival of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of aquatic organisms show a high relevance in the human feeding and the culture activities can create artificial conditions that increase the growth and selection of specific bacteria. Vibrio species are normal bacteria’s from microflora of penaeid shrimp, those are opportunistic pathogens that can take advantage of the ecological changes generated for the culture of aquatic organisms and which may cause diseases, low survival and economic losses in the shrimp production. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in the survival of different larval substages (nauplius, zoea I-III, mysis I-III and postlarvae 1, of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed at three doses [103 , 105 , and 107 colony-forming unit (CFU ml-1 [ of V. harveyi, by immersion (30 min as infection method. This species generated a significant low survival in larvae (p < 0.05 only in high doses (105 and 107 CFU ml-1 , where higher doses show the lowest values of survival. Larval substages and postlarvae 1 of shrimp showed sensitivity associate to the increase of Vibrio doses and this sensitivity decreased with the growth of larval substages and postlarvae 1. This information has high significance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry, which help to generate strategies to reduce the effects of V. harveyi with positive effect in growth and survival of the shrimp larvae and postlarvae 1.

  15. Otolith geochemistry does not reflect dispersal history of clownfish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, M. L.; Walsh, H. J.; Raventos, N.; Planes, S.; Jones, G. P.; Starczak, V.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    Natural geochemical signatures in calcified structures are commonly employed to retrospectively estimate dispersal pathways of larval fish and invertebrates. However, the accuracy of the approach is generally untested due to the absence of individuals with known dispersal histories. We used genetic parentage analysis (genotyping) to divide 110 new recruits of the orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, from Kimbe Island, Papua New Guinea, into two groups: “self-recruiters” spawned by parents on Kimbe Island and “immigrants” that had dispersed from distant reefs (>10 km away). Analysis of daily increments in sagittal otoliths found no significant difference in PLDs or otolith growth rates between self-recruiting and immigrant larvae. We also quantified otolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios during the larval phase using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Again, we found no significant differences in larval profiles of either element between self-recruits and immigrants. Our results highlight the need for caution when interpreting otolith dispersal histories based on natural geochemical tags in the absence of water chemistry data or known-origin larvae with which to test the discriminatory ability of natural tags.

  16. Phototoxicity of petroleum products to marine invertebrate larvae and niles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet light can activate certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inducing the production of free radicals. In biological organisms these free radicals destroy tissues, causing up to a 4,000 fold increase in toxicity. This dramatic response is a potential marker for PAH contamination in environmental samples. Ultraviolet enhancement of toxicity has ecological relevance as well. An oil spill can release large amounts of PAHs into the marine environment. Oil spill assessments to date have not included observations of any phototoxic effect on pelagic larvae or juveniles of benthic or epibenthic invertebrates. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia were exposed to individual PAHs, as well as the water accommodated fractions of several petroleum products to verify the ability of this method to detect PAHs in environmental samples, and to determine if phototoxicity is a concern during and after an oil spill. Significant phototoxicity was seen in both single chemical and petroleum product exposures. Swartz's EPAH model was not applicable to the authors' results. They hoped to show causality but were not fully successful due to the need to further develop the model with their species and expand the number of PAH analyzed

  17. Decapod larvae dynamics on Berlengas Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO - Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Da Fonseca Alexandre Rato

    2014-05-01

    Total decapoda abundance ranged from 0,06 ind.m-3 in May 2011 to 64,28ind.m-3 in August 2012, and significantly different between summer/winter and winter/spring months (P(perm≤0,05. The data obtained on this study revealed that Infraorders Brachyura, Anomura and Caridea are the most common. All three are significantly different between months (P(perm≤0,05 but not between sampling stations (P(perm>0,05. Brachyuran abundance was significantly affected by the Oceanograhic Conditions (P(perm≤0,05. Abundances were higher in spring and summer months, when Chlorophyl a values (mg.m-3, Temperature (ºC and Salinity (ppt were also higher. Decapoda community is directly affected by the surrounding environmental conditions in Berlengas Biosphere Reserve and abundance might also be related with specific larvae release throughout the year. Each sampling station was considered a replica from the study area. The ecological importance of Berlengas was also verified by the presence of non-frequent larvae of Achelata and Stomatopoda.

  18. Histomorphogenesis of cranial nerves in Huso huso larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavighi, Sherma; Saadatfar, Zohreh; Shojaei, Bahador; Behnam Rassouli, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    In this study the cranial nerves development of H. huso are explained from 1 to 54-days-old (1, 3, 6, 15, 21 and 54 days). Despite all the researches on fish brain, there are no study on nerves evolution on H. huso during their larvae life. For this research 40 samples of larvae H. huso were obtained (from each age, about six samples were selected). The specimens were maintained in fiberglass tank, then histological samples were taken from tissues and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for general histological studies using light microscope. According to the results, on 1 and 3-days-old, no nerve was observed. The terminal nerve and their dendrites were observed around the nasal cavity and the axons projected to different areas in forebrain especially around olfactory bulb diffusely, on 6-day-old fish. Also, olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, lateral line and vagus nerves were detected on 6-day-old fish, however two parts of lateral line nerve were separated on 54-day-old. Three nerves, profundus, facial and octaval were observed on 54-day-old, however, up to this age, epiphysial nerve was not observed. PMID:27482355

  19. The colonization dynamics of the gut microbiota in tilapia larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Giatsis

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that share a common environment. In this study we characterized and quantified the spatio-temporal variation in the gut microbiota of tilapia larvae, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS or active suspension tanks (AS. Our results showed that variation in gut microbiota between replicate tanks was not significantly higher than within tank variation, suggesting that there is no tank effect on water and gut microbiota. However, when individuals were reared in replicate RAS, gut microbiota differed significantly. The highest variation was observed between individuals reared in different types of system (RAS vs. AS. Our data suggest that under experimental conditions in which the roles of deterministic and stochastic factors have not been precisely determined, compositional replication of the microbial communities of an ecosystem is not predictable.

  20. The colonization dynamics of the gut microbiota in tilapia larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, Christos; Sipkema, Detmer; Smidt, Hauke; Verreth, Johan; Verdegem, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota of fish larvae evolves fast towards a complex community. Both host and environment affect the development of the gut microbiota; however, the relative importance of both is poorly understood. Determining specific changes in gut microbial populations in response to a change in an environmental factor is very complicated. Interactions between factors are difficult to separate and any response could be masked due to high inter-individual variation even for individuals that share a common environment. In this study we characterized and quantified the spatio-temporal variation in the gut microbiota of tilapia larvae, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) or active suspension tanks (AS). Our results showed that variation in gut microbiota between replicate tanks was not significantly higher than within tank variation, suggesting that there is no tank effect on water and gut microbiota. However, when individuals were reared in replicate RAS, gut microbiota differed significantly. The highest variation was observed between individuals reared in different types of system (RAS vs. AS). Our data suggest that under experimental conditions in which the roles of deterministic and stochastic factors have not been precisely determined, compositional replication of the microbial communities of an ecosystem is not predictable. PMID:25072852