WorldWideScience

Sample records for boophilus microplus acari

  1. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería; Emily Lizett Esparza Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transm...

  2. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of a southern Brazilian population of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Nunes Garcia

    Full Text Available Using conventional staining with acetic orcein and C-banding techniques it was investigated constitutive heterochromatin chromosomal polymorphisms and the mitotic and the meiotic behavior of male and female chromosomes of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887. Some differences were detected in the population of southern Brazil as compared to the data of other authors for populations in other latitudes. The differences being mainly concerned with the distribution of constitutive centromeric heterochromatin and variation in the length of heterochromatic blocks in the pericentromeric regions of some chromosome pairs.

  3. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region.

  4. In vitro activity of pineapple extracts (Ananas comosus, Bromeliaceae) on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza

    2013-07-01

    Measures to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, based only on chemical products are becoming unsustainable, mainly because of the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS) and bromelain extracted from the stem (Sigma-Aldrich®, B4882) on engorged females and larvae of R. (B.) microplus in vitro. These substances were diluted in water and evaluated at eight concentrations. Engorged females were collected and distributed in groups of 10, with three repetitions for each treatment. After immersion in the solutions, the females were placed in an incubator for observation of survival, oviposition and larval hatching. The larval packet method was used, also with three repetitions with about 100 larvae each. The packets were incubated and the readings were performed after 24 h. The estimated reproduction and efficacy of the solutions were calculated. The LC(50) and LC(90) were estimated using the Probit procedure of the SAS program. The eight concentrations were compared within each treatment by the Tukey test. For the experiment with engorged females, the most effective concentrations were 125, 250 and 500 mg/mL: 33%, 48% and 59% for the AEPS and 27%, 51% and 55% for the bromelain. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were, respectively, 276 and 8691 mg/mL for AEPS and 373 and 5172 mg/mL for bromelain. None of the dilutions tested was effective against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus. This is the first report of the action of pineapple extracts or their constituents on cattle ticks. The results demonstrate that further studies regarding composition of tick cuticle, with evaluation of other solvents and formulations, should be conducted seeking to enhance the effect of pineapple extracts and compounds against this ectoparasite.

  5. Tests to determine LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory test were carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to determine fipronil toxicity. Adult immersion test (AIT), larval immersion test (LIT) and larval packet test (LPT) were standardized using susceptible strain (Mozo). Curves dose-response ...

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Fernández José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega Abel; Padilla-Camberos Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not we...

  7. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties...

  8. In vitro activities of plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira; Nicácio, José; Alves, Reginaldo Dias; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2013-07-01

    A total of 73 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 44 plant species belonging to 24 families, native to the Mid-Western region of Brazil, were assessed in vitro for their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, using the adult immersion test. All extracts were evaluated at the concentration of 0.2 % and, among the extracts tested, the one obtained from the fruits of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved to be highly efficacious, showing 99.1 % of product effectiveness. Extracts from other three species were shown to be moderately active, namely Nymphaea amazonum trunk (Nymphaeaceae) [51.7 %], Strychnos pseudoquina trunk (Loganiaceae) [48 %] [corrected] and Ocotea lancifolia leaves (Lauraceae) [34.5 %], while the remaining extracts were shown to be weakly active or inactive. This is the first report on the bioactivity of these species on egg production by engorged females of R. microplus.

  9. Eficacia del hongo entomopatógeno Metharrizium anisopliae en el control de Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Arguedas, Miguel; Álvarez C, Víctor; Bonilla M, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar la eficacia del hongo entomopatógeno Metharrizium anisopliae en el control de Boophilus microplus, se realizó el presente ensayo, que comprendió tanto una fase in vivo como una in vitro. El trabajo se realizó entre marzo de 2003 y junio de 2004, en 2 fincas ubicadas en Sarapiquí, Heredia y en los laboratorios de Garrapatas del Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería y de Parasitología de la Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional. La fase in vitro c...

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR) gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glycine-like receptor gene from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores-Fernández José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most economically important ectoparasite affecting the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The principal method of tick control has relied mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, including ivermectin; however, cattle tick populations resistant to ivermectin have recently been reported in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Currently, the molecular basis for ivermectin susceptibility and resistance are not well understood in R. microplus. This prompted us to search for potential molecular targets for ivermectin. Here, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a R. microplus glycine-like receptor (RmGlyR gene. The characterized mRNA encodes for a 464-amino acid polypeptide, which contains features common to ligand-gated ion channels, such as a large N-terminal extracellular domain, four transmembrane domains, a large intracellular loop and a short C-terminal extracellular domain. The deduced amino acid sequence showed around 30% identity to GlyRs from some invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. The polypeptide also contains the PAR motif, which is important for forming anion channels, and a conserved glycine residue at the third transmembrane domain, which is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity. PCR analyses showed that RmGlyR is expressed at egg, larval and adult developmental stages. Our findings suggest that the deduced receptor is an additional molecular target to ivermectin and it might be involved in ivermectin resistance in R. microplus.

  12. Effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains for biological control against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guan, Guiquan; Li, Yufeng; Han, Xueqing; Ma, Chao; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the need to combat the spread of acaricide-resistant ticks, the development of long-term biological control has become a hot topic for tick control. In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity of three Beauveria bassiana isolates on the engorged female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks using different conidial concentrations. The results showed that B. bassiana B.bAT17 was highly pathogenic against engorged R. (B.) microplus females, resulting in lethal time (LT50 and LT90) of 7.14 and 9.33 days at a concentration of 10(9)conidia/ml. R. (B.) microplus females treated with B. bassiana B.bAT17 significantly reduced the amount of ovipositioning; and most ticks died before they could begin to oviposit. Proteases and chitinases were analyzed in order to establish a screening method for identification of high virulent strains. This study has confirmed the significant pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic fungi against engorged R. (B.) microplus females in China, and further studies on the efficiency of the fungus against ticks in the field are required.

  13. Características biológicas de Boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae a partir de infestação experimental em cão Biological characteristics of Boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae on dog under experimental infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos P. Franque

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887, um parasita comum dos bovinos, tem sido observado em cães. Com objetivo de descrever características biológicas desse parasitismo, um cão foi infestado experimentalmente com 10.000 larvas de B. microplus previamente mantidas em câmara climatizada a 27 ± 1 ºC e umidade relativa superior a 80%. A média da fase parasitária foi de 24,4 ± 1,50 dias, com uma taxa de recuperação de 0,42%. Das 21 fêmeas desprendidas natural e precocemente do hospedeiro, 6 (28% ingurgitaram o suficiente (75,1 ± 30,23mg para realizar postura. O período médio de prépostura foi de 4,33 ± 1,37 dias e o período médio de postura de 9,17 ± 2,32 dias, com produção média de 18,78 ± 15,34mg de postura. O índice médio de produção de ovos observado foi de 22,38%. Estes resultados demonstraram que fêmeas de B. microplus alimentadas em cão experimentalmente infestado, completam seu ciclo biológico. A obtenção de fêmeas, capazes de realizar posturas viáveis, sugerem a possibilidade do cão atuar como hospedeiro alternativo para B. microplus, especialmente quando não há disponível outra espécie de hospedeiro preferencial.Boophilus microplus, a common parasite of cattle, has eventually reported in dogs. To describe biological features of this parasitism, one dog was experimentally infested with 10,000 larvae of B. microplus which were previously held in acclimatized camera at 27 ±1ºC and relative humidity up to 80%. The mean of parasitic phase was 24.4 ± 1.50 days, with 0.42% of recovery rate. Of 21 natural detached B. microplus females, six engorged enough (75.1 ± 30.23mg to achieve posture. The mean period of pre-posture was 4.33 ± 1.37 days and the means period of posture was 9.17 ± 2.32, producing a mean of 18.78 ± 15.34 posture weight. The mean of eggs production index observed was 22.38%. The results showed that B. microplus females fed on dogs to complete their life cycle. The females collected

  14. Resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and evidence for the involvement of an oxidative detoxification mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew Y; Davey, Ronald B; Miller, Robert J; George, John E

    2003-07-01

    The levels of resistance to two organophosphate acaricides, coumaphos and diazinon, in several Mexican strains of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were evaluated using the FAO larval packet test. Regression analysis of LC50 data revealed a significant cross-resistance pattern between those two acaricides. Metabolic mechanisms of resistance were investigated with synergist bioassays. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) reduced coumaphos toxicity in susceptible strains, but synergized coumaphos toxicity in resistant strains. There was a significant correlation between PBO synergism ratios and the coumaphos resistance ratios. The results suggest that an enhanced cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytP450)-mediated detoxification mechanism may exist in the resistant strains, in addition to the cytP450-mediated metabolic pathway that activates coumaphos. PBO failed to synergize diazinon toxicity in resistant strains, suggesting the cytP450 involved in detoxification were specific. Triphenylphosphate (TPP) synergized toxicity of both acaricides in both susceptible and resistant strains, and there was no correlation between TPP synergism ratios and the LC50 estimates for either acaricide. Esterases may not play a major role in resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in those strains. Bioassays with diethyl maleate (DEM) revealed a significant correlation between DEM synergism ratios and LC50 estimates for diazinon, suggesting a possible role for glutathione S-transferases in diazinon detoxification. Resistance to coumaphos in the Mexican strains of B. microplus was likely to be conferred by both a cytP450-mediated detoxification mechanism described here and the mechanism of insensitive acetylcholinesterases reported elsewhere. The results of this study also underscore the potential risk of coumaphos resistance in B. microplus from Mexico to the U.S. cattle fever tick eradication program.

  15. Avaliação in vitro de uma cepa de campo de Boophilus microplus (Acari : Ixodidae resistente à amitraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría Vargas Minerva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos acaricidas químicos ainda se constitui no principal instrumento de controle do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus. No sul do Brasil, o amitraz aplicado por imersão e aspersão é o ingrediente ativo mais utilizado, nos últimos anos, contra as cepas de carrapatos resistentes aos organofosforados (OF e piretróides sintéticos (PS. Em conseqüência, torna-se importante a realização de investigações que possam contribuir para prolongar a vida útil desse ixodicida. No presente estudo, foi analisado o comportamento toxicológico de uma cepa de B. microplus colhida na localidade de Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, usando-se químicos da família dos OF, PS, misturas OF/PS, além do amitraz. Os resultados indicaram que a cepa denominada "Santa Luiza" apresentou fatores de resistência (FR que variaram entre 2,3 e 3,95 para OF, 23,3 e 147,56 para PS e de 3,76 a 21.57 para amitraz em testes realizados com larvas de carrapatos. A caracterização e purificação de uma cepa de B. microplus resistente ao amitraz permitem seu uso como cepa de referência para a avaliação biológica de ixodicidas alternativos, além de padronizar e validar métodos de diagnósticos toxicológicos que possam detectar resistência frente a esse acaricida.

  16. Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae em laboratório Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais foram estudados com o objetivo de avaliar suas eficiências no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em laboratório. Fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato foram coletadas de bovinos e mantidas em placas de Petri. Foram utilizados extratos orgânicos alcoólicos 2% (peso/volume de sementes de Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (graviola; flores de Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (jambo; folhas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (capim-santo; folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (nim; e extrato hexânico na mesma concentração de A. indica (sementes. Os grupos-controle foram compostos por fêmeas sem tratamento e fêmeas tratadas com água destilada e esterilizada e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a uma concentração de 1%. O extrato de A. muricata apresentou o maior poder acaricida, com eficácia de 100%, seguido dos extratos de S. malaccensis (75 e 59,24% e A. indica (65 e 38,49%. Houve 100% de redução na eclosão das larvas quando se utilizou o extrato de sementes de A. muricata.Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (soursop; flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (iamb, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (holy grass, leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (neem and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume of A. indica (seeds. The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24% and A. indica (65 and 38.49%. The seed extract of A. muricata

  17. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Souza Higa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais and the Distrito Federal (DF of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported.

  18. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  19. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  20. Ocorrência de Borrelia spp. em cultura de células embrionárias do carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Occurrence of Borrelia spp. in culture of embryonic cells of the tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in the State of the Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jania de Rezende

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo reportar a ocorrência de Borrelia spp. em culturas de células embrionárias de Boophilus microplus infectados naturalmente. Sete dias após o início de uma nova cultura primária de células embrionárias do carrapato B. microplus, incubadas a 31ºC, notou-se que as células começaram a degenerar. Ao exame em microscópio de contraste de fase detectou-se a presença de microrganismos alongado e com grande mobilidade. Lâminas de microscópio confeccionadas com amostras do sobrenadante da cultura, hemolinfa e massa de ovos, coradas pelo May Grünwald-Giemsa, permitiram a visualização de espiroquetas. O exame morfológico do microrganismo e sua visualização em B. microplus sugere ser Borrelia spp.The aim of the present work was to report the occurrence of Borrelia spp. in embryonic cell cultures from naturally infected Boophilus microplus. Seven days after the beginning of a primary culture of embryonic cells of B. microplus at 31ºC was noted that the cells start suffering degeneration. Under examination at phase contrast microscope, the presence of prolongated microorganisms with great mobility was detected. Microscopic slides of the culture supernatant, hemolymph and egg mass, were stained by May Grünwald-Giemsa, allowing the visualization of the spirochetes. The morphologic examination of the microorganism and its visualization in. B. microplus, suggest to be Borrelia spp.

  1. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick.

  2. Controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae em sistemas de produção de leite da microrregião fisiográfica fluminense do grande Rio - Rio de Janeiro Control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in dairy farm systems of the physiographic microrregion of grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy de Castro Borba Santos Júnior

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar os métodos de controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus realizados em três fazendas representativas dos sistemas de produção de leite da Microrregião Fisiográfica Fluminense do Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, levando-se em consideração o manejo das fazendas, o grau de sangue Bos taurus e Bos indicus dos rebanhos, os fatores climáticos e a prevalência estacional do carrapato. Para efeito de avaliação, foi utilizada a contagem periódica de fêmeas ingurgitadas medindo entre 4,5 e 8mm, no antímero direito de 20% das vacas em lactação de cada fazenda, durante um ano. A diferença no manejo das pastagens, a composição genética dos rebanhos e as condições climáticas influenciaram a prevalência estacional de B. microplus. A maior lotação animal por hectare, o elevado "stand" vegetativo das pastagens e o maior grau de sangue B. taurus contribuíram para as maiores infestações de carrapatos nas fazendas. O controle de B. microplus realizado pelos proprietários teve importância secundária em relação as outras atitudes de manejo dos rebanhos. Ficou evidenciado o uso excessivo e ineficiente de produtos químicos para o controle de B. microplus nas fazendas. Para implantação de medidas de controle estratégico do B. Microplus, fazem-se necessários esforços para a transferência e adoção dos resultados de pesquisas disponíveis aos produtores rurais.The objective of the study was to analyse the control methods of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. The experiment was carried out on three farms of the dairy production systems of the Fluminense Physiographic Microregion of Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Farm management, the Bos indicus and Bos taurus composition of herds, climatic factors and seasonal variation in tick infestation level of cattle was taken into account. Counts of engorged female ticks, measuring between 4.5 and 8.0mm, in 20% of the lactating cows of each farm

  3. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry.

  4. Percepção dos produtores de leite do município de Passos, MG, sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae, 2001 Perception of dairy farmers from Passos county, MG, Brazil, concerning the tick Boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrevistas com 25 proprietários de rebanhos com produção diária acima de 500 litros de leite, sorteados da listagem da cooperativa de Passos/MG/Brasil, foram aplicadas para caracterizar suas percepções sobre a biologia do Boophilus microplus e suas atitudes no controle de carrapatos. A maioria desses produtores tem pelo menos o ensino médio completo e está na atividade há mais de dez anos. Os prejuízos biológicos produzidos pelos carrapatos são bem percebidos por eles; porém, não demonstraram conhecimento sobre a biologia do B. microplus e as desvantagens dos banhos carrapaticidas, principalmente com relação aos riscos toxicológicos. Esses produtores realizam controle de carrapatos sem critérios técnicos e com alta freqüência, baseando-se na avaliação subjetiva da infestação nos animais. Isto favorece o estabelecimento da resistência aos acaricidas e demonstra que a transferência de tecnologia sobre controle de carrapatos para o setor pecuário é falha.Twenty five dairy farms were randomly chosen from all farms producing more than 500 liters of milk/ day in Passos, MG, Brazil. The owners were interviewed to characterize their perceptions about the biology of B. microplus and their attitudes towards tick control. Most of the producers have a college degree and more than six year-experience in the activity. The biological damages caused by ticks are perceived by the farmers. Their tick control is performed without technical criteria and they did not show a proper knowledge on the biology of B. microplus nor on the toxicological risks of acaricides application. The results reveal a gap between the technology and farmers, favoring tick resistance to acaricides.

  5. Avaliação da atividade repelente do timol, mentol, salicilato de metila e ácido salicilico sobre larvas de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae Evaluation of repellent activity of thymol, menthol, methyl salicylate and salicylic acid on Boophilus microplus larvae (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.S. Novelino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a atividade repelente do timol, mentol, ácido salicílico e salicilato de metila sobre larvas de Boophilus microplus. Essas substâncias foram usadas em emulsões em dimetilsulfuxido aquoso a 1% ou solução aquosa. Para cada substância foram testadas três concentrações, 1,0%; 0,5% e 0,25%, com cinco repetições cada. Cerca de 100 larvas, com 21 dias de idade, foram inseridas na base de hastes de madeira para avaliação da repelência, a cada duas horas, totalizando 12 horas. As concentrações mais elevadas apontaram que as quatro substâncias causaram alteração no comportamento das larvas. Timol, com mortalidade de 65% e 35% de repelência e mentol e salicilato de metila, ambos com 80% de repelência foram os mais eficientes.The repellent activity of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus larvae was studied. These substances were tested according to their solubility: emulsions in 1% aqueous dimethylsulphoxide or in pure water. Three concentrations were tested for each substance, 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.25%, with five repetitions for each. Approximately 100 larvae at 21 days of age were placed on the base of wooden sticks and then observed for repellent action every two hours, during twelve hours. The results obtained from the higher concentrations showed that the four substances caused alterations on the larvae behavior. However, thymol (65% of mortality and 35% of repellency, menthol (80% of repellency and methyl salicylate (80% of repellency were the most efficient.

  6. Determinação da CL90 e TL90 do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae para o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barci Leila A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade e a virulência do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana para larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O isolado IBCB66 foi utilizado como padrão, com a finalidade de determinar a CL50 (Concentração Letal, CL90, TL50 (Tempo Letal e TL90. O isolado IBCB66 foi testado em seis concentrações diferentes (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 e 10(9 para determinar a porcentagem de mortalidade. A mortalidade total de larvas foi observada 18 dias após o início do teste no grupo tratado com 5 × 10(9 conídios.mL-1. A análise de Probit dos dados consignados apontou a CL50 e CL90 concentrações de 3 × 10(7 e 5 × 10(8 conídios.mL-1 e para TL50 e TL90, foram 10 e 16 dias, respectivamente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B. microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 and 10(9 conidia.mL-1 to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5 × 10(9 conidia.mL-1. The LC50 and LC90 were 3 × 10(7 and 5 × 10(8 respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  7. Geostatistics and remote sensing using NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery as predictive tools in tick distribution and habitat suitability estimations for Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in South America. National Oceanographic and Atmosphere Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, A

    1999-02-01

    Remote sensing based on NOAA (National Oceanographic and Atmosphere Administration) satellite imagery was used, together with geostatistics (cokriging) to model the correlation between the temperature and vegetation variables and the distribution of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), in the Neotropical region. The results were used to map the B. microplus habitat suitability on a continental scale. A database of B. microplus capture localities was used, which was tabulated with the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) images from the NOAA satellite series. They were obtained at 10 days intervals between 1983 and 1994, with an 8 km resolution. A cokriging system was generated to extrapolate the results. The data for habitat suitability obtained through two vegetation and four temperature variables were strongly correlated with the known distribution of B. microplus (sensitivity 0.91; specificity 0.88) and provide a good estimation of the tick habitat suitability. This model could be used as a guide to the correct interpretation of the distribution limits of B. microplus. It can be also used to prepare eradication campaigns or to make predictions about the effects of global change on the distribution of the parasite.

  8. INFLUÊNCIA DO PESO INICIAL E DA ESTAÇÃO DO ANO NA CONVERSÃO EM OVOS DE FÊMEAS DE Boophilus microplus (ACARI: IXODIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraão Garcia Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do peso inicial da fêmea e da estação do ano na conversão em ovos de Boophilus microplus. O índice de eficiência reprodutiva (IER de 411 fêmeas pesando entre 31 e 360 mg foi correlacionado com seu peso inicial. Para avaliar a influência das diferentes estações do ano neste parâmetro biológico, dez fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus pesando acima de 150 mg foram colhidas, a cada duas semanas, e mantidas em condições climáticas controladas até a determinação do IER. Uma relação curvilinear foi observada entre o peso das fêmeas e o IER. Fêmeas pesando entre 151 e 360 mg tiveram IER’s mais altos (variando de 44,9% a 51,4% do que aquelas mais leves, as quais apresentaram uma menor capacidade de conversão em ovos (variando de 31,4% a 39,0%. Foi observado que a capacidade de as fêmeas converterem o peso em ovos variou sazonalmente. Os mais altos IER foram observados no período seco, de abril a setembro (47,6% a 58,3%, do que no período chuvoso, de outubro a março (40,2% a 43,6% (P<0,05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus, biologia, conversão em ovos, bovinos.

  9. Virulence of Mexican isolates of entomopathogenic fungi (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) upon Rhipicephalus=Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae and the efficacy of conidia formulations to reduce larval tick density under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel-Sahagún, C A; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Molina-Ochoa, J; Pescador-Rubio, A; Skoda, S R; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Lorenzoni, A G; Galindo-Velasco, E; Fragoso-Sánchez, H; Foster, J E

    2010-06-24

    The first objective was laboratory evaluation of the virulence of 53 Mexican isolates of fungi against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Thirty-three isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnickoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 20 isolates of Isaria (Paecilomyces) fumosorosea (fumosoroseus) (Wize) (Eurotiales: Trichomaceae) were tested on 7-day-old larvae under laboratory conditions. Larvae were immersed in a suspension containing 10(8)conidia/mL and the CL(50) values were estimated. Then, field tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of formulations of the isolate with the highest virulence. M. anisopliae (Ma 14 isolate) was formulated with four carriers: Tween, Celite, wheat bran, and Citroline (mineral oil) and applied on pasture beds of Cynodon plectostachyus (L.), at a dose of 2 x 10(9)CFU/m(2). In the first trial, M. anisopliae was applied on plots naturally infested with larvae; in the second trial, tick populations in the experimental plots were eliminated and then re-infested with 20,000 7-day-old larvae. In the laboratory, all M. anisopliae isolates infected larvae with a mortality range between 2 and 100%; also, 13 of 20 I. fumosorosea isolates caused mortality rates between 7 and 94%. In the first field trial, 14 days post-application, conidial formulations in Celite and wheat bran caused 67.8 and 94.2% population reduction, respectively. In the second trial, the Tween formulation caused the highest larval reduction, reaching up to 61% (28 days post-application). Wheat bran formulation caused 58.3% larval reduction (21 days post-application) and was one of the most effective. The carriers and emulsifiers have a large impact on the effectiveness of conidial formulations.

  10. Acaricide resistance mechanisms in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Mecanismos de resistência aos acaricidas em Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix David Guerrero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acaricide resistance has become widespread in countries where cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a problem. Resistance arises through genetic changes in a cattle tick population that causes modifications to the target site, increased metabolism or sequestration of the acaricide, or reduced ability of the acaricide to penetrate through the outer protective layers of the tick’s body. We review the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of acaricide resistance that have been shown to be functional in R. (B. microplus. From a mechanistic point of view, resistance to pyrethroids has been characterized to a greater degree than any other acaricide class. Although a great deal of research has gone into discovery of the mechanisms that cause organophosphate resistance, very little is defined at the molecular level and organophosphate resistance seems to be maintained through a complex and multifactorial process. The resistance mechanisms for other acaricides are less well understood. The target sites of fipronil and the macrocyclic lactones are known and resistance mechanism studies are in the early stages. The target site of amitraz has not been definitively identified and this is hampering mechanistic studies on this acaricide.A resistência aos acaricidas tornou-se amplamente difundida nos países onde os carrapatos bovinos, Rhipicephalus .Boophilus. microplus, são um problema. A resistência surge por meio de alterações genéticas em umapopulação de carrapatos que causam modificações no local de ação, aumento do metabolismo ou sequestro do acaricida, ou ainda redução na capacidade do acaricida em penetrar através das camadas protetoras do corpo do carrapato. Neste artigo, foram revisados os mecanismos moleculares e bioquímicos da resistência aos acaricidas que ocorrem em R. (B. microplus. A partir de um ponto de vista dos mecanismos envolvidos, a resistência aos piretróides tem sido caracterizada em maior grau do

  11. Control de garrapatas Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus en bovinos con el inmunógeno Herber biogar - Control of Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks in bovine with the Herber biogar inmunógeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botello A.R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de controlar la garrapata Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus por medio del inmunógeno Herber biogar en bovinos en el municipio de Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.SummaryThis research was conducted with the aim of controlling the tickRiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus through Herber biogar immunogen incattle in the town of Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.

  12. New insights from molecular characterization of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Guimarães Csordas

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus complex currently consists of five taxa, namely R. australis, R. annulatus, R. (B. microplus clade A sensu, R. microplus clade B sensu, and R. (B. microplus clade C sensu. Mitochondrial DNA-based methods help taxonomists when they are facing the morpho-taxonomic problem of distinguishing members of the R. (B. microplus complex. The purpose of this study was to perform molecular characterization of ticks in all five regions of Brazil and infer their phylogenetic relationships. Molecular analysis characterized 10 haplotypes of the COX-1 gene. Molecular network analysis revealed that haplotype H-2 was the most dispersed of the studied populations (n = 11. Haplotype H-3 (n = 2 had the greatest genetic differentiation when compared to other Brazilian populations. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree of the COX-1 gene obtained strong support. In addition, it was observed that the population of R. (B. microplus haplotype H-3 exhibited diverging branches among the other Brazilian populations in the study. The study concludes that the different regions of Brazil have R. (B. microplus tick populations with distinct haplotypes.

  13. New approaches toward anti-Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick vaccine Novas estratégias para o desenvolvimento de uma vacina contra o carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Parizi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (formerly Boophilus microplus is the major ectoparasite affecting livestock in America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania. Conventional tick control is based on the use of acaricides but immunization of bovines with tick gut proteins induces only a partial protective immune response. Based on this information, distinct research groups have explored the possibility of protecting the animals by inducing an immune response against other tick proteins. However, the antigens so far described do not induce the necessary protection for suppressing the use of acaricides. Currently, several groups are engaged in identifying new tick proteins to be used as targets for the development of new vaccines. This approach focuses on the enhancement of the immunogenicity of antigens already tested by incorporating new adjuvants or formulations and by searching for new antigens. This paper reviews the work done by Brazilian researchers to develop a vaccine against this tick.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (anteriormente Boophilus microplus é o principal ectoparasita que afeta bovinos na América, Ásia, África e Oceania e o seu controle é tradicionalmente realizado através do uso de acaricidas. Experimentos de imunização com proteínas do carrapato mostram que a resposta imune desenvolvida pelos bovinos vacinados protege, em parte, os animais do parasitismo. Baseado nessas observações, vários grupos de pesquisa exploram a possibilidade de proteger os animais pela indução de uma resposta imune contra proteínas do carrapato. Entretanto, os antígenos já caracterizados não asseguram o grau de proteção necessário para suprimir o uso de acaricidas. Portanto, esses grupos de pesquisa estão engajados na tentativa de identificar novas proteínas que possam ser utilizadas para o desenvolvimento de novas vacinas, as quais possam induzir maior imunogenicidade de que os antígenos já testados, através do

  14. Larvicidal potential of Sapindus saponaria to control the cattle tick Boophilus microplus Potencial larvicida de Sapindus saponaria para controle do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Freitas Fernandes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal potential of a crude ethanol extract (CEE of soapberry Sapindus saponaria stem peel on the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Tick larvae obtained by incubating engorged females, collected from naturally infested cattle, were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of CEE in the test group, and distilled water in the control group. Four repetitions were made with each solution (n>120. Mortality was observed after 48 hours. Lethal concentration values of 1,258 ppm (LC50 and 6,360 ppm (LC99 were obtained.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial larvicida do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE, da casca do caule de Sapindus saponaria, sobre Boophilus microplus. Larvas desse carrapato foram obtidas pela incubação de teleóginas, coletadas de bovinos naturalmente infestados. As larvas foram acondicionadas em envelopes de papel-filtro, impregnados com diferentes concentrações do EBE no grupo teste, e com água destilada no grupo controle. Quatro repetições foram feitas com cada solução (n>120. A mortalidade foi observada após 48 horas. Foram obtidas concentrações letais CL50 de 1.258 ppm e CL99 de 6.360 ppm.

  15. Expression of recombinant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. annulatus and R. decoloratus Bm86 orthologs as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris.

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan Frans; Hope Michelle; Nijhof Ard M; Naranjo Victoria; de la Lastra José; Canales Mario; de la Fuente José

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in Africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The R. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant DNA technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Results In this study, the genes for Bm86 (R. microplus), Ba86 (R. annulatus) and Bd86 (...

  16. AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DE FITOTERÁPICOS NO CONTROLE DE RHIPICEPHALUS BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Nicolino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal medicines is considered an important alternative to control pests, and can reduce economic and environmental impacts the use of synthetic pesticides. The present study aimed at comparing the in vitro action of essential oils against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Essential oil was used Azadiracta indica (Neem, Cymbopogom nardus L. Rendle (Citronella and Cymbopogon citratus (lemon-grass in the following concentrations: 12.5%, 6%, 3% and 1%. Maximum efficiency (100% was observed for all plants at concentrations of 12.5%. At the concentration of 6% only the essential oils of neem and citronella apresntaram 100% efficiency. Citronella still showed maximum efficiency at a concentration of 3% and still got 95.30% in the lowest concentration (1%. It is concluded that the use of essential oils can be an important alternative in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus.O uso de fitoterápicos é considerado uma alternativa importante no controle de parasitas, e podem reduzir impactos econômicos e ambientais ao uso de pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar comparativamente a ação in vitro de óleos essenciais contra fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Foi utilizado óleo essencial de Azadiracta indica (Neem, Cymbopogom nardus L. Rendle (Citronela e Cymbopogon citratus (Capim-cidreira nas seguintes concentrações: 12,5%, 6%, 3% e 1%. Eficácia máxima (100% foi observada por todas as plantas nas concentrações de 12,5%. Na concentração de 6% somente os óleos essenciais de neem e citronela apresentaram eficácia de 100%. A citronela ainda apresentou eficácia máxima na concentração de 3% e ainda obteve 95,30% na menor concentração (1%. Conclui-se que a utilização de óleos essenciais pode ser uma alternativa importante no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus.

  17. Global comparative analysis of ESTs from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertea Geo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is an economically important parasite of cattle and can transmit several pathogenic microorganisms to its cattle host during the feeding process. Understanding the biology and genomics of R. microplus is critical to developing novel methods for controlling these ticks. Results We present a global comparative genomic analysis of a gene index of R. microplus comprised of 13,643 unique transcripts assembled from 42,512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs, a significant fraction of the complement of R. microplus genes. The source material for these ESTs consisted of polyA RNA from various tissues, lifestages, and strains of R. microplus, including larvae exposed to heat, cold, host odor, and acaricide. Functional annotation using RPS-Blast analysis identified conserved protein domains in the conceptually translated gene index and assigned GO terms to those database transcripts which had informative BlastX hits. Blast Score Ratio and SimiTri analysis compared the conceptual transcriptome of the R. microplus database to other eukaryotic proteomes and EST databases, including those from 3 ticks. The most abundant protein domains in BmiGI were also analyzed by SimiTri methodology. Conclusion These results indicate that a large fraction of BmiGI entries have no homologs in other sequenced genomes. Analysis with the PartiGene annotation pipeline showed 64% of the members of BmiGI could not be assigned GO annotation, thus minimal information is available about a significant fraction of the tick genome. This highlights the important insights in tick biology which are likely to result from a tick genome sequencing project. Global comparative analysis identified some tick genes with unexpected phylogenetic relationships which detailed analysis attributed to gene losses in some members of the animal kingdom. Some tick genes were identified which had close orthologues to mammalian genes

  18. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  19. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  20. Research and development of anti-tick vaccines for use in Texas and Puerto Rico Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year marks the first time anti-tick vaccination will be used in the United States and Puerto Rico to control, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus. The 110-year-old Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program has eradicated the southern cattle fever tick from the majority of the Unite...

  1. Transcriptome database derived from the Texas Deutsch outbreak strain population of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, vectors Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are the protozoans causing cattle fever, a disease that is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America, and Australia. We ini...

  2. Molecular and functional characterization of the first tick CAP2b (periviscerokinin) receptor from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cDNA of the receptor for CAP2b/periviscerokinin (PVK) neuropeptides, designated Rhimi-CAP2b-R, was cloned from synganglia of tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This receptor is the ortholog of the insect CAP2b/PVK receptor, as concluded from analyses of the predicted protein sequence, ph...

  3. Extrato de plantas medicinais como carrapaticida de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.S. Hocayen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais tem sido uma prática antiga da humanidade, contribuindo para a divulgação das virtudes terapêuticas de extratos de diferentes vegetais. Na busca de alternativas naturais eficazes para males que prejudicam indiretamente o homem, as plantas medicinais têm sido utilizadas na veterinária na tentativa de eliminar ou reduzir a ação dos carrapatos B. microplus, que podem trazer prejuízos a bovinos. Durante anos têm sido utilizado produtos químicos nesse controle, no entanto, os carrapatos adquirem resistência aos fármacos em decorrência do uso contínuo. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de hidrolato e extratos aquosos de carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. D.C.], alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L., necroton [Vernonia condensata (Backer H. Rob.] camomila [Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert], além do óleo essencial de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L.. Os ensaios para larvas de B. microplus foram realizados com impregnação das substâncias em papel filtro. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que todos os extratos aquosos foram ineficazes; o hidrolato de carqueja e de necroton apresentaram eficiência em torno de 30%, necessitando novos testes para comprovação. Dentre os resultados obtidos, destaca-se o hidrolato de alfavaca que apresentou eficiência de 76,7% na concentração de 100% e o óleo essencial puro de alfavaca que apresentou ação larvicidade 100% indicando o potencial carrapaticida dessa planta, especificamente no combate de B.microplus.

  4. The mitochondrial genome of a Texas outbreak strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, derived from whole genome sequencing Pacific Biosciences and Illumina reads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most significant medical veterinary pests in the world, vectoring several serious livestock diseases negatively impacting agricultural economies of tropical and subtropical countries around the world. We assembled the complete ...

  5. Virulence of Mexican isolates of entomopathogenic fungi upon Rhipicephalus-Boophilus microplus larvae and the efficacy of conidia formulations to reduce larval tick density under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first objective was laboratory evaluation of the virulence of 53 Mexican isolates of fungi against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Thirty three isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnickoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 20 isolates of Isaria (Paec...

  6. Allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongejan Frans

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The morphological and genetic differences among R. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from America/Africa and those from Australia being different species. To test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we performed a series of experiments to characterize the reproductive performance of crosses between R. microplus from Australia, Africa and America and the genetic diversity of strains from Australia, Asia, Africa and America. Results The results showed that the crosses between Australian and Argentinean or Mozambican strains of boophilid ticks are infertile while crosses between Argentinean and Mozambican strains are fertile. These results showed that tick strains from Africa (Mozambique and America (Argentina are the same species, while ticks from Australia may actually represent a separate species. The genetic analysis of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and microsatellite loci were not conclusive when taken separately, but provided evidence that Australian tick strains were genetically different from Asian, African and American strains. Conclusion The results reported herein support the hypothesis that at least two different species share the name R. microplus. These species could be redefined as R. microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (for American and African strains and probably the old R. australis Fuller, 1899 (for Australian strains, which needs to be redescribed. However, experiments with a larger number of tick strains from different geographic locations are needed to corroborate these results.

  7. Metarhizium anisopliae lipolytic activity plays a pivotal role in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beys da Silva, Walter O; Santi, Lucélia; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H

    2010-01-01

    Lipases secreted by Metarhizium anisopliae, an important biological control agent, could potentially be involved in the host infection process. Here, we present the activity profile during the host infection process and the effect of lipase activity inhibitor ebelactone B on infection. The previous treatment of spores with lipase activity inhibitor, ebelactone B, completely inhibited lipolytic activity and prevented the infection of the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus host. The results herein presented prove, for the first time, the importance of lipase activity in M. anisopliae host infection process. The filamentous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is one of the most important and studied biological agents for the control of several arthropod pests, including the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Lipases secreted by M. anisopliae could potentially be involved in the host infection process. This work presents the activity profile during the host infection process and the effect of lipase activity inhibitor ebelactone B on infection. During the course of tick exposure to spores (6-120 h) lipase activity increased from 0.03 ± 0.00 U to 0.312 ± 0.068 U using rho NP palmitate as substrate. In zymograms, bands of lipase activity were detected in ticks treated with spores without inhibitor. The previous treatment of spores with lipase activity inhibitor, ebelactone B, completely inhibited lipolytic activity, at all times specified, and prevented the infection of the R. microplus host. Spores treated with the inhibitor did not germinate on the tick, although this effect was not observed in the culture medium. The results herein presented prove, for the first time, the importance of lipase activity in M. anisopliae host infection process.

  8. Sequence characterization and immunogenicity of cystatins from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizi, Luís F; Githaka, Naftaly W; Acevedo, Carolina; Benavides, Uruguaysito; Seixas, Adriana; Logullo, Carlos; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Masuda, Aoi; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

    2013-12-01

    Various classes of endopeptidases and their inhibitors facilitate blood feeding and digestion in ticks. Cystatins, a family of tight-binding and reversible inhibitors of cysteine endopeptidases, have recently been found in several tick tissues. Moreover, vaccine trials using tick cystatins have been found to induce protective immune responses against tick infestation. However, the mode of action of tick cystatins is still poorly understood, limiting the elucidation of their physiological role. Against this background, we have investigated sequence characteristics and immunogenic properties of 5 putative cystatins from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Brazil and Uruguay. The similarity of the deduced amino acid sequences among cystatins from the Brazilian tick strain was 27-42%, all of which had a secretory signal peptide. The cystatin motif (QxVxG), a glycine in the N-terminal region, and the PW motif in the second hairpin loop in the C-terminal region are highly conserved in all 5 cystatins identified in this study. Four cysteine residues in the C terminus characteristic of type 2 cystatins are also present. qRT-PCR revealed differential expression patterns among the 5 cystatins identified, as well as variation in mRNA transcripts present in egg, larva, gut, salivary glands, ovary, and fat body tissues. One R. microplus cystatin showed 97-100% amino acid similarity between Brazilian and Uruguayan isolates. Furthermore, by in silico analysis, antigenic amino acid regions from R. microplus cystatins showed high degrees of homology (54-92%) among Rhipicephalus spp. cystatins. Three Brazilian R. microplus cystatins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins were determined by vaccinating mice. Western blotting using mice sera indicated cross-reactivity between the cystatins, suggesting shared epitopes. The present characterization of Rhipicephalus spp. cystatins represents an empirical approach in an effort to evaluate

  9. Proteomic analysis of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus saliva: a comparison between partially and fully engorged females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Tirloni

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. Similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, R. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. Thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. So far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick saliva. The aim of this work was to identify proteins present in R. microplus female tick saliva at different feeding stages. Proteomic analysis of R. microplus saliva allowed identifying peptides corresponding to 187 and 68 tick and bovine proteins, respectively. Our data confirm that (i R. microplus saliva is complex, and (ii that there are remarkable differences in saliva composition between partially engorged and fully engorged female ticks. R. microplus saliva is rich mainly in (i hemelipoproteins and other transporter proteins, (ii secreted cross-tick species conserved proteins, (iii lipocalins, (iv peptidase inhibitors, (v antimicrobial peptides, (vii glycine-rich proteins, (viii housekeeping proteins and (ix host proteins. This investigation represents the first proteomic study about R. microplus saliva, and reports the most comprehensive Ixodidae tick saliva proteome published to date. Our results improve the understanding of tick salivary modulators of host defense to tick feeding, and provide novel information on the tick-host relationship.

  10. Uso de lactonas macrocíclicas para el control de la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus en el ganado bovino Use of macrocyclic lactones to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RI Rodríguez-Vivas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta revisión se describe en detalle la composición química, farmacocinética, presentación y dosis, seguridad y tiempo de retiro y la seguridad ambiental de los grupos que componen a las LM: avemectinas (ivermectina, doramectina, eprinomectina, abamectina y milbemicinas (moxidectina. Además se presenta una discusión sobre su eficacia y el problema de resistencia de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus a las LM. Se concluye que las LM por su alta liposolubilidad se distribuyen ampliamente en los tejidos, siendo eficaces para el control de R. (B. microplus en el ganado bovino. La eficacia de la ivermectina, doramectina, eprinomectina, abamectina y moxidectina de corta acción es similar (> 90% de eficacia a las cuatro semanas postratamiento, PT para el control de fases adultas de R. (B. microplus; sin embargo, existen en el mercado LM de larga acción que presentan eficacia > 95% con persistencia hasta 70 días PT.An overview of the macrocyclic lactones (ML, with recent results and their effect on the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is presented in this paper. This review describes in detail the chemistry, pharmacokinetics and dose presentation, security and time withdrawal and environmental safety of the groups belonging to ML: avermectins (ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, abamectin and milbemycin (moxidectin. There is also a discussion on their efficacy and the problem of resistance of R. (B. microplus to ML. Finally, it is concluded that due to their high lipid solubility ML are widely distributed in tissues, being effective in the control of R. (B. microplus in cattle. The efficacy of short-acting ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, abamectin and moxidectin are similar (> 90% effective after four weeks post treatment, PT to control adult stages of R. (B. microplus, however, in long-acting LM are available the market and present efficiency of > 95% with persistence up to 70 days PT.

  11. Detection of Babesia bigemina in cattle of different genetic groups and in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M C S; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G; Regitano, L C A; Alencar, M M; Néo, T A; Silva, A M; Oliveira, H N

    2008-08-17

    Babesia bigemina infections were investigated in four genetic groups of beef cattle and in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus engorged female ticks. Blood samples and engorged female ticks were collected from 15 cows and 15 calves from each of the following genetic groups: Nelore, Angus x Nelore, Canchim x Nelore, and Simmental x Nelore. Microscopic examination of blood smears and tick hemolymph revealed that merozoites of B. bigemina (6/60) as well as kinetes of Babesia spp. (9/549) were only detected in samples (blood and ticks, respectively) originated from calves. PCR-based methods using primers for specific detection of B. bigemina revealed 100% infection in both calves and cows, regardless the genetic group. Tick infection was detected by nested-PCR amplifications showing that the frequency of B. bigemina was higher (P0.05).

  12. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Rmi a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crustaceans. Model arthropod genomes such as Drosophila and Anopheles are too taxonomically distant for a reference in tick genomic sequence analysis. This study focuses on the de-novo assembly of two R. microplus BAC sequences from the understudied R microplus genome. Based on available R. microplus sequenced resources and comparative analysis, tick genomic structure and functional predictions identify complex gene structures and genomic targets expressed during tick-cattle interaction. Results In our BAC analyses we have assembled, using the correct positioning of BAC end sequences and transcript sequences, two challenging genomic regions. Cot DNA fractions compared to the BAC sequences confirmed a highly repetitive BAC sequence BM-012-E08 and a low repetitive BAC sequence BM-005-G14 which was gene rich and contained short interspersed elements (SINEs. Based directly on the BAC and Cot data comparisons, the genome wide frequency of the SINE Ruka element was estimated. Using a conservative approach to the assembly of the highly repetitive BM-012-E08, the sequence was de-convoluted into three repeat units, each unit containing an 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA encoding gene sequence (rDNA, related internal transcribed spacer and complex intergenic region. In the low repetitive BM-005-G14, a novel gene complex was found between to 2 genes on the same strand. Nested in the second intron of a large 9 Kb papilin gene was a helicase gene. This helicase overlapped in two exonic regions with the papilin. Both these genes were shown expressed in different tick life stage important in ectoparasite interaction with the host. Tick specific sequence

  13. Acaricidal activity of Amburana cearensis on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Caroline dos Santos Dantas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of Amburana cearensis against engorged females of Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus microplus . The crude ethanolic extract from the leaves of A. cearensis was submitted to partition with organic solvents (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate in order of increasing polarity; and evaluated using three treatments at concentrations of 5, 10 and 25mg ml-1. To evaluate the acaricidal activity, engorged females were submitted to the adult immersion test. Parameters analyzed were the weight of females; weight of egg mass; percentage of hatch; reproductive efficiency; expected rate of reproduction; and efficacy. For each extract and concentrating fraction, tests were performed in triplicate. Among all fractions, the hexane (2.5% achieved the best results in all parameters analyzed: 52.7% of inhibition of oviposition; 39% of hatching rate; 3,271 index of reproductive efficiency; and 67.0% effectiveness. The extract obtained gradual dose response with increasing concentration; and could be used as an aid in the control of R. ( B. microplus therapy.

  14. Virulence potential of Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. isolates on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinelato, Simone; Golo, Patrícia S; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Sá, Fillipe A; Camargo, Mariana G; Angelo, Isabele C; Moraes, Aurea M L; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2012-12-21

    The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control arthropods has been reported worldwide for decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the virulence of 30 Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. Brazilian isolates from different geographical regions, hosts or substrates on the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks under in vitro conditions to the selection of virulent isolates in order to be further used in biological control programs. The current study confirmed the lethal action of M. anisopliae s.l. isolates on R. (B.) microplus larvae with different mortality levels, usually directly proportional to the conidia concentration. No relationship was found between the origin of the isolate and its virulence potential or between the virulence potential and conidia production. Three isolates (CG 37, CG 384 and IBCB 481) caused a high percentage of larval mortality, reaching LC(50) at 10(6) conidia ml(-1), thus requiring a lower conidia concentration to cause an approximately 100% larval mortality. The results of this study suggest that these three isolates are the most promising for use in programs aimed at microbial control in the field.

  15. Acaricidal activity of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella against the ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Arachinida: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramani, V; Sakthivelkumar, S; Tamilarasan, K; Aisha, S O; Janarthanan, S

    2014-09-01

    The ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected at various cattle farms in and around Chennai was subjected to treatment of different crude solvent extracts of leaves of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella for acaricidal activity. Among various solvent extracts of leaves of O. basilicum and S. acmella used, chloroform extract of O. basilicum at concentrations between 6% and 10% exhibited 70% and 100% mortality of ticks when compared to control. The LC50 and LC90 values of the chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum treatment on the ticks after 24 h were observed as 5.46% and 7.69%. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of α- and β- carboxylesterase enzymes in the whole gut homogenate of cattle tick, R. microplus treated with chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum revealed higher level of activities for the enzymes. This indicated that there was an induced response in the tick, R. microplus against the toxic effects of the extract of O. basilicum.

  16. Controle de larvas de Boophilus microplus por Metarhizium anisopliae em pastagens infestadas artificialmente Control of Boophilus microplus larvae by Metarhizium anisopliae in artificially infested pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Mara de Souza Basso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do controle exercido por Metarhizium anisopliae na população de Boophilus microplus, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, e do híbrido Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., artificialmente infestadas com fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. Trinta canteiros com 1 m² de área cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente. Quinze foram pulverizados com esporos do fungo e quinze controles em cada forrageira, constituindo cinco repetições de cada tratamento, foram infestados com número e peso padronizados de fêmeas ingurgitadas do ácaro. Aplicou-se o fungo, na concentração de 1,8x10(8 conídios mL-1, em três situações: pulverização antes da infestação com o carrapato, após a infestação e posterioriormente à emergência das primeiras larvas nos capins. A ação do fungo foi avaliada no 35º, 38º, 41º, 48º, 55º e 61º dia pós-infestação, por meio da contagem de larvas recuperadas. Obteve-se controle de larvas do ácaro, que, nas avaliações realizadas entre o 35º e o 48º dia pós-infestação, variou entre 87% e 94%. As médias das contagens de estágios larvares do carrapato foram menores em todas as amostragens realizadas no capim-Tifton 85, indicando que houve efeito da pastagem na ação do fungo. A situação de aplicação influencia a atividade do fungo, com melhor resultado nas coletas realizadas entre o 41º e 55º dia após infestação em B. brizantha, e aplicação dos conídios logo após a emergência das primeiras larvas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus against Boophilus microplus population in Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 (Cynodon pastures, artificially infested with tick engorged females. Thirty plots of 1 m² each were randomly distributed in fifteen treated and fifteen control groups per type of grass, establishing five repetitions for each treatment. Pastures were infested with engorged tick females

  17. Borrelia theileri: observação em carrapatos do gênero Boophilus microplus no município de Guaíba, RS, Brasil Borrelia theileri: observation on Boophilus microplus ticks in Guaiba, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Martins

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Espiroquetas da espécie Borrelia theileri identificadas em uma estirpe de carrapatos Boophilus microplus provenientes do município de Guaíba, RS. A observação ocorreu no exame de hemolinfa de fêmeas adultas com 10 dias pós-repleçâo, corada por Giemsa. Não foram observadas espiroquetas em ovos provenientes de teleóginas infectadas. A detecção da estirpe infectada sugere a presença de borreliose em rebanhos bovinos, fato que eventualmente pode interferir em resultados de diagnóstico ou tornar-se motivo de preocupação em produtos derivados de sangue bovino tais como vacinas vivas contra anaplasmose e babesiose bovina.Spirochetes of species Borrelia theileri were identifica in afield-strain of the caule tick Boophilus microplus, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil. Hemolymph smears from females 10 days post-repletion were collected by gentty section of the tarsal-metatarsaijoint, and dropped onto a microscope slide, and stained by Giemsa. No spirochetes were observed in eggs squashed and stained by Giemsa from the same infected strain. The detection of B. microplus adult females infected with Borrelia theileri suggesfs the likely presence of borreliosis in bovine heras what might eventually interfere with the interpretation of diagnosis results or become cause for concern in blood products such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis live vaccines.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of a Texas outbreak strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, derived from whole genome sequencing Pacific Biosciences and Illumina reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCooke, John K; Guerrero, Felix D; Barrero, Roberto A; Black, Michael; Hunter, Adam; Bell, Callum; Schilkey, Faye; Miller, Robert J; Bellgard, Matthew I

    2015-10-15

    The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most significant medical veterinary pests in the world, vectoring several serious livestock diseases negatively impacting agricultural economies of tropical and subtropical countries around the world. In our study, we assembled the complete R. microplus mitochondrial genome from Illumina and Pac Bio sequencing reads obtained from the ongoing R. microplus (Deutsch strain from Texas, USA) genome sequencing project. We compared the Deutsch strain mitogenome to the mitogenome from a Brazilian R. microplus and from an Australian cattle tick that has recently been taxonomically designated as Rhipicephalus australis after previously being considered R. microplus. The sequence divergence of the Texas and Australia ticks is much higher than the divergence between the Texas and Brazil ticks. This is consistent with the idea that the Australian ticks are distinct from the R. microplus of the Americas.

  19. Artificial infestation of Boophilus microplus in beef cattle heifers of four genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mary da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of beef cattle heifers to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was evaluated by artificial infestation of 66 beef cattle heifers of the following genetic groups: 16 Nelore (NE, 18 Canchim x Nelore (CN, 16 Angus x Nelore (AN and 16 Simmental x Nelore (SN. The animals, with a mean age of 16.5 months, were maintained with no chemical tick control in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Four artificial infestations with 20,000 B. microplus larvae were carried out 14 days apart and from day 18 to day 22 of each infestation the number of engorged female ticks (> 4.5 mm was counted on the left side of each heifer. Data were analyzed as the percentage of return (PR = percentage of ticks counted relative to the number infested, transformed to (PR¼, and as log10 (Cij + 1, in which Cij is the number of ticks in each infestation, using the least squares method with a model that included the effects of genetic group (GG, animal within GG (error a, infestation number (I, GG x I and the residual (error b. Results indicated a significant GG x I interaction, because AN and SN heifers had a higher percentage of return than CN and NE heifers, while CN heifers showed a higher percentage of return than the NE heifers only in infestations 3 and 4. Transformed percentages of return were NE = 0.35 ± 0.06, AN = 0.89 ± 0.06, CN = 0.54 ± 0.05 and SN = 0.85 ± 0.06.

  20. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen Imunoproteção de bovinos contra Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus com antígeno recombinante Bm86-Campo Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B. microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B. microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG strain of R. (B. microplus was produced using the Pichiapastoris expression system to test its ability to immunoprotect cattle against tick infestation. Secretion of rBm86-CG by P. pastoris through the bioprocess reported here simplified purification of the antigen. A specific humoral immune response was detected by ELISA in vaccinated cattle. Immunoblot results revealed that polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated cattle recognized a protein in larval extracts with a molecular weight corresponding to Bm86. The rBm86-CG antigen showed 31% efficacy against the Campo Grande strain of R. (B. microplus infesting vaccinated cattle. The rBm86-CG is an antigen that could be used in a polyvalent vaccine as part of an integrated program for the control of R. (B. microplus in the region that includes Mato Grosso do Sul.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é, sem dúvidas, o ectoparasito economicamente mais importante para o gado a nível mundial. A utilização inadequada de acaricidas tem impulsionado a evolução da resistência em populações de R. (B. microplus. Vacinas contra o carrapato representam uma tecnologia que pode ser combinada com acaricidas em programas de controle integrado para diminuir o impacto de R. (B. microplus. A forma recombinante da Bm86 da cepa Campo Grande (rBm86-CG de R. (B. microplus foi produzido utilizando o sistema de expressão em Pichia pastoris para testar sua capacidade de imunoproteção ao gado contra a infestação de

  1. Infestation by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in heifers from different genetics groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Marini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the infestation of ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in 59 heifers of three genetic groups was run: Nellore, Guzerá and ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, belonging to the roster APTA Regional Andradina / SP. Every 28 days held the count of ticks, where the left side of the animal, with evaluation of only engorged females with more than 4.5 mm in the period from June 2007 to May 2008. The genetic group (P 0.05. The count of ticks was higher in the rainy season (4.32 ± 5.20 in comparison with the dry season (3.74 ± 5.54. Despite the higher counts of ticks during the experimental period, in heifers ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, this genetic group obtained the highest average daily weight gain (0.57 kg/day. Heifers and bulls Nellore and Guzerá were not statistically different in relation to daily weight gain, with averages of 0.37 and 0.40kg/day, respectively. ½ Angus heifers genetic group cattle have a higher infestation by ticks.

  2. [Immunization with synthetic peptide anti-tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus SBm7462 via mucosal routes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gabriel D; Peconick, Ana P; Medeiros, Carla L; Vargas-V, Marlene I; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2008-09-01

    The mucosal immunization consists on antigen administration in these surfaces it is a not invasive method, inductor of local and systemic immune response. This work evaluated the immune response of the synthetic vaccine anti-tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus SBm7462®, via oral and nasal routes. Were used 60 BALB/c mice, divided in three groups of 20 animals each (I: oral immunization; II: nasal immunization; III: animals not immunized). Nine and 15 days after the first and the second immunization was collected, separately for each group, T cells from the immunized animals, cultivating them per 10 days. After the incubation, were determined the percentage of cellular viability and the specific nature of this T cells, which had held as memory T cell. The averages of T cell SBm7462-reagents had been submitted to the analysis of variance and comparison for Tukey test, 5% of probability. Group II presented higher cellular proliferation "in vitro". For ELISA test, were positive only two animals in group I and eight in group II. The oral and nasal routs alternatively viable for immunization with the synthetic peptide SBm7462®, however require greater number of doses to induce responses with high levels of immunoglobulins.

  3. Structural and biochemical characterization of a recombinant triosephosphate isomerase from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Jorge; Arreola, Rodrigo; Cabrera, Nallely; Saramago, Luiz; Freitas, Daniela; Masuda, Aoi; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Tuena de Gomez-Puyou, Marietta; Perez-Montfort, Ruy; Gomez-Puyou, Armando; Logullo, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is an enzyme with a role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the interconversion between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This enzyme has been used as a target in endoparasite drug development. In this work we cloned, expressed, purified and studied kinetic and structural characteristics of TIM from tick embryos, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (BmTIM). The Km and Vmax of the recombinant BmTIM with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as substrate, were 0.47 mM and 6031 μmol min⁻¹ mg protein⁻¹, respectively. The resolution of the diffracted crystal was estimated to be 2.4 Å and the overall data showed that BmTIM is similar to other reported dimeric TIMs. However, we found that, in comparison to other TIMs, BmTIM has the highest content of cysteine residues (nine cysteine residues per monomer). Only two cysteines could make disulfide bonds in monomers of BmTIM. Furthermore, BmTIM was highly sensitive to the action of the thiol reagents dithionitrobenzoic acid and methyl methane thiosulfonate, suggesting that there are five cysteines exposed in each dimer and that these residues could be employed in the development of species-specific inhibitors.

  4. Structural and biochemical characterization of a recombinant triosephosphate isomerase from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Jorge; Arreola, Rodrigo; Cabrera, Nallely; Saramago, Luiz; Freitas, Daniela; Masuda, Aoi; da Silva Vaz Jr., Itabajara; Tuena de Gomez-Puyou, Marietta; Perez-Montfort, Ruy; Gomez-Puyou, Armando; Logullo, Carlos (UNICAMP); (UFRGS-Brazil); (UNAM-Mexico)

    2012-02-06

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is an enzyme with a role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the interconversion between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This enzyme has been used as a target in endoparasite drug development. In this work we cloned, expressed, purified and studied kinetic and structural characteristics of TIM from tick embryos, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (BmTIM). The Km and Vmax of the recombinant BmTIM with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as substrate, were 0.47 mM and 6031 {micro}mol min{sup -1} mg protein{sup -1}, respectively. The resolution of the diffracted crystal was estimated to be 2.4 {angstrom} and the overall data showed that BmTIM is similar to other reported dimeric TIMs. However, we found that, in comparison to other TIMs, BmTIM has the highest content of cysteine residues (nine cysteine residues per monomer). Only two cysteines could make disulfide bonds in monomers of BmTIM. Furthermore, BmTIM was highly sensitive to the action of the thiol reagents dithionitrobenzoic acid and methyl methane thiosulfonate, suggesting that there are five cysteines exposed in each dimer and that these residues could be employed in the development of species-specific inhibitors.

  5. Kekerabatan Genetik Caplak Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus Asal IndonesiaBerdasarkan Sekuen Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (GENETIC RELATIONSHIP INDONESIAN RHIPHICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS TICK BASED ON INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER-2 SEQUENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus is important obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites transmittingmany different viral, bacterial and protozoan and plays a role as a vector of Babesia sp., The leria sp. andAnaplasma sp. in cattle. The accuracy in identifying and distinguishing interspecies and intraspeciesdiversity among parasites is needed to understand the epidemiology, biology and capacity as a vector.Variations in the DNA base sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region2 (ITS 2 has been used asa molecular marker for identification in an effort to determine phylogenetic relationships. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the ITS 2 gene nucleotide sequence of R. microplus, which was expected to beuseful for accurate identification the parasite diversity and phylogenetic relationship among many differentspecies. DNA amplification was conducted using BOO2 forward dan BOO2 reverse primers. The DNAsamples containing ITS2 region fragment of 1099 nt were derived from the nucleotide sequence multiplealignments of R.microplus and other ticks genes obtained from Gene bank using Clustal W software, andthen analyzed using the MEGA program version 6. Genetic distances based on nucleotide sequence weredetermined with Kimura 2-parameter method producing the smallest genetic distance of 0 % and 1.2 %.Construction of phylogenetic trees using the Neighbor joining method showed that ticks from variousregions in Indonesia was species complex which have a closer with R.microplus isolates from India, Laos,South Africa, China and Australia R.australis origin.

  6. Identificación de un polimorfismo del gen Est9 relacionado con resistencia a piretroides en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Diaz R.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Mediante procedimientos de PCR-RFLP, detectar un polimorfismo en el gen Est9 de garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides en Ibagué, Colombia, determinando el grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes. Materiales y métodos. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. (Boophilus microplus fenotípicamente susceptibles, resistentes o medianamente resistentes a piretroides en una prueba de Drummond modificada, fue amplificado por PCR con cebadores específicos para obtener un fragmento de 372 pb del gen Est9, que fue sometido a digestión con la enzima EcoRI para estudiar los RFLPs generados y poder diferenciar los respectivos genotipos. El grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes se determinó mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados. Luego de digerir el fragmento con la endonucleasa, se generaron dos segmentos en teleoginas con algún nivel de resistencia, mientras en las teleoginas susceptibles no hubo división del fragmento de 372 pb, demostrándose así la presencia de una mutación puntual y los genotipos homocigoto natural, homocigoto mutante y heterocigoto. Las diferencias altamente significativas (p<0.01 entre teleoginas susceptibles y aquellas con algún nivel de resistencia, mostraron una relación directa entre el genotipo y el fenotipo con un nivel de confianza de p=0.0009852. Conclusiones. Se comprobó, por primera vez en Colombia, la presencia de una mutación puntual en el gen Est9 de garrapatas R. (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides, sugiriendo la necesidad de realizar estudios para detectar alteraciones moleculares en otros genes relacionados con quimioresistencia.

  7. Suscetibilidade de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus a carrapaticidas em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to acaricides in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O carrapato bovino, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, destaca-se dentre os ectoparasitas de importância econômica à pecuária nacional, tornando-se necessária a adoção de medidas de controle, particularmente em rebanhos Bos taurus e seus cruzamentos. O controle do carrapato tem sido cada vez mais difícil devido à constatação de populações resistentes aos diversos produtos em uso. Neste estudo, teve-se por objetivo conhecer a suscetibilidade desse carrapato a acaricidas em Mato Grosso do Sul. De outubro de 2003 a outubro de 2006, testes carrapaticidogramas foram realizados em onze das principais regiões pecuárias do estado. Nos testes de suscetibilidade, foi utilizada a técnica de imersão de adultos, com posterior avaliação de parâmetros biológicos. Foram testados doze acaricidas comerciais, abrangendo sete princípios ativos (isoladamente ou em associação, pertencentes a três grupos químicos: amidinas (amitraz, piretróides sintéticos (cipermetrina e organofosforados (clorfenvinfós, clorpirifós, diazinon, diclorvós e etion. Baixa suscetibilidade foi detectada em todas as propriedades, evidenciando uma reduzida eficácia de todos os grupos químicos testados. Apesar da grande variação de suscetibilidade demonstrada pelas distintas populações a cada acaricida testado, foi possível observar um gradiente de eficácia desses produtos. Independente da classe, a eficácia média dos produtos com um único princípio ativo (19,94%-64,27% foi, de modo geral, menor que a das associações, tanto entre piretróide e organofosforados (46,38%-82,68%, como exclusivamente entre organofosforados (85,28%-97,68%. A associação contendo piretróide, organofosforados, sinergista e repelente (cipermetrina + clorpirifós + butóxido de piperonila + citronelal apresentou 100% de eficácia, embora testada em menor número de populações. Embora comparações com cepas suscetíveis não tenham sido efetuadas, a baixa suscetibilidade

  8. Gut transcriptome of replete adult female cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a Babesia bovis-infected bovine host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekin, Andrew M; Guerrero, Felix D; Bendele, Kylie G; Saldivar, Leo; Scoles, Glen A; Dowd, Scot E; Gondro, Cedric; Nene, Vishvanath; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Brayton, Kelly A

    2013-09-01

    As it feeds upon cattle, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is capable of transmitting a number of pathogenic organisms, including the apicomplexan hemoparasite Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. The R. microplus female gut transcriptome was studied for two cohorts: adult females feeding on a bovine host infected with B. bovis and adult females feeding on an uninfected bovine. RNA was purified and used to generate a subtracted cDNA library from B. bovis-infected female gut, and 4,077 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced. Gene expression was also measured by a microarray designed from the publicly available R. microplus gene index: BmiGI Version 2. We compared gene expression in the tick gut from females feeding upon an uninfected bovine to gene expression in tick gut from females feeding upon a splenectomized bovine infected with B. bovis. Thirty-three ESTs represented on the microarray were expressed at a higher level in female gut samples from the ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf compared to expression levels in female gut samples from ticks feeding on an uninfected calf. Forty-three transcripts were expressed at a lower level in the ticks feeding upon B. bovis-infected female guts compared with expression in female gut samples from ticks feeding on the uninfected calf. These array data were used as initial characterization of gene expression associated with the infection of R. microplus by B. bovis.

  9. Acaricide Resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: Impact on Agro-Biosecurity and Cattle Trade between Mexico and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal health issues are important aspects of the bilateral partnership between Mexico and the United States of America (U.S.). Because the U.S. is free of the cattle fever ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, and bovine babesiosis, the widespread distribution of cattle f...

  10. Discovery, adaptation and transcriptional activity of two tick promoters: Construction of a dual luciferase reporter system for optimization of RNA interference in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dual luciferase reporter systems are valuable tools for functional genomic studies, but have not previously been developed for use in tick cell culture. We evaluated expression of available luciferase constructs in tick cell cultures derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, an important vec...

  11. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...

  12. Partial characterization of an atypical family I inorganic pyrophosphatase from cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Evenilton P; Campos, Eldo; de Andrade, Caroline P; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Saramago, Luiz; Masuda, Aoi; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Fernandez, Jorge H; Moraes, Jorge; Logullo, Carlos

    2012-03-23

    The present paper presents the partial characterization of a family I inorganic pyrophosphatase from the hard tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (BmPPase). The BmPPase gene was cloned from the tick embryo and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence shared high similarity with other eukaryotic PPases, on the other hand, BmPPase presented some cysteine residues non-conserved in other groups. This pyrophosphatase is inhibited by Ca(2+), and the inhibition is antagonized by Mg(2+), suggesting that the balance between free Ca(2+) and free Mg(2+) in the eggs could be involved in BmPPase activity control. We observed that the BmPPase transcripts are present in the fat body, midgut and ovary of ticks, in two developmental stages (partially and fully engorged females). However, higher transcription amounts were found in ovary from fully engorged females. BmPPase activity was considerably abolished by the thiol reagent dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), suggesting that cysteine residues are exposed in its structure. Therefore, these cysteine residues play a critical role in the structural stability of BmPPase. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicates that BmPPase is the first Family I PPase that could promote disulfide bonds between cysteine residues 138-339 and 167-295. Finally, we believe that these cysteine residues exposed in the BmPPase structure can play an important controlling role regarding enzyme activity, which would be an interesting mechanism of redox control. The results presented here also indicate that this enzyme can be involved in embryogenesis of this arthropod, and may be useful as a target in the development of new tick control strategies.

  13. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to ivermectin (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg) in field studies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Ruivo, Maycon Araújo; Colli, Marcos Henrique Alcantara; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro Massamitsu; da Costa, Alvimar José; De Oliveira, Gilson Pereira

    2015-01-30

    The present study aimed to determine the susceptibility of 17 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations, originating in the Southeast and Southern regions of Brazil, to different ivermectin concentrations (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg), administered through subcutaneous or topical (pour-on) routes. R. (B.) microplus populations from the states of Minas Gerais (seven populations), São Paulo (seven populations) and Paraná (three populations) were chosen for the tests. The selected cattle were allocated to treatment groups on day 0, and block formation was based on the arithmetic mean of female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm long) counted on three consecutive days (-3, -2 and -1). To evaluate the therapeutic and residual efficacies of these formulations, tick counts (females ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 mm long) were performed on days 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, and continued on a weekly basis thereafter until the end of each experiment. The results obtained throughout this study, utilizing field efficacy studies, allowed us to conclude that the resistance of R. (B.) microplus against 200 and 500 μg/kg ivermectin is widely disseminated because all tick populations that had contact with these specific concentrations were diagnosed as resistant. However, it is possible to infer that R. (B.) microplus resistance against 630 μg/kg ivermectin was also widespread, diagnosed at six of ten analyzed properties. Resistance of these ectoparasites to 630 μg/kg ivermectin is most likely emerging in three other populations of R. (B.) microplus. Strategies of resistance management need to be quickly determined to keep the selection pressure at a minimum level in Brazil.

  14. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first Chelicerata pyrokinin receptor from a worldwide tick vector of zoonotic pathogens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We identified the first pyrokinin receptor (Rhimi-PK-R) from the Chelicerata and analyzed structure-activity relationships of cognate ligand neuropeptides and their analogs. This receptor, which we cloned from larvae of the tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), is the ortholog of the inse...

  15. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  16. Analysis of Babesia bovis infection-induced gene expression changes in larvae from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekin Andrew M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world’s tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus, with the most prevalent species being Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. We studied the reaction of the R. microplus larval transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. Methods Total RNA was isolated for both uninfected and Babesia bovis-infected larval samples. Subtracted libraries were prepared by subtracting the B. bovis-infected material with the uninfected material, thus enriching for expressed genes in the B. bovis-infected sample. Expressed sequence tags from the subtracted library were generated, assembled, and sequenced. To complement the subtracted library method, differential transcript expression between samples was also measured using custom high-density microarrays. The microarray probes were fabricated using oligonucleotides derived from the Bmi Gene Index database (Version 2. Array results were verified for three target genes by real-time PCR. Results Ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf and on an uninfected control calf. RNA was purified in duplicate from whole larvae and subtracted cDNA libraries were synthesized from Babesia-infected larval RNA, subtracting with the corresponding uninfected larval RNA. One thousand ESTs were sequenced from the larval library and the transcripts were annotated. We used a R. microplus microarray designed from a R. microplus gene index, BmiGI Version 2, to look for changes in gene expression that were associated with infection of R. microplus larvae. We found 24 transcripts were expressed at a statistically significant higher level in ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf contrasted to ticks

  17. Perspectives for the use of plant extracts to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Perspectivas para o uso de extratos de plantas para o controle do carrapato de bovinos Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Miranda Ferreira Borges

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to synthetic acaricides has given rise to the need for new scientific investigations on alternative ways to control this tick. In this regard, various studies on plants have been developed in an attempt to find extracts with acaricidal properties. Evaluations on plant extracts for controlling R. (B. microplus have grown intensely over the last decade. There are many advantages from using plant extracts: for example, they can be used in organic cattle farming or even replace synthetic acaricides and they are associated with lower environmental and food contamination, slower development of resistance and lower toxicity to animals and humans. In vitro studies on plant extracts have shown promising results, but most of these extracts have not been tested on animals to validate their use. Difficulties in preparing proper formulations, differences in the chemical composition of plants of the same species due to extrinsic and intrinsic factors and sparse information on active acaricide compounds are hindrances that need to be addressed in order to enable progress within this scientific field.A evolução da resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas sintéticos tem impulsionado novas investigações científicas sobre métodos alternativos para controlar este carrapato. Considerando isso, vários estudos com plantas têm sido desenvolvidos numa tentativa de encontrar extratos com propriedades acaricidas. Avalições de extratos de plantas para o controle de R. (B. microplus tem sido intensificadas nesta última década. Existem muitas vantagens com o uso de extratos de plantas no controle deste carrapato, como: eles podem ser utilizados na produção orgânica de bovinos, ou mesmo substituir os acaricidas sintéticos, além do mais, estão associados com baixa contaminação ambiental e dos alimentos, desenvolvimento mais lento de resistência e baixa toxicidade

  18. Transmissão transovariana de Babesia bovis em Boophilus microplus: obtenção de cepa de carrapato livre de Babesia spp. Babesia bovis transovarian transmission in Boophilus microplus: obtention of a Babesia free tick strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Bettin dos Santos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou o estudo de parte do ciclo da Babesia bovis no seu hospedeiro invertebrado, o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Analisou-se a capacidade de infeccção e transmissão transovariana de B. bovis em partenóginas de B. microplus, alimentadas em bovinos portadores e enfermos por esse protozoário. No 18º dia após a infestação, coletaram-se partenóginas diretamente do corpo dos bovinos e teleóginas após o desprendimento natural, a partir do 21º dia. Todos os grupos foram incubados a 27ºC e umidade relativa superior a 70%. No 5º dia após o início da postura, realizou-se o exame de hemolinfa a fim de diagnosticar a infecção dos ínstares por B. bovis. A ausência de infecção detectada no exame de hemolinfa foi confirmada posteriormente com o teste biológico, revelando que partenóginas não transmitem B. bovis transovarianamente. Esses resultados oferecem uma técnica simplificada para a obtenção de cepas de carrapatos livres de B. bovis.In this experiment part of the life cycle of Babesia bovis in its invertebrate host, the tick Boophilus microplus was studied. In order to evaluate the capacity of infection and transmission of B. bovis were collected semi-engorged females of B. microplus fed on carrier and ill bovines. In the 18th day after infestation, semi-engorged females were collected directly from bovine bodies and after 21st day engorged females dropped on the ground. All the collected groups were incubated at 27°C and relative humidity greater than 70%. At the 5th day of oviposition the diagnosis was made by direct examination of haemolymph smears. The biological test reveled that B. bovis transovarial transmission doesn't happer in semi-engorged females. The results offer a simple techique to obtain strains of ticks free of B. bovis.

  19. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  20. Inhibition of enzyme activity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus triosephosphate isomerase and BME26 cell growth by monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramago, Luiz; Franceschi, Mariana; Logullo, Carlos; Masuda, Aoi; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Farias, Sandra Estrazulas; Moraes, Jorge

    2012-10-12

    In the present work, we produced two monoclonal antibodies (BrBm37 and BrBm38) and tested their action against the triosephosphate isomerase of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (RmTIM). These antibodies recognize epitopes on both the native and recombinant forms of the protein. rRmTIM inhibition  by BrBm37 was up to 85% whereas that of BrBrm38 was 98%, depending on the antibody-enzyme ratio. RmTIM activity was lower in ovarian, gut, and fat body tissue extracts treated with BrBm37 or BrBm38 mAbs. The proliferation of the embryonic tick cell line (BME26) was inhibited by BrBm37 and BrBm38 mAbs. In summary, the results reveal that it is possible to interfere with the RmTIM function using antibodies, even in intact cells.

  1. Inhibition of Enzyme Activity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Triosephosphate Isomerase and BME26 Cell Growth by Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moraes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we produced two monoclonal antibodies (BrBm37 and BrBm38 and tested their action against the triosephosphate isomerase of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (RmTIM. These antibodies recognize epitopes on both the native and recombinant forms of the protein. rRmTIM inhibition  by BrBm37 was up to 85% whereas that of BrBrm38 was 98%, depending on the antibody-enzyme ratio. RmTIM activity was lower in ovarian, gut, and fat body tissue extracts treated with BrBm37 or BrBm38 mAbs. The proliferation of the embryonic tick cell line (BME26 was inhibited by BrBm37 and BrBm38 mAbs. In summary, the results reveal that it is possible to interfere with the RmTIM function using antibodies, even in intact cells.

  2. Acaricide activity of leaves extracts of Sambucus australis Schltdl. (Caprifoliaceae at 2% on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Krawczak

    Full Text Available Parasite infections caused by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus are responsible for the most of economic losses in producing-cattle countries in tropical and subtropical areas. Indiscriminate uses of chemical acaricides have contributed with the appearance of tick resistance to many drugs available in the marketplace, and it is a serious problem in the tick control. Flowers of Sambucus australis (South America, called "sabugueiro-from-Brazil", are used on infusions or decoctions forms in the folk medicine with diuretic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and laxative purpose, also employed for treating respiratory diseases in human. The main goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro potential of S. australis leaves extracts as an acaricide agent. Ethanol extract at 70% has been dehydrated and a fraction was suspended in 70% ethanol or in distillated water at final concentration of 2% (0.2mg-1. Using the immersion test of engorged females the efficiency results were obtained in 34% and 66% with the leaves extract diluted in water and 70% ethanol, respectively. This study is the first report on acaricidal activity of S. australis against cattle tick. Further studies to determine the active metabolites in different stages of S. australis could aid to identify suitable extracts to be tested in the R. (B. microplus control.

  3. Detecting resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, with a propoxur-based biochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, G D; Green, P; Stuttgen, M; Barker, S C

    1999-11-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of resistance to insecticides in arthropods is needed. In the cattle tick. Boophilus microplus, resistance to a variety of acaricides is widespread. The most commonly used assay for resistance, the larval packet test, takes at least two, but generally six weeks for a one-host tick like B. microplus to complete and may take up to three months to complete for three-host ticks. Here we describe a test for resistance to organophosphate acaricides that can be used on larvae and adult ticks which takes less than 24 hours. The test measures the difference in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in homogenates of ticks in the presence and absence of propoxur, a carbamate acaricide. We found clear discrimination of organophosphate-susceptible and organophosphate-resistant adults with 100 microM propoxur. AChE from susceptible ticks had almost no activity at this concentration of propoxur whereas AChE from resistant ticks had 67% of its potential activity. AChE from heterozygote ticks could also be distinguished from AChE from homozygous-susceptible and homozygous-resistant ticks. This is the first biochemical test for resistance to an acaricide. Rapid, sensitive tests like ours will allow resistance to organophosphates to be detected soon after it develops in the field, thus, the spread of resistance might be slowed and the useful life of acaricides extended.

  4. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expressão e caracterização da Bm86-CG em Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (GavacTM and TickGardPLUS that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks.O carrapato-do-boi Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas econômicas. Seu controle é principalmente químico e apresenta limitações quanto ao desenvolvimento de resistência aos princípios ativos. As vacinas podem auxiliar no controle deste parasita diminuindo as aplicações de carrapaticidas. Considerando isso, foi realizada a subclonagem do gene da proteína Bm86-CG, proteína homologa a que atualmente é a base das vacinas desenvolvidas (GavacTM e TickGardPLUS contra o carrapato-do-boi, no vetor de expressão pPIC9, para ser transformado em levedura, Pichia pastoris. Esta proteína foi caracterizada pela expressão da cepa recombinante Mut+ que expressou maior quantidade de proteína. A proteína expressa, rBm86-CG, foi reconhecida no ensaio de Western-blot pelos soros policlonais anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti

  5. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondro Cedric

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian] (p ≤ 0.001. These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi

  6. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles Donald P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifying additional methods to utilize Bm86 to reduce R. microplus infestation and babesia transmission. Additionally, the role played by Bm86 in R. microplus fitness during B. bovis infection is unknown. Results Here we describe in two independent experiments that RNA interference-mediated silencing of Bm86 decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Notably, Bm86 silencing decreased the number and survival of engorged females, and decreased the weight of egg masses. However, gene silencing had no significant effect on the efficiency of transovarial transmission of B. bovis from surviving female ticks to their larval offspring. The results also show that Bm86 is expressed, in addition to gut cells, in larvae, nymphs, adult males and ovaries of partially engorged adult R. microplus females, and its expression was significantly down-regulated in ovaries of ticks fed on B. bovis-infected cattle. Conclusion The R. microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role during tick feeding and after repletion during blood digestion in ticks fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Therefore, the data indirectly support the rationale for using Bm86-based vaccines, perhaps in combination with acaricides, to control tick infestation particularly in B. bovis endemic areas.

  7. Analysis of Babesia bovis-induced gene expression changes in the cattle tick, Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boophilus ticks are vectors of Babesia bovis, the protozoan causative agent of cattle fever, a disease which is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America and Australia. We utilized subtractive cDNA library synthesis techniques to o...

  8. CattleTickBase: An integrated Internet-based bioinformatics resource for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rhipicephalus microplus genome is large and complex in structure, making a genome sequence difficult to assemble and costly to resource the required bioinformatics. In light of this, a consortium of international collaborators was formed to pool resources to begin sequencing this genome. We have...

  9. Immunogenic potential of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus aquaporin 1 against Rhipicephalus sanguineus in domestic dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated a recombinant aquaporin 1 protein of Rhipicephalus microplus (RmAQP1) as antigen in a vaccine against R. sanguineus. Five dogs were vaccinated with RmAQP1 (10 µg) + adjuvant (Montanide) (G1), and five were inoculated with adjuvant only (G2), three times. Twenty-one days after th...

  10. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project first submission of genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence difficult. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used to reduce the repetitive fraction of the tick genome and enrich for the fraction of DNA with gene-containing regions. The Cot-selected ...

  11. In vitro acaricidal activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) extracts against synthetic pyrethroid-resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Singh, Harkirat; Prerna, Mranalini; Daundkar, Prashant S; Sharma, S K; Dumka, V K

    2015-04-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance status against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Faridkot district, Punjab (India). The slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and resistance levels were determined from the regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Results indicated presence of resistance of levels I and II against cypermethrin (resistance factor (RF) = 2.82) and deltamethrin (RF = 8.44), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous (MLAq), ethanol (MLE), chloroform (MLC), acetone (MLA) and hexane (MLH) extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii against these synthetic pyrethroid (SP)-resistant engorged adult females of R. (B.) microplus by determination of per cent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), per cent inhibition of oviposition (%IO) and hatching rate. The per cent mortality caused by various extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0% varied from 0.0 to 100.0% with maximum per cent mortality of 10.0, 100.0, 70.0, 40.0 and 10.0 recorded against MLAq, MLE, MLC, MLA and MLH, respectively. Among all extracts, the highest acaricidal property against SP-resistant R. (B.) microplus was exhibited by the MLE as it showed the minimum LC50 [95% confidence limit (CL)] values of 2.97% (2.82-3.12%), followed by MLC as 10.26% (8.84-11.91 %) and MLA as 18.22% (16.18-20.52%). The average egg mass weight recorded in live ticks treated with various concentrations of different extracts was lower than the respective control group ticks and was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in ticks treated with MLH extract. However, no significant effect on hatchability of eggs of treated groups when compared to control was recorded. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the RI was recorded in

  12. Mecanismo de infecção do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae no carrapato Boophilus microplus em condições experimentais The penetration of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on Boophilus microplus in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro Bittencourt

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o mecanismo de penetração do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae em Boophilus microplus em condições experimentais. As infecções foram realizadas utilizando amostra de M. anisopliae isolada de carrapatos. A suspensão de conídios do fungo foi preparada utilizando água destilada e espalhante adesivo Tween 80 e foi quantificada na concentração de 10(8 conídios/ml. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram banhadas nesta suspensão durante cinco minutos e, após este período, foram levadas à câmara climatizada. Três dias após a infecção, as fêmeas foram fixadas utilizando tetróxido de ósmio e glutaraldeído, posteriormente desidratadas em bateria de álcool etílico com acetona. Após a desidratação, esse material foi levado à metalização e ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura, onde se observou a fixação dos conídios na cutícula das fêmeas, havendo germinação e a dilatação da extremidade do tubo germinativo em todas as amostras. Esta dilatação observada foi devido à formação do apressório, apesar de não ser possível observar esta estrutura sobre a cutícula das fêmeas ingurgitadas. O tetróxido de ósmio mostrou ser um excelente fixador para fungos, enquanto o glutaraldeído mostrou ser eficiente na fixação do artrópode. Conclui-se que a forma principal de penetração deste entomopatógeno em B. microplus é através da cutícula. Cabe aqui frisar que esta é a primeira vez que é descrito o mecanismo de penetração de M. anisopliae em carrapatos.The objective of the present communication has been to draw attention to the mode of penetration of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae through the cuticle of Boophilus microplus under experimental conditions. Samples of M. anisopliae isolated from naturally infected ticks were used to prepare a suspension of 108 conidia/ml in a destilled water with 2% of Tween 80. The engorged females were submergged in this suspension for five

  13. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craik Charles S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

  14. IN VITRO EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL ACARICIDES INDICATE RESISTANT POPULATIONS OF RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS IN NORTHERN REGION OF MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eckstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are responsible for high economic and production losses on cattle production, and the use of acaricides is the main form of control applied. In recent decades, the resistance of ticks to acaricides was exacerbated by incorrect use of products, compromising the effectiveness of treatments. This study aimed to determine in vitro effectiveness of commercial acaricides in six populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in northern region of Mato Grosso. On average 100 engorged females were collected from each herd, which were selected and separated into homogeneous groups, sanitized, and immersed to acaricide diluted according to the manufacturer's statement, on sequence there was incubated. After the incubation was obtained from female reproductive efficiency and effectiveness of the tested acaricides. The association cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos + citronellal showed satisfactory efficiency (> 95% in all the properties (mean 99.86% in properties, followed by trichlorfon (83.45%, amitraz (72.33%, neem oil (67.23% and cypermethrin (22.97%, which was not effective in any property. It indicates the use of the association cypermethrin +chlorpyrifos+ citronellal on evaluated properties for control of cattle tick effectively.

  15. Abordagem sobre o controle do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Studies of the management of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina B. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul a infestação dos bovinos por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ocorre, principalmente, entre os meses de outubro e abril, devido às condições climáticas. Além do conhecimento do ciclo biológico desse parasito, também é fundamental conhecer a epidemiologia, para estabelecer estratégias de controle. No Rio Grande do Sul, e também no Brasil, existem poucos estudos epidemiológicos a respeito da resistência aos acaricidas. Além disso, a grande área geográfica e a deficiência estrutural quanto ao uso e acesso a bancos de dados dificultam a obtenção de dados confiáveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar um inquérito abordando a percepção dos produtores da região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, quanto à identificação de populações de R. (B. microplus difíceis de controlar com acaricidas e os fatores de risco para a seleção de populações de carrapatos resistentes. Para execução do trabalho foram coletados dados sobre o controle do carrapato de bovinos de corte, em 85 propriedades de sete municípios, localizados na região sul do Estado. Os resultados revelaram a existência de associação positiva entre a dificuldade de controlar o carrapato com os acaricidas e o grau de instrução do proprietário (até o ensino fundamental com OR=3,67 e p=0,01 e o número de aplicação de carrapaticida por ano (superior a 4 com OR=4,05 e p=0,006. Esses resultados indicam também que propriedades com mais de 100 bovinos de corte em criação extensiva, na região sul do rio Grande do Sul apresentam características que podem contribuir para uma maior vida útil dos carrapaticidas do que as verificadas em outras regiões do País.In the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, cattle become infested with Rhipicephalus (B. microplus mainly between October and April due to the climatic conditions. In addition to knowing its life cycle, knowledge of parasite's epidemiology is essential to

  16. Boophilus microplus: ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS Y MOLECULARES DE LA RESISTENCIA A LOS ACARICIDAS Y SU IMPACTO EN LA SALUD ANIMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Inés Domínguez-García; Rodrigo Rosario-Cruz; Consuelo Almazán-García; Jorge Alberto Saltijeral Oaxaca; José de la Fuente

    2010-01-01

    La aplicación de ixodicidas durante mucho tiempo ha sido la alternativa de elección para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, sin embargo, actualmente el uso de los ixodicidas tiene una eficacia limitada en la reducción de las infestaciones debido al desarrollo de poblaciones de garrapatas resistes. La resistencia a ixodicidas es un problema creciente que necesita ser atendido, por que en este momento está afectando la competitividad de la ganadería y la economía de miles de produc...

  17. Perceptions of milk producers from Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, regarding Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control Percepção dos produtores de leite de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Semi-systematized interviews were conducted with 100 dairy cattle producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, with the aim of ascertaining their perceptions regarding the importance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and of combating it. Content analysis was performed and the frequency distribution of each of the variables was used to construct profiles of the producers interviewed. The production losses caused by ticks were perceived incompletely by the producers, who were unaware of the pathogen transmission caused by the parasite and the indirect losses through combating it, such as the cost of acaricide and labor. The combat operations were performed in a traditional manner, with an excessive number of inefficient treatments that aimed to control the level of infestation at that moment. The quality of the acaricide dipping/spraying applied was affected by the quality of the equipment used to apply the products, lack of knowledge of the mode of action of these products, lack of the specific information needed and lack of motivation caused by unawareness of the disadvantages of chemical combat. It was concluded that the lack of knowledge about combat methods and the acceptance of endemicity of the parasitosis were impediments to changing the realities encountered.Entrevistas semissistematizadas foram aplicadas a 100 produtores de bovinos leiteiros do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de verificar a sua percepção sobre a importância de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus e seu combate. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" e a distribuição de frequência de cada uma das variáveis para a construção de perfis dos produtores entrevistados. Os prejuízos causados à produção pelo carrapato são percebidos de forma incompleta pelos produtores, que ignoram a transmissão de patógenos pelo parasito e as perdas indiretas pelo combate, como o custo do carrapaticida e da mão de obra. O combate era feito

  18. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Andreotti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to obtain an epidemiological view of acaricide resistance in populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Twenty-four tick samples were collected from municipalities in the State where farmers had reported concerns about resistance to or failure of tick control. These ticks were subjected to in vitro resistance detection assays using the adult immersion test (AIT. The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin and amitraz treatments on samples collected throughout the State was generally poor. AIT showed efficacy > 90% from the use of DDVP + chlorfenvinphos (20 out of 21 municipalities, dichlorvos + cypermethrin (10 out of 16 municipalities and cypermethrin + citronella + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide (20 out of 21 municipalities. PCR assays were used to detect the presence of pyrethroid resistance-associated sodium channel gene mutation. Larvae from three different populations that had previously been diagnosed as pyrethroid-resistant, through AIT, were evaluated. The PCR assays showed that the pyrethroid resistance-associated gene mutation was absent from these three populations. This study confirms that the emergence of resistance is a constant challenge for the livestock industry, and that development of resistance continues to be a major driver for new antiparasitic drugs to be developed.Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se obter uma visão epidemiológica da resistência aos acaricidas nas populações de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Vinte e quatro amostras de carrapatos foram coletadas em cidades do estado onde os fazendeiros relataram preocupação com resistência ou falha no controle dos carrapatos. Estes carrapatos foram submetidos a testes de detecção de resistência in vitro usando o teste de imersão de adultos (TIA. A eficácia do tratamento com alfa-cipermetrina, cipermetrina e amitraz foi geralmente pobre

  19. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

    2014-01-01

    Detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Moga, Punjab (India) was carried out using larval packet test. Results indicated the presence of resistance of level I and III against cypermethrin (resistance factors (RF) = 4.67) and deltamethrin (RF = 34.2), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo, and Withania somnifera along with roots of V. negundo against the SP resistant engorged females of R. (B.) microplus. The efficacy of various extracts was assessed by estimation of percent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), percent inhibition of oviposition (%IO), and hatching rate. A concentration dependent increase in tick mortality was recorded which was more marked with various ethanolic extracts, and highest mortality was recorded in ticks treated with ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus. The LC50 values were determined by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality for various aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Acaricidal property was recorded to be higher in ethanolic extracts, and high activity was found with the ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus with LC50 (95% CL) values of 0.46% (0.35-0.59%), followed by W. somnifera as 5.21% (4.45-6.09%) and V. negundo as 7.02% (4.58-10.74%). The egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the various extract was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the RI and the %IO value of the treated ticks were reduced. Further, complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo and aqueous extracts of leaves of W. somnifera. The results of the current study indicate that extracts of C

  20. Efecto ixodicida de los extractos etanólicos de algunas plantas sobre garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Rodríguez S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar in vitro, el efecto ixodicida del extracto etanólico de cinco plantas; Brugmasia arborea, Sambucus nigra, Nicotiana tabacum, Bidens pilosa y Ambrosia cumanenses sobre garrapatas adultas de la especie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Materiales y métodos. El extracto de cada planta fue obtenido mediante la técnica de lixiviación. Para las pruebas, se utilizaron garrapatas adultas de dos tamaños (pequeñas y medianas, que fueron expuestas a los extractos de cada planta, utilizando la técnica de inmersión de garrapatas adultas. A las 24 h de exposición, se realizó la lectura de mortalidad, donde se tomó como mínimo eficaz una mortalidad del 60%. Las pruebas iniciales se realizaron con extractos puros y cuando éstos mostraban eficacia se procedía a realizar diluciones crecientes, hasta encontrar la concentración mínima eficaz. Estas pruebas fueron realizadas en clima frio y cálido. Resultados. El extracto de N. tabacum, mostró efectividad en garrapata pequeña, hasta las diluciones 0.5:10 y 1:10 en clima frio y cálido, respectivamente y con 2.5:10 y 5:10 sobre garrapata mediana en clima frio y cálido, respectivamente; B. arbórea, mostró eficacia sobre garrapata pequeña hasta la dilución 7.5:10 en ambos climas; S. nigra y B. pilosa solo fueron eficaces en clima cálido sobre garrapatas pequeñas empleando extracto puro. A. cumanenses no fue eficaz en ninguna de las pruebas. Conclusiones. N. tabacum, mostró mayor eficacia y se observó que los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con las mayores concentraciones.

  1. [Efficacy of extracts of plants in engorged females of Boophilus microplus from the mesoregion West of Maranhão, Brazil.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Francisco B; Vasconcelos, Pádua Suely Da S; Silva, Ana Maria M; Brandão, Vivian M; Da Silva, Iran A; Teixeira, Whaubtyfran C; Guerra, Rita De Maria S N; Dos Santos, Ana Clara G

    2008-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extracts of nim and citronela at 20% and eucalipto at 10% in Boophilus microplus engorged females collected in cattle naturally infected from the mesoregion West of Maranhão. At the laboratory the females were separated, weighted and distributed in six groups of 10, in duplicate. Each group was immersed in 10mL of the solution of the extracts, for two minutes. In the nim and citronela extracts there was 32% e 17%, respectively, while larval emergence the eucalipto extracts demonstrated 96% of efficacy. In the groups treated by Cipermetrina + Clorpirifós + Citronetal and Deltametrina (positive controls) the mortality occurred after 48h of treatment, while the groups immersed in distilled water (negative control) showed 100% of eggs mass and larval emergence. According to the results, it can be concluded that the extract of eucalipto could be used as acaricide in the control of B. microplus females since it was efficient in vitro, however to nim and citronela showed not efficacy. B. microplus females were not resistant to the chemical compounds used in this experiment.

  2. IN VITRO EFFECT OF THE ASSOCIATION OF CITRONELLA, SANTA MARIA HERB (Chenopodium ambrosioides AND QUASSIA TINCTURE ON CATTLE TICK Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carlini Cunha dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an ectoparasite which causes high financial losses to the production of Brazilian cattle. The control of this parasite is accomplished by the administration of chemical products, but they are not adequately used, leading to high costs and stimulating the selection of resistant parasites. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to assess the in vitro efficiency of different formulations containing an association of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, Santa Maria herb (Chenopodium ambrosioides and quassia (Quassia amara tinctures on the bovine tick R. microplus. For this, engorged females of the parasite were submitted to the laboratory immersion test. The solutions containing all three plants were tested in different concentrations. Approximately 84% of the treatments presented efficiency equal or superior to 95%. The treatments with citronella in concentration equal or superior to 5% showed better results and the concentration of 10% showed maximum efficiency, independently of the concentrations of the other two plants. The high efficiency of the solutions was attributed mainly to the reduction of egg laying and hatching rate, and, in a minor scale, to death of the engorged females. It suggests that the phytotherapic solutions are able to induce alterations on the system and reproductive capacity of the females of R. microplus in in vitro tests, besides presenting a tickicide action.

  3. PI3K/PKB signaling in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryo cell line BME26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, L.; Fabres, A.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP)]. E-mail: leoabreu@uenf.br; Esteves, E.; Daffre, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropods and important vectors of both human and animal diseases. In order to study the insulin triggered pathway and its possible roles during embryogenesis we are using a culture of embryonic Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus cells (BME26). Besides its metabolic role, insulin signaling pathway (ISP) is widely described as crucial for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis and development. In such cascade Phosphatidylinositol 3-OH Kinase (PI3K) is hierarchically located upstream Protein Kinase B (PKB). Exogenous insulin is able to increase the expression level of PI3K's regulatory sub unity (p85), as determined by Real Time RT-PCR. In the presence of PI3K inhibitors (Wortmannin or LY294002) these effects were reversed. This correlates well with the activation of PKB by phosphorylation, as it appears to be PI3K-dependent. Additionally, PI3K inhibition increased the expression level of two insulin-regulated downstream targets from glycogen metabolism (GSK3b) and gluneogenesis (PEPCK) pathways. GSK3b inhibition by phosphorylation diminished in cells treated with PI3K inhibitors. These results strongly suggest the presence of an insulin sensitive PI3K-PKB axis in BME26 cells. The further study of PI3K and PKB activity in egg homogenates during embryogenesis may help us to understand the role of ISP for R. micro plus development.

  4. Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas (Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus by zymograms analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda, Miranda, Estefan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida-SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y susceptibilidad a productos acaricidas. Los ensayos que se diseñaron para detectar las enzimas esterasa, fosfodiesterasa, glutatión peroxidasa y catalasa, fueron procesados como zimogramas en imágenes digitalizadas, a partir de las cuales se obtuvieron sus respectivos densitogramas, valorando las movilidades electroforéticas relativas (Rf, así como las diferentes masas moleculares (MM en miles de Daltons (kDa y actividades enzimáticas específicas (AEE. Se identificó una elevada actividad de esterasa en posición Rf 0.52 con una MM de 47 kDa en las cepas resistentes, con un incremento en AEE del 317 % cuando se compara con las garrapatas susceptibles a los acaricidas. También se identificó una fosfodiesterasa en Rf. 0.1 con MM de 130 kDa presente en las cepas resistentes, con un incremento de AEE del 340% con respecto al nivel basal de la cepa susceptible. Se concluyó que estos ensayos enzimáticos pueden ser utilizados como indicadores de resistencia a los acaricidas en poblaciones de garrapatas aisladas de campo, constituyendo un procedimiento rápido, eficaz y económico, como alternativa al complicado bioensayo actualmente utilizado. Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, is achieved by a complex bioassay which requires reference strains of ticks as well as field isolated ticks, cultured on living cattle restrained for weeks. In order to assess an alternate diagnostics procedure, enzymatic assays were performed on

  5. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus from Bahia state North-Central region Eficiência de acaricidas sobreRhipicephalus (Boophilus microplusna região Centro-Norte, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tadeu Raynal

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B. microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas na pecuária brasileira, principalmente devido à redução no desempenho produtivo dos animais. A resistência do parasita a diferentes classes de acaricidas tem sido amplamente relatada, bem como os problemas de ocorrência de resíduos desses compostos em produtos de origem animal e no ambiente. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diversos acaricidas sobre populações de R. (B. microplus provenientes de propriedades rurais da Região Centro-Norte do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Teleóginas ingurgitadas foram colhidas em diferentes propriedades da região e submetidas a ensaio in vitro de eficiência de acaricidas, baseado na

  6. Conditions for stable parapatric coexistence between Boophilus decoloratus and B. microplus ticks: a simulation study using the competitive Lotka-Volterra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Petr; Lynen, Godelieve

    2010-12-01

    The autochthonous tick Boophilus decoloratus, and the invasive species Bo. microplus, the tick most threatening the livestock industry in Africa, show complex interactions in their interspecific rivalry. This study was conducted to specify the conditions under which the two competitors can co-exist in equilibrium, and to provide insight into their climate-dependant parapatric distribution in Tanzania. A model of the Lotka-Volterra type was used, taking into account population dispersal and interactions of various kinds. If the model allowed for immunity-mediated competition on cattle, reproductive interference, and an external mortality factor, it explained fairly well the field observation that the borderline between these ticks loosely follows the 22-23°C isotherm and the 58 mm isohyet (i.e. ~700 mm of annual rainfall total). Simulations fully compatible with the pattern of real co-existing populations of Bo. decoloratus and Bo. microplus, characterized by a pronounced population density trough and mutual exclusion of the two ticks on cattle in an intermediary zone between their distributional ranges, were, however, achieved only if the model also implemented a hypothetical factor responsible for some mortality upon encounter of one tick with the other, interpretable as an interaction through a shared pathogen(s). This study also demonstrated the importance of non-cattle hosts, enabling the autochthon to avoid competition with Bo. microplus, for the behaviour of the modelled system. The simulations indicate that a substantial reduction of wildlife habitats and consequently of Bo. decoloratus refugia, may accelerate the replacement of Bo. decoloratus with Bo. microplus much faster than climatic changes might do.

  7. INCIDENCE OF Boophilus microplus AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN CROSSBRED STEERS FED OF SUNFLOWER INCIDÊNCIA DE Boophilus microplus E AVALIAÇÃO DOS PARÂMETROS SANGÜÍNEOS EM BOVINOS MESTIÇOS (HOLANDÊS x ZEBU ALIMENTADOS COM GIRASSOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luíz S. Rezende

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sunflower meal and sunflower seeds to control Boophilus microplus in naturally infested steers. The experiment was developed in the Dairy Cattle Facilities of the Veterinary College - UFG. Two herds of steers (Holstein x zebu were allotted in a randomized block design in 2x10 factorial arrangement with six repetitions on Brachiaria decumbens pastures. After 14 days, weekly for two months, B. microplus females > 4 mm were counted, blood samples were collected and the animals were weighed. The B. microplus engorged females were collected to evaluate reproductive parameters. Blood samples were processed to determine: hematocrit, total protein, fibrinogen and leukocytes. The results had been submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages compared for the Scott-Knott test (5%. Tick counts, index (%, larval eclosion, hematocrit, total protein, fibrinogen and leukocytes were similar between treatments. The results do not corroborate the empirical reports concerning the effectiveness of the sunflower to control B. microplus in crossbred steers. KEY-WORDS: Blood values, oily seeds, parasites, tick count. Objetivou-se avaliar a ação do farelo ou das sementes de girassol no controle de Boophilus microplus em novilhos mestiços (holandês x zebu infestados naturalmente. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Setor de Bovinocultura do Departamento de Produção Animal da Escola de Veterinária (EV da UFG. Foram utilizados dois lotes de animais, distribuídos inteiramente ao acaso num fatorial 2 x 10 com seis repetições, em piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens, onde foram suplementados. Após quatorze dias de experimento e a cada sete dias, durante dois meses, num curral de manejo, efetuaram-se a contagem das fêmeas de B. microplus > 4 mm, as coletas de sangue e as pesagens dos bovinos. Colheram-se fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus para avaliação de parâmetros reprodutivos. Amostras de sangue

  8. Avaliação do potencial de controle biológico do Metarhizium anisopliae sobre Boophilus microplus em teste de estábulo Evaluation of the biological control potential of Metarhizium anisopliae toward Boophilus microplus in pen trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago C. Bahiense

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se por meio de um teste de estábulo a capacidade de Metarhizium anisopliae em controlar o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Foram realizados tratamentos em bovinos estabulados, utilizando este fungo aplicando-se suspensão conidial em banhos por aspersão. Os resultados foram obtidos pelo percentual de mortalidade de carrapatos durante 28 dias após o tratamento e pelos índices biológicos após incubação destes em câmara climatizada. Constatou-se 33% de mortalidade no período total observado, sendo o índice de produção de ovos e índice nutricional reduzidos somente em um curto período após o tratamento.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control Boophilus microplus tick in pen trials. Infested calves were held in individual pen and treated with fungus suspension through aspersion bath. The results were evaluated based on ticks' mortality rate for 28 days after treatment, and on the analysis of biology of tick's samples which were transferred to an incubation chamber. It was reported 33% of mortality during the total period analyzed, and the production of eggs and nutritional rates were decreased only for a short period after treatment.

  9. Use of biotherapic in the control of the natural infestation by Boophilus microplus: pilot study Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the control of tick-borne disease (TBD, resistance to chemical products has been reported and a concern with the preservation of the environment requires alternative procedures to control infestation by Boophilus microplus worldwide. The use of biotherapic preparations is one of such alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a biotherapic mixture including B. microplus in naturally infested cattle. 27 animals were divided in 3 groups (n=9: I – control, received no treatment; II- treated with amitraz dip; III- treated with a standard commercial mixture of biotherapic 12cH, p.o. Group III presented a statistically significant decrease of ticks when compared to the control group (p Keywords: Biotherapic; Tick; Alternative control; Cattle.   Uso do bioterapico no controle da infestação natural por Boophilus microplus: estudo piloto Resumo No controle de enfermidades transmitidas por carrapatos tem sido notada a resistência a produtos químicos. A preocupação com a conservação do meio ambiente tem exigido procedimentos alternativos para controlar a infestação por Boophilus microplus, em todo o mundo. O uso de bioterápicos representa uma dessas alternativas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de uma mistura de bioterápicos incluindo B. microplus, em gado bovino infestado naturalmente. 27 animais foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=9: I controle sem tratamento; II tratado com banho de amitraz; III tratado com mistura comercial de bioterápicos 12 cH, via oral. O grupo III apresentou uma diminuição estatísticamente significativa de carrapatos, em comparação com grupo controle (p Palavras-chave: Bioterapicos; Carrapato; Controles alternativos; Bovinos.   Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

  10. Acaricide rotation strategy for managing resistance in the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acarina: Ixodidae): laboratory experiment with a field strain from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullner, Friederike; Willadsen, Peter; Kemp, David

    2007-09-01

    During the past two decades, resistance to pyrethroids within the cattle tick genus Boophilus has caused tick control problems in various tropical countries, mainly in Latin America, southern Africa, Australia, and New Caledonia. A Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) strain from Costa Rica, exhibiting resistance to the pyrethroid deltamethrin but only a very low resistance to organophosphates (OP) was kept under selection pressure for 9 to 11 generations by using deltamethrin or coumaphos (OP), either exclusively or in rotation. The objective of this acaricide rotation was to examine the possibility of delaying or reducing the full emergence of pyrethroid resistance. In the substrain selected with deltamethrin at the LD50 concentration, resistance to deltamethrin was measured after five generations (resistance factor [RF] = 9.2) and very high resistance after 11 generations (RF = 756), compared with the starting field strain from Costa Rica. In the substrain selected with deltamethrin then coumaphos in rotation, resistance to deltamethrin was variable from one generation to the next (RF = 1-4.2), but no high, stable resistance developed. After 10 generations of rotation, the deltamethrin RF was 1.6. In the substrains selected continuously with coumaphos or coumaphos and deltamethrin in rotation, no consistent change in resistance to coumaphos was observed. Rotation of deltamethrin with coumaphos seems to delay the development of strong resistance to deltamethrin in a population that had initially a low level of deltamethrin resistance.

  11. Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina, with an analysis of tick distribution among cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Canevari, José T; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2015-03-15

    Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina were evaluated for one year. In addition, tick distribution among cattle was analyzed to evaluate if partial selective treatment or culling the small proportion of most heavily infested animals were feasible options to control R. (B.) microplus. Two different treatments schemes based on two applications of fluazuron and one application of 3.15% ivermectin were performed. Treatments were made in late winter and spring so as to act on the small 1st spring generation of R. (B.) microplus, in order to preclude the rise of the larger autumn generation. The overall treatment effect was positively significant in both schemes. The number of ticks observed in the control group was significantly higher than in the treated groups on all post-treatment counts. Group 2 exhibited more than 80% of efficacy almost throughout the study period, whereas Group 1 exhibited an efficacy percentage higher than 80% in September, October, December, February, April and May, but not in November (73.4%), January (58.3%), March (45.2%) or June (53.4%). Absolute control was observed in Group 2 in the counts of September and October, and in Group 1 in the count of February. The control strategies evaluated in this work provide an acceptable control level with only three applications of acaricides; at the same time, they prevent the occurrence of the autumn peak of tick burdens, which is characteristic of R. (B.) microplus in northwestern Argentina. Tick distribution was markedly aggregated in all counts. Although ticks were not distributed evenly among calves, the individual composition of the most heavily infested group was not consistent throughout the study period. In addition, the level of aggregation varied with tick abundance. These results suggest that applying acaricides to a portion of the herd or culling the most infested individuals at a given moment of the

  12. Dinâmica populacional de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em bovinos leiteiros mantidos em manejo de pastejo rotativo de capim-elefante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasai N.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available De maio de 1996 a abril de 1998, avaliou-se a dinâmica do parasitismo pelo Boophilus microplus em 20 novilhas mestiças, submetidas ao manejo de rotação em piquetes de capim-elefante. Os animais, pesados a cada seis meses, foram distribuídos em dois grupos de 10, sendo realizados tratamentos acaricidas em um deles (grupo tratado. As curvas de infestação nos grupos controle e tratado apresentaram padrões semelhantes, com picos de parasitismo ocorrendo na mesma época. A menor carga parasitária ocorreu no inverno. Na primavera houve um grande pico de infestação por carrapatos, seguido de outro maior em fevereiro. A partir do outono, a carga parasitária declinou naturalmente. Não se obteve associação entre a dinâmica da infestação pelo B. microplus e variáveis climáticas analisadas (P>0,05. Não houve diferença estatística entre as médias de peso dos dois lotes (P>0,05. Observou-se que os picos de fêmeas ingurgitadas nos bovinos corresponderam às quedas nos valores de hemoglobina nestes animais (P<0,01. A dinâmica do parasitismo pelo B. microplus em bovinos sob manejo de rotação de pastagens de capim-elefante mostrou-se semelhante a outros trabalhos conduzidos sob manejo convencional sem o uso de rotação.

  13. Evaluation in vitro of the infection times of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain Avaliação in vitro dos tempos de infecção de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus pelo nematoide entomopatogênico Steinernema glaseri estirpe CCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barbiéri de Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that ticks are susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic nematodes. These studies indicate different susceptibilities of ticks to infection by these fungi, depending on the tick species, development phase, entomopathogenic nematodes species and strains and the time the ticks are exposed to them. Usually this period ranges from 24 to 72 hours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infection times in vitro of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus females by the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema glaseri CCA strain, by analysis of the ticks' biological parameters. The results show that a 2-hour exposure time was sufficient for the engorged R. microplus females to be infected by S. glaseri CCA, but that a minimum exposure time of 24 hours was necessary to generate treatment efficacy above 90%.Os carrapatos são susceptíveis à infecção por nematoides entomopatogênicos. Essa susceptibilidade diverge quanto às espécies de carrapato estudadas, à fase evolutiva, às espécies e estirpes dos nematoides e ao tempo ao qual os carrapatos ficam expostos a estes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os tempos de infecção in vitro de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus pelo nematoide entomopatogênico Steinernema glaseri estirpe CCA, pela análise dos parâmetros biológicos do carrapato. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que um período de duas horas de exposição foi suficiente para que fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus fossem infectadas por S. glaseri CCA e que um período de exposição mínimo de 24h foi necessário para que houvesse infecção de fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus por S. glaseri estirpe CCA, capaz de gerar, in vitro, eficácia no tratamento superior a 90%.

  14. Avaliação in vitro da ação do óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre o carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus In vitro evaluation of the action of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.C. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso indiscriminado de produtos químicos no controle do carrapato bovino constitui a principal causa do gradativo aumento do número de cepas resistentes deste parasita às bases disponíveis no mercado. A utilização de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais é uma prática antiga no controle de carrapatos, porém só recentemente tem recebido a devida atenção dos pesquisadores. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a eficácia in vitro do óleo de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus através do exame de biocarrapaticidograma. Foram testadas seis diluições do óleo de C. citratus (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 e 100% em uma população de carrapatos resistentes a amidínicos e piretróides sintéticos. A inibição de postura foi de 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 e 46%, a eclosão larval foi de 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 e 25% e a eficácia do tratamento foi de 32; 64; 83; 100; 88 e 82%, respectivamente. O óleo de C. citratus apresentou controle parcial do carrapato R. microplus in vitro, mesmo frente a populações resistentes a produtos químicos.The indiscriminate use of chemical products to control the cattle tick is the main cause of the gradual increase in the number of strains of this parasite that are resistant to the bases currently available in the market. The use of essential oils and plant extracts is an ancient practice for tick control; however, only recently has it received due attention by researchers. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus through immersion test. Six concentrations of Cymbopogon citratus oil (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 and 100% were tested against a tick population resistant to synthetic formamidines and pyrethroids. The inhibition of egg-laying was 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 and 46%, the hatching was 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 and 25%, and the treatment efficacy was 32

  15. The use of Sporothrix insectorum and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus against Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887: in vitro assay and electronic microscopy/ Atividade anti-ixodídica dos fungos Sporothrix insectorum e Paecilomyces fumosoroseus sobre Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887: bioensaios emicroscopia eletrônica de varredura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar José da Costa

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In function of the development resistance to the several existent quimiotherapics, biological control has being a promising alternative to the control of Boophilus microplus. In this work, the pathogenic action of Sporothrix insectorum and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus in the different stages of life cycle of Boophilus microplus was evaluated. The fungis in study were cultivated in appropriate culture medium and suspensions in the concentrations of 105, 106, 107, 108, 109 conidia/mL for both fungis were prepared, starling from stock suspension. The eggs and the larvaes were treated by spray, and the engorged tick were immersed in the different conidia suspensions. The pathogenicity of the fungis were appraised for the reproductive performance of the ticks. The experimental was accomplished with five repetitions for each treatment group, in the different fungal concentrations. The fungis S. insectorum and P. fumosoroseus reduced in 50,19% and 49,34%, respectively, the posture of the infected engorged female ticks, in the concentration 108 conidia/mL. In relation to effectiveness, the fungis S. insectorum and P. fumosoroseus, they reached the values 82,99%, in the concentration 108 conidia/mL, and 82,93% in the concentration 109 conidia/mL, for the respective fungis. In the eggs treatment with the S. insectorum and P. fumosoroseus, the fungi P. fumosoroseus presented a superiority with reduction of eclodibility in 79,04%, in the concentration 106 conidia/mL, while the S. insectorum, reduced in only 37,92%, in the concentration 107 conidia/mL. In the larvas treatment there were not significant differences in the larva mortality in both fungi. The electronic microscopy, in different stage of life of the B. microplus, showed the power predatory of the fungi S. insectorum and P. fumosoroseus. With these results, it can be inferred that S. insectorum and P. fumosoroseus presented deleterious action on engorged female of B. microplus in vitro, what

  16. Primer caso de resistencia al amitraz en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus en México

    OpenAIRE

    Noé Soberanes Céspedes; Minerva Santamaría Vargas; Hugo Fragoso Sánchez; Zeferino García Vázquez

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue documentar el primer caso de la resistencia de la garrapata B. microplus al Amitraz, en México. Se obtuvo una muestra de garrapatas B. microplus del municipio de Emiliano Zapata, Tabasco, con reportes de fallas de control con este acaricida. La cepa de garrapatas fue denominada “San Alfonso” y se utilizaron larvas (F1) provenientes de la generación parental de hembras repletas, éstas se probaron con dosis discriminate de Amitraz 0.0002 %, (Taktic®) en formulaci...

  17. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Alejandro Cabezas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B. microplus engorged females that had been collected from naturally infested cattle in a farm in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This agent was then established and cultured in IDE8 tick cells. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and gp36 genes. We used the maximum likelihood method to construct the phylogenetic trees. Results The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA showed that the Ehrlichia spp isolated in this study falls in a clade separated from any previously reported Ehrlichia spp. The molecular analysis of the ortholog of gp36, the major immunoreactive glycoproteins in E. canis and ortholog of the E. chaffeensis gp47, showed a unique tandem repeat of 9 amino acids (VPAASGDAQ when compared with those reported for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and the related mucin-like protein in E. ruminantium. Conclusions Based on the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA genes we concluded that this tick-derived microorganism isolated in Brazil is a new species, named E. mineirensis (UFMG-EV, with predicted novel antigenic properties in the gp36 ortholog glycoprotein. Further studies on this new Ehrlichia spp should address questions about its transmissibility by ticks and its pathogenicity for mammalian hosts.

  18. Analysis of biological parameters of Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 exposed to entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and All strains (Steinernema: Rhabditida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Marques Freitas-Ribeiro

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Engorged and partially engorged females of Boophilus microplus were exposed to 600; 3,000; 6,000 and 30,000 infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 Santa Rosa and All strains per dish, under lab conditions. Eggs weight, pre-laying period, laying period, survival period, reproductive efficiency rate, percentage of larval eclosion and lethal concentrations of 50% and 90% (CL50 and CL90 were calculated for engorged females. In the case of partially engorged females, only egg weight, survival period and CL50 and CL90 were calculated. All biological parameters of engorged or partially engorged females were altered by exposition of S. carpocapsae infective juveniles (IJs, Santa Rosa and All strains (pFêmeas ingurgitadas e parcialmente ingurgitadas de B. microplus foram expostas a 600, 3000, 6000 e 30000 juvenis infectivos de Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 linhagens Santa Rosa e ALL por placa, sob condições de laboratório. Foram investigados para fêmeas ingurgitadas: peso da massa de ovos, período pré-postura, período de postura, tempo de sobrevivência, índice de eficiência reprodutiva, percentual de aclosão de larvas e concentrações letais 50% e 90% (CL50 e CL90. Para fêmeas parcialmente ingurgitadas somente foram observados peso da massa de ovos, tempo de sobrevivência, CL50 e CL90. Todos os parâmetros biológicos de fêmeas ingurgitadas foram e parcialmente ingurgitadas foram alterados pela exposição a juvenis infectivos de S. carpocapsae linhagens Santa Rosa e ALL (P<0,05. O aumento das resposta foi diretamente proporcional ao aumento das concentrações de juvenis infectivos por placa (P<0,05. Os resultados sugerem que nematóides entomopatogênicos podem ter papel primissor no controle de carrapatos dos bovinos.

  19. Expressed gene sequences from larval genes over-expressed upon Babesia bovis infection of Rhipecephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boophilus ticks are vectors of Babesia bovis, the protozoan causative agent of cattle fever, a disease which is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America and Australia. We utilized subtractive cDNA library synthesis techniques to o...

  20. Aquaporin 2 of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus as a potential target to control ticks and tick-borne parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaboration with Washington State University and ARS-Pullman, WA researchers, we identified and sequenced a 1,059 base pair Rhipicephalus microplus transcript that contained the coding region for a water channel protein, Aquaporin 2 (RmAQP2). The clone sequencing resulted in the production of...

  1. Integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, in Puerto Rico using new and alternative products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico (PR) is plagued by the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (PR-DA), and the...

  2. Ivermectin resistance status and factors associated in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) populations from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Alonso-Díaz, M A; Basurto-Camberos, H

    2012-11-23

    The objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the status of resistance or susceptibility to ivermectin (IVM) in Rhipicephalus microplus tick populations in Veracruz, Mexico, (2) determine the level of resistance (resistance ratios [RR] and lethal concentrations for 50% [LC(50)] and 99% [LC(99)]) mortality in each R. microplus population, and (3) identify factors associated with resistance. Populations of R. microplus were sampled from 53 cattle farms to evaluate their resistance using the larval immersion test. Mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to calculate LC(50) and LC(99). Resistance ratios were calculated in relation to a susceptible reference strain. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relation between resistance and possible associated factors. Thirteen tick populations were susceptible to ivermectin, eighteen had incipient resistance and twenty-two had significant resistance. RR(50) of the susceptible tick populations varied from 0.59 to 1.07. The populations that showed the highest level of resistance were: ANTE (RR(50)=8.21; RR(99)=46.0), PALO (RR(50)=6.25; RR(99)=35.47), P.VIE (RR(50)=5.89; RR(99)=180.3), AURO (RR(50)=5.36; RR(99)=13.82 and CEDR (RR(50)=4.11; RR(99)=26.47). Cattle farms that used macrocyclic lactones ≥ 4 times per year were more likely to develop R. microplus resistant to ivermectin (OR=13.0; p=0.0028). In conclusion, more than two-thirds of the farms sampled in Veracruz, Mexico, showed some level of ivermectin-resistant R. microplus populations and the number of ML applications per year is factor associated with the resistance of R. microplus to IVM.

  3. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana: A New Potential Agent to Control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, a Cattle Tick of Veterinary Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Miguita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Guarea kunthiana fruits, guided by their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus—a major economic problem to the livestock industry worldwide—led to isolation of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol, a new protolimonoid, from the bioactive hexane phase obtained by partitioning the crude ethanol extract. An adult immersion test was performed. The compound strongly inhibited egg-laying and hatchability (99.2% effectiveness at a 0.01% concentration. Melianone, isolated from the same phase, yielded unremarkable results in the adult immersion test. From the dichloromethane phase, melianol, melianodiol, meliantriol, and a new protolimonoid, 3β-O-tigloylmeliantriol, were isolated, all of which, in the same manner as melianone, exhibited unremarkable results in the test. The structures of new and known compounds were mostly established by 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses and mass spectrometry data. This is the first report on the bioactivity of protolimonoids on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of R. (B. microplus. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol proved a promising candidate for the development of a biocontrol agent against the cattle tick investigated, as an alternative to environmentally hazardous synthetic acaricides.

  4. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally exposed to entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.

  5. ANTI-IXODIDIC EVALUATION OF DIAZINON, COUMAPHOS AND CYPERMETHRIN THROUGH IN VITRO TESTS OF ENGORGED FEMALES OF Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887 IN THE DAIRY MICROREGION OF GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS AVALIAÇÃO ANTIIXODÍDICA DE DIAZINON, COUMAFÓS E CIPERMETRINA, ATRAVÉS DE TESTES “IN VITRO”, SOBRE FÊMEAS INGURGITADAS DE Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887 NA BACIA LEITEIRA DA MICRORREGIÃO DE GOIÂNIA-GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Neves Sobrinho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The efficacy of the acaricides diazinon, coumaphos and cypermethrin against Boophilus microplus was evaluated in an attempt to study the susceptibility of this ixodid tick in the dairy region of Goiânia, GO. For this study it was collected engorged female ticks in 22 farms from March until June, 1996. In a laboratory the ticks were submitted to a conventional immersion method as an in vitro test. The acaricides and the respective concentration tested were as follows: diazinon 500 ppm, coumaphos 500 ppm and cipermethrin 150 ppm. The results showed an efficacy of 94.13% for diazinon, 91.20% for coumaphos and only 69.14% for cypermethrin.

    KEY-WORDS: Boophilus microplus; acaricide; cattle; organophosphorus; pyrethroids.

    Para avaliar a eficácia de alguns carrapaticidas sobre Boophilus microplus, colheram-se teleóginas desse ixodídeo em bovinos naturalmente infestados, em 22 propriedades da bacia leiteira de Goiânia, GO, entre março e junho de 1996. Utilizou-se a técnica de imersão das teleóginas in vitro, calculando-se a eficácia percentual das drogas, diazinon 500 ppm, coumafós 500 ppm e cipermetrina 150 ppm, pelos resultados de respectivas de inibição da reprodução: 94,13% (diazinon, 91,2% (coumafós e 69,14% (cipermetrina. Os índices alcançados permaneceram abaixo do mínimo de 95%, recomendado pelo Ministério da Agricultura e do Abastecimento para carrapaticidas, sendo, então, os três produtos reprovados pelos critérios daquele órgão.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus; acaricida; gado; organofosforados; piretroides.

  6. Acaricide activity of leaves extracts of Sambucus australis Schltdl. (Caprifoliaceae at 2% on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade acaricida de extratos de folhas de Sambucus australis Schltdl (Caprifoliaceae a 2% sobre teleóginas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Krawczak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite infections caused by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus are responsible for the most of economic losses in producing-cattle countries in tropical and subtropical areas. Indiscriminate uses of chemical acaricides have contributed with the appearance of tick resistance to many drugs available in the marketplace, and it is a serious problem in the tick control. Flowers of Sambucus australis (South America, called "sabugueiro-from-Brazil", are used on infusions or decoctions forms in the folk medicine with diuretic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and laxative purpose, also employed for treating respiratory diseases in human. The main goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro potential of S. australis leaves extracts as an acaricide agent. Ethanol extract at 70% has been dehydrated and a fraction was suspended in 70% ethanol or in distillated water at final concentration of 2% (0.2mg-1. Using the immersion test of engorged females the efficiency results were obtained in 34% and 66% with the leaves extract diluted in water and 70% ethanol, respectively. This study is the first report on acaricidal activity of S. australis against cattle tick. Further studies to determine the active metabolites in different stages of S. australis could aid to identify suitable extracts to be tested in the R. (B. microplus control.A infestação por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas econômicas em países produtores de bovinos nas áreas tropicais e subtropicais. Usos indiscriminados de acaricidas químicos têm contribuído para o aparecimento da resistência dos ixodídeos a múltiplas drogas, representando um sério problema no controle de carrapatos. As flores da planta Sambucus australis, conhecidas pelo nome popular de sabugueiro do Brasil, são usadas, na forma de infusão ou emplastros, na medicina popular como diurético, antipirético, antiinflamatório e laxativo; também empregado no tratamento de doen

  7. Physiological changes in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally infected with entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Isabele C; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Tunholi, Victor M; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Gôlo, Patrícia S; Camargo, Mariana G; Quinelato, Simone; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism plays an important role in the physiology and maintenance of energy stores within living organisms. However, when organisms are exposed to adverse physiological conditions, such as during pathogenic infection, these organisms begin to use alternative substrates (proteins and lipids) for energy production. This paper studied the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus after infection with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The parameters evaluated were glucose concentration, enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminostransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminostransferase (AST), amounts of uric acid and urea in the hemolymph, and amount of glycogen in the fat body. The results showed changes in nitrogenous products, including an increase in the amount of urea detected 48 h after infection with both fungi. The enzymatic activities of LDH, ALT, and AST were increased after infection. The amount of glucose was increased 24 h after infection with B. bassiana and was reduced 48 h after infection with both fungi. The amount of glycogen in the fat body was reduced at different times of infection with both fungi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the changes in carbohydrate metabolism of R. microplus after infection with M. anisopliae and B. bassiana and contribute to a better understanding of this host-parasite relationship. Together with knowledge of diseases that affect these ticks and their susceptibility to entomopathogens, an understanding of tick physiology will be necessary for the effective implementation of current biological control methods and will assist in the discovery of new methods to control this ectoparasite.

  8. Population dynamics and evaluation of the partial selective treatment of crossbreed steers naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a herd from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Melo, Daniel Pacheco; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Gonçalves Junior, Geraldo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-04-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus over a period of 13 months on a rural property located in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Animals were treated for ticks indoors by whole body spraying when R. (B.) microplus had an average count equal or more than 30 ticks. The study also evaluated the possibility of a partial selective treatment for bovines to control R. (B.) microplus in which only a percentage of the population would be treated (specifically those bovines with tick counts of ≥20. Moreover, we examined the percentage of the population of R. (B.) microplus present on experimental bovines that did not come into contact with the chemical compounds used in the partial selective treatment. We concluded that in this particular region of Brazil, the crossbreed steers support up to five R. (B.) microplus generations per year and that the number of generations was primarily affected by the pluviometric precipitation. We sprayed the bovines with chemicals seven times during the course of the study. The results of the partial selective treatment method revealed that during the rainy and the dry periods, 42.1% to 60.0% and 61.9% to 79.2% of the animals, respectively, fulfilled the criteria to receive a chemical treatment to reduce the number of cattle ticks. In consideration of the need to slow the development of tick resistance with the chemical compounds used in the spraying treatment, the results showed that the percentage of animals that did not require treatment is not relevant. This was evidenced by the result that bovines that presented tick counts of ≥20 during the dry and rainy periods represented 91.5% and 90.6% of the total recorded R. (B.) microplus populations, respectively. Only 8.7% of the tick population remained free from exposure to acaricides during the 13 months of the study, which is an important point when considering the adoption of the partial selective treatment

  9. Effect of different concentrations of citronella oil and tincture on reproductive parameters of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus teleoginesEfeito de diferentes concentrações de óleo e tintura de citronela sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos de teleóginas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most important ectoparasite in cattle rising, and it is responsible for severe economic losses. Parasite control is based on chemicals, which are used indiscriminately and result in effectiveness reduction of these compounds. In order to delay the onset of parasite resistance, some alternative methods are being researched, including herbal medicine. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus oil and tincture on R. (B microplus by the engorged female immersion test. Four oil concentrations were tested (1; 25; 50; 100% and the inhibition of oviposition were 16; 40; 53; 73%, egg hatch were 28; 16; 23; 6% and the effectiveness were 78; 100; 86; 98%, respectively. The gradual rise of the inhibition of oviposition and low egg hatch had a positive influence in the effectiveness of treatment. The solution at 1% of citronella oil had a partial control of the teleogines and the solution at 25% had 100% of effectiveness. Six dilutions of the tincture (1; 5; 10; 25; 50; 100% were tested and the inhibition of oviposition were 10; 63; 80; 83; 86; 96%, egg hatch were 91; 31; 6; 26; 0; 0% and the effectiveness were 23; 93; 94; 97; 100; 100%, respectively. Most of the treatments with the citronella tincture had inhibition of oviposition higher than 80% and low egg hatch rate. The tincture at 5% had similar efficacy compared to the groups with higher concentrations. A significant association between the oil and tincture of citronella and the treatment effectiveness was observed in the statistical evaluation. It is possible to conclude that both the oil and the tincture of citronella had negative influence in the reproductive parameters of R. (B microplus. O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é o ectoparasito mais importante em áreas de exploração pecuária, sendo responsável por severas perdas econômicas. O controle deste parasito é feito

  10. Caracterização do controle de Haematobia irritans e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa N. Domingues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle eficaz de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (carrapato-do-boi é um fator crucial à maior rentabilidade da pecuária brasileira, porém ainda constitui-se um desafio. Um maior conhecimento das práticas adotadas no combate destes parasitos faz-se necessário para que se possam estruturar estratégias de controle mais próximas da realidade do produtor rural e mais fáceis de serem executadas. Este estudo caracterizou, através de entrevistas, as práticas adotadas no controle desses ectoparasitos em 23 propriedades da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais. A maioria dos entrevistados reconheceu a importância desses parasitos para a atividade pecuária, entretanto, diversos problemas relativos ao controle parasitário foram observados. O controle da mosca-dos-chifres e do carrapato-do-boi era uma prática rotineira em, respectivamente, 17,4% e 95,7% das propriedades, geralmente realizado em função de elevado grau de infestação dos animais. Mais de seis aplicações de ectoparasiticidas eram realizadas por ano em todas as propriedades que empregavam tratamentos para o controle da mosca e em 76,5% daquelas que combatiam o carrapato. Os produtos eram aplicados principalmente com bombas costais manuais (63,6% e sem a contenção dos animais em 45,5% das propriedades. A diluição dos produtos segundo recomendações dos fabricantes era realizada por 45,4% dos entrevistados, porém, 63,6% aplicavam um volume de solução por animal menor do que o tecnicamente recomendado. Utilizava-se principalmente a associação de piretróides e organofosforados para o controle de ambos os parasitos. Apesar de utilizar rotineiramente ectoparasiticidas, o uso de equipamento de proteção individual (EPI não era comum entre os entrevistados. A maioria dos entrevistados conhecia algumas características epidemiológicas dos parasitos, entretanto, o controle parasitário adotado na

  11. Association between entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi for control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Matos, Renata Silva; da Silva Golo, Patrícia; Angelo, Isabele Costa; de Souza Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo; Coelho Rodrigues, Camila Aparecida; Furlong, John; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the association of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi on Rhipicephalus microplus. The nematodes used were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 and the fungi were Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 116 and Beauveria bassiana ESALQ 986. In the groups treated with the fungi, the females were immersed for 3 min in a conidial suspension, while in the groups treated with the nematodes, the ticks were exposed to infective juveniles. To evaluate the interaction between entomopathogens, the females were first immersed in a conidial suspension and then exposed to the nematodes. The egg mass weight and hatching percentage values of the groups treated with M. anisopliae IBCB 116 and B. bassiana ESALQ 986 in the two experiments were statistically similar (p > 0.05) to the values of the control group. In the groups treated only with nematodes, there was a significant reduction (p fungi, there was a significant reduction (p fungi alone varied from 31 to 55%. In the groups treated with nematodes associated or not with fungi, the control percentage was always greater than 90% and reached 100% in the group treated with H. bacteriophora HP88 associated with the fungus M. anisopliae IBCB 116.

  12. Poderá o carrapato transmitir a lepra?: mais quatro amostras de culturas de bacilos acido-alcool resistentes obtidas de carrapatos (2 de "Amblyomma cajennense"e 2 de "Boophilus microplus" infectados em leprosos do Paraná: 3ª nota May leprosy be transmitted by ticks?: third note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The AA. carried out experiments in the leprosarium São Roque, State of Paraná, South Brazil, to verify if the cattle tick Boophilus microplus could be experimentally infected in lepers, which was true. The AA. Tried also to be ascertained if Boophilus microplus and Amblyomma cajennense could change of hosts during their feedings which was true, both ticks continue feeding, the last species for many days, after being transferred from one to another leper. The junior A. describes in full their experiments and also a dermatites caused by tick bites. The senior A. brought to Rio de Janeiro most of the infected ticks for examination, which revealed a very high positivity. He smeared the sediments of lots of both species of ticks in Loewenstein medium and after a variable periode of incubation at 37° C. he obtained four new samples of cultures of acid-fast organisms, two from Amblyomma cajennense and two from Boophilus microplus. These cultures are being studied and will be inoculated into laboratory animals. The senior A. inoculated new batches of white rats with sediments of many ticks infected in lepers. Various hypotheses of both previous notes upon the subject now are verified facts. The A. is accumulating facts to draw the conclusions in the future. He also suggested the leprosy workers in the interior of the country to cooperate with him in such important studies, specially in the habitat of lepers in the rural zones of various States.

  13. Utilización del Boophilus microplus como remedio isopático en el control del ectoparásito en el Municipio de Aguazul (Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Niño Murcia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se demostró la efectividad de un remedio isopático vía oral, para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, inocuo para los animales, medio ambiente y el hombre, evitando residuos de plaguicidas en el producto final. La investigación se realizó en una finca ubicada en el municipio de Aguazul (Casanare; localizada a los 05°10’23’’ de latitud norte y 72°33’17’’ de longitud oeste desde Greenwich, altitud: 300 msnm, temperatura media: 27ÚC. Precipitación anual media: 2.441 mm. Se contó con 32 animales de doble propósito; con la propuesta adoptada por la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria, CORPOICA, en cuanto al Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP; acerca del control ejercido con base en niveles críticos, se inició con un conteo de garrapatas, con un tamaño entre 4.5 mm y 8 mm, por un lado del cuerpo del animal; animales con más de 20 garrapatas, entraban en el proceso de investigación, se les administró el remedio isopático, el cual correspondía al grupo A, y el placebo el cual correspondió con el grupo B, durante cuatro días consecutivos. Se administraron dos potencias del remedio, la primera con nueve centésimal (9 C, la cual no tuvo ningún efecto sobre la garrapata, la segunda potencia treinta centesimal (30 C, con la cual se observaron los resultados propuestos sobre la garrapata, se hace un segundo conteo de garrapatas con los mismos tamaños para verificar la efectividad de la segunda potencia; veinticinco días después de la administración, se hizo un último conteo de garrapatas con los mismos tamaños con los cuales se partió. Se utilizó la técnica experimental de doble ciego para obtener datos más veraces. El estudio estadístico se realizó por la técnica de análisis operacional de varianza de dos factores con varias muestras por grupo; los recuentos de garrapatas se trasformaron a la expresión logarítmica: t = Log 10 (X+1, donde X es el recuento de

  14. Alelos del complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad BoLA clase II asociados a la resistencia y susceptibilidad a Boophilus microplus en ganado bovino, Junín–Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Custodio Villanueva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar mediante la amplificación de microsatélites, los alelos del Complejo Mayor de Histocompatibilidad (CMH BoLA Clase II aso ciados a la resistencia y susceptibilidad a Boophilus microplus en ganado bovino, Junín – Perú. S e recolectaron muestra s de sangre de 47 bovinos , a sí como, ejemplares de B. microplus durante los meses de marzo, abril y mayo del 2009, en horas de la mañana, del lado derecho de cada animal. La extracción del ADN genómico se realizó por el método de Phil Summers (1995 y la amplificación de los microsatélites DRB3.2, DRB31 y BM1815 fue por PCR en un secuenciador automático. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante e l programa POPGEN 32. Se identificaron los alelos A, B y C relacionados con la resistencia y susceptibilidad a B. microplus en ganado bovino tanto en el locus BoLA DRB3.2 como en BoLA BM1815. Las frecuencias alélicas estimadas fueron: en el locus DRB3.2 la frecuencia del alelo A fue de 0 . 2742, del alelo B fue de 0.5000 y del alelo C fue de 0.2258; en el locus DRB31 la frecuencia del alelo A fue de 1.0000 y, en el locus BM1815 la frecuencia del alelo A fue de 0.3295, del alelo B fue de 0.5909y del alelo C fu e de 0.0795. Se concluye que los alelos A, B y C de los loci DRB3.2 y BM1815 del Complejo Mayor de Histocompatibilidad BoLA Clase II están relacionados con la resistencia a B. microplus en ganado bovino y el alelo A del locus DRB31 está relacionado con la susceptibilidad.

  15. Acaricidal effects of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) and a combination of fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), administered at different routes, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian G; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Ruivo, Maycon A; Alcantara Colli, Marcos Henrique; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Martinez, Antonio Campanha; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg), administered as a pour-on, in comparison to an injectable formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in naturally and experimentally infested cattle. Two studies were conducted with different tick strains, one with artificial infestations (Stall Test, using leight animals per group) and one with natural infestations (utilizing ten animals per group). In both studies, the animals were randomized, according to average tick counts performed on days -3, -2 and -1, into four groups: T01, negative control (saline solution); T02, pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg); T03: subcutaneous fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg); and T04 subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Based on obtained results, and considering the utilized tick strains, it was possible to conclude that the pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) formulation demonstrated high acaricidal efficacy, with protection periods ranging from 49 to 77 days against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. On the other hand, for the injectable fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg) formulation, it was not possible to observe elevated anti-R. (B.) microplus effect on both artificial and experimental infestation studies. Results observed for this combination were similar or inferior to those obtained by subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Future studies with this formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), regarding pharmacokinetic and/or bioavailability profiles, or even studies analyzing both this active principles separately, are needed, seeking to better understand the effects of such combination against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle.

  16. Chemical composition and efficacy of dichloromethane extract of Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Adne A; Motta, Lucimar B; Klafke, Guilherme M; Pohl, Paula C; Furlan, Cláudia M; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Negri, Giuseppina; Labruna, Marcelo B; Salatino, Antonio

    2013-02-18

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, causing high economic impact on cattle production. The control of tick infestations is regarded worldwide as critical and has been based on the use of organophosphates, synthetic pyretroids, amitraz and recently ivermectin and fipronil. The present study reports the analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the constituents of leaf extracts of Croton sphaerogynus and results of acaricidal activity against the cattle tick R. microplus. The larval package test using the serial dilutions 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0% and 20.0% (v/v) gave mortality rates 2.25%, 8.26%, 8.81%, 24.80%, 83.66% and 99.32%, respectively. Relevant constituents identified were abietanes, podocarpenes and clerodane type furano diterpenes. The present work may represent a possibility of attainment of natural substances useful for the control of R. microplus.

  17. Caracterização do controle de Haematobia irritans e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais Characterization of Haematobia irritans and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control in Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa N. Domingues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle eficaz de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (carrapato-do-boi é um fator crucial à maior rentabilidade da pecuária brasileira, porém ainda constitui-se um desafio. Um maior conhecimento das práticas adotadas no combate destes parasitos faz-se necessário para que se possam estruturar estratégias de controle mais próximas da realidade do produtor rural e mais fáceis de serem executadas. Este estudo caracterizou, através de entrevistas, as práticas adotadas no controle desses ectoparasitos em 23 propriedades da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais. A maioria dos entrevistados reconheceu a importância desses parasitos para a atividade pecuária, entretanto, diversos problemas relativos ao controle parasitário foram observados. O controle da mosca-dos-chifres e do carrapato-do-boi era uma prática rotineira em, respectivamente, 17,4% e 95,7% das propriedades, geralmente realizado em função de elevado grau de infestação dos animais. Mais de seis aplicações de ectoparasiticidas eram realizadas por ano em todas as propriedades que empregavam tratamentos para o controle da mosca e em 76,5% daquelas que combatiam o carrapato. Os produtos eram aplicados principalmente com bombas costais manuais (63,6% e sem a contenção dos animais em 45,5% das propriedades. A diluição dos produtos segundo recomendações dos fabricantes era realizada por 45,4% dos entrevistados, porém, 63,6% aplicavam um volume de solução por animal menor do que o tecnicamente recomendado. Utilizava-se principalmente a associação de piretróides e organofosforados para o controle de ambos os parasitos. Apesar de utilizar rotineiramente ectoparasiticidas, o uso de equipamento de proteção individual (EPI não era comum entre os entrevistados. A maioria dos entrevistados conhecia algumas características epidemiológicas dos parasitos, entretanto, o controle parasitário adotado na

  18. Expressed gene sequences from adult ovary and adult female gut genes over-expressed upon Babesia bovis infection of Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boophilus ticks are vectors of Babesia bovis, the protozoan causative agent of cattle fever, a disease which is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America and Australia. We utilized subtractive cDNA library synthesis techniques to o...

  19. In vitro tests to assess the effectiveness of tamarind (Tamarindus indicus) and oxalic acid solutions against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez C., Víctor

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro assay was performed to measure the acaricidal effectiveness of crude-extract of tamarind (Tamarindus indicus) to control the engorged female cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus). In addition, a product formulated with oxalic acid (OA) was tested. Parameters measured were percentage of oviposition inhibition and control rate. The best result was obtained with oxalic acid to twice the concentration recommended by the manufacturer for varroa control, followed by the tamarind pulp at...

  20. A Mitochondrial Membrane Exopolyphosphatase Is Modulated by, and Plays a Role in, the Energy Metabolism of Hard Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Logullo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The physiological roles of polyphosphates (polyP recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the relationship between the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase (PPX and the energy metabolism of hard tick Rhipicephalus microplus embryos are investigated. Mitochondrial respiration was activated by adenosine diphosphate using polyP as the only source of inorganic phosphate (Pi and this activation was much greater using polyP3 than polyP15. After mitochondrial subfractionation, most of the PPX activity was recovered in the membrane fraction and its kinetic analysis revealed that the affinity for polyP3 was 10 times stronger than that for polyP15. Membrane PPX activity was also increased in the presence of the respiratory substrate pyruvic acid and after addition of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Furthermore, these stimulatory effects disappeared upon addition of the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor potassium cyanide and the activity was completely inhibited by 20 µg/mL heparin. The activity was either increased or decreased by 50% upon addition of dithiothreitol or hydrogen peroxide, respectively, suggesting redox regulation. These results indicate a PPX activity that is regulated during mitochondrial respiration and that plays a role in adenosine-5’-triphosphate synthesis in hard tick embryos.

  1. Análise de fatores genéticos e ambientais que afetam a infestação de fêmeas bovinas da raça Caracu por carrapatos (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraga Angelina Bossi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fatores de meio sobre a infestação de bovinos Caracu pelo carrapato Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 e estimar parâmetros genéticos do grau de infestação por esse ectoparasita. Foram realizadas contagens em fêmeas de dois rebanhos, nas quatro estações, por dois anos consecutivos (setembro/1998 a julho/2000. Contou-se o número de carrapatos (NC em um dos lados do animal e atribuiu-se escore visual (EC de acordo com a quantidade de carrapatos no animal. Foram feitas de uma a oito avaliações, totalizando-se 4.079 e 3.994 observações de NC e EC, respectivamente, em 718 animais. Os dados foram analisados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos com um modelo que incluiu efeitos de rebanho (R, cor do animal (C, R x C, animal dentro de R x C como erro a, ano e estação da avaliação, espessura de pelame e idade do animal como covariável. As estimativas dos componentes de variância foram obtidas pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivadas, utilizando-se um modelo que incluiu os efeitos fixos de grupo de contemporâneos (fazenda-ano-época, espessura do pelame e idade do animal como covariável e os efeitos aleatórios aditivos diretos e de ambiente permanente. Antes das análises, a variável NC foi transformada para log10 (n + 1 e EC para (x + 0,5½, em que n é o número de carrapatos contados no animal e x, o escore (0 a 4. A incidência de carrapatos foi maior no verão e, quanto maior a espessura do pelame, maior o nível de infestação. As estimativas de herdabilidade e repetibilidade foram, respectivamente, 0,22 e 0,29 para NC e 0,15 e 0,21 para EC; a correlação genética entre NC e EC foi igual a 1,00. Os resultados sugerem que é possível obter progresso genético para resistência a carrapato pela seleção.

  2. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, 10 BAC clone sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. We used labeled DNA probes from the coding reg...

  3. Use of Ivermectin as Endoparasiticide in Tropical Cattle Herds Generates Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes and the Tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-López, M A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine simultaneously the status of resistance against ivermectin (IVM) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) ticks in 12 cattle farms where IVM was used for the control of GIN in the Mexican tropics. Six farms had frequent use of IVM (≥ 4 times per year) and six farms had low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year). The fecal egg count reduction test and the larval immersion test were used to determine the resistant status of GIN and R. microplus against IVM, respectively. The results indicated that 100% of the surveyed farms had IVM-resistant GIN (reduction % from 0 to 67%). The genera involved were Haemonchus, Cooperia, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, and Oesophagostomum. Although the IVM was never used for the control of ticks, 50% of the surveyed farms presented GIN and R. microplus simultaneously resistant to IVM. Furthermore, two R. microplus populations showed high resistance ratio (RR) to IVM (farm TAT: RR50% = 7 and RR99% = 40.1; and farm SLS: RR50% = 2.4; RR99% = 11.0). A high frequency of IVM use (≥ 4 times per year) seemed to promote IVM resistance amongst R. microplus ticks compared with the farms with low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year; 66.6 vs. 25.0%, respectively). However, the number of surveyed farms was insufficient to show clear statistical inferences (odds ratio = 6.00; 95% CI = 0.341-105.5). The use of IVM for the control of GIN promoted simultaneously the development of IVM resistance in the GIN and R. microplus populations of the cattle herds surveyed.

  4. Dinâmica da infecção de Babesia bovis (Babés, 1888, Starcovici, 1893 em fêmeas ingurgitadas e ovos de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 Dynamic of infection of Babesia bovis (Babés, 1888, Starcovici, 1893 in engorged females and eggs of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Dias Barreira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica da infecção de B. bovis no carrapato-vetor B. microplus foi estudada em condições laboratoriais na Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro no Laboratório de Protozoologia. Para tanto, foram examinadas 100 fêmeas ingurgitadas que se desprenderam naturalmente do hospedeiro vertebrado, sendo que 84 fêmeas apresentaram-se infectadas com esporocinetos de B. bovis, com a seguinte distribuição: 39%, 33%, e 12% nos dias 3, 4 e 5 de incubação, respectivamente. Foram obtidas amostras de ovos provenientes das fêmeas positivas para B. bovis, 100% das amostras de ovos estavam infectadas, apresentado a seguinte distribuição: 46,4%, 34,5%, 16,7% e 2,4% nos dias 4, 5, 6 e 7 de incubação, respectivamente. As freqüências acumuladas, tanto de fêmeas infectadas (84% quanto de ovos infectados (100% mantiveram-se até o 17° dia de incubação. De acordo com as freqüências acumuladas e o aumento do grau de infecção, conclui-se que amostras coletadas a partir do 5° e 7° dia de incubação, são ideais para o diagnóstico de B. bovis, em hemolinfa e ovos, respectivamente.The dynamics of B. bovis infections in the tick-vector B. microplus, was studied in laboratory conditions at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro in the Laboratory of Protozoology, Brazil.. To do it, 100 engorged females naturally droped from vertebrate host were examined. From this total 84 females showed infected with sporokinets of B. bovis, with the following distribution: 39%, 33% and 12% on days 3, 4 and 5 of incubation, respectivelly. Eggs samples were obtained from the positives ones to B. bovis females and 100% were infected, showed the follow distribution: 46.4%, 34.5%, 16.7% and 2.4% on days 4, 5, 6 and 7 of incubation, respectivelly. The accumulative frequencies, of infected females (84% and infected eggs (100%, were kept until 17th days of incubation. According to the accumulatives frequencies and the increase of the degree of incubation

  5. Assessment of the acaricidal activity of carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, trans-anethole, and linalool on larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringóta, Viviane; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Calmon, Fernanda; Maturano, Ralph; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Faza, Aline; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The acaricidal activity of carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, trans-anethole, and linalool was studied on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens larvae. All the substances were tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 μl/ml, with 10 repetitions per treatment. The modified larval packet technique was employed in the tests and the mortality was evaluated after 24 h. In the groups treated with carvacrol, the lowest concentration (2.5 μl/ml) was sufficient to cause 100% death of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae. The same concentration of (E)-cinnamaldehyde resulted in death of approximately 99% of the larvae of both tick species and reached 100% at the other concentrations. For trans-anethole, mortality rates above 90% of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae were only observed starting at the concentration of 15.0 μl/ml and reached 100% at the highest concentration (20.0 μl/ml). Finally, the mortality rates of the groups treated with linalool were low, only reaching 8.4 and 14.5% at the highest concentration (20.0 μl/ml) for larvae of D. nitens and R. microplus, respectively. These results show that carvacrol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and trans-anethole have acaricidal activity, particularly carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, both of which resulted in high mortality rates for the larvae of these two tick species even at the lowest concentration.

  6. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) HP88 for biological control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae): the effect of different exposure times of engorged females to the nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Faza, Aline; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Dolinski, Cláudia; Furlong, John

    2012-04-30

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different exposure times of engorged female the Rhipicephalus microplus to infective juveniles of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora isolate HP88. The engorged females were divided into seven groups (six treatments and one control) of 20 ticks each with statistically similar average weights (p>0.05) and exposed to concentrations of 300 nematodes/tick for periods of 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The following biological parameters were monitored: pre-oviposition period; egg mass weight; hatching percentage; and efficacy of treatment. There was no influence of the exposure time on the pre-oviposition period (p>0.05), while there were significant differences (pcontrol group with respect to the egg mass weight, and 24h for hatching percentage. Treatment efficacy reached 100% after exposure for 48 and 72 h. These results demonstrate that infective juveniles of H. bacteriophora HP88, under laboratory conditions, interfere in the majority of the biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase of engorged R. microplus females when the exposure time is greater than or equal to 24h.

  7. Efficiency of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeneida T. Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the latex from Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E. Br. Ursch & Leandri, Euphorbiaceae, on the eggs and engorged larvae of Rhipicephalus (B. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae. Six aqueous concentrations: 25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L of the latex of this plant were tested. The control group was tested only with distilled water. The latex of E. splendens var. hislopii presented an LD50 of 18.031 μL/L and LD90 of 84.610 μL/L against the eggs of R. (B. sanguineus. The larvae of all the groups treated with the latex presented a low survival rate of 0% at 25 μL/L, 1% at 50 μL/L, 2% at 100 μL/L, 3% at 125 μL/L, 9% at 250 μL/L, 5% at 500 μL/L when compared with the control group (91%. On day 7 and 14 after the application the latex killed more efficiently the treated groups (25, 50, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μL/L. As from day 21 the latex became less effective for all treatments. Our results clearly show that the aqueous concentration of the latex have a strong effect on tick eggs and larvae suggesting that it could become an important acaricide.

  8. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used ...

  9. A novel amino acid substitution in the para-sodium channel gene in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with knockdown resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Marcelino; Flores, Adriana E; Alvarez, Genoveva; Molina, Alberto; Rodriguez, Iram; Ponce, Gustavo

    2010-12-01

    Resistance acquired by the tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) to different types of ixodicides in Mexico has had a negative impact on national and local livestock, mainly due to the transmission of diseases such as babesiosis and anaplasmosis, among others. The technique used for the diagnosis of resistance was that in the bioassays noted in the Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-006-ZOO-1994). The purpose of this investigation was the determination of resistance to pyrethroids through isoleucine-phenylalanine mutation in the gene KDR, in a population of ticks from Montemorelos, NL, Mexico. Preliminary bioassays demonstrated resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin (27.4%) and flumethrin (36.7-34.7%). To identify the mutation, DNA was extracted from 100 mg of larvae (pools), 10 pools were assessed by PCR, in which a pair of primers designed with the program Oligo 2.0 and Amplify 1.2 amplified a 136 bp fragment containing the mutation. The PCR product was subsequently sequenced to confirm the presence of the mutation. A strain susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides (Mora strain) was used as control, but it did not show the mutation. However, the mutation was detected in 4 out of 10 samples of the strain Montemorelos.

  10. Reduced efficacy of commercial acaricides against populations of resistant cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus from two municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 µ...

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    species), Dermacentor (1 species), Rhipicephalus (1 species), and Boophilus (1 species). Additional 5 tick species (3 Amblyomma species and 1 species from each of the genera Ixodes and Ornithodoros) were reported in the literature. The most common ticks on Carnivora hosts were Amblyomma ovale (found on 14 host species), Amblyomma cajennense (10 species), Amblyomma aureolatum (10 species), Amblyomma tigrinum (7 species), Amblyomma parvum (7 species), and Boophilus microplus (7 species).

  12. Comparison of efficiency and reproductive aptitude indexes between a reference and field strains of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, in Sinaloa, Mexico Comparação dos índices de eficiência e aptidão reprodutiva entre uma cepa de referência e outra de campo do carrapato do gado, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, em Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soila Gaxiola-Camacho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the reproductive behavior of two strains of R. (B. microplus, one wild-caught (Native and one reference strain (Media Joya for two years, measuring the reproductive efficiency index (REI and reproductive aptitude index (RAI. Engorged ticks from each strain were collected monthly from February 2002 to February 2004. These were weighed and kept in the laboratory until egg-laying. Oogenic masses were individually weighed and incubated until larvae emergence. REI and RAI were calculated from each sample, grouping ticks by weight in 100 mg range classes. An analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple rank tests were carried out on the data (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a conduta reprodutiva de duas cepas de R. (B. microplus, uma coletada no campo (Nativa e outra de referência (Média Jóia, por dois anos, calculando o índice de eficiência reprodutiva (REI e o índice de aptidão reprodutiva (RAI. Foram coletados mensalmente carrapatos fêmeas engurgitadas de cada cepa no período de Fevereiro de 2002 a Fevereiro de 2004. Estas foram pesadas e conservadas no laboratório até ovipositar. As massas de ovos foram pesadas individualmente e incubadas até a eclosão das larvas. O REI e o RAI foram calculados para cada coleta, agrupando os carrapatos em classe de peso de 100 mg. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e prova de classe múltipla de Duncan (P < 0,05. Foram calculados os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson (P < 0,01 para estimar a associação entre o peso dos carrapatos engurgitados e o peso e número de ovos postos e eclosionados. A cepa Nativa mostrou um peso ao engurgitamento mais alto do que a cepa Média Jóia. Os valores de REI e de RAI em ambas cepas foram similares em todos as classes de peso, mostrando tendência cuadrática na Média Jóia e linear-cuadrática na cepa Nativa (P < 0,05. Ambos os índices por classe de peso no engurgitamento foram sempre mais

  13. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  14. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement of... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation...

  15. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil from Zanthoxylum caribaeum against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jeane; Vinturelle, Rafaelle; Mattos, Camila; Tietbohl, Luis Armando Candido; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Junior, Itabajara Silva Vaz; Mourão, Samanta Cardozo; Rocha, Leandro; Folly, Evelize

    2014-09-01

    Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lamarck (Rutaceae) is plant species with a variety of medical applications, including insecticidal activity. This study determined the bioacaricidal activity of the essential oil from Z. caribaeum leaves against engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) females using the adult immersion test. For this purpose, three serial concentrations (5.0, 2.5, and 1.25%, vol:vol, in 1% dimetilsulfoxide) of the essential oil were used. Essential oil 5% caused 65% mortality on the first day after treatment, 85% on the second day, and 100% mortality by the fifth day. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Z. caribaeum leaves against cattle ticks.

  16. Acaricidal activity of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantea against Rhipicephalus microplus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sampath Marimuthu; Moorthy Iyappan; Chinnadurai Siva; Loganathan Karthik; Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Arivarasan Vishnu Kirthi; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Kanayairam Velayutham; Asokan Bagavan; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acaricidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) synthesized from flower aqueous extract of Calotropis gigantea (C. gigantea) against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus [R. (B.) microplus] and the adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa (H. bispinosa). Methods: The lyophilized C. gigantea flower aqueous extract of 50 mg was added with 100 mL of TiO(OH)2 (10 mM) and magnetically stirred for 6 h. Synthesized TiO2 NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The synthesised TiO2 NPs were tested against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus and adult of H. bispinosa were exposed to filter paper impregnated method. Results:XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles with the mean size of 10.52 nm. The functional groups for synthesized TiO2 NPs were 1 405.19, and 1 053.45 cm-1 for-NH2 bending, primary amines and amides and 1 053.84 and 1 078.45 cm-1 for C-O. SEM micrographs of the synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the aggregated and spherical in shape. The maximum efficacy was observed in the aqueous flower extract of C. gigantea and synthesized TiO2 NPs against R. (B.) microplus (LC50=24.63 and 5.43 mg/L and r2=0.960 and 0.988) and against H. bispinosa (LC50=35.22 and 9.15 mg/L and r2=0.969 and 0.969), respectively. Conclusions: The synthesized TiO2 NPs were highly stable and had significant acaricidal activity against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus and adult of H. bispinosa. This study provides the first report of synthesized TiO2 NPs and possessed excellent anti-parasitic activity.

  17. Rhipicephalus microplus salivary gland molecules induce differential CD86 expression in murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidwell Jason P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick parasitism is a major impediment for cattle production in many parts of the world. The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is an obligate hematophagous parasite of domestic and wild animals that serves as vector of infectious agents lethal to cattle. Tick saliva contains molecules evolved to modulate host innate and adaptive immune responses which facilitates blood feeding and pathogen transmission. Tick feeding promotes CD4 T cell polarization to a Th2 profile usually accompanied by down-regulation of Th1 cytokines through as yet undefined mechanisms. Co-stimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells are central to development of T cell responses including Th1 and Th2 responses. Tick induced changes to antigen presenting cell signal transduction pathways are largely unknown. Here we document the ability of R. microplus salivary gland extracts (SGE to effect differential CD86 expression. Results We examined changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression in murine RAW 264.7 cells in response to R. microplus SGE exposure in the presence of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 ligand, LPS. After 24 hrs, CD86, but not CD80, was preferentially up-regulated on mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells when treated with SGE and then LPS, but not SGE alone. CD80 and CD40 expression was increased with LPS, but the addition of SGE did not alter expression. Higher concentrations of SGE were less effective at increasing CD86 RNA expression. The addition of mitogen or extracellular kinase (MEK inhibitor, PD98059, significantly reduced the ability for SGE to induce CD86 expression, indicating activation of MEK is necessary for SGE induced up-regulation. Conclusions Molecules in SGE of R. microplus have a concentration-dependent effect on differential up-regulation of CD86 in a macrophage cell line activated by the TLR4 ligand, LPS. This CD86 up-regulation is at least partially dependent on the ERK1/2 pathway and may serve to

  18. Nuclear glycogen synthase kinase-3 {beta} (GSK-3) in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzingen, Leticia; Andrade, Josiana G. de; Logullo, Carlos [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, Caroline P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is recognized as a key component of a large number of cellular processes and diseases. Several mechanisms play a part in controlling the actions of GSK3, including phosphorylation, protein complex formation, and subcellular distribution. Recent observations point to functions for phosphorylases several transcription factors in the nucleus. Also, GSK3b participate of the canonical W nt signalling pathway, which has been studied intensively in embryonic and cancer cells. Like in many other signaling pathways, most components in W nt signal transduction were highly conserved during the evolution. More than 40 proteins have been reported to be phosphorylated by GSK3, including over a dozen transcription factors. Although the mechanisms regulating GSK3 are not fully understood, precise control appears to be achieved by a combination of phosphorylation, localization, and interactions with GSK3-binding proteins. Although GSK3 is traditionally considered a cytosolic protein, it is also present in nuclei. Nuclear GSK3 is particularly interesting because of the many transcription factors that it regulates enabling GSK3 to influence many signaling pathways that converge on these transcription factors, thereby regulating the expression of many genes. Our group identified that GSK-3 {beta} could be detected in different stage eggs of R. micro plus. In this work we detected the GSK-3 in isolated nuclear fraction from the egg homogenates of R. micro plus by western-blot analysis, using anti-GSK- 3 {beta} antibodies. The enzyme activity was also detected radiochemically throughout embryogenesis in same fraction. The GSK-3 activity was inhibiting by using SB 216763 (selective molecule inhibitors of GSK-3). Taken together our results suggest that GSK-3 {beta} isoform probably is involved in gene transcription factors during R. micro plus embryo development.

  19. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks.

  20. ACARI, CIDADE (MAIS) LIMPA

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luiza de Medeiros Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar uma breve reflexão acerca da concepção empírica de Acari como a cidade mais limpa do Brasil, assim referenciada na década de 70 do século XX. Como introdução, desenvolvemos considerações iniciais sobre cidade, tendo como recurso metodológico os conhecimentos adquiridos com a disciplina Arquitetura e Cidade no Brasil. Dando sequência ao texto, refletimos conceitualmente sobre cidade, espaço balizador para compreensão de Acari - cidade mais limpa; territó...

  1. Acari uit Ambon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudemans, A.C.

    1927-01-01

    Prof. Dr. E. D. VAN OORT, Directeur van 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden, was zoo vriendelijk, het materiaal aan Acari, door den Gouvernements-Arts Dr. PH. F. KOPSTEIN, thans te Weltevreden bij Batavia, gedurende zijn verblijf op Ambon 1922 en 1923 verzameld, mij ter determineering

  2. ACARI, CIDADE (MAIS LIMPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Medeiros Galvão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar uma breve reflexão acerca da concepção empírica de Acari como a cidade mais limpa do Brasil, assim referenciada na década de 70 do século XX. Como introdução, desenvolvemos considerações iniciais sobre cidade, tendo como recurso metodológico os conhecimentos adquiridos com a disciplina Arquitetura e Cidade no Brasil. Dando sequência ao texto, refletimos conceitualmente sobre cidade, espaço balizador para compreensão de Acari - cidade mais limpa; território, para compreensão da cidade como construção histórica; e o Ambiente, cujo propósito foi associar o tema do trabalho à sustentabilidade socioambiental. Utilizamos dois contextos: o primeiro de crise e divulgação do título cidade mais limpa. O segundo, dizendo respeito à legislação urbanística e códigos de postura elaborados nos períodos imperial e republicano, que ordenaram o território de Acari nos dois últimos séculos, marcando a tradição de asseio, limpeza e higiene urbanas.

  3. Resistance status of ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides in Isoka District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed.

  4. Association of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles with tick (Boophilus microplus) resistance in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M L; Machado, M A; Nascimento, C S; Silva, M V G B; Teodoro, R L; Furlong, J; Prata, M C A; Campos, A L; Guimarães, M F M; Azevedo, A L S; Pires, M F A; Verneque, R S

    2006-08-31

    Losses caused by bovine tick burdens in tropical countries have a tremendous economic impact on production systems. Besides reducing production, this parasite can cause death in the most susceptible animals. The use of commercial acaricides has been the major method of control, but their misuse has led to tick resistance to many chemicals. More recently, vaccines have been used in some countries without solving the problem completely. An alternative could be the development of resistant animals and the use of genetic markers and candidate genes that could help with the enormous task of selecting resistant animals. The bovine lymphocyte antigen genes (BoLA) have been shown to be associated with some parasitic infestations and disease incidence. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the association of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles with tick resistance in cattle. The study was conducted on 231 F2 (Gyr x Holstein) animals that were artificially infested with 10,000 tick larvae. Log of tick count +1 was used as the dependent variable in a mixed animal model with allele substitution effects in addition to fixed effects of year and season at tick count, sex of calves, age of animal at tick count, hair type (short-straight, short-curl, long-straight, and long-curl), coat color (white, >75% white, 50- 75% white, and 25-50% white), and additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects as random. Females showed fewer ticks than males. Animals with short-straight hair were more resistant to tick infestation than animals with long-curl hair, and animals with whiter coat color also had fewer ticks. An association between BoLA alleles and lower tick number was found for alleles DRB3.2 *18, *20 and *27 at the 5% significance level. Also, one allele (DRB3.2*16) showed an association at the 10% level. Allele *27 was the most frequent in the population (30.7%), followed by alleles *16 (10.8%), *20 (8.7%) and *18 (2.4%). These results suggest that BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles could be used to help in the selection of animals resistant to tick infestation. However, further studies involving a larger population of cattle in combination with other BoLA genes may help to understand the mechanisms of resistance to parasites.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Phlebotomus papatasi: Gene Identification, Expression, and Biochemical Properties of Recombinant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    inspection of all imported cattle has prevented re-establish- ment of ‘‘cattle fever ticks’’ within the United States. The Texas Ani- mal Health...Q86GC8], and Aedes aegypti [GenBank: XP_001656977]. Recombinant acetylcholinesterase1 of P. papatasi expressed and biochemically characterized in

  6. Inhibitor Profile of bis(n)-tacrines and N-methylcarbamates on Acetylcholinesterase from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Microplus and Phlebotomus Papatasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    melanogaster; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; DTNB, 5,5’-dithiobis-(2-nitro)benzoic acid; hAChE, recombi - nant human AChE; IC50, inhibitory concentration needed...into Escherichia coli TOP10 chemically competent cells, sequence verified, and co-transfected with Bac-N-Blue™ DNA into Sf21 insect cells as...previously described [35]. Baculovirus cultures were produced in sf21 cells grown in Gibco Sf-900™ III SFM. Baculoviral DNA was isolated and sequenced from all

  7. A treatment with a protease inhibitor recombinant from the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus ameliorates emphysema in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana D Lourenço

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine whether a serine protease inhibitor treatment can prevent or minimize emphysema in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were subjected to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE nasal instillation to induce emphysema and were treated with a serine protease inhibitor (rBmTI-A before (Protocol 1 and after (Protocol 2 emphysema development. In both protocols, we evaluated lung function to evaluate the airway resistance (Raw, tissue damping (Gtis and tissue elastance (Htis. The inflammatory profile was analyzed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF and through the use of morphometry; we measured the mean linear intercept (Lm (to verify alveolar enlargement, the volume proportion of collagen and elastic fibers, and the numbers of macrophages and metalloprotease 12 (MMP-12 positive cells in the parenchyma. We showed that at both time points, even after the emphysema was established, the rBmTI-A treatment was sufficient to reverse the loss of elastic recoil measured by Htis, the alveolar enlargement and the increase in the total number of cells in the BALF, with a primary decrease in the number of macrophages. Although, the treatment did not control the increase in macrophages in the lung parenchyma, it was sufficient to decrease the number of positive cells for MMP-12 and reduce the volume of collagen fibers, which was increased in PPE groups. These findings attest to the importance of MMP-12 in PPE-induced emphysema and suggest that this metalloprotease could be an effective therapeutic target.

  8. Optimization of RNA interference (RNAi) targeting acetylcholinesterase in the Southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target for organophosphate (OP) acaricides. OP resistant strains of the Southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus have been identified and represent a major threat to the control of this important disease vector. R. microplus ticks possess at least three...

  9. Atlas van de Nederlandse watermijten (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Hammen, van der H.

    2000-01-01

    Atlas of the Dutch water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) Few biogeographic studies have been published on water mites. Only Lundblad (1962) has published an atlas of the Swedish water mites. So far, there are no complete publications on the distribution of Dutch water mites. Acarologists who worked on D

  10. Canis familiaris, UN NUEVO HOSPEDERO DE Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis FOX, 1947 (ACARI: IXODIDA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS E. PATERNINA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfoló- gicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se reco- lectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fue- ron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia.

  11. Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...

  12. Minimum infection rate of Ehrlichia minasensis in Rhipicephalus microplus and Amblyomma sculptum ticks in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Izabelle T S; Melo, Andréia L T; Freitas, Leodil C; Verçoza, Rodolfo V; Alves, Alvair S; Costa, Jackeliny S; Chitarra, Cristiane S; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; Pacheco, Richard C; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2016-07-01

    A new genotype phylogenetically close to Ehrlichia canis named as Ehrlichia minasensis was identified infecting cattle and deer in Canada, as well as Rhipicephalus microplus ticks and cattle in Brazil. Although it was detected in R. microplus, little is known about the epidemiology of this ehrlichiosis, especially in other tick species. This study evaluated the minimum infection rate of E. minasensis in Amblyomma sculptum and R. microplus ticks from locations where naturally infected cattle were previously detected. Overall, 45 engorged R. microplus ticks after molting [43 pools of adults (13.4%), and 2 pools of nymphs (4%)], and 42 engorged females post-oviposition (30.6%) (p=0.008) were positive by PCR for Ehrlichia sp. using the dsb, 16S rRNA and TRP36 genes, making a total of 87 R. microplus samples positive for Ehrlichia spp. (17.1%, IC 95% 14.01-20.75%). The partial sequences generated in the present study were 99-100% similar to the dsb DNA sequence of E. minasensis genotypes UFMG-EV and UFMT-BV, respectively, 100% similar to the 16S rRNA sequence of the E. minasensis genotype BOV2010 from Canada, and 99% similar to the TRP36 sequence of the Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV. The results of this study confirm the occurrence of transstadial transmission of this agent in R. microplus ticks and highlight the importance of R. microplus in the epidemiology and transmission of ehrlichiosis in cattle. No A. sculptum ticks were positive by PCR for E. minasensis.

  13. Resistance of Rhipicephalus microplus to amitraz and cypermethrin in tropical cattle farms in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Agustín; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Iván; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the prevalence and factors associated with Rhipicephalus microplus , resistant to cypermethrin and amitraz, from cattle farms in Veracruz, Mexico, and (2) to determine in vitro mortality percentages of field populations of R. microplus exposed to discriminating doses (DD) of cypermethrin and amitraz. Fifty-three populations of R. microplus were tested by bioassays using DD of cypermethrin (0.05%) and amitraz (0.0002%). The prevalence of cattle farms with R. microplus ticks that were resistant to cypermethrin and amitraz, and co-resistant to both acaricides, was 90.6, 54.7, and 47.2%, respectively. The level of cypermethrin resistance, measured as a survival percentage, was higher as compared to amitraz. Cattle farms with ≤50 animals (odds ratio [OR]  =  3.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]  =  1.07-13.70, P  =  0.038) and a stocking density of >1 animal unit per ha (AU/ha) (OR  =  4.21, 95% CI  =  1.0-17.71, P  =  0.050) had a higher probability to develop R. microplus tick populations co-resistant to both acaricides. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of R. microplus populations on cattle farms in Veracruz, Mexico that are both resistant to cypermethrin and amitraz and co-resistant to both acaricides. The level of cypermethrin resistance is critical, and the exposition variables of ≤50 cattle and a stocking density of >1 AU/ha were factors associated with R. microplus co-resistant to both acaricides.

  14. In vivo efficacy of a biotherapic and eugenol formulation against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Moreira, Gustavo Henrique Ferreira Abreu; Serafini, Matheus Ferreira; Facury-Filho, Elias Jorge; Carvalho, Antônio Último; Faraco, André Augusto Gomes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2017-03-01

    The control of Rhipicephalus microplus is essential to prevent cattle discomfort and economic losses. However, increased resistance and acaricides inefficiency lead producers to adopt strategies that could result in the accumulation of chemical residues in meat and milk with possibilities of poisoning in animals and people. This scenario demonstrates the necessity of research into the identification of novel, effective and environmentally safe therapeutic options for cattle tick control. The objectives of this study were to develop and assess the efficacy of R. microplus biotherapic and of 5% eugenol for the control of R. microplus in artificially infested calves. Eighteen male 6-month-old Holstein calves were divided into three groups of six animals. In Group 1, the animals did not receive medication (control group); in Group 2, the animals received 1 mL of R. microplus biotherapic at dilution 6CH (centesimal Hahnemannian), orally administered twice daily. And in Group 3, they received a single application of eugenol 5% in the pour-on formulation. The median efficacy for biotherapy and eugenol 5% was respectively 10.13 and 13.97%; however, upon analyzing reproductive efficiency, it is noteworthy that the biotherapic had 45.86% efficiency and was superior to the action of eugenol (12.03%) after 37 days of treatment. The ultrastructural study provided information about the effects of R. microplus biotherapic on the ovaries of engorged females and showed disorganization in the deposition of the oocyte exochorion. The results suggest hatchability inhibition of larvae, interference in R. microplus reproduction and future possibilities for eco-friendly control of R. microplus with biotherapic 6CH.

  15. Aspectos generales de la histología de la glándula salival de las garrapatas con énfasis en Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887)

    OpenAIRE

    César Mora Hernández

    2000-01-01

    El artículo presenta elementos de histología de las glándulas salivales de los artrópodos plagas. Se plantea que si bien las glándulas salivales han sido estudiadas en detalle, aún se sabe poco sobre los mecanismos de transmisión de agentes patógenos, y acerca de las sustancias biológicamente activas que mantienen al "huésped" altamente sensible y posibilitan de esta forma la entrada de otros patógenos no relacionados con vectores. El conocimiento que aportan el estudio de estos procesos ...

  16. Aspectos generales de la histología de la glándula salival de las garrapatas con énfasis en Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mora Hernández.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta elementos de histología de las glándulas salivales de los artrópodos plagas. Se plantea que si bien las glándulas salivales han sido estudiadas en detalle, aún se sabe poco sobre los mecanismos de transmisión de agentes patógenos, y acerca de las sustancias biológicamente activas que mantienen al "huésped" altamente sensible y posibilitan de esta forma la entrada de otros patógenos no relacionados con vectores. El conocimiento que aportan el estudio de estos procesos permite la elaboración de programas de control epidemiológicos eficientes.

  17. Acaricidal efficacies of Lippia gracilis essential oil and its phytochemicals against organophosphate-resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-derived natural products can serve as an alternative to synthetic compounds for control of ticks of veterinary and medical importance. Lippia gracilis is an aromatic plant that produces essential oil with high content of carvacrol and thymol monoterpenes. These monoterpenes have high acaricida...

  18. Canis familiaris, UN NUEVO HOSPEDERO DE Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis FOX, 1947 (ACARI: IXODIDA EN COLOMBIA Canis familiaris, a New Host of Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis Fox, 1947 (Acari: Ixodida in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS E PATERNINA

    Full Text Available Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfológicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se recolectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fueron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia.Ticks are very important from the biomedical point of view, by their hematophagic activity and their role in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to man and animals. The main goal of this work was to establish the tick species parasiting dogs in three rural localities of the Colombian Caribbean. From August to December 2006, an active search of ticks on dogs was carried out in the localities of El Camp

  19. Genetic Mutations Associated with Pesticide Resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus and Haematobia irritans

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of gene mutation in various arthropods have been found to be associated with pesticide resistance. Some of these mutations have been found in the two cattle pests, Rhipicephalus microplus and Haematobia irritans. Sodium channel gene mutations have been associated with pyrethroid resistance ...

  20. Knockdown of the rhipicephalus microplus cytochrome c oxidase subunit III gene is associated with a failure of anaplasma marginale transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for Anaplasma transmission are infection of tick gut epithelial cells followed by infection of salivary ...

  1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus embryogenesis and starvation larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.G. de; Mentizingen, L.G.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab.de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, C.P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Daffre, S.; Esteves, E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is considered a key rate controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis pathway. Gluconeogenesis is a highly regulated process, catalyzed by several enzymes subject to regulation by insulin. Normally, insulin rapidly and substantially inhibits PEPCK gene transcription and the PEPCK activity is proportional to the rate of gene transcription. The transcriptional regulation of the PEPCK gene has been extensively studied. CREM is the transcription factor that bind efficiently to the putative cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in PEPCK gene. Several other transcription factors can bind to this element and activate transcription. In oviparous animals, such as bovine tick R. microplus, the embryonic development occurs outside the maternal organism, implying that all the nutrients necessary for embryogenesis must be present in the oocytes. We observed the relationship between the main energy sources and the morphogenetic changes that occur during R. microplus tick embryogenesis. Energy homeostasis is maintained by glycogen mobilization in the beginning of embryogenesis, as its content is drastically decreased during the first five days of development. Afterwards, the activity of the gluconeogenesis enzyme PEPCK increases enormously, as indicated by a concomitant increase in glucose content (Moraes et al., 2007). Here, we analyzed PEPCK gene transcription by qPCR during the embryogenesis and starvation larvae. The PEPCK transcription was higher at first and 15th day eggs of the development. In larvae the levels of PEPCK transcripts is increased at fifth day after hatch. However, the activity is continuous increased in larvae the form first up to 15th day. Now we are investigating the involvement of CREM in the PEPCK gene transcription in these cells. In this sense, we obtained CREM sequence from TIGR ESTs R. microplus bank and designed the specific primers to qPCR. Taken together our results suggest the involvement of PEPCK to the

  2. Role of Rhipicephalus microplus cheliceral receptors in gustation and host differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Soares, Sara Fernandes; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Oliveira, Thaynara Tatielly; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle worldwide. It is known that zebuine breeds of cattle are less susceptible to tick infestation than taurine breeds. Contact chemoreceptors in the cheliceral pit sensilla of ticks respond selectively to phagostimulant compounds, however their role in blood feeding relative to host susceptibility to infestation remains to be fully understood. We addressed this topic by conducting taste electrophysiology experiments with cheliceral pit sensilla preparations of R. microplus females. Solutions of five known ixodid tick phagostimulants were tested at different concentrations: sodium (NaCl), and potassium chloride (KCl) (10(-3)-10(-1)M); glucose (10(-4)-10(-1)M); adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (10(-6)-10(-2)M); and reduced l-glutathione (GSH) (10(-6)-10(-2)M). Serum samples from six susceptible animals of the Girolando breed (5/8 Bos indicus×3/8 B. taurus) and six resistant Nelore bovines (pure B. indicus) were also tested. A dose-dependent response of gustatory neurons associated with the chelicerae sensillum to NaCl, glucose, GSH, and ATP were observed. Responses by the cheliceral inner digit pit sensilla of R. microplus to KCl and glucose were also observed and they are reported here for the first time. In addition to an electrophysiological response to known phagostimulants, chemoreceptors in the chelicera of R. microplus responded differently to serum from cattle susceptible and resistant to infestation. The cheliceral pit neurons were more responsive to serum of R. microplus resistant bovines with a higher mean spike frequency (53.5±2spikess(-1)) than to serum samples from susceptible cattle (40.3±2spikess(-1)). The implications of chemosensation during tick blood feeding are discussed.

  3. SNP Analysis Infers that Recombination Is Involved in the Evolution of Amitraz Resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Baron

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus microplus, better known as the Asiatic cattle tick, is a largely invasive ectoparasite of great economic importance due to the negative effect it has on agricultural livestock on a global scale, particularly cattle. Tick-borne diseases (babesiosis and anaplasmosis transmitted by R. microplus are alarming as they decrease the quality of livestock health and production. In sub-Saharan Africa, cattle represent a major source of meat and milk, but this region of the world is severely affected by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. The principal method for tick control is the use of chemical acaricides, notably amitraz, which was implemented in the 1990's after resistance to other acaricides surfaced. However, the efficiency of chemical control is hindered by an increase in the frequency of mutant resistance alleles to amitraz in tick populations. Presently, the only way to assess amitraz resistance is by means of larval packet tests, but this technique is time-consuming and not particularly cost effective. The main aims of this study were three-fold. First, we attempted to correlate two known SNPs in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr receptor with amitraz resistance in South African field samples of R. microplus. Second, we calculated gametic disequilibrium for these SNPs to determine whether they are randomly associated. Lastly, we conducted a study to assess the evolutionary effects of recombination within the OCT/Tyr receptor. Our results confirmed that the two SNPs are associated with amitraz resistance in the South African tick strain, and that they are in gametic disequilibrium. Additionally, recombination was detected in the OCT/Tyr receptor generating two recombinant haplotypes. These results are of concern to farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, and the emergence of amitraz resistance should be closely monitored in future. Therefore, we present a quick and affordable RFLP based diagnostic technique to assess amitraz resistance in field

  4. An intensive search for promising fungal biological control agents of ticks, particularly Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Everton K K; Angelo, Isabele C; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Bahiense, Thiago C; Moraes, Aurea M L; Roberts, Donald W; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2011-12-15

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been investigated worldwide as promising biological control agents of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The current study evaluates the virulence of several fungal isolates to R. microplus larva in the laboratory as part of an effort to identify isolates with promise for effective biocontrol of R. microplus in the field. Sixty fungal isolates, encompassing 5 Beauveria spp. and 1 Engyodontium albus (=Beauveria alba), were included in this study. In addition to bioassays, the isolates were characterized morphologically and investigated as to their potential for conidial mass production. These findings were correlated with previous reports on the same fungal isolates of their natural UV-B tolerance (Fernandes et al., 2007), thermotolerance and cold activity (Fernandes et al., 2008), and genotypes (Fernandes et al., 2009). R. microplus larvae obtained from artificially infested calves were less susceptible to Beauveria bassiana infection than ticks acquired from naturally infested cattle from a different location. Isolates CG 464, CG 500 and CG 206 were among the most virulent Beauveria isolates tested in this study. All fungal isolates presented morphological features consistent with their species descriptions. Of the 53 B. bassiana isolates, five (CG 481, CG 484, CG 206, CG 235 and CG 487) had characteristics that qualified them as promising candidates for biological control agents of R. microplus, viz., mean LC(50) between 10(7) and 10(8)conidiaml(-1); produced 5000 conidia or more on 60mm(2) surface area of PDAY medium; and, in comparison to untreated (control) conidia, had the best conidial tolerances to UV-B (7.04 kJ m(-2)) and heat (45°C, 2h) of 50% or higher, and conidial cold (5°C, 15d) activity (mycelial growth) higher than 60%. The current study of 60 Beauveria spp. isolates, therefore, singles out a few (five) with high potential for controlling ticks under field conditions.

  5. Canis familiaris, UN NUEVO HOSPEDERO DE Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis FOX, 1947 (ACARI: IXODIDA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEJARANO EDUAR E. E.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfológicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se recolectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fueron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia.

    Palabras clave

  6. Multiple mutations in the para-sodium channel gene are associated with pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus from the United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an invasive tick vector that transmits the protozoan parasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, the causative agents of bovine babesiosis (cattle fever). Acaricide resistant R. microplus populations have become a major problem for many cattle producing areas of the world. Py...

  7. Acaricidal effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf ethanolic extract against Rhipicephlaus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, A R; Amithamol, K K; Juliet, S; Nair, S N; Ajithkumar, K G; Soorya, V C; Divya, T M; Jyothymol, G; Ghosh, S; Ravindran, R

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluates the acaricidal properties of crude ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula leaves for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test (AIT). The percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of ova laid were studied at different concentrations of the extract ranging from 50 to 100 mg / ml. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA. The extract produced complete inhibition of hatching of eggs at concentrations above 80 mg / ml of the extract. Mortality of adult engorged female ticks and inhibition of fecundity were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of extract against R. (B.) annulatus was 97.1 mg / ml.

  8. Verified and potential pathogens of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütte, C.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae), including species of the genera Amblyseius, Galendromus, Metaseiulus, Neoseiulus, Phytoseiulus and Typhlodromus, are currently reared for biological control of various crop pests and/or as model organisms for the study of predator¿prey inter

  9. First record of Typhlodromus (Anthoseius transvaalensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CÉDOLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez de la Argentina a Typhlodromus (Anthoseius transvaalensis Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae sobre Capsicum annuum L. y Lycopersicum esculentum L. (Solanaceae en la localidad de Concordia, Entre Ríos. Se proporcionan datos morfométricos de los ejemplares argentinos.

  10. An update on distribution models for Rhipicephalus microplus in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. De Clercq

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, which reached the West African region approximately 8 years ago, has established viable populations in Côte d’Ivoire and Benin and spread rapidly from the assumed points of introduction. However, existing maps of its distribution range do not agree on the areas at risk, most probably due to suboptimal modelling approaches. Therefore, we undertook a re-investigation of the potential distribution range based on a high-quality dataset from West Africa that includes information on 104 farms located all over Benin. Focussing on climate suitability and applying advanced modelling, a subset of representative and uncorrelated climate variables was selected and fed into Maxent software to obtain an estimate of climate suitability for West Africa. The resulting map was validated using an independent dataset of 13 farms along the apparent distribution edge. The entire southern part of West Africa (covering southern Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Ghana features high climate suitability for R. microplus. All of Côte d’Ivoire is inside the distribution range of this tick and the southern rim of Burkina Faso is expected to be suitable for the establishment of R. microplus populations. The validation of the distribution, dated one year after the initial field visit, confirmed the predicted distribution range, although a small number of individuals of R. microplus were found north of the predicted limit. These low numbers might indicate that the climate is not suitable for the establishment of a viable tick population. An alternative explanation is the recent introduction by nomadic cattle herds passing through this location. In this region of the world, it is quite common for cattle owners to lead their livestock over distances of more than 500 km in search of food and water.

  11. An update on distribution models for Rhipicephalus microplus in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Eva M; Estrada-Peña, Agustin; Adehan, S; Madder, Maxime; Vanwambeke, Sophie O

    2013-11-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, which reached the West African region approximately 8 years ago, has established viable populations in Côte d'Ivoire and Benin and spread rapidly from the assumed points of introduction. However, existing maps of its distribution range do not agree on the areas at risk, most probably due to suboptimal modelling approaches. Therefore, we undertook a re-investigation of the potential distribution range based on a high-quality dataset from West Africa that includes information on 104 farms located all over Benin. Focussing on climate suitability and applying advanced modelling, a subset of representative and uncorrelated climate variables was selected and fed into Maxent software to obtain an estimate of climate suitability for West Africa. The resulting map was validated using an independent dataset of 13 farms along the apparent distribution edge. The entire southern part of West Africa (covering southern Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Ghana) features high climate suitability for R. microplus. All of Côte d'Ivoire is inside the distribution range of this tick and the southern rim of Burkina Faso is expected to be suitable for the establishment of R. microplus populations. The validation of the distribution, dated one year after the initial field visit, confirmed the predicted distribution range, although a small number of individuals of R. microplus were found north of the predicted limit. These low numbers might indicate that the climate is not suitable for the establishment of a viable tick population. An alternative explanation is the recent introduction by nomadic cattle herds passing through this location. In this region of the world, it is quite common for cattle owners to lead their livestock over distances of more than 500 km in search of food and water.

  12. Enzymatic activities and effects of mycovirus infection on the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae in Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinotto, Wendell M S; Golo, Patricia S; Coutinho Rodrigues, Caio J B; Sá, Fillipe A; Santi, Lucélia; Beys da Silva, Walter O; Junges, Angela; Vainstein, Marilene H; Schrank, Augusto; Salles, Cristiane M C; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2014-06-16

    The present study aimed to evaluate the pathogenic potential of different Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. isolates and to determine whether differences in enzymatic activities of proteases, lipases and chitinases and infection with mycoviruses affect the control of Rhipicephalus microplus achieved by these fungal isolates. Engorged female ticks were exposed to fungal suspensions. The lipolytic and proteolytic activities in the isolates were evaluated using chromogenic substrates and the chitinolytic activity was determined using fluorescent substrates. A gel zymography was performed to determine the approximate size of serine proteases released by M. anisopliae isolates. To detect mycoviral infections, dsRNA was digested using both RNAse A and S1 endonuclease; samples were analyzed on an agarose gel. Four of the five isolates tested were infected with mycovirus; however, the level of control of R. microplus ticks achieved with the only isolate free of infection (isolate CG 347) was low. This finding suggests that mycoviral infection does not affect the virulence of fungi against ticks. Although all five isolates were considered pathogenic to R. microplus, the best tick control and the highest levels of enzymatic activity were achieved with the isolates CG 629 and CG 148. The in vitro activities of lipases, proteases and chitinases produced by M. anisopliae s.l. differed among isolates and may be related to their virulence.

  13. Identification of intestinal bacterial flora in Rhipicephalus microplus ticks by conventional methods and PCR-DGGE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Li; Cheng, Tian-Yin; Yang, Hu; Yan, Fen

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the intestinal microbial flora associated with Rhipicephalus microplus ticks using both culture-dependent and independent methods based on PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The R. microplus ticks were collected from cattle and goats in Jiangxi, Hunan and Guizhou Provinces of China. Three distinct strains of bacteria were isolated using culture-dependent methods: Staphylococcus simulans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus flexus strain. Nineteen distinct DGGE bands were found using PCR-DGGE analysis, and their search for identity shows that they belonged to Rickettsiaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Coxiella sp., Ehrlichia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Ehrlichia sp., Orphnebius sp., Rickettsia peacockii, Bacillus flexus. Rickettsia peacockii and Coxiella genus were the dominant strain of the R. microplus ticks from cattle, Pseudomonas sp. and B. flexus strain were the most common species in all tick samples from goats. Ehrlichia canis were detected only in R. microplus ticks from Yongshun area in Hunan Province. The results indicate that the intestinal microbial diversity of R. microplus ticks was influenced by tick hosts and local differences in the sampling location and these two aspects may affect transmission of pathogen to humans and animals.

  14. Commercial formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in a pen study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Mariana G; Marciano, Allan F; Sá, Fillipe A; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Quinelato, Simone; Gôlo, Patrícia S; Angelo, Isabele C; Prata, Márcia C A; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2014-09-15

    The present study evaluated, for the first time, the effect of the commercial formulation Metarril(®) SP Organic of Metarhizium anisopliae plus 10% mineral oil to control Rhipicephalus microplus in a pen study. Three groups were formed with six animals each: the first group was exposed to Metarril(®) plus 10% mineral oil and 1% Tween 80; the second group was exposed to sterile distilled water, mineral oil and Tween 80 (oil control group); and the third group received no treatment (control group). The fungal formulation contained 1 × 10(8)conidiaml(-1). Each animal was sprayed with 3L of formulation. Fallen ticks were counted daily and a sample of 20 engorged females per day was incubated for assessment of biological parameters. Throughout the study period, Metarril(®) oil-based formulation showed an efficacy ranging from 19.20% to 67.39% in comparison with the control group; and from 8.18% to 61.38% in comparison with the oil control group. The average efficacy of Metarril(®) oil-based formulation was 47.74% and 40.89% in comparison with control and oil control groups, respectively. Changes in the biological parameters of engorged R. microplus females were observed in the first three days after treatment, with a significant reduction in hatching percentage and egg production index. We concluded that Metarril(®) SP Organic plus 10% mineral oil was efficient against R. microplus in pen studies. However, further in vivo studies are required to increase the efficacy and to establish a protocol for the use of this product in the field against the cattle tick.

  15. Prevalence of Resistant Strains of Rhipicephalus microplus to Acaricides in Cattle Ranch in the Tropical Region of Tecpan of Galeana, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olivares-Pérez*, S. Rojas-Hernández, M.T. Valencia-Almazan, I. Gutiérrez-Segura and E.J. Míreles-Martínez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tick and tick borne diseases cause many problems to the cattle industry worldwide. The prevalence of resistant strains of Rhipicephalus microplus to different acaricides on cattle farms in the tropical region of Tecpan of Galeana, Guerrero, Mexico, and risk factors related to prevalence of resistant strains of R. microplus. Sixty one ranches infested were sampled; in each ranch were collected 30-50 fully-engorged female R. microplus ticks, of 10 cattle randomly selected, and evaluated in their progeny resistance to acaricides, using the larval packet test. The prevalence of resistant strains was total pyrethroids and amitraz. In organophosphorus 31.1, 48.3 and 82.2% of strains were resistant to clorpyriphos, coumaphos and diazinon, respectively. Risk factors favored (P<0.05 the development of resistant strains of acaricides. We concluded that the resistance of R. microplus to acaricides used to control a problem, and risk factors (livestock management have accelerated the development of resistance.

  16. Acaricide resistance and strategies to mitigate economic impact of the southern cattle fever tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) on livestock production systems in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus microplus, is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. SCFT populations resistant to acaricides complicate efforts to enhance the productivity of livestock. Here, acaricide resistance is summ...

  17. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Malaysia, with descriptions of three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Malaysia are presented. Three species new to science, Torrenticola haliki, Monatractides cameronensis and Atractides cameronensis are described; first records are given for Monatractides parviventris (K. Viets, 1935) and M. roseus (Lundblad, 1941

  18. A new genus and species Mangalaus krishianusandhanus (Acari: Eriophyidae) from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....

  19. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form.

  20. Influence of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinato, Rafael; Klauck, Vanderlei; Volpato, Andreia; Tonin, Alexandre A; Santos, Roberto C; de Souza, Márcia E; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Gomes, Patrícia; Felippi, Candice C; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of tea tree oil (TTO) (Melaleuca alternifolia) tested in its pure and nanostructured (TTO nanoparticles) forms on the reproduction of female Rhipicephalus microplus. For our purpose, female ticks were collected from naturally infected animals and treated in vitro with TTO (1, 5, and 10 %) and TTO nanoparticles (0.075, 0.375, and 0.75 %). In order to validate the tests, they were performed in triplicate using positive (amitraz) and negative (untreated) controls. It was possible to observe that pure TTO (5 and 10 %) and TTO nanoparticles (0.375 and 0.75 %) showed 100 % reproductive inhibition on female ticks. Additionally, pure TTO (1 %) also showed an acaricide effect (70 %), similarly to the positive control (78.3 %). This is the first study demonstrating the activity of pure TTO and TTO nanoparticles on female ticks. Therefore, based on these results, we were able to show that both forms and all concentrations of M. alternifolia affected tick reproduction by inhibiting egg laying and hatching. We were also able to show that TTO nanoparticles potentiated the inhibitor effect of pure TTO on the reproduction of R. microplus.

  1. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Lareschi, M; Rebollo, C; Benítez Usher, C; Beati, L; Robbins, R G; Durden, L A; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A

    2007-04-01

    The ticks reported in Paraguay, which are here reviewed, can be categorized as 'endemic or established' (Argas persicus or a sibling species, Ornithodoros hasei, O. rostratus, O. rudis, O. talaje/O. puertoricensis, Amblyomma aureolatum, Am. auricularium, Am. brasiliense, Am. cajennense, Am. calcaratum, Am. coelebs, Am. dissimile, Am. dubitatum, Am. incisum, Am. longirostre, Am. nodosum, Am. ovale, Am. pacae, Am. parvum, Am. pseudoconcolor, Am. rotundatum, Am. scutatum, Am. tigrinum, Am. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, Ixodes loricatus, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rh. sanguineus), 'probably endemic or established' (Ar. miniatus, Ar. monachus, Am. argentinae, Am. humerale, Am. naponense, Am. oblongoguttatum, Am. pseudoparvum, I. aragaoi/I. pararicinus, I. auritulus, I. luciae), or 'erroneously reported from Paraguay' (O. coriaceus, Am. americanum and Am. maculatum). Most Paraguayan tick collections have been made in the Chaco phyto-geographical domain, in the central part of the country. Argas persicus or a related species, Am. cajennense, D. nitens, Rh. microplus and Rh. sanguineus are important parasites of domestic animals. Ornithodoros rudis, Am. aureolatum, Am. brasiliense, Am. cajennense, Am. coelebs, Am. incisum, Am. ovale and Am. tigrinum have all been collected from humans. In terms of public health, the collections of Am. cajennense and Am. triste from humans may be particularly significant, as these species are potential vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Ri. parkeri, respectively.

  2. Identification of Tropomyosin and Its Immunological Properties from Larvae of Cattle Tick, Boophilus Annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nabian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. The aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation.Methods: Immune sera against tick were collected from experimentally infested cattle with ticks. One and two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western blotting methods were used for the detection of immunogenic proteins in larval tick extract and eight of these proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry.Results: In non-reducing one-dimensional SDS- PAGE, some bounds between 12 to more than 250-kDa appeared. In two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, numerous spot appeared and the identified immuno­genic proteins by parallel immunoblotting weighted between 14 and 97 kDa. Amino acid sequences of protein spot with 37-kDa molecular weight had identity to tropomyosin based on Mas­cot search in NCBI.Conclusion: Anti tropomyosin antibodies can be induced in experimentally infested hosts with ticks and it seems that tropomyosin can be useful for the development of anti tick vaccines.

  3. Detection of Humoral Immune Response of Calves to Boophilus annulatus by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Alidadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are blood feeder acarians that feed on variety of animals and introduce a wide variety of molecules to their host immune system and some of them may stimulate host immune system to produce antibodies. This study was carried out to detect humoral immune responses following Boophilus annulatus infestation.Methods: Seven cattle were each experimentally infested with 10000 B. annulatus larvae and their humoral immune re­sponse to salivary gland; ovary and larval extracts were determined by ELISA. Measurements of serum antibodies level were recorded weekly, in a period of nine weeks post infestation. Results: An increase of the antibody level was observed in all animals at one week post infestation and reached in a peak at week ninth, then decreased in week 9.Conclusion: Sera of infected animals showed approximately similar reactions to all of tissue extracts that might be due to the presence of common proteins in tick tissues and could be a candidate for immunization.

  4. Efficacy of deltamethrin, diazinon, and ivermectin on Boophilus annulatus ticks (in vitro and in vivo study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahy, Nasr M; Bazh, Eman K; Shaheen, Hazem M

    2015-01-01

    Tick infection is considered a cause of major concern as it is a vector for some disease transmission. The use of chemicals to control tick infection is increasing in farm systems. The efficacy of three chemicals was studied on the tick Boophilus annulatus. In vitro and in vivo studies were done. The active ticks were collected from naturally infected cattle for in vitro study. They were incubated with the three chemicals which are commercially used. An in vitro study recorded that the highest effect of the three chemicals was 100% at 3 h postexposure (p.e.) time for deltamethrin and 6 h for diazinon and ivermectin on the adult ticks. Egg batches were less affected. In vivo results showed more plain efficacy. The efficacy of deltamethrin was increased gradually until complete cessation of ticks showed within 3rd day posttreatment (d.p.t.), 100% efficacy. But the tick population begins to reappear gradually within 7 d.p.t., while diazinon showed 100% efficacy at 7 d.p.t. and the ticks reappear again within 14 d.p.t. The most preferred results were obtained with ivermectin which showed 100% efficacy at 7 d.p.t., and the cattle was still free from infection until 21 d.p.t. only. Ticks begin to reappear within 28 d.p.t. in slight few numbers. This concluded that the powerful and safe chemical which is commercially used was ivermectin. Even so, it is used also as an anthelmintic drug.

  5. First report of pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus larvae (Say, 1821) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Kheiri, Sadegh; Asgarian, Fatemeh; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Fariborz; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Aarabi, Mohsen; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-04-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is one of the most important hard ticks parasitizing cattle in northern Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate pyrethroid resistance levels of this species from Nur County, northern Iran. The hard ticks were collected through a multistage cluster randomized sampling method from the study area and fully engorged female R. (B.) annulatus were reared in a controlled insectary until they produced larvae for bioassay. Seventeen populations of the hard ticks were bioassayed with cypermethrin and 12 populations with lambda-cyhalothrin using a modified larval packet test (LPT). Biochemical assays to measure the contents/activity of different enzyme groups including mixed function oxidases (MFOs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and general esterases were performed. Population 75 showed a resistance ratio of 4.05 with cypermethrin when compared with the most susceptible field population 66 at the LC50 level. With lambda-cyhalothrin the resistance ratio based on LC50 was 3.67 when compared with the susceptible population. The results of biochemical assays demonstrated significantly elevated levels of GSTs and esterases in populations tested compared with the heterozygous susceptible filed population and a correlation coefficient of these enzymes was found in association to lambda-cyhalothrin resistance. Based on the results, pyrethroid acaricides may operationally fail to control R. (B.) annulatus in North of Iran. This study is the first document of pyrethroid resistance in R. (B.) annulatus populations from Iran.

  6. Injectable fipronil for cattle: Plasma disposition and efficacy against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Yara P; Ferreira, Thais P; Magalhães, Viviane S; Correia, Thais R; Scott, Fábio B

    2016-04-15

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole class insecticide. It is widely used as an insecticide in agriculture and in the control of ectoparasites in veterinary medicine. The application of fipronil in an injectable form (subcutaneously) becomes an innovation, since there is no commercially available preparation containing fipronil herein. The present study aimed at fipronil usage, applied subcutaneously in cattle, to control Rhipicephalus microplus. The assessing criteria used in the research have been the construction of the plasma concentration curve and efficacy studies. A method using High Performance Liquid Chromatograph with ultraviolet detection was developed for determination of fipronil in bovine plasma samples, providing a fast and simple process with good reproducibility and low limit of quantification. The validation of the analytical method showed linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity and stability, thus proving it as suitable for routine analysis. This method showed to be an important investigative tool in the analysis of fipronil plasma concentration in cattle. Fipronil administered via subcutaneous in bovine reached the systemic circulation (Cmax=378.06±137.44 ng/mL), was quickly absorbed (t(max)=10±0.87 h), and its elimination occurred slowly (t(1/2)=12 days), while maintaining quantifiable blood plasma levels (23.79±12.16 ng/mL) for up to 21 days after the treatment with a 1 mg/kg dosage. The in vivo efficacy tests proved that fipronil applied subcutaneously in a single dose of 1 mg/kg in cattle exhibited a mean efficacy of 82.41% against R. microplus. The potential of subcutaneous injection as an alternative treatment route in cattle encourage the development of an injectable formulation of fipronil.

  7. Assessment of the repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil and major monoterpenes on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A da Silva; Carvalho, J F de; Peixoto, M G; Blank, A F; Borges, L M F; Costa Junior, L M

    2016-03-01

    The control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is achieved using synthetic acaricides. However, resistant tick populations are widespread around the world. Plant essential oils can act as repellents, keeping ticks away from hosts and decreasing the selection pressure on synthetic acaricides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil on R. microplus larvae. Leaves from two L. alba genotypes maintained under the same agronomic and environmental conditions were collected. Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major monoterpenes detected in the chemical analysis were commercially acquired and tested. For the repellency test, a glass rod was vertically fixed to measure active climbing of approximately 30 R. microplus larvae aged 14-21 days in response to essential oils and monoterpenes. Repellency was evaluated at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h after treatment. Variation in repellent action was detected between the genotypes. The major monoterpenes identified in the essential oils (limonene and carvone) showed low repellent effects in comparison with intact essential oils. Thus, the present results showed that L. alba essential oil contains bioactive compounds with great repellent activity against ticks that varies according to the plant genotype.

  8. Comparison of insect kinin analogs with cis-peptide bond, type VI-turn motifs identifies optimal stereochemistry for interaction with a recombinant arthropod kinin receptor from the Southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The multifunctional ‘insect kinins’ share the evolutionarily conserved C-terminal pentapeptide motif Phe-X1-X2-Trp-Gly-NH2, where X1 = His, Asn, Ser, or Tyr and X2 = Ser, Pro, or Ala; and are associated with the regulation of diuresis in a variety of species of insects. We previously reported the f...

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of a larval immunogenic protein from the cattle tick Boophilus annulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahein, Yasser Ezzat

    2008-02-15

    A full-length cDNA of an immunogenic protein was cloned from a cDNA library of the local Egyptian cattle tick Boophilus annulatus. Antibodies raised against B. annulatus larval proteins were used to screen a cDNA expression library. A 936bp cloned fragment was sequenced and showed an open reading frame of 516bp encoding a protein of 171 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with protein data bank revealed that the sequence is related to a sequence isolated from the hard tick Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (Hq05). Southern blot analysis of B. annulatus genomic DNA showed that the cloned cDNA hybridized to double bands per restriction digest, suggesting that the cloned cDNA is a double copy gene. Amino acid analysis of the cloned gene revealed the presence of two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites in the N-terminal domain suggesting that this molecule may be involved in the signal transduction or gene expression pathways. RT-PCR and northern blotting revealed the presence of two isoforms of the Ba05 gene in salivary glands and in the 3-day-old eggs. The cloned gene without the signal peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli under T7 promotor of pET-30b vector, and purified under denaturation conditions. The purified protein appeared as a single band on 12% SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight around 22.8kDa including the histidine tag of the vector. Antibodies raised against the purified molecule were used to detect the B. annulatus homologue to the Hq05 gene in whole tick, larvae and gut protein extracts. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of this molecule Ba05 only in whole tick and larval protein extracts and not in the gut protein extract. Using the same antibodies, homologues to the Ba05 gene were detected in other tick species as Hyalomma dromedarii and Rhipicephalus sp. but not in Ornithodoros moubata.

  10. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a functional GSTmu class from the cattle tick Boophilus annulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahein, Yasser Ezzat; El Sayed El-Hakim, Amr; Abouelella, Amira Mohamed Kamal; Hamed, Ragaa Reda; Allam, Shaimaa Abdul-Moez; Farid, Nevin Mahmoud

    2008-03-25

    A full-length cDNA of a glutathione S-transferase (GST) was cloned from a cDNA library of the local Egyptian cattle tick Boophilus annulatus. The 672 bp cloned fragment was sequenced and showed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 223 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with GSTs from other species revealed that the sequence is closely related to the mammalian mu-class GST. The cloned gene was expressed in E. coli under T7 promotor of pET-30b vector, and purified under native conditions. The purified enzyme appeared as a single band on 12% SDS-PAGE and has a molecular weight of 30.8 kDa including the histidine tag of the vector. The purified enzyme was assayed upon the chromogenic substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and the recombinant enzyme showed high level of activity even in the presence of the beta-galactosidase region on its 5' end and showed maximum activity at pH 7.5. The Km values for CDNB and GSH were 0.57 and 0.79 mM, respectively. The over expressed rBaGST showed high activity toward CDNB (121 units/mg protein) and less toward DCNB (29.3 units/mg protein). rBaGST exhibited peroxidatic activity on cumene hydroperoxide sharing this property with GSTs belonging to the GST alpha class. I50 values for cibacron blue and bromosulfophthalein were 0.22 and 8.45 microM, respectively, sharing this property with the mammalian GSTmu class. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of the GST molecule in B. annulatus protein extracts; whole tick, larvae, gut, salivary gland and ovary. Homologues to the GSTmu were also detected in other tick species as Hyalomma dromedarii and Rhipicephalus sp. while in Ornithodoros moubata, GSTmu homologue could not be detected.

  11. Genetic diversity, acaricide resistance status and evolutionary potential of a Rhipicephalus microplus population from a disease-controlled cattle farming area in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, Luïse; Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Madder, Maxime; Stoltsz, Wilhelm H; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of great veterinary and economic importance. Along with its adaptability, reproductive success and vectoring capacity, R. microplus has been reported to develop resistance to the major chemical classes of acaricides currently in use. In South Africa, the Mnisi community in the Mpumalanga region offers a unique opportunity to study the adaptive potential of R. microplus. The aims of this study therefore included characterising acaricide resistance and determining the level and pattern of genetic diversity for R. microplus in this region from one primary population consisting of 12 communal dip-stations. The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that contribute to acaricide insensitivity. Additionally, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene fragments of collected individuals were sequenced and a haplotype network was constructed. A high prevalence of alleles attributed to resistance against formamidines (amitraz) in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr) receptor (frequency of 0.55) and pyrethroids in the carboxylesterase (frequency of 0.81) genes were observed. Overall, the sampled tick population was homozygous resistant to pyrethroid-based acaricides in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGS) gene. A total of 11 haplotypes were identified in the Mnisi R. microplus population from ITS2 analysis with no clear population structure. From these allele frequencies it appears that formamidine resistance in the Mnisi community is on the rise, as the R. microplus populations is acquiring or generating these resistance alleles. Apart from rearing multi-resistant ticks to commonly used acaricides in this community these ticks may pose future problems to its surrounding areas.

  12. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-11-19

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided.

  13. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives. PMID:27775606

  14. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.

  15. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-10-20

    This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide-acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.

  16. Recent Discovery of Widespread Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Distribution in North Carolina With Implications for Lyme Disease Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    et al. 1998). Oliver et al. (1987) described the immature stages of I. affinis and provided distribution, phenology , and host records. Ixodes...Ixodes (Ixodes) scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae): Redescription of all active stages, distribution, hosts, geographical variation , and medical and

  17. Second contribution to the knowledge of water mites from the Comoros, with the description of one new species (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Pesic, V.; Mary-Sasal, N.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from the Comoros are presented. One species new to science, Africasia comorosensis is described; first records are given for Torrenticola sp. and Atractides thoracatus Koenike, 1898.

  18. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pazinato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus. Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10 in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, cedar (Cedrus atlantica, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, geranium (Pelargonium graveolens and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total, egg’s weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  19. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinato, Rafael; Volpato, Andréia; Baldissera, Matheus D; Santos, Roberto C V; Baretta, Dilmar; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Giongo, Janice L; Boligon, Aline A; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer

    2016-11-01

    The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus). Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10) in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis), palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii), cedar (Cedrus atlantica), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia) at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total), egg's weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  20. Evaluation of four bed bug traps for surveillances of brown dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...

  1. Recovery of some of the missing wrappers of Berlese's Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1986-01-01

    Reproductions are given of the original wrappers of A. Berlese's Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones, fasc. II, IV, VI, VII and XIV. These wrappers (on some of which the first descriptions of new species are published) could not be included in the 1979 reprint edition of the work, as no extant copies of

  2. Water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae) from Australia. Part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Two new water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae), characterized by single or absence of swimming setae on II-L-5, are reported from Australia: Hydrodroma wilesi sp. nov. and H. cooki sp. nov. New information is provided for H. tonapii Cook from I

  3. Effects of radiation (Cobalt-60) on the elimination of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) Cardinum endosymbiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a polyphagous mite with worldwide distribution and it is also a vector of several plant viruses. In citrus, B. phoenicis transmits Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), the causal agent of leprosis, a disease that costs millions of dollars/year for ...

  4. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from bar

  5. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mites (Arachnida: Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...

  6. Sexual selection and mating behavior in spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2014-01-01

    As sexual selection is a coevolutionary process between males and females, various morphological and behavioral traits have evolved in each sex. In the tetranychid mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and T. kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), males can mate repeatedly, whereas females normally accep

  7. Widespread Movement of Invasive Cattle Fever Ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) in Southern Texas Leads to Shared Local Infestations on Cattle and Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Rhipicephalus microplus is a highly-invasive tick that vectors cattle fever parasites (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina). In North America, ticks and Babesia are endemic in Mexico and ticks persist in the United States inside a narrow permanent quarantine zone (PQZ) along the Rio Grande. Th...

  8. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is an important factor on animal resistance to ticks. Rhipicephalus microplus is the most pathogenic cattle tick in Brazil causing death in susceptible animals. Cortisol is the hormone of stress. The influence of grooming on tick infestation and serum cortisol level was studied in 16 Holstein heifers from fifth to eight-month-old. They were infested with 10,000 larvae in June/20/2011. Half of them used a necklace made of wood strips and had an infestation chamber made by cotton cloth covering about 50 cm diameter of the shaved flank, fixed at the skin in both sides with adhesive to prevent larvae to escape from the infestation chamber and the amount of larvae was divided into the two chambers. Such artifacts had the purpose to avoid grooming. The heifers remained all the tick parasitic life cycle in individual pens inside a closed shed at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. Tick females bigger than 4.5 mm were counted in the right side from day 20 to 22 after the artificial infestation. The tick recovery rate was calculated by adding and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that 5,000 female larvae had infested the cattle. Immediately before infestation (day 0 and in day2, day8, and day17 after infestation, blood samples were collected using vacuum tubes, in the morning (8:30 – 10:00 A.M.. Cortisol was measured by immunoassay (EIA and the D.O. (optical density at 420 nm was converted in ng of cortisol/mL of serum sample. The experimental design was randomized with 8 replications. Data from serum cortisol were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using the presence of the artifacts (necklace and chamber and sampling day as independent variables and serum cortisol as the dependent variable. In the analyse of tick recovery rate, the presence of artifacts was the independent variable and tick recovery rate the dependent variable. The presence of

  9. Bacteriological analysis of saliva from partially or fully engorged female adult Rhipicephalus microplus by next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liangliang; Poźniak, Błażej; Cheng, Tian-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera. Microbial diversity in saliva samples from partially engorged ticks was more complex than that of samples from fully engorged individuals. The comparison of saliva and whole-tick samples suggests that bacteria in saliva also colonize the tick's body. We believe that some bacterial genera, such as Dermacoccus, Achromia, SMB53, Sutterella, Providencia, Mycoplana, Oscillospira, and Agrobacterium, were found and reported in ticks for the first time. The Coxiella and Rickettsia detected in this study might be tick-borne pathogens, suggesting health risks associated with exposure to R. microplus in humans and animals. These findings may serve as the basis for developing strategies to control ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05. The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus.

  11. Characterisation of divergent flavivirus NS3 and NS5 protein sequences detected in Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Maruyama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcripts similar to those that encode the nonstructural (NS proteins NS3 and NS5 from flaviviruses were found in a salivary gland (SG complementary DNA (cDNA library from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Tick extracts were cultured with cells to enable the isolation of viruses capable of replicating in cultured invertebrate and vertebrate cells. Deep sequencing of the viral RNA isolated from culture supernatants provided the complete coding sequences for the NS3 and NS5 proteins and their molecular characterisation confirmed similarity with the NS3 and NS5 sequences from other flaviviruses. Despite this similarity, phylogenetic analyses revealed that this potentially novel virus may be a highly divergent member of the genus Flavivirus. Interestingly, we detected the divergent NS3 and NS5 sequences in ticks collected from several dairy farms widely distributed throughout three regions of Brazil. This is the first report of flavivirus-like transcripts in R. microplus ticks. This novel virus is a potential arbovirus because it replicated in arthropod and mammalian cells; furthermore, it was detected in a cDNA library from tick SGs and therefore may be present in tick saliva. It is important to determine whether and by what means this potential virus is transmissible and to monitor the virus as a potential emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen.

  12. The First Report of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus kohlsi (Hoogstraal and Kaiser 1960 from Wild Goats (Capra hircus aega¬grus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nabian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies concerning ticks were of interest to evaluate the distribution and composition of species affecting live¬stock, thus it was a main step in our knowledge of the pathogens that they may transmit by tick. Methods: A collection of 21 adult female and 15 male hard ticks, all is representing a single species of tick collected under the tail of wild goat. The specimens preserved in 70 % alcohol in glass vial and brought to laboratory for identification. In or¬der to distinguish species relationships between wild and domestic animals, tick sampling has been achieved in 7 different places located around Kolah Qazi national park in Isfahan Province. Results: Important descriptions of ticks isolated from wild goat strongly supported that the tick species in this collection was only Rhipicephalus (Boophilus kohlsi. Conclusion: It seems that this is the first report of Rh. (Boophilus kohlsi in Iran. Wild sheep and goats live throughout Iran ex¬cept in forest and other tall vegetation areas. Although, both animals has pastured occasionally in same open rangeland but we could not find any tick of Rh. (Boophilus kohlsi in domestic animals.

  13. Effect of oil-based formulations of acaripathogenic fungi to control Rhipicephalus microplus ticks under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Mariana G; Golo, Patrícia S; Angelo, Isabele C; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Sá, Fillipe A; Quinelato, Simone; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2012-08-13

    The formulations of acaripathogenic fungi to control ticks have been widely studied. The present study evaluated the efficacy of oil-based formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (s.l.), isolate Ma 959, and Beauveria bassiana, isolate Bb 986, on different Rhipicephalus microplus stages, comparing the efficacy between aqueous suspensions and 10, 15 and 20% mineral oil formulations. Twelve groups were formed: one aqueous control group; three mineral oil control groups, at 10, 15 or 20%; two aqueous fungal suspensions of M. anisopliae s.l. or B. bassiana; and three formulations of M. anisopliae (s.l.) or B. bassiana containing 10, 15, and 20% mineral oil. To prepare aqueous suspensions and oily formulations, fungal isolates were cultivated on rice grains in polypropylene bags. The conidial suspensions and formulations had a concentration of 10(8)conidia/mL. Bioassays were repeated twice. After treatment, the following biological parameters of engorged females were evaluated: hatching percentage, egg production index, nutritional index, and percentage of tick control. The following parameters were evaluated in the bioassays with eggs: period of incubation, period of hatch, and hatching percentage. Mortality was evaluated in bioassays with larvae. M. anisopliae s.l. and B. bassiana oil-based formulations were more effective than aqueous suspensions against R. microplus eggs, larvae and engorged females, however, there was no significant difference between the three oil concentrations used. M. anisopliae s.l. and B. bassiana formulated in mineral oil reached 93.69% and 21.67% efficacy, respectively, while M. anisopliae s.l. and B. bassiana aqueous suspensions attained 18.70% and 1.72% efficacy, respectively. M. anisopliae s.l. oil-based formulations caused significant effects in all biological parameters of engorged females while B. bassiana oil-based formulations modified significantly the nutritional index only. Eggs treated with M. anisopliae s.l. and B

  14. Evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2011-06-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Mimosa pudica Gaertn (Mimosaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi, filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of M. pudica and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of M. pudica and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 6 h. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of A. subpictus, C. quinquefasciatus, and R. microplus (LC(50) = 13.90, 11.73, and 8.98 mg/L, r (2) = 0.411, 0.286, and 0.479), respectively. This is the first report on antiparasitic activity of the plant extract and synthesized AgNPs.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01650-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8.g Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus B... 34 2.0 3 ( FG285891 ) 1108770704094 New World Screwworm Egg 926...nosize Bicyclus anynan... 30 2.6 4 ( FG294764 ) 1108770717863 New World Screwworm

  16. Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations in cattle along Geba River basin in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúquete, Sara Tudela; Coelho, João; Rosa, Fernanda; Vaz, Yolanda; Cassamá, Bernardo; Padre, Ludovina; Santos, Dulce; Basto, Afonso P; Leitão, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Tick infestations are a major problem for animal production in tropical areas where prevention and control remain deficient. The present study sought to assess the awareness of traditional cattle producers towards the importance of ticks and aimed at the identification of tick species infesting bovines within the Geba River basin, Guinea-Bissau. Interviews with producers revealed that the majority directly correlates the presence of ticks with the occurrence of diseases in cattle. However, insufficient or inadequate control approaches prevail. A total of 337 ticks were collected on bovines at 18 different villages (10 during dry season, and 8 during rainy season). The tick species collected during the dry season were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi (56.5%), followed by Amblyomma variegatum (23.3%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (17.6%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1%). In the rainy season A. variegatum was the most collected (88.9%), followed by R. (Boophilus) geigyi (4.2%), R. (Boophilus) annulatus (3.4%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (2.8%) and H. truncatum (0.7%). To support species identification, segments of both cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S) genes were sequenced and the data gathered were analysed by maximum likelihood and parsimony. Morphological and genetic data of individual specimens gathered in this study provide relevant information for future studies on tick population dynamics in the region. In addition, it led to a deeper characterization of R. sulcatus and a R. sanguineus-like specimen, exploring their genetic relationship with other R. sanguineus, which supports their classification as distinct species within R. sanguineus group.

  17. New quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, A V; Fain, A; Skoracki, M

    2004-02-01

    Five new species and two new genera belonging to the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea) are described from birds that died in the Antwerp Zoo during their quarantine: Charadriaulobia vanelli n. g., n. sp. from Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) in Brazil; Fritschisyringophilus lonchurae n. g., n. sp. from Lonchura punctulata (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) in India; Mironovia coturnae n. sp. from Coturnix coturnix (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in Europe; Syringophiloidus daberti n. sp. from Passerina ciris (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) in Mexico; and S. serini n. sp. from Serinus mozambicus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Central Africa. Charadriaulobia n. g. differs from the closely related Aulobia Kethley, 1970, in both sexes, by the divergent epimeres I; in females, by the absence of protuberances on the hypostomal apex and by the situation of the bases of setae l4 distinctly anterior the bases of setae d4. Fritschisyringophilus n. g. differs from the closely related Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1972, in both sexes, by the presence of setae vs ' on legs II, the absence of setae dT on legs III and IV; in females, by the presence of median hypostomal protuberances and by short setae l1, l2 and l3. The relationships between the Syringophilidae and their hosts are briefly discussed. A list of all known syringophilid genera and their distribution on bird families is provided.

  18. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system.

  19. Primary embryonic cells of Rhipicephalus microplus and Amblyomma cajennense ticks as a substrate for the development of Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rezende

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a spirochetes transmitted by ticks to humans and animals. Its cultivation in vitro in tick cells allows studies of its biology and provides methodology for future research in Brazil, and for the isolation of Borrelia spp. We examined in vitro the characteristics of embryonic cells of Rhipicephalus microplus and Amblyomma cajennense in cell culture and investigated the suitability of embryonic cells as a substrate for cultivation of B. burgdorferi. Subcultures were prepared from primary cultures of embrionary cells of R. microplus and A. cajennense maintained in Leibovitz's (L-15 complete medium at 28 ºC and 31 ºC, respectively. When a monolayer had formed, the L-15 was replaced with Barbour-Stoener-Kelly medium for experiments to infect cell cultures with B. burgdorferi. After 72 hours of cultivation, the spirochetes were counted using an inverted phase contrast microscope and dark-field illumination (400×. Survival, multiplication and the adherence of B. burgdorferi for embryonic cells of R. microplus and A. cajennense were observed. B. burgdorferi cultured with embryonic cells of R. microplus grew on average to a density (final count of 2.4 × 10(7 spirochetes/mL, whereas in cell-free culture, an average of 2.5 × 10(7 spirochetes/mL were counted. When cultivated with A. cajennense cells, the final count of spirochetes was on average 1.7 × 10(7 spirochetes/mL, while spirochetes cultured under cell-free conditions replicated on average of 2.2 × 10(7 spirochetes/mL. Similar results were observed in the final count of Spirochetes cultivated in cells of R. microplus and A. cajennense, when compared with cell-free control. These results demonstrated that cells of R. microplus and A. cajennense have the potential to be used as growth substrate for B. burgdorferi in the study of its interaction with host cells.

  20. Filiform papilla of holstein’s tongue and its relation with the Rhipicephalus microplus tick resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies describe anatomical, morphological and histological analysis of domestic and wild animals tongue. The tongue is an extendable muscular organ that performs gripping, chewing, and swallowing food actions and executes tasting and mechanical body self-cleaning functions (grooming. The distribution of these tongue characteristics may vary, according to different species, but studies made with different animals classes reveal the filiform papilla acting in mechanical body cleaning function. In order to evaluate these mechanical functions, especially the self-cleaning one, we proposed to investigate filiform papillae length or its base dimensions would be related to the heifers resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Biopsies were performed in eight (8 Holstein heifers’ tongues, with a 6 mm diameter punch, in the anterior third of tongues, at the distance of 3 cm from its tip. The animals were anesthetized with xylazine hydrochloride 2%, a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant and received local anesthetic, hydrochloride 2.0 g lidocaine. After tissue removal, the local lesions received an ointment of triamcinolone acetonide, 1.0 mg g-1. The Holstein heifers were one year and half old and naturally infested with ticks in a paddock situated at “Instituto de Zootecnia”. We monitored their natural infestation by counting females ticks, greater than 4.5 mm, presents in every animal, in four weekly evaluations (from 8 to 28 December – 2011. These samples were submitted to technical process of fixation and dehydration (as required by in the scanning electron microscope study, in the laboratory NAP/MEPA - ESALQ-USP. The papillae were visualized and measured with the aid of the measurement tool between two points of the software in the scanning electron microscope Zeiss LEO 435VP. Statistically analyses were performed by the SPSSP 12.0 program in a complete randomized design. We employed the Oneway method for variance analysis to

  1. First report of fluazuron resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus: a field tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, José; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Webster, Anelise; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Scheffer, Ramon; Souza, Ugo Araújo; Corassini, Vivian Bamberg; Vargas, Rafael; dos Santos, Julsan Silveira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza

    2014-03-17

    The control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is based mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, which has contributed to the emerging problem of selection of resistant tick populations. Currently, there are six main classes of acaricides commercially available in Brazil to control cattle ticks, with fluazuron, a tick growth regulator with acaricidal properties, being the only active ingredient with no previous reports of resistance. Ticks (designated the Jaguar strain) were collected in a beef cattle ranch located at Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil, after a complaint of fluazuron treatment failure. To characterise the resistance of this strain against acaricides, larval tests were performed and showed that the Jaguar strain was resistant to all of the drugs tested: cypermethrin (resistance ratio, RR=31.242), chlorpyriphos (RR=103.926), fipronil (RR=4.441), amitraz (RR=11.907) and ivermectin (3.081). A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fluazuron treatment in heifers that had been experimentally infested with the Jaguar or a susceptible strain. Between 14 and 28 days after treatment, the average efficacy in cattle experimentally infested with the susceptible strain was 96%, while for the Jaguar strain the efficacy was zero. Additionally, the Jaguar strain response to fluazuron was evaluated in vitro using a modified adult immersion test (AIT) and the artificial feeding assay (AFA). With the AIT, 50 ppm of fluazuron inhibited 99% of larvae hatching in the susceptible strain (POA) and less than 50% in the Jaguar strain. Results of the AFA showed a larval hatching rate of 67% at 2.5 ppm of fluazuron with the Jaguar strain; conversely, only 3% of larvae of the susceptible strain hatched at the same fluazuron concentration. The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil.

  2. Development and reproduction of spider mites Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae) under water deficit condition in soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Ivelina Nikolova; Natalia Georgieva; Jordanka Naydenova

    2014-01-01

    One of the major pests of soybeans in Bulgaria is the spider mite Tetranychus turkestani Ug et Nik (Acari: Tetranychidae) and different results have been reported about the impact of water stress on its development and reproduction. Soybean plants exposed to natural infestation by spider mites, water deficit and treatment with imidacloprid were examined under greenhouse conditions at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria, over the period 2011-2012...

  3. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  4. A large parasitengonid mite (Acari, Erythraeoidea from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A new large, fossil mite (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., is described from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian Crato Formation from Ceará State, Brazil. It is assigned to the Cohort Parasitengona and the superfamily Erythraeoidea, some extant members of which can reach up to seven millimetres in body length. Given that doubts have been raised about the identity of putative Crato feather mite eggs, this new fossil represents the first unequivocal record of Acari from the Crato Formation, the first non-amber record of an erythraeoid mite and the oldest named example of this superfamily. Fossil erythraeoids from Mesozoic and Tertiary ambers are briefly reviewed – including a widely overlooked Late Cretaceous species – with comments on Mesozoic mites in general. Thirteen Baltic amber erythraeoids have been formally described, but much unstudied material from various amber sources remains. Ein neues großes Milbenfossil (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., wird aus der Crato Formation (Unterkreide, Aptium des Ceará Gebietes in Brasilien beschrieben. Es wird der Kohorte Parasitengona und der Überfamilie Erythraeoidea zugeordnet; die modernen Vertreter erreichen eine Körperlänge bis zu sieben mm. Weil die Identität von Federmilbeneiern aus der Crato Formation in Frage gestellt wurde, ist dieser Neufund der erste klare Hinweis von Acari aus der Crato Formation. Es ist die erste erythraeoide Milbe, die nicht aus dem Bernstein stammt sowie das älteste genannte Beispiel dieser Überfamilie. Fossile erythraeoide Milben aus dem Bernstein des Mesozoikum und des Tertiärs werden kurz zusammengefasst – u. a. eine weitgehend übersehene Art aus der Oberkreide – mit allgemeinen Anmerkungen zu den mesozoischen Milben. Dreizehn erythraeoide Milbenarten sind aus dem baltischen Bernstein genannt und beschrieben worden, aber weiteres unbearbeitetes Material von verschiedenen Bernstein-Fundpunkten liegt noch vor

  5. Primary embryonic cells of Rhipicephalus microplus and Amblyomma cajennense ticks as a substrate for the development of Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende,J.; CP. Rangel; NC. Cunha; AH. Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a spirochetes transmitted by ticks to humans and animals. Its cultivation in vitro in tick cells allows studies of its biology and provides methodology for future research in Brazil, and for the isolation of Borrelia spp. We examined in vitro the characteristics of embryonic cells of Rhipicephalus microplus and Amblyomma cajennense in cell culture and investigated the suitability of embryonic cells as a substrate for cultivation of B. bu...

  6. Mitigation of Resistance Through Mixtures of Traditional Pesticides, Anti-tick Vaccines, and New Acaricides Developed by the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 70 years, the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has developed resistance to every acaricide available for its control. Recently, populations of R. microplus have evolved simultaneous resistance to multiple classes of acaricides. These multi-resistant population...

  7. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  8. Acaricidal effect of Pelargonium roseum and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils against adult stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Halajian, Ali

    2009-06-10

    In a laboratory trial, in west-central Iran, the acaricidal effects of the essential oils (EOs) prepared from two medicinal plants, i.e. Pelargonium roseum and Eucalyptus globulus on the adult stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus were evaluated. For this purpose, the engorged females of R. (B) annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of oils (0.31-5.0%) using a "dipping method" in vitro. The engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (eight per dilution) for 1min then each replicate was incubated in separate petri dishes at 26 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. The mortality rate for adult ticks exposed to different dilutions of P. roseum and E. globulus EO's showed a dose-dependent decrease. It was however significant only for the 2.5% and 5.0% dilutions of P. roseum EO, when compared to the non-treated control (P<0.05). The mass of produced eggs in adult female ticks exposed to both P. roseum and E. globulus EOs had decreased dose-dependently. It was significant for only 2.5% and 5.0% dilutions of P. roseum EO, comparing the non-treated control (P<0.05). The highest decrease in egg laying was reported for ticks treated with 5% dilutions of P. roseum (87.5%) and E. globosus (25%) (P<0.05). This is the first report that details the acaricidal activity of EO's obtained from P. roseum and E. globosus against R. (B) annulatus. The results show that both plants, particularly P. Roseum can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of R. (B) annulatus in the field.

  9. The presence of webbing affects the oviposition rate of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Magalhães, S.; Dicke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several species of tetranychid mites including Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) construct complicated three-dimensional webs on plant leaves. These webs provide protection against biotic and abiotic stress. As producing web is likely to entail a cost, mites that arrive on a leaf with

  10. New Australian hygrobatids (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Hygrobatidae), with the description of two new genera and three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.

    2009-01-01

    Two new genera of the water mite family Hygrobatidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) are described from Australia, Ioannibates gen. nov. and Pseudoaustraliobates gen. nov.. In addition, three new species are described, Ioannibates papillosus sp. nov., Pseudoaustraliobates flindersi sp. nov. and the second spe

  11. The first record of the watermite Arrenurus beolinensis from the Netherlands, with the first description of the female (Acari: Hydrachnidia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Didderen, K.; Wiggers, R.

    2007-01-01

    De watermijt Arrenurus berolinensis in Nederland, met de eerste beschrijving van het vrouwtje (Acari: Hydrachnidia) De zeer zeldzame watermijt Arrenurus berolinensis is in 2006 voor het eerst in Nederland gevonden, in een petgat in de Wieden (Overijssel). Tot nu toe was deze soort slechts twee keer

  12. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  13. Ehrlichia minasensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Ehrlichia isolated from the tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Zweygarth, Erich; Vancová, Marie; Broniszewska, Marzena; Grubhoffer, Libor; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-12

    Recently, we obtained a rickettsial isolate (Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV) from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus microplus engorged tick females. On the basis of maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and trp36 nucleotide sequences we showed that Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV belongs to the α-Proteobacteria, family Anaplasmataceae, genus Ehrlichia. Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV is a sister taxa of E. canis with 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and trp36 nucleotide sequence similarity of 98.3%, 97.2%, 94.7%, 94.3% and 49.1%, respectively. Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV has been maintained in the laboratory by continuous passage in the IDE8 tick cell line where the ultrastructure was characterized using electron microscopy and it resembles that of E. canis, E. muris and E. chaffensis, but not E. ruminantium and E. ewingii. We propose the name Ehrlichia minasensis sp. nov. for this bacterium to acknowledge the place from where it was isolate for first time, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The type strain of Ehrlichia minasensis sp. nov. is strain Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV (= DSM 100393, = TCB-TBB-0018).

  14. Knockdown of the Rhipicephalus microplus cytochrome c oxidase subunit III gene is associated with a failure of Anaplasma marginale transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais D Bifano

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for A. marginale transmission are infection of the tick gut, followed by infection of salivary glands. Transmission of A. marginale to cattle occurs via infected saliva delivered during tick feeding. Interference in colonization of either the tick gut or salivary glands can affect transmission of A. marginale to naïve animals. In this study, we used the tick embryonic cell line BME26 to identify genes that are modulated in response to A. marginale infection. Suppression-subtractive hybridization libraries (SSH were constructed, and five up-regulated genes {glutathione S-transferase (GST, cytochrome c oxidase sub III (COXIII, dynein (DYN, synaptobrevin (SYN and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate 3-phosphatase (PHOS} were selected as targets for functional in vivo genomic analysis. RNA interference (RNAi was used to determine the effect of tick gene knockdown on A. marginale acquisition and transmission. Although RNAi consistently knocked down all individually examined tick genes in infected tick guts and salivary glands, only the group of ticks injected with dsCOXIII failed to transmit A. marginale to naïve calves. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that RNAi of a tick gene is associated with a failure of A. marginale transmission.

  15. Acaricidal activity of essential oils from Lippia alba genotypes and its major components carvone, limonene, and citral against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Magna Galvão; Costa-Júnior, Livio Martins; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Lima, Aldilene da Silva; Menezes, Thays Saynara Alves; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Bacci, Leandro; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2015-05-30

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal potential of Lippia alba essential oil, citral chemotypes (LA-10 and LA-44 genotypes) and carvone chemotypes (LA-13 and LA-57 genotypes), as well as purified citral and enantiomers of carvone and limonene. Efficacy against Rhipicephalus microplus was assessed by the larval packet and the engorged female immersion tests. Citral chemotypes had greater larvicidal activity than carvone chemotypes, and this was further supported by larvicidal and adulticidal activity of purified citral with LC50 values of 7.0 and 29.8 mg/mL, respectively. While purified enantiomers of carvone exhibited greater larvicidal activity than those of limonene, enantioselectivity of limonene was observed with R-(+) displaying significantly higher efficacy (LC50 of 31.2mg/mL) than S-(-) (LC50 of 54.5mg/mL). The essential oils and purified compounds were much less toxic toward engorged adult females, with the exception of citral, and this may be due to limited cuticular penetration.

  16. New and little known species of Halolaelaps (Acari: Mesostigmata: Halolaelapidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A

    2016-08-23

    A new species of the family Halolaelapidae (Acari: Mesostigmata), Halolaelaps euxinus sp. nov. is described from Black Sea coast. Adult mites were found in seaweed, while deutonymphs were collected from the amphipod Talorchestia deshayesii and from seaweed. The adult female of Halolaelaps saproincisus Hirschmann & Götz, 1968 is recorded in new localities of Ukraine for the first time, in soil and bird faeces in chicken coops, and new morphological information is provided. The adult male (collected from chicken coops) and the deutonymph (collected from chicken coops and on dung-beetles) of H. saproincisus are described for the first time.

  17. The Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) of Mexico: Parasite-Host and Host-Parasite Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-20

    la Sociedad Mexi- cana de Historia Natural, 4, 21–24. Cooley, R.A. (1945) Ixodes tovari, a new species from Mexico (Ixodidae). Pan-Pacific...2007 · Magnolia Press Zootaxa 1553: 47–58 (2007) www.mapress.com/zootaxa/ The Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) of Mexico : parasite-host and host...species of Ixodes known from Mexico ; host and locality data are from specimens housed in the Colección Nacional de Ácaros, Instituto de Biología

  18. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  19. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  20. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  1. Phytoseiid mites of the Canary Islands (Acari, Phytoseiidae. II. Tenerife and La Gomera Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferragut, F.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiid mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae inhabiting plants in natural ecosystems from Tenerife and La Gomera islands (Canary Islands have been studied. Surveys were conducted from 1997 to 2002. Eleven species were collected, one of them being reported for the first time from the Canary Islands and six of them reported for the first time from Tenerife and La Gomera islands. Euseius machadoi n. sp. collected from woody plants in the Canarian laurisilva is proposed as a new species.

    En muestreos realizados desde 1997 hasta 2002 se ha estudiado la fauna de ácaros fitoseidos (Acari, Phytoseiidae asociada a plantas de ecosistemas naturales de las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera (Islas Canarias. Se han recolectado un total de 11 especies, siendo una de ellas citada por vez primera en las islas Canarias y seis de ellas citadas por primera vez en las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera. Euseius machadoi n. sp., recolectado en plantas leñosas de la laurisilva canaria, se propone como una nueva especie.

  2. Repellent efficacy of DEET, Icaridin, and EBAAP against Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari, Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Kerstin; Bendin, Juliane; Gharbi, Amina; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle; Dautel, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Repellent efficacy of 10% EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester) and 10% Icaridin ((2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester)) were evaluated against 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) in human subject trials against ticks. Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the European castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus L.; Acari: Ixodidae) and the North American blacklegged tick (I. scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) were compared. Tests were carried out according to the US-EPA standard protocol with ethanolic solutions of the active ingredients of repellents being applied to the forearm of 10 volunteers. The upward movement of ticks was monitored until repellent failure taking up to 12.5 h. Application of 20% DEET resulted in median complete protection times (CPT; Kaplan-Meier median) between 4 and 4.5 h, while 10% EBAAP yielded CPTs of 3.5-4h. No significant differences were found between the efficacies of two repellents nor between the two species tested. The median of the CPT of a 10% Icaridin solution was 5h in nymphs of I. scapularis, but 8h in those of I. ricinus (Prepellent activity against nymphs of the two Ixodes ticks with Icaridin demonstrating particularly promising results against I. ricinus. Future research should investigate whether similar results occur when adult Ixodes ticks or other tick species are tested.

  3. Integrated control of an acaricide-resistant strain of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus by applying Metarhizium anisopliae associated with cypermethrin and chlorpyriphos under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Anelise; Reck, José; Santi, Lucélia; Souza, Ugo A; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Klafke, Guilherme M; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O; Martins, João Ricardo; Schrank, Augusto

    2015-01-30

    The efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control ticks has been shown in several in vitro experiments. However, few studies have been undertaken in field conditions in order to demonstrate the applicability of its use as a biological control of ticks and its combination with chemical acaricides. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of M. anisopliae to control an acaricide-resistant strain of Rhipicephalus microplus under laboratory and field conditions. First, the compatibility of M. anisopliae strain (TIS-BR03) with commercial acaricides and its potential to control the cattle tick were evaluated in vitro. In general, acaricide treatments had mild effects on fungus viability. In the field experiment, the median of treatment efficacy with acaricide only, M. anisopliae only and combination of M. anisopliae with acaricide were 71.1%, 56.3% and 97.9%, respectively. There is no statistical difference between groups treated with M. anisopliae and acaricide alone. Thus, in this work we have demonstrated the applicability of M. anisopliae use associated or not with chemical acaricides on field conditions in order to control an acaricide-resistant strain of the cattle tick R. microplus.

  4. Beklemishevia hispaniola n. sp., nuevo representante de la Cohorte Palaeosomata (Acari, Oribatei en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Iñigo, C.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of oribatid mite (Acari, Oribatei belonging to the family Ctenacaridae (Cohors Palaeosomata is described; this species was recorded several times in Spain as Beklemishevia galeodula Zachvatkin, 1945. The new species is easily distinguishable from the mentioned one because of the presence of three claws in every leg, a noticeable pigidial neotrichy and the absence of short, almost spiniform, setae on the pygidium.Se describe una nueva especie de oribátido (Acari, Oribatei perteneciente a la familia Ctenacaridae (Cohorte Palaeosomata que habia sido citada varias veces en España como Beklemishevia galeodula Zachvatkin, 1945, y de la que se diferencia por presentar tres uñas en todas las patas, una acentuada neotriquia pigidial y carecer de setas cortas espiniformes en el pigidio.

  5. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  6. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  7. Prolixus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) newly recorded from New Zealand: A new species from Cyperaceae and its ontogenetic patterns in chaetotaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-12-19

    The genus Prolixus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) was represented by two species from Australian sedges prior to this study. A new species, Prolixus meyerae sp. nov., is here described and illustrated from leaves of Gahnia (Cyperaceae) in Auckland, New Zealand. In this paper, we present the ontogenetic additions in idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy from larva to adult. A key to world species of Prolixus is also proposed.

  8. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  9. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Kubo,Karen Sumire; Ferreira,Paulo de Tarso Oliveira; Alcântara,Berenice Kussumoto; Boari,Alessandra de Jesus; Gomes,Renata Takassugi; Freitas-Astua,Juliana; Rezende,Jorge Alberto Marques; Morais,Gilberto José de; Salaroli,Renato Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hi...

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae: high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks. Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae, a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs, a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%, which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03. The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp, lacking

  11. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaroidea from Bosnia and Herzegovina, with description of a new species, Aturus gordani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Vladimir M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presented faunistic catalogue of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaroidea from Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on all published data and numerous new records from the investigated area. Twenty two species were identified, 12 of which new to Bosnia and Herzegovina and one species Mideopsis roztoczensis was recorded for the first time in the Balkans. The species Aturus gordani was described as new to science; halacarid mites were recorded (Acari: Halacaroidea for the first time in the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ecological significance of the new records was briefly discussed.

  12. Garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae asociadas a perros en diferentes ambientes de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of dogs in different environments of the Corrientes Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Debárbora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae de perros en ambientes urbanos, periurbanos y rurales de la provincia de Corrientes por medio de colecciones mensuales durante un año en siete sitios diferentes. De los 138 perros examinados, en 87 (63,04% se determinaron tres especies de garrapatas: Amblyomma tigrinum (n=35, Amblyomma ovale (n=2 y Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=523. Las mayores prevalencias para A. tigrinum y R. sanguineus s.l. fueron halladas en ambientes rurales. Especímenes de R. sanguineus s.l. fueron detectados a lo largo de todo el año, con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano, A. tigrinum fue encontrada en otoño, invierno y primavera con un pico en esta última estación, mientras que A. ovale fue colectada sólo en primavera. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. y A. tigrinum fueron halladas en todos los ambientes muestreados, pero el primer taxón fue siempre el más abundante. Teniendo en cuenta que las especies del complejo R. sanguineus son potenciales vectores de microorganismos patógenos para los perros y humanos, y debido a la alta prevalencia registrada en este estudio, queda en evidencia la relevancia de aplicar métodos para su control en las áreas incluidas en este estudio.Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of dogs in urban, peri-urban and rural areas from the Corrientes Province, Argentina, were studied. They were monthly collected during one year at 7 different sites. A total of 138 dogs were examined, and 87 (63.04% of them were infested; and three species were determined: Amblyomma tigrinum (n=35, Amblyomma ovale (n=2 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=523. Both A. tigrinum and R. sanguineus s.l. had the highest prevalence in rural areas. Specimens of R. sanguineus s.l. were collected in the four seasons, but the peaks of abundance were detected in spring and summer. Amblyomma tigrinum was found in autumn, winter and spring, with the peak of abundance in spring, and the two specimens of A. ovale were

  13. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Sandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-preguiça" (sloth's giant tick is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae, Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae. Based on the material examined, the states of Rondônia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  14. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  15. Javanese species of the mite genus Macrocheles (Arachnida: Acari: Gamasina: Macrochelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartini, Sri; Takaku, Gen

    2003-10-01

    Twelve mite species of the genus Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae) were collected from the body surface of dung beetles in Java, Indonesia. Of these, three species, i.e., Macrocheles jabarensis, M. jonggolensis, and M. sukabumiensis, were described as new to science. Female of M. dispar was redescribed. Two species, i.e., M. baliensis and M. sukaramiensis, were recorded from Java for the first time. The occurrence of five species previously recorded from Java, i.e., M. hallidayi, M. kraepelini, M. limue, M. oigru, and M. merdarius, were reconfirmed. Taxonomic status of M. sp. aff. glaber was not settled in the present study, because we could not obtain the male and immatures which are indispensable for exact identification. In total 15 species of the genus Macrocheles, including 3 species already recorded but not collected in this research (M. crispa, M. krantzi, and M. subbadius), are known from Java up to date.

  16. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed.

  17. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

    2002-12-01

    Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  18. Benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari extracts in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpio Rodríguez-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The records of patients from the Allergology Service in the Previsora Policlinic, Camagüey were revised to evaluate benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy (ITSC with extracts of acari. The study was observational, analytic and retrospective of cases and controls in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma. A total of 160 subjects, older than 18 years old, were chosen. Eighty out of them had already received ITSC with dose increase during 13 weeks and maintenance with monthly injections during 18 months. A total of 80 patients who only received prevention measures and medications during the crises were paired. Questionnaires were applied for quality of rhinoconjunctivitis life and asthma, about the consumption of medications and the frequency of the crises. The adverse events were measured, as they were local and systemic to the cutaneous tests, to the ITSC and the different pharmacological treatments. There was a significant increase of the punctuation of life quality questionnaires, (p=0.011. The consumption of medications decreased in both the cases and the controls, without significant differences (p=0.083. The frequency of the rhinitis and asthma crises decrease in the group of ITSC (p=0.029. Slight local and systemic reactions were reported in both groups with Odds ratio (OR=2.029 in the ITSC group, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.114–3.967 (p=0.019. The results show that the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari offers benefits and few risks to patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma.

  19. Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michael A; Abassi, Sate Al; Kröber, Thomas; Chamberlain, Keith; Hooper, Antony M; Guerin, Patrick M; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A; Slade, Robin; Wadhams, Lester J

    2008-05-01

    The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to account for the repellent activity, and was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were tentatively identified as germacrene-D, delta-elemene and beta-bourbonene. The identity and stereochemistry of the former compound was confirmed as the (+)-isomer by peak enhancement using enantioselective GC, whereas the latter 2 compounds, which are most likely degradation products of germacrene-type precursors, were identified through isolation by preparative gas chromatography followed by microprobe-NMR spectroscopy. GC comparison of gum haggar with another resin, C. myrrha, which was inactive in the tick bioassay, showed that the latter contained much lower levels of these hydrocarbons. To assess the suitability of the gum haggar resin as a general acarine repellent, further tests were made on a major acarine pest of European and US animal husbandry systems, the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Gum haggar extract, and the isolated hydrocarbon fraction, showed strong repellent effects in an olfactometer assay, and again gum myrrh showed no effect. These findings provide a scientific basis for the observed anti-tick properties of gum haggar, and demonstrate the potential for its development as a general acarine repellent for use in animal husbandry systems.

  20. Respostas eletrofisiológicas das Porossensilas das quelíceras de Rhipicephalus microplus frente à fagoestimulantes e soros de bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Lorena Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Carrapatos são ectoparasitas obrigatoriamente hematófagos de diversas espécies e estão distribuídos mundialmente. Seu parasitismo acarreta danos diretos e indiretos a seus hospedeiros. Rhipicephalus microplus é o principal ectoparasita da pecuária causando problemas econômicos e sanitários nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais. O seu controle ainda é um desafio e novas alternativas estão sendo buscadas para evitar o uso de métodos químicos que são condenáveis em relação à saúde ...

  1. Potential of astigmatid mites (Acari: Astigmatina) as prey for rearing edaphic predatory mites of the families Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Marina F C; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2016-07-01

    Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae are important families of edaphic predatory mites and species of these families have been considered for use in biological control programs of soil pests. Mites of Cohort Astigmatina (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) have been largely used as factitious prey in the mass rearing of various edaphic or plant-inhabiting predatory mites. Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) (widely commercialized for the control of fungus gnats and thrips) and Protogamasellopsis zaheri Abo-Shnaf, Castilho and Moraes (Mesostigmata: Rhodacaridae) (not available commercially but promising for the control of thrips and nematodes) are known to be reared on Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Astigmatina: Acaridae), but the possibility to find a perhaps more efficient prey has not been evaluated. The objective of this paper was to evaluate different astigmatid species as prey for these predators. S. scimitus and P. zaheri oviposited on all evaluated astigmatids and the acarid mites T. putrescentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Tropeau) were the most suitable prey; to confirm the effect of prey on oviposition rates, pregnant females of the predators were kept under starvation conditions and oviposition was negligible or null. Survivorship was always higher than 78 % and was not influenced by prey species or starvation.

  2. Comparison of 3 tests to detect acaricide resistance in Boophilus decoloratus on dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mekonnen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the larval offspring of engorged female Boophilus decoloratus, and of the engorged females, collected from cattle on the dairy farms Brycedale, Sunny Grove and Welgevind in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, was tested against the acaricides amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. Resistance was determined by means of the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT for larvae and the Reproductive Estimate Test (RET and Egg Laying Test (ELT for adults. At Brycedale the tests all indicated resistance to chlorfenvinphos, and RET and ELT indicated resistance to amitraz and emerging resistance to cypermethrin. At Sunny Grove, B. decoloratus was resistant to cypermethrin using SLIT and exhibited emerging resistance to chlorfenvinphos with SLIT and to cypermethrin with both RET and ELT. At Welgevind, resistance was recorded against chlorfenvinphos (SLIT and against cypermethrin (ELT, and emerging resistance against permethrin (RET. The results obtained with RET and ELT were generally comparable, but often differed from those obtained with SLIT. Resistance could be detected within 7 days with ELT compared to 42 days with RET and 60 days with SLIT.

  3. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  4. DETECTION OF EHRLICHIA SP. ISOLATED FROM THE TICK BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS OF TIBET BY SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF 16S rRNA GENES%用16S rRNA基因序列分析从西藏的微小牛蜱中检出的埃立克体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温博海; 蹇锐; 张有植

    2003-01-01

    用埃立克体属特异性套式PCR和DNA序列测定从西藏微小牛蜱检出边缘无形体和埃立克体;用半套式PCR扩得该埃立克体的16S rRNA基因,并测定了它的序列;将该埃立克体的16S rRNA基因序列与其它埃立克体的16S rRNA基因序列进行对比分析,结果证明它的16S rRNA基因与埃立克体属的犬埃立克体群16S rRNA基因相似水平最高(97%~98%);用16S rRNA基因序列做系统发育分析,结果显示该采自西藏的微小牛蜱的埃立克体可能是与查菲埃立克体密切相关的一种新埃立克体.

  5. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência da Piroplasmose equina e sua associação com infestação por carrapatos no Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E. Kerber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA for Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Logistic regression analyses were performed to construct multivariate models that could explain the dependent variable (horses positive for B. caballi or T. equi as a function of the independent variables (presence or abundance of each one of the tick species found on the farms. A higher overall prevalence of B. caballi (54.1% than of T. equi (21.6% was found by the two tests. The ticks Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897, Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 were present on horses on 38 (95%, 20 (50%, and 4 (10% farms, respectively. Infestations by D. nitens were statistically associated with B. caballi-positive horses on the farms by either the CFT or cELISA. Infestations by A. cajennense were statistically associated with T. equi-positive horses on the farms by either CFT or cELISA.Amostras de soro sanguineo foram coletadas de 582 equinos de 40 haras no estado de São Paulo, onde as infestações por carrapatos foram avaliadas nos animais. Os soros foram testados por reação de fixação do complemento (RFC e ELISA competitivo por inibição (cELISA com antígenos de Babesia caballi e Theileria equi. Análises de regressão logística foram realizadas para construir modelos multivariados que pudessem explicar as variáveis dependentes (equinos positivos para B. caballi ou T. equi em função de variáveis independentes (presença e abundância de cada uma das espécies de carrapatos encontradas nos equinos dos haras. Em geral, os dois testes sorológicos indicaram uma prevalência maior para B. caballi (54,1% do que para T. equi (21,6%. Os carrapatos Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897

  6. New species and new records of mites of the genus Stigmaeus(Acari: Prostigmata: Stigmaeidae) from Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2014-05-06

    Three new species of the genus Stigmaeus Koch, 1836 (Acari: Stigmaeidae) are described from various habitats in Crimea: Stigmaeus kuznetsovi sp. nov. from nests of Microtus socialis (Rodentia: Cricetidae); S. mitrofanovi sp. nov. from galleries of Pityogenes bistridentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under the bark of Pinus pallasiana, and S. silvestris sp. nov. from rotten log of Pinus pallasiana. Stigmaeus corticeus Kuznetsov and Wainstein, 1977 and S. maraghehiensis Bagheri and Ueckermann, 2012 are recorded for the first time in Crimea. A key to species of the genus Stigmaeus of Crimea is provided.

  7. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting cattle and African buffaloes in the Tsavo conservation area, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K. Kariuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer. So too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the Tsavo Conservation Area, Kenya. To this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in February 2010. Eight species, namely Amblyomma gemma, Amblyomma lepidum, Hyalomma albiparmatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus infested both cattle and buffaloes. Three species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sp., Rhipicephalus kochi, and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected only from cattle, and three species, Hyalomma impeltatum, Rhipicephalus humeralis and Rhipicephalus praetextatus were present only on buffaloes. The attachment sites of the various tick species were also recorded. New locality records for H. impeltatum and H. truncatum and the first confirmed locality record for Rhipicephalus praetextatus sensu stricto in Kenya were documented.

  8. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  9. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with wildlife and vegetation of Haller park along the Kenyan coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzala, W; Okanga, S

    2006-09-01

    This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.

  10. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  11. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  12. New Records of Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Parasitizing Avian Hosts in Southeastern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Erin L; Wright, Chelsea L; Nadolny, Robyn M; Hynes, Wayne L; Gaff, Holly D; Walters, Eric L

    2016-03-01

    Ixodes affinis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) is a hard-bodied tick species distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States. Although I. affinis does not parasitize humans, it is a competent vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative-agent of Lyme disease, and thus contributes to the enzootic maintenance of this pathogen. This study presents evidence of I. affinis parasitizing five new host passerine species. During 2012-2014, 1,888 birds were captured and examined for ticks, and 18 immature I. affinis were collected from 12 birds-six Carolina Wrens (Thyrothorus ludovicianus); two Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum); and one American Robin (Turdus migratorius), Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), and White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). Of 15 larvae and 3 nymphs collected, one nymph tested positive for B. burgdorferi DNA. I. affinis was found co-feeding on birds with immature Amblyomma americanum (L.), Ixodes brunneus Koch, Ixodes dentatus Marx, Ixodes scapularis Say, and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard. The results of this research provide a better understanding of I. affinis hosts and identify avian taxa that may play a role in the maintenance and dispersal of this tick species.

  13. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  14. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  15. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  16. Deoxidant-induced anoxia as a physical measure for controlling spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Wang, Chih-Hung; Gotoh, Tetsuo; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    Tiny agricultural pests such as spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) attached to seedlings grown outdoors often invade greenhouses, thereby triggering pest outbreaks. To solve the problem, we examined whether differences in anoxia tolerance between animals and plants would permit the application of an anoxic environment to control spider mites without the aid of acaricides. Under an anoxic environment created by using a commercial deoxidant at 25 °C, the time for 50 % mortality of eggs, non-diapausing adults (summer form), and diapausing adults (winter form) were 6.1, 5.5, and 23.6 h, respectively, for Tetranychus urticae Koch and 5.4, 3.9, and 23.2 h, respectively, for Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. With anoxia for 12 h, no eggs and non-diapausing adults survived in either species, whereas most diapausing adults (98 % for T. urticae and 88 % for T. kanzawai) survived. Under this treatment, host Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings showed serious physiological disorders in their primary leaves and apical buds, and unusual lateral buds developed in the cotyledon axils. The spider mites acquire anoxia tolerance during diapause, but anoxia can potentially control them during the summer if no negative effects are observed in the treated seedlings.

  17. Development and reproduction of spider mites Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae under water deficit condition in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the major pests of soybeans in Bulgaria is the spider mite Tetranychus turkestani Ug et Nik (Acari: Tetranychidae and different results have been reported about the impact of water stress on its development and reproduction. Soybean plants exposed to natural infestation by spider mites, water deficit and treatment with imidacloprid were examined under greenhouse conditions at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria, over the period 2011-2012. The development of mites and their eggs was faster when plants were exposed to water deficit, which created favorable conditions for high density and reproduction of T. turkestani. There was a vertical distribution of protonymphs, deutonymphs and adults as their numbers and egg counts were significantly higher under conditions of water deficit on the upper and middle plant parts, compared with their bottom parts, and imidacloprid treatment had a stronger and more prolonged activity against mites, compared to its influence on well-watered plants. Spider mites on water-stressed plants caused a 24.8% reduction in the contents of plastid pigments, and carotenoids, and 21.5% decrease on well-watered plants.

  18. Comparing oxalic acid and sucrocide treatments for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) control under desert conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.

  19. Historical review of the genus Dermanyssus Dugès, 1834 (Acari: Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic review of the historical systematics of Dermanyssus Dugès, 1834 (Acari: Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae is provided. The classification at the specific level in this early genus has not really been clarified during more than a century despite its economic impact, and the history of the genus is complex and includes various stages. Moreover, Dermanyssus currently includes 23 species, whereas the last review took only 18 species into account. Changes in the species status and position in the genus Dermanyssus from 1834 until today are presented. The evolution of the generic definition is explored and compared with other genera of the group. How the discrimination between the different species evolved in the genus is also examined. Some difficulties in the specific definitions are discussed. A current diagnosis of the genus Dermanyssus is given. A table of the species included in this genus since its first description along with their respective current positions, a list of the currently included species in Dermanyssus with their hosts, and a world map presenting their geographic distribution are provided.

  20. Revisión sobre la problemática y los últimos avances en el control de la garrapata Boopilus microplus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mora Hernández

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available La garrapata Boopilus microplus es el ectoparásito más importante de la ganadería bovina en los trópicos. A raíz de su proliferación, se convirtió en un importante problema económico y, el surgimiento de la producción animal intensiva, estimuló el desarrollo de investigaciones sobre la forma de controlar esta plaga. Estos estudios hicieron posible la creación de diversos métodos de control: la formulación de los nuevos radicales químicos, el control biológico, genético, inmunológico, y el empleo de técnicas de ingeniería genética para la síntesis de vacunas recombinantes, que se emplean con éxito en algunas explotaciones ganaderas de América Latina.

  1. Two new families (Acari: Alicorhagiidae and Platyhelminthes: Prorhynchidae reported for the Hungarian fauna From leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfliegler, W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new members of the Hungarian fauna are reported, both of them were collected in beech forest leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains, North-East Hungary: Alicorhagia fragilis Berlese, 1910 (Arthropoda: Arachnida: Acari: Sarcoptiformes: Endeostigmata: Alicorhagiidae and Geocentrophora baltica (Kennel, 1883 (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Trepaxonemata: Amplimatricata: 'Lecithoepitheliata': Prorhynchida: Prorhynchidae. The families Alicorhagiidae and Prorhynchidae both represent new taxa in the fauna of the country.

  2. Marine water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) from Taiwan, Korea and India, with the first description of the male of Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pesic, V.; Chatterjee, T.; Chan, B.K.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    , D.R. (1996) A freshwater species of Pontarachna (Acari, Pontarachnidae) from South Africa, with a discussion of genital acetabula in the family. Anales Instituto de Biologa, Universidad Nacionale Aut- noma de Mxico, Seria Zoologa, 67, 259... Ocean, Red Sea and Indian Ocean (Smit 2002). Most species live in the marine littoral zone, but a few species occur in freshwater or brackish habitats. In the present paper, new records for Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003 (Taiwan) and Litarachna...

  3. Secondary structure of expansion segment D1 in LSU rDNA from Arachnida and its phylogenetic application in Eriophyoid mites and in Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Hang; Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Yang; Hu, Li; Chen, Yi-Meng

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of researchers have applied secondary-structure based multiple alignments of rDNA genes in phylogeny. These studies mostly depended on a few valuable divergent domains in LSU and SSU rDNA. Yet other divergent domains, e.g. D1, were poorly investigated and rarely used. However, these domains might contain additional evolutionary data and play a vital role in DNA-based phylogenetic study. Here, we investigated all available D1 sequences of Arachnida taxa and predicted corresponding secondary structures to help identify homologous positions in the D1 region. Long insertions were found exclusive to Eriophyoidea and folded into three newly proposed helices. Non-Acari taxa were all GC rich. In Acari, most Trombidiformes and all Mesostigmata (Parasitiformes) taxa were AT rich and Ixodida (Parasitiformes) GC rich; however there was no consistent base bias in Sarcoptiformes sequences. For Eriophyoid mites, genera Cecidophyopsis and Aceria were both well supported in MP, NJ, ME and ML tress based on D1 sequences, and clusters of Cecidophyopsis species were identical with former study. This demonstrated that the D1 region could act as a valuable molecular marker in phylogenetic reconstruction of Eriophyoidea. Additionally, D1 has been proven suitable in phylogenetic analysis at the family and genus level in Acari, but not in Opiliones.

  4. Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.

  5. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic (Liliaceae against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Nchu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (DCM extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98 with increasing concentration (40.03% – 86.96% yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks and 87.5% (female ticks in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  6. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv. Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae. Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates wereevaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mortality due to mycoses, corrected for mortality in the control variant. Virulence of the isolates was estimated based on values of the median lethal time (LT50 calculated by probit analysis for the variants treated with conidial suspensions at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml.The two-spotted spider mite was found susceptible to the examined isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. Mycosis caused to T. urticae by the B. bassiana isolates 444 Bb and 445 Bb had fast lethal effect after treatment with conidial suspensions even at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml. The mean mortality values of host individuals were 83.78 ± 3.62% and 68.49 ± 4.28% on the first day, respectively, and up to 100% in both variants on the fourth day.The isolates 426 Bb, 444 Bb and 445 Bb of B. bassiana were highly virulent to two-spotted spider mites with values of the median lethal time varied within overlapped narrow confidence intervals from 0.122 to 1.084 days (average value 0.162 days, from 0.117 to 1.398 days (average value 0.146 days and from 0.106 to 1.162 days (average value 0.131 days,respectively. Significant differences regarding virulence of the three isolates at p-level < 0.05 could not been proved. The other two examined isolates were distinctly less virulent to T. urticae than these three B. bassiana isolates.

  7. Seasonal changes in the cold hardiness of the two-spotted spider mite females (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, S; Colinet, H; Moharramipour, S; Renault, D

    2013-12-01

    The twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important agricultural pest. Population dynamics and pest outbreaks highly depend on the overwintering success of the mite specimens; therefore, it is necessary to assess winter survival dynamics of this pest. Seasonal changes in supercooling point (SCP) and acute cold tolerance (2-h exposure at -5, -10, -15, -20, -23, or -25°C) were assessed in field-collected females during the winter in 2010-2011 in Iran. The SCP values varied from a minimum of -30.5°C (January 2011) to a maximum of -12.6°C (April 2011). Significant differences were recorded in the SCP distribution patterns between autumn- and winter-sampled females, depicting the acquisition of cold hardiness over the winter. The mean ambient air temperature was the lowest in January (4°C), when the females showed the highest supercooling ability. Correlated patterns between monthly temperatures and acute cold tolerance also were found. At -20°C, the survival of the mites was very low (10%) when they were sampled in October 2010; whereas it was high (97.5%) in January 2011, before decreasing to 5% in April 2011. The present data show that T. urticae females are chill tolerant and capable of adjusting their cold tolerance over the winter season. Acute cold tolerance (-15 and -20°C) and SCP represent valuable metrics that can be used for predicting the seasonal changes of the cold hardiness of T. urticae females.

  8. Bacterial diversity in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) with a focus on members of the genus Rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Stephanie R; Elshahed, M S; Little, S E

    2010-03-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae), is commonly reported from people and animals throughout the eastern U.S. and is associated with transmission of a number of emerging diseases. To better define the microbial communities within lone star ticks, 16S rRNA gene based analysis using bacteria-wide primers, followed by sequencing of individual clones (n = 449) was used to identify the most common bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present within colony-reared and wild A. americanum. The colony-reared ticks contained primarily sequence affiliated with members of the genus Coxiella (89%; 81/91), common endosymbionts of ticks, and Brevibacterium (11%; 10/91). Similarly, analysis of clones from unfed wild lone star ticks revealed that 96.7% (89/92) of all the OTUs identified were affiliated with Coxiella-like endosymbionts, as compared with only 5.1-11.7% (5/98-9/77) of those identified from wild lone star ticks after feeding. In contrast, the proportion of OTUs identified as Rickettsia sp. in wild-caught ticks increased from 2.2% (2/92) before feeding to as high as 46.8% (36/77) after feeding, and all Rickettsia spp. sequences recovered were most similar to those described from the spotted fever group Rickettsia, specifically R. amblyommii and R. massiliae. Additional characterization of the Rickettsiales tick community by polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of 17 kDa and gltA genes confirmed these initial findings and suggested that novel Rickettsia spp. are likely present in these ticks. These data provide insight into the overall, as well as the rickettsial community of wild lone star ticks and may ultimately aid in identification of novel pathogens transmitted by A. americanum.

  9. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  10. Effect of Pollen from Different Plant Species on Development of Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae Efecto del Polen de Diferentes Especies Vegetales sobre el Desarrollo de Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermúdez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a phytoseiid mite with a high potential in controlling the false Chilean mite (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different plant species pollen as a complementary food in the development of T. pyri when its prey is in low levels of availability. Mites were individually placed on black plastic boxes with pollen and maintained at a temperature of 26 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L:D. Postembryonic development of T. pyri was studied in 11 pollen species, as well as in a mixed diet of Hirschfeldia incana (L. and B. chilensis. Results show that H. incana was the only pollen in which there was no mortality (P > 0.05 along with the control (Oxalis pes-caprae L.. Mean duration from egg to adult with H. incana was 8.70 ± 1.66 d, protonymph 3.27 ± 0.21 d, and deutonymph 2.90 ± 1.45 d (P > 0.05. The mix feeding of T. pyri did not show any significant differences neither in the mean time from egg to adult, nor in mortality by feeding only with B. chilensis. Survival curves of T. pyri fed only with H. incana pollen, combined with B. chilensis, and only with B. chilensis are higher in the first 14 d of life. The sex ratio was not significantly affected by being fed only with H. incana pollen, B. chilensis, or by a combination of both.Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un ácaro que presenta un alto potencial de uso para el control de la falsa arañita roja de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del polen de diferentes especies vegetales como alimento complementario para T. pyri cuando escasea su presa. Los parámetros post-embrionarios de T. pyri se estudiaron en 11 especies de polen, en una dieta mixta de polen de Hirschfeldia incana (L. y B. chilensis. Los ácaros se colocaron individualmente sobre

  11. Primer registro del hongo Neozygites sp. (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales, patógeno de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae en la República Argentina First record of Neozygites sp. (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales, pathogen of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Scorsetti

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se cita por primera vez para la Argentina la presencia del hongo entomopatógeno Neozygites cf. floridana (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales como patógeno de la «arañuela roja», Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, importante plaga de cultivos hortícolas en la región. Los muestreos fueron realizados en el cinturón hortícola del Gran La Plata sobre cultivos de tomate, pimiento, berenjena, y otras hortalizas. El material de herbario, como preparaciones microscópicas y ácaros infectados fue depositado en el Herbario del Instituto de Botánica C. Spegazzini y en el herbario micológico del CEPAVE. Este trabajo contribuye a ampliar la distribución y el espectro de hospedadores de Neozygites , así como ampliar la información de los hongos entomopatógenos en la Argentina.In this paper, the presence of the fungi Neozygites cf. floridana (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales, as pathogen of the mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, is recorded for first time in Argentina. Samplings were carried out in La Plata , on tomato, pepper, egg-plant, and other horticultural crops. Microscopic slides and mites infected were placed in the Herbarium of the Institute of Botany C. Spegazzini and in the Herbarium of CEPAVE. This work contributes to further expand the distribution and the host range of Neozygites as well as the information of entomopathogenic fungi in Argentina.

  12. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS A Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM MACIEIRA, NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL AGROCHEMICAL SELECTIVITY TO Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE ON APPLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINO BITTENCOURT MONTEIRO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes para determinar os efeitos de agroquímicos homologados para macieira foram realizados em laboratório sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os indivíduos testados foram coletados de um pomar comercial da Agriflor Ltda, em Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, após várias liberações inoculativas. Os inseticidas utilizados foram os tradicionalmente recomendados para o controle de pragas, principalmente mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. A oviposição e a mortalidade dos ácaros foram avaliadas 12; 24; 48 e 96 horas após a pulverização, cujos produtos foram classificados em quatro classes de toxicidade (IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion provocaram 100% de mortalidade, sendo que dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon foram levemente nocivos (classe 2. Malation foi considerado neutro para esta população.The side-effects of agrochemical to Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae were studied in laboratory. The mites were collected in commercial apple orchard of Agropastoril Rincão das Flores, in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, after successive inoculative releases. The insecticids used were recommended to control of same pest, as Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. The reproduction effect and mortality were evalued 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after pulverization, while the agrochemical were ranked in toxicity classes, according to IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion were harmful with ca. 100% of mortality in 24 hours, dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon were slightly harmful (class 2. Malation was harmless.

  13. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Anaplasma marginale in zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks (Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus microplus) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, Daniela; Poppert, Sven; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Hogan, Benedikt; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Thiel, Claudia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    Tick-borne bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is a major constraint to cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions. From Madagascar, clinical cases were published but data based on molecular methods regarding the prevalence and genetic diversity of this pathogen on the island are lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the prevalence of A. marginale in Malagasy zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and their ticks with a species-specific real-time PCR, (2) the genetic diversity of A. marginale based on tandem repeats and microsatellites of the msp1α gene, and (3) the phylogenetic relationship between A. marginale isolates from Madagascar and strains found worldwide. Two hundred fourteen blood samples and 1822 ticks from 214 zebu cattle were collected. Rhipicephalus (R) microplus (40.2%) and Amblyomma (A) variegatum (59.8%) were identified on the cattle. A. marginale DNA was found in 89.7% of the examined zebu cattle and in 62.3% of the examined ticks. The tandem repeat and microsatellite analyses of the mspa1 gene showed high genetic diversity among the isolates between and within the different regions and high infection potential. Eighteen of the 25 tandem repeats identified have not been described before. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of A. marginale strains from Madagascar with South Africa, America and Israel. A common ancestor may originate from South Africa and may have evolved due to phylogeographic characteristics or by a history of cattle movement. Its high prevalence in cattle and ticks, together with a low number of clinical manifestations and a high genetic heterogeneity among the investigated strains, confirms endemic stability of A. marginale in cattle from Madagascar.

  14. TAMBO VIEJO: UN ASENTAMIENTO FORTIFICADO EN EL VALLE DE ACARÍ, PERÚ (Tambo Viejo: A Fortified Settlement in the Acari Valley, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidio M. Valdez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de los asentamientos fortificados y el origen del conflicto violento son temas poco discutidos en el contexto de la arqueología peruana. Considero que es oportuno investigar y determinar cuándo y por qué surgieron los primeros asentamientos fortificados. El propósito central de este artículo está precisamente orientado a responder tales interrogantes y discutir el tema del conflicto violento en el valle de Acarí y, por extensión, en la costa sur del Perú. Las evidencias arqueológicas disponibles señalan que, durante el periodo Intermedio Temprano, Tambo Viejo fue un asentamiento defendido por varias estructuras perimétricas. Otros sitios contemporáneos de Tambo Viejo en Acarí también fueron fortificados. Además, existe en el mismo valle evidencia tangible de violencia en la forma de prisioneros que posteriormente fueron decapitados. En contraste a la evidencia proveniente de Acarí, no existen asentamientos del periodo Intermedio Temprano identificables como fortificaciones, lo que hace de los sitios de Acarí los primeros asentamientos fortificados de toda la costa sur. ENGLISH: The emergence of violent conflict and of fortified settlements is a subject little studied within Peruvian archaeology. However, I consider it vital to investigate and determine the time and the reasons under which fortified settlements were first established. The central aim of this paper is to discuss when and why fortified settlements emerged first in the Acari Valley and, by extension, in the south coast of Peru. Available archaeological evidence indicates that during the Early Intermediate Period, Tambo Viejo was a fortified settlement protected by several massive walls. Other neighbouring sites in Acari were also fortified. Furthermore, in Acari there is conclusive evidence for violence in the form of decapitated individuals. In contrast to evidence coming from Acari, not a single Early Intermediate Period settlement from other

  15. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods.

  16. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp.

  17. Immunization of cattle with Ra86 impedes Rhipicephalus appendiculatus nymphal-to-adult molting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olds, C.; Mwaura, S.; Crowder, D.; Odongo, D.; Oers, van M.M.; Owen, J.; Bishop, R.; Daubenberger, C.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial vaccines based on the tick gut protein Bm86 have been successful in controlling the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and provide heterologous protection against certain other non-target ixodid tick species. This cross protection, however, does not extend to the three-host

  18. Immune response to Babesia bigemina infection in pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, T D; Figueroa, M J V; Ramos, A J A; Rojas, M C; Cantó, A G J; Falcón, N A; Alvarez, M J A

    2004-10-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and is transmitted by the tick vector Boophilus microplus. In this study, we investigate B. bigemina infection regarding the clinical infection, T cell distribution, and cytokine profile during the acute phase of an experimental infection in pregnant cows.

  19. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima; Karen Sumire Kubo; Paulo de Tarso de Oliveira Ferreira; Berenice Kussumoto de Alcântara; Alessandra de Jesus Boari; Renata Takassugi Gomes; Juliana Freitas-Astua; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Gilberto José de Morais; Renato Barbosa Salaroli

    2008-01-01

    Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV). Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hi...

  20. Comparative residual toxicities of pesticides to the predator Agistemus industani (Acari: Stigmaeidae) on citrus in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, C C; Villanueva, R; Aguilar, H; Chewning, R; Michaud, J P

    2001-01-01

    Residual toxicities of registered and selected experimental pesticides used on citrus against Agistemus industani Gonzalez (Acari: Stigmaeidae) were compared. Pesticides considered highly toxic to A. industani were: abamectin 0.15 EC at 731 ml/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, pyridaben 75 WP at 469 g/ha, ethion 4 EC at 7.01 l/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, propargite 6.55 EC at 3.51 l/ha, chlorfenapyr 2 SC at 1.46 l/ha applied alone or in combination with FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, sulphur 80 DF at 16.81 kg/ha. dicofol 4EC at 7.01 l/ha, fenbutatin oxide 50 WP at 2.24 kg/ha, benomyl 50 WP at 2.24 kg/ha, benomyl 50 WP at 1.68 kg/ha + ferbam 76 GF at 5.60 kg/ha, ferbam 76 GF at 11.21 kg/ha, neem oil 90 EC at 46.8 l/ha, and copper hydroxide DF (40% metallic copper) at 4.48 kg metallic copper/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha. Pesticides that were moderately to slightly toxic included: copper sulphate 98% at 4.48 kg metallic copper/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, fenbuconazole 2 F at 280 ml/ha + FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, FC 435-66 petroleum oil applied alone at 46.8 l/ha or 23.41/ha, and diflubenzuron 25 WP at 1.40 kg/ha. Pesticides that were non-toxic included: fenbuconazole 2 F at 585 ml/ha, malathion 57 EC at 5.85 l/ha, FC 435-66 petroleum oil at 46.8 l/ha, carbaryl 80 S at 3.36 kg/ha. chlorpyrifos 4 EC at 4.68 l/ha, and formetanate 92 SP at 1.12 kg/ha. Understanding the toxic effects of field weathered pesticides against key predacious mite species is important for effective IPM. The results of this study provide a comparison of direct and indirect toxic effects of various pesticides to A. industani under field conditions.

  1. Bazı bitkisel kökenli uçucu yağların Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae) üzerine kontakt ve repellent etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    TOPUZ, Emine; MADANLAR, Nilgün

    2010-01-01

    In this study, contact and repellent effects of 5 different plant essential oils against Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Essential oils of aerial parts, leaves or seeds of Mentha pulegium Linnaeus (Labiatae), Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Umbellifera), Pistacia terebinthus Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae), Schinus molle Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae) and Vitex agnus-castus Linnaeus (Verbenaceae) plants, grown around Antalya regio...

  2. Acaricidal, pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using wet chemical route against blood feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2011-08-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the anti-parasitic activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and soluble starch as stabilizing agent against the larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae); head louse Pediculus humanus capitis, De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus, Grassi; and filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, Say (Diptera: Culicidae). R. microplus larvae were exposed to filter paper envelopes impregnated with different ZnO NP concentrations. Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs for 24 h. The results suggested that the mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 43% at 1 h, 64% at 3 h, 78% at 6 h, and 100% after 12 h against R. microplus activity. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 38% at 10 min, 71% at 30 min, 83% at 1 h, and 100% after 6 h against P. humanus capitis. One hundred percent lice mortality was observed at 10 mg/L treated for 6 h. The mortality was confirmed after 24 h of observation period. The larval mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 37%, 72%, 100% and 43%, 78% and 100% at 6, 12, and 24 h against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. It is apparent that the small size and corresponding large specific surface area of small nanometer-scale ZnO particles impose several effects that govern its parasitic action, which are size dependent. ZnO NPs were synthesized by wet chemical process, and it was characterized with the UV showing peak at 361 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the zinc oxide with

  3. Avaliação de extratos vegetais no controle de Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917) (Acari: Tetranychidae) em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Thaiana Mansur Botelho de; EPAMIG-CTSM/EcoCentro; Reis, Paulo Rebelles; EPAMIG-CTSM/EcoCentro; Oliveira, Denilson Ferreira de; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Carvalho, Douglas Antônio de; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA

    2008-01-01

    Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917) (Acari: Tetranychidae) já foi referido como a segunda praga em importância para o cafeeiro Conillon, considerado mais sensível ao ácaro que o Arábica. A aplicação de pesticidas sintéticos no seu controle pode provocar impactos negativos ao ambiente e ao homem. Alternativamente ao uso de tais produtos, surgem outros menos impactantes, como por exemplo, extratos de plantas. Com o presente trabalho, teve-se por objetivo avaliar o efeito de extratos de plantas ...

  4. Otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Clarissa Pimentel; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; de Arruda, Julio Almeida Alencar Matos; Pires, Jeferson Rocha; Takitani, Andréa Yuri; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first description of gross pathological aspects of otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra; Bradypodidae) in Brazil. Mites were collected from massive skin crusts seen in both external ear canals and around both eyes of an extremely debilitated advanced-aged female sloth brought to the Wildlife Care Section of Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  5. [The first report of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (Acari Ixodidae) on the lizard Tupinambis teguixin (L.) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João R; Monticelli, Elida C; Onofrio, Valéria C; Barros-Battesti, Darcy M; Doyle, Rovaina L

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma fuscum known only from Brazil has been described as a rare tick species with few reports of its occurrence in South and Southeast region. This is a new records this tick species (9 females) parasitizing lizard (Tupinambis teguixin) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The females were deposited in the tick collection of Veterinary Research Institute Desiderio Finamor (7 specimens), Eldorado do Sul, RS and in the Acari collection from Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, State of São Paulo (2 specimens). The finding confirms establishment de A. fuscum in the South of Brazil.

  6. Detection of two Bartonella tamiae-like sequences in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) using 16S-23S intergenic spacer region-specific primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Miller, Melissa K; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Levy, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred and sixty-six questing Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) from Carolina County, VA, and 98 questing A. americanum from Chatham County, NC, were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Two amplicons, approximately 270-280 bp, were detected in two ticks from Virginia. Based upon PCR and sequencing, an adult male and adult female tick harbored DNA sequences closely related to Bartonella tamiae (DQ395180). Bartonella DNA was not detected in A. americanum from North Carolina. Potential transmission of Bartonella spp. by A. americanum should be the focus of future experimental studies.

  7. Species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in Qazvin Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemshad, Khadijeh; Rafinejad, Javad; Kamali, Karim; Piazak, Norayer; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mahdi; Shemshad, Masoomeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Nourolahi, Fathollah; Valad Beigi, Enshallah; Enayati, Ahmad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in Qazvin province of Iran. The primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. Information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. A total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. Total direct body collections of ticks were made from each domestic ruminant. A total of 228 Ixodid specimens belonging to nine species in three different genera were recorded in the areas, including Boophilus annulatus (Say, 1821), Hyalomma anatolicum Koch, 1844, Hyalomma asiaticum (Schulze and Schlettke, 1929), Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844, Hyalomma marginatum Koch 1844, Hyalomma schulzei Olenev, 1931, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanz, 1878 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). The most abundant species on sheep was R. sanguineus (46.92%), while B. annulatus (6.6%) found only on cattle. A finding of great significance was that R. sanguineus, the main vector of babesiosis, is firmly established throughout the counties. A further objective of the study was to compare the abundance of the major tick species on domestic ruminants. This was carried out at 19 sampling sites. The highest number of ticks was collected in July-August during the hot season.

  8. Distribution and ecology of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting livestock in Tunisia: an overview of eighth years field collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouattour, A; Darghouth, M A; Daoud, A

    1999-09-01

    Ticks (Ixodidae) play a significant role as vectors of pathogens of domestic animals in Tunisia. The major losses caused by ticks are related to transmission of protozoan parasites. These include agents of tropical theileriosis and babesiosis in ruminants. Since 1991, we conducted research studies on tick population of livestock in Tunisia. This overview reports a synthesis on tick distribution, their biology and their role as vectors of pathogens in domestic animals, particularly cattle. During the whole period of the study about 15,000 tick specimens were collected from different zones of the country. A total of 14 species were identified. Hyalomma detritum detritum was the most abundant and important (vector of Theileria annulata) species infesting cattle. Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma impeltatum were collected on domestic ruminants in the arid and desertic zones. Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum were widespread and found on livestock hosts. Ixodes ricinus, vector of Babesia divergens and Borrelia burgdorferi sl, colonises mainly the humid zone. Boophilus annulatus and Rhipicephalus bursa infesting cattle, sheep and goats were found in the sub-humid and semi-arid zones. Haemaphysalis sulcata and Hae. punctata were collected in humid and sub-humid zones on cattle and sheep. Rhipicephalus turanicus were collected in different regions, on different animal species. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, tick of dogs, were often collected on livestock. Only few specimens of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Hyalomma franchinii were collected.

  9. [Morphological adaptations of acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes) to permanent parasitism on mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The external morphological adaptations to parasitism in acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes), permanently parasiting mammals, are briefly summated and analyzed. According to several external morphological criteria (structures of gnathosoma, idiosoma, setation, legs and life cycle), the following six morphoecotypes were established: skin mites (i)-- Cheyletidae, Chirorhynchobiidae, Lobalgidae, Myobiidae, Myocoptidae (the most part), Rhyncoptidae, Psoroptidae; fur mites (ii)--Atopomelidae, Clirodiscidae, Listrophoridae, Myocoptidae (Trichoecius only); skin burrowing mites (iii)--Sarcoptidae; intradermal mites (iv) - sorergatidae and Demodicidae; interstitial mites (v) - pimyodicidae; respiratory mites (vi) - reynetidae, Gastronyssidae, Lemurnyssidae, Pneumocoptidae. In the case of prostigmatic mites, the detailed reconstruction of the origin and evolution of "parasitic" morphoecotypes is possible due to the tentative phylogenetic hypotheses, which were proposed for the infraorder Eleutherengon, a, including the most part of the permanent mammalian parasites among prostigmatic mites (Kethley in Norton, 1993; Bochkov, 2002). The parasitism of Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) in the mammalian respiratory tract arose independently of the other prostigmats. It is quite possible that these mites switched on mammals from birds, because they are more widely represented on these hosts than on mammals. The prostigmatic parasitism on mammalian skin seems to be originated independently in myobiids, in the five cheyletid tribes, Cheyletiellini, Niheliini, and Teinocheylini, Chelonotini, Cheyletini, and, probably, in a cheyletoid ansector of the sister families Psorergatidae-Demodicidae (Bochkov, Fain, 2001; Bochkov, 2002). Demodicids and psorergatids developed adaptations to parasitism in the skin gland ducts and directly in the epithelial level, respectively in the process of the subsequent specialization. Mites of the family Epimyodicidae belong to the phylogenetic line

  10. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2θ value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30 ± 5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel

  11. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  12. THE EFFECT OF CATTLE LIQUID MANURE FERTILIZATION ON THE SOIL MITES (ACARI OF PERMANENT MEADOW IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR GRACZYK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different doses of cattle liquid manure, with or without the VIT-TRA agent, on the mites of permanent meadow, with species analysis of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida was investigated. Samples were taken from 13 plots, fertilized with cattle liquid manure in doses 40, 60 and 80 m3· ha-1 and VIT-TRA agent. The dose 40 m3· ha-1 increased the abundance of mites, comparing to the control plot, while doses 60 and 80 m3· ha-1 decreased it. The fungicidal agent, with medium and high dose of fertilizer, signifi cantly decreased the density of Oribatida, Gamasida and Actinedida in relation to small dose of fertilizer with this agent. The mites reacted in a similar way to the bactericidal agent, but acting of virocidal agent was indistinct. The Oribatida dominated among the mites, while the Actinedida and Gamasida were less abundant. Among the Oribatida the most abundant were: Parachipteria bella, Liebstadia humerata, Achipteria coleoptrata and Scheloribates laevigatus. The Oribatida preferred the lower part of grasses, and their density distinctly decreased with the soil depth.

  13. The role of the bacterial community in the nutritional ecology of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindel, Renate; Ofek, Maya; Minz, Dror; Palevsky, Eric; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Aebi, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The biology of many arthropods can only be understood when their associated microbiome is considered. The nutritional requirements of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini Claparede (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) in the laboratory have been shown to be very easily satisfied, and in the field the mites prefer fungus-infected over uninfected plants. To test whether symbiotic bacteria facilitate the survival of R. robini on a temporarily nutritionally unbalanced diet, we investigated the composition of its microbiome. Using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments, 3 genera were found to dominate the bacterial community: Myroides (41.4%), Serratia (11.4%), and Alcaligenes (4.5%); the latter 2 are known to include chitinase-producing species. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that mite fecundity is significantly higher (2 times) on fungus than on controls (sterilized potato dextrose agar and filter paper). Also, when mite homogenate was applied to a chitin layer, the halo produced through degradation was clearly visible, while the saline control did not produce a halo. We thus concluded that R. robini utilizes fungal chitin, at least to a certain extent, as a food source with the help of its associated bacteria. This information supports the general concept of multigenome organisms and the involvement of bacteria in the mite's nutritional ecology.

  14. Effect of Hyalomma Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on Milk Production of Dairy Buffaloes (Bos Bubalus Bubalis of Punjab (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Iqbal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate economic losses in terms of milk production caused by tick infestation in dairy buffaloes (Bos bubalus bubalis of Punjab (Pakistan. To this end, six hundred Nili-Ravi buffaloes infested with Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae were selected and divided into two equal groups viz; A & B. The animals of group A were treated with various doses of 5% cypermethrine pour-on (Cipermetriven, Ivan Labs, Spain while those of group B were treated with propylene glycol (Propandiol - (1, 2, Merck as a sham treatment. Average milk production (L and butter fat (% was recorded before and after treatment in order to calculate post-treatment increase in these parameters (if any. An average daily increase of 1.15L in milk yield per animal with 1.31% more fat was observed in acaricide- treated animals. A dose-dependent effect of acaricide was found on the number of ticks as well as milk production and fat. The results provided a baseline data for further research on economic impact of tick nuisance to the smallholder dairy farming systems of Pakistan.

  15. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  16. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-05-11

    The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867 (Acari: Tetranychidae, and Its Response to β-Sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunya Bu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes—including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C—were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes—such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin—may also play important roles in mites’ response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Its Response to β-Sitosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Chunya; Li, Jinling; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Shi, Guanglu; Peng, Bo; Han, Jingyu; Gao, Pin; Wang, Younian

    2015-01-01

    Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes-including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C-were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes-such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin-may also play important roles in mites' response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol.

  19. Precopulatory mate guarding influences the development of quiescent deutonymph females in the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Individuals of some organisms have a specific stage sensitive to environmental cues that initiate developmental plasticity which subsequently influences their entire development. Females may use male behaviour such as precopulatory mate guarding as an environmental cue to change their developmental rate. In the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), only the first insemination results in fertilization and males guard quiescent deutonymph females. As quiescent individuals take on a silvery appearance before moulting, the period of the quiescent stage can be divided into two parts: from entering the quiescent stage to becoming silvery (1st period) and from becoming silvery to moulting (2nd period). Females may be sensitive to precopulatory mate guarding immediately before moulting (i.e. 2nd period). Thus, I examined whether precopulatory mate guarding during either period affects the total developmental duration of quiescent deutonymph females. When guarded by a male, the whole developmental duration of the quiescent deutonymph females became significantly shorter (by 3-5%) than that of solitary ones, regardless whether the guarding occurred during the 1st period, the 2nd period or both periods. In conclusion, quiescent deutonymph T. urticae females use precopulatory mate guarding by conspecific males as an environmental cue for their developmental rate, although they are sensitive to the mate guarding not only immediately before moulting.

  20. The red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acari: Tetranychidae): its status, biology, ecology and management in tea plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda

    2014-08-01

    Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), the red spider mite (RSM), is a major pest of tea (Camellia sinensis) in most tea-producing countries. Nymphs and adults of RSM lacerate cells, producing minute characteristic reddish brown marks on the upper surface of mature leaves, which turn red in severe cases of infestation, resulting in crop loss. The pest is present on tea all the year round, although numbers vary depending on season. Their number increases as the weather warms up and decreases markedly once rains set in. Under optimal conditions there may be 22 overlapping generations in a year. Parthenogenesis is known to occur; consequently, all mite stages can be found at a given time. Their infestation is mainly confined to the upper surface of the mature leaves and could readily be identified by the bronzing of the leaf. There are several naturally occurring insect predators, such as coccinellid and staphylinid larvae, lacewing larvae, and mite predators, most importantly species of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae. Integrated management has been adopted to control this mite pest, involving cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical methods. This review collates the most important works carried out on biology, ecology and management of O. coffeae. Also the scope of future studies for better management of this regular mite pest of tea is discussed.

  1. Development and reproductive potential of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae) on plant-parasitic nematodes and artificial diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Osman, Mohamed Ali

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated development, reproduction and life table parameters of the astigmatid mold mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae) feeding on egg-masses or adult females of the nematode Meloidogyne incognita, egg-masses of the nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, ras cheese or yeast at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH in the dark. Immature developmental times were shorter when the mite was fed females of M. incognita followed by yeast. Different prey/diet types had no significant effect on longevity and lifespan of both males and females. Daily oviposition rate (eggs/female/day) was highest for mites fed yeast (20.8 ± 1.8 eggs) and lowest for mites fed females of M. incognita (6.6 ± 0.5). Intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) was highest for mites fed yeast compared to other prey/diet; no significant differences in r m were observed among mites fed on non-yeast diets. This result may suggest a role of T. putrescentiae as biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematodes and the yeast may be used for mite mass-production purposes.

  2. Relative contribution of biotic and abiotic factors to the population density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A

    2013-08-01

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities.

  3. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems.

  4. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  5. Experimental infestation with the immatures of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae on Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae and Oryctolagus cuniculus Infestação experimental com as fases imaturas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae e Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.T. Freitas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas provenientes de duas fêmeas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, naturalmente ingurgitadas em uma iguana (Iguana iguana e provenientes do Estado do Mato Grosso, foram utilizadas na infestação experimental de lagartos da espécie Tropidurus torquatus e coelhos domésticos. As larvas alimentadas em ambos os hospedeiros realizaram ecdise para ninfas. As ninfas apenas ingurgitaram no lagarto e mudaram para machos e fêmeas. Este é o primeiro registro do parasitismo de larvas e ninfas de A. dissimile em T. torquatus e de larvas em coelhos.

  6. Copper nanoparticles synthesized by polyol process used to control hematophagous parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramyadevi, Jeyaraman; Jeyasubramanian, Kadarkaraithangam; Marikani, Arumugam; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2011-11-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the anti-parasitic activities of the hematophagous (blood feeding) larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi, filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and the larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae). The metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) synthesized by polyol process from copper acetate as precursor and Tween 80 were used as both the medium and the stabilizing reagent. The efficacy of synthesized Cu NPs was tested against the larvae of blood-sucking parasites. UV-vis spectra characterization was performed, and peak was observed at 575 nm, which is the characteristic to the surface plasmon bond of Cu NPs. The strong surface plasmon absorption band observed at 575 nm may be due to the formation of non-oxidized Cu NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectral data showed concentric rings corresponding to the 26.79 (111), 34.52 (200), and 70.40 (220) reflections. XRD spectrum of the copper nanoparticles exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the copper nanocrystal. No peaks of impurities are observed in XRD data. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) showed structures of irregular polygonal, cylindrical shape, and the size range was found to be 35-80 nm. The size of the Cu NPs was measured by atomic force microscope (AFM) in non-contact mode. For imaging by AFM, the sample was suspended in acetone and spins coated on a silicon wafer. The line profile image was drawn by the XEI software and the horizontal line at 6 μm on a 2D AFM image. Research has demonstrated that metallic nanoparticles produce toxicity in aquatic organisms that is due largely to effects of particulates as opposed to release of dissolved ions. Copper acetate solution tested against the parasite larvae exposed to varying concentrations and the larval mortality was observed for 24 h. The larval percent mortality observed in synthesized Cu NPs were 36, 49, 75, 93,100; 32, 53

  7. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae Selectivity ofthe pesticides tothe predaceous mite Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli,, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros predadores das famílias Phytoseiidae e Stigmaeidae constituem-se nos principais inimigos naturais de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes em citros. Este ácaro-praga causa sérios prejuízos na produção, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros (CiLV. Apesar do grande volume de informações sobre a sensibilidade de ácaros Phytoseiidae a agrotóxicos, praticamente não existem informações sobre o efeito desses compostos em ácaros Stigmaeidae no Brasil. Sendo assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae, em condições de laboratório. Arenas de folhas de citros da variedade Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de A. brasiliensis, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se as mortalidades dos ácaros 72 horas após a aplicação. O efeito dos produtos na reprodução do acarino e a viabilidade dos ovos também foram avaliados. Quanto à seletividade, conforme proposta da "Organização Internacional para o Controle Biológico" (IOBC, os produtos foram classificados como: classe 1 - inócuo (E99%, calda sulfocálcica, cyhexatin, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, óxido de fenbutatin, propargite, pyridaben e spirodiclofen. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda são necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.The predaceous mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae are the most important natural enemies of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes on citrus. This mite causes serious damages to the yield due to the transmission of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Despite the considerable amount of information on susceptibility of phytoseiids to pesticides, the effect of these compounds is not very known for stigmaeid mites in Brazil. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the main pesticides used in

  8. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na cultura da macieira a Neoseiulus Californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae1 Pesticide selectivity used in apple crops Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine de Andrade Meyer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos secundários dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em macieira sobre adultos e imaturos de Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os testes foram conduzidos em laboratório, utilizando as doses dos produtos recomendadas para a cultura e o método de contato e residual com pulverização em superfície de folha. Foram testados tebufenozida, fosmete, metidationa, clorpirifós, abamectina, fenpiroximato, piridabem, captana, mancozebe (duas dosagens e ditianona. Para o cálculo do efeito total (E% sobre os adultos, avaliaram-se a mortalidade, a oviposição e a viabilidade dos ovos, e para os imaturos, somente a mortalidade. Os resultados do E% foram avaliados 96 horas após a pulverização. Os produtos foram classificados quanto ao efeito total (E% de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC/WPRS. Fosmete, tebufenozida e metidationa foram inócuos; abamectina, fenpiroximato, clorpirifós, captana, mancozebe (nas duas dosagens testadas e ditianona foram levemente nocivos, e piridabem foi moderadamente nocivo aos adultos de N. californicus. O fungicida mancozebe, na maior dosagem (320g,i.a./100L, foi o que mais afetou o ácaro predador. Quanto à seletividade dos agrotóxicos aos imaturos, constatouse que abamectina e piridabem foram moderadamente nocivos, e os demais foram inócuos. Nenhum produto foi classificado como nocivo, evidenciando a tolerância de N. californicus a estes agrotóxicos. Estes resultados permitem uma escolha e manejo mais adequado para os agrotóxicos utilizados nos pomares comerciais de macieira, de forma que a presença deste ácaro predador exerça pressão de controle do ácaro-vermelho.The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of the main pesticides used in adult and immature Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. The tests were carried out in the laboratory by using the contact and residual spraying method on the leaf surface. It was tested

  9. Ocorrência do ácaro fitófago Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae em cultivares de milho Bt Occurrence of the phytophagous mite Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae on Bt corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Matiello Fadini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência do microácaro-da-face-inferior-das-folhas-de-milho Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae em cultivares transgênicas de milho, contendo as proteínas Cry1F e Cry 1 A(b e milho não Bt. Durante o período de junho de 2010 a janeiro de 2011, foram coletadas, quinzenalmente, cinco amostras aleatórias de quatro folhas em talhões de milho Bt, contendo a proteína Cry 1F e Cry 1 A(b, e de milho não Bt em áreas experimentais da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, em Sete Lagoas, MG. As amostras de folhas foram vistoriadas por 15 minutos na região da nervura central, em busca de adultos de C. tricholaenae. Foram registrados 2.930 indivíduos de C. tricholaenae, sendo que 1.114 no milho Bt Cry 1F, 753 em Cry 1 A(b e 1063 indivíduos em folhas das cultivares não Bt. As maiores abundâncias populacionais médias ocorreram nos meses de novembro e dezembro. Os fatores estágio fenológico das plantas e precipitação afetaram positivamente a abundância de C. tricholaenae. A abundância média do período de coleta de C. tricholaenae foi reduzida pela cultivar de milho contendo a proteína Cry 1 A(b. Esse é o primeiro registro de ácaros sobre cultivares de milho transgênico no Brasil.The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of "microácaro-da-face-inferior-das-folhas-de-milho" Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae on transgenic cultivars of corn containing proteins Cry1F and Cry 1 A (b and non-Bt corn. During the period from June 2010 to January 2011 were collected, every two weeks, five random samples of four leaves in plots of Bt corn containing the protein Cry 1F and Cry 1 A (b and non-Bt corn in the experimental area of Embrapa Corn and Sorghum, Sete Lagoas, MG. The leaf samples were examined for 15 minutes in the central region of leaf in search of adult C. tricholaenae. We recorded 2930 individuals of C. tricholaenae, 1114 on Bt Cry 1F, 752 on Cry 1 A

  10. Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Cherry, Cara C; Maes, Sarah E; Pilgard, Mark A; Hojgaard, Andrias; Buttke, Danielle E; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2016-12-27

    Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure.

  11. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  12. Phylogeny and species delineation in European species of the genus Steganacarus (Acari, Oribatida) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.

  13. The invasive spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) alters community composition and host-plant use of native relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Francisco; Garzón-Luque, Eva; Pekas, Apostolos

    2013-07-01

    The tomato spider mite Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a worldwide pest of solanaceous crops that has recently invaded many parts of the world. In the present study we examined the ecological impact of its arrival in the Mediterranean region. The spider mite and phytoseiid mite assemblages in various crop and non-crop plants in three areas of Valencia (Spain) were studied a few months before and 10 years after the invasion of T. evansi. According to rarefaction analyses, the invasion of T. evansi did not affect neither the total number of species in the mite community examined (spider mite and phytoseiid species) nor the number of species when the two communities were examined separately. However, after the invasion, the absolute and relative abundance of the native Tetranychus species was significantly reduced. Before the invasion, T. urticae and T. turkestani were the most abundant spider mites, accounting for 62.9 and 22.8 % of the specimens. After the invasion, T. evansi became the most abundant species, representing 60 % of the total spider mites recorded, whereas the abundance of T. urticae was significantly reduced (23 %). This reduction took place principally on non-crop plants, where native species were replaced by the invader. Null model analyses provided evidence for competition structuring the spider mite community on non-crop plants after the invasion of T. evansi. Resistance to acaricides, the absence of efficient native natural enemies, manipulation of the plant defenses and the web type produced by T. evansi are discussed as possible causes for the competitive displacement.

  14. A novel spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) in highlands of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-04-01

    The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in highland areas (elevation >3500 m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. africae, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections.

  15. Distribution, hosts, 16S rDNA sequences and phylogenetic position of the Neotropical tick Amblyomma parvum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Szabó, M P J; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A

    2008-07-01

    The hosts, distribution, intraspecific genetic variation and phylogenetic position of Amblyomma parvum (Acari: Ixodidae) have recently been re-assessed. Data on this tick's hosts and distribution were obtained not only from existing literature but also from unpublished records. Sequences of the ticks' mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate genetic variation among specimens of A. parvum from different localities in Argentina and Brazil, and to explore the phylogenetic relationships between this tick and other Amblyomma species. Although several species of domestic and wild mammal act as hosts for adult A. parvum, most collected adults of this species have come from cattle and goats. Caviid rodents of the subfamily Caviinae appear to be the hosts for the immature stages. So far, A. parvum has been detected in 12 Neotropical biogeographical provinces (Chaco, Cerrado, Eastern Central America, Venezuelan Coast, Pantanal, Parana Forest, Caatinga, Chiapas, Venezuelan Llanos, Monte, Western Panamanian Isthmus, and Roraima) but the Chaco province has provided significantly more specimens than any other (P<0.0001). The 16S rDNA sequences showed just 0.0%-1.1% divergence among the Argentinean A. parvum investigated and no more than 0.2% divergence among the Brazilian specimens. The observed divergence between the Argentinean and Brazilian specimens was, however, greater (3.0%-3.7%). Although there is now molecular and morphological evidence to indicate that A. parvum, A. pseudoparvum, A. auricularium and A. pseudoconcolor are members of a natural group, previous subgeneric classifications do not reflect this grouping. The subgeneric status of these tick species therefore needs to be re-evaluated. The 16S-rDNA-based evaluation of divergence indicates that the gene flow between Argentinean and Brazilian 'A. parvum' is very limited and that the Argentinean 'A. parvum' may be a different species to the Brazilian.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of a native strain of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p<0.01) when compared to CG, depending on the time of exposure and the conidial concentration. A 100% mortality rate was recorded using a CIS of 10(9) conidia/ml 12 days post infection (DPI) in adults and 14 DPI in nymphs. B. bassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite.

  17. Primeiro relato de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (acari: ixodidae parasitando lagarto da espécie Tupinambis teguixin (L., no município de Glorinha, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The first report of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (acari ixodidae on the lizard Tupinambis teguixin (L. at the municipality of Glorinha, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João R Martins

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma fuscum conhecida somente no Brasil, tem sido descrita como uma espécie rara de carrapato com relatos de sua ocorrência nas regiões sul e sudeste. Este é um novo registro desta espécie (9 fêmeas parasitando lagarto (Tupinambis teguixin, no Município de Glorinha, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As fêmeas foram depositadas na coleção do Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor (7 espécimes e na coleção de Acari do Instituto Butantan, Estado de São Paulo (2 espécimes. O achado confirma o estabelecimento de A. fuscum no Sul do Brasil.Amblyomma fuscum known only from Brazil has been described as a rare tick species with few reports of its occurrence in South and Southeast region. This is a new records this tick species (9 females parasitizing lizard (Tupinambis teguixin at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The females were deposited in the tick collection of Veterinary Research Institute Desiderio Finamor (7 specimens, Eldorado do Sul, RS and in the Acari collection from Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, State of São Paulo (2 specimens. The finding confirms establishment de A. fuscum in the South of Brazil.

  18. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  19. Overwintering survival and postdiapause fecundity in a population of the Kanzawa spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Orixa japonica (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Katsura

    2011-01-01

    In several adult-diapausing insects and mites, long duration of diapause decreases egg production after diapause termination. However, such nonlethal effects are much less studied than overwintering survival. In this study, lethal and nonlethal effects of different periods of diapause were investigated in an adult-diapausing spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), through field experiments. Diapausing females produced in the laboratory were kept in their natural habitat from October or November to the next April, and survival rate and postdiapause fecundity were compared between the months. The survival rate was lower, but not significantly, in the October treatment. Postdiapause fecundity was also not significantly different between the months. These results suggest that the effects of diapause on survival and reproduction are quite small after October, when diapausing mites are increasing in their natural habitat.

  20. Taxonomic value of morphological and morphometrical characters in the immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnus, Elena; Zandigiacomo, Pietro

    2014-08-28

    The immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia have been studied and identified both at stage and species level. Larval stages of Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka and all immature stages of Kampimodromus ericinus Ragusa di Chiara & Tsolakis and Kampimodromus langei Wainstein & Arutunjan are described for the first time. The relative length of the posterior dorsal setae Z4 make the larvae of Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) easy to separate from those of the other three species. Nymphs of each species had similar diagnostics to the adults of the respective species. Ontogeny of the idiosomal and leg setation of the Kampimodromus immatures studied in comparison to the available data from immatures of other phytoseiid species is discussed. The length of seta Z4 in the K. aberrans larva, and the number of setae on leg IV of the deutonymphs of the four Kampimodromus species, are proposed as additional taxonomic traits for Phytoseiidae. 

  1. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM CITROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIS PAULO REBELLES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae, associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, conforme metodologia da IOBC. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado por meio de pulverização direta sobre os ovos dos ácaros predadores, também em superfície de vidro. A persistência dos produtos foi avaliada em laboratório, em arenas confeccionadas com folhas de laranjeira pulverizadas no campo, aos 0; 5; 15 e 30 dias após a aplicação. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que chlorfenapyr foi nocivo ao I. zuluagai e E. alatus e o fenbutatin-oxide foi levemente nocivo a E. alatus e inócuo a I. zuluagai. Nenhum dos produtos apresentou efeito ovicida. Fenbutatin-oxide apresentou baixa persistência para ambas as espécies de ácaros predadores, e chlorfenapyr, na dosagem de 31,3 ml, foi de baixa persistência, enquanto, na dosagem de 62,5 ml, foi moderadamente persistente. O fenbutatin-oxide apresentou-se inócuo e levemente nocivo aos ácaros predadores I. zuluagai e E. alatus, respectivamente, e de baixa persistência para ambas as espécies

  2. Identification and characterization of microRNAs by deep-sequencing in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jin; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify miRNA expression, family distribution, and nucleotide characteristics, and discovered novel miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum. The result showed that miR-1-3p, miR-275-3p, and miR-92a were expressed abundantly. There was a strong bias on miRNA, family members, and nucleotide compositions at certain positions in H.a. anatolicum miRNA. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 6, 16, and 18, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle, and end of conserved miRNAs. Analysis of the conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum were concentrated along three diverse phylogenetic branches of bilaterians, insects and coelomates. Two possible roles for the use of miRNA in H.a. anatolicum could be presumed based on its parasitic life cycle: to maintain a large category of miRNA families of different animals, and/or to preserve stringent conserved seed regions with active changes in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end regions. These might help the parasite to undergo its complex life style in different hosts and adapt more readily to the host changes. The present study represents the first large scale characterization of H.a. anatolicum miRNAs, which could further the understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as initiate miRNA studies

  3. The glycoprotein TRP36 of Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and related cattle pathogen Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV evolved from a highly variable clade of E. canis under adaptive diversifying selection

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J.; Fuente, José de la

    2014-01-01

    Background A new species of Ehrlichia, phylogenetically distant from E. ruminantium, was found in 2010 infecting cattle in Canada. In 2012 and 2013, we reported the in vitro propagation, molecular and ultrastructural characterization of Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV (E. mineirensis), a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from the haemolymph of Brazilian Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. A new organism, named Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV, closely related to Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV, was recently describe...

  4. Endectocide activity of a pour-on formulation containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Heloisa Cristina; Prette, Nancy [UNESP; Lopes,Welber Daniel Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro M; Buzzulini, Carolina [UNESP; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Cruz,Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen F Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo [UNESP; Carvalho,Rafael Silveira; Maciel, Willian Giquelin [UNESP; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate, through ten different studies, the therapeutic efficacy of a new pour-on formulation, containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, against parasites of cattle. Results obtained on trials against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus showed that the pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained superior efficacy indexes against this ectoparasite, when compared with formulations containing 0.5 per cent ivermectin...

  5. AcEST: BP914537 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.8 sp|Q86RN8|MYSP_BOOMI Paramyosin OS=Boophilus microplus GN=PRM PE... 32 1.8 sp|P18042|POL_HV2G...+ A S+T E+ Sbjct: 57 EKSDLTVQLMQ------LSDRLEEAEGSSETVVEM 85 >sp|P18042|POL_HV2G1 Gag-Pol polyprotein OS=Huma

  6. Ocorrência de Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888 (Acari: Macronyssidae em filhotes de Megascops choliba (corujinha-do-mato e Pitangus sulphuratus (bem-te-vi, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Ocurrence of Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888 (Acari: Macronyssidae on Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl and Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee nestlings in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina S. Mascarenhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre e Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal de Pelotas - RS atendeu dois filhotes de Megascops choliba (corujinha-do-mato (Strigiformes - Strigidae e dois de Pitangus sulphuratus (bem-te-vi (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae intensamente parasitados por ácaros, em maio de 2005 e dezembro de 2006, respectivamente. Os filhotes e o ninho de P. sulphuratus foram recolhidos na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas - RS após forte temporal. Os ácaros foram removidos, colocados em álcool 70% e levados ao laboratório de parasitologia para identificação. Os espécimes foram clarificados em lactofenol, montados em meio de Hoyer e identificados como Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae. Registra-se Megascops choliba e Pitangus sulphuratus como hospedeiros de Ornithonyssus bursa, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The Center for Rehabilitation of Wildlife and Center for Selection of Wild Animal of the Federal University of Pelotas has attended two nestlings of Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl (Strigiformes - Strigidae and two of Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae heavily parasitized by mites, in May 2005 and December 2006, respectively. The nestlings and the nest of P. sulphuratus were collected in the Pelotas urban area after severe storms. The mites were removed, clarified in lactofenol, permanently mounted in Hoyer's medium and identified as Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae. Megascops choliba and Pitangus sulphuratus are reported as host of Ornithonyssus bursa in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  7. Biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets of three rubber tree clones Ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae em folíolos de três clones de seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo José Fazzio Feres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets from three rubber tree clones. The biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, a potential rubber tree pest mite, was studied by the observation of individuals reared on leaflets of the clones GT 1, PB 235 and RRIM 600, in controlled environmental conditions. Three daily observations were done of 60 eggs on leaflets from each clone in order to verify the development of immature stages and the female oviposition. The fertility life table was constructed based in the collected data. Mites reared on PB 235 had faster rate of development, requiring less time in days, to double its population in number (TD, and had the highest values for egg production, female longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and finite rate of increase (λ. Lower reproductive values and the longest time necessary to reach adult stage were recorded for the mites on GT 1. In all studied clones, the deutonymphal phase had the highest viability, while the larval phase had the lowest, highlighted by the survivorship curve that indicated high mortality during this life stage. The clone PB 235 allowed the most suitable conditions for the development of T. heveae, followed by RRIM 600, while GT 1 was the less suitable substratum to rear this mite species.O ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, um potencial ácaro-praga da seringueira, foi estudado a partir de indivíduos criados sobre folíolos destacados dos clones GT 1, PB 235 e RRIM 600, em condições controladas. Três observações diárias foram realizadas, acompanhando-se o desenvolvimento de 60 ovos e de sua prole em folíolos de cada um dos clones, para verificação da oviposição das fêmeas e dos estágios de desenvolvimento. A partir dos dados obtidos, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os ácaros criados sobre folíolos de PB 235 apresentaram r

  8. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the storage mite pest Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acari: Acaridae) and comparative mitogenomic analysis of four acarid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin

    2016-02-01

    Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family

  9. Effect of Calea serrata Less. n-hexane extract on acetylcholinesterase of larvae ticks and brain Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Vera Lucia Sardá; Vanzella, Cláudia; Moysés, Felipe dos Santos; Santos, Jaqueline Campiol Dos; Martins, João Ricardo Souza; von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2012-10-26

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses, is a target for pesticides and its inhibition by organophosphates leads to paralysis and death of arthropods. It has been demonstrated that the n-hexane extract of Calea serrata had acaricidal activity against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The aim of the present study was to understand the mechanism of the acaricidal action of C. serrata n-hexane extract are specifically to investigate the in vitro anticholinesterase activity on larvae of R. microplus and in brain structures of male Wistar rats. The n-hexane extract significantly inhibited in vitro acetylcholinesterase activity in R. microplus larvae and rat brain structures. The results confirm that inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a possible mechanism of action of hexane extract at C. serrata.

  10. Differences between populations of Spinturnix myoti (Acari: Mesostigmata) in breeding and non-breeding colonies of Myotis myotis (Chiroptera) in central Europe: the effect of roost type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawa, Tomasz; Szubert-Kruszyńska, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    We studied variations in the abundance of parasitic spinturnicid mites in relation to the gender, age and body condition of bats living in different habitats. Populations of Spinturnix myoti Kolenati, 1856 (Acari: Spinturnicidae), an ectoparasite of the bat Myotis myotis (Borkhausen) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), were investigated in two types of roosts differing in microclimatic conditions: caves (low temperature and high humidity) and attics (high temperature and low humidity). Our data suggest that bats from cave nursery colonies harbour more parasites than those from attic colonies, irrespective of host sex or age. In underground colonies, adult females and their young differ in the mean abundance of parasites, whereas no such differences were found in attic colonies. Non-lactating females from underground roosts and lactating females from attic colonies had similar parasite loads, were lower than those of adult lactating females from caves. A negative correlation between the host body condition index and parasite load was found only in the most infected sex/age group of bats. In spite of significant differences in parasite load, the mean abundance of particular life stages of mites seems to be independent of the type of roost occupied by the host, its sex or age. However, in attic colonies the number of female deutonymphs was twice that of male deutonymphs, whereas in cave colonies the proportions of the sexes were similar. We suggest that the microclimate of the host's roosts may influence ectoparasite abundance through pressure on the sex ratio in the nymphal stages of mites.

  11. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  12. Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar and the predator Euseius ho (DeLeon (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evila C. Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa and the predator Euseius ho (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae. Cassava is attacked by several pests, among which the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are major natural enemies of pestmites and are naturally found inhabiting cassava plants in the field. We evaluated the temporal variation of the developmental stages of M. tanajoa and the most abundant predatory mite in cassava fields in the study region, the phytoseiid Euseius ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were low during the rainy season, increasing over the cultivation cycle of cassava and peaking in the dry season. Overall, the larval stage of M. tanajoa presented the lowest densities throughout time. Densities of all developmental stages of E. ho were low and remained constant throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. The number of eggs, nymphs and adults of M. tanajoa was higher in comparison to the larval stage whereas there were no differences in densities of the stages of E. ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were negatively correlated with precipitation. Densities of the stages of egg, nymph and adult of M. tanajoa were positively related while the stage of larva was negatively related to temperature. We conclude that it is important to consider the population structure in studies of population dynamics of arthropods as each developmental stage experiences and responds uniquely to the local environment over time.

  13. Syringophilid mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with the rails (Aves: Rallidae) and a key to the species of the genus Rafapicobia Skoracki, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Skorupski, Maciej; Kavetska, Katarzyna

    2014-07-01

    The fauna of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae Lavoipierre, 1953 (Acari: Prostigmata Cheyletoidea) parasitising birds of the family Rallidae Vigors (Gruiformes) is updated. A new species, Rafapicobia melzeri n. sp. (subfamily Picobiinae), is described from four host species: Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus (type-host) from Germany, Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Swainson) from Chile, Porzana porzana (Linnaeus) from France and P. parva (Scopoli) from Kirghizia. The new species is most similar to R. lepidocolaptesi Skoracki & Solarczyk, 2012 but differs in the absence of agenital plates and the length ratios of setae ag2:g1 and vi:ve:si in females and in the punctate ornament on the hysteronotal and the pygidial shields in males. A key to the species of the genus Rafapicobia is proposed. This is the first record of a representative of the subfamily Picobiinae on gruiform birds. Additionally, new rallid hosts are reported for Charadriphilus ralli Skoracki & Bochkov, 2010 (subfamily Syringophilinae): Gallinula melanops (Vieillot) from Chile, Laterallus melanophaius (Vieillot) from Paraguay, and P. parva (Scopoli) from Kirghizia.

  14. Molecular characterization and evolutionary insights into potential sex-determination genes in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the process of sex determination at the molecular level in species belonging to the subclass Acari, a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The recent sequencing of the transcriptome and genome of the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis allows investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of sex determination in this predator of phytophagous pest mites. We identified four doublesex-and-mab-3-related transcription factor (dmrt) genes, one transformer-2 gene, one intersex gene, and two fruitless-like genes in M. occidentalis. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to infer the molecular relationships to sequences from species of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, acarines, and a centipede, using available genomic data. Comparative analyses revealed high sequence identity within functional domains and confirmed that the architecture for certain sex-determination genes is conserved in arthropods. This study provides a framework for identifying potential target genes that could be implicated in the process of sex determination in M. occidentalis and provides insight into the conservation and change of the molecular components of sex determination in arthropods.

  15. Secondary structure prediction for complete rDNA sequences (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, and comparison of divergent domains structures across Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li

    2013-10-01

    According to base pairing, the rRNA folds into corresponding secondary structures, which contain additional phylogenetic information. On the basis of sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) of Demodex, we predicted the secondary structure of the complete rDNA sequence (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, which was in concordance with that of the main arthropod lineages in past studies. And together with the sequence data from GenBank, we also predicted the secondary structures of divergent domains in SSU rRNA of 51 species and in LSU rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea and Ixodoidea). The multiple alignment among the four superfamilies in Acari showed that, insertions from Tetranychoidea SSU rRNA formed two newly proposed helixes, and helix c3-2b of LSU rRNA was absent in Demodex (Cheyletoidea) taxa. Generally speaking, LSU rRNA presented more remarkable differences than SSU rRNA did, mainly in D2, D3, D5, D7a, D7b, D8 and D10.

  16. Toxicidade diferencial de produtos à base de abamectina ao ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae em citros Differential toxicity of abamectin based products over Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Júnior de Andrade

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis é uma das principais pragas dos citros por ser vetor do "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV, agente causal da leprose, uma das mais graves doenças da citricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito tóxico de produtos à base de abamectina sobre o ácaro B. phoenicis. Foram realizados um experimento de ação direta e três de ação residual no Laboratório de Acarologia do Departamento de Proteção de Plantas (Fitossanidade da FCAV - UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento adotado nos bioensaios foi o inteiramente casualizado, onde 10 tratamentos foram repetidos 7 vezes, sendo cada repetição composta por um fruto de laranja. Os tratamentos estudados (mL p.c./100 L de água foram: Acaramik a 20; 30; 40 e 50 mL; Vertimec a 30 e 40 mL; Abamectin Nortox a 30 e 40 mL; Tricofol a 77 mL e uma testemunha sem aplicação. Utilizaram-se frutos com presença de verrugose, que foram lavados e parcialmente parafinados, deixando-se uma área sem parafina, que foi circundada com cola entomológica para contenção dos ácaros. Transferiram-se 20 ácaros adultos B. phoenicis para cada fruto. No bioensaio de ação direta, a transferência foi realizada antes das aplicações e, nos bioensaios de ação residual, aos 5; 10 e 15 dias após a aplicação dos produtos. A aplicação dos produtos sobre os frutos foi realizada em Torre de Potter. Os resultados obtidos nos bioensaios evidenciaram que os melhores tratamentos foram: Tricofol a 77 mL, Acaramik a 40 e 50 mL e Vertimec a 40 mL. De forma geral, os produtos testados podem ser utilizados no controle do ácaro B. phoenicis.The mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is one of the most important pests in Brazil citrus plantation, because it is the virus "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV vector, one of the most serious citrus plantation diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the toxical effect of abamectin in the mite B. phoenicis. It was performed

  17. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosso de Ferradás, B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Checklist and catalog publications demonstrate a clear connection between basic taxonomy and biodiversity issues. According to some estimates, only 10-30% of all global species have been named. As in other fields, catalogs provide an important source of information concerning species diversity in freshwater ecology.

    South America is a continent dominated by freshwater ecosystems. The tremendous habitat diversity created by this landscape supports a high number of arthropods, including water mites, which belong to the hyperdiverse group Acari. South America has a substantial task ahead in cataloging its biodiversity.

    Much has been published on water mites in South America. In fact, according to Besch, water mites were the most studied with the exception of Europe up until the 1960’s. Most of the collections were conducted by two acarologists (Lundblad and Karl Viets during the 1940’s. Today, the collection, identification and description process of water mites is slower. In the 1980’s, the north-american acarologist D. R. Cook produced two lengthy papers about neotropical water mites in four regions of South America. Recently, several Argentine acarologists have published papers on water mites from diverse habitats and regions in South America.

    The catalog presented here includes information regarding 6 superfamilies, including 23 families in 118 genera of true water mites (Hydrachnidia, Parasitengona, Acari. It also includes the references concerning the species, distribution in various regions of South America and –as far as known– habitat.

    At present, there are 916 species from several authors cataloged in 11 countries in South America. The degree of knowledge varies greatly from country to country, with numerous entries for Brazil and none for French Guiana.

    Las publicaciones de catálogos y listados de especies determinan una clara conexión entre taxonomía básica y temas

  18. Sampling method evaluation and empirical model fitting for count data to estimate densities of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on 'Hass' avocado leaves in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesús R; Saremi, Naseem T; Castillo, Martin J; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important foliar spider mite pest of 'Hass' avocados in several commercial production areas of the world. In California (USA), O. perseae densities in orchards can exceed more than 100 mites per leaf and this makes enumerative counting prohibitive for field sampling. In this study, partial enumerative mite counts along half a vein on an avocado leaf, an industry recommended practice known as the "half-vein method", was evaluated for accuracy using four data sets with a combined total of more than 485,913 motile O. perseae counted on 3849 leaves. Sampling simulations indicated that the half-vein method underestimated mite densities in a range of 15-60 %. This problem may adversely affect management of this pest in orchards and potentially compromise the results of field research requiring accurate mite density estimation. To address this limitation, four negative binomial regression models were fit to count data in an attempt to rescue the half-vein method for estimating mite densities. These models were incorporated into sampling plans and evaluated for their ability to estimate mite densities on whole leaves within 30-tree blocks of avocados. Model 3, a revised version of the original half-vein model, showed improvement in providing reliable estimates of O. perseae densities for making assessments of general leaf infestation densities across orchards in southern California. The implications of these results for customizing the revised half-vein method as a potential field sampling tool and for experimental research in avocado production in California are discussed.

  19. Controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 E Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae em cafeeiro e o impacto sobre ácaros benéficos: I - abamectin e emamectin Control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae in coffee plants and the impact on beneficial mites: I - Abamectin and emamectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rebelles Reis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae é importante em cafeeiro (Coffea spp., por ser o vetor do vírus da mancha-anular, responsável por queda de folhas e má qualidade da bebida do café, e o ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tetranychidae, por reduzir a área foliar de fotossíntese. Alguns ácaros da família Phytoseiidae são eficientes predadores associados aos ácaros-praga. Com este trabalho teve-se como objetivo estudar o controle dos ácaros-praga e o impacto do abamectin e emamectin sobre fitoseídeos. Em laboratório, foram estudados os efeitos ovicida, tópico, residual, tópico mais residual aos ácaros-praga e a seletividade fisiológica aos fitoseídeos. Em semicampo, foi estudada a persistência dos produtos no controle dos ácaros-praga. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado em ovos no início e fim de incubação; os efeitos residual, tópico e tópico mais residual foram avaliados pela mortalidade de larvas, ninfas e adultos após 48 horas da aplicação, enquanto a persistência foi avaliada pela mortalidade até 30 dias após a pulverização. A seletividade aos ácaros fitoseídeos foi avaliada pelo efeito total às fêmeas adultas, em teste residual em superfície de vidro. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que abamectin e emamectin não possuem ação ovicida, para ambas as espécies de ácaros-praga estudadas. Considerando o efeito tópico mais residual, o abamectin e emamectin foram altamente eficientes no controle de larvas, ninfas e adultos de B. phoenicis; apenas abamectin foi eficiente no controle de O. ilicis. Abamectin foi levemente a moderadamente nocivo e emamectin mostrou-se inócuo a levemente nocivo aos fitoseídeos. Devido à eficiência de controle e seletividade a fitoseídeos, conclui-se que abamectin e emamectin podem ser utilizados em programas de manejo integrado do ácaro B. phoenicis, e abamectin para o manejo de B. phoenicis e O. ilicis em cafeeiro

  20. Primeiro relato de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (acari: ixodidae) parasitando lagarto da espécie Tupinambis teguixin (L.), no município de Glorinha, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    João R Martins; Elida C. Monticelli; Onofrio,Valéria C.; Darcy M. Barros-Battesti; Rovaina L. Doyle

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma fuscum conhecida somente no Brasil, tem sido descrita como uma espécie rara de carrapato com relatos de sua ocorrência nas regiões sul e sudeste. Este é um novo registro desta espécie (9 fêmeas) parasitando lagarto (Tupinambis teguixin), no Município de Glorinha, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As fêmeas foram depositadas na coleção do Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor (7 espécimes) e na coleção de Acari do Instituto Butantan, Estado de São Paulo (2 espécimes). O ac...

  1. Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines, and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2014-10-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the families Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. Two species of eupalopsellid mites (Exothorhis caudata Summers and Saniosulus harteni (van-Dis and Ueckermann)) were identified from 252 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards of which 249 were E. caudata. Only two E. caudata were collected from ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. Eight species of Stigmaeidae were identified from 5,637 specimens: Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, A. terminalis Gonzalez, Eustigmaeus arcuata (Chandhri), E. sp. near arcuata, E. segnis (Koch), Mediostigmaeus citri (Rakha and McCoy), Stigmaeus seminudus Wood, and Zetzellia languida Gonzalez were collected from within citrus tree canopies from seven orchard sites. Agistemus floridanus was the only species in either family that was abundant with 5,483 collected from within citrus tree canopies compared with only 39 from vine or ground cover plants. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards and one or more eupalopsellids or stigmaeids were collected from 19 of these plants. Richardia brasiliensis (Meg.) Gomez had nine A. floridanus from 5 of 25 samples collected from this plant. Solanum sp. had five A. floridanus from three samples taken. Both eupalopsellid and stigmaeid species numbers represented orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Agistemus floridanus was more abundant in the citrus orchards with on-going or recent herbicide programs compared with orchards having well-developed ground

  2. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Denmark, Harold A

    2011-08-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, open flowers, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996. Vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards. The two remaining orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Thirty-three species of phytoseiid mites were identified from 35,405 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards, and 8,779 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. The six most abundant phytoseiid species found within citrus tree canopies were: Euseius mesembrinus (Dean) (20,948), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) (8,628), Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) (2,632), Typhlodromips dentilis (De Leon) (592), Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark (519), and Galendromus helveolus (Chant) (315). The six most abundant species found on vines or ground cover plants were: T. peregrinus (6,608), E. mesembrinus (788), T. dentilis (451), I. quadripilis (203), T. subtropica (90), and Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant) (48). The remaining phytoseiids included: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma), A. herbicolus (Chant), A. largoensis (Chant), A. multidentatus (Chant), A. sp. near multidentatus, A. obtusus (Koch), Chelaseius vicinus (Muma), Euseius hibisci Chant, Galendromus gratus (Chant), Metaseiulus mcgregori (Chant), Neoseiulus mumai (Denmark), N. vagus (Denmark), Phytoscutus sexpilis (Muma), Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks), Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma), P. dorsatus (Muma), P. macrosetae (Banks), P. rotundus (Muma), P. solens (De Leon), Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma), T. dillus (De Leon), T. dimidiatus (De Leon), T. mastus Denmark and Muma, T. simplicissimus (De Leon), and T. sp

  3. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi, the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man.

  4. Tick cell lines for study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Kohl, Alain; Bente, Dennis A; Fazakerley, John K

    2012-09-01

    Continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. Their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. A preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in tick cell lines is reported; CCHFV replicated in seven cell lines derived from the ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (a known vector), Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Ixodes ricinus, but not in three cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Ornithodoros moubata. This indicates that tick cell lines can be used to study growth of CCHFV in arthropod cells and that there may be species-specific restriction in permissive CCHFV infection at the cellular level.

  5. Primera aproximacion a la Paleoentomología de los yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, España: la fauna subfósil de Oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo, J.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atapuerca Quaternarian sites are of worldwide interest due to the presence of human remains belonging to the last million years. The oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida found in several archaeological samples extracted from the Atapuerca Quaternarian deposits, have been analyzed during the 2003 excavation campaign to study the Palaeoentomology of the site. The oribatid mite fauna consists of 7 individuals, 6 of which were obtained from Gran Dolina site (about 300.000 years old and belong to families Cosmochthoniidae, Scheloribatidae, Oribatulidae and Hemileiidae. Most of the taxa were identified to species level. The results obtained were used as a basis to reconstruct the paleo-environments of the site in correspondence with the biological and ecological preferences of the taxa.

    Los yacimientos cuaternarios de la Sierra de Atapuerca ofrecen interés mundial por haber hospedado varias especies de homínidos que vivieron en el último millón de años. En este contexto, durante la campaña de excavaciones de 2003 se realizó un muestreo puntual en algunos de sus yacimientos para obtener los primeros datos de restos de artrópodos que pudieran conservarse en los mismos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos de ácaros subfósiles pertenecientes al suborden de los oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida. Después de procesar los sedimentos, se obtuvieron un total de 7 individuos en el conjunto de los yacimientos muestreados, de los cuales 6 aparecieron en Gran Dolina en un nivel con datación en torno a los 300.000 años. Los ejemplares, identificados en su mayoría a nivel taxonómico de especie, pertenecen a las familias Cosmochthoniidae, Scheloribatidae, Oribatulidae y Hemileiidae. Dado el conocimiento que se dispone de la biología de los taxones encontrados, que pertenecen a géneros y especies presentes en la actualidad, se han realizado inferencias sobre los ambientes pretéritos en que los animales vivieron.

  6. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae infesting humans in Northwestern Córdoba province, Argentina Garrapatas infestando humanos en el noroeste de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Santiago

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks infesting humans were collected from September 2004 to August 2005 in Northwestern Córdoba in an area with a southern limit in the locality of Dean Funes (30°25´S 64°20´W and San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W in the North. The collections consisted in ticks found attached on man obtained from three sources: 1 specimens fixed on two workers during two successive days per month of field work in the northern part of the area which belongs to Western Chaco district of the phytogeographical Chaco domain, 2 ticks attached to a man working in a farm close to Dean Funes in the Chaco Serrano district of the Chaco domain and, 3 ticks collected from a collaborator visiting daily a suburban property with dogsin the vicinities of Dean Funes. Most ticks collected were larvae, nymphs and adults of Amblyomma neumanni from the Chaco Serrano district where a nymph of Otobius megnini was also found on man. Adults of Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma tigrinum were detected feeding on humans in the Western Chaco district and in the property close to Dean Funes, respectively. Amblyomma neumanni was absent on man from December to April while most specimens of A. parvum and A. tigrinum were collected during summer. Their role as potential vector of ticktransmitted diseases in the area is unknown.Se recolectaron garrapatas (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae infestando humanos entre septiembre de 2004 y agosto de 2005 en un área del noroeste de Córdoba cuyo límite al sur es la localidad Deán Funes (30º25´S 64°20´W y el límite al norte es la localidad de San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W. Las colecciones consistieron en garrapatas fijadas a humanos obtenidas de tres fuentes: 1 garrapatas fijadas sobre dos trabajadores durante dos días sucesivos por mes de trabajo de campo en la parte norte del área, la cual pertenece al distrito chaqueño occidental del dominio fitogeográfico del Chaco, 2 garrapatas fijadas a un trabajador en

  7. Cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallinger Gertrud

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick cell lines are now available from fifteen ixodid and argasid species of medical and veterinary importance. However, some tick cell lines can be difficult to cryopreserve, and improved protocols for short- and long-term low temperature storage will greatly enhance their use as tools in tick and tick-borne pathogen research. In the present study, different protocols were evaluated for cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis. For short-term cold storage, cells were kept under refrigeration at 6°C for 15, 30 and 45 days. For cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, use of a sucrose-phosphate-glutamate freezing buffer (SPG as cryoprotectant was compared with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO supplemented with sucrose. Cell viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion test and cell morphology was evaluated in Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Results Cold storage at 6°C for up to 30 days was successful in preserving R. (B. microplus, R. (B. decoloratus, I. ricinus and I. scapularis cell lines; lines from the latter three species could be easily re-cultivated after 45 days under refrigeration. While cell lines from all four tick species cryopreserved with 6% DMSO were successfully resuscitated, the R. (B. decoloratus cells did not survive freezing in SPG and of the other three species, only the R. (B. microplus cells resumed growth during the observation period. Conclusions This constitutes the first report on successful short-term refrigeration of cells derived from R. (B. decoloratus, R. (B. microplus, and I. ricinus, and use of SPG as an alternative to DMSO for cryopreservation, thus making an important contribution to more reliable and convenient tick cell culture maintenance.

  8. (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E )-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] from acarid mite Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, H; Mori, N; Nishida, R; Kuwahara, Y

    2001-12-01

    A mixture of two monoterpenes was obtained as the opisthonotal gland secretion from unidentified Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae), and their structures were elucidated to be (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] by GC/MS, GC/FT-IR, UV and 1H-NMR spectra. Both isomers of (4E)-dehydrocitral prepared by syntheses in 4 steps from 3-methyl-2-butenal with 34.2% yields (based on the ylide) were separated by column chromatography into the (2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. Mass spectra together with GC retention times of the purified natural (4E)-dehydrocitrals were identical with those of synthetic (2E,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. The geometry at the 2-C position of both synthetic (4E)-dehydrocitrals was confirmed by NOESY analyses. This is the first identification of (4E)-dehydrocitrals from the animal kingdom.

  9. Influence de l'âge de la feuille sur les paramètres biologiques et les populations de l'acarien vert du manioc Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Leaf Age on the Cassava Green Mite Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae Biological Parameters and Population Growth Rates. The study of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf age effect on Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar biological parameters and population growth rates was studied in laboratory (T= 24-26 °C; RH= 70-90%. The local Dschang cultivar was used and the study concerned the 15, 40, 65, 90 and 115 days old leaves. The results obtained show that the egg incubation duration was the longest (6.4 days and that of the deutonymph stage the shortest one (1.9 days. The hatching rate was very high (98%. There was no significant difference (p= 0.05 between the developmental stages of M. tanajoa reared on the leaves of different ages. On the contrary fecundity whatever it is daily or total was high on young leaves and small on the old ones. The correlation coefficient between the leaf age and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm was -0.896 and that obtained between the net reproduction rate (Ro and the leaf age -0.966. These coefficients are negative and in absolute value near to one; which shows that the more the leaf is old, the more the M. tanajoa population growth is little. The M. tanajoa population growth is therefore fast on young leaves and slow on the old ones.

  10. Sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex and phylogenetic analysis of Acari based on 18S and 28S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li; Xu, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Liu, Wen-Yan

    2012-11-01

    Due to the difficulty of DNA extraction for Demodex, few studies dealt with the identification and the phyletic evolution of Demodex at molecular level. In this study, we amplified, sequenced, and analyzed a complete (Demodex folliculorum) and an almost complete (D12 missing) (Demodex brevis) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence and also analyzed the primary sequences of divergent domains in small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of 51 species and in large-subunit rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea, and Ixodoidea). The results revealed that 18S rDNA sequence was relatively conserved in rDNA-coding regions and was not evolving as rapidly as 28S rDNA sequence. The evolutionary rates of transcribed spacer regions were much higher than those of the coding regions. The maximum parsimony trees of 18S and 28S rDNA appeared to be almost identical, consistent with their morphological classification. Based on the fact that the resolution capability of sequence length and the divergence of the 13 segments (D1-D6, D7a, D7b, and D8-D12) of 28S rDNA were stronger than that of the nine variable regions (V1-V9) of 18S rDNA, we were able to identify Demodex (Cheyletoidea) by the indels occurring in D2, D6, and D8.

  11. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  12. Nouvelle technique d'élevage de l'acarien phyllophage Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychidae et son application à l'étude de l'efficacité de quelques acaricides sur pomme de terre (Solarium tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A New Rearing Technique of Phytophagous Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychida and its Application in the Study of the Efficacy of some Acaricides on Potato [Solanum tuberosum L.. A 5 cm diameter leaf disc of potato or another host plant (or four on 2.5 cm diameter was used in a Petri dish of 9 cm diameter for the rearing technique. This leaf disc, pierced in its centre, slides along a rustproof pin and floats on a 1 mm thick lamina of demineralized fresh water. Water is a "strong barrier" which confines the tetranychid mites on the leaf disc, even if this one does not corne from a host plant (tetranychid mites deprived of food. This rearing technique was used as a bioassay to test the effectiveness of acaricides (pyrimiphos-methyl, bromopropylate, fenpropathrin, dienochlor on the developmental stages of Tetranychus urticae. The ovicidal activity against the eggs of one, three, seven days old (the eggs incubation duration being 8.1 ±0.15 days was also studied. The results obtained show that bromopropylate, fenpropathrin and dienochlor have an ovicidal activity against the eggs of the different ages, but dienochlor has the highest efficiency (90 % mortality. Pyrimiphos-methyl is only active against the seven-day old eggs and bromopropylate has a high efficiency only on the one-day old eggs. Concerning the other developmental stages such as chrysalis (protochrysalis, deu-tochrysalis, teleiochrysalis and mobile stages (larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult female, pyrimiphos-methyl has de highest efficiency (90 % mortality ; dienochlor also, except mobile stages. Bromopropylate has no activity against the chrysalis and mobile stages and fenpropathrin has a remarkable repulsive effect.

  13. Sensibilité à Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari : Tetranychidae de quelques cultivars de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz et incidence des attaques sur le rendement, dans la région des hauts plateaux de l'Ouest Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensibility to Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari : Tetranychidae of some Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Cultivars and Effect of Damage on Yield Loss in the Cameroonian Western High-lands. The study of the sensibility towards the green mite Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar of some cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars and the assessment of the effect of damage on the yield losses was carried out in the Western highlands of Cameroon. Four cassava cultivars were used : two local (Dschang and Njombe and two improved varieties (IITA 8017 and IITA 82516. The results obtained showed that the density (mites number/cm2 of leaf area was low during the rainy season and high during the dry season, which means that rains reduce the mite population by washing or lead the mites to death. The highest mean density (3.40 mites/cm2 of leaf area was obtained on the local Njombe cultivar which is consequently the most sensitive. On the contrary, the local Dschang cultivar, with the lowest mite density (1.40 mites/cm2 of leaf area was the most resistant followed by the IITA 8017 cultivar (1.74 mites/cm2. The IITA82516 cultivar had a mean density of2.65 mites/cm2. Yield losses ranged from 36.90 % for IITA 8017 (1.74 mites/cm2 and damages level of 2.75 to 58.70 % for local Dschang (3.40 mites/cm2 and damages level of 3.84. Local Dschang cultivar (1.40 mites/cm2 and damage level of 2.96 and IITA 82516 (2.65 mites/cm2 and damage level of 2.96 had a yield losse of38.10 % and 41.80 %. The results showed that higher the mite density and damage level are, higher is the yield loss, unless the cultivar is tolerant.

  14. Babesia bovis and B. bigemina DNA detected in cattle and ticks from Zimbabwe by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smeenk

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available From blood collected from 94 cattle at 12 locations in the eastern and northeastern areas of Zimbabwe, DNA was extracted and analysed by polymerase chain reaction with primers previously reported to be specific for Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Overall, DNA of Babesia bigemina was detected in the blood of 33/94 (35 % cattle and DNA from B. bovis was detected in 27/58 (47 % of cattle. The prevalence of DNA of B. bigemina was significantly higher in young animals (<2 years (23/46 than in animals over 2 years of age (10/48; (chi2 = 8.77; P < 0.01 %. Although tick sampling was not thorough, Boophilus decoloratus could be collected at 7/9 sites sampled and Boophilus microplus at 4/9 sites. Of the 20 B. decoloratus allowed to oviposit before PCR analysis, 1 (5 % contained DNA that could be amplified with primers for B. bigemina while 12 (60 % were positive with primers for B. bovis. Of the B. microplus allowed to oviposit, 11/16 (69 % were positive for B. bovis DNAby PCR and 2/16 (12 % were positive for B. bigemina.

  15. Recombinant Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut (Ra86 and salivary gland cement (Trp64 proteins as candidate antigens for inclusion in tick vaccines: protective effects of Ra86 on infestation with adult R. appendiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saimo M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Saimo1,2,*, David O Odongo3,4,*, Stephen Mwaura3, Just M Vlak1, Anthony J Musoke5, George W Lubega2, Richard P Bishop3, Monique M van Oers11Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 2School of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 3International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 4School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa *These two authors made an equal contribution to this workAbstract: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut protein Ra86 (variants Ra85A and Ra92A and the salivary gland cement protein (Trp64 were expressed in the baculovirus-insect cell system. The recombinant gut proteins expressed as soluble proteins and the recombinant cement protein, as insoluble inclusion bodies, were used to immunize rabbits, which were then challenged with larval, nymphal, and adult stages of R. appendiculatus ticks. High tick mortality (23.3% occurred on adult ticks that fed on rabbits vaccinated with the gut proteins, compared with 1.9% mortality in ticks that fed on unvaccinated naïve control rabbits. The mean weight of engorged female ticks was significantly reduced by 31.5% in rabbits vaccinated with the Ra86 recombinant protein compared with controls, as was egg production. Marked effects on these parameters were also observed in adult ticks as a result from vaccination using Trp64, but these were not statistically significant. For both antigens, there was no demonstrable effect on larval or nymphal ticks. This study demonstrates for the first time the protective efficacy of a homolog of Boophilus microplus Bm86 in reducing tick infestation by the adult stage of the three-host tick R. appendiculatus. The results demonstrate the potential of Ra86 for vaccine development against this tick and for the control of East Coast fever.Keywords: baculovirus, Ra85A, Ra92A, Boophilus

  16. Cattle tick-associated bacteria exert anti-biofilm and anti-Tritrichomonas foetus activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, K R; Seixas, A; Conceição, J M; Zvoboda, D A; Barros, M P; Tasca, T; Macedo, A J; Termignoni, C

    2013-05-31

    Research on microbiota in cattle tick and the evaluation of its activity against other microorganisms can contribute to identify new molecules potentially useful to control infections caused by bacteria and protozoa. Biofilms pose increasing problems worldwide, mainly due to their resistance to antimicrobial therapies and host immune response. In this study we investigate the ability Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus-associated bacteria may exhibit to produce anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal compounds. Gut, ovary, salivary glands, and Gené organ were collected from engorged R. microplus female. Homogenates of each tissue were inoculated onto 15 distinct culture media. Anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities were analyzed by culturing each bacterium isolated in a liquid medium. Results showed that R. microplus cattle tick microflora varies for different tissues. Bacteria belonging to different genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Castelaniella, Comamonas, Kocuria, and Microbacterium) were identified. Interestingly, all bacterial species found displayed pronounced activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, and also against the cattle pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus, confirming the hypothesis that cattle tick could be a source of bacteria active against pathogens. This is the first study showing that bacteria isolated from a tick exert anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities.

  17. A comparative study of the dynamics of Wolbachia infection in different populations of Tetranychus urticae (Acari : Tetranychidae)%共生菌Wolbachia在中国二斑叶螨种群中的扩散规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢蓉蓉; 陈小琳; 孙荆涛; 洪晓月

    2013-01-01

    共生菌Wolbachia在中国二斑叶螨Tetranychus urticae Koch中分布广泛,所有的地理种群中均感染Wolbachia.以二斑叶螨湖南长沙(HN),辽宁兴城(LN)和江苏徐州(JS)3个地理种群为实验材料,经筛选获得100%感染和不感染Wolbachia的品系后,人工设置Wolbachia感染率为50%的品系,通过PCR技术检测二斑叶螨连续世代Wolbachia感染率动态变化,研究Wolbachia在二斑叶螨种群中的扩散规律.结果表明:3个地理种群的垂直传播效率都为100%;HN种群Wolbachia感染率上升速度最快,F7代达到100%感染;LN种群F12达到100%感染;而JS地理种群中Wolbachia感染率速度上升最慢,在F20代达到100%感染,其后感染率均能稳定在100%.LN种群Wolbachia通过诱导胞质不亲和的策略,JS种群的Wolbachia通过提高寄主适合度的策略,而HN种群Wolbachia则通过诱导胞质不亲和与提高寄主适合度两者相结合的策略,最终达到在二斑叶螨中维持感染状态并扩散传播的目的.本研究结果为今后利用Wolbachia的扩散规律控制有害生物及疾病传播提供了基础.%Maternally inherited Wolbachia bacteria are widely distributed in Chinese populations of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari; Tetranychidae). All populations were found to be infected with Wolbachia. Using the Hunan ( HN) , Liaoning ( LN ) and Jiangsu ( JS) populations of T. urticae as experimental subjects, 100% Wolbachia-infected and 100% uninfected spider mite lines were obtained by screening. This study investigated the dynamics of Wolbachia spread in the two-spotted spider mite. Infection frequencies of Wolbachia among the progenies of the artificial populations, initiated with 50% infected and 50% uninfected female adults, were monitored by PCR. The results show 100% maternal transmission in all three populations. The rate of spread was fastest in the HN population in which the infection rate reached 100% by the F7

  18. Prevalência de carrapatos em cães de áreas rurais da região norte do Estado do Paraná Prevalence of ticks on dogs from rural areas at northern region of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Labruna

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available During January and February, 2000, 133 dogs from 21 farms located in eight diferent counties at the northern region of Paraná, Brazil, were examined for ticks. Ticks found on dogs were collected and identified. Information about dog rearing system was also obtained. Fifty-five ticks were collected on 19 dogs (14.3% from 11 farms (52.4%. Four species were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (20 ticks on nine dogs from seven farms, Boophilus microplus (15 ticks on five dogs from five farms, Amblyomma ovale (nine ticks on six dogs from four farms and Amblyomma aureolatum (11 ticks on three dogs from one farm. The results are discussed considering the behavior of some dogs used to stroll into the woods and pasture areas whereas other dogs remained closer to the human facilities.

  19. Prevalence of ixodid ticks in Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu state (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kaushal; Balakrishanan, N; Katyal, Rakesh; Gill, Kuldip Singh

    2002-06-01

    The Nilgiri hills provides favourable ecological conditions for the propagation of haematophagous arthropods due to its richness in vegetation and animal fauna. A study was undertaken by the NICD during August to November 1996 on the prevalence of ectoparasitic ticks from different localities of the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu state. The ticks were hand picked from various domestic animals of the study area and identified. A total of 1232 adults and immatures of ticks were collected from domestic animals which comprised of the various species in the order of abundance Boophilus microplus, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Riphicephalus haemaphysaloides and Riphicephalus sanguineus. Studies carried out in the grass lands, meadows and areas adjoining to tea plantations by flagging method revealed mainly immature stages and few adults of Riphicephalus Spp. and Haemaphysalis Spp. The public health importance of the above species have been discussed.

  20. Integrated tick and tick-borne disease control trials in crossbred dairy cattle in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Whiteland, A. P.; Mfitilodze, M. W.;

    1996-01-01

    Crossbred dairy heifers on a farm in an East Coast fever (ECF) endemic area in Malawi were immunised against Theileria parva, Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Cowdria ruminantium. They were treated at infrequent intervals with chlorfenvinphos to limit infestation with adult ticks......, without providing complete tick control. In one trial, which tested a threshold dipping regimen, 20 heifers were dipped only once in 6 months to control a flush of Boophilus microplus. Unimmunised controls showed serological evidence of exposure to T. parva and B. bigemina, and one died of ECF......, but there were no incidents of tick-borne disease in the immunised group. In a second trial, which tested a strategic dipping regimen, 107 animals were dipped 9 times over a 6 month period. Despite heavy challenge by B. bovis and moderate challenge by B. bigemina and Anaplasma spp, demonstrated serologically...

  1. Interaction of plant essential oil terpenoids with the southern cattle tick tyramine receptor: A potential biopesticide target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R

    2017-02-01

    An outbreak of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Canestrini), in the United States would have devastating consequences on the cattle industry. Tick populations have developed resistance to current acaricides, highlighting the need to identify new biochemical targets along with new chemistry. Furthermore, acaricide resistance could further hamper control of tick populations during an outbreak. Botanically-based compounds may provide a safe alternative for efficacious control of the southern cattle tick. We have developed a heterologous expression system that stably expresses the cattle tick's tyramine receptor with a G-protein chimera, producing a system that is amenable to high-throughput screening. Screening an in-house terpenoid library, at two screening concentrations (10 μM and 100 μM), has identified four terpenoids (piperonyl alcohol, 1,4-cineole, carvacrol and isoeugenol) that we believe are positive modulators of the southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor.

  2. Detection of Babesia bigemina infection: use of a DNA probe - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald M. Buening

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a repetitive DNA probe for Babesia bigemina was reviewed. The original plasmid (p(Bbi16 contained an insert of B. bigemina DNA of approximately 6.3 kb. This probe has been evaluated for specificityand analytical sensitivity by dot hybridization with isolates from Mexico, the Caribbean region and Kenya. A partial restriction map has been constructed and insert fragments have been subcloned and utilized as specific DNA probes. A comparison of 32P labelled and non-radioactive DNA probes was presented. Non-radioctive detection systems that have been used include digoxigenin dUTP incorporation, and detection by colorimetric substrate methods. Derivatives from the original DNA probe have been utilized to detect B. bigemina infection in a experimentally inoculated cattle, b field exposed cattle, c infected Boophilus microplus ticks, and d the development of a PCR amplification system.

  3. Wassermilben (Acari: Hydrovolziidae et Hydrachnellae) aus Algerien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, Carl

    1989-01-01

    In the material collected from wells, hyporheic waters, and springs in western Algeria seven species of watermites have been found. Three of these are new to science: Acherontacarus tuberculalus nov. spec., Neumania (s. str.) algeriensis nov. spec., and the representative of a new genus Neoacheronta

  4. Astigmatid mites (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) of forensic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnor, Barry M

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence of mites of the infraorder Astigmata in situations involving the legal system, particularly in the area of medicocriminal entomology. Species in the families Acaridae, Lardoglyphidae and Histiostomatidae are encountered in stored food products and in vertebrate carrion, including human remains. Some of these species are incidentals, whereas others are obligate necrophages. Phoretic associations between these mites and insects allows for rapid dispersal and colonization of such patchy resources.

  5. Ecology of Amblyomma neumanni (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2009-09-01

    The life cycle of Amblyomma neumanni was described studying the seasonal distribution of free-living stages and parasitic phases during two consecutive years. Development periods of engorged ticks under different photoperiod conditions were recorded. Larvae of A. neumanni have the peak of abundance in autumn. Nymphs reach the peak in winter. Females were collected on cattle from autumn to late spring. The seasonal distribution pattern of females showed a bimodal curve, with a peak in autumn and other during early and middle spring. The engorged females exposed at shortest photoperiod regimen (10 h light-14 h dark) under both laboratory and field conditions undergo morphogenetic diapause, expressed as a delay in the oviposition. It is concluded that females of A. neumanni that feed and copulate in autumn undergo morphogenetic diapause, and they will lay eggs in spring, simultaneously with the females that feed and copulate in this season. Climate niche analysis shows that adequate suitability for A. neumanni depends mainly from temperature (mean, absolute maximum and minimum, and mean temperature in wettest and driest quarters) as well as from rainfall in warmest and coldest quarters. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene belonging to different populations of A. neumanni, showed no intraspecific genetic differentiation.

  6. Influence of essential oil fractionation by vacuum distillation on acaricidal activity against the cattle tick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cidade Torres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of essential oil fractionation on acaricidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus J. and pepper tree (Schinus molle L. essential oils were fractionated by vacuum distillation yielding fractions that were analyzed by the GC/MS. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the total essential oil and fractions on larvae of the cattle tick R. (B. microplus. The fractions 04 and 05 of the C. winterianus essential oil were the most active showing LC50 values of 1.20 and 1.34 μL/mL, respectively. The LC50 of the total oil was 3.30 μL/mL while the effect of the fractions 01, 02 and 03 was less pronounced, with LC50 values of 4.37, 4.24 and 3.49 μL/mL, respectively. The fraction 03 of the S. molle essential oil was the most active showing LC50 value of 8.80 μL/mL while the fractions 01 and 02 did not show toxic effects on the larvae.

  7. Molecular survey and sequence analysis of Anaplasma spp. in cattle and ticks in a Malaysian farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S T; Koh, F X; Kho, K L; Ong, B L

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. in the blood samples of cattle, goats, deer and ticks in a Malaysian farm. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing approach, Anaplasma spp. was detected from 81(84.4%) of 96 cattle blood samples. All blood samples from 23 goats and 22 deer tested were negative. Based on the analysis of the Anaplasma partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, four sequence types (genotypes 1 to 4) were identified in this study. Genotypes 1-3 showed high sequence similarity to those of Anaplasma platys/ Anaplasma phagocytophilum, whilst genotype 4 was identical to those of Anaplasma marginale/ Anaplasma centrale/ Anaplasma ovis. Anaplasma DNA was detected from six (5.5%) of 109 ticks which were identified as Rhipicephalus (formely known as Boophilus) microplus ticks collected from the cattle. This study reported for the first time the detection of four Anaplasma sequence types circulating in the cattle population in a farm in Malaysia. The detection of Anaplasma DNA in R. microplus ticks in this study provides evidence that the ticks are one of the potential vectors for transmission of anaplasmosis in the cattle.

  8. Prevalence and control of Babesiosis in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Montenegro-James

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents up-to-date information on the distribution and control measures of babesiosis in Latin America. Bovine babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis and B. bigemia will be emphasized. The disease is endemic is most countries and poses a serious economic burdenon livestock production in the region (U.S.$1365 million/year, FAO, 1989. Of the estimated 250 million cattle in Central and South America, approximately 175 million (70% are in tick-infested regions. Humid, tropical and subtropical areas favor development of the main vector, the one-host tick Boophilus microplus. In many regions bovine babesiosis is enzootically stable as consequence of a balanced host-parasite relationship. However, Latin America offers a wide range of epidemiologica conditions that are influenced by variations from tropical to cool climates and by susceptible purebred cattle that are regularly imported to upgrade local stocks. The control measures employed in most countries for babesiosis esentially rely on chemotherapy, use of acaricides for B. microplus, and to a lesser degree, on immunization methods. In general, these measures are expensive, time consuming, and in many cases, provide limited success. Finally, the zoonotic potential ob babesiosis will be addressd, with special emphasis on the situation in the United States. Even though bovine babesiosis has long been eradicated from the U.S.A., human babesiosis in endemic in the northeastern region of the country.

  9. Resistência contra ectoparasitas em bovinos da raça Crioula Lageana e meio-sangue Angus avaliada em condições naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina P. Cardoso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência aos ectoparasitas em bovinos jovens da raça Crioula Lageana e meio-sangue Angus em condições naturais. Foram utilizados 10 machos castrados em cada grupo, recém desmamados (6-8 meses e mantidos sob as mesmas condições de manejo, em pastagens cultivadas de inverno e verão, no município de Monte Castelo - SC, sofrendo infestação natural por ectoparasitas. A cada 28 dias, fêmeas de carrapatos (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus com tamanho acima de 4 mm foram quantificadas nos dois lados do corpo de cada animal, bem como os nódulos com larvas de Dermatobia hominis. A espessura da capa do pelame foi também avaliada a cada coleta e os animais foram classificados quanto à coloração do pelame. Os animais da raça Crioula Lageana foram mais resistentes às infestações por D. hominis e R. microplus. Não houve diferença entre a disposição de carrapatos e bernes conforme os lados direito e esquerdo dos animais. Os animais de pelagem escura albergaram a maior porcentagem de ectoparasitas nos grupos avaliados.

  10. The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Rikhotso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.

  11. Caracterização de um vírus baciliforme isolado de Solanum violaefolium transmitido pelos ácaros Brevipalpus phoenicis e Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae Characterization of a bacilliform virus isolated from Solanum violaefolium transmitted by the tenuipalpid mites Brevipalpus phoenicis and Brevipalpus obovatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Oliveira Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Solano-violeta (Solanum violaefolium é uma planta ornamental rasteira usada para cobrir solos de áreas sombreadas. Um vírus que induz manchas anelares nas folhas desta planta, tentativamente designado Solanum violaefolium ringspot virus - SvRSV, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae foi encontrado em Piracicaba, SP. Trata-se de um vírus baciliforme que se assemelha a outros vírus do tipo citoplasmático transmitidos por Brevipalpus sp. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relatar propriedades biológicas e estabelecer uma caracterização molecular parcial do SvRSV. O vírus pode ser transmitido mecanicamente a várias outras espécies botânicas, causando lesões localizadas. Entre as espécies avaliadas, Datura stramonium mostrou-se a melhor hospedeira experimental. Observou-se também a manifestação de sintomas nestas plantas após infestação das mesmas por B. obovatus previamente alimentado em lesões de SvRSV, confirmando esta outra espécie de ácaro como vetor do vírus. Suas propriedades físicas in vitro foram: temperatura de inativação 40-45 ºC; ponto final de diluição 10-3-10-4; longevidade in vitro 12 dias. Em secções ultrafinas, as partículas do SvRSV mostraram-se levemente mais delgadas e mais longas que as de outros vírus do mesmo grupo. A partir do dsRNA do SvRSV foi construída uma biblioteca de cDNA e foram identificadas duas possíveis regiões codificadoras das proteínas de movimento e replicase viral. Baseado nestas regiões foram desenhados "primers" para amplificação do RNA do SvRSV por RT-PCR. Sondas baseadas nas seqüências obtidas hibridizaram com ss- e dsRNA de D. stramonium infectadas pelo vírus. Ensaios preliminares de RT-PCR e hibridização não resultaram em reação com o vírus da leprose dos citros, tipo citoplasmático (CiLV-C.Solanum violaefolium is an ornamental plant, with prostrate, trailing growth habit and is cultivated in shaded areas. A virus that causes

  12. Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

    OpenAIRE

    MELO, José W da S; DOMINGOS, Cleiton A; GONDIM JR, Manoel G C; de Moraes, Gilberto J.

    2009-01-01

    Ácaros do gênero Euseius são geralmente considerados especialistas na alimentação de pólen. Euseius alatus DeLeon é uma das seis espécies de ácaros fitoseídeos mais comumente encontrados em plantas de coqueiro no Nordeste do Brasil, associado com Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Apesar de a morfologia de E. alatus não favorecer a exploração da área meristemática do fruto habitada por A. guerreronis, o predador pode ter algum papel no controle do eriofídeo durante o processo de dispersão. O objetivo...

  13. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade, detecção e monitoramento da resistência de Tetranychus urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir Selections for resistance and susceptibility, detection and monitoring of resistance to the acaricide chlorfenapyr in Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Eidi Sato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Problemas com resistência de ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, a acaricidas têm sido registrados em diversos países, inclusive no Brasil. O estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a resistência de T. urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir e avaliar a freqüência de resistência a esse composto em áreas comerciais de seis culturas no Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade a clorfenapir foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de T. urticae coletada em 2002 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Holambra (SP. Após seis seleções para resistência e cinco seleções para suscetibilidade, foram obtidas as linhagens suscetível (S e resistente (R de T. urticae a clorfenapir. A razão de resistência (CL50 R/ CL50 S obtida alcançou valores de 571 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 37,4 mg L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a. para o monitoramento da resistência de T. urticae a clorfenapir. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 21 populações de ácaros em áreas comerciais de diferentes culturas (mamão, morango, feijão, tomate, crisântemo, rosa, em vários municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Arenas confeccionadas com folha de feijão foram infestadas com ácaros T. urticae e pulverizadas com clorfenapir, na sua concentração discriminatória, em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram grande variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a clorfenapir. Foram observadas populações com freqüências de resistência entre 0,0 e 65,4%. As maiores freqüências de resistência foram observadas para populações coletadas de crisântemo em Holambra (SP.Problems associated with acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae Koch have been recorded in several countries including Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize the resistance of T. urticae to the acaricide chlorfenapyr and to evaluate the resistance

  14. Ixodidas brasileiros e de alguns paizes limitrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Beaurepaire Aragão

    1936-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the Ixodidae becomes every day, more and more important owing to the fact of the increasing number of diseases of man and animals they can transmit. In Brasil besides transmitting treponemosis, piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis to several domestic animals, the ticks are also responsible fo the transmission of the brazilian rocky mountain spotted fever (A. cajennense and Amblyomma striatum and they can also harbour the virus of the yellow fever and even to transmit it in laboratory experiments (A. cajennense, O. rostratus. The Brazilian fauna of ticks is a small one and has no more than 45 well-established species belonging to the genus Argas, Ornithodoros, Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, Amblyomma and Spaelaeorhynchus. The genus Amblyomma is the best represented one, with 67% of all species of ticks known in Brazil. One of the most important species in the Amblyomma cajennense owing to its abundance and its wide parasitism in many vertebrates: reptiles, birds and mammals, incluing man, who is much attacked by the larva, the nymph and the adult of this species. The other ticks who attack the man are the Amblyomma brasiliense (the pecari tick, in the forests, and the Ornithodoros, especially the species. O. rostratus and brasiliensis. Other species can bite the man, but only occasionally, like Amblyomma fossum, striatum, oblongogutatum etc. Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus are very important species not only as parasites but specially because they transmit several diseases to animals. Some of the ticks of the brazilian wild animals are now also parasites of the domestic ones and vice-versa. Arga persicus var. dissimilis is very common among the poultry and transmits the Treponema anserinum (gallinarum. Boophilus microplus is very abundant on our domestic and wild ruminants (Bos, Cervus, Mazama etc. and can also ben found on horse, dogs, Felis onca, Felis concolor etc., and it transmits to cattle

  15. Eficiência in vitro de acaricidas sobre carrapatos de bovinos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil In vitro evaluation of acaricides efficiency to bovine's ticks of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Camillo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A infestação por carrapatos em bovinos é responsável por perdas econômicas significativas à indústria animal em várias regiões brasileiras, incluindo o Rio Grande do Sul. As perdas se devem ao stress, a perdas de peso e a injúrias na pele, bem como aos custos com tratamentos. O uso indiscriminado de carrapaticidas tem contribuído para o aparecimento da resistência genética dos ixodídeos a várias drogas, representando um sério problema no controle de carrapatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a susceptibilidade das diferentes espécies de campo de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas usados nos controles dos parasitas. Para tanto, amostras de carrapato foram coletadas em 42 propriedades localizadas em diferentes municípios do Estado para a realização do teste de imersão de teleóginas (biocarrapaticidograma. A associação do amitraz e do clorpirifós resultou na droga que apresentou maior eficácia em 100% das propriedades testadas (11/11. Associações com cipermethrina-clorpirifós-citronelol foram eficientes nos carrapatos em 61% das propriedades (25/41 e cipermetrina-ethion, em 37% (10/27. A cipermetrina foi eficiente em 20,7% (6/29 e o amitraz, um dos produtos mais utilizados nas propriedades, foi eficiente em 14,2% (6/42 das propriedades. Os resultados demonstraram que muitas drogas utilizadas no controle do R. (B. microplus no Estado apresentaram baixa eficácia, conforme os resultados dos testes in vitro. A baixa eficácia das drogas provavelmente se deve à resistência genética desenvolvida pelos parasitas devido ao uso indiscriminado dos carrapaticidas a campo.Infestation by ticks is responsible for significant economic losses to the cattle industry in several regions, including Rio Grande do Sul (RS state. Losses may be derived from animal stress, weight loss and skin damage, as well as from costs with treatment. The indiscriminated use of pesticides against these parasites has resulted in

  16. Infecção natural por hemoparasitos em bezerros submetidos à quimio-profilaxia aos 30 dias de idade Natural infection by hemoparasites in calves submitted to chemo -prophylaxis wonder 30 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela A. Da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O complexo Tristeza Parasitária acarreta grandes prejuízos à pecuária bovina nacional. Os principais agentes etiológicos são Babesia bigemina, B. bovis e Anaplasma marginale, sendo o carrapato Boophilus microplus o principal vetor. Este trabalho relata a ocorrência de infecção natural por hemoparasitos da tristeza parasitária bovina em 36 bezerros com alta infestação natural por carrapatos e submetidos à quimioprofilaxia aos 30 dias de idade. Babesia bigemina (33,3%, B. bovis (11,1% e A. marginale (13,9% foram detectados em esfregaços sangüíneos de 16 animais (44,4% de diferentes idades. Seis bezerros apresentaram sintomas (16,7% e um morreu (2,8%. O número de casos clínicos foi decorrente de uma associação de fatores, destacando-se a alta infestação precoce por carrapatos e a baixa imunidade passiva em período em que os bezerros ainda não haviam desenvolvido imunidade ativa suficiente.The tick-borne disease (TBD brings great damages to cattle breeding. The most important etiologic agents are Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale, being the tick Boophilus microplus the main vector. This work reports the occurrence of natural infection by hemoparasites of TBD in 36 calves with high ticks natural infestation submitted to chemoprophylaxis with 30 days year-old. The blood smears from animals of different ages were analized and were found B. bigemina (33.3%, B. bovis (11.1% and A. marginale (13.9%. Six animals had clinical symptoms (16.7% and one dead (2.8%. The number of clinical cases ocurred in consequence of an association of factors as high infestation of ticks and low passive immunity in period that calves had not developed enough active immunity.

  17. Ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks were collected during the period September 1991 to August 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. Three of these were in North West Province and 1 in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Ten tick species were collected in North West Province and 7 in Mpumalanga. The adults of Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in North West Province, while in Mpumalanga Boophilus decoloratus comprised more than 75% of the total population. Amblyomma hebraeum was present on all grazing areas, and heavy infestations of adults occurred during the period October to May on 1 of these. Few B. decoloratus were collected in North West Province, chiefly because the sampling method was inadequate, and most of these were present during early summer (October to December and late summer and autumn (March to May. The initially low population of B. decoloratus in Mpumalanga increased substantially towards the conclusion of the survey, probably because of the cessation of dipping. Boophilus microplus was present in small numbers on 2 grazing areas in the North West Province. Adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes reached peak numbers from December to February and Hyalomma truncatum from February to April in the North West Province. Only H. marginatum rufipes was collected in Mpumalanga. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was present on all the grazing areas, with most adults present from December to April. Most adult Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected from September to April and Rhipicephalus simus was present during the period October-April.

  18. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  19. Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Cattle Fever Tick Eradication in USA is Required to Mitigate the Impact of Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Auclair, Allan N; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.

  20. Ehrlichiae and ehrlichial diseases in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bohai; Cao, Wuchun; Pan, Hua

    2003-06-01

    The various ticks collected from different areas of China were examined for the existence of ehrlichial agents by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with genus- or species-specific primers designed on the basis of ehrlichial 16S rRNA genes and sequence analyses. In southern China, E. chaffeensis was detected in Amblyomma testudinarium ticks from infested cattle, Haemaphysalis yeni ticks from hare, and Ixodes ovatus ticks from Muntiacus reevesi. E. canis was identified in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from dogs and Boophilus microplus ticks from goats. A new species of the genus Ehrlichia, closely related to E. chaffeensis, and Anaplasma marginale were found in B. microplus ticks from cattle in Tibet. In northern China, E. chaffeensis was detected in Dermacentor silvarum and I. persulcatus ticks; the granulocytic ehrlichial agents were detected in I. persulcatus ticks from an area where Lyme disease is endemic. Canine ehrlichiosis was found in southern China and E. canis and E. platys were identified in dogs; human ehrlichioses were demonstrated by amplifying the 16S rRNA genes of E. chaffeensis and granulocytic ehrlichial agents from patients' blood specimens. In comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the sequences of E. chaffeensis, E. canis, and E. platys in China were found to be different from that in other countries at certain nucleotide positions. These results reveal that a variety of tick-borne ehrlichial agents and diseases exist in China, and the ehrlichial agents and their tick-vectors are same as or different from that in other countries at species or strain levels.

  1. Integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in USA is required to mitigate the impact of global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto A. Pérez de León

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus and R. (B. microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT. Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S. through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.

  2. Analysis of stage specific protein expression during babesia bovis development within rhipicephalus microplus female ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthropod borne pathogens have a complex life cycle that includes asexual reproduction of haploid stages in mammalian erythrocytes and development of diploid stages in the vector. Transition of Apicomplexan pathogens between the mammalian host and the arthropod vector is critical for ongoing transmi...

  3. 二斑叶螨两种群中Wolbachia诱导的胞质不亲和作用的影响因子比较研究%A comparative study of factors influencing the expression of Wolbachiainduced cytoplasmic incompatibility in two populations of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch ( Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆明红; 谢蓉蓉; 赵臻君; 于明志; 薛晓峰; 洪晓月

    2011-01-01

    The cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common effect of Wolbachia on the reproduction of its arthropod hosts, and the expression of CI differs greatly among different populations. Using the Jiangsu (JS) and Liaoning (LN) populations of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) , as experimental materials, 100% infected and uninfected Wolbachia lines were obtained by screening. The present study tried to evaluate some factors influencing the expression of CI in the spider mite by crossing experiment and Real-time quantitative PCR. These factors include age of host, temperature, host genes and Wolbachia density. The 1, 3, 5, 7-day-old virgin males were used to investigate the influence of host age on Wolbachia-induced CI. The results showed no effect of age on CI, suggesting that host age does not reduce the sperm modification induced by Wolbachia. The effect of temperatures (20℃, 25℃ and 30℃ ) on the CI induced by Wolbachia was also checked. Neither high nor low temperatures influenced the expression of CI. Wolbachia density in males of the JS population, as measured by quantitative PCR using the wsp (surface protein of Wolbachia) gene, was significantly higher than that in the LN population. In addition, in both the JS and LN populations, Wolbachia density increased with the age of male hosts. Wolbachia density also showed no effect on CI. We estimated the variability of CI expression between the JS and LN population of T. Urticae was due to the interaction between Wolbachia and host genotypes. The results might provide foundation for understanding the mechanisms of reproductive manipulation induced by Wolbachia.%Wolbachia诱导胞质不亲和(cytoplasmic incompatibility,CI)是对寄主的生殖调控中最常见的一种方式,在不同种群中CI表达的差异较大.以二斑叶螨Tetranychus urticae辽宁兴城(LN)和江苏徐州(JS)两个地理种群为实验材料,经筛选获得100%感染Wolbachia和不感

  4. Evaluation of Animal and Plant Pathogens as Terrorism and Warfare Agents, Vectors and Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Acari Arachnida Hyalomma Anatolicumn Anatolicumn Dermacentor andersoni Acari Arachnida Dermacentor varabilis Amblyimma Cajennese Rhipicephalus sanguineus...Mansonia spp. Diptera Insecta Culex spp. Culiseta spp. Pediculus humanus Anopluraa Insect Ixodides Dermacentor spp. Acari Arachnida Rhipicephalus spp

  5. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants.

  6. Zetorchestes-Arten aus Neuguinea und Japan (Acari: Oribatida: Zetorchestidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krisper, G.

    1987-01-01

    A redescription of Zetorchestes saltator Oudemans, 1915 is given. In addition to that, two new Zetorchestes-species from New Guinea (Z. novaguineanus spec. nov., Z. vanderhammeni spec. nov.) and one new species from Japan (Z. aokii spec. nov.) are described in this paper. These four and some other s

  7. A revision of the Pheroliodidae, fam. n. (Acari: Oribatei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson D. Paschoal

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The new family Pheroliodidae, herei nproposed, includes the following genera and species Pheroliodes Grandjean (in whose synonymy Pedrocortesia Hammer is placed, with the species: casa-branquensis, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Casa Branca, pellitus, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, nemoricultricis, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, wehnekei (Willmann (Guatemala, Venezuela, roblensis Covarrubias (Chile, mirabilis (Hammer, n. comb. (Argentina: Pedrocortesia elegans Hammer, P. intermedia Hammer, both from Peru, P. fissurata Balogh & Mahunka and P. inaequalis Balogh & Mahunka, both from Mongolia, P. franzi Balogh (Chad, P. africana Balogh (Kenya, P. vermicularis Balogh (New Guinea and P. sculptrata Aoki (Corea are considered incertae sedis; Lopholiodes, gen. n., includes the species micropunctinatum, sp. n., the type-species (Brazil, São Paulo, Anhumas and macropunctinatum, sp. n. (Brazil, São Paulo, Piracicaba: Octoliodes, gen n., includes the species leuteomarginatus (Hammer, n. comb., the type-species (New ealand and rotoruensis (Hammer, n. comb. (New Zealand: and Licnoliodes Grandjean, with the species: andrei Grandjean, type-species (Spain and Algeria, adminensis Grandjean, type-species (Spain and Algeria, adminensis Grandjean (Maroc, Algeria, Spain and apunctatus Mahunka (Greece.A nova família aqui descrita, Pheroliodidae, inclui os seguintes gêneros e espécies: Pheroliodes Grandjean (em cuja sinonímia vai incluído Pedrocortesia Hammer, com as seguintes espécies: casa-branquensis, sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Casa Branca, pellitus, sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, nemoricultricis, sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Piracicaba, wehnekei (Willmann (Guatemala, Venezuela, roblensis Covarrubias (Chile, mirabilis (Hammer, n. comb. (Argentina: Pedrocortesia elegans Hammer, P. intermedia Hammer, ambas do Peru, P. fissurata Balogh & Mahunka (Mongólia, inaequalis Balogh & Mahunka (Mongólia, franzi Balogh (Chad, P. africana Balogh (Quênia, P. vermicularis Balogh (Nova Guiné e P. sculptrata Aoki (Coréia são consideradas incertae sedis: Lopholiodes, gen. n., inclui as espécies mícropunctatum, sp. n., espécie-tipo (Brasil, São Paulo, Anhumas e macropunctinatum. sp. n. (Brasil, São Paulo, Piracicaba: Octoliodes, gen. n., inclui as espécies luteomarginatus (Hammer, n. comb., a espécie-tipo (Nova elân da e rotoruensis (Hammer, n. comb. (Nova Zelândia: e Licnoliodes Grandjean, com as espécies: andrei Grandjean, espécie-tipo (Espanha e Argélia, adminensis Grandjean (Marrocos, Argélia, Espanha e apunctatus Mahunka (Grécia.

  8. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  9. Ixodid Ticks (Acari, Ixodidae in Urban Landscapes. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov I. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 % can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.

  10. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?; Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Area de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: mguedes@depa.ufrpe.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  11. New species of water mites from the Comoros (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Pesic, V.; Mary-Sasal, N.

    2009-01-01

    Three new species are described from the Comoros, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean: Teratothyasides scutulatus Smit & Pesic n. sp., Platymamersopsis comoros Smit & Pesic n. sp. and Atractides comorosensis Smit & Pesic n. sp. One species is reported new for the fauna of the Comoros, i.e. Monatracti

  12. A supplementary description of Brevipalpus californicus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Raissi Ardali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus from the family Tenuipalpidae was collected from Caucasian alnus, White willow, Persian raspberry and a wild Chrysanthemum bush in Mazandaran province. This species is reported as a new record to the false spider mites-fauna of Iran here. Reviewing literatures revealed that it was briefly described in the original paper without any measures. So, a completed description is presented based on the Iranian specimens and different body segments are drawn for B. californicus. In addition, the above plants are new host records for B. californicus.

  13. Origins of asexuality in Bryobia mites (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menken Steph BJ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obligate asexual reproduction is rare in the animal kingdom. Generally, asexuals are considered evolutionary dead ends that are unable to radiate. The phytophagous mite genus Bryobia contains a large number of asexual species. In this study, we investigate the origin and evolution of asexuality using samples from 111 populations in Europe, South Africa and the United States, belonging to eleven Bryobia species. We also examine intraspecific clonal diversity for one species, B. kissophila, by genotyping individuals from 61 different populations. Knowledge on the origin of asexuality and on clonal diversity can contribute to our understanding of the paradox of sex. Results The majority (94% of 111 sampled populations reproduces asexually. Analysis of part of nuclear 28S rDNA shows that these asexuals do not form a monophyletic clade. Analysis of the mitochondrial COI region shows that intraspecific variation is extensive (up to 8.8%. Within B. kissophila, distinct clades are found, which are absent at the nuclear 28S rDNA level. Moreover, paraphyletic patterns are found at the mitochondrial DNA. Conclusion Asexuality is widespread in the genus Bryobia, signifying that some animal taxa do contain a high number of asexuals. We argue that asexuality originated multiple times within Bryobia. Wolbachia bacteria cause asexuality in at least two Bryobia species and may have infected different species independently. The high intraspecific clonal diversity and the patterns of paraphyly at the mitochondrial DNA in B. kissophila might be explained by a high mutation fixation rate and past hybridization events. Reproductive parasites like Wolbachia and Cardinium might influence these processes. We discuss the role these bacteria could play in the evolutionary success of asexual species.

  14. Hypopi (Acari: Hypoderatidae) of the wood stork (Aves: Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Danny B.; Thomas, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    A new species is described and additional host records are presented for 2 other species of deutonymphs of the family Hypoderatidae from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. Phalacrodectes (Phalacrodectes) mycteria n. sp. appears to share affinities with species from both pelicaniform and ciconiiform hosts, but it most closely resembles P. (P.) punctatissimus (Černý) Pence & Courtney from pelicans in idiosomal chaetotaxy, cutdcular sclerotization, and posteriorly divergent, widely separated genital openings. The new species differs from this and other species of the genus by its small size, the degree of separation of the genital openings with papillae, no secondary sclerotization in the perigenital area or surrounding the genital openings, and the long filiform setae s and w on genu III. There was a mixed infection of Neottialges kutzeri Fain and N. mycteriae Pence in all of 7 wood storks examined from Florida and Georgia; P. (P) mycteria was found in 4 of these hosts. This is the 7th species described as a deutonymph in the genus Phalacrodectes. The apparent close affinity of P. (P.) mycteria with P. (P.) punctatissimus and allied species from pelicaniform versus ciconiiform birds appears to be inconsistent with the established host-parasite relationships based on classical avian taxonomic relationships. However, this apparent affinity may be more reflective of the close relationships between the families of pelicans, ibises and spoonbills, and storks as recently proposed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies.

  15. Vectorial role of some dermanyssoid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente Moro C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Among transmissible diseases, vectorial diseases represent a major problem for public health. In the group of acarina, while ticks are the most commonly implicated vectors, other arthropods and notably Dermanyssoidea are also involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Since the role of this superfamily is at present largely unknown, we have reviewed the vectorial role of these mites in the appearance, survival and propagation of pathogens. Various authors have shown that Dermanyssoidea are implicated in the transmission of both bacteria (Salmonella, Spirocheta, Rickettsia or Pasteurella and viruses (equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus, Fowl pox virus, the virus causing Newcastle disease and tick borne encephalitis viruses or hantaviruses. Finally, some authors have also shown their role in the transmission of some protozoa and filaria. As the vectorial character of such mites has been more clearly demonstrated (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Allodermanyssus sanguineus, it would be interesting to continue studies to better understand the role of this superfamily in the epidemiology of certain zoonoses.

  16. Development of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, E C; Prado, A P; Araújo, R P

    2008-08-01

    The development, viability, and life cycle parameters of Dermanyssus gallinae at five different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C), and at relative humidity 70-85% were evaluated. Life cycle duration was 690.75 h (28 days) at 15 degrees C, 263.12h (11 days) at 20 degrees C, 164.63 h (7 days) at 25 degrees C, 140.69 h (6 days) at 30 degrees C and 172.04 h (7 days) at 35 degrees C. The optimal development temperature for D. gallinae was 30 degrees C, with the greatest survival in all stages and the shortest development time. High mortality at 35 degrees C indicated that this temperature had adverse effects on development of D. gallinae, and that in field conditions D. gallinae populations may decrease or even disappear due to the negative impact of high temperature on development. There were no significant differences in the pre-oviposition period among the four temperatures 20-35 degrees C, indicating that temperature did not affect this part of the life cycle.

  17. Thermal requirements of Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (Acari: Dermanyssidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Clara Tucci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal requirements for development of Dermanyssus gallinae were studied under laboratory conditions at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C, a 12h photoperiod and 60-85% RH. The thermal requirements for D. gallinae were as follows. Preoviposition: base temperature 3.4ºC, thermal constant (k 562.85 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R² 0.59, regression equation: Y= -0.006035 + 0.001777 x. Egg: base temperature 10.60ºC, thermal constant (k 689.65 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R² 0.94, regression equation: Y= -0.015367 + 0.001450 x. Larva: base temperature 9.82ºC, thermal constant (k 464.91 degree-hours, determination coefficient R² 0.87, regression equation: Y= -0.021123+0.002151 x. Protonymph: base temperature 10.17ºC, thermal constant (k 504.49 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R² 0.90, regression equation: Y= -0.020152 + 0.001982 x. Deutonymph: base temperature 11.80ºC, thermal constant (k 501.11 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R² 0.99, regression equation: Y= -0.023555 + 0.001996 x. The results obtained showed that 15 to 42 generations of Dermanyssus gallinae may occur during the year in the State of São Paulo, as estimated based on isotherm charts. Dermanyssus gallinae may develop continually in the State of São Paulo, with a population decrease in the winter. There were differences between the developmental stages of D. gallinae in relation to thermal requirements.Experimentos de laboratório foram realizados visando estimar as exigências térmicas de Dermanyssus gallinae. Para isso, o desenvolvimento do ácaro foi estudado em condições de laboratório usando-se câmaras climatizadas reguladas a 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35°C, fotofase de 12h e UR de 6085%. As exigências térmicas determinadas para D. gallinae foram: Pré-oviposição: temperatura base de 3,4 ºC, constante térmica (k igual a 562,85 graus-hora, coeficiente de determinação (R² igual a 0,59, equação de regressão: Y= -0,006035 + 0,001777 x. Ovo. Temperatura base de 10,60 ºC, constante térmica (k igual a 689,65 graus-hora, coeficiente de determinação (R² igual a 0,94, equação de regressão: Y= -0,015367 + 0,001450 x. Larva. Temperatura base 9,82 ºC, constante térmica (k igual a 464,91 graus-hora, R² igual a 0,87, equação de regressão: Y= -0,021123+0,002151x. Protoninfa. Temperatura de 10,17 ºC, constante térmica (k igual a 504,49 graus-hora, coeficiente de determinação (R² igual a 0,90, equação de regressão: Y= -0,020152 + 0,001982 x. Deutoninfa. Temperatura de 11,80 ºC, constante (k térmica igual a 501,11 graus-hora, coeficiente de determinação (R² igual a 0,99, equação de regressão: Y= -0,023555 + 0,001996 x. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que no Estado de São Paulo podem ocorrem de 15 a 42 gerações/ano de D. gallinae, em estimativa baseada em isotermas. Dermanyssus gallinae pode se desenvolver continuamente no Estado de São Paulo, com diminuição da população no inverno. Existem diferenças entre os estágios de desenvolvimento de D. gallinae com relação às exigências térmicas.

  18. Thermal requirements of Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Edna Clara; do Prado, Angelo P; de Araújo, Raquel Pires

    2008-01-01

    The thermal requirements for development of Dermanyssus gallinae were studied under laboratory conditions at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, a 12h photoperiod and 60-85% RH. The thermal requirements for D. gallinae were as follows. Preoviposition: base temperature 3.4 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 562.85 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.59, regression equation: Y= -0.006035 + 0.001777x. Egg: base temperature 10.60 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 689.65 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.94, regression equation: Y= -0.015367 + 0.001450x. Larva: base temperature 9.82 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 464.91 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.87, regression equation: Y= -0.021123 + 0.002151x. Protonymph: base temperature 10.17 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 504.49 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.90, regression equation: Y= -0.020152 + 0.001982x. Deutonymph: base temperature 11.80 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 501.11 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.99, regression equation: Y= -0.023555 + 0.001996x. The results obtained showed that 15 to 42 generations of Dermanyssus gallinae may occur during the year in the State of São Paulo, as estimated based on isotherm charts. Dermanyssus gallinae may develop continually in the State of São Paulo, with a population decrease in the winter. There were differences between the developmental stages of D. gallinae in relation to thermal requirements.

  19. Die Euphthiracaridae Jacot, 1930, und Ihre Gattungen (Acari, Oribatei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Märkel, K.

    1964-01-01

    INHALT Einleitung.................... 4 Über den Körperbau der Euphthiracaridae........... 8 Die Gattungen der Euphthiracaridae............ 18 Oribotritia Jacot, 1924b................ 18 O. berlesei (Michael, 1898).............. 19 Indotritia Jacot, 1929................. 24 I. krakatauensis consimil

  20. Listado de oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida de Túnez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subías, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid mites of several Tunisian soil samples were studied. 113 species were obtained, 95 of which are recorded for the first time from Tunisia. A systematic check-list with the 136 species known up to now is included, and their geographical distribution is given. Most of them, 77 (56%, have a typical Mediterranean distribution and 16 are recorded for the first time from North Africa.Se han estudiado los ácaros oribátidos de una serie de muestras de suelo de Túnez y se han identificado 113 especies, 95 de las cuales se citan por primera vez en Túnez. Se ha elaborado un listado sistemático en el que se incluyen las 136 especies conocidas hasta el momento y su distribución geográfica. La mayoría, 77 (56 %, presentan características típicamente mediterráneas, y 16 se citan por primera vez en el norte de África.

  1. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  2. Nieuwe vondsten van watermijten in Nederland (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Hoek, van den T.H.; Wiggers, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sinds de publicatie van de atlas van de Nederlandse watermijten in 2000 is de interesse voor watermijten sterk toegenomen. Er worden regelmatig nieuwe en zeldzame soorten gevonden en de kennis over biotoopvoorkeuren en trends wordt steeds verder uitgebreid. In dit artikel worden enkele bijzondere ni

  3. Checklist of the Oribatid Mites of the Netherlands (Acari: Oribatida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siepel, H.; Zaitsev, A.; Berg, M.

    2009-01-01

    More than fifty years ago Van der Hammen published the last checklist of oribatid mites (or moss mites) for the Netherlands. Since then the species number has almost doubled to 318 species, of which 100 are presented here for the first time. Brief data on occurence and nomenclature are provided for

  4. Some mossmites new for the Netherlands (Acari: Oribatida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siepel, H.; Dimmers, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bestudering van materiaal uit enkele Alterra projecten leverde negen soorten mosmijten op die nog niet waren opgenomen in de recent gepubliceerde Nederlandse naamlijst. Het totaal aantal soorten voor Nederland komt hiermee op 327.

  5. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  6. Artengliederung und Verbreitung der Gattung Zetorchestes in Europa (Acari, Oribatida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krisper, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a description of Zetorchestes grandjeani spec. nov.; it is identical with those animals which are called "l'espèce de Pise" by Grandjean (1951). Ζ. grandjeani differs from Ζ. flabrarius Grandjean, 1951 and from Z. falzonii Coggi, 1898 in showing a reduction of hairs in the posterior

  7. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, French Guiana, Surinam and Uruguay. Amblyomma rotundatum Koch. Although there have been no published reports of this reptile and amphibian ...Nicaragua, Surinam and the islands of the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Both species have been found in Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. IXODIDAE Murray...Guiana, Surinam and Uruguay (Guglielmone et al., 2003c). Amblyomma auricularium (Conil). Massi Pallarés and Benı́tez Usher (1982) reported this tick from

  8. Oribátidos (Acari, Oribatei de Fuerteventura (islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Iñigo, C.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid fauna from Fuerteventura (Canary Islands is studied for the first time; 86 species are recorded, from which 18 are new to the Science and two are new subspecies. Two new genera are erected: Passalobates n. gen. (Family Passalozetidae and Fuerteventuria n. gen. (Family Protoribatidae. Two species belonging to Ethiopic genera are described: Scutoverticosus insperatus n. sp. and Ethiovertex elisae n. sp. These genera contained until now the type species only.

    Se estudian por primera vez los ácaros oribátidos de Fuerteventura, y se citan 86 especies de las que 18 son nuevas para la Ciencia y dos son nuevas subespecies, y se establecen dos géneros nuevos: Passalobates n. gen. (Familia Passalozetidae y Fuerteventuria n. gen. (Familia Protoribatidae. Se describen dos especies de géneros etiópicos: Scutoverticosus insperatus n. sp. y Ethiovertex elisae n. sp., géneros que, hasta ahora, solo contaban con la especie tipo.

  9. Studies on the Vertical Distribution of Ticks of Domestic Animals and Their Public Health Importance in Nilgiri Hills and Adjoining Areas of Tamil Nadu State (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nilgiri hills and adjoining downhill areas provide favourable ecological conditions for the propagation of haematophagous arthropods owing to richness in vegetation and animal activities. A study has been undertaken during 2008–2010 on the distribution and abundance of ticks of domestic animals in seven different biotopes. A total of 3,008 domestic animals were examined in areas ranging from an altitude of 300 to 2200 meters above mean sea level (MSL of which 1,335 (44.5% animals were having tick infestation. A total of 6,012 adult and immature ticks belonging to 12 species (11 ixodid and one argasid were collected. Eleven tick species were collected from Kallar area situated downhill eastern slopes of the Nilgiris followed by Burliar area (7 species located at higher altitudes. From Masinagudi area near to dense forests and scrub jungles, five species were recorded. However, at higher elevations on the hills, Udhagamandalam area, only one species was recorded. Among various tick species recorded in the study, Boophilus microplus was distributed in almost all areas surveyed followed by Haemaphysalis spinigera and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The factors governing their distribution and epidemiological significance in the transmission of various tick-borne diseases of public health importance are discussed.

  10. Reassessment of the potential economic impact of cattle parasites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisi, Laerte; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de; Andreotti, Renato; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; León, Adalberto Angel Pérez de; Pereira, Jairo Barros; Villela, Humberto Silva

    2014-01-01

    The profitability of livestock activities can be diminished significantly by the effects of parasites. Economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Brazil were estimated on an annual basis, considering the total number of animals at risk and the potential detrimental effects of parasitism on cattle productivity. Estimates in U.S. dollars (USD) were based on reported yield losses among untreated animals and reflected some of the effects of parasitic diseases. Relevant parasites that affect cattle productivity in Brazil, and their economic impact in USD billions include: gastrointestinal nematodes - $7.11; cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) - $3.24; horn fly (Haematobia irritans) - $2.56; cattle grub (Dermatobia hominis) - $0.38; New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) - $0.34; and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) - $0.34. The combined annual economic loss due to internal and external parasites of cattle in Brazil considered here was estimated to be at least USD 13.96 billion. These findings are discussed in the context of methodologies and research that are required in order to improve the accuracy of these economic impact assessments. This information needs to be taken into consideration when developing sustainable policies for mitigating the impact of parasitism on the profitability of Brazilian cattle producers.

  11. Management and control of parasites on dairy farms in northwestern region of São Paulo state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Cecília José; Vasques, Flávia; Duarte, Keila Maria Roncato; Paulino, Valdinei Tadeu; Ambrósio, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Dairy cattle farming is of great economic and social importance in all Brazilian's regions. Parasites can reduce milk productivity, especially the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This study consisted of a questionnaire answered by 40 milk producers in the northwestern region of the State of São Paulo. The aim was to ascertain how these producers controlled ticks and other parasites. Very many of them knew nothing about the biological cycle of the cattle tick or about strategic control or acaricide efficacy tests. The majority (87.5%) controlled ticks at a high frequency, without technical criteria and care to apply the acaricide. Spraying was the most used mode of acaricide application (95%) and endectocides were used by 45%. Cattle tick fever was the harm most associated with ticks (87.5%) followed closely by screwworm (77.5%). However, 65% were satisfied with their tick control. About the control of others parasites, all dewormed at least twice a year their animals; 65% were controlling horn fly; 40% had problems with screwworm. The interviewers had in general good level of education and the farms generally exhibited a high degree of technology for milk production on pasture because half of them received technical assistance frequently.

  12. The Panacea Plants for Environment and Humanity: Caper and Ritha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadim YEMİŞ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caper and Ritha are plants which have very important effects on both living beings and natural habitat. They are used in many areas like medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and agriculture because of their positive features. Caper is compatible with the Mediterranean ecosystem and resistant to drought and high-salinity. When compared to the other most plants, it can remain green for a long time without water even in the summer season. Due to this magnificent property, this plant is effectively used for environmental protection. It has been reported that Caper contains biologically active compounds such as glucosinolates, alkoloids, phenolics, flavonoid, tocopherol and minerals such as sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron. Ritha grows in Asia’s tropical and sub-tropical regions. It contributes to the environment like Caper because, it has ability to capture the chemical pollution from the soil. So, it helps to improve the quality and efficiency of the land by holding heavy metals like mercury, iron and zinc in the leaves and grabbing lead and cadmium in its fruits. Moreover, it biologically decomposes injurious organic molecules such as hexachlorobenzene and naphthalene. Furthermore, the nectar of Ritha can kill the flies and larvae of Southern cattle mite’s species called Boophilus microplus.

  13. Repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against cattle tick larvae (Rhipicephalus australis) when formulated as emulsions and in β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Wei Tsun; Bhandari, Bhesh; Jackson, Louise; James, Peter

    2016-07-30

    Rhipicephalus australis (formerly Boophilus microplus) is a one host tick responsible for major economic loss in tropical and subtropical cattle production enterprises. Control is largely dependent on the application of acaricides but resistance has developed to most currently registered chemical groups. Repellent compounds that prevent initial attachment of tick larvae offer a potential alternative to control with chemical toxicants. The repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (TTO) emulsions and two β-cyclodextrin complex formulations, a slow release form (SR) and a modified faster release form (FR), were examined in a series of laboratory studies. Emulsions containing 4% and 5% TTO applied to cattle hair in laboratory studies completely repelled ascending tick larvae for 24h whereas 2% and 3% formulations provided 80% protection. At 48h, 5% TTO provided 78% repellency but lower concentrations repelled less than 60% of larvae. In a study conducted over 15 days, 3% TTO emulsion applied to cattle hair provided close to 100% repellency for 2 days, but then protection fell to 23% by day 15. The FR formulation gave significantly greater repellency than the emulsion and the SR formulation from day 3 until the end of the study (P<0.05), providing almost complete repellency at day 3 (99.5%), then decreasing over the period of the study to 49% repellency at day 15. Proof of concept is established for the use of appropriately designed controlled-release formulations to extend the period of repellency provided by TTO against R. australis larvae.

  14. In vitro culture of a novel genotype of Ehrlichia sp. from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweygarth, E; Schöl, H; Lis, K; Cabezas Cruz, A; Thiel, C; Silaghi, C; Ribeiro, M F B; Passos, L M F

    2013-11-01

    Ehrlichiae are obligate intracytoplasmic Gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. Ehrlichioses are considered emerging diseases in both humans and animals. Several members of the genus Ehrlichia have been isolated and propagated in vitro. This study describes the continuous propagation of a Brazilian Ehrlichia sp. isolate in IDE8 tick cells, canine DH82 cells and bovine aorta cells. Initially, the organisms were isolated from the haemolymph of a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick into IDE8 cells. Infected IDE8 cells were brought from Brazil to Germany, where the organisms were continuously propagated in IDE8, DH82 and bovine aorta cells. Bovine aorta cells were infected and propagated for 3 months, corresponding to six subcultures, whereas the other two infected cell lines were kept for more than 1 year. During the cultivation period, 36 and 14 subcultures were carried out in IDE8 and DH82 cell cultures, respectively. Reinfection of IDE8 cells with organisms grown in DH82 cells was achieved. Sequence analysis made with a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene showed that this Ehrlicha sp. is closely related to Ehrlichia canis. However, the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree shows that it falls in a separate phylogenetic clade from E. canis.

  15. Investigation and control of blood protozoonoses in sheep%张家川县绵羊血液原虫病的调查与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆晓峰; 付福利; 王耀平; 马学文

    2004-01-01

    对甘肃省张家川县绵羊蜱媒血液原虫病进行了流行病学调查.结果发现,绵羊体表寄生蜱类5种,即青海血蜱(Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis)、长角血蜱(H.longicornis)、革蜱(Dermacentor spp.)、草原革蜱(D.nuttalli)和微小牛蜱(Boophilus microplus),其中青海血蜱为传播媒介优势种.绵羊泰勒虫(Theileria ovis)感染率为62.2%,无形体(Anaplasma ovis)感染率为16.7%,且有双重感染的病例.体表喷洒药物灭蜱试验表明,50mg/L倍特对蜱类的半数致死时间(LT50)为4.91h,用药后3d体表残留活蜱数为3.4±2.2只,14d后再次染蜱数为49.7±12.0只,羊只血液原虫病感染率由38.1%降至8.8%(P0.01).

  16. A house dust mite allergen homologue from poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, A J; Huntley, J F; Mackellar, A; Sparks, N; McDevitt, R

    2006-08-01

    Tropomyosin is an allergenic, actin-binding protein and a proposed vaccine candidate from several species of parasite. Tropomyosin cDNA, obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from Dermanyssus gallinae RNA, encoded a predicted protein with 89% and 88% identity to tropomyosins from the ticks Boophilus microplus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, respectively, and 85% identity to the house dust mite (HDM) tropomyosin Der p 10. Mouse antibodies raised against HDM tropomyosin reacted with a band of 38 kDa on Western blots of D. gallinae extract, consistent with the molecular masses of acarine tropomyosins and the putative product of the cDNA encoding D. gallinae tropomyosin. When the same preparation of D. gallinae proteins was used in Western blots with serum from infested hens, the IgY component of the serum bound to a number of mite proteins, but not to tropomyosin, indicating that hens are not directly exposed to this allergen during a natural infestation. Immunolocalization of tropomyosin in mites indicated a ubiquitous distribution of the molecule in mite tissues. Immunolocalization and Western blotting also indicated that poultry red mites ingest host IgY.

  17. Immunisation with recombinant proteins subolesin and Bm86 for the control of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David; Canales, Mario; de la Fuente, José; de Luna, Carlos; Robinson, Karen; Guy, Jonathan; Sparagano, Olivier

    2009-06-19

    Dermanyssus gallinae has a worldwide distribution and is considered to be the most serious and economically significant ectoparasite affecting egg-laying poultry in Europe. Recombinant Bm86 and subolesin proteins derived from Boophilus microplus ticks and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were used to immunise poultry in an attempt to control D. gallinaein vitro. Immunisation with subolesin and Bm86 stimulated different profiles of IgY response, whilst Bm86 but not subolesin was recognized by IgY on western blots. Orthologues for Bm86 were not found in D. gallinae by PCR, but a 150 bp fragment aligned with mammalian akirin 1 and a 300 bp fragment aligned with Amblyomma hebraeum were amplified by subolesin PCR. D. gallinae mortality after feeding was 35.1% higher (P=0.009) in the Subolesin group and 23% higher (not significant) in the Bm86 compared to the Control group. Thus it can be concluded that immunisation with recombinant subolesin can stimulate a protective response in laying hens against D. gallinae.

  18. Effects of microplusin, a copper-chelating antimicrobial peptide, against Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda D; Rossi, Diego C P; Martinez, Luis R; Frases, Susana; Fonseca, Fernanda L; Campos, Claudia Barbosa L; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Daffre, Sirlei

    2011-11-01

    Microplusin is an antimicrobial peptide isolated from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Its copper-chelating ability is putatively responsible for its bacteriostatic activity against Micrococcus luteus as microplusin inhibits respiration in this species, which is a copper-dependent process. Microplusin is also active against Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC(50) = 0.09 μM), the etiologic agent of cryptococcosis. Here, we show that microplusin is fungistatic to C. neoformans and this inhibitory effect is abrogated by copper supplementation. Notably, microplusin drastically altered the respiratory profile of C. neoformans. In addition, microplusin affects important virulence factors of this fungus. We observed that microplusin completely inhibited fungal melanization, and this effect correlates with the inhibition of the related enzyme laccase. Also, microplusin significantly inhibited the capsule size of C. neoformans. Our studies reveal, for the first time, a copper-chelating antimicrobial peptide that inhibits respiration and growth of C. neoformans and modifies two major virulence factors: melanization and formation of a polysaccharide capsule. These features suggest that microplusin, or other copper-chelation approaches, may be a promising therapeutic for cryptococcosis.

  19. PCR-based detection of the transovarial transmission of Uruguayan Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, V; Romito, M; Nel, L H; Solari, M A; Viljoen, G J

    2003-09-01

    Bovine babesiosis is responsible for serious economic losses in Uruguay. Haemovaccines play an important role in disease prevention, but concern has been raised about their use. It is feared that the attenuated Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina vaccine strains may be transmitted by the local tick vector Boophilus microplus, and that reversion to virulence could occur. We therefore investigated the possibility that these strains could be transmitted via the transovarial route in ticks using a Babesia species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. DNA was extracted from the developmental stages of the tick vector that had fed on calves immunized with the haemovaccine. It was possible to detect Babesia DNA not only in adult ticks, but also in their eggs and larvae. In addition, it was shown that calves infested with larvae derived from eggs laid by ticks fed on acutely infected calves, were positive for Babesia using PCR. Caution should therefore be shown with the distribution of the haemovaccine in marginal areas. It is still advisable that suitable tick control measures be used to prevent transovarial transmission and the potential risk of attenuated Babesia reverting to virulence.

  20. 南疆部分散养户牛场梨形虫及其媒介蜱感染情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永红; 刘玲; 王真; 巴音查汗

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] Piropiasmosis often occurred in the scattered feeding cattie farm in Southern Xinjiang. This disease is a tick - borne endemic biood protozoai disease with high mortaiity rate. This research aimed to investigate the prevaience rate of piropiasmosis and vector tick in some cattie farms better prevent and controi piropiasmosis and reduce the ioss that was caused by this disease to the raisers. [ method ] The author coiiected materiais with iocai veterinarians and owners, took them back to the schooi iaboratory, identified and anaiyzed the vector ticks and pathogen by microscope and the data about piropiasmosis. [ Result ] Bovine tropicai theiieriosis and bovine babesiosis were judged by comprehensive judgment, and the main vector ticks were Hyalomma detritum Hyalomma asiaticum and Boophilus microplus. The infection rate of biood protozoa was 84% : bovine theiieria annuiata 71. 4% ; Babesia bigemina 40. 5% ; babesia bovis 29%. [ Conclusion ] Through this survey we detaiied the occurrence and epidemic status of piropiasmosis in some cattie farms and the predominant distributive species of the iocai vector ticks, and found that there were severai piropiasmosis cross - infection. The resuit provides some scientific basis for the prevention of piropiasmosis.

  1. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Ferraz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months, 40 heifers aged 16.6±2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0±0.2 ticks/animal, with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9±0.3 flies/animal and D. hominis (1.5±0.2 larvae/animal on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals.

  2. HA03 as an Iranian Candidate Concealed Antigen for Vaccination against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum: Comparative Structural and In silico Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades researchers had focused on developing a vaccine against tick based on protective antigen. Recombinant vaccines based on concealed antigen from Boophilus microplus have been developed in Australia and Cuba by the name of TICKGARD and GAVAC (De La Fuente and Kocan, 2006. Further studies on this antigen have shown some extent of protection against other species (De Vos et al., 2001. In Iran most important species is Hyalomma anatolicum and limited information about its control are available. This paper reports structural and polymorphic analysis of HA03 as an Iranian candidate concealed antigen of H. a. anatolicum deposited in Gen-Bank .(Aghaeipour et al. GQ228820. The comparison between this antigen and other mid gut concealed antigen that their characteristics are available in GenBank showed there are high rate of similarity between them. The HA03 amino acid sequence had a homology of around 89%, 64%, 56% with HA98, BM86, BM95 respectively. Potential of MHC class I and II binding region indicated a considerable variation between BM86 antigen and its efficiency against Iranian H. a. anatolicum. In addition, predicted major of hydrophobisity and similarity in N-glycosylation besides large amount of cystein and seven EGF like regions presented in protein structure revealed that value of HA03 as a new protective antigen and the necessity of the development, BM86 homolog of H. a. anatolicum HA03 based recombinant vaccine.

  3. Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Valéria; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; da Silva, Márcio Roberto; Daemon, Erik; da Silva, Luciane Santos; Guimarães, Flávia del Gaudio; de Mendonça, Alessandra Esther; Folly, Evelize; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; do Amaral, Lilian Henriques; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques

    2014-12-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has caused serious harm to livestock raising in Brazil, considering the costs of controlling it, loss of revenue due to smaller production of milk and meat, and damage to leather, in addition to transmitting diseases. The use of medicinal plants is considered an alternative to the recurring resistance to chemicals. Due to the need for efficient alternatives with less environmental impact, this study aimed to develop contact formulations with essential oils from the Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plants and to assess in vitro the effects in different stages of the tick cycle. In the present study, concentrations from 0.5-15.0% of the essential oils incorporated in the formulations were used. The ticks from different geographical areas were treated with those formulations, and their effects on the production levels of eggs, on the larvae hatching, and their efficiency on ticks were assessed. The obtained results were compared with other commercial acaricidal products. After the 20th day of treatment, the formulations with citronella essential oil had 2.09-55.51% efficiency, depending on the concentration of the oil incorporated. The efficiency of the treatment with formulations containing clove essential oil was higher, from 92.47-100%. The results showed the acaricidal effects of the formulations tested when compared to commercial chemical products. In vivo studies should be performed in order to assess the efficiency of those formulations in the fields, aiming to use these products as an alternative for controlling cattle ticks.

  4. [Grazing systems, rotenone and parasites control in crossbred calves: effect on live weight gain and on parasites burdens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, João B; Bianchin, Ivo; Santurio, Jânio M; Feijó, Gelson L D; Kichel, Armindo N; Silva, José M da

    2009-01-01

    Practices for endo and ectoparasite control in beef cattle were evaluated in two independent experiments. First, the effects of rotenone on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were evaluated in vitro and in experimentally infected calves. In the second trial, the effects of grazing systems associated with endo and ectoparasite treatments on parasite burden and weight gain of naturally parasited animals were evaluated. Rotenone showed acaricide action on larvae and engorged ticks during in vitro tests and on larvae in experimentally infected calves. Three treatments with endectocide decreased (P parasited by horn fly, tick and larvae of Dermatobia hominis and the group treated with rotenone were significantly less parasited by horn fly in relation to control. Animals under rotational grazing showed significantly higher EPG than those under continuous grazing. Three treatments with endectocide in the dry season plus three acaricide treatments with fipronil in the raining season reduced EPG, tick, and screw worm larva counts, and provided a significant increase (23 kg) of live weight gain in relation to untreated animals.

  5. Management and control of parasites on dairy farms in northwestern region of São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    Full Text Available Abstract Dairy cattle farming is of great economic and social importance in all Brazilian’s regions. Parasites can reduce milk productivity, especially the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. This study consisted of a questionnaire answered by 40 milk producers in the northwestern region of the State of São Paulo. The aim was to ascertain how these producers controlled ticks and other parasites. Very many of them knew nothing about the biological cycle of the cattle tick or about strategic control or acaricide efficacy tests. The majority (87.5% controlled ticks at a high frequency, without technical criteria and care to apply the acaricide. Spraying was the most used mode of acaricide application (95% and endectocides were used by 45%. Cattle tick fever was the harm most associated with ticks (87.5% followed closely by screwworm (77.5%. However, 65% were satisfied with their tick control. About the control of others parasites, all dewormed at least twice a year their animals; 65% were controlling horn fly; 40% had problems with screwworm. The interviewers had in general good level of education and the farms generally exhibited a high degree of technology for milk production on pasture because half of them received technical assistance frequently.

  6. Metarhizium anisopliae host-pathogen interaction: differential immunoproteomics reveals proteins involved in the infection process of arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Lucélia; Silva, Walter O B; Pinto, Antônio F M; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H

    2010-04-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is an entomopathogenic fungus well characterized for the biocontrol of a wide range of plagues. Its pathogenicity depends on the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes that degrade the host cuticle. To identify proteins involved in the infection process and in host specify, immunoproteomic analysis was performed using antiserum produced against crude extract of M. anisopliae cultured in the presence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Dysdercus peruvianus cuticles. Spots detected using antisera produced against M. anisopliae cultured in cuticles and spore surface proteins, but not with antiserum against M. anisopliae cultured in glucose, were identified so as to give insights about the infection process. An MS/MS allowed the identification of proteases, like elastase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase and subtilisin (Pr1A, Pr1I and PR1J), chitinases, DNase I and proline-rich protein. Chymotrypsin and Pr1I were inferred as host specific, being recognized in D. peruvianus infection only. This research represents an important contribution to the understanding the adaptation mechanisms of M. anisopliae to different hosts.

  7. On the search for markers of tick resistance in bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitano, L C A; Ibelli, A M G; Gasparin, G; Miyata, M; Azevedo, A L S; Coutinho, L L; Teodoro, R L; Machado, M A; Silva, M V G B; Nakata, L C; Zaros, L G; Sonstegard, T S; Silva, A M; Alencar, M M; Oliveira, M C S

    2008-01-01

    Genetic differences in susceptibility to ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) are considerable in bovines. Here, mapping, association and gene expression approaches were employed to further advance our understanding of the molecular basis of tick resistance. A B. taurus x B. indicus F2 population was developed by Embrapa and 382 individuals were measured for parasitic load. Scanning of all chromosomes is in progress. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tick load were mapped to chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 23 out of the 20 chromosomes scanned and were dependent on the season in which the phenotype was scored. In the candidate gene approach, females from the genetic groups Nelore (NE--184), Canchim x Nelore (CN--153), Aberdeen Angus x Nelore (AN--123) and Simmental x Nelore (SN--120) were evaluated under natural infestation. Microsatellite markers close to the genes for interleukin 2 (IL2), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) were analysed. Tick counts were associated with the marker for interleukin 4 (P Nelore calves as well as between resistant versus susceptible cows from NE, CN and AN genetic groups were also investigated. Comparison of cytokines from infested and naïve animals showed downregulation of IL2. When resistant cows were compared to susceptible animals, IL8 was downregulated. These results reinforce the multiloci nature of tick resistance and the need to consider QTL and environment interactions.

  8. Primer registro de Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae) para México First record of Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    En este estudio se aportan los primeros datos de la garrapata Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 en México. Un macho, 7 larvas y 15 ninfas se recolectaron en los estados de Nuevo León y Veracruz. Además, se registra al cacomixtle Bassariscus astutus como un nuevo huésped.The presence of Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 is documented for the first time in Mexico, based on one male, 7 larvae and 15 nymphs collected in Veracruz and Nuevo Leon. Additionally, cacomixtle (Bassariscus astutus) is presented as a...

  9. Primer registro de Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae para México First record of Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Montiel-Parra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se aportan los primeros datos de la garrapata Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 en México. Un macho, 7 larvas y 15 ninfas se recolectaron en los estados de Nuevo León y Veracruz. Además, se registra al cacomixtle Bassariscus astutus como un nuevo huésped.The presence of Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 is documented for the first time in Mexico, based on one male, 7 larvae and 15 nymphs collected in Veracruz and Nuevo Leon. Additionally, cacomixtle (Bassariscus astutus is presented as a new host record.

  10. New records of the tribe Bryobiini berlsese (Acari: Tetranychidae: Bryobiinae) from Serbia, with notes about associated predators (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović K.; Stojnić B.; Vidović B.; Radulović Z.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the present knowledge and some new faunistic and zoogeographic data of the insufficiently researched tribe Bryobiini in Serbia. In Serbia, this group of mites is represented by eight species, including four species new to Serbian fauna: Bryobia angustisetis Jakobashvili, B. lagodechiana Reck, B. ulmophila Reck and B. vasiljevi Reck. New data on host plant species and families have also been obtained - two new host plant species for B. angustisetis, two ho...

  11. Ocorrência de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae Occurrence of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae on leaves of I. cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozana M. de A. Maia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de três espécies acarinas fitófagas é relatada pela primeira vez sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica. As espécies Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, foram coletadas sobre folhas de I. cairica nas imediações da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, em 20 de janeiro de 2005.The first occurrence of three phytophagus mites on Ipomoea cairica, is reported. The species Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks were caught on leaves of I. cairica, around Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, in January 20th, 2005.

  12. Immunogenic potential of the recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus aquaporin protein against the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 in domestic dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaporins regulate water transport through the highly hydrophobic lipid bilayer of cell membranes. As ticks ingest large volumes of host blood in relation to their size, they are required to concentrate blood components and have efficient water transport mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the...

  13. Evaluación económica del control de garrapatas Rhipicephalus microplus en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez García, D. I

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó un programa de control integral en 15 ranchos con el fin de cuantificar los costos de producción asociados con el control químico de garrapatas. Bajo un programa combinado de control químico e inmunológico se inmunizaron 587 animales de 15 ranchos. El costo del control químico de las garrapatas en la región fue de $408.3 pesos mexicanos por animal, mientras que el programa combinado fue de $128 pesos por animal, lo que significó una reducción de 68.63 % por concepto de la compra de ixodicidas. La extrapolación de estos datos a la ganadería nacional con un hato estimado en 30 millones de cabezas de ganado bovino, puede significar una pérdida que equivale a 12248.7 millones de pesos mexicanos. El uso de un programa combinado de control disminuiría estas pérdidas hasta 3843.7 millones, es decir, 68.63 % de las pérdidas en la ganadería nacional

  14. Assessment of Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity of 2 Ethyl-Carbamates with Activity against Rhipicephalus microplus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Prado-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute oral and dermal toxicity of two new ethyl-carbamates (ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate with ixodicide activity was determined in rats. The oral LD50 of each carbamate was 300 to 2000 mg/kg, and the dermal LD50 of each carbamate was >5000 mg/kg. Clinically, the surviving rats that had received oral doses of each carbamate showed decreased weight gain (P<0.05 and had slight nervous system manifestations. These clinical signs were evident from the 300 mg/kg dose and were reversible, whereas the 2000 mg/kg dose caused severe damage and either caused their death or was motive for euthanasia. At necropsy, these rats had dilated stomachs and cecums with diffuse congestion, as well as moderate congestion of the liver. Histologically, the liver showed slight degenerative lesions, binucleated hepatocytes, focal coagulative necrosis, and congestion areas; the severity of the lesions increased with dosage. Furthermore, an slight increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine was observed in the plasma. The dermal application of the maximum dose (5000 mg/kg of each carbamate did not cause clinical manifestations or liver and skin alterations. This finding demonstrates that the carbamates under study have a low oral hazard and low acute dermal toxicity.

  15. Epizootiology of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu-C, Antonio; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Mosqueda, Juan; Henke, Scott E; George, John E

    2009-06-01

    Species of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) ticks are the vectors of babesiosis (cattle fever tick), which are distributed worldwide. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are important secondary hosts for the cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (B.) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus. White-tailed deer are capable of sustaining Boophilus spp. tick populations in the presence or absence of cattle. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and the prevalence of antibodies to them and identify possible risk factors for bovine babesiosis in white-tailed deer in 3 northeastern states of México. Whole blood and serum samples (n = 457) were collected from white-tailed deer in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during the spring of 2004. Samples were tested for B. bovis and B. bigemina by nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) (the primers for B. bovis identified the gene Rap-1 and B. bigemina were specific primers) and by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). A questionnaire was given to each ranch to obtain information about management practices. Logistic regression methods were used to test the association between management factors and the dependent variable of positive n-PCR or IFAT. Nineteen (4.2%) samples were positive to B. bigemina and 6 (1.7%) were positive to B. bovis by n-PCR. Serological testing showed 59.9% (n = 274) of deer sampled were positive to B. bovis and 5.4% (n = 25) were positive to B. bigemina antibodies. The logistic model varied with different dependent variables. With positive n-PCR and B. bigemina as the dependent variable, 3 factors were associated: habitat (presence of brush and exotic grasses; odds ratio (OR), 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-8.5), grazing system (continuous grazing OR 4.0; CI, 1.3-12.2), and tick treatment frequency (3-4 mo; OR 7.0, CI 1.4-34.3; 5-6 mo; OR, 11.0; CI, 1.9-62.7; > 6 mo; OR, 4.6; CI, 0.9-23.3). These findings

  16. Immunization and chemical conjugation of Bm95 obtained from Pichia pastoris enhances the immune response against vaccinal protein and Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Valle M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Rodriguez-Valle,1 Leonardo Canan-Hadden,2 Olivia Niebla2 1Animal Biotechnology Division, 2Analytical Division, Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba Abstract: The ectoparasite Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes severe economic losses to the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions, and transmits endoparasites, such as Babesia bovis. The glycoprotein Bm95 is homologous to Bm86, a surface membrane protein of gut epithelial cells in R. microplus, and has been shown to efficiently control this ectoparasite in regions of the Americas. The immunostimulant properties of Bm86 have already been demonstrated after its coinjection with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. This study evaluated the carrier and immunostimulant properties of Bm95 using low immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis capsular C polysaccharide (Men CpS and HBsAg. We produced two polysaccharide-Bm95 conjugates by carbodiimide (MenCpSBm-c and reductive amination (MenCpSBm-ra methods. These conjugates were characterized and evaluated in mice. Antibody titers against Men CpS were significantly higher in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra (2,350±250, P<0.01 than in those immunized with MenCpSBm-c (250±75 or Men CpS (570±104. The study data indicate effective immunological memory after booster inoculation in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra. Additionally, significant humoral immunity against HBsAg was documented in mice coimmunized via the intranasal route with recombinant Bm95 (11,400±345 and HBsAg (128,000±250 compared with mice immunized only with HBsAg (400±40 or Bm95 (5,461±150, P<0.01. In conclusion, the immunostimulatory properties of recombinant Bm95 make it a useful element for developing safer conjugated vaccines against bacterial pathogens and for evaluation against ticks and tick-borne diseases in the context of a polyvalent veterinary vaccine. Keywords: glycoconjugate, Bm86

  17. Efeito do óleo de eucalipto (Corymbia citriodora no controle do carrapato bovino Effect of eucalyptus oil (Corymbia citriodora on the control of cattle ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito in vitro e in vivo do óleo de eucalipto (Corymbia citriodora sobre o carrapato bovino (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Na experimentação in vitro, foi utilizado o grupo controle negativo e oito concentrações de óleo de eucalipto (0,5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100%, em fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato. A eficácia de controle foi de 0; 30,5; 75,5; 91; 100; 100; 100; 100 e 100%, respectivamente. Para a experimentação in vivo, foram constituídos três grupos (controle negativo; óleo de eucalipto a 3,5% - nível estimado mediante análise de regressão, correspondendo a 95% de eficácia de controle do carrapato da pesquisa in vitro e amitraz a 0,025%, com dezoito vacas da raça Holandesa. Antes (média dos dias -3, -2,-1 e após a aplicação do produto (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21dias, foram contadas fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato. A eficácia de controle foi de 0; 96,4 e 69%, respectivamente, 21 dias após o tratamento. Na 1ª e na 2ª ordenha após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas variáveis fisiológicas e coletadas amostras de leite para avaliar as propriedades organolépticas no leite e no iogurte (controle negativo x tratamento fitoterápico. O teste de aceitação sensorial do leite e das variáveis fisiológicas avaliadas foram similares entre os tratamentos.This research was aimed at evaluating in vitro and in vivo effects of eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora oil on cattle ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Negative control group and eight concentrations of eucalyptus oil (0.5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100%, were used on in vitro trials with engorged female ticks. The efficacy of control ticks was 0; 30.5; 75.5; 91; 100; 100; 100; 100 and 100%, respectively. At the in vivo trial eighteen Holstein cows were allocated to three groups (negative control, eucalyptus oil at 3.5% - level estimated by regression analysis, accounting for 95% efficacy of

  18. Aspectos epidemiológicos de um surto de babesiose cerebral em bovinos em zona livre de carrapato Epidemiological aspects of an outbreak of cerebral babesiosis in cattle in tick free area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Schild

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos de um surto de babesiose cerebral ocorrido em bovinos no município de Santa Vitória do Palmar, RS em uma propriedade localizada geograficamente na Latitude S 33°05'23" e Longitude WO 53°09'29", região considerada zona livre de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Em meados de novembro de 2007 foram transferidos para essa propriedade quatro touros, quatro novilhas e duas vacas provenientes do município de Minas do Leão,RS localizado geograficamente na Latitude S 30°12'07" e Longitude WO 52°03'25". De um total de 393 animais, 40 bovinos adultos morreram no período entre 19 de janeiro e 2 de março de 2008. O diagnóstico foi realizado pela observação das lesões macroscópicas e pela presença de numerosas formas parasitárias de Babesia bovis em impressões de fragmentos do córtex telencefálico coradas por Giemsa, que foram enviados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da UFPel (LRD. Sugere-se que o clima favorável com temperaturas médias entre 23,2°C e 23,6°C e umidade relativa do ar média entre 77,5° e 75,3% observados no período determinaram a ocorrência de uma geração de carrapatos que ao infestarem e inocularem o agente em animais sem nenhuma imunidade contra o mesmo desencadearam o surto.An outbreak of babesiosis by Babesia bovis is reported in cattle in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, considered a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus free area, in southern Brazil on a farm located at Latitude S 33°05'23" and Longitude WO 53°09'29". In mid November four bulls, four cows and two heifers originated from the municipality of Minas do Leão, RS, a tick endemic area, located at Latitude S 30°12'07" and Longitude WO 52°03'25" were introduced in the herd. Fourty out of 393 adult cattle died. The first bovine died on January 19 and the last on March 2. The diagnosis of babesiosis was performed by the observation of gross lesions and

  19. Caracterização da população de ectoparasitos em cães de núcleos de expansão urbana de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil Characterization of ectoparasites on dogs in the nucleus of urban expansion of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise F. Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho caracterizou-se a população de ectoparasitos em cães de núcleo de expansão urbana de Juiz de Fora, MG. As coletas foram realizadas de julho a setembro de 2003, examinando-se 101 cães SRD (sem raça definida. Os ectoparasitos foram coletados através de inspeção visual e tátil dos animais e acondicionados em frascos com etanol 70°GL e identificados sob estereoscopia. Espécimes foram clarificados e montados para análise em microscopia fotônica. Dentre os sifonápteros, Ctenocephalides felis foi mais prevalente (64,35% com intensidade média de 6,12 ± 5,37 sifonápteros/cão, seguido por Rhopalopsyllus lutzi (3,96%, híbrida C. felis X C. canis (1,98%, Tunga penetrans (1,98%. Aúnica espécie de fitiráptero encontrada foi Trichodectes canis (7,92% com 1,3 ± 0,51 fitiráptero/cão. Dentre os ixodídeos, Rhipicephalus sanguineus foi a espécie mais prevalente (49,50% com intensidade média de 6,44 ± 10,2 ixodídeos/ cão, seguido por Amblyomma cajennense (3,96%, Boophilus microplus (2,97%, A. ovale (1% e A. aureolatum (1%. As ninfas de ixodídeos foram separadas em ninfas de Amblyomminae (58,41% com 10,11 ± 10,09 ninfas/cão e ninfas Rhipicephalinae (24,75% com 2,64 ± 3,25 ninfas/cão. Em 3,96 % dos cães foram encontradas larvas de ixodídeo.The present work studied the characterization of ectoparasites on dogs in the nucleus of expansão urbana of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The collections were conducted from July to September 2003, examining 101 dogs of no defined breed. The ectoparasites were collected through visual and tactile inspection of the animals' bodies, and were then placed in bottles with 70° GL ethanol and identified under a stereomicroscope. Specimens were clarified and mounted on slides for analysis under a photonic microscope. Among the siphonaptera, Ctenocephalides felis was the most prevalent (64.35%, with mean intensity of 6.12 ± 5.37 siphonaptera/dog, followed by Rhopalopsyllus

  20. Eficácia do óleo de citronela [Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle] no controle de ectoparasitas de bovinos Efficacy of citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle] oil in the control of bovine ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Agnolin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito in vivo do óleo de citronela, no controle do carrapato bovino [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus], da mosca-dos-chifres (Haematobia irritans, da mosca-dos-estábulos (Stomoxys calcitrans e da mosca doméstica (Musca domestica. Foram utilizadas 15 vacas da raça Holandês, distribuídas em três grupos de cinco animais cada um. Os tratamentos foram: controle negativo, amitraz a 0,025% e óleo de citronela a 4%. Para avaliação foram contadas fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato e moscas antes (média dos dias -3, -2, -1 e após a aplicação dos produtos nos dias 7, 14, 21 e 28; também foram coletadas amostras de sangue. Em 28 dias, houve necessidade de se reaplicar o amitraz e o fitoterápico para controlar a infestação com carrapato. A relação entre o número de aplicações foi de 1:2,5 para o amitraz e o óleo de citronela, respectivamente. A eficácia no controle do carrapato foi de 71,8 e 30,9% para o amitraz e óleo de citronela a 4%, respectivamente, na média pós-tratamento. Verificou-se baixo controle de moscas no tratamento constituído pelo fitoterápico. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para os parâmetros sanguíneos.This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo effect of citronella oil on the control of bovine ticks [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus], horn flies (Haematobia irritans, stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans and houseflies (Musca domestica. Fifteen Holstein cows were allocated to three groups of five animals each. The treatments were: negative control, amitraz at 0.025% and citronella oil at 4%. Engorged female ticks and flies were counted before (mean of days -3, -2, -1 and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after treatment; blood samples were also collected. Within 28 days, amitraz and the phytotherapic agent had to be reapplied to control tick infestation. The relationship among the number of applications was 1:2.5 for amitraz and citronella oil, respectively. The

  1. Perceptions and attitudes among milk producers in Minas Gerais regarding cattle tick biology and control Percepções e atitudes entre produtores de leite em Minas Gerais relacionado a biologia e controle de carrapatos em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Zacarias do Amaral

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates milk producers' knowledge regarding cattle ticks and practices for controlling them. Ninety-three dairymen in Minas Gerais were interviewed. These producers had no information regarding acaricide efficiency tests. To analyze the information, open responses were categorized through "content analysis", and descriptive analysis consisting of extracting the profile highlighted by the highest frequencies. The association between schooling level and knowledge was tested by means of chi-square trend tests. It was observed that 92.3% had no knowledge of the non-parasitic period. For 96.4%, what determined the time to apply treatment was the degree of tick infestation; 93.3% used spray guns to apply the acaricide. In seeking to cross-correlate the biological and control variables with education, cooperative action, length of experience and herd size, it was found that there was a linear association between schooling level and implementation of acaricide solution preparation. The other factors didn't show any significant association. These data demonstrated the need to instruct the producers in relation to the biology and control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. It was concluded that the majority of milk producers were unaware of cattle tick biology and the factors that influence choosing an acaricide, which makes it difficult to implement strategic control.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o conhecimento dos produtores de leite sobre o carrapato dos bovinos e seu controle. Foram entrevistados 93 produtores de leite de Minas Gerais. Estes produtores não tinham informação sobre testes de eficiência de carrapaticidas e controle de carrapatos. Foi testada associação entre a escolaridade e as práticas e conhecimento sobre os carrapatos e constatou-se que 92,3% dos produtores nada sabiam sobre o período não-parasitário. Para 96,4%, o que determinava o momento do tratamento era o grau de infestação de carrapatos; e 93

  2. Soroepidemiologia da babesiose em rebanho de bovinos da raça Curraleiro Seroepidemiology of babesiosis in Curraleiro cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Soares Juliano

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A babesiose bovina é uma hemoparasitose causada, no Brasil, pelos protozoários B. bovis e B. bigemina, as quais apresentam como único vetor biológico o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Foram avaliadas amostras dos animais da Estação Experimental de Estudos de Bovinos Curraleiros (EEEC colhidas nos anos de 2001 (n=117 e 2003 (n=113. A detecção de anticorpos anti-B. bovis e anti-B. bigemina foi realizada pelo ELISA-indireto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a soroepidemiologia da babesiose bovina em rebanho Curraleiro, obter informações sobre a situação da doença na população e relacionar os resultados obtidos com informações edafoclimáticas e de manejo disponíveis. A taxa de ocorrência em 2001 foi de 92,3% para B. bovis e de 83,8% para B. bigemina e, em 2003, foi de 92,9 e 66,4%, respectivamente. Houve diferença significativa na freqüência de soropositivos em relação à faixa etária no ano de 2003, ocorrendo uma diminuição com o avançar da idade. Sendo assim, foi possível concluir que, apesar das condições edafoclimáticas e do controle químico realizado no combate a ectoparasitas, os animais foram expostos à Babesia spp e encontravam-se em situação de estabilidade enzoótica para babesiose.Bovine babesiosis is a blood parasitic disease. In Brazil it is caused by B. bovis and B. bigemina protozoa, both of which reveal the Boophilus microplus tick as the only biological vector. Animal samples were collected at Experimental Study Farm of Curraleiro Cattle (ESFC in 2001 (n=117 and 2003 (n=113. The detection of antibodies against B. bovis and B. bigemina was carried out by ELISA-indirect method. This research was aimed at studing seroepidemiological aspects of bovine babesiosis in a Curraleiro herd, as well as obtain information about babesiosis stability in this population and relate the results with available climactic and management information. The occurrence rate of positive animals was 92.3% for B. bovis

  3. Ectoparasites of dogs in home environments on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica Ectoparasitos de cães no ambiente doméstico da verte