Sample records for booming plutons source

  1. Searching pristine source of two gabbric plutons outcroping in Central Sierras Pampeanas Range, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daziano, C.; Ayala, R.


    This work is about the study of two gabbric plutons outcrop ing throughout Central Sierras Pampeanas range (Cordoba province, Argentina). San Lorenzo hill gabbric plutons is in the Upper proterozoic age whereas Cañada del Puerto belongs to the Early proterozoic.They are stock-type igneous bodies and they are intrusive s in an Upper Precambrian crystalline basement; it is mainly composed by gneisses, migmatites, schistes, marbles, amphibolite s, tact's, serpentinites and related rocks

  2. Sonic Boom Vibro-Acoustic Simulations using Multiple Point Sources Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AVEC proposes an innovative concept for the evaluation of human response studies to sonic booms inside realistic structures. The approach proposed is to simulate the...

  3. Modification of sonic boom wave forms during propagation from the source to the ground. (United States)

    Bass, Henry E; Raspet, Richard; Chambers, James P; Kelly, Mark


    A number of physical processes work to modify the shape of sonic boom wave forms as the wave form propagates from the aircraft to a receiver on the ground. These include frequency-dependent absorption, nonlinear steepening, and scattering by atmospheric turbulence. In the past two decades, each of these effects has been introduced into numerical prediction algorithms and results compared to experimental measurements. There is still some disagreement between measurements and prediction, but those differences are now in the range of tens of percent. The processes seem to be understood. The present understanding of sonic boom evolution will be presented along with experimental justification.

  4. Booming Sand Dunes (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  5. A source-depleted Early Jurassic granitic pluton from South China: Implication to the Mesozoic juvenile accretion of the South China crust (United States)

    Zhou, Zuo-Min; Ma, Chang-Qian; Wang, Lian-Xun; Chen, Shu-Guang; Xie, Cai-Fu; Li, Yong; Liu, Wei


    Source-depleted granites were rarely reported in South China. Hereby we identified such a granitic pluton, the Tiandong pluton, at Northeastern Guangdong province in Southeastern (SE) China. Whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopes of the Tiandong granites both revealed obviously depleted source signatures, with initial isotopic values of initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7032-0.7040, εNd(t) = 1.1-1.5, and εHf(t) = 6-13, respectively. Zircon U-Pb dating implied the granite was intruded in Early Jurassic (188 Ma). The dominant minerals of the Tiandong granite consist of K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz and biotite, with accessory mineral assemblage of apatite + zircon + magnetite. Based on the mineralogy and the depleted isotopic signature, the granites chemically show I-type affinity such as low Zr + Nb + Ce + Y (131.6 to 212.2), 104 × Ga/Al (2.12-2.27), A/CNK values extremely low P2O5 contents (0.05 wt%). The one-stage and two-stage depleted mantle Nd model ages (TDM = 0.89 to 0.84 Ga, T2DM = 0.88 to 0.85 Ga) are consistent. TDM(Hf) values of 0.31-0.63 Ga are also indistinguishable from T2DM(Hf) values of 0.35-0.75 Ga. The Nd and Hf isotopic compositions confirm that the Tiandong granites are juvenile crustal accretion but decoupled Nd-Hf isotopic systems. The juvenile crust is likely to originate from a mixed source of the primary asthenospheric mantle and the subordinate EMII. Combined with early studies of adjacent rocks, we propose that the early Jurassic ( 200-175 Ma) magmatism as evidenced by the Tiandong granites might be driven by upwelling of asthenosphere and subsequent underplating of mafic melts in an intra-plate extensional setting as a response to far-field stress during early stage subduction of the paleo-pacific plate.

  6. Genesis of felsic plutonic magmas and their igneous enclaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemens, John D.; Maas, Roland; Waight, Tod Earle


    mixtures of metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks. Baynton MEs are isotopically less evolved than their host rocks. Their chemistry, textures, and field relations suggest that they represent small volumes of hybrid magmas formed through near-source mixing between crustal melts and mantle-derived mafic......The Late Devonian postorogenic Cobaw batholith, in southeastern Australia, is an oval, east-west-orientated, terrane-stitching lopolith that intruded low-grade metaturbidites. The initial intrusion (at 370 Ma) was the small, hypabyssal, S-type Rainy Creek Rhyolite (RCR). At 369 Ma, the foliated S-type...... Pyalong pluton was emplaced, apparently along an east-west-orientated fracture zone. Around 367 Ma, the main I-type Baynton pluton intruded as numerous shallow-dipping sheets. The last plutonic event was the intrusion of the broad, thin, flat-lying, and crosscutting sheet of the I-type Beauvallet pluton...

  7. Probing the volcanic-plutonic connection and the genesis of crystal-rich rhyolite in a deeply dissected supervolcano in the Nevada Great Basin: Source of the late Eocene Caetano Tuff (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; John, David A.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Schmitt, Axel K.


    Late Cenozoic faulting and large-magnitude extension in the Great Basin of the western USA has created locally deep windows into the upper crust, permitting direct study of volcanic and plutonic rocks within individual calderas. The Caetano caldera in north–central Nevada, formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flare-up, offers one of the best exposed and most complete records of caldera magmatism. Integrating whole-rock geochemistry, mineral chemistry, isotope geochemistry and geochronology with field studies and geologic mapping, we define the petrologic evolution of the magmatic system that sourced the >1100 km3Caetano Tuff. The intra-caldera Caetano Tuff is up to ∼5 km thick, composed of crystal-rich (30–45 vol. %), high-silica rhyolite, overlain by a smaller volume of comparably crystal-rich, low-silica rhyolite. It defies classification as either a monotonous intermediate or crystal-poor zoned rhyolite, as commonly ascribed to ignimbrite eruptions. Crystallization modeling based on the observed mineralogy and major and trace element geochemistry demonstrates that the compositional zonation can be explained by liquid–cumulate evolution in the Caetano Tuff magma chamber, with the more evolved lower Caetano Tuff consisting of extracted liquids that continued to crystallize and mix in the upper part of the chamber following segregation from a cumulate-rich, and more heterogeneous, source mush. The latter is represented in the caldera stratigraphy by the less evolved upper Caetano Tuff. Whole-rock major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry, modal mineralogy and mineral chemistry, O, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry, sanidine Ar–Ar geochronology, and zircon U–Pb geochronology and trace element geochemistry provide robust evidence that the voluminous caldera intrusions (Carico Lake pluton and Redrock Canyon porphyry) are genetically equivalent to the least evolved Caetano Tuff and formed from magma that remained in the lower chamber after

  8. Hydrothermal convection and uranium deposits in abnormally radioactive plutons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Hydrothermal uranium deposits are often closely associated with granites of abnormally high uranium content. We have studied the question whether the heat generated within such granites can cause fluid convection of sufficient magnitude to develop hydrothermal uranium deposits. Numerical models of flow through porous media were used to calculate temperatures and fluid flow in and around plutons similar to the Conway Granite, New Hampshire, i.e. with a halfwidth of 17 km, a thickness of 6.25 km, and with a uniform internal heat generation rate of 20 x 10 -13 cal/cm 3 -sec. Fluid convection was computed for plutons with permeabilities between 0.01 and 5 millidarcies (1 x10 -13 cm 2 to 5 x 10 -11 cm 2 . Flow rates and the size and location of convection cells in and around radioactive plutons like the Conway Granite were found to depend critically on the permeability distribution within the pluton and in adjacent country rocks. The depth of burial, the distribution of heat sources within the pluton, and small rates of heat generation in the country rock are only of minor importance. Topographic relief is unlikely to effect flow rates significantly, but can have a major influence on the distribution of recharge and discharge areas. Within a few million years, the mass of water transported by steady state convection through such radioactive plutons can equal the mass of water which can convect through them during initial cooling from magmatic temperatures. If the permeability in a Conway-type pluton is on the order of 0.5 millidarcies, the rate of fluid convection is probably sufficient to develop a hydrothermal ore deposit containing 10,000 tons of uranium in a period of two million years. Such a uranium deposit is most likely to develop in an area of strong upwelling or strong downwelling flow

  9. X-Boom, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed X-Boom is an innovation on rollable boom design directly relevant to NASA SBIR topic H5.01, Deployable Structures. The X-boom is a rollable Carbon Fiber...

  10. Source and fractionation controls on subduction-related plutons and dike swarms in southern Patagonia (Torres del Paine area) and the low Nb/Ta of upper crustal igneous rocks (United States)

    Müntener, Othmar; Ewing, Tanya; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Manzini, Mélina; Roux, Thibaud; Pellaud, Pierre; Allemann, Luc


    The subduction system in southern Patagonia provides direct evidence for the variability of the position of an active continental arc with respect to the subducting plate through time, but the consequences on the arc magmatic record are less well studied. Here we present a geochemical and geochronological study on small plutons and dykes from the upper crust of the southern Patagonian Andes at 51°S, which formed as a result of the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates beneath the South American continent. In situ U-Pb geochronology on zircons and bulk rock geochemical data of plutonic and dyke rocks are used to constrain the magmatic evolution of the retro-arc over the last 30 Ma. We demonstrate that these combined U-Pb and geochemical data for magmatic rocks track the temporal and spatial migration of the active arc, and associated retro-arc magmatism. Our dataset indicates that the rear-arc area is characterized by small volumes of alkaline basaltic magmas at 29-30 Ma that are characterized by low La/Nb and Th/Nb ratios with negligible arc signatures. Subsequent progressive eastward migration of the active arc culminated with the emplacement of calc-alkaline plutons and dikes 17-16 Ma with elevated La/Nb and Th/Nb ratios and typical subduction signatures constraining the easternmost position of the southern Patagonian batholith at that time. Geochemical data on the post-16 Ma igneous rocks including the Torres del Paine laccolith indicate an evolution to transitional K-rich calc-alkaline magmatism at 12.5 ± 0.2 Ma. We show that trace element ratios such as Nb/Ta and Dy/Yb systematically decrease with increasing SiO2, for both the 17-16 Ma calc-alkaline and the 12-13 Ma K-rich transitional magmatism. In contrast, Th/Nb and La/Nb monitor the changes in the source composition of these magmas. We suggest that the transition from the common calc-alkaline to K-rich transitional magmatism involves a change in the source component, while the trace element ratios

  11. Correct nomenclature for the Angadimogar pluton, Kerala ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic character- ization of the Angadimogar pluton. The present paper is based on this work and intends to demon- strate that the pluton exposed near Angadimogar is a quartz-syenite. 2. Study area and field relations. The Neoproterozoic granulite-facies terrain of southwestern India is ...

  12. Modification of booming level for higher correlation with booming sensation; Booming level no koseidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, S.; Hashimoto, T. [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)


    In our previous study, we proposed a objective measure, i.e., Booming Level for quantifying booming sensation caused by car interior noise. In this paper, Booming Level was modified with its weighting function and within the process of calculation 1/3 octave band level was modified for the best match with subjective result. These modifications were conducted through a subjective experiment rating booming sensation with sounds having much lower frequency contents below 63Hz. With this modified Booming Level, we have obtained higher correlation for rating booming sensation with sounds having prominent low frequency components. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  13. Isotopic character of Cambro-Ordovician plutonism, southern Victoria Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.C.; Parkinson, D.L.; Allibone, A.H.; Cooper, A.F.


    Previous mapping of granitoid rocks in the Dry Valleys area of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, identified the calc-alkaline (DV1a), adakitic (DV1b), and monzonitic (DV2) suites. A fourth older suite comprising alkaline gabbro, syenite, and A-type granite occurs in the Mt Dromedary area c. 80 km to the south. U-Pb zircon dating of Bonney Pluton, the largest calc-alkaline DV1a intrusion, indicates emplacement of this regional-scale body at 505 +/- 2 Ma. Pb-loss and inherited zircon were common to Bonney Pluton analyses of this study. U-Pb dating of monazite from Valhalla Pluton, a principal DV1b suite adakitic intrusion, indicates emplacement at 488 +/- 2 Ma. The Bonney Pluton age constrains the peak of calc-alkaline plutonism at 505 Ma and the Valhalla Pluton age records the major pulse of adakitic plutonism that is inferred to mark the final stages of subduction c. 490 Ma along this section of the East Antarctic margin. Nd and Sr isotope data for the calc-alkaline DV1a suite and adakitic DV1b suite define distinct ranges for each suite, supporting their subdivision on the basis of field relationships, petrography, and whole-rock geochemistry. Calc-alkaline DV1a suite granite magmas have eNd(T) = -4.2 to -6.1 and Sri = 0.7071-0.7079, whereas the adakitic DV1b suite rocks have a wider range of eNd(T) = -1.9 to -7.2 and Sri = 0.7065-0.7097. The isotopic data suggest a significant mantle component and subordinate crustal component in the source region of both suites. Time-dependent variations in the isotopic ratios of DV1a and DV1b suites imply a progressive increase in the proportion of more radiogenic material in the source region of the granitoid rocks, either mantle- or crust-derived material. Larger adakitic DV1b plutons are more 'evolved' than equivalent, smaller plutons of the same DV1b suite. Vanda Dikes and monzonitic DV2 suite intrusions are characterised by particularly low Sri = 0.7044-0.7067 and near-constant eNd(T) = -4.8 to -5.3, which indicate a

  14. A Mystery Unraveled: Booming Sand Dunes (United States)

    Vriend, N. M.; Hunt, M. L.; Clayton, R. W.


    layer. Different source mechanisms are used in order to simulate the squeaking and booming emission within the dune. špace{.1in} {\\footnotesize Vriend, N. M., M. L. Hunt, R. W. Clayton, C E. Brennen, K. S. Brantley, and A. Ruiz-Angulo (2007), Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16306, doi:10.1029/2007GL030276.}

  15. Bust without boom. (United States)

    Goldzieher, J W


    Just like injectables, oral contraceptives (OCs), including progestin-only ¿minipill¿ and ¿morning-after¿ pill regimens, have experienced a bust without a boom. Fear of political and religious backlash over emergency contraceptives containing estrogen and progestin prompted large companies not to market these regimens. Another major factor in the bust phase of OC use and acceptance has been a small coterie of English and American epidemiologists focused on the adverse effects of Ocs, including risks of thrombotic events, heart attacks, and strokes. The media played a crucial role in the bust phase of these OCs. In the UK, the alleged increase of cancer risk with pill use, which leaked before publication in London newspapers, resulted in 50,000 additional unintended pregnancies. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that boom-and-bust cycles will continue simply because many of the actors in this drama have too great a vested interest to desist. Groups involved in this field must recognize the hazards that come with the territory and be proactive, anticipatory, and well armed with facts--and get good with media access. Drug companies should think on a long-term basis the potential effects of leaving the field, as they have done, or shooting down competitive innovations.

  16. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.; Flexser, S.; Andersson, L.


    Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monozite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region, biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both approx. 30 ppM, considerably higher than in normal granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat productivity considerations show that although Stripa quartz monzonite contains high abundances of radioelements, the pluton has little efect on the regional heat flow. If it occurs in a layered plutonic setting, it is not more than 1.5 km thick; otherwise it may comprise a stock, dike, or border phase that is relatively small compared with the large granitic plutons exposed in the region.

  17. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, Harold; Flexser, Steve; Andersson, Lennart


    To better define the character of the rock encompassing the thermomechanical and hydrological experiments at the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and to help determine the size of the Stripa pluton, detailed studies were conducted of the petrology and radiogeology of the quartz monzonite and adjacent rocks. Petrologic studies emphasized optical petrography, with supplementary X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and microprobe analyses. Radiogeologic investigations were based primarily on surface and underground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium, thorium and potassium, supplemented by laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses and fission-track radiographic determinations of the locations and abundance of uranium in the rock matrix. Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monzonite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both- 30 ppm, considerably higher than in "normal" granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat

  18. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, Harold; Flexser, Steve; Andersson, Lennart


    To better define the character of the rock encompassing the thermomechanical and hydrological experiments at the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and to help determine the size of the Stripa pluton, detailed studies were conducted of the petrology and radiogeology of the quartz monzonite and adjacent rocks. Petrologic studies emphasized optical petrography, with supplementary X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and microprobe analyses. Radiogeologic investigations were based primarily on surface and underground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium, thorium and potassium, supplemented by laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses and fission-track radiographic determinations of the locations and abundance of uranium in the rock matrix. Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monzonite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both- 30 ppm, considerably higher than in 'normal' granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat

  19. Seismic detection of sonic booms. (United States)

    Cates, Joseph E; Sturtevant, Bradford


    The pressure signals from a sonic boom will produce a small, but detectable, ground motion. The extensive seismic network in southern California, consisting of over 200 sites covering over 50000 square kilometers, is used to map primary and secondary sonic boom carpets. Data from the network is used to analyze three supersonic overflights in the western United States. The results are compared to ray-tracing computations using a realistic model of the stratified atmospheric at the time of the measurements. The results show sonic boom ground exposure under the real atmosphere is much larger than previously expected or predicted by ray tracing alone. Finally, seismic observations are used to draw some inferences on the origin of a set of "mystery booms" recorded in 1992-1993 in southern California.

  20. Dynamic Analysis of The Intelligent Sprayer Boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Maagaard, Jørgen; Terp, Christian Istjord

    As part of the 3 year project “The intelligent Sprayer Boom”, financed by The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, the dynamics of the sprayer boom is to be analysed. In order to minimize the amount of herbicides used to kill the weeds in agriculture a new sprayer boom is being developed...... called “The intelligent sprayer boom”. For the sprayer boom the primary challenge is to hit the weeds with precision from a movable platform. Since the sprayer boom is mounted on a tractor the system will react to bumps in the field. The intelligent sprayer boom has an integrated camera technology...... system to work properly. At the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) a patent for an active damping system of the sprayer boom has been obtained. The subject of this paper is analysis of the dynamics of the Sprayer boom. The analysis is based on a Multibody Dynamics model of the sprayer boom and is made...

  1. Sonic boom research: TsAGI approach


    Chernyshev, S. L.; Ivanteeva, L. G.; Kovalenko, V. V.; Teperin, L. L.; Chernyshev, S. L.; Ivanteeva, L. G.; Kovalenko, V. V.; Teperin, L. L.


    Research into sonic booms is indispensable for the future supersonic flight. In particular, the issue of sonic boom becomes a crucial problem when supersonic flights are over thickly populated areas. The TsAGI (Russia Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute) has been studying the sonic boom problem theoretically, experimentally and numerically since 1960. Prof. Zhirin of this institute has developed a theory of sonic boom by aircraft flying along any specified trajectory in non-homogeneous atmosph...

  2. Petrological studies of plutonic rocks of Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S.


    The feldspars of many tonalitic plutonic rocks in the coastal regions and West Andean regions are zoned. This leads to the conclusion that they are relatively flat intrusions and to some extent transition rocks in the subvulcanite direction. This is in accordance with the genetic and chronological relationship between plutonites and the surrounding vulcanites of the Basic Igreous Complex (BIC). The composition of representative minerals, e.g. alkali feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, biotite, chlorite, and amphibole has been determined as well as the age of plutonite samples by the K/Ar dating method. (DG) [de

  3. Real Time Sonic Boom Display (United States)

    Haering, Ed


    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Mrowiec


    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief description of Mises’ monetary theory, with emphasis on the Misesian differentiation of two kinds of credit: commodity and circulation credit, and with the description of the impact of circulation credit expansion on the business cycle. Further on it is described how Mises’ insights constituted the kernel of Austrian Business Cycle Theory, and how the same observations on the nature of credit constituted the kernel of the Chicago Plan (though Mises’ views on the nature of credit led him to different conculsions than it led the authors of the Chicago Plan, and how this plan is being “rediscovered” now. The following sections deal with observations of one of the preeminent current macroeconomic researches, Mr. Claudio Borio, on the elasticity of credit as the source of the current crisis, and on the importance of the financial cycle in analysing the current economic crisis. The author of this text demonstrates that Austrian Business Cycle Theory gave the same answer regarding the sources of economic crises that now modern macroeconomic theory seems to be approaching, and that the postulates for successful financial cycle modeling are already included in the ABCT. Finally, some observations on the current crisis, as well as proposals of avenues of further research are proposed.

  5. Realism Assessment of Sonic Boom Simulators (United States)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Davies, Patrica; Hodgdon, Kthleen K.; Salamone, Joseph A., III; Pilon, Anthony


    Developments in small supersonic aircraft design are predicted to result in low-intensity sonic booms. Booms generated by current aircraft are similar to those that led to the ban on commercial supersonic fli ght over the US, so are unsuitable for parametric studies of psychoac oustic response to low-intensity booms. Therefore, simulators have be en used to study the impact of predicted low-intensity sonic booms. H owever, simulators have been criticized because, when simulating conv entional-level booms, the sounds were observed to be unrealistic by p eople experienced in listening to sonic booms. Thus, two studies were conducted to measure the perceived realism of three sonic boom simul ators. Experienced listeners rated the realism of conventional sonic boom signatures when played in these simulators. The effects on percei ved realism of factors such as duration of post-boom noise, exclusion of very low frequency components, inclusion of ground reflections, a nd type of simulator were examined. Duration of post-boom noise was f ound to have a strong effect on perceived realism, while type of simu lator had a weak effect. It was determined that post-boom noise had t o be at least 1.5 seconds long for the sound to be rated very realist ic. Loudness level did not affect realism for the range of sounds pla yed in the tests (80-93 dB ASEL).

  6. Cooling history of nested plutons from the Variscan Tichka plutonic complex (Morocco) (United States)

    Lécuyer, Christophe; Gasquet, Dominique; Allemand, Pascal; Martineau, François; Martinez, Isabelle


    Four imbricated mafic to felsic plutons of Variscan age from Morocco have been investigated for their cooling history and geochemical interactions with surrounding continental rocks. Oxygen isotope compositions of whole rocks and minerals have been used to model the cooling rates of these kilometer-sized intrusions. By combining both the knowledge of oxygen-self diffusion data of rock-forming minerals and the determination by IR-spectroscopy of the water content of quartz, the cooling times are estimated ranging from 105 to 5 × 105 years in agreement with the shallow emplacement (4-6 km depth) of these intrusions into the continental crust. Such fast cooling rates could explain why after assimilation of the various country rocks, heterogeneities of both neodymium and strontium isotope ratios were still preserved. A progressive δ18O increase from the mafic to felsic terms of the plutonic suite, which does not excess 1 to 1.5‰, could be explained by the assimilation of metamorphosed pelitic and volcanic rocks that constitute the basement of the Tichka plutonic complex.

  7. The rapakivi granite plutons of Bodom and Obbnäs, southern Finland: petrography and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosunen, P.


    the two plutons (Ba and Sr higher, Rb lower in Obbnäs that cannot easily be traced to single parental granite magma. These features, together with the presence of titanite in the Obbnäs pluton, suggest different sources for the granites of the two plutons: a potassium feldspar-rich source for Bodom and potassium feldspar-poor for Obbnäs.

  8. Sonic boom propagation through atmospheric turbulence


    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Shigeru; 山下, 博; 大林, 茂


    The effect of the homogeneous atmospheric turbulence on the sonic boom propagation has been investigated. The turbulence field is represented by a finite sum of discrete Fourier modes based on the von Karman and Pao energy spectrum. The sonic boom signature is calculated by the modified Waveform Parameter Method, considering the turbulent velocities. The results show that in 59 % of the cases, the intensity of the sonic boom had decreased, and in other 41 % of the cases had increased the soni...

  9. Relationships between subduction and extension in the Aegean region: evidence from granite plutons of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey (United States)

    Black, K. N.; Catlos, E. J.; Oyman, T.; Demirbilek, M.


    The Biga Peninsula is a tectonically complex region in western Turkey characterized by Tethyan sutures overprinted by extensional grabens, active fault strands of the North Anatolian Shear Zone, and numerous granitoid plutons. Two end-member models for the initiation of extension in the Biga region have been proposed, both of which focus on the role of igneous assemblages. The first model involves the emplacement of a hot mantle plume that thins and weakens crust and isostatic doming drives extension. The second has regional tensional stresses as the driving force, and magmatism is a consequence of decompression. Here we focus on understanding the timing and geochemical evolution of three granitoid plutons located in and just south of the Biga Peninsula to understand which end-member model could be applicable to the Aegean region. The Kestanbolu pluton is located north of the proposed Vardar Suture Zone, whereas the Eybek and Kozak plutons are north of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone. These sutures may mark regions of the closure of branches of the NeoTethyan Ocean. To better understand their sources and tectonic evolution, we acquired geochemical and geochronological data, and cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the rocks. Previously reported ages of the plutons range from Late Eocene to Middle Miocene. Here we acquired in situ (in thin section) ion microprobe U-Pb ages of zircon grains found in a range of textural relationships. Ages from the Kozak pluton range from 37.8±5.4 Ma to 10.3±2.4 Ma (238U/206Pb, ±1σ) with two ages from a single grain of 287±26 Ma and 257±18 Ma. We also found Oligocene to Late Miocene zircon grains in the Kestanbolu pluton, whereas zircons from the Eybek pluton range from 34.3±4.8 Ma to 21.2±1.7 Ma. Samples collected from the Kozak and Eybek plutons are magnesian, calc-alkalic, and metaluminous, whereas the Kestanbolu rocks are magnesian, alkali-calcic, and metaluminous with one ferroan sample and one peraluminous sample. Trace

  10. From steep feeders to tabular plutons - Emplacement controls of syntectonic granitoid plutons in the Damara Belt, Namibia (United States)

    Hall, Duncan; Kisters, Alexander


    Granitoid plutons in the deeply eroded south Central Zone of the Damara Belt in Namibia commonly show tabular geometries and pronounced stratigraphic controls on their emplacement. Subhorizontal, sheet-like pluton geometries record emplacement during regional subhorizontal shortening, but the intrusion of spatially and temporally closely-related granitoid plutons at different structural levels and in distinct structural settings suggests independent controls on their levels of emplacement. We describe and evaluate the controls on the loci of the dyke-to-sill transition that initiated the emplacement of three syntectonic (560-530 Ma) plutons in the basement-cover stratigraphy of the Erongo region. Intrusive relationships highlight the significance of (1) rigidity anisotropies associated with competent sedimentary packages or pre-existing subhorizontal granite sheets and (2) rheological anisotropies associated with the presence of thick ductile marble horizons. These mechanical anisotropies may lead to the initial deflection of steep feeder conduits as well as subsequent pluton assembly by the repeated underaccretion of later magma batches. The upward displacement of regional isotherms due to the heat advection associated with granite emplacement is likely to have a profound effect on the mechanical stratification of the upper crust and, consequently, on the level at which granitoid pluton emplacement is initiated. In this way, pluton emplacement at progressively shallower crustal depths may have resulted in the unusually high apparent geothermal gradients recorded in the upper crustal levels of the Damara Belt during its later evolution.

  11. Low Sonic Boom Design Activities at Boeing (United States)

    Haglund, George T.


    Low sonic boom studies have continued during the last year with the goal of exploring the ability of practical airplane designs to achieve significantly reduced sonic boom-loudness with reasonable performance penalties. At the 1993 Sonic Boom Workshop, improvements to the low-boom design methods were described and early results of two low-boom configurations -935 and -936) were presented. Now that the low boom design methods are reasonably mature, recent design activities have broadened somewhat to explore refinements to the -935 and -936 designs. In this paper the results are reported of a detailed systems study and performance sizing of the -935 (Hybrid sonic boom waveform) and the -936 (Flat-top waveform). This analysis included a second design cycle for reduced cruise drag and balance considerations. Another design study was of a small-wing version of the -935. Finally, some preliminary results of the recent LARC UPWT test of the -935 configuration are given, along with a proposed alternative method for extrapolating wind tunnel pressure signatures to the ground. The various configurations studied is also summarized. The topics covered by this paper are as follows: Systems study results of the Baseline -939 and low boom configurations -935 and -936, Small wing derivative of the -935, Wind tunnel test results of the -935, Test-derived F-function and propagation to the ground, and Future considerations (boom-softened baseline, overwater issues, and operations).

  12. Petrogenesis of Post-collisional high Ba-Sr granitoids: the Solarya Pluton, NW Turkey (United States)

    Unal, Alp; Kamaci, Omer; Altunkaynak, Safak


    litospheric mantle source or depleted mantle source highly enriched by earlier subduction event(s) for their parental magma. Evolution of parental magma proceeded by open system processes (AFC and/or mingling) and further fractional crystallization. 40Ar/39Ar dating yielded isochron ages of 23.2±0.2-21.6±0.4 Ma (Early Miocene), indicating that cooling of the pluton and exhumation of Kazdağ and Menderes metamorphic core complexes occurred concurrently. Regarding the Cenozoic tectonic history of NW Anatolia, not only the age of the Solarya pluton but also inferred mantle source and magma evolution suggest that the melt generation to produce high Ba-Sr granitic magmatism was most propably the result of partial delamination or convective removal of the base of mantle lithosphere beneath NW Anatolia.

  13. The study of abiotic reduction of nitrate and nitrite in Boom Clay (United States)

    Mariën, A.; Bleyen, N.; Aerts, S.; Valcke, E.

    water). Furthermore, batch tests in which bacterial activity was allowed, demonstrated that the Boom Clay natural organic matter is a poor carbon source for (denitrifying and nitrate reducing) prokaryotes.

  14. Bearings for the biomass boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan


    Biomass energy is booming –– more than two billion people depend on biomass for their energy and the International Energy Agency predicts that biomass' share of the global energy supply will treble by 2050. But in many developing countries it is still regarded as a traditional and dirty solution that is often criminalised, unsustainable and poorly paid. A more sophisticated approach that legalises and secures sustainable production by and for local people could help improve energy security, cut carbon emissions, protect forests and reduce poverty.

  15. The distribution, geochronology and geochemistry of early Paleozoic granitoid plutons in the North Altun orogenic belt, NW China: Implications for the petrogenesis and tectonic evolution (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Tong; Chen, Bai-Lin; Zhao, Ni-Na; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Wen-Gao; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Bin; Han, Mei-Mei


    Abundant early Paleozoic granitoid plutons are widely distributed in the North Altun orogenic belt. These rocks provide clues to the tectonic evolution of the North Altun orogenic belt and adjacent areas. In this paper, we report an integrated study of petrological features, U-Pb zircon dating, in situ zircon Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical compositions for the Abei, 4337 Highland and Kaladawan Plutons from north to south in the North Altun orogenic belt. The dating yielded magma crystallization ages of 514 Ma for the Abei Pluton, 494 Ma for the 4337 Highland Pluton and 480-460 Ma for the Kaladawan Pluton, suggesting that they are all products of oceanic slab subduction because of the age constraint. The Abei monzogranites derived from the recycle of Paleoproterozoic continental crust under low-pressure and high-temperature conditions are products of subduction initiation. The 4337 Highland granodiorites have some adakitic geochemical signatures and are sourced from partial melting of thickened mafic lower continental crust. The Kaladawan quartz diorites are produced by partial melting of mantle wedge according to the positive εHf(t) values, and the Kaladawan monzogranite-syenogranite are derived from partial melting of Neoproterozoic continental crust mixing the juvenile underplated mafic material from the depleted mantle. These results, together with existing data, provide significant information about the evolution history of oceanic crust subduction during the 520-460 Ma. The initiation of subduction occurred during 520-500 Ma with formation of Abei Pluton; subsequent transition from steep-angle to flat-slab subduction at ca.500 Ma due to the arrival of buoyant oceanic plateaus, which induces the formation of 4337 Highland Pluton. With ongoing subduction, the steep-angle subduction system is reestablished to cause the formation of 480-460 Ma Kaladawan Pluton. Meanwhile, it is this model that account for the temporal-spatial distribution of these early

  16. K/Ar age dating of Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamghash, J.; Vosoughi Abedini, M.; Bellon, H.; Emami, M.H.; Pourmafi, M.; Rashid, H.


    Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex, the western member of Urumiyeh-Golpayehgan intrusive plutons is located in northern part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zon. Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex, exposing in an area of about 700 km 2 , comprises 10 plutons that can be divided into three suites, i.e.,diorite,granite,and alkali syenite-alkali granite. Dioritic bodies are the oldest intrusive rocks of the region, which on the basis of the field study, their relative age of emplacement is estimated to be post-Jurassic and pre-miocene. However, with respect to the age of other similar intrusive bodies in Naghadeh area, they are most likely of post early cretaceous-pre miocene age. Hybrid intrusive rocks, occurring at the contact of dioritic and granitic rocks may suggest a simultaneous emplacement of both magmas. Syntetic pluton from alkali syenite-alkali granite has intruded dioritic and granitic rocks, in contrast, flourine bearing alkali granite pluton from this suite shows no contact with other igneous rocks in the area. K-Ar age determinations obtained on amphibole specimens from diorite suite are 91.9±2.3, 94.1±2.3 and 100±2.4 Ma, and on biotite specimens from granite suite are 100±1.5 to 98.9±1.5 Ma. Chronology study using same method on arfvedsonite specimens from syenite pluton shows 78.9±3.1, 79.6±1.9 and 81.7±2.0 Ma and on K-fled par samples of flourine bearing alkali granite pluton from the alkali syenite-alkali granite suite presents 76±3.4 and 77.1±1.8. Therefore, based on field evidence and K/Ar age dating, Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex presumably formed during two episodes: granite and diorite suites formed simultaneously at about 100 Ma, then plutons of alkali syenite-alkali granite suite emplaced at about 80 Ma

  17. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircons in plutonic rocks from the central Famatinian arc, Argentina (United States)

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.; Camilletti, Giuliano C.; Bergantz, George W.


    The Famatinian arc formed around the South Iapetus rim during the Ordovician, when oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the West Gondwana margin. We present combined in situ U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses for zircon to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Famatinian magmatism. Zircon crystals sampled from four intermediate and silicic plutonic rocks confirm previous observations showing that voluminous magmatism took place during a relatively short pulse between the Early and Middle Ordovician (472-465 Ma). The entire zircon population for the four plutonic rocks yields coherent εHf negative values and spreads over several ranges of initial εHf(t) units (-0.3 to -8.0). The range of εHf units in detrital zircons of Famatinian metasedimentary rocks reflects a prolonged history of the cratonic sources during the Proterozoic to the earliest Phanerozoic. Typical tonalites and granodiorites that contain zircons with evolved Hf isotopic compositions formed upon incorporating (meta)sedimentary materials into calc-alkaline metaluminous magmas. The evolved Hf isotope ratios of zircons in the subduction related plutonic rocks strongly reflect the Hf isotopic character of the metasedimentary contaminant, even though the linked differentiation and growth of the Famatinian arc crust was driven by ascending and evolving mantle magmas. Geochronology and Hf isotope systematics in plutonic zircons allow us understanding the petrogenesis of igneous series and the provenance of magma sources. However, these data could be inadequate for computing model ages and supporting models of crustal evolution.

  18. Timing and nature of tertiary plutonism and extension in the Grouse Creek Mountains, Utah (United States)

    Egger, A.E.; Dumitru, T.A.; Miller, E.L.; Savage, C.F.I.; Wooden, J.L.


    of the crust that apparently resided as much as 10 km apart (in depth) at times as young as the Miocene. The varied structural, metamorphic, and intrusive relations obsreved in the Grouse Creek Mountains reflect their formation at different levels within the crust. Data from these various levels argue that plutonism has been a key mechanism far transferring heat into the middle and upper crust, and localizing strain during regional extension. Interestingly, events documented here correlate in a broad way with cooling events documented in the Raft River Mountains, although plutons are not exposed there. Major and trace element geochemistry imply a crustal component in all of the studied plutons, indicating significant degrees of crustal melting at depth during extension, and point to mantle heat sources during the timespan of Basin and Range extension as the cause of melting. Basin and Range faulting and final uplift of the range is recorded by apatite fission track ages, averaging 13.4 Ma, and deposition of about 2 km of syn-faulting basin fill deposits along the Grouse Creek fault mapped along the western flank of the range. Similar apatite ages from the Albion Mountains to the north indicate that the western side of the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek core complex behaved as a single rigid crustal block at this time.

  19. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W. D.; Twilley, W. H.


    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  20. Evidence for prolonged mid-Paleozoic plutonism and ages of crustal sources in east-central Alaska from SHRIMP U-Pb dating of syn-magmatic, inherited, and detrital zircon (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Williams, I.S.


    Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb analyses of igneous zircons from the Lake George assemblage in the eastern Yukon-Tanana Upland (Tanacross quadrangle) indicate both Late Devonian (???370 Ma) and Early Mississippian (???350 Ma) magmatic pulses. The zircons occur in four textural variants of granitic orthogneiss from a large area of muscovite-biotite augen gneiss. Granitic orthogneiss from the nearby Fiftymile batholith, which straddles the Alaska-Yukon border, yielded a similar range in zircon U-Pb ages, suggesting that both the Fiftymile batholith and the Tanacross orthogneiss body consist of multiple intrusions. We interpret the overall tectonic setting for the Late Devonian and Early Mississippian magmatism as an extending continental margin (broad back-arc region) inboard of a northeast-dipping (present coordinates) subduction zone. New SHRIMP U-Pb ages of inherited zircon cores in the Tanacross orthogneisses and of detrital zircons from quartzite from the Jarvis belt in the Alaska Range (Mount Hayes quadrangle) include major 2.0-1.7 Ga clusters and lesser 2.7-2.3 Ga clusters, with subordinate 3.2, 1.4, and 1.1 Ga clusters in some orthogneiss samples. For the most part, these inherited and core U-Pb ages match those of basement provinces of the western Canadian Shield and indicate widespread potential sources within western Laurentia for most grain populations; these ages also match the detrital zircon reference for the northern North American miogeocline and support a correlation between the two areas.

  1. Sonic Boom: Six Decades of Research (United States)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Bobbitt, Percy J.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Shepherd, Kevin P.; Coen, Peter G.; Richwine, David M.


    Sonic booms generated by aircraft traveling at supersonic speeds have been the subject of extensive aeronautics research for over 60 years. Hundreds of papers have been published that document the experimental and analytical research conducted during this time period. The purpose of this publication is to assess and summarize this work and establish the state-of-the-art for researchers just entering the field, or for those interested in a particular aspect of the subject. This publication consists of ten chapters that cover the experimental and analytical aspects of sonic boom generation, propagation and prediction with summary remarks provided at the end of each chapter. Aircraft maneuvers, sonic boom minimization, simulation techniques and devices as well as human, structural, and other responses to sonic booms are also discussed. The geometry and boom characteristics of various low-boom concepts, both large civil transports and smaller business-jet concepts, are included. The final chapter presents an assessment of civilian supersonic overland flight and highlights the need for continued research and a low-boom demonstrator vehicle. Summary remarks are provided at the end of each chapter. The studies referenced in this publication have been drawn from over 500 references.

  2. Del Boom y otras onomatopeyas literarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván Parra Londoño


    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de examinar los alcances literarios del llamado Boom latinoamericano, a medio siglo de su estallido, las cuatro obras más representativas y sus respectivos autores, además de proponer un quinto autor, según la invitación que hiciera en su momento el crítico Ángel Rama. Por otro lado, evalua la respuesta literaria por parte del Post Boom, analizando sus características y su vigencia y, de manera concomitante, los movimientos anejos o posteriores a dicho movimiento, como el Crack y la Generación Granta. A manera de propuesta, se pondrán a consideración treinta autores como integrantes del Post Boom y una novela de Carlos Fuentes como el “crash” del Boom. Por último, presenta un breve vistazo a la narrativa española paralela a los mencionados movimientos.

  3. Structural Analysis of Field Sprayer Booms


    KOÇ, Caner


    In this paper, structural analysis of a 21 meters wide field sprayer boom, designed for precision agricultureapplications, was conducted with finite element analysis. G-programming language, a data acquisition board andan inductive force transducer were used to measure the forces acting on the boom arms. An experimental setup,developed in a laboratory environment, was able to measure and record various forces in 5 miliseconds intervals.An ANSYS model was developed to analyze the forces record...

  4. Aerial Refueling Boom/Receptacle Guide (United States)


    proprietary , sensitive, classified or otherwise restricted information. ARSAG documents, as prepared, are not DOD, MOD or NATO standards, but provide...Equipment Characteristics 20. NATO STANAG 7191 Air-to-Air Refuelling Equipment: Boom-Receptacle System and Interface Requirements, Edition 1, 3 June 2013...Aerial Refueling Boom Feasibility Study, Dated Jan 1972, Contractor: The Boeing Company , Wichita Division. 28. Specification Number ZA015800, “KC-10A

  5. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters

  6. The Ajo Mining District, Pima County, Arizona--Evidence for Middle Cenozoic Detachment Faulting, Plutonism, Volcanism, and Hydrothermal Alteration (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Force, Eric R.; Wilkinson, William H.; More, Syver W.; Rivera, John S.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    Introduction: The Ajo porphyry copper deposit and surrounding Upper Cretaceous rocks have been separated from their plutonic source and rotated by detachment faulting. Overlying middle Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been tilted and show evidence for two periods of rotation. Following these rotations, a granitic stock (23.7?0.2 Ma) intruded basement rocks west of the Ajo deposit. This stock was uplifted 2.5 km to expose deep-seated Na-Ca alteration.

  7. Sonic Boom Generated by Reentry of Mir (United States)

    Moody, D. M.


    The Russian space station, Mir, was actively deorbited to impact in the South Pacific on 23 March 2001. Mir was the largest body in Earth orbit ever to be deorbited in a controlled fashion. As such, it provided a unique opportunity to observe, at a known time and location, what happens to such a large object as it re-enters the earth's atmosphere. The reentry and breakup were videotaped from the Fiji Sheraton hotel by a CNN cameraman. About four to five minutes after the streaking Mir debris left his view, he described hearing a number of sonic booms which were generated by pieces of the wreckage. This report contains the camera-man's description of what he heard and a calculation of the sonic boom amplitude and duration which would have been generated by a single Mir module on its reentry trajectory. Results of the calculation are consistent with the reported estimated time of boom arrival past visual sighting. However, no actual measurements were made at the hotel of the boom strength (sound level.) Thus the code results for boom amplitude cannot be quantitatively verified.

  8. Lead isotopes in archaean plutonic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.


    Archaean intrusive rocks have initial Pb isotopic compositions which show a varied and complex history for the source regions of the rocks. Even the oldest rocks from Greenland indicate heterogenous U and Pb distribution prior to 3800 m.y. ago. Source regions with μ values less than 7 must have played a significant role in the early history of the earth. By late Archaean time U/Pb ratios of source regions had increased substantially. Data from Australia and North America show distinct regional differences, both within and between continents. (Auth.)

  9. Disturbance of sleep by sonic booms. (United States)

    Griefahn, B; Jansen, G


    After a pilot study (2 subjects, 19 nights) we tested two different subjects during 57 nights, administering sonic booms (1 mb, 300 ms; sound level of sonic boom in the bedroom 80-85 dB (A) and recording EEG and peripheral blood volume. After 7 nights without noise, 30 nights with either 2 or 4 sonic booms (alternately) were applied. After 10 more nights without noise, four nights with 8 and 16 bangs followed alternately. The last 6 nights were used as a comparison phase. Results showed that distrubance was obvious during all periods of noise. No adaptation could be observed during any of the experiments. On the contrary, during the night with 4 bangs there was a tendency for compensation, e.g., in the last two thirds of nights with 4 bangs, the total time of deep sleep was comparable with the nights without any noise.

  10. Experimental and Computational Sonic Boom Assessment of Lockheed-Martin N+2 Low Boom Models (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Durston, Donald A.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Walker, Eric L.; Carter, Melissa B.


    Flight at speeds greater than the speed of sound is not permitted over land, primarily because of the noise and structural damage caused by sonic boom pressure waves of supersonic aircraft. Mitigation of sonic boom is a key focus area of the High Speed Project under NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The project is focusing on technologies to enable future civilian aircraft to fly efficiently with reduced sonic boom, engine and aircraft noise, and emissions. A major objective of the project is to improve both computational and experimental capabilities for design of low-boom, high-efficiency aircraft. NASA and industry partners are developing improved wind tunnel testing techniques and new pressure instrumentation to measure the weak sonic boom pressure signatures of modern vehicle concepts. In parallel, computational methods are being developed to provide rapid design and analysis of supersonic aircraft with improved meshing techniques that provide efficient, robust, and accurate on- and off-body pressures at several body lengths from vehicles with very low sonic boom overpressures. The maturity of these critical parallel efforts is necessary before low-boom flight can be demonstrated and commercial supersonic flight can be realized.

  11. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom (United States)



  12. 14 CFR 91.817 - Civil aircraft sonic boom. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil aircraft sonic boom. 91.817 Section....817 Civil aircraft sonic boom. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft in the United States at a... sonic boom to reach the surface within the United States; and (2) The operator complies with the flight...

  13. Formulation of the problem of sonic boom by a maneuvering aerofoil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the structure of a sonic boom produced by a simple aerofoil at a large distance from its source we ... The leading shock front (let us call it LS) starting from the nose of the aircraft gives rise to a sudden pressure increase ...... Alexander Von Humboldt Foundation for providing financial support to work in Germany and Prof.

  14. Magmatic tempo of Earth's youngest exposed plutons as revealed by detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology. (United States)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Spencer, Christopher J; Danišík, Martin; Hoiland, Carl W


    Plutons are formed by protracted crystallization of magma bodies several kilometers deep within the crust. The temporal frequency (i.e. episodicity or 'tempo') of pluton formation is often poorly constrained as timescales of pluton formation are largely variable and may be difficult to resolve by traditional dating methods. The Hida Mountain Range of central Japan hosts the youngest exposed plutons on Earth and provides a unique opportunity to assess the temporal and spatial characteristics of pluton emplacement at high temporal resolution. Here we apply U-Pb geochronology to zircon from the Quaternary Kurobegawa Granite and Takidani Granodiorite in the Hida Mountain Range, and from modern river sediments whose fluvial catchments include these plutons in order to reconstruct their formation. The U-Pb data demonstrate that the Kurobegawa pluton experienced two magmatic pulses at ~2.3 Ma and ~0.9 Ma; whereas, to the south, the Takidani pluton experienced only one magmatic pulse at ~1.6 Ma. These data imply that each of these magmatic systems were both spatially and temporally distinct. The apparent ~0.7 Myr age gap between each of the three magmatic pulses potentially constrains the recharge duration of a single pluton within a larger arc plutonic complex.

  15. Babies Bottom Out--A 'Maybe Boom' (United States)

    Science News, 1977


    Data for the period September 1976 through April 1977 indicate a rise in the United States birth rate; however, the rate is still below the replacement level. It is speculated that the increase is an "echo" effect to the post-World War II baby boom which peaked in 1957. (SL)

  16. A PCR Detection Method for Rapid Identification of Melissococcus pluton in Honeybee Larvae


    Govan, V. A.; Brözel, V.; Allsopp, M. H.; Davison, S.


    Melissococcus pluton is the causative agent of European foulbrood, a disease of honeybee larvae. This bacterium is particularly difficult to isolate because of its stringent growth requirements and competition from other bacteria. PCR was used selectively to amplify specific rRNA gene sequences of M. pluton from pure culture, from crude cell lysates, and directly from infected bee larvae. The PCR primers were designed from M. pluton 16S rRNA sequence data. The PCR products were visualized by ...

  17. Underwater measurements and modeling of a sonic boom. (United States)

    Desharnais, Francine; Chapman, David M F


    During a sea trial on the Scotian Shelf, acoustic signals from a sonic boom were recorded on 11 hydrophones of a vertical array. The array spanned the lower 50 m of the water column above a sand bank at 76 m water depth. The source of the sonic boom was deduced to be a Concorde supersonic airliner traveling at about Mach 2. The waterborne waveform was observed to decay as an evanescent wave below the sea surface, as expected. The calm weather (sea state 1) resulted in low ambient noise and low self-noise at the hydrophones, and good signal-to-noise ratio on the upper hydrophones; however, the decreased signal amplitude is more difficult to detect towards the lower part of the water column. The period of the observed waveform is of the order 0.23 s, corresponding to a peak frequency of about 3 Hz. The shape of the measured waveform differs noticeably from the theoretical N-shape waveform predicted with Sawyers' theory [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 523-524 (1968)]. A simple shallow-ocean geoacoustic model suggests that this effect may be caused in part by seismo-acoustic interaction of the infrasonic waves with the elastic sediments that form the seabed.

  18. Concorde sonic booms as an atmospheric probe. (United States)

    Balachandran, N K; Donn, W L; Rind, D H


    Infrasound generated by the sonic boom from the inbound Concorde supersonic transport is recorded at Palisades, New York (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), as a series of impulses from distances varying from 165 to about 1000 kilometers. Refraction effects determined by temperature and wind conditions return the signal to the surface from both stratospheric (40 to 50 kilometers) and thermospheric (100 to 130 kilometers) levels. The frequency of the recorded signal is a function of the level of reflection; the frequency decreases from impulse stretching as the atmosphere becomes more rarified relative to the sound pressure. The horizontal trace velocity of the signal across the array of instruments is equal to the acoustic velocity at the reflection level. The sonic boom can thus be used to provide temperature-wind parameters at reflection levels estimated from the signal frequency. Daily observed signal variations have indicated significant variations in these parameters.

  19. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...... in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements...

  20. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.


    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  1. Guidelines to classification and nomenclature of Arabian felsic plutonic rocks (United States)

    Ramsay, C.R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Drysdall, A.R.


    Well-defined procedures for classifying the felsic plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield on the basis of petrographic, chemical and lithostratigraphic criteria and mineral-resource potential have been adopted and developed in the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources over the past decade. A number of problems with conventional classification schemes have been identified and resolved; others, notably those arising from difficulties in identifying precise mineral compositions, continue to present difficulties. The petrographic nomenclature used is essentially that recommended by the International Union of Geological Sciences. Problems that have arisen include the definition of: (1) rocks with sodic, zoned or perthitic feldspar, (2) trondhjemites, and (3) alkali granites. Chemical classification has been largely based on relative molar amounts of alumina, lime and alkalis, and the use of conventional variation diagrams, but pilot studies utilizing univariate and multivariate statistical techniques have been made. The classification used in Saudi Arabia for stratigraphic purposes is a hierarchy of formation-rank units, suites and super-suites as defined in the Saudi Arabian stratigraphic code. For genetic and petrological studies, a grouping as 'associations' of similar and genetically related lithologies is commonly used. In order to indicate mineral-resource potential, the felsic plutons are classed as common, precursor, specialized or mineralized, in order of increasing exploration significance. ?? 1986.

  2. Petrological imaging of an active pluton beneath Cerro Uturuncu, Bolivia (United States)

    Muir, Duncan D.; Blundy, Jon D.; Hutchinson, Michael C.; Rust, Alison C.


    Uturuncu is a dormant volcano in the Altiplano of SW Bolivia. A present day ~70 km diameter interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) anomaly roughly centred on Uturuncu's edifice is believed to be a result of magma intrusion into an active crustal pluton. Past activity at the volcano, spanning 0.89 to 0.27 Ma, is exclusively effusive and almost all lavas and domes are dacitic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, biotite, ilmenite and Ti-magnetite plus or minus quartz, and microlites of plagioclase and orthopyroxene set in rhyolitic groundmass glass. Plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions (MI) are rhyolitic with major element compositions that are similar to groundmass glasses. H2O concentrations plotted versus incompatible elements for individual samples describe a trend typical of near-isobaric, volatile-saturated crystallisation. At 870 °C, the average magma temperature calculated from Fe-Ti oxides, the average H2O of 3.2 ± 0.7 wt% and CO2 typically 0.5 Ma compared to those intrusion of more mafic magmas into the evolving, shallow plutonic mush also occurred further amplifying local temperature fluctuations. Crystallisation and resorption of accessory phases, particularly ilmenite and apatite, can be detected in MI and groundmass glass trace element covariation trends, which are oblique to WRs. Marked variability of Ba, Sr and La in MI can be attributed to temperature-controlled, localised crystallisation of plagioclase, orthopyroxene and biotite within the evolving mush.

  3. Baby Boom, Asset Market Meltdown and Liquidity Trap


    Junning Cai


    A so-called “asset market meltdown hypothesis” predicts that baby boomers’ large savings will drive asset market booms that will eventually collapse because of the boomers’ large retirement dissavings. As good news to baby boomers, our analysis shows that this meltdown hypothesis is fundamentally flawed; and baby-boom-driven asset market booms may not necessarily collapse. However, bad news is that, in the case where meltdowns are about to happen, forward-looking baby boomers’ attempts to esc...

  4. Development of a sonic boom measurement system at JAXA




    International audience; The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is actively conducting supersonic transport research toward the realization of civil supersonic aircraft. Technology that precisely measures sonic booms is essential to demonstrating JAXA’s sonic boom reduction concept in the planned drop test of a research aircraft. This is a part of the D-SEND Program (Drop Test for Simplified Evaluation of Non-Symmetrically Distributed sonic boom). Capturing detailed multichannel sonic b...

  5. A Study of Reflected Sonic Booms Using Airborne Measurements (United States)

    Kantor, Samuel R.; Cliatt, Larry J.


    In support of ongoing efforts to bring commercial supersonic flight to the public, the Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence (SonicBAT) flight test conducted at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. During this test, airborne sonic boom measurements were made using an instrumented TG-14 motor glider, called the Airborne Acoustic Measurement Platform (AAMP).During the flight program, the AAMP was consistently able to measure the sonic boom wave that was reflected off of the ground, in addition to the incident wave, resulting in the creation of a completely unique data set of airborne sonic boom reflection measurements.

  6. Performance of floating oil booms in unsheltered waters (United States)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; Castro, Alberte


    Oil booms are a fundamental tool to diminish the impact of an oil spill. They tend to perform reasonably well in sheltered waters, e.g. within a harbour. However, their performance is often inadequate in open water conditions, under waves, winds and currents. And it is precisely in those conditions that they are needed if oil slicks are to be prevented from reaching certain particularly sensitive areas, such as estuaries, rias, etc. (Castro et al., 2010; Iglesias et al., 2010). In this work the performance of floating oil booms under waves and currents is assessed on the basis of laboratory experiments carried out in a state-of-the-art wave-current flume. Different oil boom models are used, representative of booms with long and short skirts and with different weights. The results show that different booms behave very differently under waves and currents, hence the importance of selecting the boom design that is appropriate for the actual conditions under which it will have to contain the oil slick. Thus, different oil booms should be used for different areas. References A. Castro, G. Iglesias, R. Carballo, J.A. Fraguela, 2010. Floating boom performance under waves and currents, Journal of Hazardous Materials 174, 226-235 G. Iglesias, A.Castro, J.A.Fraguela, 2010. Artificial intelligence applied to floating boom behavior under waves and currents, Ocean Engineering 37, 1513-1521.

  7. Petrography and geochemistry of granitoids from the Samphire Pluton, South Australia: Implications for uranium mineralisation in overlying sediments (United States)

    Domnick, Urs; Cook, Nigel J.; Bluck, Russel; Brown, Callan; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.


    The Blackbush uranium deposit (JORC Inferred Resource: 12,580 tonnes U), located on the north-eastern Eyre Peninsula, is currently the only sediment-hosted U deposit investigated in detail in the Gawler Craton. Uranium is hosted within Eocene sandstone of the Kanaka Beds, overlying Mesoproterozoic granites of the Samphire pluton, affiliated with the Hiltaba Intrusive Suite ( 1.6 Ga). These are considered the most probable source rocks for uranium mineralisation. By constraining the petrography and mineralogy of the granites, insights into the post-emplacement evolution can be gained, which may provide an exploration indicator for other sediment-hosted uranium systems. Three geochemically distinct granite types were identified in the Samphire Pluton and correspond to domains interpreted from geophysical data. All granites show complex alteration overprints and textures with increasing intensity closer to the deposit, as well as crosscutting veining. Alkali feldspar has been replaced by porous K-feldspar and albite, and plagioclase is overprinted by an assemblage of porous albite + sericite ± calc-silicates (prehnite, pumpellyite and epidote). This style of feldspar alteration is regionally widespread and known from Hiltaba-aged granites associated with iron-oxide copper‑gold mineralisation at Olympic Dam and in the Moonta-Wallaroo region. In two granite types biotite is replaced by calcic garnet. Calc-silicates are indicative of Ca-metasomatism, sourced from the anorthite component of altered plagioclase. Minor clay alteration of feldspars is present in all samples. Mineral assemblages in veins include quartz + hematite, hematite + coffinite, fluorite + quartz, and clay minerals. Minor chlorite and sericite are found in all vein types. All granite types are anomalously rich in U (concentrations between 10 and 81 ppm). Highly variable Th/U ratios, as well as hydrothermal U minerals (mostly coffinite) in granites and veins, are clear evidence for U mobility

  8. Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis (United States)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; hide


    The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

  9. Simulated sonic booms and sleep : effects of repeated booms of 1.0 psf. (United States)


    Eight male subjects in each of three age groups (21-26, 40-45, 60-72 years) slept in pairs in the CAMI sonic boom simulation facility for 21 consecutive nights. The first five nights were used to acclimate the subjects (nights 1 and 2) and to obtain ...

  10. Swarm Deployable Boom Assembly (DBA) Development of a Deployable Magnetometer Boom for the Swarm Spacecraft (United States)

    McMahon, Paul; Jung, Hans-Juergen; Edwards, Jeff


    The Swarm programme consists of 3 magnetically clean satellites flying in close formation designed to measure the Earth's magnetic field using 2 Magnetometers mounted on a 4.3m long deployable boom.Deployment is initiated by releasing 3 HDRMs, once released the boom oscillates back and forth on a pair of pivots, similar to a restaurant kitchen door hinge, for around 120 seconds before coming to rest on 3 kinematic mounts which are used to provide an accurate reference location in the deployed position. Motion of the boom is damped through a combination of friction, spring hysteresis and flexing of the 120+ cables crossing the hinge. Considerable development work and accurate numerical modelling of the hinge motion was required to predict performance across a wide temperature range and ensure that during the 1st overshoot the boom did not damage itself, the harness or the spacecraft.Due to the magnetic cleanliness requirements of the spacecraft no magnetic materials could be used in the design of the hardware.

  11. Bonding and Analysis of Composite TRAC Booms for NASA Science Missions, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new deployable spacecraft boom technology called the Triangular Rollable And Collapsible Boom (TRACTM-Boom) has been invented by the Air Force Research Laboratory...

  12. Bonding and Analysis of Composite TRAC Booms for NASA Science Missions, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new deployable spacecraft boom technology called the Triangular Rollable And Collapsible Boom (TRACTM Boom), invented by the Air Force Research Laboratory and...

  13. Localized ductile deformation in the Rieserferner Pluton (Eastern Alps) (United States)

    Ceccato, Alberto; Pennacchioni, Giorgio


    In the Rieserferner Pluton (Eastern Alps, 32±0.2 Ma, Romer et al., 2003) the post-magmatic cooling and exhumation stages were accompanied by a series of solid-state deformations including jointing, quartz veining, dyke emplacement, localized (cm-dm) ductile shearing and brittle-ductile faulting. The earliest stage of post-magmatic deformation includes the formation of pervasive steeply-dipping joints mainly arranged in two "conjugate" sets striking respectively E-W and NW-SE. These joints were extensively intruded by synkinematic aplite-pegmatite dykes and by quartz veins. Joints, veins and (locally) dikes were exploited as strike-slip ductile shear zones consistently with a WNW-ESE shortening. The mylonitized quartz veins are relatively coarse grained (mm-grain size) and show dominant dynamic recrystallization by grain boundary migration. A later set of joints is shallowly dipping E and is also commonly filled with quartz (and local epidote) veins. Ductile shearing of these vein-filled joints resulted in localized tonalite mylonites and quartz mylonites with a top-to-east kinematics. The quartz mylonites are fine grained (10-20 μm grain size) and resulted from dominant subgrain rotation recrystallization. The foliation of associated tonalite mylonites is marked by biotite+plagioclase+white mica+epidote±sphene±garnet. The "high-temperature" mylonites are crosscut by swarms of steeply-dipping fractures and faults striking N-S and showing a characteristic anastomosing-irregular pattern. These fractures are clustered in zones as large as 10 m and are associated with veins filled with calcite+white mica and with basic dykes (dated at 26 Ma: Steenken et al., 2000). Fluid-rock interactions along these fractures induced weakening and development of local low-temperature mylonites, where deformation mechanisms included pressure-solution and low-temperature plasticity of quartz. The orientation and kinematics of E-dipping mylonites and later low-temperature mylonites

  14. Indoor Sonic Boom Reproduction Using ANC


    Epain, Nicolas; Friot, Emmanuel; Rabau, Guy


    The European programs for development of supersonic air-flights involve new studies on the human perception of sonic boom. Because this noise includes high-level components at very low-frequency, the usual psycho-acoustic tests with headphones are not relevant; instead, the original sound-field can be reproduced with many loudspeakers in a small room, but the loudspeakers must be controlled for an accurate reproduction, both in time and space, in an area large enough to enclose a listener's h...

  15. El fideicomiso y el boom inmobiliario argentino


    Francisco María Pertierra Cánepa; Mariano Pantanetti


    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo investigar las diferentes alternativas que se ofrecen en el mercado de los denominados “fideicomisos inmobiliarios”1 para desarrollar un estudio detallado que permita identificar y evaluar como se está aplicando, y determinar el impacto que tuvo el instrumento en relación al boom de la actividad durante los últimos años. A través del análisis de las distintas alternativas comerciales de los proyectos inmobiliarios con fideicomisos podremos esclarecer si...

  16. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.


    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  17. Potential for Sonic Boom Reduction of the Boeing HSCT (United States)

    Haglund, George T.


    The HSR sonic boom technology program includes a goal of reducing the objectionable aspects of sonic boom. Earlier HSCT sonic boom studies considered achieving significant sonic boom reduction by the use of arrow-wing planforms and detailed shaping of the airplane to produce shaped waveforms (non N-waves) at the ground. While these design efforts were largely successful, the added risk and cost of the airplanes were judged to be unacceptable. The objective of the current work is to explore smaller configuration refinements that could lead to reduced sonic boom impact, within design and operational constraints. A somewhat modest target of 10% reduction in sonic boom maximum overpressure was selected to minimize the effect on the configuration performance. This work was a joint NASA/Industry effort, utilizing the respective strengths of team members at Boeing, NASA Langley, and NASA Ames. The approach used was to first explore a wide range of modifications and airplane characteristics for their effects on sonic boom and drag, using classical Modified Linear Theory (MLT) methods. CFD methods were then used to verify promising, modifications and to analyze modifications for which the MLT methods were not appropriate. The tea m produced a list of configuration changes with their effects on sonic boom and, in some cases, an estimate of the drag penalty. The most promising modifications were applied to produce a boom-softened derivative of the baseline Boeing High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration. This boom-softened configuration was analyzed in detail for the reduce sonic boom impact and also for the effect of the configuration modifications on drag, weight, and overall performance relative to the baseline.

  18. Synkinematic(?) intrusion of the ``anorogenic'' 1425 Ma Beer Bottle Pass pluton, southern Nevada (United States)

    Duebendorfer, Ernest M.; Christensen, Clint


    The tectonic setting of a transcontinental belt of 1500-1300 Ma granitic intrusions that extends from southern California to Labrador is controversial; however, the granites are conventionally considered to be "anorogenic." Detailed field, microstructural, and geochronologic data from the 1425 Ma Beer Bottle Pass pluton, southern Nevada, indicate that major mylonite zones recording dextral-contractile strains were probably active during and/or shortly after pluton emplacement and suggest that the anorogenic interpretation for this pluton requires reevaluation. Mylonite zones up to 100 m thick strike northeast, dip moderately northwest, and contain a consistent west plunging elongation lineation. Mylonites occur along 15% of the exposed granite-wall rock contact and extend into both the pluton and the wall rock. Mesoscopic and microscopic kinematic indicators record an oblique, dextral/reverse (pluton side down) movement sense. Synkinematic mineral assemblages of hornblende and biotite and dynamic recrystallization of feldspars suggest that deformation occurred minimally under amphibolite facies conditions. A K/Ar biotite date of 1399±32 Ma, obtained from a sample of mylonitic granite, suggests that deformation took place during or soon following pluton crystallization. We reject forcible emplacement of the Beer Bottle Pass pluton as a mechanism for formation of the mylonite zones because (1) rocks near the granite-wall rock contact are largely unstrained, (2) the mylonite zones conform only locally to the pluton-wall rock contact, (3) mylonite zones strike at high angles to, and truncate, the intrusive pluton-wall rock contact, (4) the pluton-side-down shear sense is more compatible with a uniform sense simple shear zone than a forcibly intruding pluton, and (5) fabrics indicative of noncoaxial deformation dominate over flattening fabrics. We suggest that the Beer Bottle Pass pluton is fundamentally synkinematic with respect to either (1) a local, contractile

  19. Field measurements of sonic boom penetration into the ocean (United States)

    Sohn; Vernon; Hildebrand; Webb


    Six sonic booms, generated by F-4 aircraft under steady flight at a range of altitudes (610-6100 m) and Mach numbers (1.07-1.26), were measured just above the air/sea interface, and at five depths in the water column. The measurements were made with a vertical hydrophone array suspended from a small spar buoy at the sea surface, and telemetered to a nearby research vessel. The sonic boom pressure amplitude decays exponentially with depth, and the signal fades into the ambient noise field by 30-50 m, depending on the strength of the boom at the sea surface. Low-frequency components of the boom waveform penetrate significantly deeper than high frequencies. Frequencies greater than 20 Hz are difficult to observe at depths greater than about 10 m. Underwater sonic boom pressure measurements exhibit excellent agreement with predictions from analytical theory, despite the assumption of a flat air/sea interface. Significant scattering of the sonic boom signal by the rough ocean surface is not detected. Real ocean conditions appear to exert a negligible effect on the penetration of sonic booms into the ocean unless steady vehicle speeds exceed Mach 3, when the boom incidence angle is sufficient to cause scattering on realistic open ocean surfaces.

  20. Managing Credit Booms and Busts : A Pigouvian Taxation Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanne, O.; Korinek, A.


    We study a dynamic model in which the interaction between debt ac- cumulation and asset prices magni es credit booms and busts. We find that borrowers do not internalize these feedback e¤ects and therefore suf- fer from excessively large booms and busts in both credit flows and asset prices. We show

  1. Thermal Deformation of Very Slender Triangular Rollable and Collapsible Booms (United States)

    Stohlman, Olive R.; Loper, Erik R.


    Metallic triangular rollable and collapsible (TRAC) booms have deployed two Cubesat-based solar sails in low Earth orbit, making TRAC booms the most popular solar sail deployment method in practice. This paper presents some concerns and solutions surrounding the behavior of these booms in the space thermal environment. A 3.5-cm-tall, 4-meter-long TRAC boom of Elgiloy cobalt alloy, when exposed to direct sunlight in a 1 AU deep space environment, has a predicted tip motion of as much as 0.5 meters. Such large thermal deflections could generate unacceptable distortions in the shape of a supported solar sail, making attitude control of the solar sail spacecraft difficult or impossible. As a possible means of mitigating this issue, the thermal distortion behaviors of three alternative material TRAC booms are investigated and compared with the uncoated Elgiloy baseline boom. A tenfold decrease in induced curvature is shown to be possible relative to the baseline boom. Potential thermal distortions of the LightSail-A solar sail TRAC booms are also examined and compared, although inconclusively, with available on-orbit camera imagery.

  2. Subjective loudness of "minimized" sonic boom waveforms. (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S


    For very long supersonic aircraft the "midfield" sonic boom signature may not have evolved fully into an N wave at ground level. Thus in current boom minimization techniques the shape of the aircraft may be tailored to optimize this midfield wave form for reduced subjective loudness. The present investigation tests a family of "flat-top" waveforms cited by Darden: all but one have a front shock height (deltapSH) less than the peak amplitude (deltapMAX). For equal subjective loudness, "flat top" vs N wave (peak overpressure deltapN), the peak amplitude of the "flat top" signature was found to be substantially higher than that of the N wave; thus for equal peak amplitude the "flat-top" signature was quieter. The results for equal loudness were well fitted by an emperical law deltapSH + 0.11deltapMAX = deltapN; the equivalence shows how the front shock amplitude (deltapSH) dominates the loudness. All this was found compatible with predictions by the method of Johnson and Robinson.

  3. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.


    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  4. Incremental growth of an upper crustal, A-type pluton, Argentina: Evidence of a re-used magma pathway (United States)

    Alasino, Pablo H.; Larrovere, Mariano A.; Rocher, Sebastián; Dahlquist, Juan A.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Memeti, Valbone; Paterson, Scott; Galindo, Carmen; Macchioli Grande, Marcos; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario


    Carboniferous igneous activity in the Sierra de Velasco (NW Argentina) led to the emplacement of several magmas bodies at shallow levels (type granitoids. The first group includes the peraluminous granitic rocks of the Asha unit generated mostly by crustal sources (εNdt = - 5.8 and εHft in zircon = - 2.9 to - 4.5). The second group comprises the metaluminous to peraluminous granitic rocks of the youngest units (San Blas and Hualco), which were formed by a heterogeneous mixture between mantle and crustal sources (εNdt = + 0.6 to - 4.8 and εHft in zircon = + 3 to - 6). Our results provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of an intrusive complex formed from multiple non-consanguineous magma intrusions that utilized the same magmatic plumbing system during downward transfer of host materials. As the plutonic system matures, the ascent of magmas is governed by the visco-elastic flow of host rock that for younger batches include older hot magma mush. The latter results in ductile downward flow of older, during rise of younger magma. Such complexes may reflect the plutonic portion of volcanic centers where chemically distinct magmas are erupted.

  5. Baby boom generation at the retirement onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena


    Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure

  6. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotope composition of granitoids of the Early Cretaceous Copiapó plutonic complex (27°30'S), Chile (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Fontignie, Denis; Chiaradia, Massimo; Voldet, Pia


    Early Cretaceous plutonic rocks exposed south of Copiapó form part of the Coastal Batholith of northern Chile. These rocks intrude arc-derived volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and marine limestones that were deposited in the Early Cretaceous Atacama backarc basin. The Copiapó plutonic complex consists mainly of calc-alkaline, medium- to coarse-grained diorite, granodiorite, tonalite, monzodiorite, and quartz monzonite. The plutonic rocks are subalkaline to alkaline, metaluminous, magnetite-series, volcanic arc, I-type granitoids. Batholithic magmas are a heat, potential fluid, metal, and sulphur source for the hydrothermal iron oxide-rich Cu-Au mineralization in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration affected large portions of the Copiapó complex. The least altered batholithic rocks have initial 87Sr/ 86Sr of 0.703070-0.703231; initial 143Nd/ 144Nd of 0.512733-0.512781; and 206Pb/ 204Pb, 207Pb/ 204Pb, and 208Pb/ 204Pb of 18.428-18.772, 15.550-15.603, and 38.127-38.401, respectively. The δ18O values for these rocks range from +6.9 to +8.6‰. Isotope signatures and trace element distributions suggest that the magmas are mantle derived. A subduction fluid-modified mantle source may explain the geochemical characteristics of the Copiapó complex. The ascent of magmas occurred along deep-rooted structures without significant crustal contamination, though minor contamination by relatively young (e.g. Jurassic) igneous rocks during ascent is possible. Intrusive rocks with high-K to shoshonitic characteristics probably represent residual liquids of less evolved magmas. The regional geologic context suggests that the plutons of the Copiapó complex were emplaced at a relatively shallow crustal level of 2-3 km.

  7. Design of an Indoor Sonic Boom Simulator at NASA Langley Research Center (United States)

    Klos, Jacob; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Shepherd, Kevin P.


    Construction of a simulator to recreate the soundscape inside residential buildings exposed to sonic booms is scheduled to start during the summer of 2008 at NASA Langley Research Center. The new facility should be complete by the end of the year. The design of the simulator allows independent control of several factors that create the indoor soundscape. Variables that will be isolated include such factors as boom duration, overpressure, rise time, spectral shape, level of rattle, level of squeak, source of rattle and squeak, level of vibration and source of vibration. Test subjects inside the simulator will be asked to judge the simulated soundscape, which will represent realistic indoor boom exposure. Ultimately, this simulator will be used to develop a functional relationship between human response and the sound characteristics creating the indoor soundscape. A conceptual design has been developed by NASA personnel, and is currently being vetted through small-scale risk reduction tests that are being performed in-house. The purpose of this document is to introduce the conceptual design, identify how the indoor response will be simulated, briefly outline some of the risk reduction tests that have been completed to vet the design, and discuss the impact of these tests on the simulator design.

  8. Basalt Related to Lunar Mg-Suite Plutonic Rocks: A Fragment in Lunar Meteorite ALH 81005 (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Gross, J.


    We report on a basalt clast, in meteorite ALH 81005, which appears to be from a volcanic equivalent of an Mg-suite plutonic rock. Its mineral compositions, mineral proportions, and trace minerals are like those of Mg-norites.

  9. Petrology and Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic Arc Plutons Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, SRS, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryak, M.


    In this report is presented first a brief review of the regional geologic setting of the Savannah River Site, descriptions of the plutonic rock units sampled here, whole rock geochemical data on the plutonic igneous rocks, and finally, a discussion of how the crystalline basement rocks of the Savannah River Site formed and how they may correlate with other terranes exposed in the Piedmont of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia.

  10. Experimental and Computational Sonic Boom Assessment of Boeing N+2 Low Boom Models (United States)

    Durston, Donald A.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan E.; Winski, Courtney S.; Carter, Melissa B.; Walker, Eric L.


    Near-field pressure signatures were measured and computational predictions made for several sonic boom models representing Boeing's Quiet Experimental Validation Concept (QEVC) supersonic transport, as well as three axisymmetric calibration models. Boeing developed the QEVC under a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) contract for Experimental Systems Validations for N+2 Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft, which was led by the NASA High Speed Project under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The concept was designed to address environmental and performance goals given in the NRA, specifically for low sonic boom loudness levels and high cruise efficiency, for an aircraft anticipated to enter service in the 2020 timeframe. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on the aircraft and calibration models during Phases I and II of the NRA contract from 2011 to 2013 in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot and NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnels. Sonic boom pressure signatures were acquired primarily at Mach 1.6 and 1.8, and force and moment data were acquired from Mach 0.8 to 1.8. The sonic boom test data were obtained using a 2-in. flat-top pressure rail and a 14-in. round-top tapered "reflection factor 1" (RF1) pressure rail. Both rails capture an entire pressure signature in one data point, and successive signatures at varying positions along or above the rail were used to improve data quality through spatial averaging. The sonic boom data obtained by the rails were validated with high-fidelity numerical simulations of off-body pressures using the CFD codes USM3D, Cart3D, and OVERFLOW. The test results from the RF1 rail showed good agreement between the computational and experimental data when a variety of testing techniques including spatial averaging of a series of pressure signatures were employed, however, reflections off the 2-in. flat-top rail caused distortions in the signatures that did not agree with the CFD predictions. The 9 x 7 and 8 x 6 wind tunnels generally

  11. State of the art of sonic boom modeling. (United States)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J


    Based on fundamental theory developed through the 1950s and 1960s, sonic boom modeling has evolved into practical tools. Over the past decade, there have been requirements for design tools for an advanced supersonic transport, and for tools for environmental assessment of various military and aerospace activities. This has resulted in a number of advances in the understanding of the physics of sonic booms, including shock wave rise times, propagation through turbulence, and blending sonic boom theory with modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) aerodynamic design methods. This article reviews the early fundamental theory, recent advances in theory, and the application of these advances to practical models.

  12. Sonic Boom Minimization Efforts on Boeing HSCT Baseline (United States)

    Cheung, Samson H.; Fouladi, Kamran; Haglund, George; Tu, Eugene


    A team was formed to tackle the sonic boom softening issues of the current Boeing HSCT design. The team consisted of personnel from NASA Ames, NASA Langley, and Boeing company. The work described in this paper was done when the first author was at NASA Ames Research Center. This paper presents the sonic boom softening work on two Boeing High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) baseline configurations, Reference-H and Boeing-1122. This presentation can be divided into two parts: parametric studies and sonic boom minimization by CFD optimization routines.

  13. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.


    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at contamination are most evident in pre-ore magmas, whereas ore-forming intrusions at low temperatures are dominated by crystal

  14. Norite and charnockites from the Venda Nova Pluton, SE Brazil: Intensive parameters and some petrogenetic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cezar Mendes


    the partial melting of an anhydrous tholeiitic mantle magma. The charnockites may correspond to the differentiation of a calc-alkaline parental magma. The later could be the hybrid product from the contamination and mixing between the anhydrous tholeiitic magma with other deeper crustal sources. Further the magmatic system evolved through fractionation of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and ilmenite. Our results support the hypothesis for the evolution of the Venda Nova Pluton through a mantle-crust delamination process probably related to the collapse of the Araçuai orogeny.

  15. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada's radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.


    Since 1978 AECL has been investigating plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield as a potential medium for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. During the last two years this study has been continued as part of Ontario Hydro's used fuel disposal program. Methods have been developed for characterizing the geotechnical conditions at the regional scale of the Canadian Shield as well as for characterizing conditions at the site scale and the very near-field scale needed for locating and designing disposal vault rooms and waste emplacement areas. The Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba have been extensively used to develop and demonstrate the different scales of characterization methods. At the regional scale, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys combined with LANDSAT 5 and surface gravity survey data have been helpful in identifying boundaries of the plutonic rocks , overburden thicknesses, major lineaments that might be geological structures, lithological contacts and depths of the batholiths. Surface geological mapping of exposed rock outcrops, combined with surface VLF/EM, radar and seismic reflection surveys were useful in identifying the orientation and depth continuity of low-dipping fracture zones beneath rock outcrops to a depth of 500 to 1000 m. The surface time-domain EM method has provided encouraging results for identifying the depth of highly saline pore waters. The regional site scale investigations at the WRA included the drilling of twenty deep boreholes (> 500 m) at seven separate study areas. Geological core logging combined with borehole geophysical logging, TV/ATV logging, flowmeter logging and full waveform sonic logging in these boreholes helped to confirm the location of hydro geologically important fractures, orient cores and infer the relative permeability of some fracture zones. Single-hole radar and crosshole seismic tomography surveys were useful to establish the

  16. Evidence of recent plutonic magmatism beneath Northeast Peloponnesus (Greece) and its relationship to regional tectonics (United States)

    Tzanis, A.; Efstathiou, A.; Chailas, S.; Stamatakis, M.


    , generally collocated with and delimited by extensional tectonic structures (grabens and major faults) of analogous orientation. These are interpreted to comprise calc-alkaline plutons whose placement has been controlled by the regional tectonic activity (syn-rift magmatism); their nature and origin is demonstrated with convergent evidence from deep magnetotelluric, seismological, seismic tomography and other investigations. A large number of shallow and superficial (less than 2 km) magnetic sources have also been identified; these are generated by a complex of distributed near-surface formations consisting of subvertically developing buried or extrusive volcanics and outcropping or shallow-buried ophiolitic formations (thin nappes of tectonic mélange and dismembered ophiolitic complexes). The joint analysis of the data facilitates the formulation of a tentative geotectonic model for Argolis peninsula, according to which the strain differential caused by the disparate extensional trends of the Argolic and Saronic gulfs is accommodated by right-lateral block motion associated with igneous intrusive activity at major block boundaries.

  17. Detection and assessment of secondary sonic booms in New England (United States)


    This report documents the results of a secondary sonic boom detection and assessment program conducted by the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center in New England during the summer of 1979. Measurements of both acoustic and infr...

  18. Construction Boom Seen on Campuses over Next 5 Years. (United States)

    Evangelauf, Jean


    Campus construction is projected to boom as colleges and universities catch up on deferred maintenance and replace outdated classrooms and laboratories. Severe problems identified include roofs, heating systems, asbestos removal, and electical systems. (LB)

  19. High Performance TRAC Boom for Solar Sails, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need for compact, low-cost deployable solar sail booms for CubeSats, Roccor proposes to develop a high performance composite TRAC (TRAC HP)...

  20. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS's innovative Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom will provide revolutionary performance when compared to conventional state-of-the-art...

  1. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an affordable and ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable Roll-Out Boom technology that provides affordability and...

  2. Confidence Intervals for Laboratory Sonic Boom Annoyance Tests (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Christian, Andrew


    Commercial supersonic flight is currently forbidden over land because sonic booms have historically caused unacceptable annoyance levels in overflown communities. NASA is providing data and expertise to noise regulators as they consider relaxing the ban for future quiet supersonic aircraft. One deliverable NASA will provide is a predictive model for indoor annoyance to aid in setting an acceptable quiet sonic boom threshold. A laboratory study was conducted to determine how indoor vibrations caused by sonic booms affect annoyance judgments. The test method required finding the point of subjective equality (PSE) between sonic boom signals that cause vibrations and signals not causing vibrations played at various amplitudes. This presentation focuses on a few statistical techniques for estimating the interval around the PSE. The techniques examined are the Delta Method, Parametric and Nonparametric Bootstrapping, and Bayesian Posterior Estimation.

  3. Rapidly Extending And Contracting Tubular (REACT) Boom System Development (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to create a prototype retractable, reel stored, tubular boom system with the capability to hold a magnetically sensitive science instrument or...

  4. Nondestructive Online Detection of Welding Defects in Track Crane Boom Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tao


    Full Text Available Nondestructive detection of structural component of track crane is a difficult and costly problem. In the present study, acoustic emission (AE was used to detect two kinds of typical welding defects, that is, welding porosity and incomplete penetration, in the truck crane boom. Firstly, a subsidiary test specimen with special preset welding defect was designed and added on the boom surface with the aid of steel plates to get the synchronous deformation of the main boom. Then, the AE feature information of the welding defect could be got without influencing normal operation of equipment. As a result, the rudimentary location analysis can be attained using the linear location method and the two kinds of welding defects can be distinguished clearly using AE characteristic parameters such as amplitude and centroid frequency. Also, through the comparison of two loading processes, we concluded that the signal produced during the first loading process was mainly caused by plastic deformation damage and during the second loading process the stress release and structure friction between sections in welding area are the main acoustic emission sources. Thus, the AE is an available tool for nondestructive online detection of latent welding defects of structural component of track crane.

  5. Aerodynamical and sonic boom optimization of a supersonic aircraft


    Vázquez, M.; Dervieux, Alain; Koobus, B.


    Sonic Boom Reduction will be an issue of utmost importance in future supersonic carriers, due to strong regulations on acoustic nuisance. The present work introduces a technique for optimizing the aerodynamical performan- ce and the sonic boom production, through optimal shape design. Based in a so-called CAD-free parametrization method, which relies on the discretized shape by working in a parameter space determined by the skin nodes physical location, this methodology introduces several dis...

  6. AFRL/NASA Shaped Sonic Boom Experiment Flight Test Program. Delivery Order 0021: Origins and Overview of the Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pawlowski, Joseph W; Graham, David H; Boccadoro, Charles H; Coen, Peter G; Maglieri, Domenic J


    The goal of the DARPA Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) Program was to demonstrate for the first time in flight that sonic booms can be substantially reduced by incorporating specialized aircraft shaping techniques...

  7. Behavioral, autonomic, and subjective reactions to low- and moderate-level simulated sonic booms : a report of two experiments and a general evaluation of sonic boom startle effects. (United States)


    Two separate studies are reported. The first attempted to determine a sonic boom exposure level below which startle reactions would not occur. Subjects were exposed indoors to six simulated sonic booms having various outside overpressures. In the sec...

  8. USM3D Simulations for Second Sonic Boom Workshop (United States)

    Elmiligui, Alaa; Carter, Melissa B.; Nayani, Sudheer N.; Cliff, Susan; Pearl, Jason M.


    The NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System with the USM3D flow solver was used to compute test cases for the Second AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop. The intent of this report is to document the USM3D results for SBPW2 test cases. The test cases included an axisymmetric equivalent area body, a JAXA wing body, a NASA low boom supersonic configuration modeled with flow through nacelles and engine boundary conditions. All simulations were conducted for a free stream Mach number of 1.6, zero degrees angle of attack, and a Reynolds number of 5.7 million per meter. Simulations were conducted on tetrahedral grids provided by the workshop committee, as well as a family of grids generated by an in-house approach for sonic boom analyses known as BoomGrid using current best practices. The near-field pressure signatures were extracted and propagated to the ground with the atmospheric propagation code, sBOOM. The USM3D near-field pressure signatures, corresponding sBOOM ground signatures, and loudness levels on the ground are compared with mean values from other workshop participants.

  9. Vibration Penalty Estimates for Indoor Annoyance Caused by Sonic Boom (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob


    Commercial supersonic flight is currently forbidden over land because sonic booms have historically caused unacceptable annoyance levels in overflown communities. NASA is providing data and expertise to noise regulators as they consider relaxing the ban for future quiet supersonic aircraft. One key objective is a predictive model for indoor annoyance based on factors such as noise and indoor vibration levels. The current study quantified the increment in indoor sonic boom annoyance when sonic booms can be felt directly through structural vibrations in addition to being heard. A shaker mounted below each chair in the sonic boom simulator emulated vibrations transmitting through the structure to that chair. The vibration amplitudes were determined from numeric models of a large range of residential structures excited by the same sonic boom waveforms used in the experiment. The analysis yielded vibration penalties, which are the increments in sound level needed to increase annoyance as much as the vibration does. For sonic booms at acoustic levels from 75 to 84 dB Perceived Level, vibration signals with lower amplitudes (+1 sigma) yielded penalties from 0 to 5 dB, and vibration signals with higher amplitudes (+3 sigma) yielded penalties from 6 to 10 dB.

  10. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb age of Maofeng pluton of uranium deposit No.337 and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Hua Renmin; Yao Junmin; Gu Shengyan; Deng Ping; Wu Lieqin


    Maofeng pluton is the most important uranium-host granite in Xiazhuang uranium orefield. The accurate granite formation age and its evolution history is crucial for understanding the mineralization in this district. LA-ICPMS zircon dating was applied in this paper and found the formation age of Maofeng pluton is 238.2 ± 2.3 Ma which suggests that Maofeng pluton was produced in the Indosinian magmatic event. Uranium mineralization age of No.337 deposit is commonly recognized to be 138 Ma. Therefore No.337 uranium deposit was not the typical magma hydrothermal deposit due to the long time gap between the pluton formation and the uranium mineralization. (authors)

  11. Optical MEMS: boom, bust and beyond (United States)

    Ramani, Chandra Mouli


    Optical Telecommunications bandwidth, spurred by the growth of the internet, experienced unprecedented growth in the late 1990's. The creation of new enterprises was vast and the expansion of established component, system and services companies was also breathtaking. This period of speculative growth was followed in 2001-2004 by one of the most significant market crashes in history. While $20B of venture capital was invested in optical telecom in the last 10 years, the vast majority of that has been written off in the last four. Countless start-ups inaugurated with great fanfare at the end of the 20th century were unceremoniously shut down at the start of the 21st. (1) As in all speculative bubbles, innovative technologies were born and buried. Nonetheless, new capabilities emerge from the chaos and disruption; one such example is the advent of Optical MEMS (MOEMS). Its development was vigorously pursued in both academic and corporate laboratories during the boom and, in the author's view; MOEMS constitutes a powerful and versatile tool set that is an invaluable residual of the last few years. In Telecommunications, MOEMS has proven to be the technology of choice for many optical switching and wavelength management applications. (2) Variable Optical Attenuators (VOA), Wavelength Blockers (WB), Dynamic Gain Equalizers (DGE), and most recently Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS) are being used in the numerous recent network deployments. Moreover, agile networks of the future will have MOEMS at every node. This presentation will provide an overview of the history of MOEMS in Telecommunications, discuss its byproducts and project the future of the technology.

  12. Boom and Bust Cycles in Saturn's Rings (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.; Meinke, B. K.; Sremcevic, M.; Albers, N.


    Cassini UVIS occultation data show clumping in Saturn’s F ring and at the B ring outer edge, indicating aggregation and disaggregation at these locations perturbed by Mimas and Prometheus. Timescales range from hours to months. The maximum clumping lags the moon by roughly π in the forcing frame. This indicates a direct relation between the moon and the ring clumping. We propose that the collective behavior of the ring particles resembles a predator-prey system: the aggregate mean size is the prey, which feeds the velocity dispersion; conversely, increasing dispersion breaks up the aggregates. For realistic values of the parameters this creates a limit cycle behavior, as for the ecology of foxes and hares or the boom-bust economic cycle. Solving for the long-term behavior of this forced system gives a periodic response at the perturbing frequency, with a phase lag roughly consistent with the UVIS occultation measurements. We conclude that the agitation by the moons at both these locations in the F ring and at the B ring outer edge drives aggregation and disaggregation in the forcing frame. This agitation of the ring material allows fortuitous formation of solid objects from the temporary clumps, via stochastic processes like compaction, adhesion, sintering or reorganization that drives the denser parts of the aggregate to the center or ejects the lighter elements. These more persistent objects would then orbit at the Kepler rate. Such processes can create the equinox objects seen at the B ring edge and in the F ring, explain the ragged nature of those ring regions and allow for rare events to aggregate ring particles into solid objects, recycling the ring material and extending the ring lifetime.

  13. Stability of sonic boom metrics regarding signature distortions from atmospheric turbulence. (United States)

    Doebler, William J; Sparrow, Victor W


    The degree of insensitivity to atmospheric turbulence was evaluated for five metrics (A-, B-, E-weighted sound exposure level, Stevens Mark VII Perceived Level, and NASA's Indoor Sonic Boom Annoyance Predictor) that correlate to human annoyance from sonic booms. Eight N-wave shaped sonic booms from NASA's FaINT experiment and five simulated "low-boom" sonic booms were turbulized by Locey's ten atmospheric filter functions. The B-weighted sound exposure level value changed the least due to the turbulence filters for twelve of thirteen booms. This makes it the most turbulence stable metric which may be useful for quiet supersonic aircraft certification.

  14. Research of low boom and low drag supersonic aircraft design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiaoqiang


    Full Text Available Sonic boom reduction will be an issue of utmost importance in future supersonic transport, due to strong regulations on acoustic nuisance. The paper describes a new multi-objective optimization method for supersonic aircraft design. The method is developed by coupling Seebass–George–Darden (SGD inverse design method and multi-objective genetic algorithm. Based on the method, different codes are developed. Using a computational architecture, a conceptual supersonic aircraft design environment (CSADE is constructed. The architecture of CSADE includes inner optimization level and out optimization level. The low boom configuration is generated in inner optimization level by matching the target equivalent area distribution and actual equivalent area distribution. And low boom/low drag configuration is generated in outer optimization level by using NSGA-II multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the control parameters of SGD method and aircraft shape. Two objective functions, low sonic boom and low wave drag, are considered in CSADE. Physically reasonable Pareto solutions are obtained from the present optimization. Some supersonic aircraft configurations are selected from Pareto front and the optimization results indicate that the swept forward wing configuration has benefits in both sonic boom reduction and wave drag reduction. The results are validated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis.

  15. Facts and features of radionuclide migration in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Regge, P.; Henrion, P.; Monsecour, M.; Put, M.


    The evolution which took place during ten years of research on the behaviour of radionuclides in Boom Clay is described. Initially, the Boom Clay was regarded as a chemically inert exchanger and the radiochemical research aimed at determining the distribution of cations between the clay and some liquid phases. The observation that Boom Clay deteriorates in contact with air and loses important intrinsic properties formed a major breakthrough in the research and led to a careful examination of the real in-situ conditions. Efforts devoted to the understanding of the chemical factors pertaining to the pH, the redox potential, the extent of the buffering capacity of FeS 2 and CaCO 3 in equilibrium with the interstitial aqueous phase are reviewed. Also emerging from the overall picture was the role of the organic material present in the Boom Clay. In contrast to the water percolating fractured formations which may not be in equilibrium with the rock, the interstitial aqueous phase is completely in equilibrium with Boom Clay mainly because of its low permeability and the large excesses of buffering components. As the retention mechanisms are better understood, a more coherent picture is obtained from distribution and diffusion experiments and the effects of consolidation are being investigated in detail. 23 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Assessing Volcano-Pluton Connections in the Searchlight Magmatic System (Nevada) Using Zircon Size Distributions (United States)

    Pamukcu, A. S.; Anderson, A. T.; Gualda, G. A.; Miller, C. F.


    The Miocene Searchlight pluton was tectonically tilted during the opening of the Colorado River Extensional Corridor in southern Nevada, exposing its ~10 km vertical extent. The pluton can be divided into three well- defined units (Bachl et al 2001), with the lower unit overlain by the younger middle unit. The contact between the lower unit and the middle unit is marked by a sharp compositional transition from quartz monzonite to granite. Rocks above and below this contact have been dated with zircon U-Pb at ~16.1 Ma (Perrault et al 2006). The nearby Highland Range includes rocks that are thought to correlate with the intrusive rocks of the Searchlight Pluton. A comparable compositional transition of similar age is observed in this volcanic sequence, from trachydacite below the contact to rhyolite above the contact (Faulds et al 2002, J Miller et al 2007). These parallels provide a rare opportunity to investigate the links between plutonic and volcanic processes, and have motivated this study. We are assessing the potential correlations between plutonic and volcanic counterparts of this unique magmatic system using a combination of techniques on samples collected from immediately above and below the contact in both the plutonic and volcanic sections. These techniques include: (1) dissolution of rock fragments (~3-5g) in fluoroboric acid to facilitate quantitative separation, counting, and weighing size fractions of zircon crystals, (2) determining Zr concentrations to assess the expected abundance of zircon crystals, (3) correlation of deposits based on major and trace element analysis, (4) inventory of zircon crystals in polished thin sections, and (5) x-ray tomography (planned for Spring 2009) to complement our current methods of obtaining zircon size distributions. From these procedures, we will obtain quantitative textural data on zircons, and compute zircon size distributions. This will allow us to (a) test whether the textural data support genesis of these

  17. Granitoid emplacement during syn-convergent transtension: An example from the Huamenlou pluton in North Qinling, central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li


    Full Text Available The Huamenlou pluton, is an elongated granite intrusion with high aspect ratio, emplaced within the southern margin of the North Qinling (central China. Here we investigate this pluton through multiple techniques including the fabric study, microstructural observation and zircon geochronology. Our zircon U–Pb data confirm that the granite crystallized at ca. 462 Ma which is consistent with the ages of other linear plutons in North Qinling. Microstructural observations of the Huamenlou granites illustrate that the pluton has undergone superimposed deformation during its emplacement, from magmatic to high-temperature solid state conditions. The internal fabric obtained by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS and shape preferred orientation (SPO show similar results. The fabrics are relatively concordant and generally vary from NE–SW to NEE–SWW which are roughly oblique to the trend of the pluton elongation and the regional structures. Meanwhile, scalar parameters reflect two completely different strain regimes for the pluton and its host rocks, i.e., the fabrics within host rocks are mainly oblate while the central part of the intrusion displays mainly prolate fabrics. It is inferred that the structural pattern recorded in this pluton was caused by local dextral transtension in consequence of oblique convergence between the South and North China Blocks. We propose that the local transtension in convergence setting probably evolved from vertical extrusion tectonics that provided room for the magma emplacement and imparted prolate fabrics in the Huamenlou pluton.

  18. Magnetic properties of ilmenite-hematite single crystals from the Ecstall pluton near Prince Rupert, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, Sarah J.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Kasama, Takeshi


    Paleomagnetic studies of the 91 Ma Ecstall pluton and other Cretaceous plutons of British Columbia imply large northward tectonic movements (>2000 km) may have occurred during the tectonic evolution of western North America. However, more recent studies have shown that the eastern edge of the Ecs...

  19. Review and status of sonic boom penetration into the ocean. (United States)

    Sparrow, Victor W


    Since the 1970 Sonic Boom Symposium, held at the ASA's 80th meeting in Houston, TX, substantial progress has been made in understanding the penetration of sonic booms into the ocean. The state of the art at that time was documented by J. C. Cook, T. Goforth, and R. K. Cook [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 729-741 (1972)]. Since then, additional experiments have been performed which corroborate Cook's and Sawyers' theory for sonic boom penetration into a flat ocean surface. In addition, computational simulations have validated that theory and extended the work to include arbitrarily shaped waveforms penetrating flat ocean surfaces. Further numerical studies have investigated realistic ocean surfaces including large-scale ocean swell. Research has also been performed on the effects of ocean inhomogeneities due to bubble plumes. This paper provides a brief overview of these developments.

  20. Scattering of sonic booms by anisotropic turbulence in the atmosphere (United States)

    Kelly; Raspet; Bass


    An earlier paper [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 3412-3417 (1995)] reported on the comparison of rise times and overpressures of sonic booms calculated with a scattering center model of turbulence to measurements of sonic boom propagation through a well-characterized turbulent layer under moderately turbulent conditions. This detailed simulation used spherically symmetric scatterers to calculate the percentage of occurrence histograms of received overpressures and rise times. In this paper the calculation is extended to include distorted ellipsoidal turbules as scatterers and more accurately incorporates the meteorological data into a determination of the number of scatterers per unit volume. The scattering center calculation overpredicts the shifts in rise times for weak turbulence, and still underpredicts the shift under more turbulent conditions. This indicates that a single-scatter center-based model cannot completely describe sonic boom propagation through atmospheric turbulence.

  1. Modeling and simulation of the agricultural sprayer boom leveling system

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian


    According to the agricultural precision requirements, the distance from sprayer nozzles to the corps should be kept between 50 cm to 70 cm. The sprayer boom also needs to be kept parallel to the field during the application process. Thus we can guarantee the quality of the chemical droplets distribution on the crops. In this paper we design a sprayer boom leveling system for agricultural sprayer vehicles combined with a four-rod linkage self-leveling suspension and electro-hydraulic auto-leveling system. The dynamic analysis shows that the suspension can realize an excellent self-leveling in a comparative small inclination range. In addition we build compensation controller for the electro-hydraulic system based on the mathematical model. With simulations we can optimize the performance of this controller to make sure a fast leveling response to the inclined sprayer boom. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Drilling Down: An Examination of the Boom-Crime Relationship in Resource Based Boom Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Ruddell


    Full Text Available Objective to examine the boomcrime relationship in resourcebased boom counties and to propose socioeconomic and legal measures to reduce the boomtown effect. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods formallogical comparativelegal survey interview focus groups generalized least squares method. Results The expansion in natural resource development in rural communities has led to a number of social problems in these places. The media community stakeholders as well as law enforcement and human service personnel have reported that the rapid growth in these communities leads to increased crime and other social ills. In order to better understand the boomcrime relationship index crimes in oil and natural gas producing counties in Montana and North Dakota were examined. Comparison of 2012 crime rates in a matched sample of counties revealed that crime rates were higher in oilimpacted counties. A prepost analysis found that violent crime in boom counties increased 18.5 between 2006 and 2012 while decreasing 25.6 in a matched sample of counties that had no oil or gas production. Inconsistent with the media portrayal of these communities as a new quotwild westquot we did not find a significant association between oil or natural gas production and property or violent crime in a series of OLS regression models. Scientific novelty for the first time the article uses index crimes in oil and natural gas producing counties in Montana and North Dakota to reveal the association between the rapid growth of towns and the crime rates. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and educational activity as well as for predicting the socialeconomic development of boomtowns.

  3. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay (United States)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos


    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  4. Sonic boom predictions using a modified Euler code (United States)

    Siclari, Michael J.


    The environmental impact of a next generation fleet of high-speed civil transports (HSCT) is of great concern in the evaluation of the commercial development of such a transport. One of the potential environmental impacts of a high speed civilian transport is the sonic boom generated by the aircraft and its effects on the population, wildlife, and structures in the vicinity of its flight path. If an HSCT aircraft is restricted from flying overland routes due to excessive booms, the commercial feasibility of such a venture may be questionable. NASA has taken the lead in evaluating and resolving the issues surrounding the development of a high speed civilian transport through its High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). The present paper discusses the usage of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) nonlinear code in predicting the pressure signature and ultimately the sonic boom generated by a high speed civilian transport. NASA had designed, built, and wind tunnel tested two low boom configurations for flight at Mach 2 and Mach 3. Experimental data was taken at several distances from these models up to a body length from the axis of the aircraft. The near field experimental data serves as a test bed for computational fluid dynamic codes in evaluating their accuracy and reliability for predicting the behavior of future HSCT designs. Sonic boom prediction methodology exists which is based on modified linear theory. These methods can be used reliably if near field signatures are available at distances from the aircraft where nonlinear and three dimensional effects have diminished in importance. Up to the present time, the only reliable method to obtain this data was via the wind tunnel with costly model construction and testing. It is the intent of the present paper to apply a modified three dimensional Euler code to predict the near field signatures of the two low boom configurations recently tested by NASA.

  5. Stress Analysis of Boom of Special Mobile Crane for Plain Region in Transmission Line (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Shao, Tao; Chen, Jun; Wan, Jiancheng; Li, Zhonghuan; Jiang, Ming


    Basis of the boom force analysis of special mobile crane for plain region in transmission line, the load type of boom design is confirmed. According to the different combinations of boom sections, the composite pattern of the different boom length is obtained to suit the actual conditions of boom overlapping. The large deformation model is employed with FEM to simulate the stress distribution of boom, and the calculation results are checked. The performance curves of rated load with different arm length and different working range are obtained, which ensures the lifting capacity of special mobile crane meeting the requirement of tower erection of transmission line. The proposed FEM of boom of mobile crane would provide certain guiding and reference to the boom design.

  6. LAVA Simulations for the AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (United States)

    Housman, Jeffrey A.; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta , Shayan; Kiris, Cetin C.


    Computational simulations using the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) framework are presented for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop test cases. The framework is utilized with both structured overset and unstructured meshing approaches. The three workshop test cases include an axisymmetric body, a Delta Wing-Body model, and a complete low-boom supersonic transport concept. Solution sensitivity to mesh type and sizing, and several numerical convective flux discretization choices are presented and discussed. Favorable comparison between the computational simulations and experimental data of nearand mid-field pressure signatures were obtained.

  7. Baby-Boom, Baby-Bust and the Great Depression


    Andriana BELLOU; Emanuela CARDIA


    The baby-boom and subsequent baby-bust have shaped much of the history of the second half of the 20th century; yet it is still largely unclear what caused them. This paper presents a new unified explanation of the fertility Boom-Bust that links the latter to the Great Depression and the subsequent economic recovery. We show that the 1929 Crash attracted young married women 20 to 34 years old in 1930 (whom we name D-cohort) in the labor market possibly via an added worker effect. Using several...

  8. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.


    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  9. Hollywood and the Baby Boom: A Social History


    Russell, James A.; Whalley, Jim


    Between 1946 and 1964 seventy-five million babies were born, dwarfing the generations that preceded and succeeded them. At each stage of its life-cycle, the baby boom's great size has dictated the terms of national policy and public debate. While aspects of this history are well-documented, the relationship between the baby boom and Hollywood has never been explored. And yet, for almost 40 years, baby boomers made up the majority of Hollywood's audience, and since the 1970s, boomers have domi...

  10. A model experiment to study sonic boom propagation through turbulence. Part III: validation of sonic boom propagation models. (United States)

    Lipkens, Bart


    In previous papers, we have shown that model experiments are successful in simulating the propagation of sonic booms through the atmospheric turbulent boundary layer. The results from the model experiment, pressure wave forms of spark-produced N waves and turbulence characteristics of the plane jet, are used to test various sonic boom models for propagation through turbulence. Both wave form distortion models and rise time prediction models are tested. Pierce's model [A. D. Pierce, "Statistical theory of atmospheric turbulence effects on sonic boom rise times," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 906-924 (1971)] based on the wave front folding mechanism at a caustic yields an accurate prediction for the rise time of the mean wave form after propagation through the turbulence.

  11. Modelling, simulation and optimization of agricultural sprayer boom horizontal motion behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Gret Borchert


    Full Text Available The study reported here presents a method offering realistic depiction of horizontal motion behaviour of agricultural sprayer booms and for reducing the extent of the simulation model involved. Additionally, various solutions of reducing boom vibrations are presented and compared with the help of simulation. Thereby is demonstrated the extent to which boom motion behaviour on booms with large working widths can be improved through passive vibration absorbers and an active vibration isolation.

  12. Effects of sonic booms on breeding gray seals and harbor seals on Sable Island, Canada. (United States)

    Perry, Elizabeth A; Boness, Daryl J; Insley, Stephen J


    The Concorde produces audible sonic booms as it passes 15 km north of Sable Island, Nova Scotia, where gray and harbor seals occur year round. The purpose of this research was to assess how sonic booms affect these seals. The intensity of the booms was measured and three types of data (beach counts, frequency of behavior, and heart rate) were collected before and after booms during the breeding seasons of the two species. In addition to the data taken during breeding, beach counts were made before and after booms during the gray seal moult. The greatest range in overpressure within a single boom was 2.70 psf during gray seal breeding and 2.07 psf during harbor seal breeding. No significant differences were found in the behavior or beach counts of gray seals following sonic booms, regardless of the season. Beach counts and most behaviors of harbor seals also did not differ significantly following booms, however, harbor seals became more vigilant. The heart rates of four gray seal mothers and three pups showed no clear change as a result of booms, but six male harbor seals showed a nonsignificant tendency toward elevated heart rates during the 15-s interval of the boom. These results suggest sonic booms produced by the Concorde, in level flight at altitude and producing on average a sonic boom of 0.9 psf, do not substantially affect the breeding behavior of gray or harbor seals.

  13. Using micro-scale evidence to understand regional-scale hydrothermal alteration of plutonic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.; King, H. E.; Putnis, A.


    Subsolidus re-equilibration of plutonic feldspars induced by hydrothermal fluids provides a valuable record of fluid-rock interactions that affect large volumes of the Earth's continental crust (Taylor, 1977). The effect of hydrothermal fluids has important implications for the interpretation of the

  14. Shallow crustal structure of the Central Bohemian Pluton, Czech Republic, inferred from refraction measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, Jiří; Novotný, O.; Žanda, Libor


    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2009), s. 143-154 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460705; GA AV ČR IAA300460602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : pluton * refraction measurements * crustal structure Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2009

  15. ‘Diffuse faulting’ in the Machu Picchu granitoid pluton, Eastern Cordillera, Peru (United States)

    Mazzoli, Stefano; Vitale, Stefano; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerriero, Vincenzo; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele


    A series of batholiths, forming part of the 'roots' of a Permo-Liassic rift system, are exposed in the high Eastern Cordillera of central Peru as a result of tectonic inversion. Shortening of the Machu Picchu granitoid pluton was accommodated by widespread shear reactivation of primary joints, by a process termed here 'diffuse faulting'. Fault-like reactivation of precursor joint surfaces, marked by chlorite, epidote and quartz shear fibres, is locally evidenced by few centimetres offsets within apparently undeformed granite. Analysis of fault slip data indicates that shear reactivation of different joint sets was kinematically consistent with ENE oriented shortening. Less frequent mylonitic shear zones appear to have evolved from the common brittle precursors. Apart from rare phyllonitic shear zones, fluid-rock interaction along the brittle precursors was generally limited, and pluton deformation appears to be mainly controlled by the geometry and distribution of primary joints. Three main sets of reactivated joints can be recognized, characterized by oblique-slip kinematics with variable reverse and strike-slip components of motion. Theoretical modelling based on quantitative fracture analysis (scan-line data) and different displacement-length relationships applied to the main reactivated joint sets yield first-order estimates of pluton finite strain. The results suggest that bulk finite strain is oblate and essentially coaxial, and is characterized by horizontal shortening not exceeding 10%. Relatively small finite strains, integrated over the size of the pluton, still result in a few kilometres of crustal shortening.

  16. Thermal modification of hematite-ilmenite intergrowths in the Ecstall pluton, British Columbia, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, S.J.; Feinberg, J.M.; Harrison, R.J.


    In this study, we examine the effects of reheating on finely exsolved hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the similar to 91 Ma Ecstall pluton using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result of the emplacement of the you...

  17. Quantifying the Plutonic to Volcanic Relationship Along the Puna Plateau: Implications for Cordilleran Plateau Evolution (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Delph, J. R.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Ducea, M. N.


    Quantifying well constrained plutonic to volcanic (P:V) ratios is inherently difficult because the tectonic processes that exhume intrusive bodies rarely preserve their extrusive equivalents. Conversely, active magmatic systems that have well-preserved volcanic deposits require sophisticated geophysical or geochemical approaches to estimate their plutonic roots and even when these sophisticated approaches are available, it is not always clear what constitutes a plutonic volume. Further complicating the enigmatic plutonic to volcanic relationship is the highly episodic nature of pluton emplacement where magmatic flare-ups produce several orders of magnitude more magmatism when compared against magmatic lulls. Despite this inherent difficulty, a growing body of independently measured P:V ratios (e.g. seismic tomography, geomorphic modeling, geological mapping/dating, and Zircon age spectra modeling) suggests the contribution of magmatic addition as an uplift mechanism in Cordilleran systems is much larger than is currently accepted. However, it remains unclear if these studies can be generalized to represent type behavior in Cordilleran systems or result from the non-uniform sampling imposed by the ability to measure large P:V ratios in only a few select and potentially anomalous regions of the American Cordillera. To better examine the role of magmatic processes in building Cordilleran high plateaus, we image the crustal seismic shear-wave velocity for an 800 km section (20.5°-28°S) of the active South American Cordillera (Puna Plateau). When placed in the context of existing geological and geophysical datasets, our seismic model reveals numerous mid-crustal low-velocity zones that we unambiguously interpret as the plutonic underpinnings associated with the voluminous silicic volcanics of the Puna Plateau. These larger P:V ratios are consistent with recent thermomechanical modeling of granitic magma intrusions that support the existence of long-lived, partially

  18. Geochemical constraints on the link between volcanism and plutonism at the Yunshan caldera complex, SE China (United States)

    Yan, Lili; He, Zhenyu; Beier, Christoph; Klemd, Reiner


    The Yunshan caldera complex is part of a larger scale, ca. 2000-km-long volcanic-plutonic complex belt in the coastal region of SE China. The volcanic rocks in the caldera complex are characterized by high-silica peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites associated with an intracaldera porphyritic quartz monzonite pluton. In this study, we present zircon U-Pb, Hf and stable O isotopes along with geochemical data of both volcanic and plutonic rocks to evaluate the potential petrogenetic link between volcanism and plutonism in the Yunshan caldera complex. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology of both volcanic and plutonic rocks yields almost identical ages ranging from 95.6 to 93.1 Ma. The peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites show negative anomalies of Sr, P, Ti and Ba and to a lesser extent negative Nb and Ta anomalies, along with positive Rb anomalies and `seagull-like' rare earth element (REE) patterns with negative Eu anomalies and low (La/Yb)N ratios. The intracaldera porphyritic quartz monzonite displays minor negative Rb, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti anomalies and a positive Ba anomaly with REE patterns characterized by relatively high (La/Yb)N ratios and lack significant Eu anomalies. The peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites and the porphyritic quartz monzonite exhibit consistent ɛ Nd( t) of - 3.7 to - 2.2 and display zircon ɛ Hf( t) values of - 2.1 to 3.7. They further have similar, mantle-like, zircon oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18OVSMOW mainly = 4.63 to 5.76‰). We interpret these observations to be in agreement with a crystal mush model in which the parental magma of the volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Yunshan caldera complex was likely produced by interaction of asthenosphere melts with subduction-influenced enriched mantle wedge. The peralkaline rhyolites are interpreted to represent the most differentiated magma that has subsequently experienced significant fluid-melt interactions, whereas the porphyritic quartz monzonite may be representative of the

  19. Inlet Trade Study for a Low-Boom Aircraft Demonstrator (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Slater, John W.; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.


    Propulsion integration for low-boom supersonic aircraft requires careful inlet selection, placement, and tailoring to achieve acceptable propulsive and aerodynamic performance, without compromising vehicle sonic boom loudness levels. In this investigation, an inward-turning streamline-traced and axisymmetric spike inlet are designed and independently installed on a conceptual low-boom supersonic demonstrator aircraft. The airframe was pre-shaped to achieve a target ground under-track loudness of 76.4 PLdB at cruise using an adjoint-based design optimization process. Aircraft and inlet performance characteristics were obtained by solution of the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Isolated cruise inlet performance including total pressure recovery and distortion were computed and compared against installed inlet performance metrics. Evaluation of vehicle near-field pressure signatures, along with under- and off-track propagated loudness levels is also reported. Results indicate the integrated axisymmetric spike design offers higher inlet pressure recovery, lower fan distortion, and reduced sonic boom. The vehicle with streamline-traced inlet exhibits lower external wave drag, which translates to a higher lift-to-drag ratio and increased range capability.

  20. Sonic boom startle effects : report of a field study. (United States)


    The study reports the results of a sonic boom field study conducted in Sweden during October 1972. Ten female subjects were tested indoors on each of six days. Two age groups were studied: 20-35 and 50-65 years. Fighter aircraft flying at various hei...

  1. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I. (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  2. Retirement Prospects of the Baby Boom Generation: A Different Perspective. (United States)

    Easterlin, Richard A.; And Others


    Examined average economic status of baby boom cohorts as they approach retirement using data on their life cycle income experience. Findings suggest that baby boomers are likely to enter old age in better economic position than preboom cohorts because of deferred marriages, reduced childbearing, and increased labor force participation of wives…

  3. Boom clay rheology laboratory and in situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.; Bazargan, B.


    The mechanical behaviour of Boom clay is characterized by the importance of time dependent effects. Laboratory tests intended to study this behaviour are performed. Viscoplastic solutions are used to model the clay behaviour, 11 parameters entered in the model. The first results of research conducted about the in situ creep behaviour of clays are described. Field tests and laboratory experiment are compared

  4. Dynamic modeling of oil boom failure using computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R. H.; Brown, H. M.; An, C. F.; Rowe, R. D.


    Oil retention boom failure mechanisms have been identified and studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a powerful modeling tool combining fluid dynamics and mathematics with high speed computer technology. This study utilized a commercially available CFD package, 'Fluent', to simulate the oil-water flow around a barrier. 'Drainage failure', 'droplet entrainment' and 'critical accumulation' were modeled using this software. Flow characteristics were found to be different for different failure mechanisms. In the drainage failure process, the oil slick was compressed against the barrier until the slick was deep enough for the oil to leak under the barrier. During boom failure due to droplet entrainment, the oil-water interface of the oil slick was wavy and unstable. During boom failure due to critical accumulation, the oil remained a single mass and moved under the barrier readily. The most significant observation, however, was that flow patterns around barriers are modified by the presence of oil. Therefore, towing and wave-conformity tests of booms will not be meaningful unless such tests are conducted with oil present. 15 refs., 11 figs

  5. Societal trends : the aging baby boom and women's increased independence (United States)


    The two most important societal trends today are the aging baby boom and women's increased independence. This paper compares the travel profiles of women aged 40 to 49(early baby boomers) with women aged 75 and over and with men aged 75 and over (par...

  6. Vultures have flown under radar Population boom inspires scientists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 2, 2007 ... recent years, they've been feasting on the increasing amount of road kill and refuse from Florida's booming growth. Scientists know very little about them, .... allows them to eat rot without getting sick could help prevent or cure human disease, they say. “They have a highly acidic digestive tract from what we.

  7. Subsurface profiling of granite pluton using microtremor method: southern Aravalli, Gujarat, India (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya U.; Sant, Dhananjay A.; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rangarajan, Govindan; Limaye, Manoj A.; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Charola, Mitesh J.; Bhatt, Meghnath N.; Mistry, Sagar P.


    We report, using the microtremor method, a subsurface granitic pluton underneath the Narukot Dome and in its western extension along a WNW profile, in proximity of eastern fringe of Cambay Rift, India. The dome and its extension is a part of the Champaner Group of rocks belonging to the Mesoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup. The present finding elucidates development of an asymmetric double plunge along Narukot Dome. Microtremor measurements at 32 sites were carried out along the axial trace (N95°) of the dome. Fourier amplitude spectral studies were applied to obtain the ratio between the horizontal and vertical components of persisting Rayleigh waves as local ambient noise. Fundamental resonant frequencies with amplitude ≥1-sigma for each site are considered to distinguish rheological boundary. Two distinct rheological boundaries are identified based on frequency ranges determined in the terrain: (1) 0.2219-10.364 Hz recorded at 31 stations identified as the Champaner metasediment and granite boundary, and (2) 10.902-27.1119 Hz recorded at 22 stations identified as the phyllite and quartzite boundary. The proposed equation describing frequency-depth relationship between granite and overlaying regolith matches with those already published in the literature. The morphology of granite pluton highlights the rootless character of Champaner Group showing sharp discordance with granitic pluton. The findings of manifestation of pluton at a shallower depth imply a steep easterly plunge within the Champaner metasediments, whereas signature of pluton at a deeper level implies a gentle westerly plunge. The present method enables to assess how granite emplacement influences the surface structure.

  8. U-Pb zircon geochronology of plutonism in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California: Implications for the Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of southern California (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Fanning, C. Mark


    Utilizing both sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) and conventional isotope dilution–thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) methods, crystallization and/or emplacement ages have been obtained for a suite of Cretaceous intermediate-composition plutonic samples collected along a roughly E-W–trending traverse through the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith. Previously noted petrologic, mineralogic, and textural differences delineated four major zonations from west to east and raised the need for detailed geochemical and isotopic work. U-Pb zircon geochronology establishes that these zonations are essentially temporally separate. Mean 206Pb/238U ages date the three older zones from west to east at 126–107 Ma, 107–98 Ma, and 98–91 Ma. Despite petrologic differences, a relatively smooth progression of magmatism is seen from west to east. A fourth zone is defined by magmatism at ca. 85 Ma, which represents emplacement of deeper-level plutons east of the Eastern Peninsular Ranges mylonite zone in an allochthonous thrust sheet in the northeastern Peninsular Ranges batholith.The age data presented here differ slightly from those presented in earlier work for similar rocks exposed across the middle and southern portions of the Peninsular Ranges batholith in that our data define a relatively smooth progression of magmatism from west to east, and that the transition from western-type to eastern-type plutonism is interpreted to have occurred at ca. 98 Ma and not at ca. 105 Ma.The progressive involvement of older crustal components in the enrichment of eastern Peninsular Ranges batholith–type magma sources is documented by the occurrence of Proterozoic zircon inheritance within samples of the eastern part of the batholith.

  9. Geochemistry and isotopic signatures of Paleogene plutonic and detrital rocks of the Northern Andes of Colombia: A record of post-collisional arc magmatism (United States)

    Bustamante, Camilo; Cardona, Agustín; Archanjo, Carlos J.; Bayona, Germán; Lara, Mario; Valencia, Victor


    Between the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene, the Northern Andes experienced subduction and collision due to the convergence between the oceanic Caribbean Plate and the continental margin of Ecuador and Colombia. Subduction-related calc-alkaline plutonic rocks form stocks of limited areal expression or local batholiths that consist mostly of diorites and granodiorites. We investigated two stocks (Hatillo and Bosque) exposed in the Central Cordillera of Colombia that had U-Pb zircon crystallization ages between 60 and 53 Ma. Relatively low radiogenic Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes from selected samples account for a heterogeneous crustal source, whereas negative anomalies of Nb and Ti, high LREE/HREE and Sr/Y > 28 ratios indicate that the magmas were emplaced in a continental magmatic arc setting. ƐHf(i) values of the dated zircons were between - 4 and + 7 and suggest some contamination of the magmas during their ascent through the crust. The high Sr/Y ratios recorded both in the investigated plutons as well as in other Paleogene plutons in the Central Cordillera suggest that the magmas differentiate in high-pressure conditions (garnet stability field). This differentiation probably occurred at the base of a thickened crust through the Mesozoic subduction and accretion of oceanic arcs to the continental margin during the Lower Cretaceous and Paleocene. The existence of other Paleogene granitoids with evidence of shallower differentiation signatures may be also an inheritance of along strike variations in the Northern Andean continental crust due to Cretaceous to Paleogene oblique convergence. The Hf isotope results from Paleogene detrital zircons from volcanoclastic rocks of the eastern Colombian basins reinforce the possibility of a distal magmatic focus.

  10. An aerodynamic design method for generating low sonic-boom pressure signatures


    Makino, Yoshikazu; Aoyama, Takashi; Iwamiya, Toshiyuki; Watanuki, Tadaharu; Kubota, Hirotoshi; 牧野 好和; 青山 剛史; 岩宮 敏幸; 綿貫 忠晴; 久保田 弘敏


    A study was conducted of an aerodynamic design for the sonic-boom reduction of supersonic transport. Sonic-boom is one of the most important environmental problems for supersonic transport and methods for reduction of sonic-boom intensity have been published. These previous low sonic-boom design methods utilize the F-function method which is based on a linear theory. In comparison a new low sonic-boom design method is proposed in this study in order to deal with the nonlinear effects of the s...

  11. A view into the roots of Sierra Nevada plutons: A study of the Guadalupe Igneous Complex, in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Letsinger, H. E.; Canchola, J. A.; Rolfs, S.; Mcnaughton, M. F.; Neptune, C. K.; Paterson, S. R.; Putirka, K. D.; Steinert, B.


    closed- and open-system processes for the formation of the more massive granitoids that form at the top of the GIC. Preliminary data from gabbroic sills indicate that these compositions are repeatable, indicating that these magmas were fed from a deeper-level chamber, containing more mafic magmas, and originating by a repeatable differentiation process; low K rocks appear to form in situ within the sills and so are post-emplacement. It is not yet clear if the cumulates at the very base of the GIC are the crystalline residue of such differentiation processes. We also have preliminary data from the very base of the pluton, to assess to what extent the Mariposa formation was partially melted to form the felsic units. These data appear to indicate that interaction with the Mariposa formation was minimal, indicating that if the high K granitoids are formed by partial melts of the crust, the parent source rock may consist of metavolcanic rocks that lie below the Mariposa formation.

  12. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Borohoro pluton in the northern Yili Block, NW China: Implication for the tectonic evolution of the northern West Tianshan orogen (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Chen, Youxin; Zheng, Yanrong


    The closure of the North Tianshan Ocean between the Junggar Terrane and the Yili Block is a longtime debated issue in literature, because of the different understanding of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks in the northern margin of the Yili Block. This study presents new geochronological and whole-rock geochemical data for the granitic rocks from the Borohoro pluton to provide constraints on the tectonic regime for the northern West Tianshan during the Carboniferous. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating results reveal two magmatic phases for the Borohoro pluton. The former magmatic activity in the Early Carboniferous formed the fine-grained granodiorite (332 Ma). The later magmatic activity occurred during the Late Carboniferous (305-300 Ma), forming a diversity of granitic rocks, involving quartz diorite, granodiorite and granite. Geochemical and mineralogical studies reveal that the studied granitic rocks from the Borohoro pluton all belong to metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, calc-alkaline I-type granites. They are characterized by enrichment in LILEs relative to HFSEs, and depletion of Nb, Ti and P, typical of continental arc-type granites. The intermediate SiO2, high Al2O3, and relatively low Fe2O3T, MgO and TiO2 contents reflect that these granitic rocks are mainly crust-derived. But the high Mg# values for most samples and the occurrence of microgranular mafic enclaves indicate that their magma sources were mixed by mantle-derived components. Especially, the Late Carboniferous rocks define an elegant mixing trend in both the Rb-Rb/V and the 1/V-Rb/V diagrams, consistent with mixing between magmas from subcontinental lithospheric mantle and mafic lower crust. Taking into consideration of the facts that all the Devonian to Carboniferous granitoids belong to calc-alkaline I-type granites, and granitoids of A-type didn't appear until the Early Permian, we suggest that the subduction of the North Tianshan Ocean continued to the Late Carboniferous, generating the granitic

  13. Apatite trace element and halogen compositions as petrogenetic-metallogenic indicators: Examples from four granite plutons in the Sanjiang region, SW China (United States)

    Pan, Li-Chuan; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Song; Bi, Xian-Wu; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Li, Chusi


    The abundances of trace elements including Sr, Ga and rare earth elements (REE) and halogens in apatite crystals from four intermediate-felsic plutons in the Zhongdian terrane in the Sanjiang region have been determined using electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to evaluate the potential of apatite as a petrogenic-metallogenic indicator. The selected plutons include one that is not mineralized (the Triassic Xiuwacu pluton, or the TXWC pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Cu deposit (the Pulang pluton, or the PL pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Mo deposit (the Tongchanggou pluton, or the TCG pluton), and one that hosts a vein-type Mo deposit (the Cretaceous Xiuwacu pluton, or the CXWC pluton). Except for the CXWC pluton, the other three plutons have adakite-like trace element signatures in whole rocks. The results from this study show that REE, Sr and halogens in apatite can be used to track magma compositions, oxidation states and crystallization history. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like plutons are characterized by much higher Sr/Y and δEu than the non-adakite-type pluton. This means that apatite, which is not susceptible to alteration, is a useful tool for identifying the adakite-like plutons that no longer preserve the initial Sr/Y ratios in whole rocks due to weathering and hydrothermal alteration. Based on apatite Ga contents and δEu values, it is inferred that the parental magmas for the two adakite-like plutons containing porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization are more oxidized than that for the non-adakite-type pluton containing vein-type Mo mineralization. Apatite crystals from the vein-type Mo deposit have much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like pluton without Cu or Mo mineralization is characterized by much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the adakite-like plutons that host the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. The

  14. Volcanic-Plutonic Connection in the Tilzapotla Caldera Ignimbrites in Southern Mexico (United States)

    Martiny, B. M.; Moran Zenteno, D. J.; Roberge, J.; Zuñiga-Lagunes, L.; Flores-Huerta, D.; Solari, L.; Lopez-Martinez, M.


    Age and compositional similarities in broad exposures of volcanic and plutonic rocks in the central sector of the late Eocene-early Oligocene silicic volcanic province in southern Mexico provide an excellent opportunity for studying the genetic connection between the volcanic and plutonic realms. The Taxco-Tilzapotla sector is of particular interest given the presence of a NW-SE oriented elliptical dome structure (50 x 35 km) that encloses the Tilzapotla caldera, three medium-grained plutons one of which contains mafic magmatic enclaves, hypabyssal intrusive bodies, rhyolitic domes, and voluminous ignimbrites. North-south trending Laramide folds in Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks were disrupted when late Eocene magmas intruded into the upper crust, forming the dome and producing opposite plunges in pre-dome fold axes north and south of the elliptical structure. We have obtained LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb and Ar-Ar mineral ages as well as electron microscope analyses of different magmatic facies in order to: better understand the chronology of magmatic evolution in the area; examine the possible genetic relationship between the plutonic rocks and the principal ignimbritic units, in particular the crystal-rich units; and determine possible compositional differences that might suggest the injection of different batches of magma. U-Pb crystallization ages of 37-36 Ma were determined on zircons from different facies of the Coxcatlan granodiorite. Slightly younger zircon U-Pb crystallization ages were obtained for ignimbrites from the Tilzapotla caldera (36-35 Ma) and for the more mafic Chiautle pluton (34.6 Ma) that is exposed near the southern boundary of the dome structure. Earlier work by our group established caldera collapse and extrusion of the Tilzapotla ignimbrite at 34.3 Ma. Ar-Ar dating gives cooling ages of 33 Ma in sanidine for an intracaldera ignimbrite and some late stage silicic and intermediate magmas yielded mainly between 33-32 Ma. The new and previous

  15. Amphibole Thermometry and a Comparison of Results from Plutonic and Volcanic Systems (United States)

    Sherman, T. M.; Putirka, K. D.; De Los Reyes, A. M. A.; Ratschbacher, B. C.


    Recent work (Ridolfi and Renzulli 2014) shows that amphiboles can be used to infer magmatic temperatures, even without knowledge of co-existing liquids. Here, we apply this approach, using new calibrations, to investigate felsic-mafic magma interactions, in a volcanic (Lassen Volcanic Center, a Cascade volcano) and plutonic (the Jurassic Guadalupe Igneous Complex) system. Preliminary data suggest that volcanic processes, as might be expected, preserve higher temperatures than plutonic materials (on average, volcanic amphiboles recorded 907±57.3°C while plutonic amphiboles recorded 764±59.7°C). We also find that the average T of a given mineral grain decreases with increased mineral size such that those crystallized below 800°C sometimes reach sizes beyond ~1mm, while those near 900°C appear truncated to ~0.3mm. It is not clear if T is the only control on amphibole crystal growth; however, our results would imply that larger grains not only require more time to grow but require continued undercooling. Significant cooling or heating is also recorded in many volcanically- and plutonically-grown grains, which may reflect transitioning between magmas of different T and composition. Core-to-rim cooling trends (with a common T of drop of 80oC) likely represent mafic-to-felsic magma transitions, whereas core-to-rim heating of similar magnitudes indicate a felsic-mafic transition. Some grains, though, exhibit a constant T (in the range 700-900°C) from core to rim, which perhaps indicates some shielding from magma mixing processes. Amphiboles might thus provide a reliable record of the intensity of magma mingling and mixing experienced by any particular enclave. Interestingly, volcanically-derived amphiboles appear to mostly record cooling towards the rims, while their plutonic counterparts tend to experience heating. It would thus appear that at Lassen, amphiboles are unaffected by later mafic magma recharge, but at the GIC, the plutonic amphiboles are more likely to

  16. Sonic Boom Pressure Signature Uncertainty Calculation and Propagation to Ground Noise (United States)

    West, Thomas K., IV; Bretl, Katherine N.; Walker, Eric L.; Pinier, Jeremy T.


    The objective of this study was to outline an approach for the quantification of uncertainty in sonic boom measurements and to investigate the effect of various near-field uncertainty representation approaches on ground noise predictions. These approaches included a symmetric versus asymmetric uncertainty band representation and a dispersion technique based on a partial sum Fourier series that allows for the inclusion of random error sources in the uncertainty. The near-field uncertainty was propagated to the ground level, along with additional uncertainty in the propagation modeling. Estimates of perceived loudness were obtained for the various types of uncertainty representation in the near-field. Analyses were performed on three configurations of interest to the sonic boom community: the SEEB-ALR, the 69o DeltaWing, and the LM 1021-01. Results showed that representation of the near-field uncertainty plays a key role in ground noise predictions. Using a Fourier series based dispersion approach can double the amount of uncertainty in the ground noise compared to a pure bias representation. Compared to previous computational fluid dynamics results, uncertainty in ground noise predictions were greater when considering the near-field experimental uncertainty.

  17. Modelling of radionuclide migration and heat transport from an High-Level-Radioactive-Waste-repository (HLW) in Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Put, M.; Henrion, P.


    For the modelling of the migration of radionuclides in the Boom clay formation, the analytical code MICOF has been updated with a 3-dimensional analytical solution for discrete sources. the MICOF program is used for the calculation of the release of α and β emitters from the HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES (HLW). A coherent conceptual model is developed which describes all the major physico-chemical phenomena influencing the migration of radionuclides in the Boom clay. The concept of the diffusion accessible porosity is introduced and included in the MICOF code. Different types of migration experiments are described with their advantages and disadvantages. The thermal impact of the HLW disposal in the stratified Boom clay formation has been evaluated by a finite element simulation of the coupled heat and mass transport equation. The results of the simulations show that under certain conditions thermal convection cells may form, but the convective heat transfer in the clay formation is negligible. 6 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs., 5 appendices

  18. Vibration characteristics of a deployable controllable-geometry truss boom (United States)

    Dorsey, J. T.


    An analytical study was made to evaluate changes in the fundamental frequency of a two dimensional cantilevered truss boom at various stages of deployment. The truss could be axially deployed or retracted and undergo a variety of controlled geometry changes by shortening or lengthening the telescoping diagonal members in each bay. Both untapered and tapered versions of the truss boom were modeled and analyzed by using the finite element method. Large reductions in fundamental frequency occurred for both the untapered and tapered trusses when they were uniformly retracted or maneuvered laterally from their fully deployed position. These frequency reductions can be minimized, however, if truss geometries are selected which maintain cantilever root stiffness during truss maneuvers.

  19. Summary of recent NASA studies of human response to sonic booms. (United States)

    Leatherwood, Jack D; Sullivan, Brenda M; Shepherd, Kevin P; McCurdy, David A; Brown, Sherilyn A


    NASA Langley Research Center has conducted three groups of studies on human response to sonic booms: laboratory, "inhome," and field. The laboratory studies were designed to: (1) quantify loudness and annoyance response to a wide range of shaped sonic boom signatures and (2) assess several noise descriptors as estimators of sonic boom subjective effects. The studies were conducted using a sonic boom simulator capable of generating and playing, with high fidelity, both user-prescribed and recorded boom waveforms to test subjects. Results showed that sonic boom waveform shaping provided substantial reductions in loudness and annoyance and that perceived level was the best estimator of subjective effects. Booms having asymmetrical waveforms were found to be less loud than symmetrical waveforms of equivalent perceived level. Subjective responses to simulated ground-reflected waveforms were fully accounted for by perceived level. The inhome study presented participants with simulated sonic booms played within their normal home environment. The results showed that the equal energy theory of annoyance applied to a variety of multiple sonic boom exposures. The field studies concluded that sonic boom annoyance is greater than that in a conventional aircraft noise environment with the same continuous equivalent noise exposure.

  20. Booms petroliers et basculements du rapport de force | Mouhoubi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chacun d'eux ne cherche qu'à instaurer la politique de prix satisfaisant les objectifs inhérents aux stratégies économiques nationales, aux relations internationales ou même s'accaparer de la part la plus importante du surplus pétrolier. Mots-clefs. Boom pétrolier, crise pétrolière, rapport de force, prix dub pétrole. Code Jel ...

  1. Cerveza artesanal : El boom que no para de crecer


    Revista Institucional de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas


    El boom de la cervecería artesanal, que comenzó en Mar del Plata hace ya más de una década, ha tenido un importante epicentro en la ciudad de La Plata, donde la demanda aún supera por amplio margen a la oferta de un mercado en pleno crecimiento. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

  2. China’s Internet Finance Boom and Tyrannies of Inclusion


    Loubere, Nicholas


    One of the main drivers of China’s e-commerce boom is the dramatic expansion of the country’s Internet finance industry, which has grown and diversified at a staggering rate over the past decade. The emergence of Chinese Internet finance has been discussed in largely positive terms as facilitating commercial activity. It has also been linked to the wider developmental goal of promoting financial inclusion through the provision of financial services to previously excluded populations. Emerging...

  3. Unstructured Grids for Sonic Boom Analysis and Design (United States)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.


    An evaluation of two methods for improving the process for generating unstructured CFD grids for sonic boom analysis and design has been conducted. The process involves two steps: the generation of an inner core grid using a conventional unstructured grid generator such as VGRID, followed by the extrusion of a sheared and stretched collar grid through the outer boundary of the core grid. The first method evaluated, known as COB, automatically creates a cylindrical outer boundary definition for use in VGRID that makes the extrusion process more robust. The second method, BG, generates the collar grid by extrusion in a very efficient manner. Parametric studies have been carried out and new options evaluated for each of these codes with the goal of establishing guidelines for best practices for maintaining boom signature accuracy with as small a grid as possible. In addition, a preliminary investigation examining the use of the CDISC design method for reducing sonic boom utilizing these grids was conducted, with initial results confirming the feasibility of a new remote design approach.

  4. Influence of Chair Vibrations on Indoor Sonic Boom Annoyance (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob; Loubeau, Alexandra


    One goal of NASA’s Commercial Supersonic Technology Project is to identify candidate noise metrics suitable for regulating quiet sonic boom aircraft. A suitable metric must consider the short duration and pronounced low frequency content of sonic booms. For indoor listeners, rattle and creaking sounds and floor and chair vibrations may also be important. The current study examined the effect of such vibrations on the annoyance of test subjects seated indoors. The study involved two chairs exposed to nearly identical acoustic levels: one placed directly on the floor, and the other isolated from floor vibrations by pneumatic elastomeric mounts. All subjects experienced both chairs, sitting in one chair for the first half of the experiment and the other chair for the remaining half. Each half of the experiment consisted of 80 impulsive noises played at the exterior of the sonic boom simulator. When all annoyance ratings were analyzed together there appeared to be no difference in mean annoyance with isolation condition. When the apparent effect of transfer bias was removed, a subtle but measurable effect of vibration on annoyance was identified.

  5. Real estate boom and export performance bust in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkalec


    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to estimate the effect of resource reallocation from the manufacturing to the real estate economic sector on exporting activity in Croatia, a small open post-transition country that experienced a real estate boom during the previous decade. This paper follows the work by Égert and Kierzenkowski (2014 as we test the hypothesis that the real estate boom had an adverse impact on country’s export performance. For that purpose we use quarterly data ranging from 1Q1998 to 3Q2013, and estimate export equations using maximum likelihood and dynamic ordinary least squares estimators of cointegration. Our results indicate that the distortion of relative prices in favor of non-tradable sectors (construction and real estate, which is a direct by-product of the real estate boom, has had stifling effects on export performance. Our results also suggest that ailing cost competitiveness and governments’ inability to implement policies promoting private sector economic development adversely influenced export performance during the period analyzed. The basic conclusion of our research is that the expansion of a non-tradable sector in a country with limited supply of production factors can have a detrimental effect on the ability of the tradable sector to increase its output and compete in international markets.

  6. Technetium migration in Boom Clay - Assessing the role of colloid-facilitated transport in a deep clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, C.; Martens, E.; Maes, N.; Jacops, E.; Van Gompel, M.; Van Ravestyn, L.


    independent study on the migration of natural organic matter was used to extract migration parameters. This independent study relied on both lab-scale and in situ large-scale migration experiments with 14 C-labelled NOM which were performed over a period of 15 years. A classic diffusion-advection equation, including a colloid filtration term and/or non-linear sorption, simulated the experimental data quite well and could also account for the anisotropy of the Boom Clay formation. By using information from independent experiments on processes that were assumed to occur upon transport of Tc through the Boom Clay formation, the degree of freedom of the model was seriously constrained. All parameters used in the reactive transport model (Tc solubility, complexation with inorganic ligands, stability constant for the 'colloid-colloid' interaction process, solid-solution distribution coefficient of aqueous inorganic Tc species) were either taken from established thermodynamic data sources, or from published data of batch experiments. Only the first-order kinetic rate that accounted for slow decoupling of the Tc colloid and the organic matter colloids was fitted. An accurate model simulation could be obtained both for the Tc concentration in the outflowing solution, and the Tc tracer profile across the clay cores used in the setup. The good accuracy between the reactive transport model, batch experimental data and the experimental percolation data shows that the conceptual model is strong enough to handle different types of experimental setups, and allows to make interpolations for different geochemical conditions. Moreover, the model was adapted to make predictions of Tc migration as a NOM-associated colloid over the entire height of the overlying formation. Based on these predictions, we are now able to assess the potential for colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides by dissolved NOM in Boom Clay. (authors)

  7. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.


    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  8. The oil boom in Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frynas, J.G.


    In less than a decade, Equatorial Guinea has transformed itself from an African backwater into one of the world's fastest growing economies and a sought-after political partner in the Gulf of Guinea. The sole reason for this transformation has been the discovery of oil and gas. This article outlines the rise of Equatorial Guinea as one of Africa's leading oil-producing countries and investigates the political, economic and social effects of becoming a petro-state. The article is based on the author's field research in Equatorial Guinea in the autumn of 2003 and interviews with senior oil company staff, government officials and staff of international organizations as well as secondary sources. This research demonstrates how reliance on oil and gas exports can lead to profound changes in a country's political economy. (author)

  9. Using CFD Surface Solutions to Shape Sonic Boom Signatures Propagated from Off-Body Pressure (United States)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu


    The conceptual design of a low-boom and low-drag supersonic aircraft remains a challenge despite significant progress in recent years. Inverse design using reversed equivalent area and adjoint methods have been demonstrated to be effective in shaping the ground signature propagated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) off-body pressure distributions. However, there is still a need to reduce the computational cost in the early stages of design to obtain a baseline that is feasible for low-boom shaping, and in the search for a robust low-boom design over the entire sonic boom footprint. The proposed design method addresses the need to reduce the computational cost for robust low-boom design by using surface pressure distributions from CFD solutions to shape sonic boom ground signatures propagated from CFD off-body pressure.

  10. Modelling the interaction of the alkaline plume with Boom Clay at different scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, Diederik; Wang, Lian


    In Belgium, Boom Clay is studied as a potential host formation for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The current reference design of the engineered barrier system ('supercontainer design') plans to use a considerable amount of cementitious materials as construction material, buffer and backfill. Diffusion of the alkaline pore fluids from the concrete engineered barriers to the Boom Clay may change the retention properties of the Boom Clay in the vicinity of the engineered barriers - Boom Clay interface. The objectives of this work are to (i) model the breakthrough curves obtained from leaching small undisturbed Boom Clay cores with young concrete water (high Na and K content, pH 13.5), and (ii) simulate the possible extent of Boom Clay alterations owing to interactions with alkaline fluids for a period of 100,000 years. For both objectives, the reactive transport code PHREEQC is used

  11. Dynamic simulation of a planar flexible boom for tokamak in-vessel operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosino, G.; Celentano, G.; Garofalo, F.; Maisonnier, D.


    In this paper we present a dynamic model for the analysis of the vibrations of a planar articulated flexible boom to be used for tokamak in-vessel maintenance operations. The peculiarity of the mechanical structure of the boom enables us to consider separately the oscillations in the horizontal and vertical planes so that two separate models can be constructed for describing these phenomena. The results of simulations based on booms like that proposed for NET in-vessel operations are presented. (orig.)

  12. Applying control volume finite element for modelling direct injection boom spraying flow


    El Aissaoui, Abdellah; Lebeau, Frédéric; Destain, Marie-France; Houmy, Karim


    Assessment of injection lag transport and uniformity of direct injection boom sprayer is an important issue for successful variable rate spraying technology. To estimate the boom lag transport and pressure loss, a numerical model is formulated on the basis of fluid hydrodynamic conservation equations. The software is implemented in visual basic. To solve the pressure – velocities equations, control volume finite element method (CV) is used to delimit elementary volumes of the boom. Linearizat...

  13. Predicting transmission of shaped sonic booms into a residential house structure. (United States)

    Sizov, Natalia V; Plotkin, Kenneth J; Hobbs, Christopher M


    Human perception of sonic booms is a major impediment to commercial supersonic flight. Shaping, which reduces the audible shock waves of a boom, can make outdoor perception of booms acceptable. Perception of sonic booms experienced indoors is of concern, and it is not yet established whether shaped booms offer benefit to indoor listeners. A better understanding of the transmission of shaped booms into building structures is needed. In the authors' earlier work the vibration response of house elements subjected to different sonic boom wave shapes was evaluated using a single degree of freedom model. This paper expands that approach with a modal analysis model. The acceleration of building elements and the resulting sound pressure inside a room are computed in the time and frequency domains. Analytical results are compared with experimental data measured by NASA during sonic boom tests conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in 2007. The effects of wave signature parameters on transmission are studied to evaluate the advantages of various kinds of minimized boom shapes.

  14. [Building and testing of Pickard Line-up Boom]. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Packard Line-up Boom is a device for controlling the placing together of the ends of two sections of pipe for clamping and welding. Consistently better weld quality is possible because the optimum weld space is achieved and held constant throughout every stringer bead, regardless of the welding method. With the use of the Pickard Line-Up Boom, there will be a minimum of pipe movement while the stringer bead is being run. Since the welder can rely on conditions being the same throughout the weld, he can regulate the weld to eliminate backwelding almost entirely. During the grant period and with the assistance of DOE grant funds, Pickard Line-up Boom Associates (PLUBA) successfully completed Task 1, construction of the Packard Boom. PLUBA contracted with Sawyer Manufacturing Company (1031 North Columbia Place, Tulsa, Oklahoma) to construct the new boom. After completion of the new boom by Sawyer, the boom was successfully tested by PLUBA, thereafter PLUBA attempted to obtain lease agreements with pipeline contractors (Tasks 2 and 3). Toward the end of the project period, PLUBA entered into a license/marketing agreement with Sabre International with. the objective of first securing contracts outside of the United States. Once this is achieved and the Packard Boom is used successfully in the field, it is believed that pipeline contractors may be more willing to use the Packard Boom in the United States.

  15. From boom to bust: small towns and energy development on Colorado's western slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliford, A.

    Boom towns in western Colorado that felt secure in the nation's need for oil were not prepared for the bust end of the cycle when economics brought oil shale development to a halt. Although changes in the environment, in life styles, and in investment make it more difficult today to weather boom and bust cycles (despite a history of failed mining booms), many small towns are better off than before. They are benefitting from improved local government, public services, and public awareness that will help them prepare for the next energy crisis and its subsequent booms. 10 figures. (DCK)

  16. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  17. Arc petrogenesis in southern Ireland and the Isle of Man: Implications for Ordovician accretionary history and constraints from Late Caledonian plutonism (United States)

    Fritschle, Tobias; Daly, J. Stephen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; McConnell, Brian; Buhre, Stephan


    Croghan Kinshelagh Granite span the range defined by the two arc terranes, suggesting that these younger rocks formed after terrane amalgamation. This is in accordance with structural constraints: volcanic rocks from Avoca and Port-e-Vullen, as well as those from the Graiguenamanagh Granite, are strongly foliated, whereas the Dhoon and Croghan Kinshelagh granites show little or no deformation. This suggests a major accretion event in the early part of the Upper Ordovician. Petrogenetic investigations of the Late Caledonian plutons reveal major differences in their inferred source compositions. Granites in the centre and to the south of the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ) faithfully preserve Ordovician arc isotopic signatures and are interpreted to have formed almost exclusively by reprocessing peri-Gondwanan arc-related rocks. In contrast, granites to the north of the ISZ suggest the amalgamation of peri-Laurentian continental arc-rocks with relatively unradiogenic Palaeoproterozoic Laurentian basement. Granites located in the Irish Sea are distinct due to the significant involvement of sedimentary protoliths, consistent with a mixed signature from both peri-Gondwanan arcs and Laurentian detritus. This threefold distinction is also supported by age and isotopic constraints from inherited zircons in the Late Caledonian plutons. [1]van Staal et al. (2009, and references therein): J. Geol. Soc. London 327, 271-316.

  18. Pembuatan Alur Pelayaran dalam Rencana Pelabuhan Marina Pantai Boom, Banyuwangi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Didi Darmawan


    Full Text Available Pantai Boom merupakan pantai yang ada di Kabupaten Banyuwangi. Pantai ini terletak di Kelurahan Kampung Mandar, Kecamatan Banyuwangi, Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur. Pantai tersebut rencananya akan dibangun pelabuhan marina. Pelabuhan harus dilengkapi dengan beberapa fasilitas untuk mendukung rencana tersebut seperti salah satunya adalah alur pelayaran. Untuk membuat alur pelayaran diperlukan penelitian mengenai pasang surut, topografi dasar laut, serta jenis kapal yang melintas untuk memastikan kapal yang berlayar aman dari kemungkinan kecelakaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan data hasil pemeruman, data pasang surut yang diperoleh dari pengamatan langsung, serta berbagai jenis kapal yacht. Hasil dari penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa rencana dermaga sebaiknya dibangun 60 meter menjorok ke arah laut dengan panjang dermaga 25 meter. Dalam keadaan air rendah terendah (LLWL, ketiga jenis kapal yang ditentukan dapat merapat ke rencana Dermaga Pelabuhan Marina Pantai Boom, Banyuwangi. Daerah yang tidak bisa dilewati pada saat LLWL, pada saat MSL daerah tersebut sudah dapat dilewati oleh ketiga jenis kapal tersebut. Pada keadaan muka air tinggi tertinggi (HHWL, Kapal Yacht Class 8 dan 6 dapat melewati sebagian perairan sungai Pantai Boom.         Waktu yang tidak tepat untuk melakukan pelayaran pada saat LLWL dari alur pelayaran yang telah dibuat yaitu antara pukul 04:00 – 06:00 WIB pada saat bulan November 2015-Februari 2016 dan pukul 16:00-18:00 pada saat bulan Juni-Agustus 2016. Sedangkan Waktu yang tepat untuk melakukan pelayaran pada saat HHWL yaitu antara pukul 20:00–23:00 WIB pada saat bulan Desember 2015- Maret 2016 dan pukul 8:00-11:00 pada saat bulan Juni-September 2016.

  19. Did the Aid Boom Pacify Sub-Saharan Africa?


    Azam, Jean-Paul; Thelen, Véronique


    The incidence of civil war in Sub-Saharan Africa since the turn of the century is less than half of what it was on average in the last quarter of the 20th century. This paper shows that the aid boom triggered by 9/11 played a key role in achieving purposefully this result using panel data for 46 African countries over four decades. It applies a nearidentification approach to test the aid-conflict tradeoff, taking due account of asymmetric information between the donors and the econometrician....

  20. En las vísperas del boom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Drago


    Full Text Available La televisión por cable en España está en las vísperas de un boom, de acuerdo a varias investigaciones de mercado y la toma de posiciones de las empresas e instituciones dispuestas a ampararse en las nuevas leyes reguladoras del negocio. La televisión por cable comenzó a funcionar de una manera irregular con los llamados "video comunitarios", éstos surgieron a partir de la instalación de un aparato reproductor de vídeos en grandes edificios de departamentos conectado a cada propietario para alquilar películas.

  1. Plutonism in the central part of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California (United States)

    Bateman, Paul C.


    The Sierra Nevada batholith comprises the plutonic rocks of Mesozoic age that underlie most of the Sierra Nevada, a magnificent mountain range that originated in the Cenozoic by the westward tilting of a huge block of the Earth's crust. Scattered intrusions west of the batholith in the western metamorphic belt of the Sierra Nevada and east of the Sierra Nevada in the Benton Range and the White and Inyo Mountains are satellitic to but not strictly parts of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Nevertheless, all the plutonic rocks are related in origin. The batholith lies along the west edge of the Paleozoic North American craton, and Paleozoic and early Mesozoic oceanic crust underlies its western margin. It was emplaced in strongly deformed but weakly metamorphosed strata ranging in age from Proterozoic to Cretaceous. Sedimentary rocks of Proterozoic and Paleozoic age crop out east of the batholith in the White and Inyo Mountains, and metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age crop out west of the batholith in the western metamorphic belt. A few large and many small, generally elongate remnants of metamorphic rocks lie within the batholith. Sparse fossils from metasedimentary rocks and isotopic ages for metavolcanic rocks indicate that the metamorphic rocks in the remnants range in age from Early Cambrian to Early Cretaceous. Within the map area (the Mariposa 1 0 by 2 0 quadrangle), the bedding, cleavage, and axial surfaces of folds generally trend about N. 35 0 W., parallel to the long axis of the Sierra Nevada. The country rocks comprise strongly deformed but generally coherent sequences; however, some units in the western metamorphic belt may partly consist of melanges. Most sequences are in contact with other sequences, at least for short distances, but some sequences within the batholith are bounded on one or more sides by plutonic rocks. Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary strata east of the Sierra Nevada and Paleozoic strata in

  2. An integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical investigation of uranium metallogenesis in selected granitic plutons of the Miramichi Anticlinorium, New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.H.; McAllister, A.L.


    Integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical data for the post-tectonic granitic rocks of the North Pole, Burnthill, Dungarvon, Trout Brook, and Rocky Brook plutons and surrounding areas were examined to assess their potential for uranium mineralization. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical criteria that are thought to be useful guides for uranium exploration were also established for the host granites. The granitic plutons were emplaced discordantly, late in the tectonomagmatic sequence and at shallow depths within the metasedimentary rocks of the Miramichi Anticlinorium. Geochemically, the host granites are highly evolved (Si0 2 > 75 wt. %), peraluminous and have strong similarities with ilmenite-series 'S-type' and 'A-type' granitoids. Uranium occurrences are spatially and perhaps temporally associated with late-phase differentiates of the plutons where elevated levels of other lithophile elements such as Sn, W, Mo, and F were also detected. Geophysically, the granitic plutons are associated with distinctively high aeroradiometric eU, eTh, and K anomalies that coincide with strong negative Bouguer anomalies and low magnetic values. Conceptual models involving magmatic and hydrothermal processes have been adopted to explain the concentration of uranium and associated metals in the granitic plutons

  3. Textural history of recent basaltic-andesites and plutonic inclusions from Merapi volcano (United States)

    van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Chadwick, Jane P.; Troll, Valentin R.


    Mt. Merapi in Central Java is one of the most active stratovolcanoes on Earth and is underlain by a multistage plumbing system. Crystal size distribution analyses (CSD) were carried out on recent Merapi basaltic-andesites and co-eruptive magmatic and plutonic inclusions to characterise the crystallisation processes that operate during storage and ascent and to obtain information on respective time scales. The basaltic-andesites exhibit log-linear, kinked-upwards CSD curves for plagioclase and clinopyroxene that can be separated into two main textural populations. Large plagioclase phenocrysts (≥1.6 mm) make up one population, but correspond to crystals with variable geochemical composition and reflect a period of crystal growth at deep to mid-crustal levels. This population was subsequently influenced by crystal accumulation and the onset of crustal assimilation, including the incorporation of high-Ca skarn-derived xenocrysts. Textural re-equilibration is required for these crystals to form a single population in CSD. A second episode of crystal growth at shallower levels is represented by chemically homogenous plagioclase crystals <1.6 mm in size. Crustal assimilation is indicated by, for example, oxygen isotopes and based on the CSD data, crystallisation combined with contamination is likely semi-continuous in these upper crustal storage chambers. The CSD data observed in the basaltic-andesite samples are remarkably consistent and require a large-volume steady state magmatic system beneath Merapi in which late textural equilibration plays a significant role. Plagioclase CSDs of co-eruptive magmatic and plutonic inclusions may contain a third crystal population (<1 mm) not found in the lavas. This third population has probably formed from enhanced degassing of portions of basaltic-andesite magma at shallow crustal levels which resulted in increased crystallinity and basaltic-andesite mush inclusions. A suite of coarse plutonic inclusions is also present that

  4. Sm-Nd whole-rock isotope system of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futa, K.


    An unaltered drill-core sample of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton (sample ATK-1 (990.97-996.78)) is light rare earth enriched, with a 147 Sm/ 144 Nd ratio of 0.08699 and a 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratio of 0.510815. The depleted mantle model age of 2.68 Ga agrees with emplacement ages, indicating that parental magma or its protolith was derived directly from a depleted mantle and that the crustal residence time was short

  5. Occurrence of parsonite, a secondary uranium mineral, in alaskite of the Wheeler Creek pluton, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.P.; Johnson, B.


    Reconnaissance investigations in the Purcell Mountains of westcentral Alaska in 1977 revealed the presence of parsonite, a hydrous phosphate of lead and uranium with the formula Pb 2 UO 2 (PO 4 ) 2 2H 2 O. This is the first reported occurrence of parsonite in Alaska. The parsonite occurs as a soft, yellow to chocolate brown coating closely associated with green muscovite on fracture surfaces in a shear zone in alaskite of the Wheeler Creek pluton. Thin magnetite veinlets are also present. The identification of parsonite was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Delayed neutron analysis were run on samples of the Alaskite

  6. Geochemistry, petrology and geodynamic setting of the Urumieh plutonic complex, Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, NW Iran: New implication for Arabian and Central Iranian plate collision (United States)

    Jafari, Amin; Fazlnia, Abdolnaser; Jamei, Susan


    The Urumieh plutonic complex, in the northernmost part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ) of Iran, consists of ten basic-acidic units which formed in response to subduction and continental collision of the SSZ with the Arabian plate to the south during Mid-Late Cretaceous times. Geochemically, the plutonic unit is divided into three distinct groups: I-type, S-type and A-type that mainly belong to calc-alkalic series. The I-type intrusions, especially mafic members, are enriched in LREE and LILE and possibly formed from metasomatized mantle wedge during the subduction of the Neo-Tethys oceanic crust beneath the SSZ. The felsic I-type rocks are depleted in Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta, Ti and Eu, but enriched in Rb, Th, K, Ce, U and La. These data suggest that they formed in deep crustal levels via partial melting of crustal sources by injection of hot mantle magmas. The S-type rocks are characterized by low Na2O (<3.02 wt%), high LILE, relatively high values of molar Al2O3/(MgO+FeO) and K2O/Na2O ratios combined with low CaO/(MgO+FeO*) ratios. These features show that the S-type granites originated from partial melting of a metapelitic to metagreywacke source. The A-type alkali feldspar granites formed through the slab break off after the continental collision in northwestern Iran by decompression melting of crustal protolith. The author's new model implies that collision between Arabian margin and north SSZ initiated in the Late Cretaceous and completed until Late Paleocene. In contrast, in the southeast, subduction was active during this period of time, but collision presumably occurred during the Middle to Late Miocene.

  7. Evaluation of Grid Modification Methods for On- and Off-Track Sonic Boom Analysis (United States)

    Nayani, Sudheer N.; Campbell, Richard L.


    Grid modification methods have been under development at NASA to enable better predictions of low boom pressure signatures from supersonic aircraft. As part of this effort, two new codes, Stretched and Sheared Grid - Modified (SSG) and Boom Grid (BG), have been developed in the past year. The CFD results from these codes have been compared with ones from the earlier grid modification codes Stretched and Sheared Grid (SSGRID) and Mach Cone Aligned Prism (MCAP) and also with the available experimental results. NASA's unstructured grid suite of software TetrUSS and the automatic sourcing code AUTOSRC were used for base grid generation and flow solutions. The BG method has been evaluated on three wind tunnel models. Pressure signatures have been obtained up to two body lengths below a Gulfstream aircraft wind tunnel model. Good agreement with the wind tunnel results have been obtained for both on-track and off-track (up to 53 degrees) cases. On-track pressure signatures up to ten body lengths below a Straight Line Segmented Leading Edge (SLSLE) wind tunnel model have been extracted. Good agreement with the wind tunnel results have been obtained. Pressure signatures have been obtained at 1.5 body lengths below a Lockheed Martin aircraft wind tunnel model. Good agreement with the wind tunnel results have been obtained for both on-track and off-track (up to 40 degrees) cases. Grid sensitivity studies have been carried out to investigate any grid size related issues. Methods have been evaluated for fully turbulent, mixed laminar/turbulent and fully laminar flow conditions.

  8. Display Provides Pilots with Real-Time Sonic-Boom Information (United States)

    Haering, Ed; Plotkin, Ken


    Supersonic aircraft generate shock waves that move outward and extend to the ground. As a cone of pressurized air spreads across the landscape along the flight path, it creates a continuous sonic boom along the flight track. Several factors can influence sonic booms: weight, size, and shape of the aircraft; its altitude and flight path; and weather and atmospheric conditions. This technology allows pilots to control the impact of sonic booms. A software system displays the location and intensity of shock waves caused by supersonic aircraft. This technology can be integrated into cockpits or flight control rooms to help pilots minimize sonic boom impact in populated areas. The system processes vehicle and flight parameters as well as data regarding current atmospheric conditions. The display provides real-time information regarding sonic boom location and intensity, enabling pilots to make the necessary flight adjustments to control the timing and location of sonic booms. This technology can be used on current-generation supersonic aircraft, which generate loud sonic booms, as well as future- generation, low-boom aircraft, anticipated to be quiet enough for populated areas.

  9. Human Response to Low-Intensity Sonic Booms Heard Indoors and Outdoors (United States)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Klos, Jacob; Buehrle, Ralph D.; McCurdy, David A.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.


    Test subjects seated inside and outside a house were exposed to low-intensity N-wave sonic booms during a 3-week test period in June 2006- The house was instrumented to measure the booms both inside and out. F-18 aircraft were flown to achieve a variety of boom overpressures from approximately .1 to .6 psf During four test days, seventy-seven test subjects heard the booms while seated inside and outside the house. Using the Magnitude Estimation methodology and artificial reference sounds ; the subjects rated the annoyance of the booms. Since the same subjects heard similar booms both inside and outside the house, comparative ratings of indoor and outdoor annoyance were obtained. For a given metric level, indoor subjects gave higher annoyance scores than outdoor subjects. For a given boom; annoyance scores inside were on average the same as those outside. In a post-test questionnaire, the majority of subjects rated the indoor booms as more annoying than the outdoor ones. These results are discussed in this paper.

  10. Passive diver detection and localization using hydrophones suspended under a boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, A.J.; Fillinger, L.; Clarijs, M.C.


    A boom is a line of floats that constitutes a physical barrier for providing abovewater stopping power. However, it does not provide any situation awareness. In order to overcome this shortcoming, an integrated “booms and sensors” solution using passive sonar was conceived and tested experimentally

  11. Continued development of a test for fire booms in waves and flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCourt, J.; Buist, I.; Mullin, J.


    The durability of a fire resistant boom and its ability to contain oil during an in situ burn without creating any environmental damage as a result of the burning crude was evaluated. The screening test included four stages: (1) the pre-burn wave stress stage, where the test boom was flexed under tension in waves to simulate deployment of the boom and transit to the spill site, (2) the burn in wave stage, where the test boom was exposed to waves and repeated on hourly cycles of a propane gas fire to simulate oil burning operations, (3) the post-burn wave stress stage, where the test boom was again flexed under tension in waves to simulate retrieval of the boom, and (4) the oil-containment stage, where the ability of the boom to contain thick pools of hot oil was assessed. Three recommendations were made after the test program: (1) increase the heat generated by fire, (2) increase the tension on the boom, and (4) improve the data acquisition system. 10 refs., 10 tabs., 13 figs

  12. Measuring and explaining the baby boom in the developed world in the mid-twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús J. Sánchez-Barricarte


    Full Text Available Background: The early research on the baby boom tried to account for it as a logical recovery following the end of the Second World War (WWII. But it cannot be understood merely as a post-war phenomenon because its origins go back to the 1930s and early 1940s. Objective: I shall describe the methodology used to measure the total and marital baby boom and provide a detailed description of it. I shall attempt to explain the possible reasons that led to the sharp increase in the marital fertility rates and its subsequent decline. Methods: I will use various fertility indices that track the historical development of fertility (total and marital; period and cohort. Results: I show that there are major differences in the measurement of the baby boom depending on the index used. I found that the baby boom is highly heterogeneous in the 25 countries that form part of my study. It represented the logical response that families made to one period of prolonged political, economic, and military crisis (the crash of 1929 and WWII. Conclusions: Researchers who use only the total fertility indices are really analysing only the nuptiality boom, which took place during those years, rather than changes in reproductive behaviour. Contribution: I measure total and marital baby boom for 25 developed countries and perform the calculations to measure the impact of marital fertility and nuptiality on the total baby boom (TBB. I present a new explanation of the origins of the baby boom.

  13. Boom bomer boomste en die idiolek van Elsabe Steenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. van der Westhuizen


    Full Text Available Boom bomer boomste and the idiolect of Elsabe Steenberg. Elsabe Steenberg’s oeuvre,consisting among others of 42 narratives in book format, is richly textured and represents a notable depth of insight into the complexities of life. It is clear that, from an intertextual point of view, considering the entire body of her work is a way of accumulating evidence in order to discern aspects of her distinctive idiolect. This idiolect, however, also emerges when contemplating a representative work from her oeuvre. The text selected for this article, a youth novel in which the symbolism of trees manifests itself in various semantic permutations,communicating the author’s intrinsic life and world view, is Boom bomer boomste, also available in English under the title Tree-more, tree-most. The tree as object and how it functions in the narrative to become part of the theme, as well as the vision of life in this youth novel, can be scrutinised minutely if the effort is aimed at finding frequent recurring signs that maybe regarded as representative of the author’s idiolect. The use of the tree symbolism in the narrative worlds of Elsabe Steenberg points toward the most prolific sign contributing to this author’s idiolect: God is the Origin and the regenerating Force in the universe of Elsabe Steenberg’s life and work.

  14. Micro-Ramps for External Compression Low-Boom Inlets (United States)

    Rybalko, Michael; Loth, Eric; Chima, Rodrick V.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; DeBonis, James R.


    The application of vortex generators for flow control in an external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was investigated using RANS simulations with three-dimensional (3-D), structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code. The low-boom inlet design is based on previous scale model 1- by 1-ft wind tunnel tests and features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. Validation of the methodology was first performed for micro-ramps in supersonic flow on a flat plate with and without oblique shocks. For the inlet configuration, simulations with several types of vortex generators were conducted for positions both upstream and downstream of the terminating normal shock. The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and massflow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. The optimum upstream configuration was found to substantially reduce the post-shock separation area but did not significantly impact recovery at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). Downstream device placement allowed for fuller boundary layer velocity profiles and reduced distortion. This resulted in an improved pressure recovery and massflow ratio at the AIP compared to the baseline solid-wall configuration.

  15. Sound, infrasound, and sonic boom absorption by atmospheric clouds. (United States)

    Baudoin, Michaël; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis


    This study quantifies the influence of atmospheric clouds on propagation of sound and infrasound, based on an existing model [Gubaidulin and Nigmatulin, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 26, 207-228 (2000)]. Clouds are considered as a dilute and polydisperse suspension of liquid water droplets within a mixture of dry air and water vapor, both considered as perfect gases. The model is limited to low and medium altitude clouds, with a small ice content. Four physical mechanisms are taken into account: viscoinertial effects, heat transfer, water phase changes (evaporation and condensation), and vapor diffusion. Physical properties of atmospheric clouds (altitude, thickness, water content and droplet size distribution) are collected, along with values of the thermodynamical coefficients. Different types of clouds have been selected. Quantitative evaluation shows that, for low audible and infrasound frequencies, absorption within clouds is several orders of magnitude larger than classical absorption. The importance of phase changes and vapor diffusion is outlined. Finally, numerical simulations for nonlinear propagation of sonic booms indicate that, for thick clouds, attenuation can lead to a very large decay of the boom at the ground level. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  16. Ornamental Bedding Plants Industry in Japan: Changes in Production, Distribution and Consumption after the Gardening Boom of 1990's


    Miyabe, kazuyuki; Niisato, Yasutaka


    The ornamental bedding plants in Japan experienced a gardening boom that peaked in 1999.The gardening boom of 1990’s had a profound effect in the bedding plants market in Japan, which historically had tended to increase gradually, increased dramatically both in quantity and quality.However, supply and demand shifted to the saturated condition after the gardening boom. Established diversity and the variation were demanded at the boom. The accumulation and use of joint ownership type informatio...

  17. Reactions to sonic booms: a report of two studies and a general evaluation of startle effects. (United States)

    Thackray, R I; Touchstone, R M; Bailey, J P


    Two separate studies are reported. The first attempted to determine a sonic boom level below which startle would not occurr. Subjects were exposed indoors to six simulated sonic booms having outside overpressures of 50, 30, and 16 N/m-2 (inside levels of 74, 71, and 65 dBA). Approximately 20% of the subjects gave small arm-hand responses to the two higher exposure levels, while none responded to the lowest level. In the second study, subjects were exposed indoors to a series of 12 simulated booms in order to assess habituation effects. Outside overpressures were 130 and 50 N/m-2 (indoor levels of 81 and 72 dBA). Significant, but not complete, habituation occurred to booms of both levels. Autonomic and eyeblink responses, as well as ratings of annoyance, were obtained in both studies. The final section summarizes the expected behavioral, autonomic, and subjective effects of exposure to various levels of sonic booms.

  18. Generation of Parametric Equivalent-Area Targets for Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts (United States)

    Li, Wu; Shields, Elwood


    A tool with an Excel visual interface is developed to generate equivalent-area (A(sub e)) targets that satisfy the volume constraints for a low-boom supersonic configuration. The new parametric Ae target explorer allows users to interactively study the tradeoffs between the aircraft volume constraints and the low-boom characteristics (e.g., loudness) of the ground signature. Moreover, numerical optimization can be used to generate the optimal A(sub e) target for given A(sub e) volume constraints. A case study is used to demonstrate how a generated low-boom Ae target can be matched by a supersonic configuration that includes a fuselage, wing, nacelle, pylon, aft pod, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. The low-boom configuration is verified by sonic-boom analysis with an off-body pressure distribution at three body lengths below the configuration

  19. Petrography and geochemistry of five granitic plutons from south central Uruguay: contribution to the knowledge of the Piedra Alta terrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.


    Granitoid rocks in south-central Uruguay are largely concentrated in three east-west trending metamorphic belts, known as (from south to north) the Montevideo Belt, the San José Belt and the Arroyo Grande Belt. These belts are separated from one another by intervening bands of gneisses of granitic composition. The whole assemblage, the gneisses as well as the metamorphic belts and their associated granites, collectively constitute the Piedra Alta Terrane. Five of these granite plutons, two from the San José Belt and three from the Arroyo Grande Belt, have been studied in some detail and the chemical composition of 86 samples (major elements as well as a selected suite of trace elements) have been determined. These data, as well as Rb-Sr isotopic data, show that these plutons are typically composite in nature, and that the various units range in age from 1900 Ma to 2500 Ma. The older ages were obtained from the main units of the plutons themselves whereas the younger ages are from late dykes which were emplaced into the plutons and which are clearly not related to them. The plutons are predominantly, but not exclusively, of calc-alkaline affinity and are typically synorogenic whereas the dykes are post-orogenic and are either calc-alkaline or alkaline in composition. These data have been incorporated into a tectonic model for the Piedra Alta Terrane which is considerably different from that heretofore proposed. The essential features of the geological history of the area are: 1) development of an older ''basement'' of granitic gneisses 2) deposition, upon or adjacent to this gneisses basement, of a typical Archean greenstone belt assemblage (no komatiites so far reported) 3) Paleo-proterozoic metamorphism, followed by syn-tectonic to post-tectonic intrusion of the plutonic rocks 4) major tectonic dislocation(s) associated with the Transamazonian orogeny 5) dyke emplacement (post-orogenic to anorogenic) following the Transamazonian orogeny

  20. Geochemistry and meaning of the geotectonic position of plutonic rocks from Chapada region, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyumjian, R.M.


    In common with other orogenic belts, in which the presence of both, granitic and small basic-ultrabasic intrusions are characteristics of medium-high pressure metamorphic terranes, the geological and geochemical evidences indicate a close relationship between the granitoid, gabbroic and pyroxenitic plutons and the orogenic metabasaltic rocks from the Chapada volcano-sedimentary sequence. The granitoids are tonalitic and, on discriminant diagrams, they plot in the volcanic arc and pre-collisional fields. They display geochemical characteristics similar to the Jamaican oceanic arc-related granities. They show low LIL and HSF element abundances, low (Ta, Nb)/(K, La, etc) ratios and very low concentrations of Th, Hf, K and Y, when compared to patterns of calkaline, alkali-calcic and alkaline-peralkaline granitoids of magmatic arcs. These chemical features are characteristic of immature island arcs mantle-derived intrusives. The Chapada olivine gabbro has a chondrite-normalized spidergram, closely resembling those of island-arc basaltic lavas, the compositions of its coexisting olivine and plagioclase been similar to those from arc-related cumulate gabbros, and therefore, it could be the plutonic equivalent of the arc volcanics in the Chapada region. It is suggested that the evolution of the granitoids and gabbro intrusives from Chapada are related to a process of subduction that occurred in central Brazil during the Brasiliano/Pan-African event. (author) [pt

  1. Geochemistry of uranium and thorium and natural radioactivity levels of the western Anatolian plutons, Turkey (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Koroneos, Antonios; Ünal, Alp; Kamaci, Ömer


    Seventy samples from major plutons (mainly granitic) of Western Anatolia (Turkey) have been analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry to determine the specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K (Bq/kg). Τhe natural radioactivity ranged up to 264 Bq/kg for 238U, 229.62 Bq/kg for 226Ra, up to 207.32 Bq/kg for 232Th and up to 2541.95 Bq/kg for 40K. Any possible relationship between the specific activities of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K and some characteristics of the studied samples (age, rock-type, colour, grain size, occurrence, chemical and mineralogical composition) was investigated. Age, major and trace element geochemistry, color, pluton location and mineralogical composition are likely to affect the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. The range of the Th/U ratio was large (0.003-11.374). The latter, along with 226Ra/238U radioactive secular disequilibrium, is also discussed and explained by magmatic processes during differentiation.

  2. The Merensky Reef in the Chineisky Pluton (Siberia)? A myth or a reality? (United States)

    Zhitova, L.; Sharapov, V.; Zhukova, I.


    It is a dream of each geologist to find a `Merensky Reef' in each layered basic intrusion. Scientists have been trying many various techniques to come this dream to reality. The most perspective way to do so is probably a combination of physicochemical and computer modeling of layered basic intrusion crystallization together with fluid and melt inclusions studies in situ. This combination allows us to do the following: 1. To study boundary conditions for separation of low density gas phase and salt melt from the crystallizing primary basic melt in large magma chamber. 2. To determine correct quantitative parameters for formation of residual fluid-bearing brines extracting high metal concentrations. 3. To compute critical levels for substance differentiation at phase, geochemical and other `barriers' in those basic mantle-crust ore magmatic systems. 4. To model metal extraction, transportation and deposition at these `barriers' for systems of various `silicate melt - residual salt brines' ratios under the conditions of continental lithosphere. Comparison of real and modeled data allows us to conclude if a formation of a narrow zone of high metal concentration is possible at those critical levels (phase and geochemical `barriers'). The above-mentioned algorithm has been used for the Chineisky Pluton (the Transbaikal region, Siberia). Fortunately we have found our own `Merensky Reef', which happened to be a PGE enrichment marginal zone of the Chineisky Pluton due to specific fluid regime of crystallization! This work was supported by the Ministry for Russian Science and Education, Grant #DSP.

  3. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons (United States)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Miller, M.; Serpa, L.


    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  4. Magma flow paths and strain patterns in magma chambers growing by floor subsidence: a model based on magnetic fabric study of shallow-level plutons in the Stiavnica volcano-plutonic complex, Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomek, Filip; Žák, J.; Chadima, Martin


    Roč. 76, č. 11 (2014), Article 873 ISSN 0258-8900 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) * caldera * intrusive strain * magma emplacement * pluton floor subsidence * stratovolcano Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014

  5. Mindfulness as a booming, diverse and (non) religious phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn


    Mindfulness has become a phenomenon with widespread appeal in many Western countries. Like yoga, it has an Eastern religious origin, but through a long history it has been transformed and adapted to new cultural and social contexts. While the majority of research on mindfulness has been conducted...... within the health sciences, the aim of this article is to investigate the distribution, meaning and function of this practice through quantitative mapping and qualitative interviews with 16 mindfulness providers in the city of Aarhus in Denmark. The analysis reveals not just a booming phenomenon......, but also a field characterized by diversity in terms of authority claims, motivations and uses. The discussion focuses on whether mindfulness can be seen as a religious practice or as a typical expression of an individualized and secularized technique....

  6. Homogeneity vs. Heterogeneity of Porosity in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemes, Susanne; Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos L.; De Craen, Mieke; Honty, Miroslav


    Microstructural investigations on Boom Clay at nano- to micrometer scale, using BIB-SEM methods, result in porosity characterization for different mineral phases from direct observations on high resolution SE2-images of representative elementary areas (REAs). High quality, polished surfaces of cross-sections of ∼ 1 mm 2 size were produced on three different samples from the Mol-Dessel research site (Belgium). More than 33,000 pores were detected, manually segmented and analyzed with regard to their size, shape and orientation. Two main pore classes were defined: Small pores (< 500 nm (ED)) within the clay matrices of samples and =big' pores (> 500 nm (ED)) at the interfaces between clay and non-clay mineral (NCM) grains. Samples investigated show similar porosities regarding the first pore-class, but differences occur at the interfaces between clay matrix and NCM grains. These differences were interpreted to be due to differences in quantitative mineralogy (amount of non-clay mineral grains) and grain-size distributions between samples investigated. Visible porosities were measured as 15 to 17 % for samples investigated. Pore-size distributions of pores in clay are similar for all samples, showing log-normal distributions with peaks around 60 nm (ED) and more than 95 % of the pores being smaller than 500 nm (ED). Fitting pore-size distributions using power-laws with exponents between 1.56 and 1.7, assuming self-similarity of the pore space, thus pores smaller than the pore detection resolution following the same power-laws and using these power-laws for extrapolation of pore-size distributions below the limit of pore detection resolution, results in total estimated porosities between 20 and 30 %. These results are in good agreement with data known from Mercury Porosimetry investigations (35-40 % porosity) and water content porosity measurements (∼ 36 %) performed on Boom Clay. (authors)

  7. Laboratory Headphone Studies of Human Response to Low-Amplitude Sonic Booms and Rattle Heard Indoors (United States)

    Loubeau, Alexandra; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Klos, Jacob; Rathsam, Jonathan; Gavin, Joseph R.


    Human response to sonic booms heard indoors is affected by the generation of contact-induced rattle noise. The annoyance caused by sonic boom-induced rattle noise was studied in a series of psychoacoustics tests. Stimuli were divided into three categories and presented in three different studies: isolated rattles at the same calculated Perceived Level (PL), sonic booms combined with rattles with the mixed sound at a single PL, and sonic booms combined with rattles with the mixed sound at three different PL. Subjects listened to sounds over headphones and were asked to report their annoyance. Annoyance to different rattles was shown to vary significantly according to rattle object size. In addition, the combination of low-amplitude sonic booms and rattles can be more annoying than the sonic boom alone. Correlations and regression analyses for the combined sonic boom and rattle sounds identified the Moore and Glasberg Stationary Loudness (MGSL) metric as a primary predictor of annoyance for the tested sounds. Multiple linear regression models were developed to describe annoyance to the tested sounds, and simplifications for applicability to a wider range of sounds are presented.

  8. Subjective response of people to simulated sonic booms in their homes. (United States)

    McCurdy, David A; Brown, Sherilyn A; Hilliard, R David


    In order to determine the effect of the number of sonic boom occurrences on annoyance, a computer-based system was developed for studying the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The system provided a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys and a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory. A system was deployed for eight weeks in each of 33 homes. Each day from 4 to 63 sonic booms were played as the test subject went about his or her normal activities. At the end of the day, the test subjects rated their annoyance to the sonic booms heard during the day. The sonic booms consisted of different combinations of waveforms, levels, and occurrence rates. The experiment confirmed that the increase in annoyance resulting from multiple occurrences can be modeled by the addition of the term "10 * log(number of occurrences)" to the sonic boom level. Of several noise metrics considered, perceived level was the best annoyance predictor. Comparisons of the subjective responses to the different sonic boom waveforms found no differences that were not accounted for by the noise metrics.

  9. Boom clay pore water, home of a diverse microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, Katinka; Moors, Hugo; Leys, Natalie


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Boom Clay pore water (BCPW) has been studied in the framework of geological disposal of nuclear waste for over two decades, thereby mainly addressing its geochemical properties. A reference composition for synthetic clay water has been derived earlier by modelling and spatial calibration efforts, mainly based on interstitial water sampled from different layers within the Boom clay. However, since microbial activity is found in a range of extreme circumstances, the possibility of microbes interacting with future radioactive waste in a host formation like Boom Clay, cannot be ignored. In this respect, BCPW was sampled from different Boom Clay layers using the Morpheus piezometer and subsequently analysed by a complementary set of microbiological and molecular techniques, in search for overall shared and abundant microorganisms. Similar to the previous characterization of the 'average' BCPW chemical composition, the primary aim of this microbiological study is to determine a representative BCPW microbial community which can be used in laboratory studies. Secondly, the in situ activity and the metabolic properties of members of this community were addressed, aiming to assess their survival and proliferation chances in repository conditions. In a first approach, total microbial DNA of the community was extracted from the BCPW samples. This molecular approach allows a broad insight in the total microbial ecology of the BCPW samples. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the highly conserved 16S rRNA genes in this DNA pool and subsequent sequencing and bio-informatics analysis, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) could be assigned to the microbial community. The bacterial community was found to be quite diverse, with OTUs belonging to 8 different phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochetes, Chloroflexi and Deinococcus-Thermus). These results provide an overall view of the

  10. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon) (United States)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.


    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  11. Supply of the numerical simulation for the evaluation of the sonic boom of meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneton, Martin


    Within the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, infra-sound is one survey technique monitoring nuclear explosions. These ones have to be distinguished from natural sources of infra-sound like atmospheric meteorite entries. With a view to investigate meteorites as an infra-sound source, finite volume simulations of the hypersonic flow are performed at sufficiently far distances to reach the acoustic regime. They are then matched to a nonlinear ray tracing method to propagate the signal within the atmosphere down to the ground. For perfect gases, this approach allows us to validate the theoretical model based on simplifying assumptions. More realistic simulations in real gases at thermochemical equilibrium, show a major modification of the pressure field in the near field but a moderate influence for infra-sound at the ground level. Numerical results are compared to infra-sound and seismic measurements in the case of the well-documented meteorite of Carancas (Peru, 2007). This confrontation highlights a good agreement for the spectrum of the waveform but a large overestimation of the overpressure at receptors located near the impact crater. This study also allowed us to propose a new entry trajectory for the meteorite, and to identify one of the recorded signals as a sonic boom. (author) [fr

  12. Geochemistry of the Topuk Pluton associated with the Kozbudaklar W-skarn deposit (Western Anatolia, Turkey): Implication for crystallization conditions (United States)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim


    The Kozbudaklar scheelite-bearing skarn deposit in the Tavşanlı Zone, western Turkey, occurs at the contact between Eocene Topuk pluton and Triassic İnönü marble of calcic character. The Topuk pluton is medium-coarse grained, granodiorite in composition and has a hypidiomorphic equigranular texture. The host rock contains mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) of monzodiorite-monzogabbro composition and is interrupted by porphyritic granodiorite and granite-aplite vein rocks. The pluton is calk-alkaline, metaluminous and composed of I-type melt character. δ18O and δD compositions of silicate minerals from granodioritic host rock are 5.9-10.6‰ and -77.0 to -71.4‰ and conformable with the range of unaltered I-type granites. Trace element contents indicate that pluton is crystallized from mantle-derived magma interacted with continental crust in a volcanic arc or subduction related setting. Major and trace element concentrations of Topuk pluton are quite consistent with geochemical patterns of Cu-skarn granitoids. Results of mineral chemistry analysis of the pluton yield that plagioclases are of oligoclase-andesine, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of ferro-magnesian composition. Amphiboles and biotites of granodioritic host rock are represented by calc-alkaline, I-type melt composition evolved in a subduction environment. Based on the results of plagioclase-Al in hornblende and amphibole chemistry data from the pluton, two different stages are proposed for the magma crystallization. The first stage was developed in a relatively deeper environment (>15 km) under high pressure (>4 kbar) and low log ƒO2 (>-17.6) conditions which reflect fractional crystallization and magma-mixing depth of basaltic magma and these conditions are not correlated with scheelite mineralization. The second crystallization stage of magma which proceeded at shallow depths (-12.9 to -11.0) values are accompanied by high H2O contents (5.39-6.88 wt.%). High water

  13. Methodology for the Regulation of Boom Sprayers Operating in Circular Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Serreta


    Full Text Available A methodology for the regulation of boom sprayers working in circular trajectories has been developed. In this type of trajectory, the areas of the plots of land treated by the outer nozzles of the boom are treated at reduced rates, and those treated by the inner nozzles are treated in excess. The goal of this study was to establish the methodology to determine the flow of the individual nozzles on the boom to guarantee that the dose of the product applied per surface unit is similar across the plot. This flow is a function of the position of the equipment (circular trajectory radius and of the displacement velocity such that the treatment applied per surface unit is uniform. GPS technology was proposed as a basis to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor. The viability of this methodology was simulated considering two circular plots with radii of 160 m and 310 m, using three sets of equipment with boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m. Data showed as increasing boom widths produce bigger errors in the surface dose applied (L/m2. Error also increases with decreasing plot surface. As an example, considering the three boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m working on a circular plot with a radius of 160 m, the percentage of surface with errors in the applied surface dose greater than 5% was 30%, 58% and 65% respectively. Considering a circular plot with radius of 310 m the same errors were 8%, 22% and 31%. To obtain a uniform superficial dose two sprayer regulation alternatives have been simulated considering a 14.5 m boom: the regulation of the pressure of each nozzle and the regulation of the pressure of each boom section. The viability of implementing the proposed methodology on commercial boom sprayers using GPS antennas to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor was justified with a field trial in which a self-guiding commercial GPS system was used along with three precision GPS systems located in

  14. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay; Comportement thermo-hydro-mecanique de l'argile de Boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.T


    This thesis studied the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of Boom clay, which was chosen to be the host material for the radioactive waste disposal in Mol, Belgium. Firstly, the research was concentrated on the soil water retention properties and the hydro-mechanical coupling by carrying out axial compression tests with suction monitoring. The results obtained permitted elaborating a rational experimental procedure for triaxial tests. Secondly, the systems for high pressure triaxial test at controlled temperature were developed to carry out compression, heating, and shearing tests at different temperatures. The obtained results showed clear visco-elasto-plastic behaviour of the soil. This behaviour was modelled by extending the thermo-elasto-plastic model of Cui et al. (2000) to creep effect. (author)

  15. Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge:new drilling at Hess Deep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Kathryn M. [Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Snow, Jonathan E. [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States). Earth & Atmospheric Sciences; Klaus, Adam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). United States Implementing Organization.; Guerin, Gilles [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Borehole Research Group; Abe, Natsue [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka (Japan). Inst. for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE); Akizawa, Norikatsu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Ceuleneer, Georges [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (UMS 831), CNRS; Cheadle, Michael J. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Adriao, Alden de Brito [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Geology Inst. (IGEO); Faak, Kathrin [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany). Geological Inst.; Falloon, Trevor J. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Inst. for Marine and Antarctic Studies; Friedman, Sarah A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Godard, Marguerite M. [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Geosciences Montpellier-UMR 5243; Harigane, Yumiko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Marine Geology Dept.; Horst, Andrew J. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Hoshide, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Ildefonse, Benoit [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Lab. de Tectonophysique; Jean, Marlon M. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences; John, Barbara E. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Koepke, Juergen H. [Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy; Machi, Sumiaki [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Maeda, Jinichiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Natural History Sciences; Marks, Naomi E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry and Material Sciences Dept.; McCaig, Andrew M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment; Meyer, Romain [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Earth Science and Centre for Geobiology; Morris, Antony [Univ. of Plymouth (United Kingdom). School of Earth, Ocean & Environmental Sciences; Nozaka, Toshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Python, Marie [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Saha, Abhishek [Indian Inst. of Science (IISC), Bangalore (India). Centre for Earth Sciences; Wintsch, Robert P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences


    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures.

  16. Neogene Uplift and Exhumation of Plutonic Bodies in the Beni Bou Ifrour Massif (Nador, northeastern Morocco) (United States)

    Lebret, Noëmie; Jolivet, Laurent; Branquet, Yannick; Bourdier, Jean-Louis; Jolivet, Marc; Marcoux, Eric


    In Neogene times, the whole Mediterranean Sea was the center of an intense magmatic activity. This post-collisional magmatism produced a large amount of volcanic edifices through the Alpine belts, together with some intrusives. These plutonic bodies can be associated with skarn-type mineralization, well-known in Elba Island or Serifos Island (Cyclades), where they are generally exhumed by detachment faults. In Morocco, the plutons hosted by the Beni Bou Ifrour massif are connected to the biggest skarn-type iron concentrations of the country (production > 60 Mt, reserves ≈ 25 Mt). The purpose of this work is to explain the late uplift of this massif and subsequent exhumation of the intrusives. As a final product of the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence since ca. 70 Ma, the Rif Mountains constitute the westernmost segment of the Mediterranean Alpine belts. In the oriental part of this range, volcanic summits and Paleozoic to Mesozoic massifs outcrop in the surrounding Mio-Pliocene plains. The Beni Bou Ifrour massif, in the Nador province, consists in a dome-shaped folded Mesozoic series (Domerian to Barremian) affected by a slight epizonal regional metamorphism (ca. 14-12 Ma), dislocated by Neogene NE-SW faults and eventually sealed by upper Miocene transgressive sediments. The hosted intrusives (7.58 ± 0.03 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005) are the plutonic equivalents to the potassic calc-alkaline lavas (andesites mainly) from the surrounding "satellite" volcanic massifs. They turn out to stand in higher topographic position than the younger shoshonitic lavas of the neighboring Gourougou stratovolcano (6.12 ± 0.01 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005). Previous studies have attributed this uplift to the action of normal faults (pull-apart basins; Guillemin & Houzay, 1982), thrusting (Kerchaoui, 1985; 1995) or even of a caldeira resurgence (El Bakkali, 1995). To discriminate against those exhumation mechanisms, field work has been performed, coming along with new cross-sections to

  17. The geology and geochronology of the Belmont pluton and microgranite dykes from the Margate area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.; Eglington, B.M.; Kerr, A.


    Field, petrographic, geochemical and Rb-Sr isotope data are presented for two granitic units which are considered to represent amongst the youngest intrusive rocks in the Natal Metamorphic Province. These are the Belmont granite pluton and a suite of unfoliated biotite microgranite dykes from the Margate area. The data suggest that these rocks do not form part of a consanguineous suite as previously envisaged. It is concluded that the Belmont pluton (1055 ± 60Ma) should be assigned to the garnet leucogranite phase of the syntectonic Margate Suite, and that the dykes (∼965 Ma) represent the products of a discrete, late-stage magmatic event which took place towards the end of the Natal orogenesis. Furthermore, the high initial Sr isotopic ratio (∼0,715) of the dykes suggests that they were derived from the melting of pre-existing radiogenic crust. The termination of major tectono-magmatic events in the Late Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal Belt apparently youngs from west to east across South Africa. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland place the Falkland Plateau and the Maudheim Province of Antarctica off the southeast of Africa. Dates obtained from this region range from ∼1000Ma to ∼500Ma, suggesting a continued decrease in age of tectono-magmatic activity eastwards. The microgranite dykes described here are unequivocally amongst the youngest post-tectono-metamorphic intrusions of southern Natal, yet they do not preserve any whole-rock indication of Pan-African isotopic disturbances. Sparse Rb-Sr mineral isotopic data support this indication that there was no significant Pan-African activity in the Natal Metamorphic Province. 8 figs., 7 tabs., 38 refs

  18. U-Pb geochronology of Gangdese (Transhimalaya) plutonism in the Lhasa-Xigaze region, Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, U.; Allegre, C.J.; Paris-6 Univ., 75; Paris-7 Univ., 75; Xu, R.H.


    A series of different plutons from the Lhasa-Xigaze segment of the Gangdese (Transhimalaya) belt has been studied by high-resolution U-Pb analyses of zircon (using zircon fractions of 5-100 grains each, selected upon specific grain characteristics). For two diorites, located east of Xigaze (Dazhuka), the zircons yield concordant ages of 93.4 +- 1.0 and 94.2 +- 1.0 m.y., respectively. Also concordant ages of 41.1 +- 0.4 and 41.7 +- 0.4 m.y. have been obtained for two granodiorites, collected southwest of Lhasa (Qushui). The precision on the ages of two granites from the Xigaze and Lhasa area, is limited by two factors: the presence of inherited radiogenic lead and the occurrence of subsequent lead loss. However, some concordant zircons, detected in both granites, define approximate ages of about 67 and 53 m.y., respectively. The inherited lead components show the melting of Precambrian material was involved in magma genesis. The U-Pb ages substantiate a magmatic activity lasting from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) to Eocene (Lutetian) time. Such a period of plutonism at the southern margin of Eurasia, as well as the occurrence of magma generation from continental crust, suggest that the Gangdese range results from the subduction of Tethys oceanic lithosphere (Indian plate) underneath Eurasia (Eurasian plate). If this model is true, the collision of India with Eurasia (Along the Lhasa-Xigaze sector) postdates the emplacement of the 41 m.y. old Gangdese granodiorites, i.e. the collision occurred after Lutetian time. (orig.)

  19. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.


    southern portion of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges.(2) Calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic magmas intruded this region approximately 55 m.y. after the Roosevelt Granite with emplacement of pre-deformational plutons at ca. 1,710 Ma (e.g., Henry Mountain Granite and diorite of Denny Creek), and this continued for at least 30 m.y., ending with emplacement of post-deformational plutons at ca. 1,680 Ma (e.g., Kroenke Granodiorite, granite of Fairview Peak, and syenite of Mount Yale). The timing of deformation can be constrained to sometime after intrusion of the diorite of Denny Creek and likely before the emplacement of the undeformed granite of Fairview Peak. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon indicates that the older group of ca. 1,710-Ma plutons formed at shallower depths, and then they intruded the younger group of more deeply generated, commonly peraluminous and sodic plutons. Although absent in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Mazatzal-age (ca. 1,680–1,620 Ma) plutonic rocks are present regionally. Inherited zircon components of Mazatzal-age were found as cores in some 1.4-Ga Sawatch and Mosquito Range zircons, indicating the likelihood of a relatively local source. These combined data suggest the possibility that all were produced within a continental-margin magmatic arc created as a result of southward-migrating (slab rollback?), north-dipping subduction to the south of the region.(3) Widespread Mesoproterozoic plutonism—with emplacement at various depths and exhibiting bimodal geochemistry—is recognized in 16 different samples. An older group of predominantly peraluminous, yet magnesian granitoids (e.g., granodiorite of Sayers, granite of Taylor River, and the St. Kevin Granite) were emplaced between ca. 1,450 and 1,425 Ma. These geochemical parameters suggest moderate degrees of partial melting in a low-pressure environment. Three younger metaluminous, but ferroan plutons (diorite of Grottos, diorite of Mount Elbert, and granodiorite of Mount Harvard

  20. An Experimental Study of Sonic Boom Penetration Under a Wavy Air-Water Interface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fincham, Adam; Maxworthy, Tony


    A laboratory experiment was designed and performed to ascertain the difference in underwater response to sonic boom laboratory between flat and wavy surface models and their depth-dependent rule overpressure attenuation...

  1. An ElectroAdhesive "Stick Boom" for Mars Sample Return Orbiting Sample Capture, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Electroadhesive "Sticky Boom", an innovative method for rendezvous and docking, is proposed for the Orbiting Sample Capture (OSC) portion of the Mars Sample...

  2. 75 FR 49843 - Regulated Navigation Area; Boom Deployment Strategy Testing, Great Bay, NH (United States)


    ... will be marked with 32-inch floating balls to make the ends of each boom segment more visible to... east, a line drawn between the easternmost end of the Scammel Bridge (Route 4) in position 43[deg]07'41...

  3. Simplified High-Performance Roll Out Composite Magnetometer Boom, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need for compact, low-cost deployable magnetometer booms for CubeSats, Roccor proposes to develop a Simple High-performance Roll-Out Composite...

  4. Langley's Computational Efforts in Sonic-Boom Softening of the Boeing HSCT (United States)

    Fouladi, Kamran


    NASA Langley's computational efforts in the sonic-boom softening of the Boeing high-speed civil transport are discussed in this paper. In these efforts, an optimization process using a higher order Euler method for analysis was employed to reduce the sonic boom of a baseline configuration through fuselage camber and wing dihedral modifications. Fuselage modifications did not provide any improvements, but the dihedral modifications were shown to be an important tool for the softening process. The study also included aerodynamic and sonic-boom analyses of the baseline and some of the proposed "softened" configurations. Comparisons of two Euler methodologies and two propagation programs for sonic-boom predictions are also discussed in the present paper.

  5. Research on rigid–flexible coupling dynamic characteristics of boom system in concrete pump truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tang


    Full Text Available Concrete pump truck plays an important role in infrastructure construction and national economic development. In recent years, its boom system becomes longer, and its dynamic and control become more complicated. In order to study the dynamic characteristics of boom system, three dynamic models such as multi-rigid-body model, rigid–flexible coupling model, and rigid–flexible coupling model with equivalent hydraulic cylinder were built in this work. Simulation analysis and experimental analysis were done, and they show that we should not only consider the large-range motion but also consider the small flexible deformation to study the dynamic characteristics of boom system precisely. It provides the theoretical basis to vibration control, trajectory prediction, and life assessment for boom system and such structures.

  6. The marriage boom and marriage bust in the United States: An age-period-cohort analysis. (United States)

    Schellekens, Jona


    In the 1950s and 1960s there was an unprecedented marriage boom in the United States. This was followed in the 1970s by a marriage bust. Some argue that both phenomena are cohort effects, while others argue that they are period effects. The study reported here tested the major period and cohort theories of the marriage boom and bust, by estimating an age-period-cohort model of first marriage for the years 1925-79 using census microdata. The results of the analysis indicate that the marriage boom was mostly a period effect, although there were also cohort influences. More specifically, the hypothesis that the marriage boom was mostly a response to rising wages is shown to be consistent with the data. However, much of the marriage bust can be accounted for by unidentified cohort influences, at least until 1980.

  7. Formulation of the problem of sonic boom by a maneuvering aerofoil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from the aircraft. The N-wave signature of a boom is modified to a U-wave signature in a focused boom produced by an accelerating aircraft (or more generally a maneuvering aircraft, figure 3 of [10]), ..... method of wavefront construction i.e., the line joining the tips of the rays at time t in the. (x,y)-plane starting from all ...



    Mihaela GÖNDÖR


    This paper examines the interrelated aspects of the recent economic and fiscal crisis – such as the GDP growth, budgetary deficit and public debt, fiscal policy and austerity measures in Romania by comparing the different effects caused by different fiscal policies within a boom period and a downturn period. The paper reveals that the boom period is characterized by tax rate cuts and rising of expenditures and the downturn period, by the increasing of fiscal burden and sharply reducing the go...

  9. New York Marcellus Shale: Industry boom put on hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, Angelique


    , New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming are pursuing. Positive labor market impacts are another major economic draw. According to the Revised Draft SGEIS on the Oil, Gas and Solution Mining Regulatory Program (September 2011), hydraulic fracturing would create between 4,408 and 17,634 full-time equivalent (FTE) direct construction jobs in New York State. Indirect employment in other sectors would add an additional 29,174 FTE jobs. Furthermore, the SGEIS analysis suggests that drilling activities could add an estimated $621.9 million to $2.5 billion in employee earnings (direct and indirect) per year, depending upon how much of the shale is developed. The state would also receive direct tax receipts from leasing land, and has the potential to see an increase in generated indirect revenue. Estimates range from $31 million to $125 million per year in personal income tax receipts, and local governments would benefit from revenue sharing. Some landowner groups say the continued delay in drilling is costing tens of thousands of jobs and millions of dollars in growth for New York, especially in the economically stunted upstate. A number of New York counties near Pennsylvania, such as Chemung, NY, have experienced economic uptick from Pennsylvania drilling activity just across the border. Chemung officials reported that approximately 1,300 county residents are currently employed by the drilling industry in Pennsylvania. The Marcellus shale boom is expected to continue over the next decade and beyond. By 2015, gas drilling activity could bring 20,000 jobs to New York State alone. Other states, such as Pennsylvania and West Virginia, are also expected to see a significant increase in the number of jobs. Catalyst 2: Political Reality of the Moratorium. Oil and gas drilling has taken place in New York since the 19th century, and it remains an important industry with more than 13,000 currently active wells. The

  10. A computational analysis of sonic booms penetrating a realistic ocean surface. (United States)

    Rochat, J L; Sparrow, V W


    The last decade has seen a revival of sonic boom research, a direct result of the projected market for a new breed of supersonic passenger aircraft, its design, and its operation. One area of the research involves sonic boom penetration into the ocean, one concern being the possible disturbance of marine mammals from the noise generated by proposed high-speed civil transport (HSCT) flyovers. Although theory is available to predict underwater sound levels due to a sonic boom hitting a homogeneous ocean with a flat surface, theory for a realistic ocean, one with a wavy surface and bubbles near the surface, is missing and will be presented in this paper. First, reviews are given of a computational method to calculate the underwater pressure field and the effects of a simple wavy ocean surface on the impinging sonic boom. Second, effects are described for the implementation of three additional conditions: a sonic boom/ocean "wavelength" comparison, complex ocean surfaces, and bubbles near the ocean surface. Overall, results from the model suggest that the realistic ocean features affect the penetrating proposed HSCT sonic booms by modifying the underwater sound-pressure levels only about 1 decibel or less.

  11. An analysis of the response of Sooty Tern eggs to sonic boom overpressures. (United States)

    Ting, Carina; Garrelick, Joel; Bowles, Ann


    It has been proposed that sonic booms caused a mass hatching failure of Sooty Terns in the Dry Tortugas in Florida by cracking the eggshells. This paper investigates this possibility analytically, complementing previous empirical studies. The sonic boom is represented as a plane-wave excitation with an N-wave time signature. Two models for the egg are employed. The first model, intended to provide insight, consists of a spherical shell, with the embryo represented as a rigid, concentric sphere and the albumen as an acoustic fluid filling the intervening volume. The substrate is modeled as a doubling of the incident pressure. The second, numerical model includes the egg-shape geometry and air sac. More importantly, the substrate is modeled as a rigid boundary of infinite extent with acoustic diffraction included. The peak shell stress, embryo acceleration, and reactive force are predicted as a function of the peak sonic boom overpressure and compared with damage criteria from the literature. The predicted peak sonic boom overpressure necessary for egg damage is much higher than documented sonic boom overpressures, even for extraordinary operational conditions. Therefore, as with previous empirical studies, it is concluded that it is unlikely that sonic boom overpressures damage avian eggs.

  12. USAF Flight Test Investigation of Focused Sonic Booms: Project Have Bears (United States)

    Downing, Micah; Zamot, Noel; Moss, Chris; Morin, Daniel; Wolski, Ed; Chung, Sukhwan; Plotkin, Kenneth; Maglieri, Domenic


    Supersonic operations from military aircraft generate sonic booms that can affect people, animals and structures. A substantial experimental data base exists on sonic booms for aircraft in steady flight and confidence in the predictive techniques has been established. All the focus sonic boom data that are in existence today were collected during the 60's and 70's as part of the information base to the US Supersonic Transport program and the French Jericho studies for the Concorde. These experiments formed the data base to develop sonic boom propagation and prediction theories for focusing. There is a renewed interest in high-speed transports for civilian application. Moreover, today's fighter aircraft have better performance capabilities, and supersonic flights ars more common during air combat maneuvers. Most of the existing data on focus booms are related to high-speed civil operations such as transitional linear accelerations and mild turns. However, military aircraft operating in training areas perform more drastic maneuvers such as dives and high-g turns. An update and confirmation of USAF prediction capabilities is required to demonstrate the ability to predict and control sonic boom impacts, especially those produced by air combat maneuvers.

  13. Numerical Predictions of Sonic Boom Signatures for a Straight Line Segmented Leading Edge Model (United States)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Wilcox, Floyd J.; Cliff, Susan; Thomas, Scott


    A sonic boom wind tunnel test was conducted on a straight-line segmented leading edge (SLSLE) model in the NASA Langley 4- by 4- Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The purpose of the test was to determine whether accurate sonic boom measurements could be obtained while continuously moving the SLSLE model past a conical pressure probe. Sonic boom signatures were also obtained using the conventional move-pause data acquisition method for comparison. The continuous data acquisition approach allows for accurate signatures approximately 15 times faster than a move-pause technique. These successful results provide an incentive for future testing with greatly increased efficiency using the continuous model translation technique with the single probe to measure sonic boom signatures. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D (Navier-Stokes) and CART3D-AERO (Euler, adjoint-based adaptive mesh), were used to compute off-body sonic boom pressure signatures of the SLSLE model at several different altitudes below the model at Mach 2.0. The computed pressure signatures compared well with wind tunnel data. The effect of the different altitude for signature extraction was evaluated by extrapolating the near field signatures to the ground and comparing pressure signatures and sonic boom loudness levels.

  14. Modeling and Analysis of Truck Mounted Concrete Pump Boom by Virtual Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ren


    Full Text Available By far there is lack of research on different working conditions between rigid and flexible dynamics of truck mounted concrete pump booms. First a 3D model has been established by using virtual prototyping technology of a 37 m long boom in Pro/Engineering software. Then the rigid body simulation model has been built. Next modal superimposition method is adopted to change the 4 rigid body booms into flexible ones. Kinematics law and dynamic characteristics of 4 common working conditions had been studied then. Next tip displacement and the first boom hydraulic cylinder force of the 4 working conditions between rigid and flexible models have been researched. Furthermore the first natural frequencies of the structure have been calculated. The results show that the frequency of the horizontal condition has the lowest of all and the roof condition has the largest of all. Besides the cylinder forces of the flexible model are larger than the corresponding rigid ones because of the flexible boom vibration. Finally an experiment has been done on a boom test rig which proved that the established simulation model is reasonable and the frequency results are correct. All of these provide design reference to mechanical manipulator as well as reducing product development cost of such mechanism.

  15. Focused and Steady-State Characteristics of Shaped Sonic Boom Signatures: Prediction and Analysis (United States)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Bobbitt, Percy J.; Massey, Steven J.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Kandil, Osama A.; Zheng, Xudong


    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of flight, at off-design conditions, on the propagated sonic boom pressure signatures of a small "low-boom" supersonic aircraft. The amplification, or focusing, of the low magnitude "shaped" signatures produced by maneuvers such as the accelerations from transonic to supersonic speeds, climbs, turns, pull-up and pushovers is the concern. To analyze these effects, new and/or improved theoretical tools have been developed, in addition to the use of existing methodology. Several shaped signatures are considered in the application of these tools to the study of selected maneuvers and off-design conditions. The results of these applications are reported in this paper as well as the details of the new analytical tools. Finally, the magnitude of the focused boom problem for "low boom" supersonic aircraft designs has been more accurately quantified and potential "mitigations" suggested. In general, "shaped boom" signatures, designed for cruise flight, such as asymmetric and symmetric flat-top and initial-shock ramp waveforms retain their basic shape during transition flight. Complex and asymmetric and symmetric initial shock ramp waveforms provide lower magnitude focus boom levels than N-waves or asymmetric and symmetric flat-top signatures.

  16. SCAMP: Rapid Focused Sonic Boom Waypoint Flight Planning Methods, Execution, and Results (United States)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Cliatt, Larry J., II; Delaney, Michael M., Jr.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Maglieri, Domenic J.; Brown, Jacob C.


    Successful execution of the flight phase of the Superboom Caustic Analysis and Measurement Project (SCAMP) required accurate placement of focused sonic booms on an array of prepositioned ground sensors. While the array was spread over a 10,000-ft-long area, this is a relatively small region when considering the speed of a supersonic aircraft and sonic boom ray path variability due to shifting atmospheric conditions and aircraft trajectories. Another requirement of the project was to determine the proper position for a microphone-equipped motorized glider to intercept the sonic boom caustic, adding critical timing to the constraints. Variability in several inputs to these calculations caused some shifts of the focus away from the optimal location. Reports of the sonic booms heard by persons positioned amongst the array were used to shift the focus closer to the optimal location for subsequent passes. This paper describes the methods and computations used to place the focused sonic boom on the SCAMP array and gives recommendations for their accurate placement by future quiet supersonic aircraft. For the SCAMP flights, 67% of the foci were placed on the ground array with measured positions within a few thousand feet of computed positions. Among those foci with large caustic elevation angles, 96% of foci were placed on the array, and measured positions were within a few hundred feet of computed positions. The motorized glider captured sonic booms on 59% of the passes when the instrumentation was operating properly.

  17. High-Speed Research: 1994 Sonic Boom Workshop. Configuration, Design, Analysis and Testing (United States)

    McCurdy, David A. (Editor)


    The third High-Speed Research Sonic Boom Workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center on June 1-3, 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for Government, industry, and university participants to present and discuss progress in their research. The workshop was organized into sessions dealing with atmospheric propagation; acceptability studies; and configuration design, and testing. Attendance at the workshop was by invitation only. The workshop proceedings include papers on design, analysis, and testing of low-boom high-speed civil transport configurations and experimental techniques for measuring sonic booms. Significant progress is noted in these areas in the time since the previous workshop a year earlier. The papers include preliminary results of sonic boom wind tunnel tests conducted during 1993 and 1994 on several low-boom designs. Results of a mission performance analysis of all low-boom designs are also included. Two experimental methods for measuring near-field signatures of airplanes in flight are reported.

  18. Circuits of Memory: The War Memory Boom in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Stephens


    Full Text Available In some Australian academic circles in the 1980s it was believed that, as the numbers of soldiers of the world wars declined over time, so would attendances at war remembrance ceremonies on Anzac Day and interest in war commemoration in general. Contrary to expectation, however, there has been a steady rise in eagerness for war memory in Australia over the past three decades manifest in media interest and increasing attendance at Anzac Day services. Rather than dying out, ‘Anzac’ is being reinvented for new generations. Emerging from this phenomenon has been a concomitant rise in war memorial and commemorative landscape building across Australia fuelled by government funding (mostly federal and our relentless search for a national story. Many more memorial landscapes have been built in Western Australia over the past thirty years than at the end of either of the World Wars, a trend set to peak in 2014 with the Centenary of Anzac. This paper examines the origins and progress of this boom in memorial building in Western Australia and argues that these new memorial settings establish ‘circuits of memory’ which ultimately re-enchant and reinforce the Anzac renaissance.

  19. Boom, Bust and Beyond: Arts and Sustainability in Calumet, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle Winkler


    Full Text Available Cycles of boom and bust plague mining communities around the globe, and decades after the bust the skeletons of shrunken cities remain. This article evaluates strategies for how former mining communities cope and strive for sustainability in the decades well beyond the bust, using a case study of Calumet, Michigan. In 1910, Calumet was at the center of the mining industry in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, but in the century since its peak, mining employment steadily declined until the last mine closed in 1968, and the population declined by over 80%. This paper explores challenges, opportunities, and progress toward sustainability associated with arts-related development in this context. Methods are mixed, including observation, interviews, document review, a survey, and secondary data analysis. We follow Flora and Flora’s Community Capitals Framework to analyze progress toward sustainability. Despite key challenges associated with the shrunken city context (degraded tax base, overbuilt and aging infrastructure, diminished human capital, and a rather limited set of volunteers and political actors, we find the shrunken city also offers advantages for arts development, including low rents, less risk of gentrification, access to space, and political incentive. In Calumet, we see evidence of a spiraling up pattern toward social sustainability resulting from arts development; however impacts on environmental and economic sustainability are limited.

  20. A Flight Research Overview of WSPR, a Pilot Project for Sonic Boom Community Response (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Jones, Thomas P.; Waggoner, Erin R.; Flattery, Ashley K.; Wiley, Scott L.


    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to identify the methods, tools, and best practices for a large-scale quiet (or low) sonic boom community human response test. The name of the effort was Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR). Such tests will be applied to building a dataset that governing agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization will use to establish regulations for acceptable sound levels of overland sonic booms. The WSPR test was the first such effort that studied responses to non-traditional low sonic booms while the subject persons were in their own homes and performing daily activities.The WSPR test was a NASA collaborative effort with several industry partners, in response to a NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Aeronautics. The primary contractor was Wyle (El Segundo, California). Other partners included Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (Savannah, Georgia); Pennsylvania State University (University Park, Pennsylvania); Tetra Tech, Inc. (Pasadena, California); and Fidell Associates, Inc. (Woodland Hills, California).A major objective of the effort included exposing a community to the sonic boom magnitudes and occurrences that would be expected to occur in high-air traffic regions having a network of supersonic commercial aircraft in place. Low-level sonic booms designed to simulate those produced by the next generation of commercial supersonic aircraft were generated over a small residential community. The sonic boom footprint was recorded with an autonomous wireless microphone array that spanned the entire community. Human response data were collected using multiple

  1. Geochemistry of mylonitic tourmaline-bearing granite- gneiss pluton in the northeast of June mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Moradi


    Full Text Available Introduction Studied mylonitic granite-gneiss body is located in the Northwest of the Azna region in the Lorestan province close to the June dimension stone mine. It is a part of the metamorphic- magmatic complex including granite-gneiss, amphibolite, marble and schist. The crystalline basement is attributed to late-Neoproterozoic and it indicates a Panafrican basement, which yields a laser-ablation ICP–MS U–Pb zircon ages of 608 ± 18 Ma and 588 ± 41 Ma (Shakerardakani et al., 2015. There are two granite-gneiss plutons in the complex that are Galeh– Dezh (Shabanian et al., 2009, and June plutons. The Galeh-Doz pluton are previously proposed as syn-deformation pluton with a major S-shaped bend which has been imparted during dextral shearing with a Late Cretaceous (Mohajjel and Fergusson, 2000. However, new age dating on the pluton using U–Pb in the magmatic zircon produced the late-Neoproterozoic dates (Nutman et al., 2014; Shakerardakani et al., 2015. The granite-gneiss plutons show mylonitic fabrics and microstructures (Shabanian et al., 2010. The geochemical characteristics of mylonitic granite-gneiss body near June mine in NW Azna, is in the focus of our research. Materials and methods Petrographic investigations of 30 thin sections were made. Then eight samples were selected and analyzed for whole rock major, trace and REE compositions by ICP-emission spectrometry and ICP-mass spectrometry using natural rock standards as reference samples for calibration at the ACME Analytical Laboratories in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Results The studied gneiss- granitic body has lepido-granoblastic texture as its major texture. It variably shows evidence of dynamic deformation from ultramylonite to protomylonite. The gneiss- granite consists of quartz, alkali feldspar (mostly as perthite, plagioclase, biotite, white mica (muscovite and phengitic muscovite. Accessory phases in the granitoid include, tourmaline, zircon, magmatic epidote

  2. Magma traps and driving pressure: consequences for pluton shape and emplacement in an extensional regime (United States)

    Hogan, John P.; Price, Jonathan D.; Gilbert, M. Charles


    The level of emplacement and final form of felsic and mafic igneous rocks of the Wichita Mountains Igneous Province, southwestern Oklahoma, U.S.A. are discussed in light of magma driving pressure, lithostatic load, and crustal magma traps. Deposition of voluminous A-type rhyolites upon an eroded gabbroic substrate formed a subhorizontal strength anisotropy that acted as a crustal magma trap for subsequent rising felsic and mafic magma. Intruded along this crustal magma trap are the A-type sheet granites (length/thickness 100:1) of the Wichita Granite Group, of which the Mount Scott Granite sheet is typical, and smaller plutons of biotite bearing Roosevelt Gabbro. In marked contrast to the subhorizontal granite sheets, the gabbro plutons form more equant stocks with flat roofs and steep side walls. Late Diabase dikes cross-cut all other units, but accompanying basaltic flows are extremely rare in the volcanic pile. Based on magmastatic calculations, we draw the following conclusions concerning the level of emplacement and the shape of these intrusions. (1) Magma can rise to a depth at which the magma driving pressure becomes negligible. Magma that maintains a positive driving pressure at the surface has the potential to erupt. (2) Magma ascent may be arrested at a deeper level in the crust by a subhorizontal strength anisotropy (i.e. crustal magma trap) if the magma driving pressure is greater than or equal to the lithostatic load at the depth of the subhorizontal strength anisotropy. (3) Subhorizontal sheet-intrusions form along crustal magma traps when the magma driving pressure greatly exceeds the lithostatic load. Under such conditions, the magma driving pressure is sufficent to lift the overburden to create the necessary space for the intrusion. (4) Thicker steep-sided stocks or batholiths, with flat roofs, form at crustal magma traps when the magma driving pressure approximates that of the lithostatic load. Under these conditions, the necessary space for the

  3. The Precambrian/Lower Cambrian pluton from Vila Nova (Central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, A. I.M.


    Full Text Available The Vila Nova pluton is a small, Pre-Variscan granitic body that intruded rocks of the Central Iberian Zone near the contact with the Ossa Morena Zone and is affected by several shear zones and faults. Its contact metamorphic aureole is constituted by micaschist with porphyroblasts in the outer zone and hornfels in the inner zone. Small metasedimentar xenoliths are dispersed all over the body. The pluton has a great mineralogical heterogeneity with pronounced variations in muscovite/biotite and plagioclase/microcline contents and is classified as granite, granodiorite or tonalite. It is a leucogranite, highly peraluminous (A/CNK = 1.31 – 1.64, magnesian and calc-alkaline to alkaline-calcic. The variation diagrams show curvilinear trends with silica. Eu/Eu* = 0.47 – 0.77 and there is a slight enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. The normalized diagrams indicated dominantly crustal granite, related to subduction. U-Pb isotopic data of zircon and monazite gives 540-542 Ma age.

    El plutón de Vila Nova es un pequeño cuerpo granítico pre-varisco, que intruyó en las rocas de la Zona Centro Ibérica, cerca del contacto con la Zona de Ossa Morena, siendo afectado por varias fallas y zonas de cizalla. Su aureola de metamorfismo de contacto consiste en esquistos con porfiroblastos y corneanas. Pequeños xenolitos metasedimentarios aparecen dispersos por todo el cuerpo granítico. Presenta una gran diversidad mineralógica, con amplias variaciones en las relaciones biotita/moscovita y microclina/plagioclasa, siendo clasificado como tonalita-granodiorita-granito. Se trata de un leucogranito fuertemente peralumínico (A/CNK = 1.31 – 1.64, magnesiano y calco-alcalino a alcalino-cálcico. Los diagramas muestran variaciones curvilíneas con la variación de sílice. Eu/Eu* = 0.47 – 0.77 y hay un ligero enriquecimiento de LREE en relación con HREE. Los diagramas indican que la norma es un granito dominante de la corteza, relacionados con la

  4. Uplift and subduction erosion in southwestern Mexico since the Oligocene: pluton geobarometry constraints (United States)

    Morán-Zenteno, Dante J.; Corona-Chavez, Pedro; Tolson, Gustavo


    Details of the late Oligocene to Middle Miocene uplift and tectonic erosion episodes of the southwestern continental margin of Mexico can be inferred using Al tot geobarometry of igneous hornblendes, geochronology, and field relations. On the basis of such analyses carried out between Acapulco and Huatulco we find the following: (1) Calc-alkaline batholiths exposed along the coast from Acapulco to Huatulco, mostly in the 35-25 Ma age range, were emplaced at depths between 13 and 20 km. (2) The contact relationships between these plutons and their host rocks, and the exposure of volcanic counterparts, 70 km from the coastline, indicate a landward decrease in the amount of uplift. (3) A comparison of the time differences between intrusion and cooling ages of batholiths along the coast suggest that cooling rates were, in general, higher between Acapulco and Huatulco than those along the margin between Puerto Vallarta and Manzanillo, 700 km northwest of Acapulco. (4) The uplift of this coastal belt occurred during the late stages of magmatism and after its cessation, triggering intensive subaerial erosion of supracrustal rocks and the exposure of midcrustal rocks such as granitic batholiths and amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblages of the Xolapa Complex. These findings, in conjunction with the geometry of the present continental margin, as well as the offshore tectonic and stratigraphic features, support previous interpretations of very active late Oligocene to Middle Miocene subduction erosion after the onset of strike-slip tectonics related to the detachment and subsequent eastward displacement of the Chortis block. Subduction erosion involved both trench sediments and crystalline (continental framework) rocks. Different rates of continental framework erosion are assessed on the basis of the bathymetric fluctuations of the upper slope trench sediments and the age of the accretionary prism. Subsidence of the offshore continental basement suggests intense episodes

  5. Advanced Deployable Shell-Based Composite Booms for Small Satellite Structural Applications Including Solar Sails (United States)

    Fernandez, Juan M.


    State of the art deployable structures are mainly being designed for medium to large size satellites. The lack of reliable deployable structural systems for low cost, small volume, rideshare-class spacecraft severely constrains the potential for using small satellite platforms for affordable deep space science and exploration precursor missions that could be realized with solar sails. There is thus a need for reliable, lightweight, high packaging efficiency deployable booms that can serve as the supporting structure for a wide range of small satellite systems including solar sails for propulsion. The National Air and Space Administration (NASA) is currently investing in the development of a new class of advanced deployable shell-based composite booms to support future deep space small satellite missions using solar sails. The concepts are being designed to: meet the unique requirements of small satellites, maximize ground testability, permit the use of low-cost manufacturing processes that will benefit scalability, be scalable for use as elements of hierarchical structures (e.g. trusses), allow long duration storage, have high deployment reliability, and have controlled deployment behavior and predictable deployed dynamics. This paper will present the various rollable boom concepts that are being developed for 5-20 m class size deployable structures that include solar sails with the so-called High Strain Composites (HSC) materials. The deployable composite booms to be presented are being developed to expand the portfolio of available rollable booms for small satellites and maximize their length for a given packaged volume. Given that solar sails are a great example of volume and mass optimization, the booms were designed to comply with nominal solar sail system requirements for 6U CubeSats, which are a good compromise between those of smaller form factors (1U, 2U and 3U CubeSats) and larger ones (12 U and 27 U future CubeSats, and ESPA-class microsatellites). Solar

  6. Modelling mid-crustal migmatite terrains as feeder zones for granite plutons: the competing dynamics of melt transfer by bulk versus porous flow


    Olsen, Sakiko N.; Marsh, Bruce D.; Baumgartner, Lukas P.


    The common association of mid-crustal migmatites with an upper-level granite pluton could indicate that the migmatites are a feeder zone for the pluton. If magma from a deeper level pervasively intrudes a high temperature metamorphic complex, most of the intruded magma would not freeze because of the prevailing temperature. The interaction between the magma and country rocks, which could include partial melting and crystallisation of the magma passing through, would modify magma to a more gra...

  7. The Jeffers Brook diorite-granodiorite pluton: style of emplacement and role of volatiles at various crustal levels in Avalonian appinites, Canadian Appalachians (United States)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.


    Small appinite plutons ca. 610 Ma outcrop in the peri-Gondwanan Avalon terrane of northern Nova Scotia, with different structural levels exposed. Field mapping shows that the Jeffers Brook pluton is a laccolith emplaced along an upper crustal thrust zone, likely in a dilational jog in a regional dextral strike-slip system. The oldest rocks are probably mafic sills, which heated the area facilitating emplacement of intermediate magmas. Cross-cutting relationships show that both mafic and intermediate magmas were supplied throughout the history of pluton emplacement. The modal composition, mineral chemistry, and bulk chemistry of gabbro, diorite, tonalite, granodiorite, and granite have been studied in the main plutonic phases, dykes, and sills, and mafic microgranular enclaves. As with the type appinites in the Scottish Caledonides, the pluton shows evidence of high water content: the dominance of hornblende, locally within pegmatitic texture; vesicles and irregular felsic patches in enclaves; and late aplite dykes. Analyzed mafic microgranular enclaves are geochemically similar to larger diorite bodies in the pluton. Tonalite-granodiorite is distinct from the diorite in trace-element geochemistry and radiogenic isotopes. Elsewhere to the east, similar rocks of the same age form vertically sheeted complexes in major shear zones; hornblende chemistry shows that they were emplaced at a deeper upper crustal level. This implies that little of the observed geochemical variability in the Jeffers Brook pluton was developed within the pluton. The general requirements to form appinites are proposed to be small magma volumes of subduction-related magmas that reach the upper crust because of continual heating by mafic magmas moving through strike-slip fault pathways and trapping of aqueous fluids rather than venting through volcanic activity.

  8. Fake news of baby booms 9months after major sporting events distorts the public's understanding of early human development science. (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Masukume, Gwinyai


    In France on 27/6/16, Iceland's men's national football team won 2-1, knocking England out of the UEFA European Championship. Nine months after this momentous Icelandic victory, Ásgeir Pétur Þorvaldsson a medical doctor in Iceland, posted a tweet in jest suggesting that a baby boom had occurred as a result of increased celebratory coital activity following the win. The media covered this widely but statistical analysis shows otherwise and this was confirmed by the original tweet source. Given the increase in fake scientific news, it is especially important for scientists to correct misinformation lest the public loses trust in science or gains a distorted understanding of known facts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Using FUN3D for Aeroelastic, Sonic Boom, and AeroPropulsoServoElastic (APSE) Analyses of a Supersonic Configuration (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Connolly, Joseph; Kopasakis, George


    An overview of recent applications of the FUN3D CFD code to computational aeroelastic, sonic boom, and aeropropulsoservoelasticity (APSE) analyses of a low-boom supersonic configuration is presented. The overview includes details of the computational models developed including multiple unstructured CFD grids suitable for aeroelastic and sonic boom analyses. In addition, aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models (ROMs) are generated and used to rapidly compute the aeroelastic response and utter boundaries at multiple flight conditions.

  10. Structure, emplacement, and tectonic setting of Late Devonian granitoid plutons in the Teplá–Barrandian unit, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, J.; Kratinová, Zuzana; Trubač, J.; Janoušek, V.; Sláma, Jiří; Mrlina, Jan


    Roč. 100, č. 7 (2011), s. 1477-1495 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300120702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Teplá-Barrandian unit * Variscan orogeny * granite * pluton * subduction Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2011

  11. Petrochronology of Granitoids in the Langshan Reveals Carboniferous Plutonism along the Northeast Edge of the Alxa Block (NW China) (United States)

    Rea-Downing, G.; Lippert, P. C.; Stearns, M.


    The Alxa block is positioned between the western North China Craton (NCC) to the east and the Tarim Craton to the west. Several first-order characteristics of the Alxa region remain largely unresolved due to the limited outcrop exposure and remote nature of the region. For example, the crustal affinity and thermo-tectonic history of the Alxa block throughout Central Asian terrane accretion may have pre-conditioned the Cenozoic and Recent strain. Recent paleomagnetic and detrital zircon studies within the Alxa block indicate that its basement geology and apparent polar wander path are substantially different from the NCC. These data suggest that Alxa was not initially part of the NCC. Identification of a suture between Alxa and the NCC, timing of the incorporation of the Alxa block with the NCC, and the correlation of well-studied tectono-thermal events occurring in the NCC to the comparatively understudied Alxa block to the west are poorly constrained. Preliminary petrochronologic data from granitoid bodies within the Langshan range address these limitations by characterizing the bedrock age and affinity along the NE edge of the Alxa block. LA-Q-ICP-MS analysis of zircons including U-Pb dates, major and minor trace elemental data, and rare earth element compositions are combined with bulk rock geochemistry to place early-mid Carboniferous ( 350 Ma) Langshan plutons in a regional context. The relative rarity of plutons of this age in a region replete with Permo-Triassic plutonism indicates that the Langshan includes a record of relatively understudied magmatism along the periphery of the NCC. The approach utilized here allows for 1) direct age and compositional comparisons to other Carboniferous-Permian plutons in central Asia and 2) a robust provenance data point for future detrital zircon studies of the Paleozoic paleogeography in the heart of Central Asia.

  12. Design of Experiments for Both Experimental and Analytical Study of Exhaust Plume Effects on Sonic Boom (United States)

    Castner, Raymond S.


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to study the plume effects on sonic boom signature for isolated nozzle configurations. The objectives of these analyses were to provide comparison to past work using modern CFD analysis tools, to investigate the differences of high aspect ratio nozzles to circular (axisymmetric) nozzles, and to report the effects of under expanded nozzle operation on boom signature. CFD analysis was used to address the plume effects on sonic boom signature from a baseline exhaust nozzle. Nearfield pressure signatures were collected for nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) between 6 and 10. A computer code was used to extrapolate these signatures to a ground-observed sonic boom N-wave. Trends show that there is a reduction in sonic boom N-wave signature as NPR is increased from 6 to 10. As low boom designs are developed and improved, there will be a need for understanding the interaction between the aircraft boat tail shocks and the exhaust nozzle plume. These CFD analyses will provide a baseline study for future analysis efforts. For further study, a design of experiments has been conducted to develop a hybrid method where both CFD and small scale wind tunnel testing will validate the observed trends. The CFD and testing will be used to screen a number of factors which are important to low boom propulsion integration, including boat tail angle, nozzle geometry, and the effect of spacing and stagger on nozzle pairs. To design the wind tunnel experiment, CFD was instrumental in developing a model which would provide adequate space to observe the nozzle and boat tail shock structure without interference from the wind tunnel walls.

  13. The geochemical behaviour of selenium in the Boom Clay system - a XANES and EXAFS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2S, KULeuven, B-3001Leuven (Belgium))" data-affiliation=" (Center for surface Chemistry and Catalysis - M2S, KULeuven, B-3001Leuven (Belgium))" >Breynaert, Eric; 2S, KULeuven, B-3001Leuven (Belgium))" data-affiliation=" (Center for surface Chemistry and Catalysis - M2S, KULeuven, B-3001Leuven (Belgium))" >Dom, Dirk; 2S, KULeuven, B-3001Leuven (Belgium))" data-affiliation=" (Center for surface Chemistry and Catalysis - M2S, KULeuven, B-3001Leuven (Belgium))" >Vancluysen, Jacqueline; 2S, KULeuven, B-3001Leuven (Belgium))" data-affiliation=" (Center for surface Chemistry and Catalysis - M2S, KULeuven, B-3001Leuven (Belgium))" >Kirschhock, Christine E.A.; 2S, KULeuven, B-3001Leuven (Belgium))" data-affiliation=" (Center for surface Chemistry and Catalysis - M2S, KULeuven, B-3001Leuven (Belgium))" >Maes, Andre; Scheinost, Andreas C.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. In Belgium, the Boom Clay formation is studied as a reference host formation for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste for more than 30 years. This formation mainly consists of mixed clay minerals (illite, inter-stratified illite-smectite), pyrite and immobile and dissolved natural organic matter. Since it provides good sorption capacities, very low permeability, and chemically reducing conditions due to the presence of pyrite (FeS 2 ), the Boom clay formation itself is considered to be the main barrier preventing radionuclide migration from the geological repository. Within this concept for geological storage Se 79 has been identified as one of the critical elements contributing to the final dose to man. Although the sorption and migration behaviour of Se in the Boom Clay system has been thoroughly studied, the speciation of Se in the Boom Clay system has never been identified spectroscopically. In all previous studies, the interpretation of the behaviour of Se in Boom Clay conditions has always been based on circumstantial evidence such as solubility measurements or comparison with the spectroscopically identified speciation of Se in model systems. Based on the XANES analysis, selenite is transformed into Se 0 confirming the previously proposed reduction of selenite in the Boom Clay system. Combination of the mass-balance for Se with the results from linear combination analysis of the XANES spectra provided new evidence for the sorption-reduction mechanism proposed to explain the interaction between Se(IV) and the BC solid phase. In addition, evidence was found that that the fate of Se(IV) in the BC system is completely dominated by its interaction with pyrite present in the Boom Clay. The combined EXAFS analysis of Se in Se 0 reference phases (hexagonal, monoclinic, Se-loaded pyrite) allowed to elucidate further details on the short-range structure of the reaction products formed

  14. Contrasting magmatic structures between small plutons and batholiths emplaced at shallow crustal level (Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina) (United States)

    Pinotti, Lucio P.; D'Eramo, Fernando J.; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Demartis, Manuel; Tubía, José María; Coniglio, Jorge E.; Radice, Stefania; Maffini, M. Natalia; Aragón, Eugenio


    Processes like injection, magma flow and differentiation and influence of the regional strain field are here described and contrasted to shed light on their role in the formation of small plutons and large batholiths their magmatic structures. The final geometric and compositional arrangement of magma bodies are a complex record of their construction and internal flow history. Magma injection, flow and differentiation, as well as regional stresses, all control the internal nature of magma bodies. Large magma bodies emplaced at shallow crustal levels result from the intrusion of multiple magma batches that interact in a variety of ways, depending on internal and external dynamics, and where the early magmatic, growth-related structures are commonly overprinted by subsequent history. In contrast, small plutons emplaced in the brittle-ductile transition more likely preserve growth-related structures, having a relatively simple cooling history and limited internal magma flow. Outcrop-scale magmatic structures in both cases record a rich set of complementary information that can help elucidate their evolution. Large and small granitic bodies of the Sierra Pampeanas preserve excellent exposures of magmatic structures that formed as magmas stepped through different rheological states during pluton growth and solidification. These structures reveal not only the flow pattern inside magma chambers, but also the rheological evolution of magmas in response to temperature evolution.

  15. Transport of dissolved organic matter in Boom Clay: Size effects (United States)

    Durce, D.; Aertsens, M.; Jacques, D.; Maes, N.; Van Gompel, M.


    A coupled experimental-modelling approach was developed to evaluate the effects of molecular weight (MW) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on its transport through intact Boom Clay (BC) samples. Natural DOM was sampled in-situ in the BC layer. Transport was investigated with percolation experiments on 1.5 cm BC samples by measuring the outflow MW distribution (MWD) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). A one-dimensional reactive transport model was developed to account for retardation, diffusion and entrapment (attachment and/or straining) of DOM. These parameters were determined along the MWD by implementing a discretisation of DOM into several MW points and modelling the breakthrough of each point. The pore throat diameter of BC was determined as 6.6-7.6 nm. Below this critical size, transport of DOM is MW dependent and two major types of transport were identified. Below MW of 2 kDa, DOM was neither strongly trapped nor strongly retarded. This fraction had an averaged capacity factor of 1.19 ± 0.24 and an apparent dispersion coefficient ranging from 7.5 × 10- 11 to 1.7 × 10- 11 m2/s with increasing MW. DOM with MW > 2 kDa was affected by both retardation and straining that increased significantly with increasing MW while apparent dispersion coefficients decreased. Values ranging from 1.36 to 19.6 were determined for the capacity factor and 3.2 × 10- 11 to 1.0 × 10- 11 m2/s for the apparent dispersion coefficient for species with 2.2 kDa < MW < 9.3 kDa. Straining resulted in an immobilisation of in average 49 ± 6% of the injected 9.3 kDa species. Our findings show that an accurate description of DOM transport requires the consideration of the size effects.

  16. A transformation for predicting mechanical changes resulting from time-dependent microcracking in plutonic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, W.F.


    A transformation for a simple phenomenological model of microcracking is proposed. It relates the evolution of microcrack size in an elastic solid (plutonic rock) under different temporal macro- and microstresses. In this model, for a rock property that changes as a result of microcracking, both the calculated and the experimentally determined evolution of that property for a given stress history can be used to determine the evolution of that property (for the same range) for any other stress history. For example, the transformation can be used to extrapolate the short-term extent of microcracking due to thermally induced stresses to time scales too long for experimental determination. This is of interest in assessing the long-term behaviour of rock surrounding a high level nuclear waste vault, where thermally induced microcracking may take tens of thousands of years to develop. Experimental strategies are suggested for validation of the phenomenological model. Where results are obtained from the corresponding mathematical models, the transformation facilitates the efficient calculation of functions that depend only on the state of microcrack size once the functions have been calculated for any convenient stress history

  17. Laboratory hydro-mechanical characterisation of Boom Clay at Essen and Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Y. F.; Tang, A. M.; Cui, Y. J.; Nguyen, X. P.; Li, X. L.; Wouters, L.


    Boom Clay has been selected as a potential host rock formation for the geological disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. In the present work, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay samples from the borehole Essen-1 at a depth of 220-260 m and from HADES that is the underground rock laboratory at Mol in Belgium, at 223-m depth was investigated in the laboratory by performing low pressure odometer tests (vertical effective stress ranging from 0.05 to 3.2 MPa), high pressure odometer tests (vertical effective stress ranging from 0.125 to 32 MPa), isotropic consolidation tests (confining effective stress ranging from the in situ stress to 20 MPa) and triaxial shear tests. It has been observed that the mineralogy, geotechnical properties and hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay from Essen at 227-m, 240-m and 248-m depths are similar to that of Boom Clay from Mol. As in the case of Boom Clay at Mol, the failure envelope of Boom Clay at Essen in the p'- q plane is not linear. The slope of the portion beyond the pre-consolidation stress of Boom Clay from Essen is almost the same as that from Mol, suggesting a similar internal friction angle of about 13 deg. The compression curves (void index I v versus logarithm of vertical stress) beyond the pre-consolidation stress are the same for both samples from Mol and Essen, and situated between the intrinsic compression line (ICL) and the sedimentation compression line (SCL). The yield stress determined from odometer tests seems to be stress-path dependent and lower than the pre-consolidation stress. Thus determining the over-consolidation ratio (OCR) using the yield stress value would lead to an incorrect estimate. From a practical point view, the laboratory test results from Essen and their comparison with those from Mol provide important information regarding the transferability of knowledge on Boom Clay at different sites, taking into account the fact that most investigations have been carried out on Boom Clay at

  18. Thermal effects of the Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (southern Portugal on the meta-igneous and metasedimentary host rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, C.


    Full Text Available The Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (SEPC is a late-Variscan granitic body located in the northern part of the Ossa Morena Zone, a inner zone of the Variscan Iberian Massif. The SEPC host rocks are composed of meta-igneous and metasedimentary units, from Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic ages, with a NW-SE structure, cross-cut by the SEPC. The SEPC host rocks, with low grade metamorphism show well preserved primary sedimentary or igneous mineralogical, textural and structural features. The thermal effect induced by the SEPC is restricted to the roof pendants. At N and NE of the SEPC, textures and paragenesis resulting from thermal metamorphism, are not related to the SEPC intrusion but to a previous magmatism, controlled by the NW-SE regional anisotropies. The restriction of the thermal effects to the pluton roof may be caused by a combination of several interrelated factors: higher volume of granitic mass, thermal effect by advection of fluids and longer period of prevalence of high thermal conditions. The geochemical study of SEPC host rocks shows the heterogeneous character and diversity of metasedimentary, igneous and meta-igneous rocks. The whole rock geochemical data indicate that all the metasedimentary lithologies derived from an upper continental crustal source and the igneous and meta-igneous rocks show no evidence of metasomatic effects by the SEPC emplacement.El Complejo Plutónico de Santa Eulalia (CPSE es un cuerpo granítico tardi-Varisco situado en la parte norte de la Zona de Ossa Morena, en la zona interior del Macizo Ibérico Varisco. Las rocas encajantes del CPSE están compuestas por unidades meta-ígneas y metasedimentarias, de edades que van desde el Proterozoico Superior hasta el Paleozoico, con una estructura de dirección NW-SE, cortada por el CPSE. Las rocas encanjantes del CPSE, con metamorfismo de bajo grado conservan estructuras, mineralogía y textura primarias. El efecto térmicoinducido por el CPSE se limita a los

  19. Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence (SonicBAT) Ground Measurements in a Hot Desert Climate (United States)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.


    The Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence (SonicBAT) Project flew a series of 20 F-18 flights with 69 supersonic passes at Edwards Air Force Base in July 2016 to quantify the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic booms. Most of the passes were at a pressure altitude of 32,000 feet and a Mach number of 1.4, yielding a nominal sonic boom overpressure of 1.6 pounds per square foot. Atmospheric sensors such as GPS sondeballoons, Sonic Detection and Ranging (SODAR) acoustic sounders, and ultrasonic anemometers were used to characterize the turbulence state of the atmosphere for each flight. Spiked signatures in excess of 7 pounds per square foot were measured at some locations, as well as rounded sonic-boom signatures with levels much lower than the nominal. This presentation will quantify the range of overpressure and Perceived Level of the sonic boom as a function of turbulence parameters, and also present the spatial variation of these quantities over the array. Comparison with historical data will also be shown.

  20. Innovative Escapement-Based Mechanism for Micro-Antenna Boom Deployment (United States)

    Tokarz, Marta; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Jarzynka, Stanislaw; Gut, Henryk


    This paper presents the prototype of a tubular boom antenna developed for the Polish BRITE-PL satellite by the Space Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK PAN). What is unique about our work is that we developed an original type of the tubular boom antenna deployment mechanism that can be used widely as a basic solution for compact electrical antennas, booms deploying sensitive instruments, ultra-light planetary manipulators etc. The invented electromagnetic driving unit provides a dual complementary action - it adds extra energy to the driving spring, making the system more reliable, and at the same time it moderates the deployment speed acting as a kind of damper. That distinguishing feature predetermines the mechanism to be applied wherever the dynamic nature of a spring drive introducing dangerous vibrations and inducing severe local stress in the structure needs to be mitigated. Moreover, the paper reveals a product unique in Europe - a miniature beryllium bronze tubular boom free of geometry and strain defects, which is essential for stiffness and fatigue resistance. Both the deployment mechanism and the technology of tubular boom manufacturing are protected by patent rights.

  1. Method of Obtaining High Resolution Intrinsic Wire Boom Damping Parameters for Multi-Body Dynamics Simulations (United States)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Chai, Dean J.; Olney, David J.


    The goal of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is to understand magnetic reconnection with sensor measurements from four spinning satellites flown in a tight tetrahedron formation. Four of the six electric field sensors on each satellite are located at the end of 60- meter wire booms to increase measurement sensitivity in the spin plane and to minimize motion coupling from perturbations on the main body. A propulsion burn however, might induce boom oscillations that could impact science measurements if oscillations do not damp to values on the order of 0.1 degree in a timely fashion. Large damping time constants could also adversely affect flight dynamics and attitude control performance. In this paper, we will discuss the implementation of a high resolution method for calculating the boom's intrinsic damping, which was used in multi-body dynamics simulations. In summary, experimental data was obtained with a scaled-down boom, which was suspended as a pendulum in vacuum. Optical techniques were designed to accurately measure the natural decay of angular position and subsequently, data processing algorithms resulted in excellent spatial and temporal resolutions. This method was repeated in a parametric study for various lengths, root tensions and vacuum levels. For all data sets, regression models for damping were applied, including: nonlinear viscous, frequency-independent hysteretic, coulomb and some combination of them. Our data analysis and dynamics models have shown that the intrinsic damping for the baseline boom is insufficient, thereby forcing project management to explore mitigation strategies.

  2. The NET articulated boom: Preliminary investigations and justification for a full scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppan, A.


    The articulated boom system is the favourite in-vessel handling system for NET which will be used to maintain or replace in-vessel components during short term interventions. The testbed EDITH is the prototype of this system and is the logical step between the proof of principle of the system, which is already performed by the JET articulated boom, and the operational equipment for NET. EDITH is required to demonstrate that maintenance of plasma facing components can be carried out with the anticipated reliability and time. To achieve this aim EDITH is based on the experience of the JET boom and will be constructed in full scale, supplemented by a full scale mock-up. A further goal of EDITH is to allow the testing of boom components and subassemblies. The results of preliminary investigations for the boom are summarized, the need of the testbed EDITH and a full scale mock-up is discussed and both EDITH and the mock-up are described. (orig.) [de

  3. One last boom : Alberta's rapidly expanding oil mines may be the largest and messiest industrial projects in Canadian history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, G.


    The bitumen deposits of Alberta, 2.5 trillion barrels of oil, of which 300 billion are considered recoverable, represent the greatest single petroleum resources of the world, based on surface and subsurface calculations. Four deposits, covering an area the size of New Brunswick, are located in the area stretching from Cold Lake to Lloydminster (east of Edmonton), the upper reaches of the Athabasca River east to the Peace River. The largest by far is the Athabasca deposit in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, spread over 4.3 million hectares. The deposit is at the centre of the biggest industrial expansion witnessed by the province. Since 1996, 38 billion dollars worth of new projects have been announced. It is estimated that by 2025, the bulk of the national oil production will originate from open-pit mines and underground wells around Fort McMurray. This oil boom has economic benefits for the population, from welders to real estate agents to stakeholders. The environmental effects are not as beneficial. Huge strip mines are being carved next to the Athabasca River, with great amounts of greenhouse gases emissions. The Suncor and Syncrude oil-sands plants combined represent the fourth largest carbon dioxide emission source in Canada. The development of these projects dramatically affects global warming. The nitrogen and sulphur emissions could also acidify lakes and soil in the region. The Suncor mine resulted from the first boom to hit Fort McMurray in 1964. The Syncrude mine is the result of the second boom which took place in 1973. In 1996, Suncor installed a sulphur scrubber system that removes 95 per cent of sulphur dioxide from the electricity and steam-generation plant. Suncor also invested in various projects, such as wind-power, rainforest cultivation and biomass generation. The volume of pollution increases as the operations expand, even if operations are cleaner. If no new gains in pollution control are achieved, it is expected that by 2015, the total

  4. Dome-shaped Form for the Granite Pluton of the Lavras do Sul Intrusive Complex (South Brazil) Revealed by Magnetic Fabrics (United States)

    Raposo, M. B.; Gastal, M. P.


    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on "isotropic" granites from the main intrusion of the Lavras do Sul intrusive Complex pluton (LSIC, Rio Grande do Sul). This intrusion is a roughly N-S elongated ellipsoidal pluton (12x18km) composed of alkali-calcic and alkaline granitoids, with the alkaline granites at the margin of the pluton. Magnetic fabrics were determined by applying both anisotropy of low- field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The AARM fabrics are coaxial with AMS fabrics. The parallelism between the AMS and AARM tensors excludes the presence of a single domain (SD) effect on the AMS fabric of the granites. Several rock-magnetism experiments performed in one specimen from each sampled site show that for all sites magnetic susceptibility is dominantly carried by ferromagnetic minerals, and mainly coarse-grained magnetite carries the magnetic fabrics. Fabric patterns (lineation and foliation) in the granites were successful determined by applying the magnetic methods. Magnetic lineations (Kmax) are gently plunging and roughly parallel to pluton elongation whereas the magnetic foliations (normal to Kmin) tend to follow the contacts between the granites. They are outerwardly gently dipping inside the pluton and become either steeply southwesterly dipping or vertical towards its margin. The lack of solid-state deformation at outcrops and at thin sections scales precludes deformation after full crystallization of the granites from the LSIC pluton. This evidence allows us to interpret magnetic fabric in the analyzed granites as primarily the result of internal magma chamber dynamics reflecting magma flow. The foliation pattern displays a dome-shaped form for the granites. However, the alkaline granites (syenogranite and perthite granite), which outcrop in the south of the studied area have an inward-dipping foliation whereas for the other granites it dips outwards. It suggests

  5. Effectiveness of a Wedge Probe to Measure Sonic Boom Signatures in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel (United States)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.


    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the effectiveness of a wedge probe to measure sonic boom pressure signatures compared to a slender conical probe. A generic business jet model at a constant angle of attack and at a single model to probe separation distance was used to generate a sonic boom signature. Pressure signature data were acquired with both the wedge probe and a slender conical probe for comparison. The test was conducted at a Mach number of 2.0 and a free-stream unit Reynolds number of 2 million per foot. The results showed that the wedge probe was not effective in measuring the sonic boom pressure signature of the aircraft model in the supersonic wind tunnel. Data plots and a discussion of the results are presented. No tabulated data or flow visualization photographs are included.

  6. Application of Adjoint Methodology in Various Aspects of Sonic Boom Design (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.


    One of the advances in computational design has been the development of adjoint methods allowing efficient calculation of sensitivities in gradient-based shape optimization. This paper discusses two new applications of adjoint methodology that have been developed to aid in sonic boom mitigation exercises. In the first, equivalent area targets are generated using adjoint sensitivities of selected boom metrics. These targets may then be used to drive the vehicle shape during optimization. The second application is the computation of adjoint sensitivities of boom metrics on the ground with respect to parameters such as flight conditions, propagation sampling rate, and selected inputs to the propagation algorithms. These sensitivities enable the designer to make more informed selections of flight conditions at which the chosen cost functionals are less sensitive.

  7. Sheath-Based Rollable Lenticular-Shaped and Low-Stiction Composite Boom (United States)

    Fernandez, Juan M. (Inventor)


    Various embodiments provide rollable and deployable composite booms that may be used in a wide range of applications both for space and terrestrial structural solutions. Various embodiment composite booms may be bistable, i.e. having a stable strain energy minimum in the coiled configuration as well as the in the deployed configuration. In various embodiments, a boom may be fabricated by aligning two independent tape-springs front-to-front encircled by a durable seamless polymer sleeve. The durable seamless polymer sleeve may allow the two tape-springs to slide past each other during the coiling/deployment process so as to reduce, e.g., minimize, shear and its derived problems.

  8. The Iron Law of Financial Markets: Self-fulfilling Prophecies and Speculative Booms and Busts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Radonjić


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the factors which, in the absence of strong financial regulation, sustain the Iron Law of the Financial Markets asserting that speculative booms and busts occur more or less regularly from 17 century to the present. The first factor is that financial markets are self-fulfilling system. The second is that human nature does not change and is based on egoism, materialism, loss aversion, exaggerated hopes and fears, emulation, propensity to gamble, herd behavior and so on. Lastly, there is the extreme brevity of the financial memory. In order to enable economic authorities and/or individuals to detect timely that the unsustainable boom is under the way, we have identified the common features of historically recorded speculative episodes. Stages through which the system passes on its way from unsustainable rise to inevitable fall are: displacement, boom, overtrading, financial distress and discredit or revulsion.

  9. Simulation and controller design for an agricultural sprayer boom leveling system

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian


    According to the agricultural precision requirements, the distance from sprayer nozzles to the corps should be kept between 50 cm to 70 cm. The sprayer boom also needs to be kept parallel to the field during the operation process. Thus we can guarantee the quality of the chemical droplets distribution on the crops. In this paper we introduced a sprayer boom leveling system for agricultural sprayer vehicles with electro-hydraulic auto-leveling system. The suitable hydraulic actuating cylinder and valve were selected according to the specific systemic specifications. Furthermore, a compensation controller for the electro-hydraulic system was designed based on the mathematical model. With simulations we can optimize the performance of this controller to make sure a fast leveling response to the inclined sprayer boom. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Pilot Test of a Novel Method for Assessing Community Response to Low-Amplitude Sonic Booms (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Horonjeff, Richard D.; Harris, Michael


    A pilot test of a novel method for assessing residents annoyance to sonic booms was performed. During a two-week period, residents of the base housing area at Edwards Air Force Base provided data on their reactions to sonic booms using Smartphone-based interviews. Noise measurements were conducted at the same time. The report presents information about data collection methods and about test participants reactions to low-amplitude sonic booms. The latter information should not be viewed as definitive for several reasons. It may not be reliably generalized to the wider U.S. residential population (because it was not derived from a representative random sample) and the sample itself was not large.

  11. Late magmatic stage of the zoned Caleu pluton (Central Chile): insights from zircon crystallization conditions (United States)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M.; Gutierrez, F. J.; Chang-Qiang, M.; Jianwei, L.; Yuanyuan, L.


    The Caleu pluton consists of three N-S elongated lithological zones: Gabbro-Diorite Zone (GDZ), Tonalite Zone (TZ) and Granodiorite Zone (GZ); western, middle and eastern portions of the pluton, respectively. The zones are thought to be previously differentiated in a common, isotopically depleted (Sr-Nd), subjacent magma reservoir at a 4 kbar equivalent depth. The emplacement should have occurred at the climax of the Cretaceous rifting. We present preliminary results of U238/Pb206 zircon geochronology; zircon saturation, Tsat(Zrn), and crystallization temperatures (Ti-in-Zrn); as well as relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, based on: (i) the sluggish REE and HFSE subsolidus diffusivities in zircon; (ii) the behavior of Ti4+↔Si4+ and Ce4+↔Zr4+ isovalent replacement, in addition to a constrained TiO2 activity in almost all typical crustal rocks; and (iii) relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, respectively. The latter are obtained by interpolation of the partition coefficients of trivalent (REE) and tetravalent (HFSE) curves in Onuma diagrams for each zircon, and then estimating relative Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ratios. Results obtained from 4 samples (a total of 77 zircon grains) collected from the three mentioned lithological zones indicate U/Pb ages of approximately 99.5 ±1.5 Ma, 96.8 ±0.6 Ma, and 94.4 +2.2 -0.8 Ma; and Ti-in Zrn ranges of ca. 720-870°C, ca. 680-820°C and ca. 750-840°C, for the GDZ, TZ and GZ samples, respectively. On the other hand Tsat(Zrn) of ca. 750-780°C in the TZ, and ca. 830-890°C in the GZ, were obtained. As expected saturation temperatures are similar or higher than Ti-in-Zrn obtained in zircon grains of TZ and GZ, respectively. Cathodoluminiscence images in zircon suggest a magmatic origin, due to absence of complex zoning patterns and fairly well conserved morphologies. Exceptionally the GDZ sample zircons show evidence of inheritance, indicating a xenocrystic and/or antecrystic origin. A relative Ce

  12. Understanding the expansion of energy crops beyond the global biofuel boom : evidence from oil palm expansion in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Burgos, Victoria; Clancy, Joy S.


    Background: The global palm oil market experienced a remarkable boom since the year 2000. Since palm oil can be used for biodiesel production, the global expansion of oil palm cultivation has been associated with the global biofuel boom. Biofuel policies—especially those adopted in the European

  13. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlis, T L; Serpa, L; Miller, M


    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  14. Specialized CFD Grid Generation Methods for Near-Field Sonic Boom Prediction (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan E.; Nayani, Sudheer N.


    Ongoing interest in analysis and design of low sonic boom supersonic transports re- quires accurate and ecient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools. Specialized grid generation techniques are employed to predict near- eld acoustic signatures of these con- gurations. A fundamental examination of grid properties is performed including grid alignment with ow characteristics and element type. The issues a ecting the robustness of cylindrical surface extrusion are illustrated. This study will compare three methods in the extrusion family of grid generation methods that produce grids aligned with the freestream Mach angle. These methods are applied to con gurations from the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop.

  15. Étude du comportement anisotrope de l'argile de Boom


    Dao, Linh Quyen


    In the program of deep geological radioactive waste disposal in Belgium, Boom Clay has been chosen as one of the potential host rocks. Due to the geological stratification, this stiff clay has been regarded as a transverse isotropic material. The anisotropy of its hydraulic and thermal properties was shown in several studies. It seems necessary now to conduct a more in-depth study on the anisotropic behaviour of Boom Clay. In terms of experimental works, the anisotropy of the thermo-hydro-mec...

  16. Design of Rail Instrumentation for Wind Tunnel Sonic Boom Measurements and Computational-Experimental Comparisons (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Elmiligui, A.; Aftosmis, M.; Morgenstern, J.; Durston, D.; Thomas, S.


    An innovative pressure rail concept for wind tunnel sonic boom testing of modern aircraft configurations with very low overpressures was designed with an adjoint-based solution-adapted Cartesian grid method. The computational method requires accurate free-air calculations of a test article as well as solutions modeling the influence of rail and tunnel walls. Specialized grids for accurate Euler and Navier-Stokes sonic boom computations were used on several test articles including complete aircraft models with flow-through nacelles. The computed pressure signatures are compared with recent results from the NASA 9- x 7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the advanced rail design.

  17. Characterization of the wine boom in Mendoza (Argentina, 1904-1912 Caracterización del boom vitivinícola en Mendoza (Argentina, 1904-1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Barrio de Villanueva


    Full Text Available Mendocinean viticulture experimented between 1904 and 1912 a booming economical growth consistent with the national average growth. In this article we present the values of some variables that illustrate some representative indicators of that section of the economy. We attempt to reconstruct the production costs of grapes and wines and the possible revenues of the viticulture actorsEn consonancia con el ritmo de crecimiento de la economía nacional, la vitivinicultura mendocina vivió, entre 1904 y 1912, un verdadero boom económico-productivo. En este artículo se presenta información de dicho fenómeno a través de algunas variables representativas del sector. En segundo lugar, se intenta reconstruir los costos de producción de uva y vino, y la probable rentabilidad de los actores vitivinícolas

  18. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization? (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  19. Geology, petrology and U-Pb geochronology of Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton: implications about ediacaran magmatic evolution in NE portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain (NE of Borborema Province); Geologia, petrologia e geocronologia U-Pb do Pluton Granitico Serra da Rajada: implicacoes sobre a evolucao magmatica ediacarana na porcao do Dominio Rio Piranhas-Serido (NE da Provincia Borborema)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alan Pereira da; Dantas, Alexandre Ranier, E-mail:, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Natal, RN (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio de Natal/Superintendencia Regional de Recife; Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite do; Galindo, Antonio Carlos, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia


    The Ediacaran plutonic activity, related to the Brazilian/Pan-African orogeny, is one of the most important geological features in the Borborema Province, formed by batholiths, stocks and dikes. The Serra da Rajada Granitic Pluton (SRGP), located in the central portion of the Rio Piranhas-Serido Domain, is an example of these bodies. This site is the target of cartographic, petrographic, lithochemical and geochronological studies. Its rocks are described as monzogranites consisting of K-feldspar, plagioclase (oligoclase-An{sub 23-24%}), quartz and biotite (main mafic), having as accessory minerals opaque, titanite, allanite, apatite and zircon. Chlorite, white mica and carbonate are alteration minerals. Lithochemical data from 15 samples show quite evolved rocks (SiO{sub 2} , 69% to 75%), rich in alkalis (Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O ≥ 8.0%), depleted in MgO (≤ 0.45%), CaO (≤ 1.42%) and TiO{sub 2} (≤ 0.36%), and displaying moderate levels of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} t (2.16 to 3.53%). These rocks present a transitional nature between metaluminous and peraluminous (predominance of the latter) and have subalkaline/monzonitic affinity (high-K Calc-alkaline). Harker diagrams represent negative correlations in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}t, MgO and CaO, indicating fractionation of mafic and plagioclase. The REE spectrum show enrichment of light in relation to heavy REE (LaN/YbN = 23.70 to 10.13), with negative anomaly in Eu (Eu/ Eu* = 0.70 to 10.13) suggesting fractionation or accumulation in the feldspars source (plagioclase). Data integration allows correlating the SRGP rocks with those described as Equigranular high-K Calc-alkaline Suite. The U-Pb geochronology and Sm-Nd isotope dating indicate that the biotite monzogranite have a crystallization age of 557 ± 13 Ma and TDM model age of 2.36 Ga, respectively, and ε{sub Nd} value of - 20.10 for the crystallization age, allowing to infer a crustal source for the magma generated in the Paleoproterozoic age. (author)

  20. The use of borehole geophysical logs and hydrologic tests to characterize plutonic rock for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.


    The selection of an igneous rock body for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste will likely require the drilling and testing of a number of deep investigative boreholes in the rock body. Although coring of at least one hole at each Research Area will be essential, methods for making in situ geophysical and hydrological measurements can substitute for widespread coring and result in significant savings in time and money. A number of borehole methods have been applied to the investigation of plutonic rocks at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Canada

  1. Experimental Measurements of Sonic Boom Signatures Using a Continuous Data Acquisition Technique (United States)

    Wilcox, Floyd J.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.


    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to determine the effectiveness of a technique to measure aircraft sonic boom signatures using a single conical survey probe while continuously moving the model past the probe. Sonic boom signatures were obtained using both move-pause and continuous data acquisition methods for comparison. The test was conducted using a generic business jet model at a constant angle of attack and a single model-to-survey-probe separation distance. The sonic boom signatures were obtained at a Mach number of 2.0 and a unit Reynolds number of 2 million per foot. The test results showed that it is possible to obtain sonic boom signatures while continuously moving the model and that the time required to acquire the signature is at least 10 times faster than the move-pause method. Data plots are presented with a discussion of the results. No tabulated data or flow visualization photographs are included.

  2. The effects of simulated sonic booms on tracking performance and autonomic response. (United States)


    Subjects were exposed to four simulated 'indoor' sonic booms over an approximate thirty-minute period. The overpressure levels were 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 psf (as measured 'outdoors') with durations of 295 milliseconds. Subjects performed a two-dimensional...

  3. A comparison of the startle effects resulting from exposure to two levels of simulated sonic booms. (United States)


    Subjects were exposed indoors to simulated sonic booms having outside overpressures of 50 and 150 N/sq m. Rise times were held constant at 5.5 msecs. In addition to the outside measurements, inside measures of dBlin and dBA were also obtained. Subjec...

  4. Cart3D Analysis of Plume and Shock Interaction Effects on Sonic Boom (United States)

    Castner, Raymond


    A plume and shock interaction study was developed to collect data and perform CFD on a configuration where a nozzle plume passed through the shock generated from the wing or tail of a supersonic vehicle. The wing or tail was simulated with a wedge-shaped shock generator. Three configurations were analyzed consisting of two strut mounted wedges and one propulsion pod with an aft deck from a low boom vehicle concept. Research efforts at NASA were intended to enable future supersonic flight over land in the United States. Two of these efforts provided data for regulatory change and enabled design of low boom aircraft. Research has determined that sonic boom is a function of aircraft lift and volume distribution. Through careful tailoring of these variables, the sonic boom of concept vehicles has been reduced. One aspect of vehicle tailoring involved how the aircraft engine exhaust interacted with aft surfaces on a supersonic aircraft, such as the tail and wing trailing edges. In this work, results from Euler CFD simulations are compared to experimental data collected on sub-scale components in a wind tunnel. Three configurations are studied to simulate the nozzle plume interaction with representative wing and tail surfaces. Results demonstrate how the plume and tail shock structure moves with increasing nozzle pressure ratio. The CFD captures the main features of the plume and shock interaction. Differences are observed in the plume and deck shock structure that warrant further research and investigation.

  5. Simulator Study of Indoor Annoyance Caused by Shaped Sonic Boom Stimuli With and Without Rattle Augmentation (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Loubeau, Alexandra; Klos, Jacob


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's High Speed Project is developing a predictive capability for annoyance caused by shaped sonic booms transmitted indoors. The predictive capability is intended for use by aircraft designers as well as by aircraft noise regulators who are considering lifting the current prohibition on overland civil supersonic flight. The goal of the current study is to use an indoor simulator to validate two models developed using headphone tests for annoyance caused by sonic booms with and without rattle augmentation. The predictors in the proposed models include Moore and Glasberg's Stationary Loudness Level, the time derivative of Moore and Glasberg's time-varying short-term Loudness Level, and the difference between two weighted sound exposure levels, CSEL-ASEL. The indoor simulator provides a more realistic listening environment than headphones due to lowfrequency sound reproduction down to 6 Hz, which also causes perceptible tactile vibration. The results of this study show that a model consisting of {PL + (CSEL-ASEL)} is a reliable predictor of annoyance caused by shaped sonic booms alone, rattle sounds alone, and shaped sonic booms and rattle sounds together.

  6. Numerical simulation of shock wave focusing at fold caustics, with application to sonic boom. (United States)

    Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François; Grenon, Richard


    Weak shock wave focusing at fold caustics is described by the mixed type elliptic/hyperbolic nonlinear Tricomi equation. This paper presents a new and original numerical method for solving this equation, using a potential formulation and an "exact" numerical solver for handling nonlinearities. Validation tests demonstrate quantitatively the efficiency of the algorithm, which is able to handle complex waveforms as may come out from "optimized" aircraft designed to minimize sonic booms. It provides a real alternative to the approximate method of the hodograph transform. This motivated the application to evaluate the ground track focusing of sonic boom for an accelerating aircraft, by coupling CFD Euler simulations performed around the mock-up on an adaptated mesh grid, atmospheric propagation modeling, and the Tricomi algorithm. The chosen configuration is the European Eurosup mock-up. Convergence of the focused boom at the ground level as a function of the matching distance is investigated to demonstrate the efficiency of the numerical process. As a conclusion, it is indicated how the present work may pave the way towards a study on sonic superboom (focused boom) mitigation.

  7. Cart3D Simulations for the Second AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (United States)

    Anderson, George R.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian


    Simulation results are presented for all test cases prescribed in the Second AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop. For each of the four nearfield test cases, we compute pressure signatures at specified distances and off-track angles, using an inviscid, embedded-boundary Cartesian-mesh flow solver with output-based mesh adaptation. The cases range in complexity from an axisymmetric body to a full low-boom aircraft configuration with a powered nacelle. For efficiency, boom carpets are decomposed into sets of independent meshes and computed in parallel. This also facilitates the use of more effective meshing strategies - each off-track angle is computed on a mesh with good azimuthal alignment, higher aspect ratio cells, and more tailored adaptation. The nearfield signatures generally exhibit good convergence with mesh refinement. We introduce a local error estimation procedure to highlight regions of the signatures most sensitive to mesh refinement. Results are also presented for the two propagation test cases, which investigate the effects of atmospheric profiles on ground noise. Propagation is handled with an augmented Burgers' equation method (NASA's sBOOM), and ground noise metrics are computed with LCASB.

  8. Diffraction of sonic booms around buildings resulting in the building spiking effect. (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Ik T; Sparrow, Victor W


    The diffraction of a sonic boom around a building of finite dimensions yields amplification of the front shock and a positive spike that follows the tail shock in the pressure waveform recorded at the incident side of the building's exterior surface. This physical phenomenon is consistently found both in the data obtained from a 2006 NASA flight test and field experiment, and in the finite-difference time-domain simulation that models this particular experiment, and the authors call it the "building spiking" effect. This paper presents an analysis of the numerical and the accompanying experimental results used to investigate the cause of this effect. The simulation assumes linear acoustics only, which sufficiently describes the physics of interest. Separating the low and high frequency components of boom recordings using optimal finite impulse response filters with complementary magnitude responses shows that the building spiking effect can be attributed to the frequency dependent nature of diffraction. A comparison of the building spiking effect of a conventional N-wave and a low-amplitude sonic boom shows that a longer shock rise time leads to less pronounced amplification of the exterior pressure loading on buildings, and thus reveals an advantage of shaping a boom to elongate its rise time. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  9. Equity in an Educational Boom: Lessons from the Expansion and Marketisation of Tertiary Schooling in Poland (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Rok, Jakub


    This article shows how the probability of enrolment in tertiary schools has evolved for different social groups in Poland during the period of the educational boom. It also analyses how the socio-economic status influences the choices between full-time and part-time studies (the latter being of relatively low quality), and the probability of…

  10. Construction and Control of an active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase


    perforamnce of an active and passive boom suspension. A model has been made of an advanced active system, that combines a traditional trapezoid, with a spring pendulum system. The system can be described with a linear forth order model. The system has been the foundation for an active suspension...

  11. Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay (United States)

    Deng, Y. F.; Cui, Y. J.; Tang, A. M.; Nguyen, X. P.; Li, X. L.; Van Geet, M.

    The Essen site has been chosen as an alternative site for nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. The soil formation involved at this site is the same as at Mol site: Boom clay. However, owing to its geographical situation closer to the sea, Boom clay at Essen presents a pore water salinity 4-5 times higher than Boom clay at Mol. This study aims at studying the effects of pore water salinity on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay. Specific oedometer cells were used allowing “flushing” the pore water in soil specimen by synthetic pore water or distilled water. The synthetic pore water used was prepared with the chemistry as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried out on the soil specimen after flushing. The results show that water salinity effect on the liquid limit is negligible. The saturation or pore water replacement under the in situ effective stress of 2.4 MPa does not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly influenced by the water salinity; on the contrary, no obvious effect was identified on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96.

  12. Higher Education and the Minerals Boom: A View from the Regions (United States)

    Bell, Philip


    This paper examines the impact of the minerals boom to date on the demand for higher education in Central Queensland, and the sustainability of higher education providers in high economic growth environments. Several datasets were used to examine changes in the demand for higher education among specific student groups within the region, the…

  13. Summary of the 2008 NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Cliff, Susan; Nangert, Linda S.


    The Supersonics Project of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program organized an internal sonic boom workshop to evaluate near- and mid-field sonic boom prediction capability at the Fundamental Aeronautics Annual Meeting in Atlanta, Georgia on October 8, 2008. Workshop participants computed sonic boom signatures for three non-lifting bodies and two lifting configurations. A cone-cylinder, parabolic, and quartic bodies of revolution comprised the non-lifting cases. The lifting configurations were a simple 69-degree delta wing body and a complete low-boom transport configuration designed during the High Speed Research Project in the 1990s with wing, body, tail, nacelle, and boundary layer diverter components. The AIRPLANE, Cart3D, FUN3D, and USM3D ow solvers were employed with the ANET signature propagation tool, output-based adaptation, and a priori adaptation based on freestream Mach number and angle of attack. Results were presented orally at the workshop. This article documents the workshop, results, and provides context on previously available and recently developed methods.

  14. The Baby Boom Generation and the Labor Market in the Next Decade. (United States)

    Russell, Louise B.


    Despite alarming predictions, the worklife expectations of America's "baby boom" generation may not be much different from those of other age cohorts. Besides demography, factors like technological change, industrial structures, and methods of management have a great influence on job availability. Employment trends remain difficult to…

  15. Changing Fortunes: How China’s Boom Caused the Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mees (Heleen)


    textabstractThis dissertation includes five academic papers that – one way or the other – all relate to China. The first paper delivers proof for the central thesis of this thesis, which is that China’s boom caused the 2008 financial crisis and ensuing recession. As much as I hoped from the outset

  16. The Major Impacts of the Baby Boom Cohort upon American Life, Past, Present and Future. (United States)

    Whaley, Charles E.

    Impacts of the "Baby Boom" generation, the 75 million persons born between 1947 and 1962 in the United States, are analyzed. Factors influencing this unprecedented increase in birth rates included "catching up" by men who had been at war, a higher proportion of women in childbearing years, a decrease in the average marriage…

  17. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY (United States)


    ...[deg]51'47.61'' W (NAD 83). (b) Effective period. This regulation will be effective and the safety zone...-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer...

  18. Politics and Nigerian agriculture in the first decade of the "Oil boom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politics and Nigerian agriculture in the first decade of the "Oil boom", 1970-1980: a preliminary assessment. A Olorunfemi, OC Adesina. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History VoL. 1, 1998: 57-69. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. BABY BOOM (BBM) ChIP-seq in Arabidopsis somatic embryo tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, A.; Muino Acuna, J.M.; Boutilier, K.A.


    After fertilization, a plant's life relies on progression through embryogenesis and maintenance of the stem cell niches from which all post-embryonic organs arise. BABY BOOM (BBM) and other members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE (AIL)/PLETHORA (PLT) clade of the AP2-type transcription factor family play

  20. Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Y. F.; Cui, Y. J.; Tang, A. M.; Nguyen, X. P.; Li, X. L.; Van Geet, M.


    The Essen site has been chosen as an alternative site for nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. The soil formation involved at this site is the same as at Mol site: Boom clay. However, owing to its geographical situation closer to the sea, Boom clay at Essen presents a pore water salinity 4-5 times higher than Boom clay at Mol. This study aims at studying the effects of pore water salinity on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay. Specific odometer cells were used allowing 'flushing' the pore water in soil specimen by synthetic pore water or distilled water. The synthetic pore water used was prepared with the chemistry as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried out on the soil specimen after flushing. The results show that water salinity effect on the liquid limit is negligible. The saturation or pore water replacement under the in situ effective stress of 2.4 MPa does not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly influenced by the water salinity; on the contrary, no obvious effect was identified on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96. (authors)

  1. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... establish four temporary safety zones upon the navigable waters of San Diego ] Bay for the Port of San Diego... docket number using any one of the following methods: (1) Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www...

  2. Economic news through the magnifying glass : How the media cover economic boom and bust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, A.; de Vreese, C.; Albæk, E.


    One of the normative functions of economic news is surveillance, making monitorial citizens aware of significant economic developments. In this light, it is important to look at the way economic news covers periods of recession and economic boom. Previous studies have focused on how the media cover

  3. Effects of temperature and thermally-induced microstructure change on hydraulic conductivity of Boom Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Z. Chen


    Full Text Available Boom Clay is one of the potential host rocks for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste in Belgium. In order to investigate the mechanism of hydraulic conductivity variation under complex thermo-mechanical coupling conditions and to better understand the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM coupling behaviour of Boom Clay, a series of permeability tests using temperature-controlled triaxial cell has been carried out on the Boom Clay samples taken from Belgian underground research laboratory (URL HADES. Due to its sedimentary nature, Boom Clay presents across-anisotropy with respect to its sub-horizontal bedding plane. Direct measurements of the vertical (Kv and horizontal (Kh hydraulic conductivities show that the hydraulic conductivity at 80 °C is about 2.4 times larger than that at room temperature (23 °C, and the hydraulic conductivity variation with temperature is basically reversible during heating–cooling cycle. The anisotropic property of Boom Clay is studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM tests, which highlight the transversely isotropic characteristics of intact Boom Clay. It is shown that the sub-horizontal bedding feature accounts for the horizontal permeability higher than the vertical one. The measured increment in hydraulic conductivity with temperature is lower than the calculated one when merely considering the changes in water kinematic viscosity and density with temperature. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR tests have also been carried out to investigate the impact of microstructure variation on the THM properties of clay. The results show that heating under unconstrained boundary condition will produce larger size of pores and weaken the microstructure. The discrepancy between the hydraulic conductivity experimentally measured and predicted (considering water viscosity and density changes with temperature can be attributed to the microstructural weakening effect on the thermal volume change

  4. Raptor responses to low-level jet aircraft and sonic booms (United States)

    Ellis, David H.; Ellis, Catherine H.; Mindell, David P.


    We estimated effects of low-level military jet aircraft and mid- to high-altitude sonic booms (actual and simulated) on nesting peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and seven other raptors by observing their responses to test stimuli, determining nesting success for the test year, and evaluating site reoccupancy rates for the year following the tests. Frequent and nearby jet aircraft passes: (1) sometimes noticeably alarmed birds, (2) occasionally caused birds to fly from perches or eyries, (3) most often evoked only minimal responses, and (4) were never associated with reproductive failure. Similarly, responses to real and simulated mid- to high-altitude sonic booms were often minimal and never appeared productivity limiting. Eighteen (95%) of 19 nest sites subjected to low-level jet flights and/or simulated sonic booms in 1980 fledged young during that year. Eighteen (95%) of 19 sites disturbed in 1980 were reoccupied by pairs or lone birds of the same species in 1981.We subjected four pairs of prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus) to low-level aircraft at ad libitum levels during the courtship and incubation phases when adults were most likely to abandon: all four eyries fledged young. From heart rate (HR) data taken via a telemetering egg at another prairie falcon eyrie, we determined that stimulus-induced HR alterations were comparable to rate changes for birds settling to incubate following flight.While encouraging, our findings cannot be taken as conclusive evidence that jet flights and/or sonic booms will have no long-term negative effects for other raptor species or for other areas. In addition, we did not experiment with totally naive wild adults, rotary-winged aircraft, or low-level sonic booms.

  5. A wing design methodology for low-boom low-drag supersonic business jet (United States)

    Le, Daniel B.


    The arguably most critical hindrance to the successful development of a commercial supersonic aircraft is the impact of the sonic boom signature. The sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft is predicted using sonic boom theory, which formulates a relationship between the complex three-dimensional geometry of the aircraft to the pressure distribution and decomposes the geometry in terms of simple geometrical components. The supersonic aircraft design process is typically based on boom minimization theory. This theory provides a theoretical equivalent area distribution which should be matched by the conceptual design in order to achieve the pre-determined sonic boom signature. The difference between the target equivalent area distribution and the actual equivalent area distribution is referred to here as the gap distribution. The primary intent of this dissertation is to provide the designer with a systematic and structured approach to designing the aircraft wings with limited changes to the baseline concept while achieving critical design goals. The design process can be easily overwhelmed and may be difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. The wing design is decoupled into two separate processes, one focused on the planform design and the other on the camber design. Moreover, this design methodology supplements the designer by allowing trade studies to be conducted between important design parameters and objectives. The wing planform design methodology incorporates a continuous gradient-based optimization scheme to supplement the design process. This is not meant to substitute the vast amount of knowledge and design decisions that are needed for a successful design. Instead, the numerical optimization helps the designer to refine creative concepts. Last, this dissertation integrates a risk mitigation scheme throughout the wing design process. The design methodology implements minimal design changes to the wing geometry white achieving the target design goal

  6. Slot Nozzle Effects for Reduced Sonic Boom on a Generic Supersonic Wing Section (United States)

    Caster, Raymond S.


    NASA has conducted research programs to reduce or eliminate the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas. Restrictions are due to the disturbance from the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed off the aircraft. Results from two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses (performed on a baseline Mach 2.0 nozzle in a simulated Mach 2.2 flow) indicate that over-expanded and under-expanded operation of the nozzle has an effect on the N-wave boom signature. Analyses demonstrate the feasibility of reducing the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave by controlling the nozzle plume interaction with the nozzle boat tail shock structure. This work was extended to study the impact of integrating a high aspect ratio exhaust nozzle or long slot nozzle on the trailing edge of a supersonic wing. The nozzle is operated in a highly under-expanded condition, creating a large exhaust plume and a shock at the trailing edge of the wing. This shock interacts with and suppresses the expansion wave caused by the wing, a major contributor to the sonic boom signature. The goal was to reduce the near field pressures caused by the expansion using a slot nozzle located at the wing trailing edge. Results from CFD analysis on a simulated wing cross-section and a slot nozzle indicate potential reductions in sonic boom signature compared to a baseline wing with no propulsion or trailing edge exhaust. Future studies could investigate if this effect could be useful on a supersonic aircraft for main propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, or flow control.

  7. On the reliability of AMS in ilmenite-type granites: an insight from the Marimanha pluton, central Pyrenees (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Casas, A. M.; Ramón, M. J.; Leiss, B.; Mariani, E.; Román-Berdiel, T.


    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) at room temperature has been used for decades to obtain the petrofabric orientation in granites as a kinematic marker to establish models explaining the emplacement of plutons. To assess the significance of AMS in terms of mineral orientation, we have performed a multidisciplinary study at five sites of an ilmenite-type pluton (Marimanha, central Pyrenees) with significant facies changes. To test the reliability of AMS measurements at room temperature, the following methods were applied: low temperature AMS; image analyses and X-ray texture goniometry (XTG) of biotites; and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to obtain c-axes directions of quartz. The total (para-, ferro- and dia-)magnetic fabric analysed by AMS is compared with the paramagnetic fabric (low-T AMS), mica orientation (with image analyses and XTG) and the diamagnetic fabric (EBSD). Results indicate that weakly oriented paramagnetic minerals can give well-defined magnetic fabrics (AMS at room and low temperatures). Furthermore, the AMS ellipsoid is the result of composite biotite fabrics resulting from both orientation and spatial distribution of crystals, as demonstrated by 2-D mathematical models presented in this study. AMS is the most effective technique for quickly measuring composite fabrics. In addition, the advantage of using AMS analyses is twofold: (1) it is a fast way of analysing standard samples that can give clues for subsequent image/mineral orientation analysis and (2) it is a volume-related method that gives a picture of the rock fabric as a whole.

  8. Rare earths, thorium, and other minor elements in sphene from some plutonic rocks in West-Central Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staatz, M.H.; Conklin, N.M.; Brownfield, I.K.


    Sphene is an abundant accessory mineral in some abnormally radioactive plutonic rocks in west-central Alaska. Seven samples of sphene from four different areas in west-central Alaska contained from 20,350 to 39,180 parts per million total rare earths and 390 to 2000 ppM thorium. The lanthanide content in six of the seven sphenes is chiefly the light rare earths and is similar to that of crystal abundance; a seventh sphene from the Darby Mountains, however, contains above average amounts of the heavy rare earths. A comparison of the lanthanide distribution in sphene from several areas indicates that the structure of sphene will accommodate whatever lanthanides are available when the mineral crystallizes. The amount of thorium and rare earths in sphene is also affected by the presence of other accessory minerals. Sphene in rocks containing either allanite or zircon has a lower thorium content than in rocks that do not contain allanite or zircon. Sphene, because of its abundance, may contain the greater part of the rare earths and thorium in some of the plutonic rocks of west-central Alaska

  9. Volcanic-plutonic connections and metal fertility of highly evolved magma systems: A case study from the Herberton Sn-W-Mo Mineral Field, Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Chang, Zhaoshan; Clarke, Gavin


    Understanding the connection between the highly evolved intrusive and extrusive systems is essential to explore the evolution of high silicic magma systems, which plays an important role in discussions of planetary differentiation, the growth of continents, crustal evolution, and the formation of highly evolved magma associated Sn-W-Mo mineral systems. To discern differences between "fertile" and "non-fertile" igneous rocks associated with Sn-W-Mo mineralization and reveal the genetic links between coeval intrusive and extrusive rocks, we integrate whole rock geochemistry, geochronology and Hf isotope signatures of igneous zircons from contemporaneous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the world-class Herberton Mineral Field of Queensland, Australia. The 310-300 Ma intrusive rocks and associated intra-plutonic W-Mo mineralization formed from relatively oxidized magmas after moderate degrees of crystal fractionation. The geochemical and isotopic features of the coeval volcanic succession are best reconciled utilizing the widely-accepted volcanic-plutonic connection model, whereby the volcanic rocks represent fractionated derivatives of the intrusive rocks. Older intrusions emplaced at 335-315 Ma formed from relatively low fO2 magmas that fractionated extensively to produce highly evolved granites that host Sn mineralization. Coeval volcanic rocks of this suite are compositionally less evolved than the intrusive rocks, thereby requiring a different model to link these plutonic-volcanic sequences. In this case, we propose that the most fractionated magmas were not lost to volcanism, but instead were effectively retained at the plutonic level, which allowed further localized build-up of volatiles and lithophile metals in the plutonic environment. This disconnection to the volcanism and degassing may be a crucial step for forming granite-hosted Sn mineralization. The transition between these two igneous regimes in Herberton region over a ∼30 m.y. period is attributed to

  10. Isotopic studies of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton and the long-term integrity of whole-rock and mineral systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Kamineni, D.C.


    This report presents results of isotopic studies of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton, located near Atikokan, Ontario. Suites of pristine unaltered and highly altered core samples from deep boreholes were used to study Rb-Sr, U-Th-Pb and Sr-Nd systematics, whole-rock Pb isotopes and fission track dating of apatite. The results have been used to investigate natural analogues for radionuclide migration in the geosphere, the tectonic stability of the pluton and the extent of water-rock interaction in fracture zones

  11. Microstructures and magnetic fabrics of the Ngaoundéré granite pluton (Cameroon): Implications to the late-Pan-African evolution of Central Cameroon Shear Zone (United States)

    Dawaï, Daouda; Tchameni, Rigobert; Bascou, Jérome; Awe Wangmene, Salomon; Fosso Tchunte, Périclex Martial; Bouchez, Jean-Luc


    The Ngaoundéré granite pluton, in Central-North Cameroon, located near the Central Cameroon Shear zone (CCSZ), and previously studied for its petrography and geochemistry, is characterized by the absence of macroscopic markers of deformation. In this study, we report microstructures and magnetic fabrics (AMS) of this pluton and discuss the relationship with the Pan-African evolution of the CCSZ. The pluton consists of a porphyritic Hbl-Bt-monzogranite at its rim and a porphyritic biotite-granite at its core, a petrographic distribution denoting a normal zoning pattern, i.e. more silicic toward the centre. As expected, magnetic susceptibilities values also exhibit a zoning pattern in agreement with petrographic zonation. Thermomagnetic data indicate that this pluton is dominantly ferromagnetic in behaviour. As indicated by its microstructures, the pluton has suffered a continuum of deformation from the magmatic state to the high temperature solid-state during magma crystallization and solidification. The magnetic foliations dominantly strike NE-SW and dip moderately to steeply and the lineations mostly plunge shallowly to the NE or SW, roughly parallel to NE-to ENE-trending Central Cameroun Shear Zone (CCSZ). The foliation poles define a girdle pattern with a zone axis (52°/11°) rather close to the best line of the lineations (44°/21°). These fabrics correlate with the structures of the country rocks ascribed by several workers to a regional transpression. Toward the margins of the pluton, particularly the northern one, the lineations tend to rotate from NE to N in azimuth. This change is interpreted as due to strain partitioning, simple shearing with NE-SW extension being relayed by compression toward the northern pluton border. This new magnetic fabric study suggests that the Ngaoundéré pluton (poorly dated at c. 575 Ma) was emplaced during the late stages of the CCSZ dextral transpressive movement. It also provides some more constraints on the correlation

  12. Physical model of a floating trash boom to control aquatic weeds at the TVA Widows Creek Fossil Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopping, P.N.


    This paper reports that the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Widows Creek Fossil plant seasonally encounters adverse accumulations of aquatic weeds at the intakes of the condenser cooling water pumps. To reduce the accumulations, a floating trash boom has been proposed for the intakes. To evaluate the hydraulic feasibility of a boom, a physical model of the intakes has been built at the TVA Engineering Laboratory. The model was used to determine the boom alignment and depth of skimming needed to successfully deflect weeds away from the intakes and provide self-cleaning

  13. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.


    The composite Sunrise Butte pluton, in the central part of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon, preserves a record of subduction-related magmatism, arc-arc collision, crustal thickening, and deep-crustal anatexis. The earliest phase of the pluton (Desolation Creek unit) was generated in a subduction zone environment, as the oceanic lithosphere between the Wallowa and Olds Ferry island arcs was consumed. Zircons from this unit yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 160.2 ± 2.1 Ma. A magmatic lull ensued during arc-arc collision, after which partial melting at the base of the thickened Wallowa arc crust produced siliceous magma that was emplaced into metasedimentary rocks and serpentinite of the overthrust forearc complex. This magma crystallized to form the bulk of the Sunrise Butte composite pluton (the Sunrise Butte unit; 145.8 ± 2.2 Ma). The heat necessary for crustal anatexis was supplied by coeval mantle-derived magma (the Onion Gulch unit; 147.9 ± 1.8 Ma).The lull in magmatic activity between 160 and 148 Ma encompasses the timing of arc-arc collision (159–154 Ma), and it is similar to those lulls observed in adjacent areas of the Blue Mountains Province related to the same shortening event. Previous researchers have proposed a tectonic link between the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath Mountains and northern Sierra Nevada Provinces farther to the south; however, timing of Late Jurassic deformation in the Blue Mountains Province predates the timing of the so-called Nevadan orogeny in the Klamath Mountains. In both the Blue Mountains Province and Klamath Mountains, the onset of deep-crustal partial melting initiated at ca. 148 Ma, suggesting a possible geodynamic link. One possibility is that the Late Jurassic shortening event recorded in the Blue Mountains Province may be a northerly extension of the Nevadan orogeny. Differences in the timing of these events in the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath–Sierra Nevada Provinces suggest that

  14. Origin of the mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and their host granitoids from the Tagong pluton in Songpan-Ganze terrane: An igneous response to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun; Yang, Fengli; Long, Xiaoping; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yu, Yang


    The Songpan-Ganze terrane is mainly composed of a Triassic sedimentary sequence and late Triassic-Jurassic igneous rocks. A large number of plutons were emplaced as a result of tectono-magmatic activity related to the late stages of Paleo-Tethys ocean closure and ensuing collision. Granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves can provide important constraints on the crust-mantle interaction and continental crustal growth. Mesozoic magmatism of Songpan-Ganze remains enigmatic with regard to their magma generation and geodynamic evolution. The Tagong pluton (209 Ma), in the eastern part of the Songpan-Ganze terrane, consists mainly of monzogranite and granodiorite with abundant coeval mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) (ca. 208-209 Ma). The pluton comprises I-type granitoid that possesses intermediate to acidic compositions (SiO2 = 61.6-65.8 wt.%), high potassium (K2O = 3.2-4.1 wt.%), and high Mg# (51-54). They are also characterized by arc-type enrichment of LREEs and LILEs, depletion of HFSEs (e.g. Nb, Ta, Ti) and moderate Eu depletions (Eu/Eu* = 0.46-0.63). Their evolved zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions indicate that their precursor magmas were likely generated by melting of old lower continental crust. Comparatively, the MMEs have lower SiO2 (53.4-58.2 wt.%), higher Mg# (54-67) and show covariation of major and trace elements, coupled with field and petrographic observations, such as the disequilibrium textures of plagioclase and amphibole, indicating that the MMEs and host granitoids were originated from different magma sources but underwent mafic-felsic magma mixing process. Geochemical and isotopic data further suggest that the precursor magma of the MMEs was formed in the continental arc setting, mainly derived from an ancient metasomatized lithospheric mantle wedge. The Triassic granitoids from the Songpan-Ganze terrane show remarkable temporal-spatial-petrogenetic affinities to the counterparts of subduction zones in the Yidun and Kunlun arc

  15. Formation of Pt-bearing Western Pana pluton on the Kola Peninsula: Fluid regime as deduced from helium and argon isotopic compositions (United States)

    Nivin, V. A.; Rundqvist, T. V.


    The distribution of He and Ar isotopes has been studied in 41 rock samples and seven monomineralic fractions from ore-bearing layered units and poorly differentiated host gabbronorite of the Western Pana mafic-ultramafic pluton on the Kola Peninsula. The gases assigned for mass-spectrometric analysis were released by means of whole-rock sample melting and by comminution mainly from fluid microinclusions. The data show that the present-day isotopic composition of noble gases in rocks from the pluton is caused by many factors: the degree of melt degassing, various concentrations and retention of the trapped isotopes, the contents of radioactive elements, and the generation and loss of radiogenic gases. The hypabyssal conditions of pluton formation facilitate the loss of primary mantle-derived volatile components and the dilution of magmatic fluid with near-surface paleometeoric waters containing air dissolved therein. The correlation of noble gas isotopes and ore-forming chemical elements does not suggest derivation of the latter from crustal material and evidences their mantle origin. Variations in the geochemical indices of the gas corroborate previously established or proposed multistage formation of the pluton, mainly, the autometamorphic character of postmagmatic processes and the participation of fluids in ore formation.

  16. U-Pb zircon ages and structural development of metagranitoids of the Teplá crystalline complex: evidence for pervasive Cambrian plutonism within the Bohemian massif (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dörr, W.; Fiala, Jiří; Vejnar, Zdeněk; Zulauf, G.


    Roč. 87, č. 1 (1998), s. 135-149 ISSN 0016-7835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1012601 Grant - others:DFG(DE) Zu73/1-3 Keywords : Cambrian plutonism * U-Pb analyses * Bohemian massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.841, year: 1998

  17. Time-scales of assembly and thermal history of a composite felsic pluton: constraints from the Emerald Lake area, northern Canadian Cordillera, Yukon (United States)

    Coulson, Ian M.; Villeneuve, Mike E.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Duncan, Robert A.; Russell, James K.; Mortensen, James K.


    Knowledge of the time-scales of emplacement and thermal history during assembly of composite felsic plutons in the shallow crust are critical to deciphering the processes of crustal growth and magma chamber development. Detailed petrological and chemical study of the mid-Cretaceous, composite Emerald Lake pluton, from the northern Canadian Cordillera, Yukon Territory, coupled with U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology, indicates that this pluton was intruded as a series of magmatic pulses. Intrusion of these pulses produced a strong petrological zonation from augite syenite, hornblende quartz syenite and monzonite, to biotite granite. Our data further indicate that multiple phases were emplaced and cooled to below the mineral closure temperatures over a time-scale on the order of the resolution of the 40Ar/ 39Ar technique (˜1 Myr), and that emplacement occurred at 94.3 Ma. Simple thermal modelling and heat conduction calculations were used to further constrain the temporal relationships within the intrusion. These calculations are consistent with the geochronology and show that emplacement and cooling were complete in less than 100 kyr and probably 70±5 kyr. These results demonstrate that production, transport and emplacement of the different phases of the Emerald Lake pluton occurred essentially simultaneously, and that these processes must also have been closely related in time and space. By analogy, these results provide insights into the assembly and petrogenesis of other complex intrusions and ultimately lead to an understanding of the processes involved in crustal development.

  18. Geochronology of Neoproterozoic Plutons and Sandstones in the Western Jiangnan Orogen: a Reappraisal of Amalgamation between Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks in South China (United States)

    Ma, X.; Yang, K.


    Widespread exposure of Meso-Neoproterozoic strata and abundant Neoproterozoic plutons occur along the Jiangnan orogenic belt, a tectonic suture between the composite Cathaysia and Yangtze Blocks in South China, with remarkable angular unconformities between the Xiajiang Group and the underlying Sibao. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of the basement sedimentary sequences (e.g. Xiajiang Group and Sibao Group) and the relevant granitic pluton (Motianling pluton) provides new information about the pre-Cambrian evolution of the southeastern Yangtze block margin along the western Jiangnan orogen. The depositional age of Sibao Group located in the Southeast Guizhou Province can be constrained at 825-835 Ma by the youngest detrital zircon ages and crystallization age of the intrusive Motianling granitic pluton. The maximum depositional age of the Xiajiang Group is estimated to be ca. 795 Ma. Four main age populations are evident in Sibao Group: 0.83-1.0 Ga, 1.3-1.5 Ga, 1.6-1.8 Ga and 2.2-2.6 Ga. The distinguished age populations in the Xiajiang Group are identical to those in the Sibao Group but lack in ranges of 1.3-1.5 Ga. Local abundant (China Block in the breakup the Rodinia, it is more reasonable to place Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks on the western margin rather than the center of Rodinia supercontinent during the late-Neoproterozoic time.

  19. Opportunities offered by the raw material boom to German mining machinery manufacturers; Chancen des Rohstoffbooms fuer die deutschen Bergbaumaschinenhersteller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckmann, K. [Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau e.V. (VDMA), Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Fachverband Bergbaumaschinen


    Since the beginning of the raw material boom four years ago the positive trend in the mining machinery branch in Germany has accelerated. The globalisation of the branch was assisted by the good national and international network between manufacturers of mining equipment, associations, consultants, financial institutions and politicians. The branch is currently well established internationally with an export share of 86%. This puts it into a position to continue to utilise the opportunities offered by the raw material boom. (orig.)

  20. A unified approach to an augmented Burgers equation for the propagation of sonic booms. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Aoyama, Takashi; Sakai, Takeharu


    Nonlinear propagation through a relaxing atmosphere of pressure disturbances extracted from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow around a supersonic aircraft is simulated using an augmented Burgers equation. The effects of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, atmospheric inhomogeneity, thermoviscous attenuation, and molecular vibration relaxation are taken into account. The augmented Burgers equation used for sonic boom propagation calculations is often solved by the operator splitting method, but numerical difficulties arise with this approach when dissipation is not effective. By re-examining the solution algorithms for the augmented Burgers equation, a stable method for handling the relaxation effect has been developed. This approach can handle the Burgers equation in a unified manner without operator splitting and, therefore, the resulting scheme is twice as fast as the original one. The approach is validated by comparing it with an analytical solution and a detailed CFD of dispersed plane wave propagation. In addition, a rise time prediction of low-boom supersonic aircraft is demonstrated.

  1. Validation of sonic boom propagation codes using SR-71 flight test data. (United States)

    Ivanteyeva, Lyudmila G; Kovalenko, Victor V; Pavlyukov, Evgeny V; Teperin, Leonid L; Rackl, Robert G


    The results of two sonic boom propagation codes, ZEPHYRUS (NASA) and BOOM (TsAGI), are compared with SR-71 flight test data from 1995. Options available in the computational codes are described briefly. Special processing methods are described which were applied to the experimental data. A method to transform experimental data at close ranges to the supersonic aircraft into initial data required by the codes was developed; it is applicable at any flight regime. Data are compared in near-, mid-, and far fields. The far-field observation aircraft recorded both direct and reflected waves. Comparison of computed and measured results shows good agreement with peak pressure, duration, and wave shape for direct waves, thus validating the computational codes.

  2. Study of a 30-M Boom For Solar Sail-Craft: Model Extendibility and Control Strategy (United States)

    Keel, Leehyun


    Space travel propelled by solar sails is motivated by the fact that the momentum exchange that occurs when photons are reflected and/or absorbed by a large solar sail generates a small but constant acceleration. This acceleration can induce a constant thrust in very large sails that is sufficient to maintain a polar observing satellite in a constant position relative to the Sun or Earth. For long distance propulsion, square sails (with side length greater than 150 meters) can reach Jupiter in two years and Pluto in less than ten years. Converting such design concepts to real-world systems will require accurate analytical models and model parameters. This requires extensive structural dynamics tests. However, the low mass and high flexibility of large and light weight structures such as solar sails makes them unsuitable for ground testing. As a result, validating analytical models is an extremely difficult problem. On the other hand, a fundamental question can be asked. That is whether an analytical model that represents a small-scale version of a solar-sail boom can be extended to much larger versions of the same boom. To answer this question, we considered a long deployable boom that will be used to support the solar sails of the sail-craft. The length of fully deployed booms of the actual solar sail-craft will exceed 100 meters. However, the test-bed we used in our study is a 30 meter retractable boom at MSFC. We first develop analytical models based on Lagrange s equations and the standard Euler-Bernoulli beam. Then the response of the models will be compared with test data of the 30 meter boom at various deployed lengths. For this stage of study, our analysis was limited to experimental data obtained at 12ft and 18ft deployment lengths. The comparison results are positive but speculative. To observe properly validate the analytic model, experiments at longer deployment lengths, up to the full 30 meter, have been requested. We expect the study to answer the

  3. Prime Borrowers and Financial Innovation in the Housing Boom and Bust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Claes; Lutz, Chandler

    We use the introduction of interest-only (IO) mortgages in Denmark as a natural experiment to assess the impact of alternative mortgage products on house prices during the 2000s. We construct a model to show that lower amortization payments lead to an increase in credit demand by allowing...... for better consumption smoothing, even absent any shift in credit supply. In support of the model, we find that the introduction of interest-only mortgages was followed by a large increase in the number of buyers, even as credit quality remained constant. On the aggregate level the results indicate...... that interest-only mortgages amplified the boom-bust pattern in housing: house prices increased an additional 35 percent during the boom due to IO loans, and subsequently reverse during the bust. These effects, which cannot be explained by changes in lending standards or shifts in credit supply, are magnified...

  4. Effects of Aircraft Noise and Sonic Booms on Domestic Animals and Wildlife: A Literature Synthesis (United States)


    stressful conditions with changes in the hemogram. An inverted neutrophil- lymphocyte ratio appeared to be diagnostic of stress. Of the stressors used...concentrations (Stephens 1980). Techniques for determin- ing plasma corticosteroids in the dog make it possible to evaluate adrenal function. The canine adrenal... eruption , explosion, or earthquake at sea generating a tidal wave. When the sonic booms were audible, the songbirds uttered "raucous discordant cries

  5. The design and testing of a memory metal actuated boom release mechanism (United States)

    Powley, D. G.; Brook, G. B.


    A boom latch and release mechanism was designed, manufactured and tested, based on a specification for the ISEE-B satellite mechanism. From experimental results obtained, it is possible to calculate the energy available and the operating torques which can be achieved from a torsional shape memory element in terms of the reversible strain induced by prior working. Some guidelines to be followed when designing mechanisms actuated by shape memory elements are included.

  6. Mediating the microcomputer: The educational character of the 1980s British popular computing boom. (United States)

    Lean, Thomas


    In the early 1980s the computer entered the British home in significant numbers for the first time as many thousands of people purchased their first personal 'microcomputer'. In this paper I explore the educational character of the home computer boom, a response to unease over the impact of new information technologies. Media, government, social movements and computer manufacturers constituted a systematic effort to enhance the public understanding of a new technology that was anticipated to change the world.

  7. Treatment of psychiatric problems a growth industry in midst of Chile's booming economy. (United States)

    Sagaris, L


    Five years after an elected government took over from a military regime, Chile has enjoyed booming economic growth and some measure of political stability but the scars of the legacy left by the regime of Augusto Pinochet run deep. Alcohol and drug abuse, family violence, depression and other mental-health problems are reported by a large proportion of the population. Fear is one of the permanent consequences of the military regime, says one sociologist.

  8. Between the colonial heritage and the first globalization boom: on income inequality in the Southern Cone


    Bertola Flores, Luis Eduardo; Castelnovo, Cecilia; Rodriguez Arroyo, Javier; Willebald Remedios, Henry Francisco


    Special Issue on Latin American Inequality. This paper presents a first estimate of income inequality in the Southern Cone of South America (Brazil 1872 and 1920, Chile 1870 and 1920, Uruguay 1920) and some assumptions with regard to Argentina (1870 and 1920) and Uruguay (1870). We find that income distribution was relatively high on the eve of the first globalization boom. Thus, inequality is not only the result of globalization, but also a structural feature. Inequality increased between...

  9. Statistical analysis of the geological-hydrological conditions within part of the Eye-Dashwa pluton, Atikokan, northwestern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.A.; Rey, N.A.C.


    The occurrence and distribution of fracture-filling material within the Eye-Dashwa granite indicate that the dominant fracture system formed shortly after emplacement and cooling of the pluton at 2678 ± 67 Ma. Subsequent reactivation of these ancient fractures was accompanied by sequentially younger and lower temperature filling materials. These reopened ancient fractures are best developed in the upper 300-400 m of the rock mass and are commonly conduits for present-day groundwater flow. Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the geological variables identified a highly significant correlation between a number of these variable and hydraulic conductivity values measured in 25 m test sections of the boreholes. The predictive capability of the regression design was tested with seven new test data and found to be a valid estimator of the hydrogeological conditions

  10. Atmospheric turbulence conditions leading to focused and folded sonic boom wave fronts. (United States)

    Piacsek, Andrew A


    The propagation and subsequent distortion of sonic booms with rippled wave fronts are investigated theoretically using a nonlinear time-domain finite-difference scheme. This work seeks to validate the rippled wave front approach as a method for explaining the significant effects of turbulence on sonic booms [A. S. Pierce and D. J. Maglieri, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 702-721 (1971)]. A very simple description of turbulence is employed in which velocity perturbations within a shallow layer of the atmosphere form strings of vortices characterized by their size and speed. Passage of a steady-state plane shock front through such a vortex layer produces a periodically rippled wave front which, for the purposes of the present investigation, serves as the initial condition for a finite-difference propagation scheme. Results show that shock strength and ripple curvature determine whether ensuing propagation leads to wave front folding. High resolution images of the computed full wave field provide insights into the spiked and rounded features seen in sonic booms that have propagated through turbulence.

  11. Adjoint-Based Mesh Adaptation for the Sonic Boom Signature Loudness (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.; Park, Michael A.


    The mesh adaptation functionality of FUN3D is utilized to obtain a mesh optimized to calculate sonic boom ground signature loudness. During this process, the coupling between the discrete-adjoints of the computational fluid dynamics tool FUN3D and the atmospheric propagation tool sBOOM is exploited to form the error estimate. This new mesh adaptation methodology will allow generation of suitable meshes adapted to reduce the estimated errors in the ground loudness, which is an optimization metric employed in supersonic aircraft design. This new output-based adaptation could allow new insights into meshing for sonic boom analysis and design, and complements existing output-based adaptation techniques such as adaptation to reduce estimated errors in off-body pressure functional. This effort could also have implications for other coupled multidisciplinary adjoint capabilities (e.g., aeroelasticity) as well as inclusion of propagation specific parameters such as prevailing winds or non-standard atmospheric conditions. Results are discussed in the context of existing methods and appropriate conclusions are drawn as to the efficacy and efficiency of the developed capability.

  12. Computational Support of 9x7 Wind Tunnel Test of Sonic Boom Models with Plumes (United States)

    Jensen, James C.; Denison, Marie; Durston, Don; Cliff, Susan E.


    NASA and its industry partners are performing studies of supersonic aircraft concepts with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The interaction of the nozzle jet flow with the aircrafts' aft components is typically where the greatest uncertainly in the pressure signature is observed with high-fidelity numerical simulations. An extensive wind tunnel test was conducted in February 2016 in the NASA Ames 9- by 7- Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to help address the nozzle jet effects on sonic boom. Five test models with a variety of shock generators of differing waveforms and strengths were tested with a convergent-divergent nozzle for a wide range of nozzle pressure ratios. The LAVA unstructured flow solver was used to generate first CFD comparisons with the new experimental database using best practice meshing and analysis techniques for sonic boom vehicle design for all five different configurations. LAVA was also used to redesign the internal flow path of the nozzle and to better understand the flow field in the test section, both of which significantly improved the quality of the test data.

  13. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet with Shock Interactions (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta, Shayan


    NASA and Industry are performing vehicle studies of configurations with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern configuration designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty in the aft signatures with often greater boundary layer effects and nozzle jet pressures. Wind tunnel testing at significantly lower Reynolds numbers than in flight and without inlet and nozzle jet pressures make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 1.6 to 2.0 will be used to assess the effects of shocks from components passing through nozzle jet plumes on the sonic boom pressure signature and provide datasets for comparison with CFD codes. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of wind tunnel test models with a variety of shock generators that simulate horizontal tails and aft decks have been studied to provide suitable models for sonic boom pressure measurements using a minimally intrusive pressure rail in the wind tunnel. The computational results are presented and the evolution of candidate wind tunnel models is summarized and discussed in this paper.

  14. Overview of feasibility study on conducting overflight measurements of shaped sonic boom signatures using RPV's (United States)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.; Keefer, Thomas N., Jr.; Bobbitt, Percy J.


    Before beginning this presentation, it is appropriate to acknowledge the sincere interest and financial support provided by the NASA LaRC under contract NAS9-17900. An outline of the material to be used in the present paper is given. It begins with a indication of the origin and objectives of the feasibility study. This is followed by a discussion of various simulation methods of establishing the persistence of shaped sonic boom signatures to large distances including the use of recoverable RPV/drones. The desirable features to be sought out in an RPV along with a rationale for the selection of a 'shaped' sonic boom signature will be addressed. Three candidate vehicles are examined as to their suitability with respect to a number of factors, in particular, modifiability. Area distributions and associated sonic boom signatures of the basic and modified Firebee vehicle will also be shown. An indication of the scope of the proposed wind tunnel and flight test programs will be presented including measurement technologies and predicted waveforms. Finally, some remarks will be made summarizing the study and highlighting the key findings.

  15. Boomtown blues: a community history of oil shale booms in the Colorado River Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliford, A.J.


    The routes of early surveyors and explorers and the mining and agricultural history of the valley are examined in detail as are the ethnic origins of family networks that emerged over generations and were affected by the first oil shale boom between 1915-1925 when major oil companies acquired ranchland, water rights, and oil-shale claims in Garfield County, Colorado. The first boom faded and community equilibrium and solidarity were regained during the depression. By the mid-1970s, major national and international forces again focused on Garfield County and its three trillion barrels of oil locked in shale. President Carter's push for energy self-sufficiency as the moral equivalent of war, and loans made by the synthetic Fuels Corporation for oil shale development, came into direct conflict with national environmental groups and federal environmental laws. Local ranching communities became urbanized boomtowns, especially after Exxon, USA embarked on the $5 billion dollar Colony Oil Shale Project. Less than two years later, on May 2, 1982, Exxon announced the immediate closure of Colony and threw 2100 people out of work and eliminated $85 million in annual payroll from western Colorado. Social and psychological community effects of the oil shale boom and bust are vividly chronicled here.

  16. Magmatic and solid state structures of the Abu Ziran pluton: Deciphering transition from thrusting to extension in the Eastern Desert of Egypt (United States)

    Fritz, Harald; Loizenbauer, Jürgen; Wallbrecher, Eckart


    The 606 Ma old Abu Ziran granite of the Eastern Desert of Egypt intruded the southern margin of the Meatiq dome in a sinistral shear extensional setting. Its emplacement was enabled by a system of NW-trending sinistral shears, related Riedel shears and N-S extensional shear zones and faults. Magmatic flow was east-directed and controlled by Riedel shears that progressively rotated to an orientation favourable for extension. Strain markers that document magmatic flow show eastward decreasing strain together with strain increase from pluton centre to margins. This is explained by Newtonian flow between non-parallel plates and differences in flow velocities across the pluton. Solid state fabrics including shear fabrics, orientation of late magmatic dykes and quartz tension gashes, together with quartz C-axes distributions, document southward extensional shear within the solidified pluton and adjacent host rocks. Extensional shear is correlated with exhumation of the Meatiq dome coeval and soon after pluton solidification (585 Ma). Pressure temperature evolutionary paths, derived from fluid inclusions, show a clockwise path with exhumation by isothermal decompression in the Meatiq dome. By contrast, the overlying volcanosedimentary nappes experienced an anti-clockwise path released by temperature rise due to pluton emplacement followed by isobaric cooling. Quartz fabrics indicate high-temperature coaxial N-S flow in the northern Meatiq dome and lower-temperature, non-coaxial southward flow within the overlaying superficial nappe. This is explained by the exhumation process itself that progressively localised into simple shear domains when rocks approached higher crustal levels. Late extension at ca. 580 Ma was pure shear dominated and resulted in reversal of shear, now dextral, in the western Meatiq shear zone.

  17. Tyramine functions as a toxin in honey bee larvae during Varroa-transmitted infection by Melissococcus pluton. (United States)

    Kanbar, G; Engels, W; Nicholson, G J; Hertle, R; Winkelmann, G


    From wounds of honey bee pupae, caused by the mite Varroa destructor, coccoid bacteria were isolated and identified as Melissococcus pluton. The bacterial isolate was grown anaerobically in sorbitol medium to produce a toxic compound that was purified on XAD columns, gelfiltration and preparative HPLC. The toxic agent was identified by GC-MS and FTICR-MS as tyramine. The toxicity of the isolated tyramine was tested by a novel mobility test using the protozoon Stylonychia lemnae. A concentration of 0.2 mg/ml led to immediate inhibition of mobility. In addition the toxicity was studied on honey bee larvae by feeding tyramine/water mixtures added to the larval jelly. The lethal dosis of tyramine on 4-5 days old bee larvae was determined as 0.3 mg/larvae when added as a volume of 20 microl to the larval food in brood cells. Several other biogenic amines, such as phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine, cadaverine, putrescine and trimethylamine, were tested as their hydrochloric salts for comparison and were found to be inhibitory in the Stylonychia mobility test at similar concentrations. A quantitative hemolysis test with human red blood cells revealed that tyramine and histamine showed the highest membranolytic activity, followed by the phenylethylamine, trimethylamine and spermine, while the linear diamines, cadaverine and putrescine, showed a significantly lower hemolysis when calculated on a molar amine basis. The results indicate that tyramine which is a characteristic amine produced by M. pluton in culture, is the causative agent of the observed toxic symptoms in bee larvae. Thus this disease, known as European foulbrood, is possibly an infection transmitted by the Varroa destructor mite.

  18. From the plutonic root to the volcanic roof of a continental magmatic arc: a review of the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí orogen, southeastern Brazil (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leonardo; Alkmim, Fernando F.; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio; Gonçalves, Cristiane C.; Vieira, Valter


    The Araçuaí-West Congo orogen (AWCO) is one of the various components of the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic network generated during the amalgamation of West Gondwana. In the reconstructions of Gondwana, the AWCO, encompassing the Araçuaí orogen of South America and the West Congo belt of Southwestern Africa, appears as a tongue-shaped orogenic zone embraced by the São Francisco-Congo craton. Differing from the vast majority of the known orogens owing to its singular confined setting, the AWCO contains a large amount of orogenic igneous rocks emplaced in all stages of its tectonic evolution. We present new and revised information about the oldest Ediacaran granitic assemblage, the G1 Supersuite, which together with the Rio Doce Group defines the Rio Doce magmatic arc, and then we propose a new tectonic setting for the arc. Field relationships and mineralogical compositions of the G1 Supersuite allow us to characterize three lithofacies associations, Opx-bearing rocks, enclave-rich Tonalite-Granodiorite and enclave-poor Granite-Tonalite, suggesting different crustal levels are exposed in the central part of the Araçuaí orogen. The region is interpreted to represent a tilted crustal section, with deep arc roots now exposed along its western border. Chemically, these plutonic associations consist mostly of magnesian, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, calc-alkaline to alkali-calcic and medium- to high-K acidic rocks. The dacitic and rhyolitic rocks of the Rio Doce Group are mainly magnesian, peraluminous, calcic to calc-alkaline, and medium- to high-K acidic rocks. Zircon U-Pb data constrain the crystallization of the granitoids between ca. 625 and 574 Ma, while the age of the metamorphosed volcanic rocks is around ca. 585 Ma. Thus, within errors, these rock associations likely belong to the same magmatic event and might represent the subduction-related, pre-collisional, evolution of the Araçuaí orogen. In addition, whole-rock Sm-Nd isotopic compositions

  19. Using differential absorption radiography and acid dissolution to determine crystal size distributions of zircons: Methods and application to volcano-pluton connections in the Searchlight Magmatic System (Nevada) (United States)

    Hall, M. R.; Pamukcu, A.; Gualda, G. A.; Miller, C. F.; Rivers, M. L.


    A ~10 km vertical cross section of the tilted Miocene Searchlight pluton is exposed in the Colorado River extensional corridor in southern Nevada. The pluton can be divided into three distinct units and stages of evolution. Significant mineralogical and geochemical similarities exist between rocks of similar ages in the Searchlight pluton and the nearby Highland Range volcanic sequence. For example, in the Searchlight pluton the contact between the lower, oldest unit and a more silicic middle unit marks a distinct compositional transition from quartz monzonite to granite. The compositions on both sides of this contact have been dated by zircon U-Pb at ~16.1 Ma. In the Highland Range, a transition of similar age and composition is observed, from trachydacite below the contact to rhyolite above. These parallels provide a unique opportunity to assess volcano-pluton connections. We are investigating connections between volcanoes and plutons in the Colorado River Extensional Corridor by using two methods of textural analysis on samples from both the pluton and the volcanic sequence. In the first method, differential absorption radiography, radiographs of samples are taken directly above and below the zircon absorption edge at 17.9 keV and 18.1 keV. The change in attenuation for these energies is minimal, except for Zr-rich phases, which absorb much more significant above edge than below edge. Consequently, the difference between above-edge and below-edge radiographs corresponds to a Zr map that uniquely reveals Zr-rich phases, particularly zircon. Combination of these Zr maps with regular radiographs allows zircons to be viewed in the context of other coexisting phases. In the second method, acid dissolution, 3-5 g samples of rock are dissolved in fluoroboric acid and zircon crystals are separated under a microscope. These crystals are then photographed under a petrographic microscope. Both radiographs and micrographs are analyzed with ImageJ to determine crystal size

  20. The evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of the Nasrand Plutonic complex by using mineral composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sarjoughian


    Full Text Available Introduction Mineral composition is sensitive to variations in the composition of the magma and can be used to characterize the physical conditions of crystallization such as temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity and water content. The studies have demonstrated that geobarometery by amphibole provides a tool for determining the depth of crystallization and knowledge of the depth of crystallization of hornblende through to solidification of calc-alkaline plutons (Anderson and Smith, 1995. The composition of pyroxene can be used as crystallization pressure and temperature indicators of pyroxene too. Anlytical methods The mineral compositions of the Nasrand intrusion were determined by electron microprobe, with special emphasis on the amphibole, feldspar, and pyroxene at the Naruto University, Japan, the EPMA (Jeol- JXA-8800R was used at operating conditions of 15 kV, 20 nA acceleration voltage and 20s counting time. Results The Nasrand intrusion (33°13'–33°15' N, 52°33'–52°34'E with an outcrop area of about 40 km2 is situated in the Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic belt, SE of Ardestan. It is composed of granite and granodiorite and various dikes of diorite and gabbro which are intruded in it. It is intruded into Eocene volcanic rocks, including andesite, rhyolite, and dacite. The petrographical studies indicate that the granitic and granodioritic rocks contain major minerals such as quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and amphibole, which are in an approximate equilibrium state. The gabbroic-dioritic dikes usually show microgranular porphyric texture. They mainly consist of plagioclase, amphibole, and pyroxene. The plagioclase shows variable composition from albite to oligoclase in the granitoid rocks and from oligoclase to bytownite in dioritic and gabbroic dikes (Deer et al., 1991. The amphiboles are calcic and their composition varies from hornblende to actinolite, whereas the composition of the basic dikes is inclined to hastingsite (Leake et

  1. Boom times : Canada's crude petroleum industry : analysis in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, M.R.


    This document examined the trends in crude oil prices, the production and exports of Canada's crude petroleum industry, and Canada's imports of crude petroleum. As an exporter and importer of crude oil, Canada's petroleum industry is currently experiencing economic prosperity as a result of high oil prices combined with high global demand for oil. This document reviewed industry activity for 2005 and addressed the reasons for the first decline in Canadian crude oil production in 6 years. A quick review of soaring crude oil prices, supply and shortages was also presented. A review of exports revealed that since 1995, the United States has received 99 per cent of Canadian exports. Although production activity is occurring in 7 provinces, the biggest participant is Alberta, followed by Saskatchewan. In 2005, Canada produced 136.4 million cubic metres of crude petroleum, of which two-thirds came from Alberta. Saskatchewan contributed 18 per cent of total Canadian crude oil production, while offshore oil rigs in Newfoundland and Labrador contributed 13 per cent. The vast oil sands resource accounted for 42 per cent of the province's total production. Alberta oil export is piped entirely into the United States. In 2005, even with a slight drop in exports, Canadian oil exporters received $30 billion for their products, up from $25 billion the year before. Canada also supplied nearly 10 per cent of the American crude oil needs. According to the National Energy Board, Canadian refineries are approaching capacity. Canada's 19 refineries, which have a capacity of 320,000 cubic metres per day, operated at 92 per cent of capacity in 2005 to meet the needs of the domestic market. More imported petroleum was refined than Canadian sourced petroleum. In 2005, the gas and oil industry saw historically high profits, taxes paid and investments. 6 refs., 5 figs

  2. Geothermal heat pumps, a booming technology in North America; Geothermal Heat Pumps - der Boom der oberflaechennahen Geothermie in Nordamerika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften


    Over the last years, the interest in and the use of ground-source heat pumps has substantially increased in North America. In a market dominated by space cooling heat pumps can show clearly their advantages. This paper describes the development in Canada and USA, gives examples of the technologies used and presents some large plants. The differences to the Central European situation are discussed. Also mentioned are the various activities in market penetration, which peaked in the foundation of the `Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium` in Washington in 1994. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den letzten Jahren hat das Interesse an und der Einsatz von erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen in Nordamerika stark zugenommen. In einem von der Raumkuehlung dominierten Markt koennen Waermepumpen ihre Vorteile voll ausspielen. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung in Kanada und den USA, stellt Beispiele der eingesetzten Technik vor und geht auf einige Grossanlagen ein. Ausserdem werden die Unterschiede zu der Situation in Mitteleuropa herausgearbeitet und die verschiedenen Aktivitaeten zu `Markt Penetration` behandelt, die 1994 in die Gruendung des `Geothermal Heat Pump Consortiums` in Washington muendeten. (orig.)

  3. The amphiboles of the REE-rich A-type peralkaline Strange Lake pluton - fingerprints of magma evolution (United States)

    Siegel, Karin; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.; van Hinsberg, Vincent J.


    Major and trace element compositions of amphibole in igneous environments commonly reflect evolving magma compositions. In this study, we use the amphibole-group minerals from the Strange Lake, REE-enriched peralkaline granitic pluton to gain insights into the evolution of the magma. This 1240 Ma old pluton consists of two main intrusive facies, an early hypersolvus granite, which occurs as separate northern and southern intrusions, and a more evolved transsolvus granite. In the hypersolvus granite the amphibole is a late interstitial phase, whereas in the transsolvus granite, it is present as phenocrysts. The amphibole compositions vary from calcic-sodic (ferro-ferri-katophorite) in the southern hypersolvus granite to sodic (arfvedsonite, ferro-ferri-leakeite) in the other, more evolved granitic units. High Na, Si, Li, and low Al and Ca concentrations in the amphibole phenocrysts of the transsolvus granite indicate formation from a more evolved magma compared to the hypersolvus granite, despite the fact that these crystals formed early. We interpret the increasing Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in the amphibole of the hypersolvus granite to reflect crystal chemical effects (Na/Ca-ratio) and increasingly oxidizing conditions in the magma, whereas in the phenocrysts of the transsolvus granite, the increasing ratio was the product of increasing proportions of F- and OH- in the melt. The amphiboles of all the granite units have elevated Nb, Zr, Hf and REE concentrations compared to the bulk rock, suggesting that these elements are compatible in amphibole. By contrast the much lower Ti concentration was due to saturation of the magma in sodium-titanosilicates. The amphibole REE concentrations vary greatly among the granite units. Amphibole of the southern and northern hypersolvus granite contains 0.16 and 0.07 wt.% ∑ REE + Y, on average, respectively, and in the transsolvus granite, the average ∑ REE content is only 0.01 wt.%, despite the more evolved nature of its host

  4. The Control of Welding Deformation of the Three-Section Arm of Placing Boom of HB48B Pump Truck (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-ling


    The concrete pump truck is the construction equipment of conveying concrete with self contained base plate and distributing boom. It integrates the pump transport mechanism of the concrete pump, and the hydraulic roll-folding type distributing boom used to distribute materials, and the supporting mechanism into the automobile chassis, and it is the concrete conveying equipment with high efficient and the functions of driving, pumping, and distributing materials. The placing boom of the concrete pump truck is the main force member in the pump parts with bearing great pressure, and its stress condition is complex. Taking the HB48B placing boom as an example, this paper analyzes and studies the deformation produced by placing boom of pump truck, and then obtains some main factors affecting the welding deformation. Through the riveter “joint” size, we controlled the process parameters, post-welding processing, and other aspects. These measures had some practical significance to prevent, control, and reduce the deformation of welding.

  5. Prisons as Panacea or Pariah? The Countervailing Consequences of the Prison Boom on the Political Economy of Rural Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Eason


    Full Text Available The nascent literature on prison proliferation in the United States typically reveals negative impacts for communities of color. Given that Southern rural communities were the most likely to build during the prison boom (1970–2010, however, a more nuanced understanding of prison impact is warranted. Using a dataset matching and geocoding all 1663 U.S. prisons with their Census-appointed place, this study explores the countervailing consequences of the prison boom on rural towns across multiple periods. For example, locales that adopted prisons at earlier stages of the prison boom era received a short-term boom compared to those that did not, but these effects were not lasting. Furthermore, later in the boom, prison-building protected towns against additional economic decline. Thus, neither entirely pariah nor panacea, the prison functions as a state-sponsored public works program for disadvantaged rural communities but also supports perverse economic incentives for prison proliferation. Methodological, substantive, theoretical, and policy implications regarding the intersection of race and punishment are explored.

  6. Micro-fabric damages in Boom Clay inferred from cryo-BIB-SEM experiment: recent results (United States)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schmatz, Joyce; Klaver, Jop; Urai, Janos L.


    The Boom Clay is considered as a potential host rock in Belgium for nuclear waste disposal in a deep geological formation. One of the keys to understand the long-term performance of such a host rock is the fundamental understanding of coupling between microstructural evolution, poromechanical behaviour and the state of hydration of the system. At in situ conditions, Boom Clay is a nearly water-saturated (>94%) clay-rich geomaterial. Subsequently, for measurement of mechanical and transport properties in laboratory, cores of Boom Clay are vacuum-packed in Al-coated-poly-ethylene barrier foil to be best preserved at original hydric state. Because clay microstructures are very sensitive to dehydration, the validity of investigations done on such preserved or/and dried samples is often questionable. Desbois et al. (2009, 2013, 2014) showed the possibility to image fluid-filled porosity in Boom Clay, by using the FIB-cryo-SEM (FIB: Focussed Ion Beam) and FIB-cryo-SEM (BIB: Broad Ion Beam) techniques. However, surprisingly in Desbois et al. (2014), BIB-cryo-SEM experiments on Boom Clay, shown that the majority of the pores were fluid-free, contrasting with result in Desbois et al. (2009). In Desbois et al. (2014), several reasons were discussed to explain such discrepancies. The likely ones are the sealing efficiency of the Al-barrier foil at long term and the volume expansion due to the release of in-situ stress after core extraction, contributing both to dehydration and microfabric damage. This contribution presents the newest results based on cryo-BIB-SEM. Small pieces (30 mm3) of Boom Clay were preserved in liquid nitrogen after the core extraction at the MOL/Dessel Underground Research Laboratory in Belgium. A maximum of ten minutes time span was achieved between opening the core, the sub-sample extraction and the quenching of sub-samples in liquid nitrogen. First results show that all pores visible at cryo-SEM resolution are water saturated. However, water

  7. Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of an Ordovician appinitic pluton in the East Kunlun orogen: New evidence for Proto-Tethyan subduction (United States)

    Xiong, Fuhao; Ma, Changqian; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Hong'an; Liu, Bin


    Appinite is commonly derived from a mantle source in subduction zones and thus holds a key to constrain the tectonic evolution of ancient orogens. This study presents chronological, mineralogical and geochemical data for one appinitic pluton from the south Tethyan suture zone in the East Kunlun orogen, Northern Tibetan Plateau. The pluton is predominantly composed of hornblende-rich mafic appinites, with minor amounts of granodiorite. Zircon U-Pb age of the granodiorite (466 Ma) is identical to the mafic appinites (447-450 Ma). The mafic appinites are commonly hornblende diorites, which comprise large amounts of magnesio-hornblende [Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.61-0.68] and andesine (An43-54). The hornblende diorites have low contents of SiO2 (48.62-54.95 wt.%), high contents of total FeO (7.90-12.84 wt.%) and MgO (4.32-11.89 wt.%) and moderate values of Mg# [Mg# = molar 100 ∗ Mg/(Mg + Fe); 49-69]. Their geochemistry displays: slight enrichment of light rare earth elements ((La/Yb)N = 1.89-6.84) and flat heavy rare earth elements ((Ga/Yb)N = 1.49-2.22); enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and depletion in high field strength elements; less-enriched isotopic compositions with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70536-0.70617, εNd(t) of 0.79-3.02 and zircon εHf(t) of 8.73-12.82. The associated granodiorites comprise plagioclase (45-50 vol.%, An = 26-39), quartz (15-20 vol.%), K-feldspar (5-10 vol.%), ferrohornblende [2-5 vol.%, (Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.45-0.49] and epidote (1-5 vol.%). The epidotes have pistacite components ranging from 23 to 28. The granodiorites exhibit calc-alkaline character, and have rare earth and trace element patterns similar to the hornblende diorites. The geochemical compositions and simulations suggest that the parental magma of the mafic appinites was generated by partial melting of one depleted mantle source which was metasomatised by subducted sediment-derived felsic melts (ca. 20-25%). Fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, hornblende

  8. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finer, Matt; Orta-Martinez, Marti


    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region-over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells-highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  9. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, 4 Library Court NW, Washington, DC 20003 (United States); Orta-Martinez, Marti, E-mail: matt@saveamericasforests.or, E-mail: [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)


    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region-over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells-highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  10. Aeolus or Pluton?; Eole ou pluton?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the next years the french government will have to take great decisions in matter of energy and specifically electric power. This report aims to give an estimation of wind power channel in France supposing financial possibilities equivalent to those implemented for the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) channel. After a presentation of the electric power industry in France, the two channels are compared. (A.L.B.)

  11. PLUTON: Three-group neutronic code for burnup analysis of isotope generation and depletion in highly irradiated LWR fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemehov, Sergei E; Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    PLUTON is a three-group neutronic code analyzing, as functions of time and burnup, the change of radial profiles, together with average values, of power density, burnup, concentration of trans-uranium elements, plutonium buildup, depletion of fissile elements, and fission product generation in water reactor fuel rod with standard UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, inhomogeneous MOX, and UO{sub 2}-ThO{sub 2}. The PLUTON code, which has been designed to be run on Windows PC, has adopted a theoretical shape function of neutron attenuation in pellet, which enables users to perform a very fast and accurate calculation easily. The present code includes the irradiation conditions of the Halden Reactor which gives verification data for the code. The total list of trans-uranium elements included in the calculations consists of {sub 92}U{sup 233-239}, {sub 93}Np{sup 237-239}, {sub 94}Pu{sup 238-243}, {sub 95}Am{sup 241-244} (including isomers), and {sub 96}Cm{sup 242-245}. Poisoning fission products are represented by {sub 54}Xe{sup 131,133,135}, {sub 48}Cd{sup 113}, {sub 62}Sm{sup 149,151,152}, {sub 64}Gd{sup 154-160}, {sub 63}Eu{sup 153,155}, {sub 36}Kr{sup 83,85}, {sub 42}Mo{sup 95}, {sub 43}Tc{sup 99}, {sub 45}Rh{sup 103}, {sub 47}Ag{sup 109}, {sub 53}I{sup 127,129,131}, {sub 55}Cs{sup 133}, {sub 57}La{sup 139}, {sub 59}Pr{sup 141}, {sub 60}Nd{sup 143-150}, {sub 61}Pm{sup 147}. Fission gases and volatiles included in the code are {sub 36}Kr{sup 83-86}, {sub 54}Xe{sup 129-136}, {sub 52}Te{sup 125-130}, {sub 53}I{sup 127-131}, {sub 55}Cs{sup 133-137}, and {sub 56}Ba{sup 135-140}. Verification has been performed up to 83 GWd/tU, and a satisfactory agreement has been obtained. (author)

  12. Magnetic fabric vs. magnetite and biotite shape fabrics of the magnetite-bearing granite pluton of Gameleiras (Northeast Brazil) (United States)

    Archanjo, Carlos Jose; Launeau, Patrick; Bouchez, Jean Luc


    A well-defined orientation pattern has been evidenced by the magnetic fabric (lineation and foliation) of the granite pluton of Gameleiras, Northeast Brazil. This magnetic fabric is roughly parallel to the magmatic fabric defined by the elongate mafic enclaves, and by the planar arrangement of tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts. Low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility properties, as well as magnetic mineralogy studies and optical microscopy observations, indicate that multidomian, iron-rich magnetite is the main carrier of the magnetic susceptibility and its anisotropy. To examine in more detail the relationships between the magnetic and magmatic fabrics, measurements of two-dimensional shape fabrics of grain populations of biotite and magnetite have been carried out on a total of 500 grains using an automatic shape fabric analysis procedure on carefully selected and oriented thin sections. Angular departure (α) has been calculated between the maximum elongation of the mineral shape fabric of the given grain population and the maximum susceptibility axis of the corresponding macroscopic specimen. We found that the fabric of biotite correlates strongly with the magnetic fabric (α = 7° ± 8°). The fabric of magnetite, although not as well defined, mainly because of its weak shape anisotropy, still correlates with the magnetic fabric (α = 12° ± 18°). Origin of low-field magnetic fabric in the pluton of Gameleiras is concluded to be controlled principally by the statistical alignment of the long axes of inequant magnetite grains. Magnetic interactions between the grains of magnetite, where they form clusters, may account for the observed scattering or abnormal magnitudes of the magnetic anisotropy. Concerning the orientation of the magnetic fabric, as the long dimensions of the magnetites preferentially align with the boundaries of the other minerals, particularly biotite and titanite, the magnetic fabric as defined by the grains of magnetite is concluded

  13. From Crustal Anatexis to Pluton Emplacement: High-Precision Zircon Geochronology Reveals the Thermal History of the Larderello-Travale Geothermal System (Italy) (United States)

    Farina, F.; Dini, A.; Ovtcharova, M.; Davies, J.; Bouvier, A. S.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Caricchi, L.; Schaltegger, U.


    Late Miocene to recent post-collisional extension in Tuscany (Italy) led to the emplacement of shallow-level granitic plutons and to the eruption of small rhyolitic bodies. The intrusion of peraluminous two-mica and tourmaline-bearing granites triggered the formation of the steam-dominated Larderello-Travale geothermal system. In this study, zircon crystals from granite samples obtained from drill holes at 3.0-4.5 km depth were investigated by combining in-situ oxygen isotopes analysis and high-precision CA-ID-TIMS U-Pb age determinations to gain insight into the nature of the magmatic heat source fuelling the geothermal field. Magmatic zircon crystals display δ18O values ranging from 8.6 to 13.5‰ and crystals from individual samples exhibit inter- and intra-grain oxygen isotope variability exceeding 3‰. The geochronological data indicates the existence of three magmatic pulses with ages between 3.637 ± 0.008 and 1.671 ± 0.004 Ma. More importantly, zircon crystals from individual samples exhibit an age spread as large as 200-400 ky. This age dispersion, which is more than one order of magnitude greater than the uncertainty on a single date, suggest that most of the zircon did not crystallize at the emplacement level, but within isolated and isotopically distinct magma batches before large-scale homogenization in a magmatic reservoir at depth. The rate of assembly and final volume of this reservoir is estimated using the distribution of precise U-Pb zircon dates following the approach of Caricchi et al. (2014). Thermal modelling indicates that the heat flow at the surface in the geothermal field cannot be sustained by the inferred reservoir or by heat advection from the mantle. Our data suggest the existence of a younger shallow-level intrusion, whose occurrence also accounts for the existence of confined magmatic fluids at the top of the Larderello-Travale intrusion. We conclude that a multi-disciplinary approach, integrating high-precision zircon dating, in

  14. Formation conditions of leucogranite dykes and aplite-pegmatite dykes in the eastern Mt. Capanne plutonic complex (Elba, Italy): fluid inclusion studies in quartz, tourmaline, andalusite and plagioclase (United States)

    Bakker, Ronald J.; Schilli, Sebastian E.


    Leucogranite and aplite-pegmatite dykes are associated with the Mt. Capanne pluton (Elba) and partly occur in the thermally metamorphosed host rock (serpentinites). Crystallization conditions of these dykes in the late magmatic-hydrothermal stage are estimated from fluid inclusion studies and mineralogical characterisation, obtained from detailed microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microprobe analyses. Fluid inclusion assemblages are analysed in andalusite, quartz, and plagioclase from the leucogranite dykes, and in tourmaline and quartz from the aplite-pegmatite dykes. The fluid inclusion assemblages record multiple pulses of low salinity H2O-rich magmatic and reduced metamorphic fluid stages. Magmatic fluids are characterized by the presence of minor amounts of CO2 and H3BO3, whereas the metamorphic fluids contain CH4 and H2. The highly reduced conditions are also inferred from the presence of native arsenic in some fluid inclusions. Several fluid inclusion assemblages reveal fluid compositions that must have resulted from mixing of both fluid sources. In leucogranite dykes, magmatic andalusite contains a low-density magmatic CO2-rich gas mixture with minor amounts of CH4 and H2. Accidentally trapped crystals (mica) and step-daughters (quartz and diaspore) are detected in some inclusions in andalusite. The first generation of inclusions in quartz that crystallized after andalusite contains a highly reduced H2O-H2 mixture and micas. The second type of inclusions in quartz from the leucogranite is similar to the primary inclusion assemblage in tourmaline from the aplite-pegmatite, and contains up to 4.2 mass% H3BO3, present as a sassolite daughter crystal or dissolved ions, in addition to a CO2-CH4 gas mixture, with traces of H2, N2, H2S, and C2H6. H2O is the main component of all these fluids ( x = 0.91 to 0.96) with maximally 7 mass% NaCl. Some accidentally trapped arsenolite and native arsenic are also detected. These fluids were trapped in the

  15. The link between volcanism and plutonism in epizonal magma systems; high-precision U–Pb zircon geochronology from the Organ Mountains caldera and batholith, New Mexico (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Farmer, Lang; Bowring, Samuel; Wooton, Kathleen M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Coleman, Drew S.; Verplanck, Philip L.


    The Organ Mountains caldera and batholith expose the volcanic and epizonal plutonic record of an Eocene caldera complex. The caldera and batholith are well exposed, and extensive previous mapping and geochemical analyses have suggested a clear link between the volcanic and plutonic sections, making this an ideal location to study magmatic processes associated with caldera volcanism. Here we present high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry U–Pb zircon dates from throughout the caldera and batholith, and use these dates to test and improve existing petrogenetic models. The new dates indicate that Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains formed from ~44 to 34 Ma. The three largest caldera-related tuff units yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 36.441 ± 0.020 Ma (Cueva Tuff), 36.259 ± 0.016 Ma (Achenback Park tuff), and 36.215 ± 0.016 Ma (Squaw Mountain tuff). An alkali feldspar granite, which is chemically similar to the erupted tuffs, yielded a synchronous weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 36.259 ± 0.021 Ma. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from the larger volume syenitic phase of the underlying Organ Needle pluton range from 36.130 ± 0.031 to 36.071 ± 0.012 Ma, and the youngest sample is 144 ± 20 to 188 ± 20 ka younger than the Squaw Mountain and Achenback Park tuffs, respectively. Younger plutonism in the batholith continued through at least 34.051 ± 0.029 Ma. We propose that the Achenback Park tuff, Squaw Mountain tuff, alkali feldspar granite and Organ Needle pluton formed from a single, long-lived magma chamber/mush zone. Early silicic magmas generated by partial melting of the lower crust rose to form an epizonal magma chamber. Underplating of the resulting mush zone led to partial melting and generation of a high-silica alkali feldspar granite cap, which erupted to form the tuffs. The deeper parts of the chamber underwent continued recharge and crystallization for 144 ± 20 ka after the

  16. The River Mountains Volcanic Section - Wilson Ridge Pluton, a Long Lived Multiphase Mid- Tertiary Igneous System in Southern Nevada and Northwestern Arizona, USA (United States)

    Honn, D. K.; Simon, A. C.; Smith, E. I.; Spell, T. L.


    206Pb/238U zircon dates (LA-ICPMS) from 106-40 μm spots on 49 zircons suggest the Wilson Ridge Pluton in northwestern Arizona and its corresponding volcanic cover in the River Mountains of southern Nevada represent a complex multiphase igneous system active for 4.2 million years (based on a zircon core-rim pair) to a maximum of 7.2 million years (from two zircon rim dates 18.9 ± 0.8 to 13.1 ± 0.6 Ma). This period of activity is significantly longer than the 500 thousand year interval (12.99 ± 0.02 to 13.45 ± 0.02) determined by 40Ar/39Ar sanidine, biotite, hornblende, and whole rock dates. The 40Ar/39Ar dates only reflect the time when the igneous system cooled to mineral closure temperatures during emplacement in the upper crust. Zircon xenocrysts identified in cathodoluminescence images range in age from 1517.5 ± 11.2 Ma to 21.3 ± 0.8 Ma. Inherited zircon cores are as much as 8.9 million years older than their rims. Zircon dates correspond to pluton stratigraphy with late stage dikes at 15.3 Ma (mean age based on 9 dates), quartz monzonite intermediate in composition and age (mean age 15.5 Ma based on 20 dates), and the oldest unit, the Horsethief Canyon diorite (mean age 17.5 Ma based on 6 dates). Although the mean ages correspond to stratigraphy, the spread of ages for each unit overlaps, therefore these correlations are preliminary. The River Mountains volcanic section lies 20 km to the west of the pluton and may have been separated from it by west directed motion along the Saddle Island detachment fault. The River Mountains volcanic section and the Wilson Ridge Pluton are considered a single igneous system as demonstrated by major and trace element geochemistry, whole rock isotopic analyses (Sr and Nd), previous 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar dates, mafic enclave chemistry, extensive magnesio-riebeckite alteration unique to both the River Mountains volcanic and Wilson Ridge Plutonic sections, and the location of the Saddle Island fault. Preliminary zircon dates

  17. Effects of aircraft noise and sonic booms on domestic animals and wildlife: bibliographic abstracts (United States)

    Gladwin, Douglas N.; Manci, Karen M.; Villella, Rita


    The purpose of this document is to provide an information base on the effects of aircraft noise and sonic booms on various animal species. Such information is necessary to assess potential impacts to wildlife populations from proposed military and other flight operations. To develop this document the National Ecology Center conducted a literature search of information pertaining to animals and wildlife. Information concerning other types of noise was also gathered to supplement the lack of knowledge on the effects of aircraft noise. The bibliographic abstracts in this report provide a compilation of current knowledge. No attempt was made to evaluate the appropriateness or adequacy of the scientific approach of each study.

  18. Jig-Shape Optimization of a Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft (United States)

    Pak, Chan-gi


    A simple approach for optimizing the jig-shape is proposed in this study. This simple approach is based on an unconstrained optimization problem and applied to a low-boom supersonic aircraft. In this study, the jig-shape optimization is performed using the two-step approach. First, starting design variables are computed using the least squares surface fitting technique. Next, the jig-shape is further tuned using a numerical optimization procedure based on in-house object-oriented optimization tool.

  19. Colorado's energy boom: impact on crime and criminal justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Information is reported on the impact of rapid energy development on western slope criminal justice agencies. The focus is on crime rates, law enforcement, the courts, and juvenile justice problems. The problems that are likely to develop and what might be done to minimize the negative consequences are analyzed. The social characteristics of boom towns and the changes resulting from rapid growth, the changes in crime rates, the impact experienced by law enforcement agencies and the courts, and information on planning and funding in impact areas are described. (MCW)

  20. Comportement thermomécanique de l'argile de Boom (United States)

    Sultan, Nabil; Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu Jun

    Special attention has been recently paid on temperature effects on the behaviour of deep saturated clays, in relation with nuclear deep waste storage. However, few experimental data are presently available, and existing constitutive models need to be completed. This note is aimed at completing, both experimentally and theoretically, the understanding of the effects of the overconsolidation ratio on the thermal volume changes of Boom clay (Belgium). The experimental data obtained here are in a good agreement with existing data. As a complement to existing data, they are used to develop a new elastoplastic model. The adoption of a second coupled plastic mechanism provides good simulations on a complex thermo-mechanical path.

  1. The electrochemistry of carbon steel in simulated concrete pore water in boom clay repository environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosas-Camacho O.


    Full Text Available The prediction of corrosion damage of canisters to experimentally inaccessible times is vitally important in assessing various concepts for the disposal of High Level Nuclear Waste. Such prediction can only be made using deterministic models, whose predictions are constrained by the time-invariant natural laws. In this paper, we describe the measurement of experimental electrochemical data that will allow the prediction of damage to the carbon steel overpack of the super container in Belgium’s proposed Boom Clay repository by using the Point Defect Model (PDM. PDM parameter values are obtained by optimizing the model on experimental, wide-band electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data.

  2. Prototype Development and Dynamic Characterization of Deployable CubeSat Booms (United States)


    from a CubeSat and provide a proper footing for those individuals who follow. 3.8 SLiMSat Design and Downselect Notionally, the design of SLiMSat...all the nodes on one end of the beam. This constraint is somewhat unrealistic as the actual fixation of the physical boom utilizes friction in Figure 37. The resultant structure was then anchored to the top of the cinder block lab wall with eight large lag screws providing a rigid

  3. Geochemical Relationships between Volcanic and Plutonic Upper to Mid Crustal Exposures of the Rosario Segment, Alisitos Arc (Baja California, Mexico): An Outstanding Field Analog to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc (United States)

    Morris, R.; DeBari, S. M.; Busby, C. J.; Medynski, S.


    Exposed paleo-arcs, such as the Rosario segment of the Cretaceous Alisitos Arc in Baja California, Mexico, provide an opportunity to explore the evolution of arc crust through time. Remarkable 3-D exposures of the Rosario segment record crustal generation processes in the volcanic rocks and underlying plutonic rocks. In this study, we explore the physical and geochemical connection between the plutonic and volcanic sections of the extensional Alisitos Arc, and elucidate differentiation processes responsible for generating them. These results provide an outstanding analog for extensional active arc systems, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc. Upper crustal volcanic rocks have a coherent stratigraphy that is 3-5 km thick and ranges in composition from basalt to dacite. The most felsic compositions (70.9% SiO2) are from a welded ignimbrite unit. The most mafic compositions (51.5% SiO2, 3.2% MgO) are found in basaltic sill-like units. Phenocrysts in the volcanic units include plagioclase +/- amphibole and clinopyroxene. The transition to deeper plutonic rocks is clearly an intrusive boundary, where plutonic units intrude the volcanic units. Plutonic rocks are dominantly a quartz diorite main phase with a more mafic, gabbroic margin. A transitional zone is observed along the contact between the plutonic and volcanic rocks, where volcanics have coarsely recrystallized textures. Mineral assemblages in the plutonic units include plagioclase +/- quartz, biotite, amphibole, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Most, but not all, samples are low K. REE patterns are relatively flat with limited enrichment. Normalization diagrams show LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, where trends are similar to average IBM values. We interpret plutonic and volcanic units to have similar geochemical relationships, where liquid lines of descent show the evolution of least to most evolved magma types. We provide a model for the formation and magmatic evolution of the Alisitos Arc.

  4. Background Pressure Profiles for Sonic Boom Vehicle Testing in the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Shaw, Stephen; Adamson, Eric; Simerly, Stephanie


    In an effort to identify test facilities that offer sonic boom measurement capabilities, an exploratory test program was initiated using wind tunnels at NASA research centers. The subject of this report is the sonic boom pressure rail data collected in the Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose is to summarize the lessons learned based on the test activity, specifically relating to collecting sonic boom data which has a large amount of spatial pressure variation. The wind tunnel background pressure profiles are presented as well as data which demonstrated how both wind tunnel Mach number and model support-strut position affected the wind tunnel background pressure profile. Techniques were developed to mitigate these effects and are presented.

  5. Low-Boom and Low-Drag Optimization of the Twin Engine Version of Silent Supersonic Business Jet (United States)

    Sato, Koma; Kumano, Takayasu; Yonezawa, Masahito; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Jeong, Shinkyu; Obayashi, Shigeru

    Multi-Objective Optimization has been applied to a design problem of the twin engine concept for Silent Supersonic Business Jet (SSBJ). This problem aims to find main wing, body, tail wing and engine nacelle configurations, which can minimize both sonic boom and drag in a supersonic cruising flight. The multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) coupled with the Kriging model has been used to globally and effectively search for optimal design candidates in the multi-objective problem. The drag and the sonic boom have been evaluated by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and the waveform parameter method. As a result, the present optimization has successfully obtained low-boom and low-drag design candidates, which are better than the baseline design by more than 40% regarding each performance. Moreover, the structure of design space has been visualized by the self-organizing map (SOM).

  6. Mineral growth in melt conduits as a mechanism for igneous layering in shallow arc plutons: mineral chemistry of Fisher Lake orbicules and comb layers (Sierra Nevada, USA) (United States)

    McCarthy, Anders; Müntener, Othmar


    Different processes have been proposed to explain the variety of igneous layering in plutonic rocks. To constrain the mechanisms of emplacement and crystallization of ascending magma batches in shallow plutons, we have studied comb layers and orbicules from the Fisher Lake Pluton, Northern Sierra Nevada. Through a detailed study of the mineralogy and bulk chemistry of 70 individual layers, we show that comb layers and orbicule rims show no evidence of forming through a self-organizing, oscillatory crystallization process, but represent crystallization fronts resulting from in situ crystallization and extraction of evolved melt fractions during decompression-driven crystallization, forming a plagioclase-dominated cres-cumulate at the mm- to m-scale. We propose that the crystal content of the melt and the dynamics of the magmatic system control the mechanisms responsible for vertical igneous layering in shallow reservoirs. As comb layers crystallize on wall rocks, the higher thermal gradients will increase the diversity of comb layering, expressed by inefficient melt extraction, thereby forming amphibole comb layers and trapped apatite + quartz saturated evolved melt fractions. High-An plagioclase (An90-An97.5) is a widespread phase in Fisher lake comb layers and orbicule rims. We show that a combination of cooling rate, latent heat of crystallization and pressure variations may account for high-An plagioclase in shallow melt extraction zones.

  7. Neutron activation and other analytical data for plutonic rocks from North America and Africa. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V.; Fay, W.M.; Cook, J.R.


    The objective of this report is to retrieve the elements of an analytical study of granites and associated other plutonic rocks which was begun as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. A discussion of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) neutron activation analysis system is given so that a user will understand the linmitations of the data. Enough information is given so that an experienced geochemist can clean up the data set to the extent required by any project. The data are generally good as they are presented. It is intended that the data be read from a magnetic tape written to accompany this report. Microfiche tables of the data follow the text. These tables were prepared from data on the tape, and programs which will read the tape are presented in the section THE DATA TAPE. It is our intent to write a later paper which will include a thoroughly scrubbed data set and a technical discussion of results of the study. 1 figure

  8. The impact of geology on the migration of fluorides in mineral waters of the Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton area, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Petar


    Full Text Available One of the hydrogeochemical parameters that classify groundwater as mineral water is the content of fluoride ions. Their concentration is both important and limited for bottled mineral waters. Hydrochemical research of mineral waters in the surrounding area of Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton, in central Serbia, was conducted in order to define the chemical composition and genesis of these waters. They are carbonated waters, with content of fluoride ranging from 0.2 up to 6.6 mg/L. Since hydrochemical analyses showed variations in the major water chemistry, it was obvious that, apart from hydrochemical research, some explorations of the structure of the regional terrain would be inevitable. For these purposes, some additional geological research was performed, creating an adequate basis for the interpretation of the genesis of these carbonated mineral waters. The results confirmed the significance of the application of hydrochemical methods in the research of mineral waters. The work tended to emphasize that “technological treatment” for decreasing the concentration of fluoride in mineral waters occurs in nature, indicating the existence of natural defluoridization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  9. Rock deformation in hydrothermal systems: the nature of fractures in plutons and their host rocks. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, D.


    The purpose of this program is to accumulate the types of field data which are important for the analysis of magma-hydrothermal systems. The structural effects of thermal processes were identified in order to distinguish the thermally induced deformations from the deformations that occurred subsequent to complete cooling of the system. Mapping techniques were developed to record the structural data on the ground from local domains characteristic of larger areas in the magma chamber, and in the air from low-angle oblique aerial photography of the entire region. The ground system is complete and preliminary testing is currently being carried out to verify the method. The results indicate that granitic crystalline rocks have no structural resistance to thermal perturbations. If nuclear wastes are to be stored in granite, precautionary buffers would have to be incorporated into the system. A total of 30 fossil magma chambers have been studied over the past 2 years. An extensive set of fracture imagery has been collected, together with information related to the geological history of the plutons. Fossil magma chambers in Arizona, Utah, California, Washington, Montana, and British Columbia have been studied.

  10. Gender Role Stereotypes in the "Dick and Jane" Basal Reader Series and Sustained Impression upon Women of the Baby Boom Generation (United States)

    Hutchinson, Mary Louise


    This study explored the perceptions of women of the Baby Boom generation regarding the potential impact of gender role stereotypes contained in the children's reading series utilized in elementary school classrooms from 1946 through 1964. Particular emphasis was placed upon the prominent reading series of the Baby Boom Era, the Scott, Foresman and…

  11. Analysis of the Effects of Streamwise Lift Distribution on Sonic Boom Signature (United States)

    Yoo, Paul


    Investigation of sonic boom has been one of the major areas of study in aeronautics due to the benefits a low-boom aircraft has in both civilian and military applications. This work conducts a numerical analysis of the effects of streamwise lift distribution on the shock coalescence characteristics. A simple wing-canard-stabilator body model is used in the numerical simulation. The streamwise lift distribution is varied by fixing the canard at a deflection angle while trimming the aircraft with the wing and the stabilator at the desired lift coefficient. The lift and the pitching moment coefficients are computed using the Missile DATCOM v. 707. The flow field around the wing-canard- stabilator body model is resolved using the OVERFLOW-2 flow solver. Overset/ chimera grid topology is used to simplify the grid generation of various configurations representing different streamwise lift distributions. The numerical simulations are performed without viscosity unless it is required for numerical stability. All configurations are simulated at Mach 1.4, angle-of-attack of 1.50, lift coefficient of 0.05, and pitching moment coefficient of approximately 0. Four streamwise lift distribution configurations were tested.

  12. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet Flows with Shock Interactions (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Morr, Donald E.; Durston, Donald A.


    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are performing studies of supersonic aircraft concepts with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern aircraft designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty remains in the aft signatures due to boundary layer and nozzle exhaust jet effects. Wind tunnel testing without inlet and nozzle exhaust jet effects at lower Reynolds numbers than in-flight make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel is planned for February 2016 to address the nozzle jet effects on sonic boom. The experiment will provide pressure signatures of test articles that replicate waveforms from aircraft wings, tails, and aft fuselage (deck) components after passing through cold nozzle jet plumes. The data will provide a variety of nozzle plume and shock interactions for comparison with computational results. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of a variety of shock generators were evaluated to define a reduced collection of suitable test models. The computational results of the candidate wind tunnel test models as they evolved are summarized, and pre-test computations of the final designs are provided.

  13. Design study for a macropermeability test in an argillaceous formation (Boom clay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronders, J.


    In the present report a test design has been developed for determining the in-situ permeability of the Boom clay on a large scale at the Mol site (Belgium). Since in the Boom clay at the Mol site an Underground Repository Facility (URF) is operational the test has been designed to be run in or from this facility. The proposal is an in-situ macropermeability test with a set-up comprising a central borehole (metric scale in length) designed to allow various types of control of the water-level, surrounded by a lattice of piezometers installed in the clay mass for the monitoring of the interstitial water pressure changes in function of the various water-level controls. In one part the report describes the potential set-ups and a theoretical background as far as it can be done on the basis of existing literature and experiments. In a second part the method (technical and practical data of a test set-up) is described and documented. The method proposed is largely based on the several years of expertise gained within the field of in-situ migration and hydrogeologic investigations in the Hades-URF. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Popular Demobilization, Agribusiness Mobilization, and the Agrarian Boom in Post-Neoliberal Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lapegna


    Full Text Available Based on ethnographic research, archival data, and a catalog of protest events, this article analyzes the relationship between popular social movements, business mobilization, and institutional politics in Argentina during the post-neoliberal phase, which arguably began circa 2003. How did waves of popular mobilization in the 1990s shape business mobilization in the 2000s? How did contentious politics influence institutional politics in the post-neoliberal period? What are the changes and continuities of the agrarian boom that cut across the neoliberal and post-neoliberal periods? While I zoom in on Argentina, the article goes beyond this case by contributing to three discussions. First, rather than limiting the analysis to the customary focus on the mobilization of subordinated actors, it examines the demobilization of popular social movements, the mobilization of business sectors, and the connections between the two. Second, it shows the ways in which the state can simultaneously challenge neoliberal principles while also favoring the global corporations that dominate the contemporary neoliberal food regime. Finally, the case of Argentina sheds light on the political economy of the "Left turn" in Latin America, particularly the negative socio-environmental impacts of commodity booms. The article concludes that researchers need to pay closer attention to the connections between contentious and institutional politics, and to the protean possibilities of neoliberalism to inspire collective actions.

  15. Thermal shock induced dynamics of a spacecraft with a flexible deploying boom (United States)

    Shen, Zhenxing; Li, Huijian; Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Gengkai


    The dynamics in the process of deployment of a flexible extendible boom as a deployable structure on the spacecraft is studied. For determining the thermally induced vibrations of the boom subjected to an incident solar heat flux, an axially moving thermal-dynamic beam element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation which is able to precisely describe the large displacement, rotation and deformation of flexible body is presented. For the elastic forces formulation of variable-length beam element, the enhanced continuum mechanics approach is adopted, which can eliminate the Poisson locking effect, and take into account the tension-bending-torsion coupling deformations. The main body of the spacecraft, modeled as a rigid body, is described using the natural coordinates method. In the derived nonlinear thermal-dynamic equations of rigid-flexible multibody system, the mass matrix is time-variant, and a pseudo damping matrix which is without actual energy dissipation, and a heat conduction matrix which is relative to the moving speed and the number of beam element are arisen. Numerical results give the dynamic and thermal responses of the nonrotating and spinning spacecraft, respectively, and show that thermal shock has a significant influence on the dynamics of spacecraft.

  16. Geotechnical characterization of boom clay in relation to the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.; Winter, M.G.; Enwistle, D.C.


    This report describes the results of a laboratory study on the geotechnical properties of the Tertiary Boom clay. Tests were performed on 'undisturbed' samples of clay taken from a location 247 m below surface at the SCK/CEN experimental site at Mol in Belgium. In geotechnical terms, the Boom clay (at depth) may be described as a hard, high-plasticity, overconsolidated clay. Test methods have included (a) the one-dimensional consolidation test with consolidation stresses up to 32 MPa, (b) the one dimensional swelling pressure test, (c) the isotropically-consolidated, undrained (CIU) triaxial test with pore pressure measurement, and (d) the unconsolidated undrained (UU) triaxial test. All triaxial tests were load-controlled. Limited test results are presented on pore pressure responses during heating under undrained conditions and on the effect of elevated temperature (80 O C) on deformability and strength. It is found that significantly large excess pore pressures (circa 1 MPa under in situ stress conditions) may be developed during heating from ambient laboratory temperature to 80 O C. The effect is due, at least in part, to the expansion of the pore fluid

  17. Macro policy responses to oil booms and busts in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutawa, A.K.


    The effects of oil shocks and macro policy changes in the United Arab Emirates are analyzed. A theoretical model is developed within the framework of the Dutch Disease literature. It contains four unique features that are applicable to the United Arab Emirates' economy. There are: (1) the presence of a large foreign labor force; (2) OPEC's oil export quotas; (3) the division of oil profits; and (4) the important role of government expenditures. The model is then used to examine the welfare effects of the above-mentioned shocks. An econometric model is then specified that conforms to the analytical model. In the econometric model the method of 'principal components' is applied owing to the undersized sample data. The principal components methodology is used in both the identification testing and the estimation of the structural equations. The oil and macro policy shocks are then simulated. The simulation results show that an oil-quantity boom leads to a higher welfare gain than an oil-price boom. Under certain circumstances, this finding is also confirmed by the comparative statistics that follow from the analytical model

  18. Regional modelling of the confined aquifers below the Boom clay in NE-Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandersteen, K.; Gedeon, M.; Marivoet, J.; Wouters, L.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay is considered as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in NE-Belgium (Campine area). The hydrogeological program at SCK.CEN supports the long-term performance assessments of the geological disposal of radioactive waste by performing a phenomenological research of the aquifer systems surrounding the studied disposal system. One of the important components of this programme is the regional hydrogeological modelling. The regional hydrogeology is studied using two main models - the steady state Neogene aquifer model (NAM) and the transient deep aquifer pumping model (DAP), developed to characterize and quantify the regional groundwater flow in, respectively, the aquifers lying above the Boom Clay in the Nete catchment area (NAM), and the aquifers lying below the Boom Clay in the Campine area (DAP). This paper describes the most recent update of the DAP model. The DAP model represents the confined part of the groundwater system located stratigraphically below the Boom Clay. This includes the parts of the Oligocene aquifer, the Bartoon aquitard system and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer buried under the Boom Clay. Due to the considerable pumping from these aquifers in combination with a limited recharge, a gradual decrease in groundwater levels has been observed in more than 30-year piezometric records. In the DAP model, the shallow aquifer system overlying the Boom Clay is replaced by fixed head boundaries: this aquifer system is dominated by close-to-surface hydrological processes and the heads fluctuate seasonally without any apparent long-term trend. In the horizontal direction, the model extends to the south as far as the outcrops of the major aquitards: the Maldegem Formation confining the Ledo

  19. Untamed Jianghu or Emerging Profession: Diagnosing the Psycho-Boom amid China's Mental Health Legislation. (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan-Ying


    This article focuses on the psychotherapy debate in China that was triggered by the country's mental health legislation. Seeing the release of the draft Mental Health Law in 2011 as a "diagnostic event" (Moore in Am Ethnol 14(4):727-736, 1987), I examine the debate in order to unravel the underlying logic and ongoing dynamics of the psycho-boom that has become a conspicuous trend in urban China since the early 2000s. Drawing on my fieldwork in Beijing and Shanghai, I use the two keywords of the debate-"jianghu" (literally "rivers and lakes"), an indigenous term that evokes an untamed realm, and "profession," a foreign concept whose translation requires re-translation-to organize my delineation of its contours. I describe how anticipation of state regulation prompted fears and discontents as well as critical reflections and actions that aimed to transform the field into a profession. The efforts to mark out a professional core against the backdrop of unruly jianghu further faced the challenge of an alternative vision that saw popularization as an equally noble cause. The Mental Health Law came into effect in 2013; ultimately, however, it did not introduce substantive regulation. Finally, I discuss the implications of this debate and the prospects of the psycho-boom.

  20. NASA's Pursuit of Low-Noise Propulsion for Low-Boom Commercial Supersonic Vehicles (United States)

    Bridges, James; Brown, Clifford A.; Seidel, Jonathan A.


    Since 2006, when the Fundamental Aeronautics Program was instituted within NASA's Aeronautics Mission Directorate, there has been a Project looking at the technical barriers to commercial supersonic flight. Among the barriers is the noise produced by aircraft during landing and takeoff. Over the years that followed, research was carried out at NASA aeronautics research centers, often in collaboration with academia and industry, addressing the problem. In 2013, a high-level milestone was established, described as a Technical Challenge, with the objective of demonstrating the feasibility of a low-boom supersonic airliner that could meet current airport noise regulations. The Technical Challenge was formally called "Low Noise Propulsion for Low Boom Aircraft", and was completed in late 2016. This paper reports the technical findings from this Technical Challenge, reaching back almost 10 years to review the technologies and tools that were developed along the way. It also discusses the final aircraft configuration and propulsion systems required for a supersonic civilian aircraft to meet noise regulations using the technologies available today. Finally, the paper documents the model-scale tests that validated the acoustic performance of the study aircraft.

  1. Testing the Deployment Repeatability of a Precision Deployable Boom Prototype for the Proposed SWOT Karin Instrument (United States)

    Agnes, Gregory S.; Waldman, Jeff; Hughes, Richard; Peterson, Lee D.


    NASA's proposed Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled to launch in 2020, would provide critical information about Earth's oceans, ocean circulation, fresh water storage, and river discharge. The mission concept calls for a dual-antenna Ka-band radar interferometer instrument, known as KaRIn, that would map the height of water globally along two 50 km wide swaths. The KaRIn antennas, which would be separated by 10 meters on either side of the spacecraft, would need to be precisely deployable in order to meet demanding pointing requirements. Consequently, an effort was undertaken to design build and prototype a precision deployable Mast for the KaRIn instrument. Each mast was 4.5-m long with a required dilitation stability of 2.5 microns over 3 minutes. It required a minimum first mode of 7 Hz. Deployment repeatability was less than +/- 7 arcsec in all three rotation directions. Overall mass could not exceed 41.5 Kg including any actuators and thermal blanketing. This set of requirements meant the boom had to be three times lighter and two orders of magnitude more precise than the existing state of the art for deployable booms.

  2. Sonic Boom. (United States)

    Hurtig, Brent


    Reviews and evaluates Pro Tools 4.1, a multitrack digital audio workstation (DAWs) that imports and synchronizes to QuickTime or AVI digital movies. Audio-for-picture editors lock their digital audio workstations to linear videotape recorders, using complex, expensive time code synchronizers. Highlights Macintosh and Windows based alternatives.…

  3. A new and improved methodology for qualitative and quantitative mineralogical analysis of Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeelmaekers, E.; Vandenberghe, N.; Honty, M.; De Craen, M.; Derkowski, A.; Van Geet, M.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. A good knowledge of the mineralogy of any host formation studied for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is a prerequisite for understanding the geochemical environment which will determine the migration and retention behaviour of radionuclides. In this respect, the Boom Clay mineralogical composition has been extensively studied last decades as reference host formation (e.g. ARCHIMEDEARGILE project, OECD-NEA clay catalogue report) with the aim to provide reliable data for a safety assessment. However, a comparison of the available literature data clearly showed a serious discrepancy among studies, not only in the quantitative, but also in the qualitative mineralogical composition of the Boom Clay (SAFIR II). The reason for such a huge disagreement could be related, among others, to variable grain size distributions of the studied samples (sample heterogeneity) and differences in the methodological approaches. In particular, the unambiguous characterisation of clay minerals and the quantification of mixed-layer phases appeared as an everlasting problem. This study is aimed at achieving a consensus on the qualitative and quantitative mineralogical data of the Boom Clay using the most advanced techniques currently available in the clay science. A new sampling campaign was performed in such a way that samples are (20 in total) more or less regularly distributed over Boom Clay Formation, ensuring that variations in the grain size distributions due to silty clay-clayey silt layers alternations are accounted for. The novel concept based on an analysis at two levels was applied: (1) bulk rock and (2) clay fraction analysis. (1) A bulk rock analysis consists of conventional XRD analysis with the identification of the principal mineral phases. As a next step, the bulk rock was mixed with a ZnO internal standard and experimental diffraction patterns of randomly oriented powders were analyzed using &apos

  4. Evolution Of An Upper Crustal Plutonic-Volcanic Plumbing System:Insights From High Precision U-Pb Zircon Geochronology Of Intracaldera Tuff And Intrusions In Silver Creek Caldera, Arizona, USA (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Mundil, R.; Miller, C. F.; Miller, J. S.; Paterson, S. R.


    Study of both plutonic and volcanic regimes in one single magmatic system is a powerful approach towards obtaining a more complete view of the long-term evolution of magma systems. The recently discovered Silver Creek caldera is the source of the voluminous Peach Spring Tuff (PST) (Ferguson, 2008) and presents a unique opportunity to study a field laboratory of a linked plutonic-volcanic system. This relict west-facing half caldera is predominantly filled with trachytic intracaldera tuff with the caldera margin intruded by several petrologically distinct hypabyssal intrusions. These include porphyritic granite with granophyric texture, felsic leucogranite, porphyritic monzonite exposed on NE side of the caldera that is zoned from more felsic to more mafic, and quartz-phyric dikes that intrude the caldera fill. We present preliminary single zircon ages from 4 samples that have been analyzed using the CA-TIMS method after thermal annealing and chemical leaching (Mattinson 2005), including 1 sample from intracaldera tuff and 3 samples from caldera-related intrusions. 3-D total U/Pb isochron ages from all four samples fall within a range of 18.32-18.90 Ma with uncertainties between 0.09 and 0.39 Ma, although some of them lack precision and are compromised by elevated common Pb. For example, zircon from the dated porphyritic monzonite yields an age of 18.32±0.42 Ma (MSWD=2.7) where the excess scatter may result from real age dispersion and/or different compositions of the common Pb contribution. The PST had been dated to ~18.5 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar techniques (Nielson et al., 1990). In order to be compared to U/Pb ages the 40Ar/39Ar age must be adjusted for a revised age for the then used flux monitor (MMbh-1) and corrected for the now quantified systematic bias between 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb ages (Renne et al., 2010), which results in a corrected age of 18.8 Ma. Thus, the ages for our samples match that of the PST within error. Based on current results, the age difference

  5. Mechanism and duration of plutonic processes in oceanic crust: the example of the South Rallier du Baty intrusive complex, Kerguelen Archipelago (United States)

    Ponthus, Léandre; Guillaume, Damien; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; le Romancer, Marc; Pearson, Norman; Grégoire, Michel; O'Reilly, Sue Y.


    The Kerguelen plateau was initiated by a large-scale tholeiitic-transitional magmatic episode. The rocks of the Kerguelen archipelago, dominated by basalts, record an evolution from this early transitional magmatism to Kerguelen plume-related alkaline magmatism. The latter is characterised by a wide range of volcanic and plutonic rocks from basic to differentiated felsic rocks, which outcrop at different locations in the archipelago but are especially abundant in the southwest of Kerguelen archipelago. This is the location of outcrop of the South Rallier Du Baty Intrusive Center (SRDBIC) which constitutes the largest plutonic body, classically interpreted as a cauldron. The SRDBIC is an elliptical plutonic body of 13 by a minimum of 17 km with a N100-110 long axis. The rock composition range from gabbro to quartz rich-syenite and define a typical alkaline oversaturated magmatic serie. The contact is generally outward dipping but we have identified two contrasting geometries: one steeply dipping and crosscutting the basaltic lava flows, the other more shallowly dipping and concordant. At the scale of the Kerguelen archipelago, the orientation of the basaltic lava flows constituting the wall-rocks of the SRDBIC is very regular but is not strictly horizontal, showing a low dip (3-5°) toward the SE, due to recent tilting. We observe a change in this orientation when approaching the SRDBIC: all around the east and south margins of the SRDBIC, we measure a progressive tilting of the plateau basalts, reaching dips of 20-40° away from the SRDBIC. The amplitude of this tilt suggests that the thickness of the SRDIC is between 2.5 and 3.5 km, defining a total volume of 200-400 km3. The spatial coincidence between this change in basalt orientation and the intrusive centre clearly shows a causal relationship related to uplifting of the plateau basalts during the formation of the SRDBIC. Field observations and fabric studies show that the plutonic complex was formed by

  6. Insights into the emplacement of upper-crustal plutons and their relationship to large silicic calderas, from field relationships, geochronology, and zircon trace element geochemistry in the Stillwater - Clan Alpine caldera complex, western Nevada, USA (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; John, David A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Watts, Kathryn E.


    Geologic mapping, new U-Pb zircon ages, and new and published 40Ar/39Ar sanidine ages document the timing and extent of Oligocene magmatism in the southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains of western Nevada, where Miocene extension has exposed at least six nested silicic calderas and underlying granitic plutons to crustal depths locally ≥ 9 km. Both caldera-forming rhyolitic tuffs and underlying plutons were emplaced in two episodes, one from about 30.4-28.2 Ma that included the Deep Canyon, Job Canyon, and Campbell Creek calderas and underlying plutons, and one from about 25.3-24.8 Ma that included the Louderback Mountains, Poco Canyon, and Elevenmile Canyon calderas and underlying plutons. In these two 1-2 m.y. periods, almost the entire Mesozoic upper crust was replaced by Oligocene intrusive and extrusive rocks to depths ≥ 9 km over an estimated total area of 1500 km2 (pre-extension). Zircon trace element geochemistry indicates that some plutonic rock can be solidified residual magma from the tuff eruptions. Most plutons are not solidified residual magma, although they directly underlie calderas and were emplaced along the same structures shortly after to as much as one million years after caldera formation. Magma chambers and plutons grew by floor subsidence accommodated by downward transfer of country rocks. If other Great Basin calderas are similar, the dense concentration of shallowly exposed calderas in central Nevada is underlain by a complexly zoned mid-Cenozoic batholith assembled in discrete pulses that coincided with formation of large silicic calderas up to 2500-5000 km3.

  7. Petrological and geochemical constraints on the origin of mafic dykes intruding the composite Kaçkar Pluton from the eastern Blacksea magmatic arc, NE Turkey (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk; Oguz, Simge; Baser, Rasim; Uysal, Ibrahim; Sen, Cüneyt; Karsli, Orhan; Kandemir, Raif


    Geological, petrographical and geochemical data of mafic dykes intruding the composite Kaçkar Pluton from the eastern Blacksea magmatic arc (EBMA), NE Turkey, provide new insights into the nature of the metasomatizing agents in subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the region during the late Mesozoic-early Tertiary. Mafic dykes from the Çaykara and Hayrat (Trabzon), and also Ikizdere (Rize) areas from the northern margin of the EBMA consist of basalts, dolerites, lamprophyres (basic member) and lesser basaltic andesites and trachyandesites (evolved member). All dykes have no deformation and metamorphism. The outcrops of these dykes vary, with thickness from 0.2 to 10 m. and visible length from 3 to 20 m. In general, the mafic dykes dip steeply and cut directly across the Kaçkar Pluton, and show NW- and NE-trending, roughly parallel to the orientations of the EBMA main faults. Most of the dyke samples display subaphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase (up to 10%), clinopyroxene (5-20%), amphibole (5-15%), and some contain variable amount of biotite (5-20%), lesser quartz (1-2%), and minor euhedral zircon, apatite and Fe-Ti oxides. The basic members of the mafic dykes have SiO2 of 44.1-51.9%, MgO of 4.5-12.1%, and TiO2 >mostly 0.8% (up to 2.3%) with K2O+Na2O of 1.3-6.6% with mostly subalkaline character. They are relatively high in mg-number (0.45-0.73) and transition metals (V=171-376 ppm, Co=22-45 ppm, Ni=3-148 ppm, and Sc=21-49 ppm). The evolved members of the dykes exhibit relatively higher SiO2 (57.1-60.2%) and K2O+Na2O (5.6-9.0%), and lower MgO (2.2-5.9%) and TiO2 (0.5-0.8%) contents than those from the basic dykes. Also, these samples have slightly low mg-number (0.41-0.65) and transition metals (V=99-172 ppm, Co=9-22 ppm, Ni=1-43 ppm, and Sc=9-20 ppm). In the Harker diagrams, all samples of the mafic dykes form a continuous array, and exhibit similar geochemical characteristics. In general, SiO2 inversely correlates with MgO, Fe

  8. Developments in modelling of thermohydro-geomechanical behaviour of Boom clay and clay-based buffer materials (volume 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, G.; Hueckel, T.; Peano, A.; Pellegrini, R.


    This study is composed of two parts: The first part (Volume 1) lays the foundations of a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the interaction between water and soil skeleton during thermal dilatation. The second part (volume 2) is devoted to the development and the application of advance constitutive modelling of mechanical behaviour of clays taking into account the extensive tests of Boom clay reported in the first volume. The development concentrated on the improvement of prediction of the volumetric response of clay skeleton: (a) improving the dilatancy prediction at low to high overconsolidation ratios (Section 2). An elasto-plastic constitutive model has been developed to account for this effect (Section 3.2.); (b) modelling of swelling effects (Section 2.5). A preliminary interpretative model for swelling prediction has been developed (Section 2.5). The application part consisted in interpreting the experimental results obtained for Boom clay to calibrate a set of constants (Section 3) for performing numerical analyses (Section 4) for the thermomechanical model already calibrated for Boom clay (Appendix). Interpretation of the tests required an assessment of influence of the strong anisotropy effects revealed by Boom clay on the basis of an interpretative model characterized by a kinematic hardening plasticity and coupled elasticity (section 3)

  9. An Economic Rationale for the West African Scramble? The Commercial Transition and the Commodity Price Boom of 1835-1885

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, Ewout; Williamson, Jeffrey; Woltjer, Pieter


    We use a new trade dataset showing that nineteenth century Sub-Saharan Africa experienced a terms of trade boom comparable to other parts of the ‘global periphery’. A sharp rise in export prices in the five decades before the scramble (1835-1885) was followed by an equally impressive decline during

  10. Financial services in England in the late XVII century and first equity market boom (1691–1693

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi


    Full Text Available The article shows the formation of the British financial services industry in the 1690's and the reasons of the first joint-stock companies’ boom of 1691–1693's. The author describes the course of events of this boom, and data on the volume of transactions in shares. The reasons of the joint-stock boom end are associated with very low capitalization of most of the new companies. The consequence of rapid economic growth in England in the late XVII century was the appearance and rapid development of financial services. Financial intermediaries appeared first and their services, in particular the services of insurance companies, were in demand. The rapid increase in the number of insurance companies has become prerequisite for becoming financial capitalism that led to the emergence of other intermediaries which provided financial services. Among them there were the so-called "notaries" that offered a full range of services related to land transactions and "bankers, jewelers," that woke the first private bankers. Thus, in the early 1690's London had a favorable environment for the rapid growth of the financial market, which was the main precondition for expanding market shares and led to the joint-stock boom.

  11. Feasibility study on conducting overflight measurements of shaped sonic boom signatures using the Firebee BQM-34E RPV (United States)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.; Keefer, Thomas N., Jr.


    A study was performed to determine the feasibility of establishing if a 'shaped' sonic boom signature, experimentally shown in wind tunnel models out to about 10 body lengths, will persist out to representative flight conditions of 200 to 300 body lengths. The study focuses on the use of a relatively large supersonic remotely-piloted and recoverable vehicle. Other simulation methods that may accomplish the objective are also addressed and include the use of nonrecoverable target drones, missiles, full-scale drones, very large wind tunnels, ballistic facilities, whirling-arm techniques, rocket sled tracks, and airplane nose probes. In addition, this report will also present a background on the origin of the feasibility study including a brief review of the equivalent body concept, a listing of the basic sonic boom signature characteristics and requirements, identification of candidate vehicles in terms of desirable features/availability, and vehicle characteristics including geometries, area distributions, and resulting sonic boom signatures. A program is developed that includes wind tunnel sonic boom and force models and tests for both a basic and modified vehicles and full-scale flight tests.

  12. The Perceived Work Ethic of K-12 Teachers by Generational Status: Generation X vs. Baby Boom Generation (United States)

    Petty, Gregory C.


    This was an investigation of the work ethic of K-12 educators from Generation X and Baby Boomer generations. Teachers of the baby boom generation were born between 1946 and 1964, and many are beginning to retire. There is an impending teacher shortage due to the large numbers of this group retiring or leaving the profession. School administrators…

  13. Crane and Hoisting Equipment Operator Boom Truck Operator: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 34-305.2 (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2005


    The graduate of the Crane and Hoisting Equipment Operator Boom Truck Operator apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) correctly use and care for tools and materials which are required to carry out the normal service and maintenance of the machines…

  14. Guadalupe pluton-Mariposa Formation age relationships in the southern Sierran Foothills: Onset of Mesozoic subduction in northern California? (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.; Saleeby, Jason B.; Snow, Cameron A.


    We report a new 153 ± 2 Ma SIMS U-Pb date for zircons from the hypabyssal Guadalupe pluton which crosscuts and contact metamorphoses upper crustal Mariposa slates in the southern Sierra. A ˜950 m thick section of dark metashales lies below sandstones from which clastic zircons were analyzed at 152 ± 2 Ma. Assuming a compacted depositional rate of ˜120 m/Myr, accumulation of Mariposa volcanogenic sediments, which overlie previously stranded Middle Jurassic and older ophiolite + chert-argillite belts in the Sierran Foothills, began no later than ˜160 Ma. Correlative Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian strata of the Galice Formation occupy a similar position in the Klamath Mountains. We speculate that the Late Jurassic was a time of transition from (1) a mid-Paleozoic-Middle Jurassic interval of mainly but not exclusively strike-slip and episodic docking of oceanic terranes; (2) to transpressive plate underflow, producing calcalkaline igneous arc rocks ± outboard blueschists at ˜170-150 Ma, whose erosion promoted accumulation of the Mariposa-Galice overlap strata; (3) continued transpressive underflow attending ˜200 km left-lateral displacement of the Klamath salient relative to the Sierran arc at ˜150-140 Ma and development of the apparent polar wander path cusps for North and South America; and (4) then nearly orthogonal mid and Late Cretaceous convergence commencing at ˜125-120 Ma, during reversal in tangential motion of the Pacific plate. After ˜120 Ma, nearly head-on subduction involving minor dextral transpression gave rise to voluminous continent-building juvenile and recycled magmas of the Sierran arc, providing the erosional debris to the Great Valley fore arc and Franciscan trench.

  15. Petrology, Magnetic susceptibility, Tectonic setting and mineralization associated with Plutonic and Volcanic Rocks, Eastern Bajestan and Taherabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Ghoorchi


    Full Text Available Study area is located in district of Bajestan and Ferdows cities, NE of Iran. Structurally, this area is part of Lut block. The oldest exposed rocks, to the north of intrusive rocks and in Eastern Bajestan, are meta-chert, slate, quartzite, thin-bedded crystalline limestone and meta-argillite. The sedimentary units are: Sardar Formation (Carboniferous, Jamal Formation (Permian, Sorkh Shale and Shotori Formations (Triassic, carbonateous rocks (Cretaceous and lithostratigraphically equivalent to Kerman conglomerate (Cretaceous-Paleocene are exposed in this area. Based on relative age, magmatism in eastern Bajestan and Taherabad started after Late Cretaceous and it has been active and repeated during Tertiary time. At least, three episodes of volcanic activities are recognized in this area. The first stage was mainly volcanic flow with mafic composition and minor intermediate. The second episode was mainly intermediate in composition. The third stage was changed to acid-intermediate in composition. Since the plutonic rocks intruded the volcanic rocks, therefore they may be Oligo-Miocene age. Bajestan intrusive rocks are granite-granodiorite-quartz monzonite. Taherabad intrusive rocks are diorite-quartz diorite- monzonite-latite. Bajestan intrusive rocks are reduced type (ilmenite series and Taherabad intrusive rocks are oxidized type (magnetite series.Based on geochemical analysis including trace elements, REE and isotopic data, Bajestan intrusive rocks formed in continental collision zone and the magma has crustal origin. Taherabad intrusive rocks were formed in subduction zone and magma originated from oceanic crust. Taherabad intrusive rock has exploration potential for Cu-Au and pb.

  16. Subjective loudness and annoyance of filtered N-wave sonic booms. (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S


    The contribution of the "infrasonic" low-frequency content of sonic boom N waves to subjective loudness and annoyance has been investigated. An extended low-frequency response loudspeaker-driven simulation booth was employed, with computer-generated input test signals. For test N waves of 1 ms rise time and 150 ms duration, frequencies below 25 and 50 Hz, respectively, were cut off by digital filters simulating simple RC circuits. The filtered signal amplitude was adjusted versus the amplitude (48 Pa) of a reference unfiltered N wave (effective low-frequency cutoff approximately 0.1 Hz) until the two sounded equally loud (first experiment) or equally annoying (second experiment). The amplitude differences for equality were very slight: less than 0.6 dB at most. Surprisingly, while loss of the low frequencies slightly decreased the loudness, it slightly increased the annoyance.

  17. Evaluation of oxidation of Boom Clay during construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Geet, M.


    Within the Sixth Framework Programme bey the European Commission, NF-PRO is an Integrated Project on the key-processes and their couplings in the near-field of a repository for the geological disposal of vitrified high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. For the construction and operation of a geological repository of radioactive waste, the excavation and ventilation of galleries is necessary. As such, the oxidation of the anaerobic host rock, containing pyrite, is unavoidable. This chemical perturbation can affect the favourable host rock characteristics and influence the engineered barrier system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent of oxidation in the Boom Clay related to excavation of galleries; the evolution of the extent of oxidation during ventilation of galleries. The latter aspect might deliver important input towards design, especially concerning the time to leave galleries open. Some valuable information towards performance assessment can be given as well

  18. Étude du comportement anisotrope de l'argile de Boom


    DAO, Linh Quyen


    Dans le cadre de la déposition géologique profonde des déchets radioactifs, l'argile de Boom est choisie comme une des formations hôtes potentielles dans le programme belge. Par sa formation géologique, cette argile est considérée comme un matériau isotrope transversal. En effet, l'anisotropie de ses propriétés hydraulique et thermique a été mise en évidence dans plusieurs études. Il apparait maintenant nécessaire de mener une étude complète sur son comportement anisotrope. Sur le plan expéri...

  19. Analysis of Offshore Knuckle Boom Crane - Part One: Modeling and Parameter Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten K. Bak


    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive model of a knuckle boom crane used for pipe handling on offshore drilling rigs. The mechanical system is modeled as a multi-body system and includes the structural flexibility and damping. The motion control system model includes the main components of the crane's electro-hydraulic actuation system. For this a novel black-box model for counterbalance valves is presented, which uses two different pressure ratios to compute the flow through the valve. Experimental data and parameter identification, based on both numerical optimization and manual tuning, are used to verify the crane model. The demonstrated modeling and parameter identification techniques target the system engineer and takes into account the limited access to component data normally encountered by engineers working with design of hydraulic systems.

  20. [Cigarette and advertising poster: history of a dangerous connection in the post-war economic boom]. (United States)

    Olivier, Jacques


    The advertising poster's main characteristic is the ability to convey a commercial message quickly and publicly thanks to its straightforward image and text. The young people, being the tobacco industry's principal target, are particularly exposed to these messages. This kind of advertisement becomes a mean of counterstroke as soon as the cigarette's harmfulness is acknowledged. Some of the cigarette industry's strategies can be revealed by the historical analysis of a 253 posters corpus selected among the main cigarette manufacturers in Switzerland at the time of the post-war economic boom. With the misuse of sport's theme, the overvaluation of the filter's efficiency, the use of a vocabulary that implies lightness and by erasing the image of smoke in its advertisement, the industry tries to reassure the smoker wrongly.

  1. Booming Development of Group IV-VI Semiconductors: Fresh Blood of 2D Family. (United States)

    Zhou, Xing; Zhang, Qi; Gan, Lin; Li, Huiqiao; Xiong, Jie; Zhai, Tianyou


    As an important component of 2D layered materials (2DLMs), the 2D group IV metal chalcogenides (GIVMCs) have drawn much attention recently due to their earth-abundant, low-cost, and environmentally friendly characteristics, thus catering well to the sustainable electronics and optoelectronics applications. In this instructive review, the booming research advancements of 2D GIVMCs in the last few years have been presented. First, the unique crystal and electronic structures are introduced, suggesting novel physical properties. Then the various methods adopted for synthesis of 2D GIVMCs are summarized such as mechanical exfoliation, solvothermal method, and vapor deposition. Furthermore, the review focuses on the applications in field effect transistors and photodetectors based on 2D GIVMCs, and extends to flexible devices. Additionally, the 2D GIVMCs based ternary alloys and heterostructures have also been presented, as well as the applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Finally, the conclusion and outlook have also been presented in the end of the review.

  2. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and volatile metals in the Spirit Lake pluton and Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry system, SW Washington, USA (United States)

    Iveson, Alexander A.; Webster, James D.; Rowe, Michael C.; Neill, Owen K.


    The halogen-bearing minerals tourmaline, amphibole, and biotite formed during magmatic-hydrothermal processes associated with the late-stage cooling of the Spirit Lake granitoid pluton (Mt. St. Helens, WA) and with the younger sulphide-mineralised rocks of the Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry deposit located entirely within the pluton. Major- and trace-element discrimination suggests that one tourmaline population crystallised from fractionated late-stage melt pockets in granodiorite-monzogranitic dykes of the pluton. These coarse, euhedral, oscillatory, and complexly sector-zoned uvite tourmalines span a limited range in Mg/(Mg + Fe) [Mg#] space (0.4-0.7 apfu) and show the highest Ti, Ca, F, Nb, and Ta contents, and low X-site vacancies (X-site vacancies (>0.6 apfu), lower Ca and F contents, and the highest Li, As, and HREE contents (>80 ppm Li, >1200 ppm As). This population appears to record direct, rapid crystallisation from magmatic ± meteoric fluid(s) bearing the signature of the breakdown of primary feldspars and pyroxenes, with fluid exsolution from fractionated melt patches likely triggered by the formation of the previous generation of tourmaline. Mineralised porphyry deposit tourmaline compositions from the stockwork span a much larger range in Mg# space (0.05-0.9 apfu) and are almost entirely Ca-free. X-sites of these schorl tourmalines are dominated by Na or vacancies, and the Y-sites are strongly Fe enriched. The highest Mn and Zn concentrations (>4000 and >1000 ppm, respectively) potentially reflect the composition of mineralising fluids during ore deposition. A number of boron isotopic analyses yield predominantly heavy boron, but δ11B values range from -5.2 to 6.2 ‰ and average 1.4 ‰. Whilst most plutonic tourmalines conform to reported a- and c-sector element partitioning models, those from the mineralised porphyry show large and variable sector fractionation differences, suggesting that external controls may also be important. Wider evidence for

  3. U-Pb zircon and monazite geochronology of the Hercynian two-mica granite composite pluton of Cabeceiras de Basto (Northern Portugal); Geochronologie U-Pb sur zircon et monazite du massif composite de granite a deux micas hercynien de Cabeceiras de Basto (Nord-Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.; Noronha, F. [Universidade do Porto (Portugal). Centro de Geologia; Leterrier, J. [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bertrand, J.M. [Universite de Savoie, 73 - Le-Bourget-du-Lac (France). Laboratoire de geodynamique des Chaines alpines


    The zircon and monazite U-Pb minimum age of the Hercynian peraluminous two-mica composite granite pluton of Cabeceiras de Basto (Northern Portugal) is 311 {+-} 1 Ma (2 {sigma}). This age, well constrained by a concordant monazite of 311{+-}4 Ma (2{sigma}), is in good agreement with the age suggested for the syn-kinematic, syn-D3, Iberian granites of the Hercynian orogeny (315-305; Pinto et al., 1987). The ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr){sub i} and {xi}{sub Nd} isotopic ratios, calculated for 311 Ma, suggest that the three granite units which constitute the massif may derive from an heterogeneous crustal source dated (upper intercept of the discordance) around 1200 Ma. (authors) 21 refs.

  4. Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages for the Copiapó plutonic complex and implications for the IOCG mineralization at Candelaria, Atacama Region, Chile (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Söllner, Frank


    Four of the major plutons in the vicinity of the Candelaria mine (470 Mt at 0.95% Cu, 0.22 g/t Au, 3.1 g/t Ag) and a dike-sill system exposed in the Candelaria open pit have been dated with the U-Pb zircon method. The new geochronological data indicate that dacite magmatism around 123 Ma preceded the crystallization of hornblende diorite (Khd) at 118 ± 1 Ma, quartz-monzonite porphyry (Kqm) at 116.3 ± 0.4 Ma, monzodiorite (Kmd) at 115.5 ± 0.4 Ma, and tonalite (Kt) at 110.7 ± 0.4 Ma. The new ages of the plutons are consistent with field relationships regarding the relative timing of emplacement. Plutonism temporally overlaps with the iron oxide Cu-Au mineralization (Re-Os molybdenite ages at ˜115 Ma) and silicate alteration (ages mainly from 114 to 116 and 110 to 112 Ma) in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district. The dated dacite porphyry and hornblende diorite intrusions preceded the ore formation. A genetic link of the metallic mineralization with the quartz-monzonite porphyry and/or the monzodiorite is likely. Both of these metaluminous, shoshonitic (high-K) intrusions could have provided energy and contributed fluids, metals, and sulfur to the hydrothermal system that caused the iron oxide Cu-Au mineralization. The age of the tonalite at 110.7 Ma falls in the same range as the late alteration at 110 to 112 Ma. Tonalite emplacement may have sustained existing or driven newly developed hydrothermal cells that caused this late alteration or modified 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar systematic in some areas.

  5. Age and isotopic fingerprints of some plutonic rocks in the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith with special reference to the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island

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    Rämö, O.T.


    Full Text Available The mid-Proterozoic, locus classicus Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith of southeastern Finland and adjacent Russia comprises a varying, bimodal (silicic-basic sequence of plutonic, subvolcanic, and volcanic rocks. At the current level of erosion silicic rocks are dominant, the most prominent of which are wiborgites and dark wiborgites (that have been considered to mark the main build-up stage of the batholith and pyterlites. New observations and optical microscopy data from the dark wiborgite-dominated Ristisaari Island in the southern, off-shore part of the Wiborg batholith show that dark plagioclase megacrysts in dark wiborgite are calcic xenocrysts. They were probably incorporated into wiborgite magma from consanguineous massiftype anorthosite magmas in the course of the evolution of the bimodal magmatic system. Our new ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon age of the Ristisaari Island dark wiborgite, 1627±3 Ma, is the youngest isotopic age so far determined for the plutonic rocks of the Wiborg batholith. This, combined with preexisting U-Pb zircon data, implies a minimum duration of 12 m.y. (1642–1630 Ma for the emplacement of the plutonic rocks of the batholith. Combined with data on highlevel dike rocks, a window of at least 20 m.y. (1642–1622 Ma is implied. Furthermore, as the batholith grew, the overall locus of magmatism may have shifted southwards. New whole-rock Nd isotope data on the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island and three further granites of the batholith, as well as Nd (whole-rock and Sr (whole-rock, plagioclase isotope data on a spectrolite massif-type anorthosite from the east-central part of the batholith, are also presented. These data suggest that the lithosphere across the Wiborg batholith area in the southeastern part of the Svecofennian orogen may vary slightly in overall mantle separation age.

  6. Zircon U–Pb–Hf isotopic and geochemical characteristics of the Xierzi biotite monzogranite pluton, Linxi, Inner Mongolia and its tectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Bin Guan


    Full Text Available The opening, subduction and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean led to the formation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Controversy has long surrounded the timing of final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Here we present zircon U–Pb ages and petrological, geochemical and in situ Hf isotope data for the Xierzi biotite monzogranite pluton, Linxi, SE Inner Mongolia. U–Pb dating of zircon by LA-ICP-MS yields a middle Permian emplacement age (268.7 ± 2.3 Ma for the Xierzi pluton that is dominated by biotite monzogranites with high SiO2 (71.2–72.8 wt.%, alkali (Na2O + K2O = 8.05–8.44 wt.%, Al2O3 (14.4–15.2 wt.% and Fe2O3T relative to low MgO contents, yielding Fe2O3T/MgO ratios of 2.87–3.44, and plotting within the high-K calc-alkaline field on a SiO2 vs. K2O diagram. The aluminum saturation indexes (A/CNK of the biotite monzogranites range from 1.06 to 1.19, corresponding to weakly to strongly peraluminous. They are enriched in rare earth elements (REE, high field strength elements (HFSEs; Zr, Hf, and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; Rb, U, Th. The LREEs are enriched relative to the HREEs, with a distinct negative Eu anomaly in a chondrite–normalized REE diagram. Geochemically, the Xierzi biotite monzogranite is classified as an aluminous A-type granite, with all samples plotting within the A2-type granite field on a Y/Nb vs. Rb/Nb diagram. Zircon εHf(t values and two-stage modal ages of the zircons within the pluton range from +4.80 to +13.65 and from 983 to 418 Ma, respectively, indicating that the primary magma was generated through partial melting of felsic rocks from juvenile crust. Consequently, these results demonstrate that the Xierzi pluton formed under the post-orogenic extensional setting after arc–continent collision in the middle Permian.

  7. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: a study of postclosure safety of in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock. Volume 2: vault model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.H.; LeNeveu, D.M.; King, F.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Kolar, M.; Oscarson, D.W.; Sunder, S.; Onofrei, C.; Crosthwaite, J.L.


    A study has been undertaken to evaluate the design and long-term performance of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault based on a concept of in-room emplacement of copper containers at a depth of 500 m in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. The containers, each with 72 used CANDU fuel bundles, would be surrounded by clay-based buffer and backfill materials in an array of parallel rooms, with the excavation boundary assumed to have an excavation-disturbed zone (EDZ) with a higher permeability than the surrounding rock. In the anoxic conditions of deep rock of the Canadian Shield, the copper containers are expected to survive for >10 6 a. Thus container manufacturing defects, which are assumed to affect approximately 1 in 5000 containers, would be the only potential source of radionuclide release in the vault. The vault model is a computer code that simulates the release of radionuclides that would occur upon contact of the used fuel with groundwater, the diffusive transport of these radionuclides through the defect in the container shell and the surrounding buffer, and their dispersive and convective transport through the backfill and EDZ into the surrounding rock. The vault model uses a computationally efficient boundary integral model (BIM) that simulates radionuclide mass transport in the engineered barrier system as a point source (representing the defective container) that releases radionuclides into concentric cylinders, that represent the buffer, backfill and EDZ. A 3-dimensional finite-element model is used to verify the accuracy of the BIM. The results obtained in the present study indicates the effectiveness of a design using in-room emplacement of long-lived containers in providing a safe disposal system even under permeable geosphere conditions. (author). refs., tabs., figs

  8. Processes involved in the formation of magnesian-suite plutonic rocks from the highlands of the Earth's Moon (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.


    The earliest evolution of the Moon likely included the formation of a magma ocean and the subsequent development of anorthositic flotation cumulates. This primary anorthositic crust was then intruded by mafic magmas which crystallized to form the lunar highlands magnesian suite. The present study is a compilation of petrologic, mineral-chemical, and geochemical information on all pristine magnesian-suite plutonic rocks and the interpretation of this data in light of 18 'new' samples. Of these 18 clasts taken from Apollo 14 breccias, 12 are probably pristine and include four dunites, two norites, four troctolites, and two anorthosites. Radiogenic isotopic whole rock data also are reported for one of the 'probably pristine' anorthositic troctolites, sample 14303,347. The relatively low Rb content and high Sm and Nd abundances of 14303,347 suggest that this cumulate rock was derived from a parental magma which had these chemical characteristics. Trace element, isotopic, and mineral-chemical data are used to interpret the total highlands magnesian suite as crustal precipitates of a primitive KREEP (possessing a K-, rare earth element (REE)-, and P-enriched chemical signature) basalt magma. This KREEP basalt was created by the mixing of ascending ultramafic melts from the lunar interior with urKREEP (the late, K-, REE-, and P-enriched residuum of the lunar magma ocean). A few samples of the magnesian suite with extremely elevated large-ion lithophile elements (5-10x other magnesian-suite rocks) cannot be explained by this model or any other model of autometasomatism, equilibrium crystallization, or 'local melt-pocket equilibrium' without recourse to an extremely large-ion lithophile element-enriched parent liquid. It is difficult to generate parental liquids which are 2-4 x higher in the REE than average lunar KREEP, unless the liquids are the basic complement of a liquid-liquid pair, i.e., the so-called 'REEP-fraction,' from the silicate liquid immiscibility of ur

  9. Origin and tectonic implications of the ∼200 Ma, collision-related Jerai pluton of the Western Granite Belt, Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Jamil, Azmiah; Ghani, Azman A.; Zaw, Khin; Osman, Syamir; Quek, Long Xiang


    Triassic granitoids (∼200-225 Ma) are widespread in the Western Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. The Main Range granite is the biggest batholith in the Western Belt composed of peraluminous to metaluminous granite and granodiorite and displays typical ilmenite-series characteristics. Jerai granitic pluton occurs at the northwestern part of the Main Range granite batholith. The Jerai granite can be divided into three facies: (i) biotite-muscovite granite; (ii) tourmaline granite; and (iii) pegmatite and aplopegmatite. Biotite-muscovite granite accounts for 90% of the Jerai pluton, and the rest is tourmaline granite. Geochemical data reveal that pegmatite and tourmaline granite are more differentiated than biotite-muscovite granite. Both pegmatite and tourmaline granite have a higher SiO2 content (70.95-83.94% versus 69.45-73.35%) and a more pronounced peraluminous character. The U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Jerai granite gave an age ranging from 204 ± 4.3 Ma, 205 ± 4 Ma and 205 ± 2 Ma for pegmatite biotite-muscovite granite and tourmaline granite, respectively. The biotite-muscovite Jerai granites are similar to S-type Main Range granite, but the tourmaline granite has a signature of late-stage hydrothermal fluid interaction such as tourmaline quartz pods, the accumulation of large pegmatitic K-feldspar, pronounced peraluminous character, higher SiO2 content. Age evidence of these two granitic facies suggest that they are from the same magma.

  10. Petrography of the uranium-bearing minerals of the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina: phase assemblages and migration of uranium in granitoid rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, J.A.; Solberg, T.N.; Becker, S.W.


    Optical petrography, fission track U mapping, and electron microprobe analysis of granitoid rocks from the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina, show a nonuniform distribution of U in the rocks. In order of abundance, U occurs: in accessory minerals, with U concentrations decreasing in the order: uraninite, coffinite, uranoan thorite, zircon, monazite, titanite, allanite, apatite, zeolites; on altered sulfaces of Fe/sup +2/- and S-bearing minerals; at microcracks filled with carbonate, zeolite, and Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide minerals; on clay minerals of altered feldspars; and in major minerals as a widely dispersed minor component. Thorium has been identified in the accessory minerals thorite, thoroan uraninite, coffinite, allanite, and monazite. Uranium and Th distribution is believed to be of magmatic origin within the major U-Th-Zr phase assemblage: uranoan thorite +zircon /plus or minus/ uraninite. The mechanisms of U retention are similar to those found in sedimentary U deposits. The U-Th-Pb isotope studies of the Liberty Hill pluton show that these mechanisms are effective in retaining the initial concentrations of U. Refs

  11. Evaluating the controls on Tourmaline Crystallization in the mylonitic granite-gneiss pluton in the Northeastern of Jan mine (Lorestan province

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    Arezoo Moradi


    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is a part of the Sanandaj- Sirjan zone that is located in the NW of Azna city and NE of the dimension stone mine of Jan between 49° 11' 41"and 49° 16' 07" E longitude and 33° 36'35" and 33° 38'12" N latitude., A pluton of mylonitic granite-gneiss is exposed in the area which contains abundant tourmalines as black and patchy or subgrain association. Geochemically, the studied granite-gneiss is A-type, peraluminous to slightly metaluminous and calc – alkaline to slightly alkaline (Moradi et al., 7. The electron microprobe analyses of the tourmalines display shorl-dravite in composition with more tendency to shorl (Moradi et al., 2015. In this paper we try to study the petrological sites of tourmaline formation with associated minerals, controller factors of crystallization using mineral chemistry of tourmaline, comprehensive behavior of trace elements in the tourmaline, synthetic phase diagrams and finally relationships between the associated minerals. Materials and methods The results of trace-element and major-element analyses were obtained from one polished thin section including 2 tourmaline grains. Major-element analyses of tourmaline were obtained at Oklahama City University of America using the JEOL 8200 electron microprobe with a spot size of 5 μm and trace-element analyses were performed on just a sample by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS a 193nm ArF excimer laser ablation system (MicroLas GeoLas 200Q in combination with a quadrupole ICP-MS (Micromass Platform ICP at Utrecht University of Netherland. Representative EMP and LA-ICP-MS analyses of tourmaline samples are presented in Tables1 and 2. Results The results of LA-ICP-MS on tourmalines of Jan mine in the North east of mylonitic granite-gneiss body show that distribution and diffusion of trace elements during the growth of tourmaline trend is positive on the plots of binary Mn versus Fetot / (Fetot +Mg and it

  12. Petrology of the shoshonitic Çambaşı pluton in NE Turkey and implications for the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean: Insights from geochemistry, geochronology and Sr-Nd isotopes (United States)

    Özdamar, Şenel; Roden, Michael F.; Billor, Mehmet Z.


    The Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt (EPOB) is one of the well-preserved continental magmatic arcs in the Alpine-Himalayan Belt and consists of Paleozoic to Miocene plutonic bodies. This paper presents new geological, bulk-rock major and trace element analyses, biotite Ar-Ar ages and Sr-Nd isotope data on representative samples from the Çambaşı granitic body exposed in the northwestern part of the EPOB. Although the majority of the plutons in the EPOB show calc-alkaline affinity and I-type character, the Çambaşı pluton has a shoshonitic affinity and an I-type, metaluminous signature. The pluton is composed of mainly monzonite, quartz monzonite and granite bodies including monzo-dioritic mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs). Excluding the MMEs, these rocks have 57.7-70.2 wt.% SiO2, 13.1-17.5 wt.% Al2O3, 3.06-3.64 wt.% Na2O, 3.66-5.92 wt.% K2O, 0.33-3.3 wt.% MgO and Mg# earth element (LREE)-enrichment, relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns with small negative Eu anomalies and moderately fractioned REE patterns [average (La/Yb)N = 11.32]. Decreasing Fe2O3T, MgO, CaO, TiO2, Ba, Eu, and Sr with increasing SiO2 contents are consistent with fractional crystallization and can be related to fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, hornblende, apatite and Fe-Ti oxides. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios vary between 0.70470 and 0.70478, while those of 143Nd/144Nd lie between 0.51262 and 0.51263. Major, trace element and initial Sr-Nd homogeneity show that fractional crystallization played a key role in the evolution of the pluton. 40Ar/39Ar dating of four biotite samples from the pluton gave plateau ages of between 44.62 ± 0.1 Ma and 44.10 ± 0.0 Ma, which are interpreted as cooling ages of the plutonic rocks. We suggest that the Çambaşı pluton formed in a post-collisional extensional setting where partial melting of chemically enriched lithospheric mantle was controlled by lithospheric thinning and upwelling of asthenosphere that followed the closure of

  13. Mn-Cr dating of Fe- and Ca-rich olivine from 'quenched' and 'plutonic' angrite meteorites using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    McKibbin, Seann J.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Amelin, Yuri; Holden, Peter


    Angrite meteorites are suitable for Mn-Cr relative dating (53Mn decays to 53Cr with a half life of 3.7 Myr) using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) because they contain olivine and kirschsteinite with very high 55Mn/52Cr ratios arising from very low Cr concentrations. Discrepant Mn-Cr and U-Pb time intervals between the extrusive or 'quenched' angrite D'Orbigny and some slowly cooled or 'plutonic' angrites suggests that some have been affected by secondary disturbances, but this seems to have occurred in quenched rather than in slow-cooled plutonic angrites, where such disturbance or delay of isotopic closure might be expected. Using SIMS, we investigate the Mn-Cr systematics of quenched angrites to higher precision than previously achieved by this method and extend our investigation to non-quenched (plutonic or sub-volcanic) angrites. High values of 3.54 (±0.18) × 10-6 and 3.40 (±0.19) × 10-6 (2-sigma) are found for the initial 53Mn/55Mn of the quenched angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555, which are preserved by Cr-poor olivine and kirschsteinite. The previously reported initial 53Mn/55Mn value of D'Orbigny obtained from bulk-rock and mineral separates is slightly lower and was probably controlled by Cr-rich olivine. Results can be interpreted in terms of the diffusivity of Cr in this mineral. Very low Cr concentrations in Ca-rich olivine and kirschsteinite are probably charge balanced by Al; this substitutes for Si and likely diffuses at a very slow rate because Si is the slowest-diffusing cation in olivine. Diffusion in Cr-rich Mg-Fe olivine is probably controlled by cation vacancies because of deficiency in charge-balancing Al and is therefore more prone to disturbance. The higher initial 53Mn/55Mn found by SIMS for extrusive angrites is more likely to reflect closure of Cr in kirschsteinite at the time of crystallisation, simultaneous with closure of U-Pb and Hf-W isotope systematics for these meteorites obtained from pyroxenes. For the younger

  14. Manoeuverability analysis for direct casting spreaders with non-slewable discharge boom. Manoevrierbarkeitsanalyse fuer Direktversturzabsetzer mit nicht schwenkbarem Abwurfausleger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzen, Z.; Twarog, W. (Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland))


    The authors discuss the problems involved when manoeuvering direct casting spreaders that are equipped with a rigid discharge boom. The crawler-mounted travel gear of this type of large machine consists of three independently steered pairs of crawlers. In the analysis all the possible rational geometrical forms of travel tracks with straight and curved sections are determined which are necessary in order to manoeuver such machines and must fulfil certain requirements. For track sections in which it is essential that as little energy as possile should be used in order to shift the centre of gravity of the machine as desired, analytic relations were determined for the numerical evaluation of the necessary manoeuvering space and for an analysis of the extreme values of the kinematic parameters of the discharge boom during manoeuvering. Finally, an example is presented which illustrates the practical application of the proposed analytic formulae. (orig.).

  15. Low-Speed Control of Heavy-Load Transfer Robot with Long Telescopic Boom Based on Stribeck Friction Model

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    Bo You


    Full Text Available The severe low-speed creep phenomenon occurs in the telescopic boom system of a heavy-load transfer robot with a long telescopic boom as a result of nonlinear friction. In order to improve control precision and operation performance at low speeds, we built a three-loop control nonlinear model of an AC servo motor with Stribeck friction disturbance. Traditional proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID and fuzzy PID controls were, respectively, adopted in the position loop, and the control performance was simulated. The results showed that a system with fuzzy PID control eliminates “flat top” position tracking and “dead zone” speed tracking, which are generated by traditional PID, and thereby decreases the effect of friction on the performance of the servo system. This elimination also improved the tracking accuracy and robustness of the system.

  16. A consistent phenomenological model for natural organic matter linked migration of Cm(III), Pu(III/IV), Np(IV), Tc(IV) and Pa(V) in the Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, E.; Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.; Van Gompel, M.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. As Natural Organic Matter (NOM) may modify/enhance the mobility of radionuclides (RNs) through complexation or colloidal interactions, it is essential to evaluate the impact of these processes before performing safety assessments aiming at demonstrating the suitability of deep-seated clayey formations for geological disposal of radioactive waste. Column migration experiments with Cm, Pu, Np, Tc and Pa in Boom Clay, initiated about 10 years ago, showed strikingly similar features despite their different chemical speciation. On a relative short time, these RNs began percolating through the clay core until a constant concentration at the outlet side was reached. As most of the aqueous forms of these RNs are supposed to sorb strongly onto the Boom Clay solid phase, it was assumed that their relative fast transport was due to colloids (either intrinsic colloids or NOM-colloids). The constant concentration percolating from the core was thought to result from a solubility limiting phase precipitated at the source position. However, the concentrations in the percolate were systematically lower than the thermodynamic calculated solubilities, and all the more, complexation to NOM would likely result in an increased RN concentration. Although these curves could be modelled by a simple diffusion-advection relationship with linear sorption, they could not be backed up by a mechanistic understanding. As the concentration in the percolate remained constant for many years, the RN-species eluting from the core are assumed to be well in equilibrium with the Boom Clay geochemical conditions. Therefore, they were used as input source (constant concentration boundary condition) for a migration experiment through a fresh clay core (i.e. the outlet of a first cell was coupled to the inlet of a second cell). The measured concentrations at the outlet of the second clay core also reached a constant value, but this value is about one order

  17. The Baby Boom As It Ages: How Has It Affected Patterns of Consumptions and Savings in the United States?


    Diane Macunovich


    Using detailed estimates of personal consumption expenditures at the state level for 1900, 1929, 1970, and 1982 developed by Stanley Lebergott, this paper demonstrates that the passage of the Baby Boom from childhood through the teen years and into family formation would have caused market swings in patterns of aggregate consumption and savings in the United States during the past 50 years. The effect of age structure on personal consumption expenditures is estimated using population by singl...

  18. A reversal of the socioeconomic gradient of nuptiality during the Swedish mid-20th-century baby boom

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    Glenn Sandström


    Full Text Available Background: Research into the causes of the mid-20th-century baby boom has concluded that the main proximate cause of the fertility increase during the 1940s was earlier and more universal marriage in the cohorts born after 1910, and that this association between nuptiality trends and fertility was particularly strong in Sweden. Objective: However, we do not know whether this was a general trend or if certain socioeconomic groups spearheaded the change toward earlier marriage. Methods: The present study uses event history analysis to investigate the marital histories of approximately 100,000 men and women in Sweden, born 1880-1934, to determine how socioeconomic differentials in nuptiality developed during the period 1900-1960. Conclusions: The analysis shows that the sharp increase in nuptiality was not driven uniformly across different social strata, but rather took the form of earlier and more universal marriage among men in the mid and upper social strata and among economically active women, while male unskilled workers and women outside the labor market did not participate in the nuptiality boom during the peak baby boom years and even showed some signs of decreased marriage probabilities compared to earlier cohorts. Contribution: The results indicate that sector-specific economic growth after the depression and the breakthrough of the Swedish welfare state benefitted couples who could aspire to a middle-class identity, and that pronatalist policies made female economic activity more compatible with marriage. The results show that the shift toward a positive female socioeconomic gradient of marriage and family formation that can be observed in contemporary Sweden had its beginnings already with the cohorts that participated in the mid-20th-century baby boom.

  19. Low sonic-boom design of a silent supersonic technology demonstrator: Development of CAPAS and its application


    Makino, Yoshikazu; 牧野 好和


    Aerodynamic design system developed in JAXA SST (SuperSonic Transport) project are summarized and a newly developed aerodynamic design system CAPAS (CAD (Computer Aided Design)-based Automatic Panel Analysis System) is introduced in this paper. The CAPAS utilizes the CATIA (Computer Aided Three dimensional Interactive Application) v4 to define an airplane configuration and the A502 panel method for aerodynamic analysis and the Thomas code for sonic-boom analysis. The CAPAS has a java-based GU...

  20. Extractive Industries and Local Development in the Peruvian Highlands: Socio-Economic Impacts of the Mid-1990s Mining Boom


    Elisa Ticci


    Since the late Nineties, the mining sector in Peru has been experiencing a protracted period of rapid growth. This paper investigates local impacts of the mining boom on migration, on access to basic services, on labour market and on occupational distribution across sectors. By applying propensity score matching technique, mining and non-mining districts are compared. The results show that recent mining expansion has encouraged migration inflows to mining districts and affected th...

  1. NASA's Advanced Solar Sail Propulsion System for Low-Cost Deep Space Exploration and Science Missions that Use High Performance Rollable Composite Booms (United States)

    Fernandez, Juan M.; Rose, Geoffrey K.; Younger, Casey J.; Dean, Gregory D.; Warren, Jerry E.; Stohlman, Olive R.; Wilkie, W. Keats


    Several low-cost solar sail technology demonstrator missions are under development in the United States. However, the mass saving derived benefits that composites can offer to such a mass critical spacecraft architecture have not been realized yet. This is due to the lack of suitable composite booms that can fit inside CubeSat platforms and ultimately be readily scalable to much larger sizes, where they can fully optimize their use. With this aim, a new effort focused at developing scalable rollable composite booms for solar sails and other deployable structures has begun. Seven meter booms used to deploy a 90 m2 class solar sail that can fit inside a 6U CubeSat have already been developed. The NASA road map to low-cost solar sail capability demonstration envisioned, consists of increasing the size of these composite booms to enable sailcrafts with a reflective area of up to 2000 m2 housed aboard small satellite platforms. This paper presents a solar sail system initially conceived to serve as a risk reduction alternative to Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout's baseline design but that has recently been slightly redesigned and proposed for follow-on missions. The features of the booms and various deployment mechanisms for the booms and sail, as well as ground support equipment used during testing, are introduced. The results of structural analyses predict the performance of the system under microgravity conditions. Finally, the results of the functional and environmental testing campaign carried out are shown.

  2. Plume and Shock Interaction Effects on Sonic Boom in the 1-foot by 1-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan; Winski, Courtney


    The desire to reduce or eliminate the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas has led to extensive research at NASA. Restrictions are due to the disturbance of the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed by the aircraft. A study has been performed focused on reducing the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave generated by airplane components with a focus on shock waves caused by the exhaust nozzle plume. Testing was completed in the 1-foot by 1-foot supersonic wind tunnel to study the effects of an exhaust nozzle plume and shock wave interaction. The plume and shock interaction study was developed to collect data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation of a nozzle plume passing through the shock generated from the wing or tail of a supersonic vehicle. The wing or tail was simulated with a wedgeshaped shock generator. This test entry was the first of two phases to collect schlieren images and off-body static pressure profiles. Three wedge configurations were tested consisting of strut-mounted wedges of 2.5- degrees and 5-degrees. Three propulsion configurations were tested simulating the propulsion pod and aft deck from a low boom vehicle concept, which also provided a trailing edge shock and plume interaction. Findings include how the interaction of the jet plume caused a thickening of the shock generated by the wedge (or aft deck) and demonstrate how the shock location moved with increasing nozzle pressure ratio.

  3. Natural Resources Management: The Effect of the Commodity Boom on Indonesia’s Industrial Development and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Monica Wihardja


    Full Text Available The end of the commodity boom in 2012 once again exposed Indonesia to the vulnerability of the commodity price shocks. This article reviews how Indonesia managed its natural resources in 2001–12 and when the commodity boom ends. What are the lessons learned? Indonesia’s experience is similar to that of other countries rich in natural resources, including the crowding-out of non-commodity sectors, protectionist trade regimes, fiscal inefficiency, slow skill accumulation, rising inequality and environmental damages. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008–09, the early trade -policy response at the end of the commodity boom is inward-looking and protective of domestic markets and industries and aims to increase the added value of commodities by downstreaming. This trend is clearly reflected in the 2014 Trade Law, the 2014 Industry Law and the mineral export ban, which was introduced in 2009 through the 2009 Law on Mining of Coal and Minerals and took effect in 2014. Indonesia should learn from other countries in managing its resource revenues, such as through a commodity fund designed to fit its domestic specificity. Reindustrializing, increasing agricultural productivity beyond palm oil and tapping the country’s potential in the services sector including tourism and creative industries are also necessary to promote diversification in production and trade. Resource management policy should also include stronger environmental regulations.

  4. Packaging, deployment, and panel design concepts for a truss-stiffened 7-panel precision deployable reflector with feed boom (United States)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Collins, Timothy J.; Dyess, James W.; Kenner, Scott; Bush, Harold G.


    A concept is presented for achieving a remotely deployable truss-stiffened reflector consisting of seven integrated sandwich panels that form the reflective surface, and an integrated feed boom. The concept has potential for meeting aperture size and surface precision requirements for some high-frequency microwave remote sensing applications. The packaged reflector/feed boom configuration is a self-contained unit that can be conveniently attached to a spacecraft bus. The package has a cylindrical envelope compatible with typical launch vehicle shrouds. Dynamic behavior of a deployed configuration having a 216-inch focal length and consisting of 80-inch-diameter, two-inch-thick panels is examined through finite-element analysis. Results show that the feed boom and spacecraft bus can have a large impact on the fundamental frequency of the deployed configuration. Two candidate rib-stiffened sandwich panel configurations for this application are described, and analytical results for panel mass and stiffness are presented. Results show that the addition of only a few rib stiffeners, if sufficiently deep, can efficiently improve sandwich panel stiffness.

  5. Simulations of sonic boom ray tube area fluctuations for propagation through atmospheric turbulence including caustics via a Monte Carlo method (United States)

    Sparrow, Victor W.; Pierce, Allan D.


    A theory which gives statistical predictions for how often sonic booms propagating through the earth's turbulent boundary layer will encounter caustics, given the spectral properties of the atmospheric turbulence, is outlined. The theory is simple but approximately accounts for the variation of ray tube areas along ray paths. This theory predicts that the variation of ray tube areas is determined by the product of two similar area factors, psi (x) and phi (x), each satisfying a generic harmonic oscillator equation. If an area factor increases the peak acoustic pressure decreases, and if the factor decreases the peak acoustic pressure increases. Additionally, if an area factor decreases to zero and becomes negative, the ray has propagated through a caustic, which contributes a phase change of 90 degrees to the wave. Thus, it is clear that the number of times that a sonic boom wave passes through a caustic should be related to the distorted boom waveform received on the ground. Examples are given based on a characterization of atmospheric turbulence due to the structure function of Tatarski as modified by Crow.

  6. Summary of Propagation Cases of the Second AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram; Loubeau, Alexandra


    A summary is provided for the propagation portion of the second AIAA Sonic Boom Workshop held January 8, 2017 in conjunction with the AIAA SciTech 2017 conference. Near-field pressure waveforms for two cases were supplied and ground signatures at multiple azimuthal angles as well as their corresponding loudness metrics were requested from 10 participants, representing 3 countries. Each case had some required runs, as well as some optional runs. The required cases included atmospheric profiles with measured data including winds, using Radiosonde balloon data at multiple geographically spread locations, while the optional cases included temperature and pressure profiles from the US Standard atmosphere. The humidity profiles provided for the optional cases were taken from ANSI guidance, as the authors were unaware of an accepted standard at the time the cases were released to the participants. Participants provided ground signatures along with the requested data, including some loudness metrics using their best practices, which included lossy as well as lossless schemes. All the participants' submissions, for each case, are compared and discussed. Noise or loudness measures are calculated and detailed comparisons and statistical analyses are performed and presented. It has been observed that the variation in the loudness measures and spread between participants' submissions increased as the computation proceeded from under-track locations towards the lateral cut-off. Lessons learned during this workshop are discussed and recommendations are made for potential improvements and possible subsequent workshops as we collectively attempt to refine our analysis methods.

  7. Nearfield Summary and Statistical Analysis of the Second AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Nemec, Marian


    A summary is provided for the Second AIAA Sonic Boom Workshop held 8-9 January 2017 in conjunction with AIAA SciTech 2017. The workshop used three required models of increasing complexity: an axisymmetric body, a wing body, and a complete configuration with flow-through nacelle. An optional complete configuration with propulsion boundary conditions is also provided. These models are designed with similar nearfield signatures to isolate geometry and shock/expansion interaction effects. Eleven international participant groups submitted nearfield signatures with forces, pitching moment, and iterative convergence norms. Statistics and grid convergence of these nearfield signatures are presented. These submissions are propagated to the ground, and noise levels are computed. This allows the grid convergence and the statistical distribution of a noise level to be computed. While progress is documented since the first workshop, improvement to the analysis methods for a possible subsequent workshop are provided. The complete configuration with flow-through nacelle showed the most dramatic improvement between the two workshops. The current workshop cases are more relevant to vehicles with lower loudness and have the potential for lower annoyance than the first workshop cases. The models for this workshop with quieter ground noise levels than the first workshop exposed weaknesses in analysis, particularly in convective discretization.

  8. Summary and Statistical Analysis of the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Morgenstern, John M.


    A summary is provided for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Workshop held 11 January 2014 in conjunction with AIAA SciTech 2014. Near-field pressure signatures extracted from computational fluid dynamics solutions are gathered from nineteen participants representing three countries for the two required cases, an axisymmetric body and simple delta wing body. Structured multiblock, unstructured mixed-element, unstructured tetrahedral, overset, and Cartesian cut-cell methods are used by the participants. Participants provided signatures computed on participant generated and solution adapted grids. Signatures are also provided for a series of uniformly refined workshop provided grids. These submissions are propagated to the ground and loudness measures are computed. This allows the grid convergence of a loudness measure and a validation metric (dfference norm between computed and wind tunnel measured near-field signatures) to be studied for the first time. Statistical analysis is also presented for these measures. An optional configuration includes fuselage, wing, tail, flow-through nacelles, and blade sting. This full configuration exhibits more variation in eleven submissions than the sixty submissions provided for each required case. Recommendations are provided for potential improvements to the analysis methods and a possible subsequent workshop.

  9. Cart3D Simulations for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (United States)

    Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian


    Simulation results for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (LBW1) are presented using an inviscid, embedded-boundary Cartesian mesh method. The method employs adjoint-based error estimation and adaptive meshing to automatically determine resolution requirements of the computational domain. Results are presented for both mandatory and optional test cases. These include an axisymmetric body of revolution, a 69deg delta wing model and a complete model of the Lockheed N+2 supersonic tri-jet with V-tail and flow through nacelles. In addition to formal mesh refinement studies and examination of the adjoint-based error estimates, mesh convergence is assessed by presenting simulation results for meshes at several resolutions which are comparable in size to the unstructured grids distributed by the workshop organizers. Data provided includes both the pressure signals required by the workshop and information on code performance in both memory and processing time. Various enhanced techniques offering improved simulation efficiency will be demonstrated and discussed.

  10. Construction of an underground facility for ''in-situ'' experimentation in the boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Manfroy, P.; Van Haelewijn, R.; Heremans, R.


    The Belgian R and D Programme concerning the disposal of high-level and alpha-bearing radioactive waste in continental geological formations was launched by SCK/CEN, Mol in 1974. The programme is characterised by its site and formation specific approach, i.e. Mol and Boom clay. In the framework of site confirmation, an important issue is the ''in situ'' experimentation which should allow to determine with a higher degree of confidence the numerical value of the data needed for the evaluations, assessments and designs. The present report deals with the construction of an underground experimental facility, which was scheduled to be fully completed in mid 1984. Initially, the completion was scheduled for the end of 1983, but supplementary experiments related to geomechanics and mining capabilities and to be performed during the construction phase of the experimental facility delayed the completion of the underground facility. During the construction, a continuous observation was made of the behaviour of the clay mass and the structures. In this final contract-report, only the as-built structure, the time schedule and the ''in situ'' experiments launched or performed during the construction phase are dealt with

  11. Lifecycle effects of a recession on health behaviors: Boom, bust, and recovery in Iceland. (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E


    This study uses individual-level longitudinal data from Iceland, a country that experienced a severe economic crisis in 2008 and substantial recovery by 2012, to investigate the extent to which the effects of a recession on health behaviors are lingering or short-lived and to explore trajectories in health behaviors from pre-crisis boom, to crisis, to recovery. Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking, sugared soft drinks, sweets, fast food, and tanning) declined during the crisis, and all but sweets continued to decline during the recovery. Health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruit, fish oil, and vitamins/minerals and getting recommended sleep) followed more idiosyncratic paths. Overall, most behaviors reverted back to their pre-crisis levels or trends during the recovery, and these short-term deviations in trajectories were probably too short-lived in this recession to have major impacts on health or mortality. A notable exception is for binge drinking, which declined by 10% during the 2 crisis years, continued to fall (at a slower rate of 8%) during the 3 recovery years, and did not revert back to the upward pre-crisis trend during our observation period. These lingering effects, which directionally run counter to the pre-crisis upward trend in consumption and do not reflect price increases during the recovery period, suggest that alcohol is a potential pathway by which recessions improve health and/or reduce mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Organic matter linked radionuclide transport in Boom clay - Phenomenological understanding and abstraction to PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.; Liu, D.J.; Salah, S.; Van Laer, L.; Wang, L.; Weetjens, E.; Govaerts, J.; Marivoet, J.; Brassinnes, S.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the frame of the Belgian research program on long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive wastes coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, plastic clays (i.e., Boom Clay and Ypresian clays) are investigated for their potential to host a deep geological disposal repository for radioactive waste because of, among others, their ability to significantly retard radionuclide releases to the biosphere. The Boom Clay is characterised by the presence of a relatively high amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, humic substances) which show a strong interaction with a suite of radionuclides (RN) like lanthanides, actinides and transition metals. This interaction with DOM leads in general to an increased mobility of the radionuclide as the OM can act as a colloidal carrier for the radionuclide. Therefore, the quantification and the understanding of the underlying processes are needed for the demonstration of confidence in the host formation to act as a suitable barrier. However, this is not an easy task, given the multitude of processes involved: complexation/colloid formation, sorption, kinetics, filtration, -. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the research work that leads to a straightforward reactive transport model capturing fairly well the experimental observations. The model can be considered as an intermediate model providing a good basis for further safety abstraction on the one hand and the way to a more detailed phenomenological understanding on the other hand. The research is focussed on the underlying processes that govern speciation, sorption and transport. These underlying processes are investigated in a bottom-up approach, from simple systems to more complex systems. Interpretation is done using thermodynamic based models. Whereas the contribution of Bruggeman et al. focusses mainly on (batch) sorption studies (of trivalent RN), this presentation will provide more details on the

  13. Boom or bust : developing countries' rough ride on the commodity price rollercoaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.; Gibson, J.


    Current high commodity prices are driven by strong demand from the emerging economies of China and India in addition to high consumption in the United States. Many developing countries are experiencing massive windfall revenues from high commodity prices. However, commodity prices are highly volatile in the short term, and can vary as much as 50 per cent in a single year. While developed country producers are supported by subsidies and social safety nets, developing countries and smallholder producers feel the extent of commodity price volatility more directly. Many developing countries are becoming locked into the production and export of primary commodities whose volatile prices are declining over the long term, and over which they have very little control. Price volatility makes sound fiscal planning difficult for both countries and producers. Price booms and busts also drive social inequalities, livelihood inequalities, and corruption. Price swings can cause conflict over valuable land and resources, and does not create incentives for sound environmental stewardship. This paper described the impacts of commodity price volatility in developing countries with the aim of promoting discussion about what can be done to help stabilize revenues for countries as well as producers. Price trends and their importance were reviewed, and the theoretical benefits of liberalized commodity markets were examined. Previous attempts to stabilize commodity prices were reviewed. It was concluded that the best long-term solution to the commodity price problem is economic diversification. Recommendations for promoting economic diversification were provided. 43 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  14. Experimental evaluation of the hydraulic resistance of compacted bentonite/boom clay interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Anh-Minh; Cui, Yu-Jun; Delage, Pierre; Munoz, Juan Jorge; Li, Xiang-Ling


    In the framework of the in-situ PRACLAY Heater experiment to be performed in the HADES URF in Mol (Belgium), the feasibility of a hydraulic cut-off of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and the Repository Components (RC) of the disposal galleries by using a horizontal seal will be examined. It has been planned to install an annular seal composed of compacted bentonite between the heated zone and the access gallery (PRACLAY seal test), so that to avoid any hydraulic shortcut towards the access gallery. According to numerical scoping calculations, heating until 80 deg C will induce a pore pressure of the order of 3.0 MPa. In order to verify the effects of this water pressure on the performance of the annular seal system and more specifically on the hydraulic resistance of the interface between the compacted bentonite and the host rock (Boom clay), laboratory percolation tests at 20 and 80 deg C were performed. The results confirm the performance of the compacted bentonite seal to avoid the hydraulic shortcut to the access gallery under the foreseen hydraulic and thermal conditions. (author)

  15. Booming Development of Group IV–VI Semiconductors: Fresh Blood of 2D Family (United States)

    Zhou, Xing; Zhang, Qi; Gan, Lin; Li, Huiqiao; Xiong, Jie


    As an important component of 2D layered materials (2DLMs), the 2D group IV metal chalcogenides (GIVMCs) have drawn much attention recently due to their earth‐abundant, low‐cost, and environmentally friendly characteristics, thus catering well to the sustainable electronics and optoelectronics applications. In this instructive review, the booming research advancements of 2D GIVMCs in the last few years have been presented. First, the unique crystal and electronic structures are introduced, suggesting novel physical properties. Then the various methods adopted for synthesis of 2D GIVMCs are summarized such as mechanical exfoliation, solvothermal method, and vapor deposition. Furthermore, the review focuses on the applications in field effect transistors and photodetectors based on 2D GIVMCs, and extends to flexible devices. Additionally, the 2D GIVMCs based ternary alloys and heterostructures have also been presented, as well as the applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Finally, the conclusion and outlook have also been presented in the end of the review. PMID:27981008

  16. Central and Eastern Europe After the Boom - Time for a Stragegy Change for Foreign Multinationals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Schuh


    Full Text Available In 2008 the global financial and economic crisis ended a six-year-long boom period with an average growth rate well above 5% in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Although not the originators of the crisis some CEE countries such as the Baltic States and Ukraine were among the worst hit by this economic downturn. The crisis did not only shatter the financial markets, banks and the real economy but also the growth image of CEE. The huge market potential and expected higher growth rates resulting from the catching-up process to West European standards have been the main reason for the flood of foreign direct investments into the countries of the region in the two decades before. Suddenly, foreign direct investors were confronted with stalled and even collapsing market growth, shrinking disposable household income, business customers and partners on the verge of bankruptcy and no real sign of a quick recovery. While the situation improved a little in 2011, the economic outlook and the sentiment of foreign investors have remained gloomy, at least for parts of the region. It is obvious that when faced with such a huge economic downturn companies stop geographic expansion and put the brakes on investments.

  17. Is it 'boom times' for baleen whales in the Pacific Arctic region? (United States)

    Moore, Sue E


    The marine ecosystem in the Pacific Arctic region has experienced dramatic transformation, most obvious by the loss of sea ice volume (75%), late-summer areal extent (50%) and change in phenology (four to six weeks longer open-water period). This alteration has resulted in an opening of habitat for subarctic species of baleen whales, many of which are recovering in number from severe depletions from commercial whaling in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Specifically, humpback, fin and minke whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera physalus and Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are now regularly reported during summer and autumn in the southern Chukchi Sea. These predators of zooplankton and forage fishes join the seasonally resident grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and the arctic-endemic bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) in the expanding open-ocean habitat of the Pacific Arctic. Questions arising include: (i) what changes in whale-prey production and delivery mechanisms have accompanied the loss of sea ice, and (ii) how are these five baleen whale species partitioning the expanding ice-free habitat? While there has been no programme of research specifically focused on these questions, an examination of seasonal occurrence, foraging plasticity and (for bowhead whales) body condition suggests that the current state of Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem may be 'boom times' for baleen whales. These favourable conditions may be moderated, however, by future shifts in ecosystem structure and/or negative impacts to cetaceans related to increased commercial activities in the region. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery. (United States)

    Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; McCook, Laurence J; Dove, Sophie; Berkelmans, Ray; Roff, George; Kline, David I; Weeks, Scarla; Evans, Richard D; Williamson, David H; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove


    Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance. In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata), colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated. These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.

  19. Droplets spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers under different environmental and operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson S. Sasaki


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During pesticide spraying, the psychrometric conditions of the air may cause evaporation of the droplets along their trajectory from the nozzle to the target. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air psychrometric conditions and operating pressure on the droplet spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers. The test was performed using a prototype equipped with an axial fan, a flow homogenizer, temperature and relative air humidity sensors, a spray nozzle and a gas-heating system to warm up the airflow. With the assembled system and the aid of a particle analyser, the JSF 11002 spray nozzle was evaluated with respect to droplet spectrum in four air psychrometric conditions (7, 14, 21 and 28 hPa and at four operating pressures (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa. At the end, evaporation losses were observed during the sprayings. For a given operating pressure and for each increment of 1 hPa in vapor pressure deficit, there was a diameter reduction of approximately 0.0759, 0.518 and 1.514 μm for the parameters DV0.1, DV0.5 and DV0.9, respectively. The diameter of the droplets decreased as the operating pressure increased.

  20. Technical feasibility of a concept radioactive waste disposal facility in Boom clay in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardon, P.J.; Hicks, M.A.; Fokker, P.A.; Fokkens, J.H.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. The current management strategy in the Netherlands for radioactive waste is interim storage for approximately 100 years, followed by final deep geological disposal. At present, both Boom Clay and Salt formations are being considered and investigated via the OPERA (Onderzoeks Programma Eindberging Radioactief Afval) and CORA (Commissie Opberging Radioactief Afval) research programmes respectively, instigated by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval). This paper outlines the on-going investigation into the initial technical feasibility of a high-level radioactive waste disposal facility, located within a stratum of Boom Clay, as part of the OPERA research programme. The feasibility study is based on the current Belgian Super-container concept, incorporating specific features relevant to the Netherlands, including the waste inventory and possible future glaciation. The repository is designed to be situated at approximately 500 m depth in a Boom Clay stratum of approximately 100 m thickness, and will co-host vitrified High Level Waste (HLW), spent fuel from research reactors, non-heat generating HLW, Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) and depleted uranium. The total footprint is designed to be 3050 m by 1300 m, and will be segregated by waste type. The waste will be stored in drifts drilled perpendicular to the main galleries and will vary in length and diameter depending upon waste type. The repository life-cycle can be considered in three phases: (i) the pre-operation phase, including the conceptual development, site investigation and selection, design and construction; (ii) the operational phase, including waste emplacement and any period of time prior to closure; and (iii) the post-operational phase. The research on the technical feasibility of the repository will investigate whether the repository can be constructed and whether it is able to perform the appropriate safety functions and meet

  1. Is it ‘boom times’ for baleen whales in the Pacific Arctic region? (United States)


    The marine ecosystem in the Pacific Arctic region has experienced dramatic transformation, most obvious by the loss of sea ice volume (75%), late-summer areal extent (50%) and change in phenology (four to six weeks longer open-water period). This alteration has resulted in an opening of habitat for subarctic species of baleen whales, many of which are recovering in number from severe depletions from commercial whaling in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Specifically, humpback, fin and minke whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera physalus and Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are now regularly reported during summer and autumn in the southern Chukchi Sea. These predators of zooplankton and forage fishes join the seasonally resident grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and the arctic-endemic bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) in the expanding open-ocean habitat of the Pacific Arctic. Questions arising include: (i) what changes in whale-prey production and delivery mechanisms have accompanied the loss of sea ice, and (ii) how are these five baleen whale species partitioning the expanding ice-free habitat? While there has been no programme of research specifically focused on these questions, an examination of seasonal occurrence, foraging plasticity and (for bowhead whales) body condition suggests that the current state of Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem may be ‘boom times’ for baleen whales. These favourable conditions may be moderated, however, by future shifts in ecosystem structure and/or negative impacts to cetaceans related to increased commercial activities in the region. PMID:27601724

  2. Kyanoxalite, a new cancrinite-group mineral species with extraframework oxalate anion from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula (United States)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Olysych, L. V.; Massa, W.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Vigasina, M. F.


    Kyanoxalite, a new member of the cancrinite group, has been identified in hydrothermally altered hyperalkaline rocks and pegmatites of the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It was found at Mount Karnasurt (holotype) in association with nepheline, aegirine, sodalite, nosean, albite, lomonosovite, murmanite, fluorapatite, loparite, and natrolite and at Mt. Alluaiv. Kyanoxalite is transparent, ranging in color from bright light blue, greenish light blue and grayish light blue to colorless. The new mineral is brittle, with a perfect cleavage parallel to (100). Mohs hardness is 5-5.5. The measured and calculated densitiesare 2.30(1) and 2.327 g/cm3, respectively. Kyanoxalite is uniaxial, negative, ω = 1.794(1), ɛ = 1.491(1). It is pleochroic from colorless along E to light blue along O. The IR spectrum indicates the presence of oxalate anions C2O{4/2-} and water molecules in the absence of CO{3/2-} Oxalate ions are confirmed by anion chromatography. The chemical composition (electron microprobe; water was determined by a modified Penfield method and carbon was determined by selective sorption from annealing products) is as follows, wt %: 19.70 Na2O, 1.92 K2O, 0.17 CaO, 27.41 Al2O3, 38.68 SiO2, 0.64 P2O5, 1.05 SO3, 3.23 C2O3, 8.42 H2O; the total is 101.18. The empirical formula (Z = 1) is (Na6.45K0.41Ca0.03)Σ6.89(Si6.53Al5.46O24)[(C2O4)0.455(SO4)0.13(PO4)0.09(OH)0.01]Σ0.68 · 4.74H2O. The idealized formula is Na7(Al5-6Si6-7O24)(C2O4)0.5-1 · 5H2O. Kyanoxalite is hexagonal, the space group is P63, a = 12.744(8), c = 5.213(6) -ray powder diffraction pattern are as follows, [ d, [A] ( I, %)( hkl)]: 6.39(44) (110), 4.73 (92) (101), 3.679 (72) (300), 3.264 (100) (211, 121), 2.760 (29) (400), 2.618 (36) (002), 2.216, (29) (302, 330). According to the X-ray single crystal study ( R = 0.033), two independent C2O4 groups statistically occupy the sites on the axis 63. The new mineral is the first natural silicate with an additional organic anion and is the most

  3. Geochemistry of the Serifos calc-alkaline granodiorite pluton, Greece: constraining the crust and mantle contributions to I-type granitoids (United States)

    Stouraiti, C.; Baziotis, I.; Asimow, P. D.; Downes, H.


    The Late Miocene (11.6-9.5 Ma) granitoid intrusion on the island of Serifos (Western Cyclades, Aegean Sea) is composed of syn- to post-tectonic granodiorite with quartz monzodiorite enclaves, cut by dacitic and aplitic dikes. The granitoid, a typical I-type metaluminous calcic amphibole-bearing calc-alkaline pluton, intruded the Cycladic Blueschists during thinning of the Aegean plate. Combining field, textural, geochemical and new Sr-Nd-O isotope data presented in this paper, we postulate that the Serifos intrusion is a single-zoned pluton. The central facies has initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70906 to 0.7106, ɛNd(t) = - 5.9 to - 7.5 and δ18Οqtz = + 10 to + 10.6‰, whereas the marginal zone (or border facies) has higher initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.711 to 0.7112, lower ɛ Nd(t) = - 7.3 to - 8.3, and higher δ18Οqtz = + 10.6 to + 11.9‰. The small range in initial Sr and Nd isotopic values throughout the pluton is paired with a remarkable uniformity in trace element patterns, despite a large range in silica contents (58.8 to 72 wt% SiO2). Assimilation of a crustally derived partial melt into the mafic parental magma would progressively add incompatible trace elements and SiO2 to the evolving mafic starting liquid, but the opposite trend, of trace element depletion during magma evolution, is observed in the Serifos granodiorites. Thermodynamic modeling of whole-rock compositions during simple fractional crystallization (FC) or assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) processes of major rock-forming minerals—at a variety of pressure, oxidation state, and water activity conditions—fails to reproduce simultaneously the major element and trace element variations among the Serifos granitoids, implying a critical role for minor phases in controlling trace element fractionation. Both saturation of accessory phases such as allanite and titanite (at SiO2 ≥ 71 wt%)(to satisfy trace element constraints) and assimilation of partial melts from a metasedimentary component (to

  4. Emplacement and deformation of the Cerro Durazno Pluton delineates stages of the lower Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution in NW-Argentina (United States)

    Hongn, F.; Riller, U.


    Regional-scale transpression and transtension are considered to be important in the lower Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of metamorphic and granitoid basement rocks of the southern central Andes. In order to test whether such kinematic changes affected Paleozoic basement rocks on the local scale, i.e. in the Eastern Cordillera of NW-Argentina, we performed a detailed field-based structural analysis of the 456 Ma granitoid Cerro Durazno pluton (CDP). The results of our analysis point to the following stages in the geodynamic evolution of this area: (1) Metamorphism and deformation of Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic basement rocks occurred at high T and low to medium P prior to emplacement of the CDP. This lead to the formation of schists and migmatites characterized by pervasive planar and linear mineral shape fabrics and the growth of andalusite, cordierite and fibrolite. (2) Magmatic foliation in the CDP is defined by the shape-preferred orientation of euhedral feldspar phenocrysts and microgranitoid enclaves. These fabrics are concordant to the NE-SW striking intrusive contact with migmatitic host rocks. The lack of submagmatic or high-T solid-state fabrics in the CDP may indicate that cooling and solidification of granitoid magma was not accompanied by regional deformation. Alternatively, emplacement of granitoid magma may have been facilitated by the creation of open space at mid-crustal level induced by regional deformation. (3) Ductile deformation under greenschist metamorphic conditions overprinted magmatic fabrics of the CDP. This is evident by NW-SE striking metamorphic foliation surfaces transecting magmatic shape fabrics at high angles. During this deformation, the pluton was thrust on a SW-dipping shear zone toward the NE over low-grade metamorphic host rocks which lead to a condensation of metamorphic isograds in the host rocks. Ages of strained pegmatitic dikes indicate that this deformation occurred at about 430 Ma. In summary, the difference in age

  5. Comparison of U-Th and U-Pb zircon ages from erupted plutonic clasts and 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages from Newberry Volcano, Oregon (United States)

    Sullivan, K. M.; Stelten, M. E.; Leech, M. L.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.


    The magmatic plumbing systems of Quaternary volcanoes are poorly understood due to insufficient uplift and erosion to expose their intrusive roots. These intrusive bodies remained in the plumbing system for longer timescales than the eruptive melt; therefore, plutonic rocks record a more extensive history of the entire magmatic system. Occasionally, large-scale eruptions can expose regions of the plumbing system and/or erupt plutonic clasts (EPC) to the surface. We are investigating EPCs found within Newberry ash flow tuffs and hydrothermal drill cores to understand subsurface processes occurring within the magmatic plumbing system. Newberry Volcano is a large shield-shaped composite volcano located in central Oregon that has experienced recurrent volcanism from ca. 500 ka to 1,300 ybp. This study uses the EPC ages to link the intrusive rocks inferred to be representative of the Newberry magmatic plumbing system, and to discern a systematic relationship with volcanism. SHRIMP U-Th disequilibrium and U-Pb zircon ages were analyzed from six EPCs and two hydrothermal granitoids from separate drill cuttings. We compare these new SHRIMP ages to existing 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Newberry volcanic strata. Three EPCs have unimodal zircon ages of 140 ka, two EPCs display ages of 300 ka, and one has three distinct zircon age populations of 120 ka, 200 ka, and 300 ka. Zircons from separate drill cuttings have ages of 350 ka and 1.9 Ma. All the EPC zircon ages are less than 500 kyr, implying that these clasts are related to the Newberry magmatic system. The granitoid with 1.9 Myr zircons was penetrated by drilling at 2.6 km depth, and could be related to Newberry magmatism and represent an earlier phase of intrusive activity. The 140 kyr zircons record a single crystallization event that took place during a period of frequent volcanism, while the three remaining age populations represent multiple periods of growth that overlap with timeframes of waning activity. Combining

  6. Sample-scale zircon geochemical and geochronological heterogeneities as indicators of residual liquid infiltration events in the incrementally assembled Caleu Pluton, Central Chile (United States)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M. A.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Ma, C.; Li, J.; Liu, Y.


    The Upper Cretaceous metaluminous Caleu Pluton is emplaced at a depth equivalent of 2kbar and consists of four lithological zones: the Gabbro-Dioritic Zone (GDZ), the Quartz-Monzodioritic Zone (QMDZ), the Granodioritic Zone (GZ) and the Monzogranitic Zone (MGZ). The zones would have been fed from a deeper magma reservoir emplaced at a 4 kbar. U238/Pb206 LA-ICP-MS geochronology of zircon grains of the four lithological zones (82 analyzed spots, 4 samples) indicates a maximum zircon crystallization range of ca. 106-91 Ma for the pluton as a whole. The U-Pb zircon age distribution of the four samples shows three inflection points at about 101, 99 and 96 Ma, separating four zircon crystallization events with the following weighted average ages and 2σ confidence intervals: 103.×1.6 Ma (n=4), 100.3×0.68 Ma (n=14), 97.49×0.49 Ma (n=25) and 94.66×0.44 Ma (n=30). The GDZ sample records the first three events, the GZ and QMDZ samples record the last three events while the MGZ only have zircons formed during the last two events. It is interesting to note that the youngest event of zircon formation coincide with the Ar/Ar cooling ages (95-93 Ma) previously obtained in hornblende, biotite and plagioclase of the four lithological zones, as a consequence of a rapid pluton exhumation. Temperatures of zircon crystallization (Ti-in-Zrn) obtained in each sample are variable and roughly lower than the zircon saturation temperatures. Most of the Ti-in-Zrn temperatures indicate late-stage crystallization conditions, consistent with the calculated melt composition from which zircons would have crystallized and the observed coexistence of zircons with quartz-orthoclase symplectites, hornblende and interstitial anhedral biotite. There are variable and overlapped total incompatible element concentrations in zircons of the four lithological zones regardless its age and Ti-in-Zrn temperatures, indicating that the melts from which zircon crystallized at different moments, were equivalent

  7. Rb-Sr whole-rock and 40Ar/39Ar mineral ages of the Hartland stock, south-central Maine: a post-Acadian representative of the New Hampshire Plutonic series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallmeyer, R.D.; Vanbreemen, O.; Whitney, J.A.


    The Hartland granodioritic stock is an undeformed, post-Acadian representative of the New Hampshire Plutonic series that intrudes low-grade Silurian-Devonian (.) metasedimentary rocks in south-central Maine. A nine-point, Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron defines an age of 360 +/- 8 m.y. for the pluton (initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7056 +/- 3). Biotite and hornblende from the pluton display undisturbed 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectra with mutually overlapping dates of 362 +/- 5 m.y. (seven samples). The undisturbed character of the argon isotopic systems suggests that the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages date times of post-magmatic cooling through temperatures required for retention of argon. Comparison of the emplacement age defined for the Hartland stock with Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron dates reported for crystallization of other New Hampshire Series plutons suggests continuous Devonian intrusive activity in New England, preceding, during, and following the Acadian orogeny. No geochronologic evidence for separating distinct subseries of intrusion can be provided with presently available data

  8. Petrological and geochemical characterization of the plutonic rocks of the Sierra de La Aguada, Province of San Luis, Argentina: Genetic implications with the Famatinian magmatic arc

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    E. Cristofolini


    Full Text Available This study presents a synthesis on the geology of the crystalline complex that constitute the Sierra de la Aguada, San Luis province, Argentine, from an approach based on field relations, petrologic and structural features and geochemical characteristic. This mountain range exposes a basement dominated by intermediate to mafic calcalkaline igneous rocks and peraluminous felsic granitoids, both emplaced in low to medium grade metamorphic rocks stabilized under low amphibolite facies. All this lithological terrane has been grouped in the El Carrizal-La Aguada Complex. Field relations, petrographic characterization and geochemical comparison of the plutonic rocks from the study area with those belonging to the Ordovician Famatinian suit exposed in the Sierra Grande de San Luis, suggest a genetic and temporal relation linked to the development of the Famatinian magmatic arc.

  9. Thermal modeling of pluton emplacement and associated contact metamorphism:Parashi stock emplacement in the Serranía de Jarara (Alta Guajira, Colombia

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    Zuluaga C. Carlos A.


    Full Text Available

    In the northernmost portion of the Serrania de Jarara (Alta Guajira, Colombia, low - medium grade metamorphic rocks from the Etpana Metamorphic Suite were thermally affected by emplacement of a small calc-alkaline intrusion (Parashi Stock. Detailed petrographic analysis in collected rock samples across the NE and NW plutonic contacts show occurrences of textural and mineralogical changes in the country rock fabric that evidence contact metamorphism overprinting regional metamorphism of the Etpana Suite. These changes include growth of andalusite (chiastolite, calcic clinopyroxeneand amphibole porphyroblast crosscutting Sn+1 metamorphicfoliation. Hornblende-plagioclase barometry (ca. 3.1 kbar and cooling models for the stock show maximum time temperature evolution in the country rock at the interpreted depth of intrusion (ca. 11 km and help to evaluate the behavior of the country rock with the changing local geotherm.

  10. Thermo-hydraulic behaviour of Boom Clay using a heating cell. experimental and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.; Romero, E.; Vaunat, J.; Gens, A.; Li, X.L.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Boom clay is the subject of extensive research in Belgium dealing with all phenomena that may possibly affect the performance of this geological formation as potential radioactive waste repository. Specifically, thermal loads may play an important role on this low-permeability clay. There are a number of laboratory results concerning the saturated hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay under different temperatures and recent studies on this area are described in Le (2008). Nevertheless, information on clay hydro-mechanical response on heating and cooling paths under small-scale laboratory conditions is less known. To this aim, non-isothermal tests on intact borehole samples were carried out using an axisymmetric heating cell described in Munoz et al. (2009). Heating and cooling paths under nearly constant volume and different target temperatures (maximum 85 deg. C) were performed under controlled hydraulic boundary conditions. The paper presents results of an exhaustive experimental programme performed on a fully-instrumented cell (sample 75 mm in diameter and 100 mm high) with a controlled-power heater installed along the axis of the sample. Different transducers were monitoring the sample response: two miniature pore water pressure transducers located at different heights of the lateral wall of the cell, three thermocouples (two at equivalent locations in relation to the pressure transducers and one near the heater), and top and lateral strain gauges attached to reduced thickness sections of the walls. The cell has top and bottom valves to apply the hydraulic conditions. The protocol of the tests presented three important phases: hydration, heating and cooling. Throughout the heating and cooling phases, the bottom drainage was maintained open at a constant water pressure of 1 MPa using an automatic pressure/volume controller, while the upper valve was kept closed. This back-pressure was important since it

  11. Compositional zonation of the shallow La Gloria pluton (Central Chile) by late-stage extraction/redistribution of residual melts by channelization: Numerical modeling (United States)

    Aravena, A.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Parada, M. A.; Payacán, Í.; Bachmann, O.; Poblete, F.


    The origin of highly evolved magmas (e.g. rhyolites) has been a long-standing controversy in earth sciences. They are commonly thought to be generated in the upper crust by melt extraction from mush zones, but due to the rapid cooling of magma reservoirs in such shallow and typically cold environments, high magma emplacement rates of intermediate magmas are thought to be necessary to maintain large silicic mushes above the solidus long enough for the high-SiO2 melts extraction to occur. Late-stage redistribution of interstitial melts (i.e. heat and mass) by channels/dikes within those mushes has been invoked as a mechanism to preserve silicic mushes above their solidi for longer periods (i.e. delaying their final crystallization), but the nature of this process and its implications on plutons zonation are still poorly understood. Here, using time-dependent numerical modeling, we study the feasibility of late-stage interstitial melt extraction/redistribution by channels/dikes from a crystalline mush. Our model accounts for magma fluid dynamics, extraction of residual melts and thermal evolution of the crystallizing magma system and its hosting rocks, considering the thermal effect of the redistributing material. The model was applied to explain the anatomy of the well-documented La Gloria pluton (LGP, Central Chile), which exhibits increasing contents of SiO2 and abundant leucocratic dikes toward the margins, interpreted as trapped residual melts generated elsewhere in the magma chamber. Our results suggest that favorable conditions for extracting late-stage residual melts are reached at temperatures of 750 °C (60 vol% crystallinity), at least for compositions similar to LGP dikes. Simulations correspond to 30 kyr of reservoir cooling, when the concentric compositional zonation of LGP is reproduced after a short period of extraction (feed large rhyolitic eruptions, at least once recharges have stopped.

  12. Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery.

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    Guillermo Diaz-Pulido

    Full Text Available Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance.In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata, colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated.These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.

  13. Biomonitoring of the air with Tradescantia pallida (Rose D. R. Hunt var purpurea Boom (Commelinaceae

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    Agnes Barbério


    Full Text Available The population growth and the comfort generated by progress have greatly contributed with the increase in the air pollution, making the air in several urban centers polluted by substances that are harmful to human being. This study characterized the air quality in the city of Taubaté, Vale do Paraíba-SP using biomonitoring with Tradescantia pallida (Rose D. R. Hunt purpurea Boom (Commelinaceae. The study was developed in a period of 10 months (September/2010 to June/2011 in five locations (Rodovia Presidente Dutra – heavy vehicle traffic; Estiva – residential area; Parque Aeroporto – industrial area; Campus Bom Conselho – area in the city with heavy vehicle traffic and Agronomy – rural area. Samples were collected on a weekly basis from young inflorescences of exposed plants. After the inflorescences were collected, they were fixed in an absolute ethanol-glacial acetic acid (3:1 solution for 24 h, transferred to ethanol 70% solution and maintained under refrigeration. They were submitted to coloration with acetic carmine and the number of micronucleus was quantified in approximately 300 tetrads for each inflorescence, and slides were prepared with 10 inflorescences/week for each point of study. The average and standard deviations were: Dutra (2.24 ± 1.58, Estiva (2.07 ± 1.33, Parque Aeroporto (1.47 ± 1.05, Bom Conselho (1.42 ± 0.90 and Agronomy (0.82 ± 0.80. Although Taubaté area is a region experiencing urban growth, the data revealed that the air in the city has good quality. Maintaining this balance is very important, requires effort and periodic measurements, and, for this, biomonitoring is a fast, cheap and effective method.

  14. Boom or bubble? Is medical research thriving or about to crash? (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G


    A recent issue of JAMA (2005; vol. 294) presented a portrait of medical research as a booming enterprise. By contrast I have suggested that medical research is a speculative bubble due to burst. How can two such different predictions be compatible? From inside the expanding world of medical research everything seems fine and getting better. But to people outside the system, it seems like there is an awful lot of money going in, and not much coming out. Professional criteria of success (publications, impact factors, citations, grant income, large teams, etc.) are not the same as the outsider's view of success. Outsiders want the medical research system to generate therapeutic progress as efficiently as possible: the most progress for the least resources. Medical research is not the only good way of spending money and is in competition with other social systems. As funding increases, diminishing returns will set-in, opportunity costs will begin to bite, and there will be more and more social benefit to be gained from spending the extra research money on something else. Therefore, future cuts in medical research will happen because of pressure from outside the system - specifically pressure from other powerful social systems which will press their alternative claims for funding. In the short term, there will be a quantitative decline of research production. But in the longer term the medical research system will re-grow in a more efficient form. After a 'golden age of therapeutic progress in the mid-20th century, recent decades have seen a 'silver age' of scholasticism which is due to end soon. Perhaps a renaissance of medical research lies not too many years in the future.

  15. Il boom dell’Italia in Giappone: riflessioni critiche su Occidentalismo e Italianismo

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    Toshio Miyake


    Full Text Available In the modern age, Occidentalism as a process of signifying practices based upon the notion of “the West” has played a hegemonic role in the configuration of collective identity and alterity. The imaginary geography of “the West” has been one of the most effective in inscribing the whole world and humanity along hierarchic and fluid lines of inclusion and exclusion, encompassing global relations of power in geopolitical contexts, as well as knowledge practices in geocultural spheres. In spite of post-colonial engagements aimed to de-naturalize the notions of “the West” and “the East”, little critical attentions has been paid so far to the inter-relational and complicit processes between Occidentalism, Orientalism and self-Orientalism.             This paper shall explore the historical genalogy of discourses on Italy (Italianism in modern Japan, which brought to the Italian boom in the 1990s, elevating at present Italy to the rank of the most-loved foreign country among Japanese women and youth. This study suggests that the prevailing image of Italy has been articulated and re-produced since modern age as an ambivalent icon: a superior-seeming and ‘archetypical West’ based on the insistence of its antique and classical features (Roman Empire, Humanism, Renaissance, and at the same time, an inferior-seeming and ‘backward West’ based on the insistence of its pre-moderns aspects (history, gastronomy, fashion, landscapes, cheerful people, etc.. The popularity of this configuration suggests the strategic relevance of the Italian looking glass self which enables to mediate deep rooted and contradictory pro-western and anti-western tensions in modern and contemporary Japan.

  16. Enhanced somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma cacao using the homologous BABY BOOM transcription factor. (United States)

    Florez, Sergio L; Erwin, Rachel L; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J; Curtis, Wayne R


    Theobroma cacao, the chocolate tree, is an important economic crop in East Africa, South East Asia, and South and Central America. Propagation of elite varieties has been achieved through somatic embryogenesis (SE) but low efficiencies and genotype dependence still presents a significant limitation for its propagation at commercial scales. Manipulation of transcription factors has been used to enhance the formation of SEs in several other plant species. This work describes the use of the transcription factor Baby Boom (BBM) to promote the transition of somatic cacao cells from the vegetative to embryonic state. An ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBM gene (AtBBM) was characterized in T. cacao (TcBBM). TcBBM expression was observed throughout embryo development and was expressed at higher levels during SE as compared to zygotic embryogenesis (ZE). TcBBM overexpression in A. thaliana and T. cacao led to phenotypes associated with SE that did not require exogenous hormones. While transient ectopic expression of TcBBM provided only moderate enhancements in embryogenic potential, constitutive overexpression dramatically increased SE proliferation but also appeared to inhibit subsequent development. Our work provides validation that TcBBM is an ortholog to AtBBM and has a specific role in both somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. Furthermore, our studies revealed that TcBBM transcript levels could serve as a biomarker for embryogenesis in cacao tissue. Results from transient expression of TcBBM provide confirmation that transcription factors can be used to enhance SE without compromising plant development and avoiding GMO plant production. This strategy could compliment a hormone-based method of reprogramming somatic cells and lead to more precise manipulation of SE at the regulatory level of transcription factors. The technology would benefit the propagation of elite varieties with low regeneration potential as well as the production of transgenic plants, which

  17. Evidence of wave front folding of sonic booms by a laboratory-scale deterministic experiment of shock waves in a heterogeneous medium. (United States)

    Ganjehi, Lili; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis


    The influence of the planetary boundary layer on the sonic boom received at the ground level is known since the 1960s to be of major importance. Sonic boom propagation in a turbulent medium is characterized by an increase of the mean rise time and a huge variability. An experiment is conducted at a 1:100,000 scale in water to investigate ultrasonic shock wave interaction with a single heterogeneity. The experiment shows a very good scaling with sonic boom, concerning the size of the heterogeneities, the wave amplitude, and the rise time of the incident wave. The wave front folding associated with local focusing, and its link to the increase of the rise time, are evidenced by the experiment. The observed amplification of the peak pressure (by a factor up to 2), and increase of the rise time (by up to about one magnitude order), are in qualitative agreement with sonic boom observations. A nonlinear parabolic model is compared favorably to the experiment on axis, though the paraxial approximation turns out less precise off axis. Simulations are finally used to discriminate between nonlinear and linear propagations, showing nonlinearities affect mostly the higher harmonics that are in the audible range for sonic booms.

  18. The Berkeley Out-of-Order Machine (BOOM): An Industry-Competitive, Synthesizable, Parameterized RISC-V Processor (United States)


    cache coherency system, the privileged ISA support, and the FPGA and ASIC flows – came to BOOM “for free” via the Rocket-chip SoC generator. And as...Rocket-chip SoC generator, allowing us to quickly bring up an entire multi-core processor system (including caches and uncore) by replacing the TSMC 45 nm excluding caches (and 1.1 mm2 with 32 kB L1 caches ). The in-order Rocket core has been successfully demonstrated to reach over 1.5 GHz

  19. Human Simulated Intelligent Control with Double-Direction Dead-Zone Compensation for Joint Motion Control of a Large-Sized Boom System

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    Rongsheng Liu


    Full Text Available Joint motion control of a 52-meter-long five-boom system driven by proportional hydraulic system is developed. It has been considered difficult due to strong nonlinearities and parametric uncertainties, the effect of which increases with the size of booms. A human simulated intelligent control scheme is developed to improve control performance by modifying control mode and control parameters. In addition, considering the negative effects caused by frequent and redundant reverse actions of the proportional valve, a double-direction compensation scheme is proposed to deal with the dead-zone nonlinearity of proportional valve. Sinusoidal motions are implemented on a real boom system. The results indicate that HSIC controller can improve control accuracy, and dead-zone nonlinearity is effectively compensated by proposed compensation scheme without introducing frequent reverse actions of proportional valve.

  20. Political economy of China and India: dealing with air pollution in the two booming economies

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    Zhiqun Zhu


    Full Text Available China e India son dos economías en auge hoy en día, pero ambos sufren de daños al medio ambiente. Para conseguir un desarrollo sostenible, los dos países tienen que prestar más atención a la protección del medio ambiente. Este artículo examina en primer lugar las causas y consecuencias de los problemas de contaminación grave del aire en China e India. A continuación, se describe cómo China y la India tratan el problema de la contaminación del aire y sugiere formas para mejorar. El autor sostiene que el control de la contaminación del aire y de la protección del medio ambiente en general es un proyecto integral que requiere esfuerzos concertados de los gobiernos en todos los niveles, de la comunidad científica, de empresarios, juristas, grupos no gubernamentales y comunitarios, de la comunidad internacional, y de los ciudadanos como individuos. La educación y la estricta aplicación de la ley siguen siendo la clave del éxito. La experiencia de China e India en el control de la contaminación del aire proporcionan algunas lecciones útiles para otros países en desarrollo._____________ABSTRACT:China and India are two booming economies today, but both are suffering from environmental damages. To achieve sustainable develpment, the two countries have to pay more attention to the protection of environment. This article first examines the causes and consequences of the serious air pollution problems in China and India. It then discusses how China and India are dealing with the air pollution problem and suggests ways for improvement. The author argues that air pollution control and environmental protection in general are a comprehensive project that requires concerted efforts by governments at all levels, the scientific communtity, businesses, legal scholars, non-governmental and grass-roots groups, the international community, and individual citizens. Education and stricter law enforcement remain the key to success. China and India

  1. Boom komiksowy. Polski rynek historii obrazkowych w latach 2000-2003

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    Mateusz Zapała


    Full Text Available Lata 2000-2003, ze względu na wzmożoną aktywność wydawniczą na polu historii obrazkowych oraz szum medialny jej towarzyszący, bywają określane „boomem komiksowym”. Gwałtowny wzrost koniunktury na komiks w początkach XXI wieku rozpoczęły należące do Egmont Polska: magazyn „Świat Komiksu” oraz imprint Klub Świata Komiksu (publikujący niebywale popularną serię Thorgal. Wkrótce po komercyjnym sukcesie Egmontu na rynek opowieści obrazkowych wkroczyli inni wydawcy, których można podzielić na dwie grupy. Pierwszą stanowili edytorzy, którzy wcześniej publikowali jedynie książki, np. wydawnictwa Amber, Muza, Siedmioróg. Drugi zbiór tworzyły oficyny stricte komiksowe, Kultura Gniewu, Mandragora, Post. „Boom komiksowy” doprowadził także do znacznych zmian w strukturze rynku periodycznych historii obrazkowych – prawie wszystkich odbiorców utracił TM-Semic (lider rynku komiksowego w latach 90, wydawca czasopism z przygodami superbohaterów, np. „Batmana”,  nowych czytelników zyskały natomiast niskonakładowe magazyny, które publikowały głównie polski komiks autorski ( „AQQ”, „Krakers”, „KKK”, „Produkt”. W latach 2000-2003 rozwinął się również polski rynek mang (komiksów japońskich, którego liderem w tym czasie było wydawnictwo Japonica Polonica Fantastica (63% udział w rynku. Podczas „boomu komiksowego” rynek  historii obrazkowych skierowanych do dzieci zdominowała oferta Egmontu (np. magazyny „Kaczor Donald” i „Czarodziejki: W.I.T.C.H.” oraz cykl Gigant Poleca. Łącznie w latach 2000-2003 we wszystkich segmentach polskiego rynku komiksowego ukazało się 1455 pozycji komiksowych, czyli prawie o jedną czwartą więcej niż w ciągu całych lat dziewięćdziesiątych.

  2. Early Paleozoic dioritic and granitic plutons in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt, NW China: Constraints on the initiation of a magmatic arc in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Du, Long; Long, Xiaoping; Yuan, Chao; Zhang, Yunying; Huang, Zongying; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun; Xiao, Wenjiao


    Early Paleozoic dioritic and granitic plutons in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (ETOB) have been studied in order to constraint the initiation of a magmatic arc formed in this region. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that two dioritic plutons in the northern ETOB were generated in the Late Ordovician (452 ± 4 Ma) and the Early Silurian (442 ± 3 Ma), respectively. Diorites from the two plutons are characterized by enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and highly incompatible elements, with depletions in high field strength elements (HSFE) displaying typical geochemical features of a subduction-related origin. They have positive εNd(t) values (+5.08-+6.58), relatively young Nd model ages (TDM = 0.71-1.08 Ga), with Ta/Yb (0.05-0.09) and Nb/Ta ratios (12.06-15.19) similar to those of depleted mantle, suggesting a juvenile mantle origin. Their high Ba/La (13.3-35.9), low Th/Yb (0.72-2.02), and relatively low Ce/Th (4.57-14.7) and Ba/Th (47.8-235) ratios indicate that these diorites were probably produced by partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by both subducted sediment-derived melts and slab-derived aqueous fluids. Zircon U-Pb dating of a granitic pluton in the northern ETOB yielded a Late Ordovician intrusion age of 447 ± 5 Ma. Granites from this pluton show calc-alkaline compositions with geochemical characteristics of I-type granites. They also show positive εNd(t) values (+6.49-+6.95) and young Nd model ages (TDM = 0.69-0.87 Ga), indicating that the granites were most likely derived from juvenile lower crust. Our new dating results on the dioritic and granitic plutons suggest that arc-type magmatism in the northern ETOB began prior to or at the Late Ordovician (452-442 Ma). In addition, north-dipping subduction of the Kangguertage oceanic lithosphere may account for the arc-type magmatism and the geodynamic process of the ETOB in the Early Paleozoic.

  3. Earthquake sources near Uturuncu Volcano (United States)

    Keyson, L.; West, M. E.


    Uturuncu, located in southern Bolivia near the Chile and Argentina border, is a dacitic volcano that was last active 270 ka. It is a part of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex, which spans 50,000 km2 and is comprised of a series of ignimbrite flare-ups since ~23 ma. Two sets of evidence suggest that the region is underlain by a significant magma body. First, seismic velocities show a low velocity layer consistent with a magmatic sill below depths of 15-20 km. This inference is corroborated by high electrical conductivity between 10km and 30km. This magma body, the so called Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) is the likely source of volcanic activity in the region. InSAR studies show that during the 1990s, the volcano experienced an average uplift of about 1 to 2 cm per year. The deformation is consistent with an expanding source at depth. Though the Uturuncu region exhibits high rates of crustal seismicity, any connection between the inflation and the seismicity is unclear. We investigate the root causes of these earthquakes using a temporary network of 33 seismic stations - part of the PLUTONS project. Our primary approach is based on hypocenter locations and magnitudes paired with correlation-based relative relocation techniques. We find a strong tendency toward earthquake swarms that cluster in space and time. These swarms often last a few days and consist of numerous earthquakes with similar source mechanisms. Most seismicity occurs in the top 10 kilometers of the crust and is characterized by well-defined phase arrivals and significant high frequency content. The frequency-magnitude relationship of this seismicity demonstrates b-values consistent with tectonic sources. There is a strong clustering of earthquakes around the Uturuncu edifice. Earthquakes elsewhere in the region align in bands striking northwest-southeast consistent with regional stresses.

  4. Effectiveness of elastic damping in the pivot joints of cargo boom of crane-manipulating installations at large gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev I.A.


    Full Text Available The article was the analysis of dynamic processes in the cylindrical hinges with large gaps in the cargo boom crane-manipulating installations of mobile machines in operation. Consider the design of damping device for articulated joints, which creates a braking force of elastic resistance to the displacement of the hinge pin within the large gap. The mechanism of action of the damping devices was considered. Analysis of the effectiveness of damping device for re-ducing the dynamic stress state in the elements of cargo boom metal structures depending on the gap size and the stiff-ness of the damping device was performed. Damping device with an elastic shock absorbing elements substantially reduces the additional impact load at the time of selection of the gap in the joint, slow the growth of clearance in the pivot joint, limit the size of the gap specified value, which must not be exceeded during the entire service life of swivel independently from the intensity of his load.

  5. Developments in modelling of thermohydro-geomechanical behaviour of Boom clay and clay-based buffer materials (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, G.; Hueckel, T.; Peano, A.; Pellegrini, R.


    The results of two years of research on thermomechanics of clays performed within CEC contract Fl1W/0150 are described herein. Previous studies (research contracts with CEC/WAS/380.83.7 l) performed by ISMES have evidenced the need for an improved modelling of the volumetric response of natural clays. In a coupled approach, this leads to an improved prediction of pore-pressure development and dissipation. This is crucial for assessing conditions of a possible local thermal failure as verified in laboratory tests done at ISMES. The first part of the study lays the foundations of a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the interaction between water and soil skeleton. It consists in: (a) developing a framework for inclusion of water/soil particle thermally induced interaction into a thermodynamically consistent mixture theory approach (Section 2); (b) studying possible modelling approaches of considering the effective thermal expansion coefficient of pore water dependency on pore water status (Section 2); (c) testing artificial clays to assess pore water thermal expansion dependence on temperature in the presence of different amounts of active clay minerals and also Boom clay (Section 3); (d) performing a laboratory test campaign on Boom clay with special attention to the response in the overconsolidated domain (Section 4). 89 figs., 18 tabs., 102 refs

  6. Prioritizing Wetlands for Waterbirds in a Boom and Bust System: Waterbird Refugia and Breeding in the Murray-Darling Basin. (United States)

    Bino, Gilad; Kingsford, Richard T; Porter, John


    Dryland rivers have considerable flow variability, producing complex ecosystems, processes, and communities of organisms that vary over space and time. They are also among the more vulnerable of the world's ecosystems. A key strategy for conservation of dryland rivers is identifying and maintaining key sites for biodiversity conservation, particularly protecting the quantity and quality of flow and flooding regimes. Extreme variability considerably challenges freshwater conservation planning. We systematically prioritised wetlands for waterbirds (simultaneously for 52 species), across about 13.5% of the Murray-Darling Basin (1,061,469 km2), using a 30-year record of systematic aerial surveys of waterbird populations. Nine key wetlands in this area, primarily lakes, floodplains, and swamps, consistently contributed to a representation target (80%) of total abundances of all 52 waterbird species. The long temporal span of our data included dramatic availability (i.e., booms) and scarcity (i.e., busts) of water, providing a unique opportunity to test prioritisation at extremes of variation. These extremes represented periods when waterbirds were breeding or concentrating on refugia, varying wetland prioritisation. In dry years, important wetlands for waterbirds were riverine and lacustrine (12 wetlands) but this changed in wet years to lacustrine and palustrine (8 wetlands). Such variation in ecosystem condition substantially changes the relative importance of individual wetlands for waterbirds during boom and bust phases. Incorporating this variability is necessary for effective conservation of Murray-Darling Basin waterbirds, with considerable generality for other similarly variable systems around the world.

  7. Steroid-inducible BABY BOOM system for development of fertile Arabidopsis thaliana plants after prolonged tissue culture. (United States)

    Lutz, Kerry A; Martin, Carla; Khairzada, Sahar; Maliga, Pal


    We describe a steroid-inducible BABY BOOM system that improves plant regeneration in Arabidopsis leaf cultures and yields fertile plants. Regeneration of Arabidopsis thaliana plants for extended periods of time in tissue culture may result in sterile plants. We report here a novel approach for A. thaliana regeneration using a regulated system to induce embryogenic cultures from leaf tissue. The system is based on BABY BOOM (BBM), a transcription factor that turns on genes involved in embryogenesis. We transformed the nucleus of A. thaliana plants with BBM:GR, a gene in which the BBM coding region is fused with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) steroid-binding domain. In the absence of the synthetic steroid dexamethasone (DEX), the BBM:GR fusion protein is localized in the cytoplasm. Only when DEX is included in the culture medium does the BBM transcription factor enter the nucleus and turn on genes involved in embryogenesis. BBM:GR plant lines show prolific shoot regeneration from leaf pieces on media containing DEX. Removal of DEX from the culture media allowed for flowering and seed formation. Therefore, use of BBM:GR leaf tissue for regeneration of plants for extended periods of time in tissue culture will facilitate the recovery of fertile plants.

  8. Layout of the manipulator-arm (boom) for the TFTR fusion reactor (Princeton, USA) under UHV-conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaubert, J.


    This presentation shows the main criteria for the layout of the manipulator - arm and the antechamber - vessel of the TFTR - FUSION - REACTOR at Princeton University, PLASMA PHYSICS LABORATORY (USA). The main problem during layout of a manipulator system like the TFTR - Boom has been the limitation of the vertical deflections due to deadweight of the construction. The design problem is rather a deformation problem and a problem of stability than a stress problem. The way of optimizing the ratio between stiffness and deadweight is the most important part during the complete design - process. Additional earthquake requirements need further investigations for a satisfying layout (horizontal forces, weak-axis of moment of inertia). The details of the construction (welding, connections etc.) have to be designed in respect to UHV - requirements --> no holes and no fillet welds (outgasing - rate.) are allowed. All weldings have to be designed as bevel-welds. This manipulator system is designed for working in a plane system (two degrees of freedom). A manipulator system with the same operating capabilities in a three degree of freedom system needs larger cross sections for the different beam-elements than those of the discussed TFTR - BOOM

  9. Numerical and experimental investigation of VG flow control for a low-boom inlet (United States)

    Rybalko, Michael

    The application of vortex generators (VGs) for shock/boundary layer interaction flow control in a novel external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was studied using numerical and experimental methods. The low-boom inlet design features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. This allows reduced external gas dynamic waves at high mass flow rates but suffers from flow separation near the throat and a large hub-side boundary layer at the Aerodynamic Interface Plane (AIP), which marks the inflow to the jet engine turbo-machinery. Supersonic VGs were investigated to reduce the shock-induced flow separation near the throat while subsonic VGs were investigated to reduce boundary layer radial distortion at the AIP. To guide large-scale inlet experiments, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations using three-dimensional, structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code were conducted. Flow control cases included conventional and novel types of vortex generators at positions both upstream of the terminating normal shock (supersonic VGs) and downstream (subsonic VGs). The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, post-shock separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and mass flow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. Based on the above studies, a test matrix of supersonic and subsonic VGs was adapted for a large-scale inlet test to be conducted at the 8'x6' supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Comparisons of RANS simulations with data from the Fall 2010 8'x6' inlet test showed that predicted VG performance trends and case rankings for both supersonic and subsonic devices were consistent with experimental results. For example, experimental surface oil

  10. Performance of a Supersonic Over-Wing Inlet with Application to a Low-Sonic-Boom Aircraft (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Fink, Lawrence E.; Magee, Todd E.


    Development of commercial supersonic aircraft has been hindered by many related factors including fuel-efficiency, economics, and sonic-boom signatures that have prevented over-land flight. Materials, propulsion, and flight control technologies have developed to the point where, if over-land flight were made possible, a commercial supersonic transport could be economically viable. Computational fluid dynamics, and modern optimization techniques enable designers to reduce the boom signature of candidate aircraft configurations to acceptable levels. However, propulsion systems must be carefully integrated with these low-boom configurations in order that the signatures remain acceptable. One technique to minimize the downward propagation of waves is to mount the propulsion systems above the wing, such that the wing provides shielding from shock waves generated by the inlet and nacelle. This topmounted approach introduces a number of issues with inlet design and performance especially with the highly-swept wing configurations common to low-boom designs. A 1.79%-scale aircraft model was built and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center's 8-by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT) to validate the configuration's sonic boom signature. In order to evaluate performance of the top-mounted inlets, the starboard flow-through nacelle on the aerodynamic model was replaced by a 2.3%-scale operational inlet model. This integrated configuration was tested at the 8x6 SWT from Mach 0.25 to 1.8 over a wide range of angles-of-attack and yaw. The inlet was also tested in an isolated configuration over a smaller range of angles-of-attack and yaw. A number of boundary-layer bleed configurations were investigated and found to provide a substantial positive impact on pressure recovery and distortion. Installed inlet performance in terms of mass capture, pressure recovery, and distortion over the Mach number range at the design angle-of-attack of 4-degrees is presented herein and compared

  11. Distinct 238U/235U ratios and REE patterns in plutonic and volcanic angrites: Geochronologic implications and evidence for U isotope fractionation during magmatic processes (United States)

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Grove, Timothy L.


    Angrites are differentiated meteorites that formed between 4 and 11 Myr after Solar System formation, when several short-lived nuclides (e.g., 26Al-26Mg, 53Mn-53Cr, 182Hf-182W) were still alive. As such, angrites are prime anchors to tie the relative chronology inferred from these short-lived radionuclides to the absolute Pb-Pb clock. The discovery of variable U isotopic composition (at the sub-permil level) calls for a revision of Pb-Pb ages calculated using an ;assumed; constant 238U/235U ratio (i.e., Pb-Pb ages published before 2009-2010). In this paper, we report high-precision U isotope measurement for six angrite samples (NWA 4590, NWA 4801, NWA 6291, Angra dos Reis, D'Orbigny, and Sahara 99555) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry and the IRMM-3636 U double-spike. The age corrections range from -0.17 to -1.20 Myr depending on the samples. After correction, concordance between the revised Pb-Pb and Hf-W and Mn-Cr ages of plutonic and quenched angrites is good, and the initial (53Mn/55Mn)0 ratio in the Early Solar System (ESS) is recalculated as being (7 ± 1) × 10-6 at the formation of the Solar System (the error bar incorporates uncertainty in the absolute age of Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions - CAIs). An uncertainty remains as to whether the Al-Mg and Pb-Pb systems agree in large part due to uncertainties in the Pb-Pb age of CAIs. A systematic difference is found in the U isotopic compositions of quenched and plutonic angrites of +0.17‰. A difference is also found between the rare earth element (REE) patterns of these two angrite subgroups. The δ238U values are consistent with fractionation during magmatic evolution of the angrite parent melt. Stable U isotope fractionation due to a change in the coordination environment of U during incorporation into pyroxene could be responsible for such a fractionation. In this context, Pb-Pb ages derived from pyroxenes fraction should be corrected using the U isotope composition

  12. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano - linking geomorphology, erosion and spatial production patterns (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik


    . While agricultural exploitation prior to 2003 was mainly restricted to quaternary alluvial deposit, the post-2003 expansion entered the flat shoreface topography of late Pleistocene Lake Tauca (18-14 ka BP; Placzek et al 2006) and hence a domain of increased soil salinity. These recent developments pretty well illustrate southern Bolivia's "quinoa boom": an escalating, land-intensive production on marginal soils, characterized by high erosion rates and a dissipative resource use. Given the arid conditions and the resulting low resilience of the landscape, the current trends are likely to trigger widespread land degradation, jeopardizing future livelihood opportunities. References Placzek C, Quade J, Patchett, PJ 2006. Geochronology and stratigraphy of late Pleistocene lake cycles on the southern Bolivian Altiplano: Implications for causes of tropical climate change. GSA Bulletin 118, 515-532. Jacobsen, S-E 2011. The situation for quinoa and its production in Southern Bolivia: From economic success to environmental disaster. J. Agronomy & Crop Science 197, 390-399.

  13. The 226Ra isotope activities in ground water samples drawn of two wells from the Meridional Pluton, Morungaba Granitoids, eastern Sao Paulo State; Atividades do 226Ra em aguas subterraneas extraidas de dois pocos localizados no pluton meridional, granitoides de Morungaba, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Fabio de Oliveira; Silva Junior, Mario Goncalves da; Bertolla, Luciana; Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Dept. de Geofisica]. E-mail:


    The 226Ra activities, both in solution and associated with suspended solids, were measured in ground water samples drawn from two wells drilled in a fractured granitic aquifer from the Meridional Pluton, Morungaba Granitoids, eastern Sao Paulo State. The 226Ra isotope activities were measured in a sequence of samples collected about one month apart between March, 2003 and April 2004. The 226Ra activities were measured by radon gas emanometry. The mean dissolved 226Ra activity concentration activities observed in the two wells were (44.9 {+-} 7.1) mBq/L and (51.6 {+-} 8.8) mBq/L. The 226Ra activity of the suspend solids in a liter of these waters varied between (0,6 {+-} 0,1) mBq and (13 {+-} 1) mBq, respectively. (author)

  14. The relative mobility of U, Th and Ra isotopes in the weathered zones of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes granite pluton, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, A.G.; Schwarcz, H.P.


    Radioisotope activity ratios of weathered surface rocks from the Eye-Dashwa Lakes granite pluton show that, in the 238 U decay series, 226 Ra has been leached more rapidly than the grandparent 234 U and 238 U isotopes. The observation of 238 Th/ 232 Th disequilibria in the 232 Th decay series shows that either 228 Th (half-life of 1.9 yrs) or 228 Ra (half-life of 5.75 yrs) have been removed from these rocks very rapidly indeed. Isotope ratios of separated mineral fractions appear to show that whereas uranium tends to be removed from all mineral fractions, Ra is strongly readsorbed onto feldspars, presumably as these undergo alteration to clay minerals. This necessitates making a distinction between intermineral mobility of U or Ra, and the net loss of U or Ra from the whole rock. An attempt has been made to model, quantitatively, the transport rate of Ra, though with little success. Failure of the modelling appears to indicate that the mobility of 228 Ra is higher than might be predicted by the mobility of 226 Ra; that is, the two isotopes are not strict analogues of one another in their response to initial weathering

  15. Determination of P-T and tectonic setting of Ghaleh Yaghmesh plutonic complex (west of Yazd province by using of mineral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Fazeli


    Full Text Available The Ghaleh Yaghmesh plutonic massif is located the westernmost part of Yazd province and in the central part of the Urumieh – Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA. This massif with quartzdiorite, tonalite and granodiorite composition is Oligocene in age and intruded the volcanic and pyroclastic rocks including rhyolite, rhyodacite, and andesitic, as well as rhyodacitic and rhyolitic tuff belonging to the Eocene. Tonalite and granodiorite contain mafic microgranular enclaves with quartzdiorite composition. According to mineral chemistry, the plagioclases are oligoclase to labradorite in composition. The amphiboles have high magnesian and are calcic nature (magnesio-hornblende. The biotites from the tonalites are enriched in magnesian. Compositionally, clinopyroxene display augite and augite–diopside in quartz-diorite and enclaves respectively. Thermometery of the clinopyroxene and hornblende– plagioclase show 1100-1125°C and 730-900°C respectively. The pressure of the studied rocks, on the base of chemical data of magnesio-hornblende, ranges from 1.5 to 1.75 kbar, which is equal to the depth of about 5.5-6.5 km. The overall field, petrography and mineral chemistry data support the I-type calc-alkaline nature of the studied granitoid, which formed during high oxygen fugacity and volcanic arc, and subduction is suggested for its formation environment.

  16. Study of the 'Clay of Boom' with regard to the storage of nuclear waste. Appendices; Onderzoek Klei van Boom in verband met eventuele opslag kernafval. Bijlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugge, J.V.M.; Vrouwe, B.J. [T and A Survey, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    The Dutch government aims to store nuclear waste in the Dutch soil. Geological research organization T and A Survey mapped the areas that match with the demands of the Dutch government regarding underground storage of nuclear waste. These are areas in which the Clay layer of Boom has a minimal thickness of 100 meters and the depth of the top of the clay formation is at least 500 meters. This report contains the appendices with (geological) maps and data. [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid wil kernafval ondergronds opslaan in de Nederlandse bodem. Geologisch onderzoeksbureau T and A Survey brengt de gebieden in kaart, die voldoen aan de door de overheid gestelde eisen voor mogelijke ondergrondse opslag van kernafval. Het gaat om gebieden waar de Boomse kleilaag een minimale dikte van 100 meter heeft en de diepte van de top van de kleiformatie minimaal 500 meter bedraagt. Dit rapport bevat de bijlagen met (geologische) kaarten en gegevens.

  17. Geo-scientific characterisation of the Boom Clay in the Netherlands in light of permanent confinement of radio-active waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.J.; Simmelink, E.; Westerhoff, W.; Koenen, M.; Tambach, T.; Behrends, T.


    Recently, the OPERA research program has been initiated in the Netherlands. Its central objective is to develop initial, conditional safety cases for repositories in the Boom Clay and Zechstein rocksalt formations. TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands has been granted two projects that deal with

  18. The peak of construction. After years of stagnant hospital growth, Colorado sees boom in healthcare construction as enterprising companies pan for gold. (United States)

    Romano, Michael


    As Denver experienced a population boom during the '90s, hospital construction was at a standstill. Now providers are racing to catch up with demand, reflecting a national trend. Four Denver-area facilities, including Sky Ridge Medical Center, left, are open or under construction. "Right now, there's nothing like this going on anywhere," says Dennis Brimhall, of the University of Colorado Hospital.

  19. Petrotectonic characteristics, geochemistry, and U-Pb geochronology of Jurassic plutons in the Upper Magdalena Valley-Colombia: Implications on the evolution of magmatic arcs in the NW Andes (United States)

    Rodríguez, G.; Arango, M. I.; Zapata, G.; Bermúdez, J. G.


    Field, petrographic, and geochemical characterization along with U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Jurassic plutons exposed in the Upper Magdalena Valley (Colombia) allowed recognizing distinct western and eastern suites formed in at least three magmatic pulses. The western plutons crop out between the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera and the Las Minas range, being limited by the Avirama and the Betania-El Agrado faults. The western suite comprises a quartz monzonite - quartz monzodiorite - quartz diorite series and subordinate monzogranites. Chemically, the rocks are high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids (some reaching the shoshonitic series) with metaluminous of magnesium affinity. Trace-element tectonic discrimination is consistent with magmatism in a continental arc environment. Most rocks of this suite crystallized between 195 and 186 Ma (Early Jurassic, Pliensbachian), but locally some plutons yielded younger ages between 182 and 179 Ma (Early Jurassic, Toarcian). The eastern suite crops out in the eastern margin of the Upper Magdalena Valley, east of the Betania - El Agrado fault. Plutons of this unit belong to the monzogranite series with rock types ranging between syenogranites and granodiorites. They are high-K calc-alkaline continental granitoids, some metaluminous and some peraluminous, related to I-type granites generated in a volcanic arc. Crystallization of the suite was between 173 and 169 Ma (Middle Jurassic, Aalenian-Bajocian), but locally these rocks contain zircon with earlier inherited ages related to the magmatic pulse of the western suite between 182 and 179 Ma (Early Jurassic, Toarcian). The evolution of the Jurassic plutons in the Upper Magdalena Valley is best explained by onset or increase in subduction erosion of the accretionary prism. This explains the eastward migration of the arc away from the trench. Subduction of prism sediments increased the water flux from the subducting slab, decreasing solidus temperatures, therefore

  20. From Boom to Bust: The Effects of Economic Recession on Minority Groups' Experience in the Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    From Boom to Bust: The Effects of Economic Recession on Minority Groups' Experience in the Housing Market


    Full Text Available The homeownership rate in the US reached an all-time high of 69.2 percent by 2006, attributed to factors like favorable mortgage lending practice, economic boom, and incentive policies. The recent subprime mortgage crisis and economic recession, however, widened the gap in homeownership between racial minorities and whites. A sharp drop in housing price also posed a threat to the amount of equity one could accumulate. In this paper, we examined how the changing economy and both structural and individual-level factors affected the racial disparities in homeownership and home equity, using the 2005 and 2009 American Housing Survey national data. The major finding was that the economic recession affected Blacks the most, followed by Hispanics. Asians, though showing a decline in their home equity, were able to maintain their advantages in the housing market.

  1. A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes (United States)

    Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.


    Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which

  2. Mesozoic alkaline plutonism: Evidence for extensional phase in Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt in Central Alborz, north Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh Doroozi


    Full Text Available The Kamarbon Jurassic alkaline basic intrusion crops out in Central Alborz, north Iran, along the northern margin of the Alpine-Himalayan belt. The intrusion includes foid gabbros at the margins and foid monzodiorites towards the center. The foid monzodiorites are considered as the evolved melts after the fractional crystallization mostly of olivine and clinopyroxene from a foid gabbro parental magma. Based on mass balance calculation the evolution of the Kamarbon alkaline gabbro could be explained by 19.2% fractionation of clinopyroxene, 13.8% of olivine, 3% of plagioclase and 1.0% Ti-Magnetite, with 63% of residual liquid. REE inversion modeling indicates that the Kamarbon intrusion magma was generated by low degrees (<3% of partial melting from a garnet-bearing mantle source. In primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element diagrams, the Kamarbon rocks show enrichment in LILE elements (Ba, Rb, Sr and Th, HFSE elements (Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr and Hf and P and depletion in K, Y and HREE (Yb, Lu which are similar to patterns of HIMU-OIBs or intraplate alkaline magmas. According to the existence of extensional phases and occurrence of different rifting during late Triassic to middle Jurassic in Central Alborz, the formation of Kamarbon intrusion could be related to an intracontinental rifting.

  3. The timing and sources of intraplate magmatism related to continental breakup in southern New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Quinten

    related I- to I/S-type plutons of the Rahu suite up to 105 Ma. Isolated plutonism continued on a smaller scale after 105 Ma. O and Hf isotopes in zircon from later felsic plutons indicate waning subduction related magmatism up to 101 Ma. This is followed by the regional dominance of intraplate signatures...

  4. Assessment of the long-term risks of inadvertent human intrusion into a proposed Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in deep plutonic rock -revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuschke, D.M.


    Canada has conducted an extensive research program on a concept of safe disposal of nuclear fuel wastes deep In plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. An essential goal of this program has been to develop and demonstrate a methodology to evaluate the performance of the facility against safety criteria established by Canada's regulatory agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board. These criteria are expressed in terms of risk, where risk is defined as the sum, over all significant scenarios, of the product of the probability of the scenario, the magnitude of the resultant dose, and the probability of a health effect per unit dose. This report describes the methodology developed to assess the long-term risk from inadvertent human intrusion into such a facility, and the results of its application to the proposed facility. Four intrusion scenarios were analysed, all initiated by a drilling operation. These scenarios are exposure of a member of the drilling crew, of a technologist conducting a core examination, of a construction worker and of a resident. The consequence of each scenario was estimated using standard computer codes for environmental pathways analysis and radiation dosimetry. For comparison with the risk criterion, an estimate of the probability of each scenario is also required. An event-tree methodology was used to estimate these probabilities. The estimated risks from these intrusion scenarios are several orders of magnitude below the established risk criterion. The event-tree methodology has the advantages of explicity displaying the assumptions made, of permitting easy testing of the sensitivity of the risk estimates to assumptions, and of combining technical and sociological information. (author). 53 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Evaluation of whole-rock lead isotope data for drill cores of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton and the Vermilion granitic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, B.R.


    Disturbances of the U-Th-Pb systems in drill-core samples of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton are related to a fracturing event in the Early Proterozoic and to more recent loss of lead due to fluid ingress at shallow crustal levels. The U-Pb and Th-Pb systems of five samples considered to be fresh on petrographic grounds (gray granite) are closed or show only limited parent/daughter mobility. U-Pb data for these samples are within about 10 percent of being concordant and define a concordia intercept age of 2684 ± 33 Ma, in agreement with the whole-rock Rb-Sr age of 2637 ± 33 Ma and U-Pb age of 2665 Ma inferred from zircon and titanite. The 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb plot for the fresh samples is 2684 ± 10 Ma. Three strongly altered samples define a chord on a concordia plot with intercepts at 2471 and 88 Ma. These samples are part of a suite of fractured, oxidized, and epidotized rocks that define a Rb-Sr isochron of 2281 ± 153 Ma. The whole-rock U-Pb systems of the altered samples are interpreted to have been perturbed by loss of Pb or gain of U during the fracturing event and again much more recently (Late Phanerozoic). The U-Pb systems in the fresh samples were not affected by the Early Proterozoic event, indicating that fluid ingress was largely restricted to the fracture zones

  6. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure of beach sands in highly touristic areas associated with plutonic rocks of the Atticocycladic zone (Greece). (United States)

    Papadopoulos, A; Koroneos, A; Christofides, G; Papadopoulou, L; Tzifas, I; Stoulos, S


    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 228 Th and 40 K along beaches close to the plutonic rocks of the Atticocycladic zone that ranged from 15 to 628, 12-2292, 16-10,143, 14-9953 and 191-1192 Bq/kg respectively. A sample from island of Mykonos contained the highest 232 Th content measured in sediments of Greece. The heavy magnetic fraction and the heavy non-magnetic fraction as well as the total heavy fraction, were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238 U and 232 Th mineral carrier. Similar correlations have been found between 238 U, 232 Th content and rare earth elements concentrations. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which at least in most cases are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. Since the Greek beaches are among the most popular worldwide the annual effective dose equivalent received due to sand exposure has been estimated and found to vary between 0.002 and 0.379 mSv y -1 for tourists and from 0.018 to 3.164 mSv y -1 for local people working on the beach. The values corresponding to ordinary sand samples are orders of magnitude lower than the limit of 1 mSv y -1 , only in the case of heavy minerals-rich sands the dose could reach or exceed the recommended maximum limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Origin of carbonatites of the Matcha alkaline pluton from Turkestan-Alai ridge, Kyrgyz Southern Tien Shan (United States)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.


    Postorogenic alkaline intrusions in the Turkestan-Alai segment of the Southern Tien Shan coexist with dikes and veins of carbonatites dated at ˜220 Ma. They are primarily composed of calcite and dolomite (60-85 %), as well as sodic amphibole, phlogopite, clinopyroxene, microcline, albite, apatite, and magnetite, with accessory niobate, ilmenite, Nb-rutile, titanite, zircon, baddeleyite, monazite-(Ce), barite, and sulfides. The rocks share mineralogical and geochemical similarity with carbonatites that originated by liquid immiscibility at high temperatures above 500°C. Silicate and salt-carbonate melts are derived from sources with mainly negative bulk ɛND(t) ˜ from -11 to 0 and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (˜ 0.7061-0.7095) which may be due to mixing of PREMA and EM-type mantle material. Pb isotopic ratios in accessory pyrrhotite (206Pb/204Pb = 18.38; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.41) exhibit an EM 2 trend. The intrusions bear signatures of significant crustal contamination as a result of magma genesis by syntexis and hybridism. Concordant isotope composition changes of δ 13C (-6.5 to -1.9 ‰), δ 18O (9.2-23 %„), δD (-58 to -41 %„), and δ 34S (12.6-12.8 ‰) in minerals and rocks indicate inputs of crustal material at the stage of melting and effect of hot fluids released during dehydration of metamorphosed oceanic basalts or sediments. The observed HFSE patterns of the oldest alkaline gabbro may be due to interaction of the primary mafic magma with IAB-type material. The isotope similarity of alkaline rocks with spatially proximal basalts of the Tarim large igneous province does not contradict the evolution of the Turkestan-Alai Triassic magmatism as the «last echo» of the Tarim mantle plume.

  8. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: a study of postclosure safety of in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock volume 1: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikjord, A.G.; Baumgartner, P.; Johnson, L.H.; Stanchell, F.W.; Zach, R.; Goodwin, B.W.


    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves isolating the waste in corrosion-resistant containers emplaced and sealed within a vault at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The case for the acceptability of the concept as a means of safely disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is presented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) The disposal concept permits a choice of methods, materials, site locations and designs. The EIS presents a case study of the long-term (i.e., postclosure) performance of a hypothetical implementation of the concept, referred to in this report as the reference disposal system. The reference disposal system is based on borehole emplacement of used CANDU fuel in Grade-2 titanium alloy containers in low-permeability, sparsely fractured plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We evaluate the long-term performance of another hypothetical implementation of the concept based on in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock. The geological characteristics of the geosphere assumed for this study result in short groundwater travel times from the disposal vault to the surface. In the present study, the principal barrier to the movement of contaminants is the long-lasting copper container. We show that the long-lasting container can effectively compensate for a permeable host rock which results in an unfavourable groundwater flow condition. These studies illustrate the flexibility of AECL's disposal concept to take advantage of the retention, delay, dispersion, dilution and radioactive decay of contaminants in a system of natural barriers provided by the geosphere and hydrosphere and of engineered barriers provided by the waste form, container, buffer, backfills, other vault seals and grouts. In an actual implementation, the engineered system would be designed for the geological conditions encountered at the host site. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  9. The experimental testing of the long-term behaviour of cemented radioactive waste from nuclear research reactors in the geological disposal conditions of the boom clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneyers, A.; Marivoet, J.; Iseghem, P. van [SCK-CEN, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)


    Liquid wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from the BR-2 Materials Testing Reactor, will be conditioned in a cement matrix at the dedicated cementation facility of UKAEA at Dounreay. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is studied as a potential host rock for the final geological disposal of cemented research reactor waste. In view of evaluating the safety of disposal, laboratory leach experiments and in situ tests have been performed. Leach experiments in synthetic clay water indicate that the leach rates of calcium and silicium are relatively low compared to those of sodium and potassium. In situ experiments on inactive samples are performed in order to obtain information on the microchemical and mineralogical changes of the cemented waste in contact with the Boom clay. Finally, results from a preliminary performance assessment calculation suggest a non-negligible maximum dose rate of 5 10{sup -9} Sv/a for {sup 129}I. (author)

  10. Geochemical characterisation of kerogen from the Boom Clay Formation (Mol, Belgium) and evolution under different thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, I.


    The Boom clay formation in Belgium has been chosen as test site for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The organic matter present in the clay (kerogen) is sensible to the thermal stress and can generate a huge number of gaseous and liquid compounds leading to local pH changes and to fracturing processes. In particular, some polar compounds can complex radionuclides. The samples analyzed in this work were taken in the underground laboratory of Mol at a 223 m depth. They have been analyzed in detail using geochemical methods (Rock-Eval pyrolysis, element analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy), spectroscopic methods (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, solid state 13 C NMR, Raman) and pyrolytic methods (off-line, on-line and in sealed tubes combined with coupled CG/SM analyses). The study of a representative sample of this formation has permitted to characterize the organic matter at the molecular scale, to determine its fossilization mechanisms and the nature of the organic compounds trapped inside the kerogen. The organic matter of the Boom clays comes mainly from phyto-planktonic matter with an important contribution of terrestrial and bacterial matter. The degradation-recondensation played an important role in its preservation but the presence of numerous oxygenated molecules implies that oxidative incorporation also participated to this preservation. Finally, various products (hydrocarbons, oxygenated and nitrogenous polar compounds) trapped in significant amount inside the macro-molecular structure are released under a relatively weak thermal stress. Moreover several small polar organic molecules are released and can play a significant role in the retention or migration of radionuclides inside the geologic barrier. A sample submitted to a in-situ thermal stress of 80 deg. C during 5 years (Cerberus experiment) do not show any significant change in its kerogen structure with respect to the non-heated reference sample

  11. Fission track thermochronology of Neogene plutons in the Principal Andean Cordillera of central Chile (33-35°S: Implications for tectonic evolution and porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization Termocronología mediante trazas de fision de plutones neógenos en la Cordillera Principal Andina de Chile central (33-35°S: Implicancias para la evolución tectónica y mineralización de pórfidos de Cu-Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Maksaev


    Full Text Available Apatite fission track data for Miocene plutons of the western slope of the Principal Andean Cordillera in central Chile (33-35°S define a distinct episode of enhanced crustal cooling through the temperature range of the apatite partial annealing zone (~125-60°C from about 6 to 3 Ma. This cooling episode is compatible with accelerated exhumation of the plutons at the time of Pliocene compressive tectonism, and mass wasting on the western slope of the Principal Andean Cordillera in central Chile. The timing coincides with the southward migration of the subducting Juan Fernández Ridge and the development of progressive subduction flattening northward of 33°S. It also corresponds to the time of active magmatic-hydrothermal processes and rapid unroofing of the world class Río Blanco-Los Bronces and El Teniente porphyry Cu-Mo deposits. Zircon fission track ages coincide with previous 40Ar/39Ar dates of the intrusions, and with some of the apatite fission track ages, being coherent with igneous-linked, rapid cooling following magmatic intrusion. The thermochronologic data are consistent with a maximum of about 8 km for Neogene exhumation of the plutons.Los datos de trazas de fision en apatita de plutones miocenos del flanco oeste de la Cordillera Principal de Chile central (33-35°S definen un episodio distintivo de enfriamiento acelerado a través del rango de temperatura de la zona de acortamiento parcial de trazas en apatita (~125-60°C entre los 6 a 3 Ma. Este episodio de enfriamiento es compatible con exhumación rápida de los plutones al tiempo del tectonismo compresivo plioceno y remociones en masa en el flanco oeste de la Cordillera Principal en Chile central. El período de tiempo coincide con la migración hacia el sur de la subducción de la Dorsal de Juan Fernández y con el desarrollo de un aplanamiento progresivo de la subducción hacia el norte de los 33°S. También corresponde al tiempo de actividad magmático-hidrotermal y r

  12. Assessment of the long-term risks of inadvertent human intrusion into a disposal vault in deep plutonic rock: reassessment using ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuschke, D.M.


    Canada has conducted an extensive research program on the safe disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The program has focussed on the concept of disposal in durable containers in an engineered facility or 'vault' located 500 to 1000 m deep in plutonic rock on the Canadian Shield. As part of this task, a methodology was developed to assess the long-term risk from inadvertent intrusion scenarios, and applied to a reference conceptual design of a facility for disposal of used fuel. The AECB has specified that 'the predicted radiological risk to individuals from a waste disposal facility shall not exceed 10 -6 fatal cancers and serious genetic effects in a year.' Risk is defined as the sum, of the product of the probability of the scenario, the magnitude of the resultant radiation dose, and the probability of a health effect per unit dose. The AECB also specifies that 'calculations of individual risk should be made by using the risk conversion factor of 2 x 10 -2 per sievert.' Our earlier assessment of four human intrusion scenarios showed that the estimated risk using the risk conversion factor recommended by the AECB was at least 3 orders of magnitude below the AECB risk criterion, at all times up to 10 000 a, for each of the four scenarios analysed. The AECB risk criterion and risk conversion factor are based on the recommendations of the Intemafional Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in their Publication ICRP 26. More recently, in its Publication ICRP 60, the ICRP has recommended dose factors for fatal cancers that are larger than those in ICRP 26 and an increase in the risk factor for serious hereditary effects in all future generations. Another ICRP Publication, ICRP 64, states that 'For potential exposure situations, the consideration of the basic dose response used for stochastic effects must be extended into the range of high doses where deterministic effects also occur.' For the new assessments of risk we use the estimated doses and probabilities of

  13. The effects of elastic supports on the transient vibroacoustic response of a window caused by sonic booms. (United States)

    Ou, Dayi; Mak, Cheuk Ming


    The transient vibration and sound radiation (TVSR) of plate-like structures with general elastic boundary conditions was investigated using the time-domain finite element method (TDFEM) and time-domain boundary element method (TDBEM). In this model, the structure can have arbitrary elastic boundary conditions and hence the effects of the boundary conditions on the TVSR can be effectively studied. The predicted results agreed well with existing experimental data using two classical boundary conditions: simply supported at all edges and clamped-free-free-free. The TVSR of a single panel with a more general boundary condition in two connected chambers was also measured. The predicted results agreed well with these experimental results. The prediction method was subsequently applied to evaluate the effects of elastic boundary supports on the TVSR of a window caused by a sonic boom. Loudness, non-audible acoustic perception, and tactile vibration thresholds were analyzed for different boundary conditions (varying between clamped and simply supported). The possibility of improving the transient vibration and noise isolation performance by selecting an appropriate boundary condition was thereby demonstrated.

  14. Model experiment to study sonic boom propagation through turbulence. Part II. Effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence. (United States)

    Lipkens, B; Blackstock, D T


    A model experiment was reported to be successful in simulating the propagation of sonic booms through a turbulent atmosphere [B. Lipkens and D. T. Blackstock, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 148-158 (1998)]. In this study the effect on N wave characteristics of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence are investigated. The main parameters of interest are the rise time and the peak pressure. The effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance is to flatten the rise time and peak pressure distributions. Rise time and peak pressure distributions always have positive skewness after propagation through turbulence. Average rise time grows with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. The scattering of rise time data is one-sided, i.e., rise times are almost always increased by turbulence. Average peak pressure decreases slowly with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. For the reported data a threefold increase in average rise time is observed and a maximum decrease of about 20% in average peak pressure. Rise times more than ten times that of the no turbulence value are observed. At most, the maximum peak pressure doubles after propagation through turbulence, and the minimum peak pressure values are about one-half the no-turbulence values. Rounded waveforms are always more common than peaked waveforms.

  15. [Changes in tobacco consumption: boom of roll-your-own cigarettes and emergence of e-cigarettes]. (United States)

    Tarrazo, Marina; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    To assess changes in smoking prevalence and study roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco and e-cigarette use in the Galician population between 2007 and 2015. Data were obtained from five independent, cross-sectional studies carried out in Galicia (Spain) between 2007-2015 in the population aged 16 and over (n=8,000/year). Prevalence of use was estimated, with 95% confidence intervals, overall, according to sex and by age group, area of residence and level of education. Smoking prevalence decreased from 25.4% in 2007 to 21.8% in 2015. In 2007, 1.8% of current smokers declared that they had smoked RYO tobacco, compared to 18.6% in 2015. Among smokers, RYO tobacco consumption increased across all demographic groups. In both 2014 and 2015, ever use of e-cigarettes was 0.7%. E-cigarette use was more frequent in urban settings. Smoking prevalence decreased in Galicia between 2007 and 2015, and there has been rapid growth in the prevalence of RYO tobacco use. Although smokers are more likely to use e-cigarettes, both former and never smokers declared their use. The boom of RYO cigarettes and the emergence of e-cigarettes highlight the importance of having continuous surveillance systems to identify smoking behavioural changes. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of chloride ions on the pitting corrosion of candidate HLW overpack materials in synthetic oxidized boom clay water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Kursten, B.


    The corrosion behavior under repository conditions is an important issue in the selection of a container material for the deep-geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. In considering corrosion resistant materials for the containers, attention has to be focused on localized corrosion. Therefore, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization measurements were used to investigate the pitting behavior of a number of candidate materials, including stainless steels AISI 316L, AISI 316L hMo, AISI 316Ti, higher alloyed stainless steels UNS N08904 and UNS N08926, nickel alloy UNS N96455, and titanium alloy UNS R52400. The environment considered was synthetic oxidized Boom clay water at a temperature of 90 C and with varying chloride content. UNS N96455 and UNS R52400 did not show any pitting corrosion at chloride concentrations up to 10,000 ppm. UNS N08926 was resistant to pitting at 100 and 1,000 ppm Cl - . The other alloys suffered minor or no pitting attack in the reference solution containing 100 ppm chloride, but were attacked at elevated chloride concentrations. A SEM study of the pit morphology on AISI 316L hMo and UHB 904 revealed large central pits surrounded by minor satellite pits, resulting in a rose shape. This morphology probably resulted from subsurface pit growth, where the pit was covered by a thin layer of metal

  17. Opting Out and Leaning In: The Life Course Employment Profiles of Early Baby Boom Women in the United States. (United States)

    García-Manglano, Javier


    Most literature on female employment focuses on the intersection between women's labor supply and family events such as marriage, divorce, or childbearing. Even when using longitudinal data and methods, most studies estimate average net effects over time and assume homogeneity among women. Less is known about diversity in women's cumulative work patterns over the long run. Using group-based trajectory analysis, I model the employment trajectories of early Baby Boom women in the United States from ages 20 to 54. I find that women in this cohort can be classified in four ideal-type groups: those who were consistently detached from the labor force (21 %), those who gradually increased their market attachment (27 %), those who worked intensely in young adulthood but dropped out of the workforce after midlife (13 %), and those who were steadily employed across midlife (40 %). I then explore a variety of traits associated with membership in each of these groups. I find that (1) the timing of family events (marriage, fertility) helps to distinguish between groups with weak or strong attachment to the labor force in early adulthood; (2) external constraints (workplace discrimination, husband's opposition to wife's work, ill health) explain membership in groups that experienced work trajectory reversals; and (3) individual preferences influence labor supply across women's life course. This analysis reveals a high degree of complexity in women's lifetime working patterns, highlighting the need to understand women's labor supply as a fluid process.

  18. Below the radar: the boom of groundwater use in the central part of the Nile Delta in Egypt (United States)

    El-Agha, Doaa E.; Closas, Alvar; Molle, François


    The Nile Delta of Egypt is known for its large irrigated area supplied with water diverted from the Nile River, with a limited use of groundwater, largely for domestic and industrial use. Official statistics for the whole delta indicate that there are a few thousand individual wells used for agriculture by a population of over 2 million farmers. This study, however, shows that a phenomenon of groundwater development for irrigation has been unfolding over the last few years, largely below the radar of managers and researchers. A survey was carried out in the central part of the delta with the objective of (1) uncovering the actual situation of groundwater use in this part of the delta and (2) speculating on its implications. The results of the survey pointed to a recent and booming tube-well drilling industry, with well densities in some parts reaching one well every 2 ha. The development of groundwater abstraction in the central delta is strongly linked to inadequate and/or untimely availability of surface water in the canals. A technical, economic, and management characterization of wells complements the study, showing a continuum between purely private/individual ownership of wells and collective investments and management. Lastly, the article explores the implications of unchecked abstraction at the farm, local and delta scales.

  19. El Boom Petrolero Ecuato-Guineano y sus Implicaciones para el Proceso de Regionalización Centroafricano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nso


    Full Text Available A mediados de los años 90, Guinea Ecuatorial, antigua colonia española en el Golfo de Guinea, experimentó un boom petrolero, que le catapultó al estatus de primer productor de crudo de la zona Franco CFA y tercero del Golfo (por detrás de Nigeria y Angola. El caso ecuato-guineano tiene un especial interés para la disciplina de la geopolítica del petróleo, porque se produce en un determinado contexto global, marcado por: (a los atentados del 11 de septiembre, a los que seguirá una inestabilidad creciente en la región de Oriente Medio, que detenta las mayores reservas de petróleo del mundo; y (b la trascendental transformación de los principios clásicos de la cooperación al desarrollo de la Unión Europea, con la firma de las Convenciones de Cotonou. Así pues, si bien el primer factor nos remite a la seguridad del aprovisionamiento de la potencia estadounidense, que se dirige entonces a la joven y fulgurante región del Golfo de Guinea, en África Central, el segundo acabará ofreciendo la clave de la ofensiva ecuato-guineana para hacerse con el liderazgo de la región centroafricana.

  20. Mapping the Expansion of Boom Crops in Mainland Southeast Asia Using Dense Time Stacks of Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar Hurni


    Full Text Available We performed a multi-date composite change detection technique using a dense-time stack of Landsat data to map land-use and land-cover change (LCLUC in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA with a focus on the expansion of boom crops, primarily tree crops. The supervised classification was performed using Support Vector Machines (SVM, which are supervised non-parametric statistical learning techniques. To select the most suitable SMV classifier and the related parameter settings, we used the training data and performed a two-dimensional grid search with a three-fold internal cross-validation. We worked in seven Landsat footprints and found the linear kernel to be the most suitable for all footprints, but the most suitable regularization parameter C varied across the footprints. We distinguished a total of 41 LCLUCs (13 to 31 classes per footprint in very dynamic and heterogeneous landscapes. The approach proved useful for distinguishing subtle changes over time and to map a variety of land covers, tree crops, and transformations as long as sufficient training points could be collected for each class. While to date, this approach has only been applied to mapping urban extent and expansion, this study shows that it is also useful for mapping change in rural settings, especially when images from phenologically relevant acquisition dates are included.