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Sample records for bookbinding

  1. Aesthetic Bildung in Vocational Education: The Biographical Case of Bookbinding Master Wolfgang B. and His Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Ruhi

    2014-01-01

    In the present article I will be discussing the importance attributed to aesthetic experiences in the vocational education of bookbinding master Wolfgang B. using the philosophy of Friedrich Schiller both to understand what constitutes these processes and to examine Schiller's thoughts in the light of his recollections. By doing this I hope…

  2. La encuadernación del impreso antiguo en México: reflexiones sobre un problema de conocimiento patrimonial Bookbinding of antique prints in Mexico: reflections on a problem of knowledge in cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Compiani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La encuadernación es uno de los elementos históricos distintivos que favorecen la valoración cultural del libro antiguo como objeto patrimonial. El análisis de la encuadernación como un problema de conocimiento es una tarea pendiente en el terreno histórico mexicano. Ciertamente existen trabajos anteriores que muestran su valor cultural, pero son iniciativas inconclusas que han posibilitando la destrucción de numerosas encuadernaciones históricas por lo cual el mensaje del pasado queda mutilado. Este trabajo analiza las tendencias del estudio de la encuadernación en México y define su importancia como elemento patrimonial.Bookbinding is one of the distinctive historical elements which support cultural value of rare books as patrimonial objects. Analysis of bookbinding as a knowledge problem is a pending task in Mexican history, although there certainly are previous papers which show its cultural value. However those incomplete initiatives have allowed the destruction of many important bookbindings, a fact equivalent with the mutilation of the message from the past. Today’s tendencies on bookbinding study in Mexico are analyzed and its importance as a patrimonial element is defined.

  3. Renaissance bookbindings on Slovene reformation prints from the Slovene National Museum in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Svoljšak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Four of these prints: two Dalmatin’s Bibles, Dalmatin’s Lepe karszhanske molitve and Trubar’s Hishna postilla have leather stiff board decorative renaissance bindings while Bohorič’s Arcticae horulae succisivae has a stiff board vellum binding.A short overview of the European renaissance bookbindnig characteristics and decorative motives development is presented in the first part, followed by the codicological census. The second part of the research consists of decorative tools and motives clasiffication and an individual motive analysis. An overview of the decorative motives on four decorative reformation bindings in the context of the European reformation book decoration styles with special emphasis on the Wittemberg reformation book decoration style is given in the final analysis.

  4. PUR书刊装订热熔胶的正确使用%Proper Applications of PUR Glue in Bookbinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈国荣

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一、PUR热熔胶的性能 PUR热熔胶(polyurethane Reactive Hot-melt adhesives,以下简称PUR胶)是湿致固化型的聚氨酯型热熔胶,是一种带有氨酯键(NH-C0-0)的高分子化合物,其分子链的末端是异氰酸盐基,异氰酸盐基遇到窄气中的水分会产生不可逆的交联反应,形成牢固的黏合层,这是PUR热熔胶的特性.其独到之处在于能够黏接多种材料,包括漆类涂层、UV同化层、塑胶薄膜和涂料纸张等.

  5. A Draft of a Catalogue of Japanese-Bookbindings Held at the Iwakuni Central Library (Part 3)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    本目録の作成は、日本学術振興会平成25年度科学研究費補助金、基盤研究(C)「岩国市に残存する吉川家由来本を中心とした古典籍に関する調査研究」(課題番号23520226)による研究成果の一部である。

  6. A Draft of a Catalogue of Japanese-Bookbindings Held at the Iwakuni Central Library (Part 4)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    本目録の作成は、日本学術振興会平成26年度科学研究費補助金、基盤研究(C)「岩国市に残存する吉川家由来本を中心とした古典籍に関する調査研究」(課題番号23520226)による研究成果の一部である。

  7. An Overview of Book-binding Equipment on China Print 2005 (2nd)%从北京国际印刷展看书刊装订设备(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢长城

    2005-01-01

    尽管著名的骑马订联动机生产厂商瑞士马天尼没有参展,但德国海德堡、赫纳,日本尾谷,特别是我国北人集团、上海紫光公司展出的骑马订联动机仍然是高水平的。

  8. 从北京国际印刷展看书刊装订设备(上)%An Overview of Book-binding Equipment on China Print 2005 (1st)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢长城

    2005-01-01

    2005年第六届北京国际印刷技术展览会云集了国内外生产印后书刊装订设备的厂商,展出了大量的平装、精装、骑马订联动线以及其它装订设备,其规模、品种、型号、技术都超过往届的水平。其中德国沃伦贝格、日本地平线、日本芳野、北人集团、深圳精密达的胶订联动线,德国柯尔布斯的新型精装联动线,德国海德堡、德国赫纳、日本尾谷以及上海紫光、北人集团的骑马订联动机,

  9. Contemporary Danish book art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Steen

    the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library, Helge Ernst, illustrator, Poul Kristensen, printer, Ole Olsen, bookbinder, exhibition catalog......the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library, Helge Ernst, illustrator, Poul Kristensen, printer, Ole Olsen, bookbinder, exhibition catalog...

  10. An Introduction to Bibliographical Press Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John V., Jr.

    This guide to the literature of bibliographical press work is comprised of brief introductory notes on the field and this bibliography, followed by citations listed in seven categories: (1) book production, (2) handmade paper, (3) printer's ink, (4) type design, (5) book design, (6) hand printing, and (7) hand bookbinding. Introductory as well as…

  11. Eesti köitekunst Oxfordis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Köitekunstinäitus "Bound for Success" Oxfordi ülikooli Bodleiani raamatukogus 12. juunist 1. augustini. Näituse korraldas koostöös raamatukoguga köitekunstnike ühendus Designer Bookbinders. Näitusele valitud 117 tööst kümme (autorid loetletud) on Eestist

  12. Kuidas läks? / Lennart Mänd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mänd, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    Külli Grünbach-Sein ja Kaia Lukats pälvisid auhinnad organisatsiooni "Designers Bookbinders" ja Oxfordi Ülikooli Bodleiani raamatukogu korraldatud I rahvusvahelisel köitekunsti konkursil. Kristiina Nurk pälvis preemia Prantsusmaal St. Remy les Chevreuse'is toimunud X rahvusvahelisel köitebiennaalil

  13. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  14. A rapid, straightforward, and print house compatible mass fabrication method for integrating 3D paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liangpin; Liu, Xianming; Zhong, Runtao; Zhang, Kaiqing; Zhang, Xiaodi; Zhou, Xiaomian; Lin, Bingcheng; Du, Yuguang

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) paper-based microfluidics, which is featured with high performance and speedy determination, promise to carry out multistep sample pretreatment and orderly chemical reaction, which have been used for medical diagnosis, cell culture, environment determination, and so on with broad market prospect. However, there are some drawbacks in the existing fabrication methods for 3D paper-based microfluidics, such as, cumbersome and time-consuming device assembly; expensive and difficult process for manufacture; contamination caused by organic reagents from their fabrication process. Here, we present a simple printing-bookbinding method for mass fabricating 3D paper-based microfluidics. This approach involves two main steps: (i) wax-printing, (ii) bookbinding. We tested the delivery capability, diffusion rate, homogeneity and demonstrated the applicability of the device to chemical analysis by nitrite colorimetric assays. The described method is rapid (print house, making itself an ideal scheme for large-scale production of 3D paper-based microfluidics.

  15. Las encuadernaciones mudéjares de lacerías, tipo «toledano» y «salmantino», en la Catedral de Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpallo-Bautista, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Spanish bookbinding the Mudéjar style of the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries stands out, particularly in works produced in cities like Toledo. The Capitular Library of the Cathedral of Toledo contains one of the most important collections in Spain in both size and quality, although many volumes are not in the best state of preservation. The present work will study and analyze the different kinds of Mudéjar bookbindings with interlaces, a style of decoration typical of cities like Toledo, Salamanca and Barcelona. We have studied the decorative structures and their artistic elements, the techniques of decoration and construction, and the materials employed; through them we have established the origin or provenance of each bookbinding based on its decorative structure, its individual decorative motifs, the watermarks of its original flyleaves, and the style of its cabezada

    Dentro de la historia de la encuadernación española destaca el florecimiento del estilo mudéjar entre los siglos XIII y XVI, sobre todo en la península Ibérica, sobresaliendo los trabajos realizados en algunas ciudades como Toledo. La Biblioteca Capitular de la Catedral de Toledo dispone de uno de los grupos más importantes de España, cuantitativa y cualitativamente, aunque su estado de conservación no es el más adecuado en muchos de los ejemplares. El presente trabajo pretende estudiar y analizar los diferentes tipos de encuadernaciones mudéjares con lacerías, tipo de decoración muy propio de ciudades como Toledo, Salamanca y Barcelona. Se han estudiado las estructuras decorativas y los elementos artísticos empleados, las técnicas de decoración y de construcción, así como los materiales utilizados en la elaboración, con lo que hemos podido establecer el origen o procedencia de cada encuadernación en función de la estructura decorativa, de los motivos decorativos individuales, de las filigranas de las guardas originales y

  16. ARTISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OTTOMAN MANUSCRIPTS AND RECORDS AND THEIR QUALIFICATION PROBLEMS IN TERMS OF ARTISTIC CHARACTERISTICS IN CATALOG SYSTEMS BUILT IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hüseyin ODABAŞ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the rare countries which has rich cultural resourcesincluding valuable manuscripts and records heritaged from the OttomanEmpire. However, these important sources preserved in many kinds ofinformation center can not be served effectively. Main reason of this problemis that there isn’t any information about artistic characteristics of the Ottomanmanuscripts and records in catalogues of library and archive. In this paperfirstly, features of ornamented written works and records produced in theOttoman Empire are examined. Then, evaluation of arts of the Ottoman paperand bookbinding during centuries is assessed. In the last part of this paper,after giving informations about present catalog problems of these sources protected in various libraries and archives in Turkey, sugeestions are made toput into service them more effectively.

  17. Associate editors' foreword: entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Randall R; Cooper, Hanna

    2009-07-01

    A career in health education or health promotion (HE/HP) can be developed in many ways. In past editions of this department, career development has been discussed in relation to distance (Balonna, 2001), consulting (Bookbinder, 2001), certifications (Hayden, 2005), graduate school (Cottrell & Hayden, 2007), and many other topics. This article looks at a less traditional means of career development-entrepreneurship. Health education is a field ripe with opportunities for consulting and for selling health-related products and services. Entrepreneurship can not only create financial rewards but can also provide high visibility and networking contacts that can advance one's career. This article combines both theory and practical applications to assist readers in developing entrepreneurial activities. The authors are experienced in entrepreneurial development and use that expertise to provide relevant examples and develop a framework using "five cardinal rules" for establishing an entrepreneurial enterprise in HE/HP.

  18. P. Žiga Škerpin’s book collection in Ljubljana Franciscan monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Svoljšak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the findings about the Franciscan monastery library collection which was acquired during the first half of the 18th century by p. Žiga Škerpin (1689-1755 and gives an overview of the circumstances of this collection’s origins. The introduction presents some previous publications and starting points regarding the Ljubljana Franciscan monastery library and the collection as well as the basic hypothesis. It is followed by an overview of the monastery library history from its beginnings to 18th century, including p. Škerpin’s biography and a short state-of-the-art overview. An overview of the methodological approaches to collection research is presented next,followed by the analysis, namely the general qualitative and quantitative findings about the collection and the main bookbinding and edges decoration characteristics.

  19. Final Scientific/Technical Report to the U.S. Department of Energy on NOVA's Einstein's Big Idea (Project title: E-mc2, A Two-Hour Television Program on NOVA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanne Simpson

    2007-05-07

    Executive Summary A woman in the early 1700s who became one of Europe’s leading interpreters of mathematics and a poor bookbinder who became one of the giants of nineteenth-century science are just two of the pioneers whose stories NOVA explored in Einstein’s Big Idea. This two-hour documentary premiered on PBS in October 2005 and is based on the best-selling book by David Bodanis, E=mc2: A Biography of the World’s Most Famous Equation. The film and book chronicle the scientific challenges and discoveries leading up to Einstein’s startling conclusion that mass and energy are one, related by the formula E = mc2.

  20. Libreros, encuadernadores y guarnecedores de libros en la Sevilla de los Reyes Católicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abellán Pérez, Juan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the world of the booksellers and the bookbinders of Seville at the end of 15th century and the beginning of the 16th, from the visitors book conserved in the church of Nuestra Señora de la Oliva of Lebrija: the workshops, the masters and their workers, the work processes, the prices of the materials used, the wages and the books trade.

    En este artículo se analiza el mundo de los libreros y de los encuadernadores de Sevilla de finales del siglo XV y principios del XVI, a partir de los libros de visita conservados en la iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Oliva de Lebrija: los talleres, los maestros y sus obreros, los procesos de elaboración, los precios de los materiales utilizados, los salarios y el comercios de libros.

  1. Branch analysis of energy. Graphic Association Denmark. Main report; Brancheenergianalyse. Grafisk Arbejdsgiverforening. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    An analysis of energy consumption within the Danish graphic industry excluding serigraphy and book-binding. It is based on an investigation of energy use in seven graphic firms which are representative for the industry: Aller Press, Fyens Stifttidende, JP-tryk, Kohn Group, Levison + Johnson + Johnson, PLM-Haustrup and Schouw Packing. Case reports are found in a supplementary document of the same title. An aim was to help graphic firms find means of saving energy which it would pay them to carry out and to provide a framework for the process of energy surveying. Energy consumption varies considerably within this branch and depends on the type of product and on the processes used. 40-60% of energy utilized is in the form of electric power and the rest is covered by use of oil, natural gas and district heating. The greatest potentials for saving energy were found to be the reduction of idling in the case of printing machines and connected equipment (saves 40-50% annual energy consumption), more efficient ventilation systems, energy conservation in the case of drying and pressing processes, and also of idleness in this area, and a more efficient use of compressed air and cooling systems as these processes use 20% of total energy consumption and do not currently operate satisfactorily. It is reckoned that the use of electricity could be decreased by 15%, and that in the case of each firm 5-15% of total energy consumption could be saved. (AB)

  2. Science Objectives for an X-Ray Microcalorimeter Observing the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Laming, J Martin; Alexander, D; Aschwanden, M; Bailey, C; Bandler, S; Bookbinder, J; Bradshaw, S; Brickhouse, N; Chervenak, J; Christe, S; Cirtain, J; Cranmer, S; Deiker, S; DeLuca, E; Del Zanna, G; Dennis, B; Doschek, G; Eckart, M; Fludra, A; Finkbeiner, F; Grigis, P; Harrison, R; Ji, L; Kankelborg, C; Kashyap, V; Kelly, D; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C; Klimchuk, J; Ko, Y -K; Landi, E; Linton, M; Longcope, D; Lukin, V; Mariska, J; Martinez-Galarce, D; Mason, H; McKenzie, D; Osten, R; Peres, G; Pevtsov, A; Porter, K Phillips F S; Rabin, D; Rakowski, C; Raymond, J; Reale, F; Reeves, K; Sadleir, J; Savin, D; Schmelz, J; Smith, R K; Smith, S; Stern, R; Sylwester, J; Tripathi, D; Ugarte-Urra, I; Young, P; Warren, H; Wood, B

    2010-01-01

    We present the science case for a broadband X-ray imager with high-resolution spectroscopy, including simulations of X-ray spectral diagnostics of both active regions and solar flares. This is part of a trilogy of white papers discussing science, instrument (Bandler et al. 2010), and missions (Bookbinder et al. 2010) to exploit major advances recently made in transition-edge sensor (TES) detector technology that enable resolution better than 2 eV in an array that can handle high count rates. Combined with a modest X-ray mirror, this instrument would combine arcsecondscale imaging with high-resolution spectra over a field of view sufficiently large for the study of active regions and flares, enabling a wide range of studies such as the detection of microheating in active regions, ion-resolved velocity flows, and the presence of non-thermal electrons in hot plasmas. It would also enable more direct comparisons between solar and stellar soft X-ray spectra, a waveband in which (unusually) we currently have much b...

  3. Las encuadernaciones artísticas de pergamino de la colección Francisco Guerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massó Valdés, Juan Bautista

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian las encuadernaciones de pergamino con elementos artísticos pertenecientes a la colección Francisco Guerra, analizándose las estructuras constructivas, los materiales empleados, las estructuras decorativas de los planos y los lomos, las guardas pintadas, los emblemas heráldicos de varias encuadernaciones estudiándose sus procedencias, identificando, en algunos casos, sus encuadernadores como los trabajos de Brugalla, Vera, Menard, Arias y Ginesta, y realizando finalmente un inventario de florones, ruedas y planchas empleadas en cada encuadernación. This article studies the parchment bindings with artistic elements that belonged to Francisco Guerra's collection. The constructive structures, materials used, decorative structures of the sides and the spines, the painted endpaper and the heraldic emblems of several bindings studying their origins it's also analyzed, identifiying, in some cases, the bookbinder as happens with the works of Brugalla, Vera, Menard and Arias y Ginesta. We finally do an inventory of tailpieces, gilding rolls and plates used in each binding.

  4. About the Modeling of Computer Graphic Desigh in the Teaching of Secondary Vocational School%中职《计算机平面设计》教学中的造型设计探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺欣

    2015-01-01

    Computer graphic desigh is widely used in our production and life. Its content covers a wide range, from the design of products' artistic form, packaging pattern, architectural modeling, bookbinding, fashion and process to advertising poster and movie poster. Of all these applications, the computer has become an irreplaceable design tool. Hence, Computer Graphic design becomes a ubiquitous course in the secondary vocational schools. It ’s essential for the secondary vocational school students to master the ability of modeling in order to design good works of high quality, good taste and a strong sense of the times.%平面设计广泛应用于生产和生活中,它所涵盖的内容非常广泛,从产品的艺术造型设计、包装图案设计、建筑造型、装潢设计、书籍装帧设计、服饰和工艺设计直至广告招贴、电影海报等等。在所有这些应用中,计算机已经成为一种不可替代的设计载体,因此,在中等职业学校的课程设置中,计算机平面设计课已经普及。让中职学生在有限的课堂学习时间里更好地设计出有质量、有品味、有时代感的作品,培养学生的造型能力极为重要,文章结合中职《计算机平面设计》教学谈谈如何有效培养学生的造型能力。

  5. Biochemical and molecular biological aspects of silverfish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Bianca; Di Felice, Gabriella; Pini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Insects and insect-derived materials have been implicated as a risk factor for sensitization and subsequent elicitation of allergic rhinitis and allergic bronchial asthma. During the last decades, insects other than those known as allergenic, were investigated for their potential role in inducing and triggering an IgE immune response. Among these, the silverfish, an insect belonging to the Thysanura order, appeared to be of particular interest. Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) is the most primitive living insect, and represents a descendent of the ancestral wingless insects. They are 3-12 mm long, have three tail feelers and are covered with shiny scales. They shun light and need a humid environment and their diet consists of carbohydrate materials such as paper and book-binding glue, crumbs of bread and flour. Because of these features, silverfish finds an optimal habitat both in dwellings and workplaces and in spite of its antiquity, silverfish has succeeded in exploiting the new opportunity created by man. Although its importance significantly increased when it has been demonstrated that house dust contains significant silverfish levels even in houses where the inhabitants were unaware of its presence, no silverfish extract for diagnosis of allergic diseases is commercially available yet. Identification of optimal extraction conditions and characterization of allergenic extracts are the first steps to obtain an effective allergen preparation suitable for diagnosis and therapy, and will be useful as a reference preparation for assessing silverfish exposure in different indoor environments. It has been cloned and characterized a silverfish tropomyosin, named Lep s 1, which represents the first allergen identified in silverfish extract and can be regarded as a molecule cross-reactive among inhalant and edible invertebrates allergenic sources. rLep s 1 displayed biological activity, suggesting that it could be regarded as a useful tool to study the role of silverfish

  6. Prácticas y representaciones bibliotecarias en la Biblioteca Pública de Buenos Aires: Una lectura del libro de "Cargo y data" (1810-1818 Library practices and representations in the public library of Buenos Aires: a reading of the book of "Cargo y data" (1810-1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Parada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia, brevemente, las prácticas de gestión bibliotecaria en la Biblioteca Pública de Buenos Aires durante el período 1810-1818. El mismo se basa en un documento existente en el Archivo General de la Nación: el "Libro de cargo y data, o de cuenta corriente de los encargados de los gastos de la Biblioteca Pública formado por el Director de ella Dr. Dn. Luis José Chorroarín en el año 1812". Gracias a esta fuente es posible rastrear la administración y los diversos procesos que permitieron administrar a ese importante establecimiento, una de las primeras creaciones de política cultural de la Revolución de Mayo. De este modo, se abordan varios tópicos de particular interés: ingresos y gastos, personal, venta de ejemplares duplicados y deteriorados, encuadernación de obras, adquisición de libros, mantenimiento edilicio, etc. Entre otras conclusiones se señala la importancia de este tipo de documentos administrativos y burocráticos para conocer la variedad de las prácticas bibliotecarias dentro del marco de la Historia de la Bibliotecología en la Argentina.The article briefly studies the library management practices in the Public Library of Buenos Aires from 1810 to 1818. It is based on a document from the General Archive of the Nation: the "Libro de cargo y data, o de cuenta corriente de los encargados de los gastos de la Biblioteca Pública formado por el Director de ella Dr. Dn. Luis José Chorroarín en el año 1812". Thanks to that source it is possible to track the administration and the different processes that allowed to manage that important place, one of the first creations of cultural politics of the Revolution of May. Thus, several subjects of particular interest are seen here: incomes and expenditures; personnel; selling of duplicate or damaged material; bookbinding; book acquisition; building maintenance; etc. Among several conclusions, the relevance of this type of administrative and bureaucratic

  7. Reaching Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-11-01

    In the United States, National Chemistry Week is November 7-13. (For more NCW information, go to http://www.acs.org/ncw/.) NCW's theme, celebrating polymers, is echoed in this issue (pages 1497-1501, 1512-1513, 1521-1540). Almost certainly there will be chemists in your area spending a great deal of their time on outreach activities for children and the general public during NCW. Chances are good that many Journal readers like you will be among them. And there are probably many more outreach programs that you or your acquaintances lead during the rest of the year. This month of NCW seems an appropriate time to reflect on the tremendous benefits that outreach programs provide. Early examples of outreach involved books, public lectures, and chemical demonstrations. In 1800 Count Rumford collaborated with influential Londoners to establish the Royal Institution as a means of providing lectures on science and technology to help working people to improve their lot. Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday, and many others continued the tradition. Faraday's own interest in science was sparked in part by Jane Marcet's book Conversations in Chemistry, whose friendly style made its contents accessible and fascinating to the young, highly intelligent bookbinder's apprentice. In the United States, Benjamin Silliman, first professor of chemistry at Yale, became widely known for his textbooks on geology and chemistry and for his ability as a popular lecturer. Silliman's lecture tours took him as far from New Haven as St. Louis and New Orleans. By the mid-1800s societies for the advancement of science and of chemistry were being set up in Europe. In 1876 American chemists who gathered at Priestley's grave in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, to commemorate the centennial of the discovery of oxygen saw the need for a permanent organization and founded the American Chemical Society. By the beginning of the 20th century these societies were supporting education and public awareness of science