WorldWideScience

Sample records for book marine protection

  1. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  2. Book Review: Marine Protected Areas in International Law: an Arctic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davina Oktivana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity has always become an interesting topic in the development of the law of the sea subject. Despite of human dependence on marine resources, human intervention has been proven as the major threats to the sustainability of marine biodiversity and marine environment protection. Human activities, such an over-exploitation, shipping pollution, the use endangered fishing tools and above all, climate change, have changes the ecosystems extensively. One of the significant measures to prevent broaden the catastrophe is the establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs, which has been accepted as a tool for protection and conservation of marine biodiversity. The book provides a comprehensive observation and analysis of the MPAs' concept and its implementation, specifically in the Arctic. This book is based on Ingvild Ulrikke Jakobsen's PhD thesis at the University of Tromsø, Norwegia. Her concerned particularly based on the development of human activities in the Arctic, that will definitely affect the fragile marine environment and there is an increasing need to ensure environmental protection and conservation of marine biodiversity and ecosystems in Arctic.

  3. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  4. Book: Marine Bioacoustic Signal Processing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    physicists , and mathematicians . However, more and more biologists and psychologists are starting to use advanced signal processing techniques and...Book: Marine Bioacoustic Signal Processing and Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT ...chapters than it should be, since the project must be finished by Dec. 31. I have started setting aside 2 hours of uninterrupted per workday to work

  5. The Source Book of Marine Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakley, John C.; And Others

    Included is a teachers resource collection of 42 marine science activities for high school students. Both the biological and the physical factors of the marine environment are investigated, including the study of tides, local currents, microscope measuring, beaches, turbidity, sea water solids, pH, and salinity, marine bacteriology, microbiology,…

  6. Monaco and marine environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, Albert II Prince

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the protection of the marine environment for sustainable development and economy of coastal countries, like Monaco, is well known. Sadly, this environment has been under continuous threats from development, tourism, urbanisation and demographic pressure. The semi-enclosed Mediterranean sea is challenged by new pollutant cocktails, problems of fresh water management, over-fishing, and now increasingly climate change impacts. Monaco has a long history in the investigation of the marine environment. Prince Albert I, was one of the pioneers in oceanographic exploration, organizer of European oceanographic research and founder of several international organizations including the Musee Oceanographique. The International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1961 its Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, the only marine laboratory in the United Nations system. More than 40 years ago the IAEA joined forces with the Grimaldi family and several interested governments to establish the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. Their first purpose-built facilities, dedicated to marine research, launched a new era in the investigation of the marine environment using radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers for better understanding of processes in the oceans and seas, addressing their pollution and promoting wide international cooperation. The Government of the Principality of Monaco has been actively engaged in these developments and is continuously supporting activities of the Monaco Laboratory

  7. 78 FR 30870 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: National Marine Protected...) invited federal, state, commonwealth, and territorial marine protected area (MPA) programs with... of Marine Protected Areas of the United States (Framework), developed in response to Executive Order...

  8. Sustainability Entrepreneurship in marine protected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Bottema, Mariska; Midavaine, J.J.; Carter, E.

    2017-01-01

    So called ‘entrepreneurial marine protected areas’ are one way in which private actors are setting and enforcing control over spatially contiguous marine habitats. These entrepreneurs fulfil both environmental and social outcomes, providing a sustainable source of funding for conservation and

  9. 75 FR 972 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of... Federal, State and territorial marine protected area programs to join the National System of Marine Protected Areas. SUMMARY: NOAA and the Department of the Interior (DOI) invited Federal, State, commonwealth...

  10. Sustainability Entrepreneurship in marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, S.R.; Bottema, Mariska; Midavaine, J.J.; Carter, E.

    2017-01-01

    So called ‘entrepreneurial marine protected areas’ are one way in which private actors are setting and enforcing control over spatially contiguous marine habitats. These entrepreneurs fulfil both environmental and social outcomes, providing a sustainable source of funding for conservation and restoration activities, as well as interacting with communities dependent on these resources. In doing so they contribute to the conservation of public resources. But unlike state-led management, the suc...

  11. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  12. Community Involvement in Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Stephanie

    1988-01-01

    Lists several key concepts in developing successful interpretive programs for marine protected areas with community involvement. Identifies educational tools that help foster community involvement in conservation and management. Cites three model programs. Sets standards and goals for international success including leadership, education,…

  13. Radiation protection day - Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the abstracts of all presentations given at the Radiation protection day organised in May 2000 by the French association for radiation protection techniques and sciences (ATSR) on the topic of the new European and French radiation protection regulations and their conditions of application in hospitals. Content: 1 - Presentation of the Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.), status of texts and evolution, practical implementation of operational dosimetry (Alain Valero, O.P.R.I.); 2 - Presentation of the Radiation Protection Service of the Army (S.P.R.A.) and its role in French army's hospitals (Jean-Baptiste Fleutot, S.P.R.A.); 3 - 96/29 European directive and water quality - transposition in French law (Daniel Robeau, I.P.S.N. Fontenay-Aux-Roses); 4 - Presentation of an automatized active dosimetry system (Michel Deron, G.E.M. System); 5 - Euratom 97/43 Directive from June 30, 1997 - assessment of the existing framework for patients protection in medical environment (Pierre Muglioni, APAVE Nord Ouest); 6 - Specificities of the ionising radiations risk in medical environment - presentation of a ionising radiations risk assessment grid (Marie-Christine Soula, Labour regional direction Ile de France); 7 - Low dose effects (B. Le Guen, E.D.F. G.D.F.); 8 - Operational dosimetry in the medical domain - the Saphydose dosemeter (Frederico Felix - Saphymo); 9 - Positrons and radiation protection (Luc Cinotti - C.E.R.M.E.P.); 10 - Workplace studies in medical environment - areas and personnel classification (Jean-Claude Houy, Sandrine Laugle, Eugene Marquis Cancer Centre Rennes); 11 - Experience feedback after 4 years of active dosimetry in a nuclear medicine service (Albert Lisbona, Centre Rene Gauducheau Nantes/Saint-Herblain); 12 - Operational dosimetry as it is performed today in CNRS laboratories (Helene Dossier - C.N.R.S. Orsay); 13 - Radiation protection in submarine naval forces (Pierre Laroche, Army's health service

  14. 76 FR 74777 - National Marine Protected Areas Center External Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... NOAA to establish a National Marine Protected Area Center (``MPA Center'') within NOAA (Sec. 4(e)) to... also submit comments in writing to: National Marine Protected Areas Center, c/o Denise Ellis-Hibbett... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Protected...

  15. Learning about Marine Biology. Superific Science Book VI. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the assumption that most students have a natural curiosity about the plant and animal life residing in the oceans, this document provides students in grades five through eight with activities in marine biology. The book provides illustrated information and learning activities dealing with: (1) diatoms; (2) the life cycle of the jellyfish;…

  16. Marine Protected Dramas: The Flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Godoy, Eduardo A. S.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of `leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

  17. Underwater itineraries at Egadi Islands: Marine biodiversity protection through actions for sustainable tourism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocito, Silvia; Delbono, Ivana; Barsanti, Mattia; Di Nallo, Giuseppina; Lombardi, Chiara; Peirano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable tourism is recognized as a high priority for environmental and biological conservation. Promoting protection of local biological and environmental resources is a useful action for conservation of marine biodiversity in Marine Protected Areas and for stimulating awareness among residents and visitors. The publication of two books dedicated to the description of 28 selected underwater itineraries, for divers and snorkelers, and a web site with underwater videos represent concrete actions by ENEA for the promotion of sustainable tourism at the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands (Sicily, Italy). 177 species were recorded at Favignana, and around the same number at Marettimo and Levanzo islands: among those species, some of them are important for conservation and protection (e.g. Astrospartus mediterraneus), some of them are rare (i.e. Anthipatella subpinnata) and with a high aesthetic value (e.g. Paramuricea clavata, Savalia savaglia), while others are invasive (e.g. Caulerpa cylindracea) [it

  18. Perceptions of the Maltese Public towards Local Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, Mark; Verret, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment represents a central component of Malta's local environment, and its ecosystem services play a vital role in supporting the economy as well as human well-being. Plans have been made to protect the unique ecology found within Maltese waters through the institution of five marine protected areas (MPAs). This quantitative study…

  19. 78 FR 67338 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Protected Areas... the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (Committee). The web conference calls are open..., MPA FAC, National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305 East West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910...

  20. Biofouling protection for marine environmental sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Delauney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, pH or fluorescence. Emphasis has to be put on the long term quality of measurements, yet sensors may face very short-term biofouling effects. Biofouling can disrupt the quality of the measurements, sometimes in less than a week.

    Many techniques to prevent biofouling on instrumentation are listed and studied by researchers and manufacturers. Very few of them are implemented on instruments and of those very few have been tested in situ on oceanographic sensors for deployment of at least one or two months.

    This paper presents a review of techniques used to protect against biofouling of in situ sensors and gives a short list and description of promising techniques.

  1. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Alexandra Sasa

    2013-01-01

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  2. 78 FR 49479 - Updates to List of National System of Marine Protected Areas MPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... System of Marine Protected Areas MPAs AGENCY: National Marine Protected Areas Center (MPA Center), Office... Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). SUMMARY: The National System of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provides a... Protected Areas Center (MPA Center). The managing agencies listed above were then asked to make a final...

  3. U.S. Marine Protected Areas Boundaries: MPA Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MPA Inventory is a comprehensive catalog that provides detailed information for existing marine protected areas in the United States. The inventory provides...

  4. 75 FR 16749 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) in Charleston, South Carolina. DATES: The meeting..., National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305 East West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910. (Phone: 301... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected...

  5. 76 FR 66912 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) in New Orleans, Louisiana. DATES: The meeting will be... Yeager, Designated Federal Officer, MPA FAC, National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305 East West... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected...

  6. The durability of private sector-led marine conservation: A case study of two entrepreneurial marine protected areas in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, M.J.M.; Bush, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the durability of entrepreneurial marine protected areas (EMPAs) by exploring the role of the private sector in marine conservation. Set within a wider set of social science questions around the marine protected areas as negotiated interventions, we focus on whether and how

  7. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Ballantine, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Conservation needs places where nature is left wild; but only a quarter of coastal countries have no-take Marine Reserves. 'Marine Protected Areas' (MPAs) have been used to indicate conservation progress but we found that 94% allow fishing and thus cannot protect all aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation should focus on Marine Reserves, not MPAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Designing trails for subaquatic tourism in Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Piñeiro-Corbeira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the range of touristic activities that take place in the sea has greatly expanded in recent years, the marine realm continues to be one of the least known to the public. Scuba diving and snorkeling are popular activities in the marine environment. Among its benefits, snorkeling is simple, cheap, and accessible to a wide range of population. In this regard, it has considerable potential as a tool for environmental education as it allows a firsthand observation of the subaquatic seascape as well as a direct interaction with marine wildlife. These attributes, together with its low ecological impact, make snorkeling an activity particularly suitable for marine protected areas. Yet, its implementation in marine protected areas requires new tools for an appropriate use. Here, we show an innovative procedure for assessing the underwater seascape that should help in the designation of touristic subaquatic trails analogous to those commonly used in terrestrial landscapes. We elaborated a system of 18 “Perceptible Seascape Elements”, grouped into 9 Concepts, that leads to a “Potential Observation Index” summarizing the seabed landscape qualities that can be observed while snorkeling. Tests of this approach in a National Park (Parque Nacional Marítimo-Terrestre de las Islas Atlánticas de Galicia led to the design and ranking of 6 underwater trails. On the other hand, we used standardized questionnaires to determine the attributes of park’s visitors, their expectative, their perception of the marine environment, and previous skills in snorkeling. Many visitors were mostly unaware of the qualities of the marine environment of the National Park but we found considerable interest in new alternatives to enjoy the marine environment such as snorkeling. Our procedure and results could help to add snorkeling to the set of environmental education strategies already used in the Park.

  10. Protection of Marine Structures by Artificial Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Ottesen Hansen, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    , the loads and the deformations during a ship grounding event on a soft sea bed. The models applied to determine the shapes of the artificial islands, which most efficiently protect the bridge from ship impact while posing minimum risk of damage to the grounding ships, requiring the least amount of building...

  11. Environmental Protection Agency Library System Book Catalog. Holdings from August 1973 to December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Library System Book Catalog of holdings from August 1973 to December 1974 has been published in a single volume. The full catalog lists alphabetically by title the complete entry for each book owned by the individual EPA libraries. The indexes to the Book Catalog are in two parts. Part 1, the Author Index, lists each author in alphabetical order. The Subject Index (Part 2) lists, in alphabetical order, the subject headings assigned to the books in the catalog

  12. XXXVI. Days of Radiation Protection. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 93 abstracts are published. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) General aspects and new trends of radiation protection); (II) Radiation protection in medicine; (III): Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal radiation exposure; (IV) Regulation of radiation exposure to natural sources and control of radon exposure; (V) Radiation protection in nuclear power plants, their decommissioning and waste management; (VI) Application of radiation protection standards in the emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of ionizing radiation and risk estimation; (VIII) Education and training in radiation protection in the light of new recommendations of EU, ICRP and IAEA.

  13. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does a No-Take Marine Protected Area Benefit Seahorses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, David; Martin-Smith, Keith; Gladstone, William

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses are iconic charismatic species that are often used to ‘champion’ marine conservation causes around the world. As they are threatened in many countries by over-exploitation and habitat loss, marine protected areas (MPAs) could help with their protection and recovery. MPAs may conserve seahorses through protecting essential habitats and removing fishing pressures. Populations of White's seahorse, Hippocampus whitei, a species endemic to New South Wales, Australia, were monitored monthly from 2006 to 2009 using diver surveys at two sites within a no-take marine protected areas established in 1983, and at two control sites outside the no-take MPA sites. Predators of H. whitei were also identified and monitored. Hippocampus whitei were more abundant at the control sites. Seahorse predators (3 species of fish and 2 species of octopus) were more abundant within the no-take MPA sites. Seahorse and predator abundances were negatively correlated. Substantial variability in the seahorse population at one of the control sites reinforced the importance of long-term monitoring and use of multiple control sites to assess the outcomes of MPAs for seahorses. MPAs should be used cautiously to conserve seahorse populations as there is the risk of a negative impact through increased predator abundance. PMID:25137253

  15. Costa Rica’s Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km² of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA, mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%, National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%, Wetlands (1.5%, Biological Reserves (1%, and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%. According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km², corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km². The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.

  16. Does a no-take marine protected area benefit seahorses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harasti

    Full Text Available Seahorses are iconic charismatic species that are often used to 'champion' marine conservation causes around the world. As they are threatened in many countries by over-exploitation and habitat loss, marine protected areas (MPAs could help with their protection and recovery. MPAs may conserve seahorses through protecting essential habitats and removing fishing pressures. Populations of White's seahorse, Hippocampus whitei, a species endemic to New South Wales, Australia, were monitored monthly from 2006 to 2009 using diver surveys at two sites within a no-take marine protected areas established in 1983, and at two control sites outside the no-take MPA sites. Predators of H. whitei were also identified and monitored. Hippocampus whitei were more abundant at the control sites. Seahorse predators (3 species of fish and 2 species of octopus were more abundant within the no-take MPA sites. Seahorse and predator abundances were negatively correlated. Substantial variability in the seahorse population at one of the control sites reinforced the importance of long-term monitoring and use of multiple control sites to assess the outcomes of MPAs for seahorses. MPAs should be used cautiously to conserve seahorse populations as there is the risk of a negative impact through increased predator abundance.

  17. 75 FR 63443 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Protected Areas... CONTACT: Kara Schwenke, Designated Federal Officer, MPA FAC, National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Marine Protected...

  18. 78 FR 19460 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... meeting via web conference call of the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (Committee). The..., Acting Designated Federal Officer, MPA FAC, National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305 East West... Interior on implementation of Section 4 of Executive Order 13158, on marine protected areas. Matters to be...

  19. National congress of radiation protection - Book of presentations (slides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    This document brings together all the available presentations (slides) of the 9. French national congress of radiation protection. The congress comprised 9 tutorial sessions and 13 ordinary sessions. The tutorial sessions covered the following topics: T1 - Fukushima accident's consequences on terrestrial environment; T2 - The efficient dose: use and limitations in the industrial and medical domains; T3 - Revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiological facilities; T4 - Medical implants and low frequency electromagnetic fields; T5 - Report from the working group on radiological zoning; T6 - Incidents in medical environment; T7 - ADR: European agreement about the international road transport of dangerous goods; T8 - Cigeo project: industrial geologic disposal facility; T9 - Dose control in medical imaging: what progress since 2010? The ordinary sessions gathered fifty-nine presentations dealing with the following subjects: 1 - effects of ionising radiations on man and ecosystems; 2 - radiation protection regulation and standards; 3 - radiation protection in incident, accident and post-accident situation; 4 - radiation protection of populations and ecosystems; 5 - Radiation protection and society; 6/11 - Radiation protection of patients; 7/8 - Eye lens irradiation and dosimetry; 9 - Non-ionising radiations; 10/12 - Radiation protection in professional environments; 13 - advances in dosimetry and metrology

  20. Exploring Social Resilience in Madagascar's Marine Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Cinner; Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes; Herilala Randriamahazo

    2009-01-01

    We examined and compared aspects of local-level resilience in 13 coastal communities within and adjacent to all of Madagascar's national marine protected areas. Our examination of social resilience focused on indicators of the flexibility of household livelihood portfolios and both formal and informal governance institutions, the capacity of communities to organize, their capacity to learn, and access to household assets and community infrastructure. In general, we found high levels of flexib...

  1. Bacterial communities in sediment of a Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Sarà, Gianluca; Settanni, Luca; Quatrini, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is crucial in preservation of ecosystems, and bacterial communities play an indispensable role for the functioning of marine ecosystems. The Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA) "Capo Gallo-Isola delle Femmine" was instituted to preserve marine biodiversity. The bacterial diversity associated with MPA sediment was compared with that from sediment of an adjacent harbour exposed to intense nautical traffic. The MPA sediment showed higher diversity with respect to the impacted site. A 16S rDNA clone library of the MPA sediment allowed the identification of 7 phyla: Proteobacteria (78%), Firmicutes (11%), Acidobacteria (3%), Actinobacteria (3%), Bacteroidetes (2%), Planctomycetes (2%), and Cyanobacteria (1%). Analysis of the hydrocarbon (HC)-degrading bacteria was performed using enrichment cultures. Most of the MPA sediment isolates were affiliated with Gram-positive G+C rich bacteria, whereas the majority of taxa in the harbour sediment clustered with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria; no Gram-positive HC degraders were isolated from the harbour sediment. Our results show that protection probably has an influence on bacterial diversity, and suggest the importance of monitoring the effects of protection at microbial level as well. This study creates a baseline of data that can be used to assess changes over time in bacterial communities associated with a Mediterranean MPA.

  2. Biodiversity protection and sustainable management of coastal areas: The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, northwest coast of Sicily Island, is the largest area in the Mediterranean Sea, stretching over with its 53,992 hectares. Established in 1991, since 2001 it is managed by the Municipality of Favignana on behalf of the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea. The Egadi’s archipelago is located in the Strait of Sicily, and includes the islands of Favignana, Levanzo, Marettimo and the islets of Formica and Maraone. The institutional mission of the Marine Protected Area is the protection and enhancement of the marine environment, environmental education, awareness and information of users, research and monitoring, integrated management of the coastal zone, and the promotion of sustainable development, with particular reference to the eco-compatibility of tourism [it

  3. Australia’s protected area network fails to adequately protect the world’s most threatened marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R. Devitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain ecosystems and biodiversity, Australia has long invested in the development of marine and terrestrial protected area networks. Within this land- and sea-scape, northern Australia represents a global population stronghold for four species of the world’s most threatened marine fish family, the sawfishes (family Pristidae. The distribution of sawfishes across northern Australia has previously only been coarsely estimated, and the adequacy of their representation in protected areas has not been evaluated. The calculated range of each species was intersected with Australia’s marine and terrestrial protected area datasets, and targets of 10% marine and 17% inland range protection were used to determine adequacy of sawfish range protection. Marine targets have been achieved for all species, but the inland range protection targets have not been met for any species. Results indicate that further protection of inland habitats is required in order to improve sawfish protection and habitat connectivity.

  4. Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Kasahara-Kiritani, Mami; Hadlaczky, Gerg?; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; McMahon, Elaine M.; Cosman, Doina; Farkas, Luca; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with...

  5. Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, David A.; Mascia, Michael B.; Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Glew, Louise; Lester, Sarah E.; Barnes, Megan; Craigie, Ian; Darling, Emily S.; Free, Christopher M.; Geldmann, Jonas; Holst, Susie; Jensen, Olaf P.; White, Alan T.; Basurto, Xavier; Coad, Lauren; Gates, Ruth D.; Guannel, Greg; Mumby, Peter J.; Thomas, Hannah; Whitmee, Sarah; Woodley, Stephen; Fox, Helen E.

    2017-03-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used globally to conserve marine resources. However, whether many MPAs are being effectively and equitably managed, and how MPA management influences substantive outcomes remain unknown. We developed a global database of management and fish population data (433 and 218 MPAs, respectively) to assess: MPA management processes; the effects of MPAs on fish populations; and relationships between management processes and ecological effects. Here we report that many MPAs failed to meet thresholds for effective and equitable management processes, with widespread shortfalls in staff and financial resources. Although 71% of MPAs positively influenced fish populations, these conservation impacts were highly variable. Staff and budget capacity were the strongest predictors of conservation impact: MPAs with adequate staff capacity had ecological effects 2.9 times greater than MPAs with inadequate capacity. Thus, continued global expansion of MPAs without adequate investment in human and financial capacity is likely to lead to sub-optimal conservation outcomes.

  6. Protection enhances community and habitat stability: evidence from a mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, Simonetta; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Terlizzi, Antonio; Boero, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Rare evidences support that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) enhance the stability of marine habitats and assemblages. Based on nine years of observation (2001-2009) inside and outside a well managed MPA, we assessed the potential of conservation and management actions to modify patterns of spatial and/or temporal variability of Posidonia oceanica meadows, the lower midlittoral and the shallow infralittoral rock assemblages. Significant differences in both temporal variations and spatial patterns were observed between protected and unprotected locations. A lower temporal variability in the protected vs. unprotected assemblages was found in the shallow infralittoral, demonstrating that, at least at local scale, protection can enhance community stability. Macrobenthos with long-lived and relatively slow-growing invertebrates and structurally complex algal forms were homogeneously distributed in space and went through little fluctuations in time. In contrast, a mosaic of disturbed patches featured unprotected locations, with small-scale shifts from macroalgal stands to barrens, and harsh temporal variations between the two states. Opposite patterns of spatial and temporal variability were found for the midlittoral assemblages. Despite an overall clear pattern of seagrass regression through time, protected meadows showed a significantly higher shoot density than unprotected ones, suggesting a higher resistance to local human activities. Our results support the assumption that the exclusion/management of human activities within MPAs enhance the stability of the structural components of protected marine systems, reverting or arresting threat-induced trajectories of change.

  7. Adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Rebecca; Jupiter, Stacy D

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive management of natural resources is an iterative process of decision making whereby management strategies are progressively changed or adjusted in response to new information. Despite an increasing focus on the need for adaptive conservation strategies, there remain few applied examples. We describe the 9-year process of adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Kubulau District, Fiji. In 2011, a review of protected area boundaries and management rules was motivated by the need to enhance management effectiveness and the desire to improve resilience to climate change. Through a series of consultations, with the Wildlife Conservation Society providing scientific input to community decision making, the network of marine protected areas was reconfigured so as to maximize resilience and compliance. Factors identified as contributing to this outcome include well-defined resource-access rights; community respect for a flexible system of customary governance; long-term commitment and presence of comanagement partners; supportive policy environment for comanagement; synthesis of traditional management approaches with systematic monitoring; and district-wide coordination, which provided a broader spatial context for adaptive-management decision making. Co-Manejo Adaptativo de una Red de Áreas Marinas Protegidas en Fiyi. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Addressing Criticisms of Large-Scale Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Natalie C; Fernandez, Miriam; Friedlander, Alan M; García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Golbuu, Yimnang; Guidetti, Paolo; Harris, Jean M; Hawkins, Julie P; Langlois, Tim; McCauley, Douglas J; Pikitch, Ellen K; Richmond, Robert H; Roberts, Callum M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Designated large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs, 100,000 or more square kilometers) constitute over two-thirds of the approximately 6.6% of the ocean and approximately 14.5% of the exclusive economic zones within marine protected areas. Although LSMPAs have received support among scientists and conservation bodies for wilderness protection, regional ecological connectivity, and improving resilience to climate change, there are also concerns. We identified 10 common criticisms of LSMPAs along three themes: (1) placement, governance, and management; (2) political expediency; and (3) social–ecological value and cost. Through critical evaluation of scientific evidence, we discuss the value, achievements, challenges, and potential of LSMPAs in these arenas. We conclude that although some criticisms are valid and need addressing, none pertain exclusively to LSMPAs, and many involve challenges ubiquitous in management. We argue that LSMPAs are an important component of a diversified management portfolio that tempers potential losses, hedges against uncertainty, and enhances the probability of achieving sustainably managed oceans. PMID:29731514

  9. Bacterial corrosion in marine sediments: influence of cathodic protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therene, Martine

    1988-01-01

    In order to protect offshore structures from marine corrosion, cathodic protection is widely applied via sacrificial anodes (for example zinc or aluminium) or impressed current. In aerated seawater, steel is considered to be protected when a potential of -8050 mV/Cu.CuSO 4 is achieved. In many cases, however this potential must be lowered, due to the activity of microorganisms and more specially sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB are obligate anaerobes using sulphate as electron acceptor with resultant production of sulphide. Some of them are also able to use hydrogen as energy source, causing cathodic depolarization of steel surfaces. An experiment was performed to analyze the relation between SRB activity and use of different cathodic potentials applied to mild steel samples in marine sediments. Analytical techniques employed included lipid bio-markers and electrochemical methods. Results indicated an evolution of the bacterial community structure both on the steel and in the sediment, as a function of time and potential. The results also show that cathodically produced hydrogen promotes the growth of SRB (author) [fr

  10. 3. forum of radiation protection sciences - Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This document brings together the abstracts of all presentations given at the 3. European forum of radiation protection sciences on the topic of radiation protection and dismantling logic: 1 - Organisation of dismantling operations financing at UP1 Marcoule (Jean Laurent, GIE CODEM); 2 - Dismantling strategy at the CEA - civil branch (Gerard Cerdan, CEA/DEN/DPA); 3 - Safety and radiation protection control during nuclear facilities dismantling (Estelle Chapalain, DGSNR); 4 - Regulatory evolutions in radiation protection (Marc Ammerich, DGSNR); 5 - Implementation of the ALARA approach in the BR3 reactor dismantling project (Vincent Massaut, SCK-CEN Mol, Belgium); 6 - Study of Super Phenix reactor block dismantling: radiological characterization (Fabrice Biagi, Framatome ANP; Herve Salliot, EDF CIDEN); 7 - Wastes characterization: prerequisites to main cleansing projects (Guy Andrieu, Cogema Marcoule); 8 - Radiation protection in relation with the definitive shutdown of UP1 Marcoule (Philipp Blaise, COGEMA Marcoule); 9 - Deconstruction of the Monts d'Arree power plant (Alain Ensuque, Monts d'Arree site, Brennilis); 10 - Presentation of the cleansing project of Marcoule's pilot workshop (Gerald Imbard, CEA Valrho); 11 - AT1 dismantling at Cogema La Hague (David Nolin, CEA Valrho); 12 - Dismantling management of the CERN-LEP - Large electron-positon collider (John Poole, CERN Switzerland); 13 - Level 3 dismantling of the TRITON facility (Elia Lopes, CEA FAR); 14 - Presentation of cleansing operations at Cogema Marcoule UP1 factory (Christine Georges, Cogema Marcoule); 15 - Decontamination strategy prior to the dismantling of the highly contaminated primary and auxiliary circuits of the BR3 PWR reactor (Pierre Valenduc, SCK-CEN Mol, Belgium); 16 - Nuclear submarines dismantling (Philippe Queau, DCN Cherbourg); 17 - Use of tele-operation in dismantling (Jean Marie Carrere, CEA Valrho); 18 - Design principle of tele-operated tools (Jean Paul Drogoul, Cogema Marcoule); 19

  11. Coexistence dilemmas in European marine spatial planning practices. The case of marine renewables and marine protected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriazi, Zacharoula; Maes, Frank; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The question whether coexistence of marine renewable energy (MRE) projects and marine protected areas (MPAs) is a common spatial policy in Europe and how a number of factors can affect it, has been addressed by empirical research undertaken in eleven European marine areas. Policy drivers and objectives that are assumed to affect coexistence, such as the fulfillment of conservation objectives and the prioritization of other competing marine uses, were scored by experts and predictions were crosschecked with state practice. While in most areas MRE-MPA coexistence is not prohibited by law, practice indicates resistance towards it. Furthermore expert judgment demonstrated that a number of additional factors, such as the lack of suitable space for MRE projects and the uncertainty about the extent of damage by MRE to the MPA, might influence the intentions of the two major parties involved (i.e. the MRE developer and the MPA authority) to pursue or avoid coexistence. Based on these findings, the interactions of these two players are further interpreted, their policy implications are discussed, while the need towards efficient, fair and acceptable MRE-MPA coexistence is highlighted.

  12. 76 FR 16732 - Updates to List of National System of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ..., Vatia Village Marine Protected Area. California Point Arena State Marine Conservation Area, Sea Lion..., Point Reyes Special Closure, Point Resistance Special Closure, Double Point/Stormy Stack Special Closure...

  13. Exploring Social Resilience in Madagascar's Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Cinner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined and compared aspects of local-level resilience in 13 coastal communities within and adjacent to all of Madagascar's national marine protected areas. Our examination of social resilience focused on indicators of the flexibility of household livelihood portfolios and both formal and informal governance institutions, the capacity of communities to organize, their capacity to learn, and access to household assets and community infrastructure. In general, we found high levels of flexibility in formal institutions and livelihood portfolios and high levels of participation in decision-making and community groups. Together, these indicators suggest some latent capacity to adaptively manage resources, but this capacity may be offset by poor levels of trust between communities and resource managers, a poor understanding of the ways in which humans affect marine resources, inadequate feedback of ecological monitoring to communities, inflexibility in informal governance institutions, and a lack of assets to draw upon. We suggest that building desirable resilience in Madagascar's marine protected areas will require the following: investments in community-level infrastructure, projects to generate household income, and enhanced agricultural production to improve the well-being of communities; improvements in the capacity to learn through investments in formal and informal education; enhanced trust between park staff and local communities; empowerment of communities to govern and enforce natural resources; the increased accountability of leaders and transparency of governance processes; adequate cross-scale interaction with local, provincial, and national institutions; and the pursuit of these activities in ways that capitalize on community-specific strengths, such as high flexibility and the presence of sociocultural institutions such as taboos that regulate resource use.

  14. Comanagement practices enhance fisheries in marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo; Claudet, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    Fishing activities worldwide have dramatically affected marine fish stocks and ecosystems. Marine protected areas (MPAs) with no-take zones may enhance fisheries, but empirical evidence of this is scant. We conducted a 4-year survey of fish catches around and within an MPA that was previously fully closed to fishing and then partially reopened under regulated comanaged fishing. In collaboration with the fishers and the MPA authority, we set the fishing effort and selected the gear to limit fishing impact on key fish predators, juvenile fish stage, and benthic communities and habitats. Within an adaptive comanagement framework, fishers agreed to reduce fishing effort if symptoms of overfishing were detected. We analyzed the temporal trends of catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of the whole species assemblages and CPUE of the four most valuable and frequent species observed inside the opened buffer zone and outside the MPA investigated. After the comanaged opening, CPUE first declined and then stabilized at levels more than twice that of catches obtained outside the MPA. Our results suggest that working closely with fishers can result in greater fisheries catches. Partial protection of coastal areas together with adaptive comanagement involving fishers, scientists, and managers can effectively achieve conservation and fishery management goals and benefit fishing communities and alleviate overfishing.

  15. Protecting Marine Biodiversity: A Comparison of Individual Habitat Quotas (IHQs) and Marine Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Schnier; Dan Holland

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries managers in the United States are required to identify and mitigate the adverse impacts of fishing activity on essential fish habitat (EFH). There are additional concerns that the viability of noncommercial species, animals that are habitat dependent and/or are themselves constituents of fishery habitat may still be threatened. We consider a cap-and-trade system for habitat conservation, individual habitat quotas for fisheries, to achieve habitat conservation and species protection ...

  16. Assessing trade-offs in large marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tammy E; Epstein, Graham; Aguilera, Stacy E; Brooks, Cassandra M; Cox, Michael; Evans, Louisa S; Maxwell, Sara M; Nenadovic, Mateja; Ban, Natalie C

    2018-01-01

    Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources (supply trade-offs); trade-offs between ecological resource conditions and the well-being of resource users (supply-demand trade-offs); and trade-offs between the well-being outcomes of different resource users (demand trade-offs). We also found several divergent outcomes that were attributed to influences beyond the scope of the LMPA. We suggest that despite their size, trade-offs can develop in LMPAs and should be considered in planning and design. LMPAs may improve their performance across multiple social and ecological objectives if integrated with larger-scale conservation efforts.

  17. Levels and drivers of fishers' compliance with marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Arias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation depends largely on people's compliance with regulations. We investigate compliance through the lens of fishers' compliance with marine protected areas (MPAs. MPAs are widely used tools for marine conservation and fisheries management. Studies show that compliance alone is a strong predictor of fish biomass within MPAs. Hence, fishers' compliance is critical for MPA effectiveness. However, there are few empirical studies showing what factors influence fishers' compliance with MPAs. Without such information, conservation planners and managers have limited opportunities to provide effective interventions. By studying 12 MPAs in a developing country (Costa Rica, we demonstrate the role that different variables have on fishers' compliance with MPAs. Particularly, we found that compliance levels perceived by resource users were higher in MPAs (1 with multiple livelihoods, (2 where government efforts against illegal fishing were effective, (3 where fishing was allowed but regulated, (4 where people were more involved in decisions, and (5 that were smaller. We also provide a novel and practical measure of compliance: a compound variable formed by the number illegal fishers and their illegal fishing effort. Our study underlines the centrality of people's behavior in nature conservation and the importance of grounding decision making on the social and institutional realities of each location.

  18. Marine Protected Area Polygons, California, 2010, State of California Department of Fish and Game

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data include all of California's marine protected areas (MPAs) as of May 2010. This dataset reflects the Department of Fish and Game's best representation of...

  19. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment.

  20. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment

  1. Review of the effects of protection in marine protected areas: current knowledge and gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojeda–Martínez, C.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs and the conservation of marine environments must be based on reliable information on the quality of the marine environment that can be obtained in a reasonable timeframe. We reviewed studies that evaluated all aspects related to the effectiveness of MPAs in order to describe how the studies were conducted and to detect fields in which research is lacking. Existing parameters used to evaluate the effectiveness of MPAs are summarised. Two-hundred and twenty-two publications were reviewed. We identified the most commonly used study subjects and methodological approaches. Most of the studies concentrated on biological parameters. Peer reviewed studies were based on control vs. impact design. BACI and mBACI designs were used in very few studies. Through this review, we have identified gaps in the objectives assigned to MPAs and the way in which they have been evaluated. We suggest some guidelines aimedat improving the assessment of the effects of protection in MPAs.

  2. 77 FR 29316 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Protected Areas.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) in Silver Spring, Maryland. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  3. Temperate marine protected area provides recruitment subsidies to local fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, A; Montgomery, J C; Smith, A N H; Croucher, A E; McLeod, I M; Lavery, S D

    2017-10-25

    The utility of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a means of protecting exploited species and conserving biodiversity within MPA boundaries is supported by strong empirical evidence. However, the potential contribution of MPAs to fished populations beyond their boundaries is still highly controversial; empirical measures are scarce and modelling studies have produced a range of predictions, including both positive and negative effects. Using a combination of genetic parentage and relatedness analysis, we measured larval subsidies to local fisheries replenishment for Australasian snapper ( Chrysophrys auratus : Sparidae) from a small (5.2 km 2 ), well-established, temperate, coastal MPA in northern New Zealand. Adult snapper within the MPA contributed an estimated 10.6% (95% CI: 5.5-18.1%) of newly settled juveniles to surrounding areas (approx. 400 km 2 ), with no decreasing trend in contributions up to 40 km away. Biophysical modelling of larval dispersal matched experimental data, showing larvae produced inside the MPA dispersed over a comparable distance. These results demonstrate that temperate MPAs have the potential to provide recruitment subsidies at magnitudes and spatial scales relevant to fisheries management. The validated biophysical model provides a cost-efficient opportunity to generalize these findings to other locations and climate conditions, and potentially informs the design of MPA networks for enhancing fisheries management. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Costa Rica’s Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km² of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA, mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%, National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%, Wetlands (1.5%, Biological Reserves (1%, and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%. According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km², corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km². The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.Con 51 100km2 de área terrestre y 589 000km² de aguas jurisdiccionales, Costa Rica es considerado uno de los países con mayor biodiversidad. Posee aproximadamente 3.5% de las especies marinas del mundo. En las últimas cuatro décadas, Costa Rica ha dedicado un esfuerzo significativo para la creación de Áreas Protegidas (AP, principalmente terrestres. Aquí presentamos un diagnóstico de la situación actual de las Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMP en Costa Rica, a través de un análisis histórico, su distribución, cobertura y categorías de manejo. Costa Rica posee 166 áreas protegidas que cubren 50% de la l

  5. 76 FR 6119 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Area. California Point Arena State Marine Reserve, Point Arena State Marine Conservation Area, Sea Lion..., Point Reyes Special Closure, Point Resistance Special Closure, Double Point/Stormy Stack Special Closure...

  6. Influence of settings management and protection status on recreational uses and pressures in marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonson, Charles; Pelletier, Dominique; Alban, Frederique; Giraud-Carrier, Charlotte; Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2017-09-15

    Coastal populations and tourism are growing worldwide. Consequently outdoor recreational activity is increasing and diversifying. While Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are valuable for mitigating anthropogenic impacts, recreational uses are rarely monitored and studied, resulting in a lack of knowledge on users' practices, motivation and impacts. Based on boat counts and interview data collected in New Caledonia, we i) explored factors affecting user practices and motivations, ii) constructed fine-scale pressure indices covering activities and associated behaviors, and iii) assessed the relationships between user practices and site selection. User practices were found to depend on protection status, boat type and user characteristics. Pressure indices were higher within no-take MPAs, except for fishing. We found significant relationships between user practices and settings characteristics. In the context of increasing recreational uses, these results highlight options for managing such uses through settings management without jeopardizing the social acceptance of MPAs or the attainment of conservation goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitivity of marine protected area network connectivity to atmospheric variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Alan D; Henry, Lea-Anne; Corne, David W; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-11-01

    International efforts are underway to establish well-connected systems of marine protected areas (MPAs) covering at least 10% of the ocean by 2020. But the nature and dynamics of ocean ecosystem connectivity are poorly understood, with unresolved effects of climate variability. We used 40-year runs of a particle tracking model to examine the sensitivity of an MPA network for habitat-forming cold-water corals in the northeast Atlantic to changes in larval dispersal driven by atmospheric cycles and larval behaviour. Trajectories of Lophelia pertusa larvae were strongly correlated to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant pattern of interannual atmospheric circulation variability over the northeast Atlantic. Variability in trajectories significantly altered network connectivity and source-sink dynamics, with positive phase NAO conditions producing a well-connected but asymmetrical network connected from west to east. Negative phase NAO produced reduced connectivity, but notably some larvae tracked westward-flowing currents towards coral populations on the mid-Atlantic ridge. Graph theoretical metrics demonstrate critical roles played by seamounts and offshore banks in larval supply and maintaining connectivity across the network. Larval longevity and behaviour mediated dispersal and connectivity, with shorter lived and passive larvae associated with reduced connectivity. We conclude that the existing MPA network is vulnerable to atmospheric-driven changes in ocean circulation.

  8. Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Kasahara-Kiritani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging.

  9. Reading Books and Watching Films as a Protective Factor against Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara-Kiritani, Mami; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; McMahon, Elaine M; Cosman, Doina; Farkas, Luca; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Nemes, Bogdan; Mars Bitenc, Urša; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-12-15

    Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging.

  10. Protection of Marine Fish Stocks at Risk of Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Musick; S.A. Berkeley; G.M. Cailliet; M. Camhi; G. Huntsman; M. Nammack; Melvin L. Warren

    2000-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommends that registory agencies closely scrutinize both marine fish and invertebrate stocks that may be at risk of extinction and take remedial action before populations are threatened or endungered. Initial AFS analyses of marine stocks at risk in North America show at least four primary geographic "hot spots" with...

  11. 75 FR 77617 - Notice Requesting Nominations for the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... stakeholder interest affected by MPAs. Nominees also will be evaluated based on the following factors: marine..., resource managers, and people representing other interests or organizations involved with or affected by... managers, and other interested people and organizations through a Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory...

  12. Protection of marine birds and turtles at St Brandon's Rock, Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection of marine birds and turtles at St Brandon's Rock, Indian Ocean, requires conservation of the entire atoll. SW Evans, N Cole, H Kylin, NS Choong Kwet Yive, V Tatayah, J Merven, H Bouwman ...

  13. Designing Local-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs around the world are at risk from overexploitation and climate change, and coral reefs of the Red Sea are no exception. Science-based designation of marine protected areas (MPAs), within which human activities are restricted, has become

  14. Helping to protect and manage the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty years have now passed since the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL, formerly the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity (ILMR)) was founded in the premises of the Musee oceanographique de Monaco. In 1961, at the time the IAEA laboratory was founded, there was indeed very little information on what happens when radionuclides enter the sea and whether their concentration (if any) through the marine food chain would represent a risk to man or to the integrity of the marine environment itself. The awakening of international concern for the marine environment was not restricted to radioactive substances. During the 1960s public attention was turned to the threats of oil spills, bioaccumulation of pesticides in marine and terrestrial birds and poisoning by heavy metals in industrial effluents. The growing concern regarding the deleterious environmental impact of some forms of development and the lack of a co-ordinated international response led to the United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm in June 1972. This international activity, which gave the IAEA-MEL new partners, was important because it would have been virtually impossible to disconnect the study of marine radioactivity from that of other contaminants associated with economic development. Moreover, nuclear techniques (such as neutron activation analysis) had already proven to be invaluable for the study of non-radioactive contaminants and natural and man-made radionuclides were yielding quantitative information on oceanic and sea floor processes which could not be obtained by other means

  15. Movements of Diplodus sargus (Sparidae) within a Portuguese coastal Marine Protected Area: Are they really protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Ana Filipa; Pereira, Tadeu José; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; Castro, Nuno; Costa, José Lino; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo

    2016-03-01

    Mark-recapture tagging and acoustic telemetry were used to study the movements of Diplodus sargus within the Pessegueiro Island no-take Marine Protected Area (MPA), (Portugal) and assess its size adequacy for this species' protection against fishing activities. Therefore, 894 Diplodus sargus were captured and marked with conventional plastic t-bar tags. At the same time, 19 D. sargus were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored by 20 automatic acoustic receivers inside the no-take MPA for 60 days. Recapture rate of conventionally tagged specimens was 3.47%, most occurring during subsequent marking campaigns. One individual however was recaptured by recreational fishermen near Faro (ca. 250 km from the tagging location) 6 months after release. Furthermore, three specimens were recaptured in October 2013 near releasing site, one year after being tagged. Regarding acoustic telemetry, 18 specimens were detected by the receivers during most of the study period. To analyse no-take MPA use, the study site was divided into five areas reflecting habitat characteristics, three of which were frequently used by the tagged fish: Exterior, Interior Protected and Interior Exposed areas. Information on no-take protected area use was also analysed according to diel and tidal patterns. Preferred passageways and permanence areas were identified and high site fidelity was confirmed. The interaction between tide and time of day influenced space use patterns, with higher and more variable movements during daytime and neap tides. This no-take MPA proved to be an important refuge and feeding area for this species, encompassing most of the home ranges of tagged specimens. Therefore, it is likely that this no-take MPA is of adequate size to protect D. sargus against fishing activities, thus contributing to its sustainable management in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning from disaster: Community-based marine protected areas in Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshito Takasaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines whether and how experiencing climate-related disasters can improve the rural poor fs adaptation to climate change through community-based resource management. Original household survey data in Fiji capture the unique sequence of a tropical cyclone and the establishment of community-based marine protected areas as a natural experiment. The analysis reveals that household disaster victimization increases its support for establishing marine protected areas for fut...

  17. Economic analysis of Marine Protected Areas: Bioeconomic Modeling and Economic Valuation Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Bich Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The papers 2 and 3 of this thesis are not available in Munin. Paper 2: Xuan, B. B., Sandorf, E. D., Aanesen, M.: “Informing Management Strategies for a Reserve: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment Survey”. (Manuscript). Paper 3: Xuan, B. B.: “Extractive and Non-extractive Values of a Marine Protected Area: A Bio-economic Model Application". (Manuscript). Marine protected areas (MPAs) are often established for conservation objectives. Benefits provided by MPAs exceed pure biod...

  18. 75 FR 81233 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... criteria. The inventory is online at http://www.mpa.gov/helpful_resources/inventory.html , and potentially eligible sites are posted online at http://www.mpa.gov/pdf/national-system/nominationsummary810.pdf . As... Conservation Area. Saunders Reef State Marine Conservation Area. Del Mar Landing State Marine Reserve. Stewarts...

  19. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are expected to play a more ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    MPAs are playing an important role in fisheries management. Community ..... and marine management falls under two of the Chief ... ment service, but enforcement officers are not dedicated to MPAs. ...... Financial rewards encourage illegal.

  20. Incentivizing More Effective Marine Protected Areas with the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah O. Hameed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy oceans are essential to human survival and prosperity, yet oceans are severely impacted worldwide by anthropogenic threats including overfishing, climate change, industrialization, pollution, and habitat destruction. Marine protected areas (MPAs have been implemented around the world and are effective conservation tools that can mitigate some of these threats and build resilience when designed and managed well. However, despite a rich scientific literature on MPA effectiveness, science is not the main driver behind the design and implementation of many MPAs, leading to variable MPA effectiveness and bias in global MPA representativity. As a result, the marine conservation community focuses on promoting the creation of more MPAs as well as more effective ones, however no structure to improve or accelerate effective MPA implementation currently exists. To safeguard marine ecosystems on a global scale and better monitor progress toward ecosystem protection, robust science-based criteria are needed for evaluating MPAs and synthesizing the extensive and interdisciplinary science on MPA effectiveness. This paper presents a strategic initiative led by Marine Conservation Institute called the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES. GLORES aims to set standards to improve the quality of MPAs and catalyze strong protection for at least 30% of the ocean by 2030. Such substantial increase in marine protection is needed to maintain the resilience of marine ecosystems and restore their benefits to people. GLORES provides a comprehensive strategy that employs the rich body of MPA science to scale up existing marine conservation efforts.

  1. Review of Network Topologies and Protection Principles in Marine and Offshore Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    An electric fault that is not cleared is harmful in land applications, but in marine and offshore sector it can have catastrophic consequences. If the protection system fails to operate properly, the following situation may occur: blackouts, fire, loss of propulsion, delays in transportation......, collision with the cliff, reef or other ships and electrical shocks to humans. In order to cope with the unwanted effects of a fault, several protection strategies are applied, but complexity of the marine and offshore applications is continuously increasing, so protection needs to overcome more and more...... challenges. As result, development of new protection techniques that can offer improved functionalities compared to the actual solutions for marine and offshore applications is needed. This paper reviews the network topologies in such applications and presents the requirements of a system able to protect...

  2. A global mismatch in the protection of multiple marine biodiversity components and ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Holt, Ben G.; MacKenzie, Brian R.

    2018-01-01

    spatial scale. We demonstrate a pronounced spatial mismatch between the existing degree of protection and all the conservation priorities above, highlighting that neither the world's most diverse, nor the most productive ecosystems are currently the most protected ecosystems. Furthermore, we show...... more effectively than the existing degree of protection, which at best is only marginally better than a random expectation. Therefore, a holistic perspective is needed when designating an appropriate degree of protection of marine conservation priorities worldwide....

  3. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

  4. Weak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Area

    KAUST Repository

    Campbell, Stuart J.; Hoey, Andrew; Maynard, Jeffrey; Kartawijaya, Tasrif; Cinner, Joshua; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Baird, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of marine protected areas depends largely on whether people comply with the rules. We quantified temporal changes in benthic composition, reef fish biomass, and fishing effort among marine park zones (including no-take areas

  5. Helping to protect and manage the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL), formerly known as the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity (ILMR) was founded thirty years ago. This article provides a brief historical review of the activities of the IAEA-MEL, focussing on the monitoring of pollution in the Mediterranean Sea. The contamination arising from the Chernobyl accident is discussed, and data on the distribution of pesticide residues in mussels along the northern Mediterranean cost are presented. A collaborative project with the National Autonomous University of Mexico to study pesticides in the Altata lagoon is described. 25 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  6. The potential for dive tourism led entrepreneurial marine protected areas in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the successful establishment of marine protected areas in the Netherlands Antilles, such as Saba and Bonaire, government-led protection of the reefs surrounding Curacao has repeatedly failed. In the absence of effective state regulation, dive operations have taken de facto control over dive

  7. Local Stakeholder Perception on Community Participation in Marine Protected Area Management: A Q-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megat Jamual Fawaeed, P. S.; Daim, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    Local stakeholder involvement in Marine Protected Area (MPA) management can bring to a successful MPA. Generally, participatory research in marine protected area management is exploring the relationship between marine protected area management approach adopted by the management agencies and the level of participation of local stakeholder whom reside within the marine protected areas. However, the scenario of local community participation in MPA management in Malaysia seems discouraging and does not align with the International Aichi Biodiversity Target 2020. In order to achieve the International Aichi Biodiversity Target 2020, this paper attempts to explore the methodology on participatory research towards the local stakeholder of Pulau Perhentian Marine Park (PPMP), Terengganu, Malaysia. A Q-methodology is used to investigate the perspective of local stakeholder who represents different stances on the issues, by having participants rank and sort a series of statements by comply quantitative and qualitative method in collecting the data. A structured questionnaire will be employed across this study by means of face-to-face interview. In total, 210 respondents from Kampung Pasir Hantu are randomly selected. Meanwhile, a workshop with the agency (Department of Marine Park) had been held to discuss about the issues faces on behalf of management that manage the PPMP. Using the Q-method, researcher acknowledged wise viewpoints, reflecting how different stakeholders’ perception and opinion about community participation with highlights the current level of community participation in MPA. Thus, this paper describes the phases involved in this study, methodology and analysis used in making a conclusion .

  8. Marine environment protection for the North and Baltic Seas. Special Report - February 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The marine environment of the North Sea and Baltic Sea is still heavily polluted. The marine ecosystems are under severe stress from overfishing, water pollution, raw materials production and tourism. Environmental protection in this region necessitates decisive political initiatives and strict corrections especially in fishery policy, agricultural policy and chemical substances control. This is the balance of the special expert opinion of the Council of Environmental Experts. The publication specifies the main problem areas, the current pollution situation, the fields where action is most urgently required - especially in fishery, chemical substances, agricultural and sea travel policies - and presents suggestions for an integrated European and national marine protection policy including a regional development concept for the marine environment. (orig.)

  9. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Nijman

    Full Text Available Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes.We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013, collected data from wholesale traders (2013, and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013. All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for 32,000 shells valued at USD500,000, chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius (>3,000 shells, USD60,000 and giant clams (Tridacna spp. (>2,000 shells, USD45,000 were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

  10. Marine radioecology: some aspects of research applied to radioecological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancellin, J.

    1977-01-01

    Radioecological studies involve more specialy researches on behavior of radionuclides in the different components of the oceanic environment: water, sediments, organisms. Two main vectors of contamination are to be considered concerning organisms: water and food. Regarding the last one a decreasing of concentration factors, rather an increasing, is observed in relation with the elevation of trophic levels. Actual data on radionuclides distribution in the marine environment can be mainly derived from in situ observations [fr

  11. The Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean marine mammals: Marine Protected Area (MPA) or marine polluted area? The case study of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Panti, Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Maltese, Silvia; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Casini, Silvia; Caliani, Ilaria; Gaspari, Stefania; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; Jimenez, Begoña; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2013-05-15

    The concurrence of man-made pressures on cetaceans in the Mediterranean Sea is potentially affecting population stability and marine biodiversity. This needs to be proven for the only pelagic marine protected area in the Mediterranean Sea: the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals. Here we applied a multidisciplinary tool, using diagnostic markers elaborated in a statistical model to rank toxicological stress in Mediterranean cetaceans. As a case study we analyzed persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals combined with a wide range of diagnostic markers of exposure to anthropogenic contaminants and genetic variation as marker of genetic erosion in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) skin biopsies. Finally, a statistical model was applied to obtain a complete toxicological profile of the striped dolphin in the Pelagos Sanctuary and other Mediterranean areas (Ionian Sea and Strait of Gibraltar). Here we provide the first complete evidence of the toxicological stress in cetaceans living in Pelagos Sanctuary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Marine Protected Areas: Spanish context and the case of “Os Miñarzos”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Burgos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the fisheries status in the world suggests that the state of the main marine resources is worrying, and that the fishery sector has been under unsustainable conditions. Over the last decades, the Marine Protected Areas have been established as global planning tools to compensate for the effects of overfishing, and ensure thesustainability of biological productivity and human uses. However, many of them are limited to the simple name, without detailed knowledge of the ecosystems that host, neither to include effectively local communities in their implementation and management, key requirements to manage these areas in a holistic and integral way.This paper addresses the marine protected areas as tools of governance based in the fisheries co-management that can promote the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services, as well as the promotion of human welfare. For that, we describe the history of the "Os Miñarzos” Marine Reserve of Fishing Interest (Galicia / Spain,covering its six years of life. It is hoped that this paper will help to disseminate this initiative promoted by the local fisheries, and that it can contribute to the discussion on the role of marine protected areas in protecting the long-term ecological integrity and sustainable use of natural ecosystems. 

  13. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008–2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for trade involves networks stretching hundreds of kilometres throughout Indonesia. Wholesale traders offer protected marine mollusc shells for the export market by the container or by the metric ton. Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs. Over 42,000 shells were seized over a 5-year period, with a retail value of USD700,000 within Indonesia; horned helmet (Cassis cornuta) (>32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries. PMID:26717021

  14. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2015-01-01

    Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes. We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for Java and Bali, but the trade involves networks stretching hundreds of kilometres throughout Indonesia. Wholesale traders offer protected marine mollusc shells for the export market by the container or by the metric ton. Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs. Over 42,000 shells were seized over a 5-year period, with a retail value of USD700,000 within Indonesia; horned helmet (Cassis cornuta) (>32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region. We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

  15. Potential benefits and shortcomings of marine protected areas for small seabirds revealed using miniature tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Maxwell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are considered important tools for protecting marine biodiversity, and animal tracking is a key way to determine if boundaries are effectively placed for protection of key marine species, including seabirds. We tracked chick-rearing brown noddies (Anous stolidus from the Dry Tortugas National Park in Florida USA in 2016 using 1.8 g Nanofix GPS tags (n = 10, making this the first time this species has ever been tracked. We determined movement parameters, such as flight speed, distance traveled and home range, and how birds used a complex of marine protected areas including the Dry Tortugas National Park which is largely no-take (i.e., no fishing or extraction permitted, and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, of which two Ecological Reserves totaling 517.9 km2 are no-take. Birds remained largely within marine protected areas, with 91.3% of birds’ locations and 58.8% of the birds’ total home range occurring within the MPAs, and 79.2% of birds’ locations and 18.2% of the birds’ total home range within no-take areas. However areas of probable foraging, indicated by locations where birds had high-residence time, were found within one of the MPAs only 64.7% of the time, and only 6.7% of those locations were in no-take areas. Birds traveled a mean straight line distance from the colony of 37.5 km, primarily using the region to the southwest of the colony where the shelf break and Loop Current occur. High-residence-time locations were found in areas of significantly higher sea surface temperature and closer to the shelf break than low residency locations. A sea surface temperature front occurs near the shelf edge, likely indicative of where Sargassum seaweed is entrained, providing habitat for forage species. Much of this region, however, falls outside the boundaries of the marine protected areas, and brown noddies and other species breeding in the Dry Tortugas may interact with fisheries via resource competition

  16. Marine Spatial Planning in a Transboundary Context: Linking Baja California with California's Network of Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arafeh-Dalmau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that an effective path to globally protect marine ecosystems is through the establishment of eco-regional scale networks of MPAs spanning across national frontiers. In this work we aimed to plan for regionally feasible networks of MPAs that can be ecologically linked with an existing one in a transboundary context. We illustrate our exercise in the Ensenadian eco-region, a shared marine ecosystem between the south of California, United States of America (USA, and the north of Baja California, Mexico; where conservation actions differ across the border. In the USA, California recently established a network of MPAs through the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA, while in Mexico: Baja California lacks a network of MPAs or a marine spatial planning effort to establish it. We generated four different scenarios with Marxan by integrating different ecological, social, and management considerations (habitat representation, opportunity costs, habitat condition, and enforcement costs. To do so, we characterized and collected biophysical and socio-economic information for Baja California and developed novel approaches to quantify and incorporate some of these considerations. We were able to design feasible networks of MPAs in Baja California that are ecologically linked with California's network (met between 78.5 and 84.4% of the MLPA guidelines and that would represent a low cost for fishers and aquaculture investors. We found that when multiple considerations are integrated more priority areas for conservation emerge. For our region, human distribution presents a strong gradient from north to south and resulted to be an important factor for the spatial arrangement of the priority areas. This work shows how, despite the constraints of a data-poor area, the available conservation principles, mapping, and planning tools can still be used to generate spatial conservation plans in a transboundary context.

  17. Effect of Flow Velocity on Corrosion Rate and Corrosion Protection Current of Marine Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Jong [Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Min Su; Jang, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong Jong [Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In spite of highly advanced paint coating techniques, corrosion damage of marine metal and alloys increase more and more due to inherent micro-cracks and porosities in coatings formed during the coating process. Furthermore, flowing seawater conditions promote the breakdown of the protective oxide of the materials introducing more oxygen into marine environments, leading to the acceleration of corrosion. Various corrosion protection methods are available to prevent steel from marine corrosion. Cathodic protection is one of the useful corrosion protection methods by which the potential of the corroded metal is intentionally lowered to an immune state having the advantage of providing additional protection barriers to steel exposed to aqueous corrosion or soil corrosion, in addition to the coating. In the present investigation, the effect of flow velocity was examined for the determination of the optimum corrosion protection current density in cathodic protection as well as the corrosion rate of the steel. It is demonstrated from the result that the material corrosion under dynamic flowing conditions seems more prone to corrosion than under static conditions.

  18. Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padash, A.; Jozi, S. A.; Nabavi, S. M. B.; Dehzad, B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, necessity to protect environment has been a serious concern for all people and international communities. In appropriate development of human economic activities, subsistence dependence of the growing world population on nature decreases the natural diversity of ecosystems and habitats day by day and provides additional constraints for life and survival of wildlife. As a result, implementation of programs to protect species and ecosystems is of great importance. The current study was carried out to implement a comprehensive strategic environmental management plan in the Mond protected area in southern Iran. Accordingly, the protected area was zoned using multi criteria decision method. According to the numerical models, fifteen data layer were obtained on a scale of 1:50,000. The results revealed that 28.35% out of the entire study area belongs to nature conservation zone. In the following step, in order to offer the strategic planning using strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method, a total number of 154 questionnaires were prepared and filled by the relevant experts. For this purpose, after identifying the internal and external factors, they were weighted in the form of matrices as; internal factor evaluation and external factor evaluation. Analytical hierarchy process and expert choice software were applied to weight the factors. At the end, by considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues, the strategy of using protective strategies in line with international standards as well as a strong support of governmental national execution with a score of 6.05 was chosen as the final approach.

  19. Coral reef ecosystem marine protected area monitoring in Fagamalo, American Samoa: benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010 the village of Fagamalo, Tutuila, American Samoa, designated a no-take Marine Protected Area that sees the protection of 2.25 square kilometers of ocean....

  20. 76 FR 82277 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    [email protected] . A detailed electronic copy of the List of National System MPAs is available for....S.S. YSD Exempt Site H.M.C.S. Saint Francis Exempt Site French Van Gilder Exempt Site [[Page 82279...

  1. Criteria, objectives and methodology for evaluating marine protected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a first step, 14 objectives are defined that may be met by MPAs. These fall into three categories: biodiversity protection, fisheries management and human utilization. A series of criteria were then proposed which can be used selectively to quantify the degree to which MPAs meet these objectives. Each of the objectives is ...

  2. (Nematoda: Desmodoridae), a brood protecting free-living marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    posterior of the pharyngeal region, in the former species, in the male amphids which are a closed loop in P. waweri and an open-loop in P. ovisetosum. The female of the species protects the developing eggs by attaching them to the ventral mid body anterior and posterior of the vulval region, while in P. ovisetosum eggs are ...

  3. Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, necessity to protect environment has been a serious concern for all people and international communities. In appropriate development of human economic activities, subsistence dependence of the growing world population on nature decreases the natural diversity of ecosystems and habitats day by day and provides additional constraints for life and survival of wildlife. As a result, implementation of programs to protect species and ecosystems is of great importance. The current study was carried out to implement a comprehensive strategic environmental management plan in the Mond protected area in southern Iran. Accordingly, the protected area was zoned using multi criteria decision method. According to the numerical models, fifteen data layer were obtained on a scale of 1:50,000. The results revealed that 28.35% out of the entire study area belongs to nature conservation zone. In the following step, in order to offer the strategic planning using strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method, a total number of 154 questionnaires were prepared and filled by the relevant experts. For this purpose, after identifying the internal and external factors, they were weighted in the form of matrices as; internal factor evaluation and external factor evaluation. Analytical hierarchy process and expert choice software were applied to weight the factors. At the end, by considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues, the strategy of using protective strategies in line with international standards as well as a strong support of governmental national execution with a score of 6.05 was chosen as the final approach.

  4. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  5. Permeable Boundries: Outsiders and Acces to Fishing Grounds in the Berau Marine Protected Ares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, B.; Visser, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    The designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Indonesia has been accelerated over the past two decades in line with international biodiversity conservation commitments and to secure a basis for decentralised fisheries resources management. The Berau MPA of northeast Kalimantan is one of them.

  6. Shortfalls in the global protected area network at representing marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carissa J; Brown, Christopher J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Segan, Daniel B; McGowan, Jennifer; Beger, Maria; Watson, James E M

    2015-12-03

    The first international goal for establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve the ocean's biodiversity was set in 2002. Since 2006, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has driven MPA establishment, with 193 parties committed to protecting >10% of marine environments globally by 2020, especially 'areas of particular importance for biodiversity' (Aichi target 11). This has resulted in nearly 10 million km(2) of new MPAs, a growth of ~360% in a decade. Unlike on land, it is not known how well protected areas capture marine biodiversity, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of existing MPAs and future protection requirements. We assess the overlap of global MPAs with the ranges of 17,348 marine species (fishes, mammals, invertebrates), and find that 97.4% of species have biodiversity. Our results offer strategic guidance on where MPAs should be placed to support the CBD's overall goal to avert biodiversity loss. Achieving this goal is imperative for nature and humanity, as people depend on biodiversity for important and valuable services.

  7. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; Spaans, Bernard; Kraan, Casper

    2006-01-01

    There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called "marine protected areas" (MPAs), which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State

  8. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T.; Dekinga, A.; Spaans, B.; Kraan, C.

    2006-01-01

    There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called “marine protected areas” (MPAs), which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State

  9. Information systems for marine protected areas: How do users interpret desirable data attributes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carballo Cárdenas, E.C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tobi, H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on how various user groups related to Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) interpret desirable data attributes, whether their interpretations differ and to what extent. Moreover, this study aims to make a methodological contribution to the

  10. Habitat collapse due to overgrazing threatens turtle conservation in marine protected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, Marjolijn J. A.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Lamers, Leon P. M.; van Katwijk, Marieke M.; van der Heide, Tjisse; Mumby, Peter J.; Silliman, Brian R.; Engelhard, Sarah L.; de Kerk, Madelon van; Kiswara, Wawan; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are key tools for combatting the global over-exploitation of endangered species. The prevailing paradigm is that MPAs are beneficial in helping to restore ecosystems to more 'natural' conditions. However, MPAs may have unintended negative effects when increasing

  11. Marine protected area restricts demographic connectivity: Dissimilarity in a marine environment can function as a biological barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaaki; Honda, Kentaro; Uy, Wilfredo H; Baslot, Darwin I; Genovia, Tom G; Nakamura, Yohei; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C; Kurokochi, Hiroyuki; Pantallano, Allyn Duvin S; Lian, Chunlan; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) can often lead to environmental differences between MPAs and fishing zones. To determine the effects on marine dispersal of environmental dissimilarity between an MPA and fishing zone, we examined the abundance and recruitment patterns of two anemonefishes ( Amphiprion frenatus and A. perideraion ) that inhabit sea anemones in different management zones (i.e., an MPA and two fishing zones) by performing a field survey and a genetic parentage analysis. We found lower levels of abundance per anemone in the MPA compared to the fishing zones for both species ( n  = 1,525 anemones, p  = .032). The parentage analysis also showed that lower numbers of fishes were recruited from the fishing zones and outside of the study area into each anemone in the MPA than into each anemone in the fishing zones ( n  = 1,525 anemones, p  fishing zones ( n  = 384 females, p  = .516). Because the ocean currents around the study site were unlikely to cause a lower settlement intensity of larvae in the MPA, the ocean circulation was not considered crucial to the observed abundance and recruitment patterns. Instead, stronger top-down control and/or a lower density of host anemones in the MPA were potential factors for such patterns. Our results highlight the importance of dissimilarity in a marine environment as a factor that affects connectivity.

  12. Army and Marine Corps Active Protection System (APS) Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    2012 report also provides a comprehensive treatment of the “soft kill” features of the APS: Soft-kill countermeasures include infrared jammers, laser ... spot imitators, and radar jammers. They may prevent missile guidance from remaining locked onto the GCV [Ground Combat Vehicle], 18 protecting the...For example, a millimeter wave radar jammer will not work against an infrared tracker . Furthermore, when jammers offer umbrella coverage (broadband

  13. Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve: Identifying community-based indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Claudet, Joachim; Pelletier, Dominique; Jouvenel, J.y; Bachet, F; Galzin, R

    2006-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly envisaged as a tool to manage coastal ecosystems and fisheries. Assessment of their performance with respect to management objectives is therefore important. A number of WAS provided conservation benefits for fished species. Observed benefits do not apply to all species at all times, and responses to protection are also highly variable among fish taxa. Among the many empirical studies on marine reserves, only a few designs considered 'before and ...

  14. Marine atmospheres provide a tough test for protective paint systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steptoe, G.G.C.

    1980-04-01

    Protective paints based on chlorinated rubber (CR) offer good resistance to salt-laden atmospheres and extreme climatic conditions, possess low moisture and oxygen permeability, and are resistant to a variety of chemicals, which allows them to counter the acidic and alkaline conditions tha arise from the corrosion of steel in salt water and from cathodic protection. Airless spray techniques allow CR paints to be applied much faster in thick coatings to large surface areas. CR paints can be formulated to produce a dry film thickness of 80-100 jm in one application. One study concluded that the extra expense for good surface preparation and high-performance paint can be regained in 2-4 yr as a result of lower maintenance costs. CR paints can be used successfully with cathodic protection; however, their tolerance to overprotection is less than that of some alternative systems; CR paints are considered to be suitable for use up to a maximum of -0.95 v. The numerous applications of CR paint include large crude carriers, offshore oil structures, oil terminals (e.g., the Flotta terminal in the Orkneys), and storage tanks.

  15. Determining the feasibility of establishing new multiple-use marine protected areas in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Lavín, Felipe; Simon, Jeanne W; Paz-Lerdón, Ximena

    2013-12-01

    This paper evaluates the feasibility of establishing a multiple-use marine protected area. The methodology was applied to evaluate three proposed sites in Chile with diverse conservation needs, social stress and poverty levels, and different economic activities (small-scale fishing, heavy industry, and mining activities). We use two broad categories for the evaluation: socio-economic and political-institutional. The methodology uses a combination of secondary data with personal interviews, workshops, and focus groups with stakeholders (e.g., fishermen, unions, politicians, social organizations) from different political, social, and economic backgrounds to characterize current and potential natural and social resources and to evaluate in an ordinal scale the feasibility of establishing the protected area. The methodology allows us to correctly identify the challenges faced in each site and can be used to develop appropriate strategies for balancing economic, social, and environmental objectives. This methodology can be replicated to evaluate the feasibility of other marine or terrestrial protected areas.

  16. Marine environmental protection, sustainability and the precautionary principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.; Santillo, D.; Stringer, R.

    1999-01-01

    The global oceans provide a diverse array of ecosystem services which cannot be replaced by technological means and are therefore of potentially infinite value. While valuation of ecosystem services is a useful qualitative metric, unresolved uncertainties limit its application in the regulatory and policy domain. This paper evaluates current human activities in terms of their conformity to four principles of sustainability. Violation of any one of the principles indicates that a given activity is unsustainable and that controlling measures are required. Examples of human uses of the oceans can be evaluated using these principles, taking into account also the transgenerational obligations of the current global population. When three major issues concerning the oceans: Land based activities, fisheries and climatic change are examined in this way, they may easily be shown to be globally unsustainable. It is argued that effective environmental protection can best be achieved through the application of a precautionary approach. (author)

  17. Structure of macroalgal communities on tropical rocky shores inside and outside a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Adriana Brizon; Carvalho, Fabrício Lopes; Soares, Marcelo de Oliveira; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Castro Nunes, José Marcos

    2017-09-01

    The structure of marine macroalgal communities and morpho-functional groups were investigated in a poorly characterized region on the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic coast, Brazil. The survey was conducted at six rocky shores located on the mainland and on coastal islands distributed inside a marine protected area (MPA) and outside the MPA (near a densely populated area). We hypothesized that tropical rocky shores inside the MPA and islands have higher species richness, diversity, and evenness of marine macroalgae. Results confirmed that species richness, diversity and evenness were significantly higher inside the MPA than in rocky shores outside the MPA. Only species richness was higher on islands than on the mainland. The results suggest that human impacts could lead to a competitive advantage and dominance in the articulated calcareous morphotype, resulting in community differences and lower benthic biodiversity in tropical ecosystems near urbanized sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of marine macroalgae in plant protection & improvement for sustainable agriculture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham M. Hamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine macroalgae are plant-like organisms with simple internal structures that generally live in coastal areas. They mainly include different communities of red, brown and green macroalgae. Marine macroalgae commonly occupy intertidal and sublittoral-to-littoral zones on rocks and other hard substrata. They are considered to be an excellent natural biosource in different aspects of agricultural fields. They have great proficiency in improving soil physical and chemical properties. Marine macroalgae are also characterized by producing a large array of biologically active biocidal substances against plant-infecting pathogens. Unfortunately, most available literatures on marine macroalgae and their derivatives mainly focused on their pharmaceutical applications but their potential utilization in sustainable agriculture development is still often regarded as a secondary goal. However, a relatively considerable dataset on marine macroalgae showed that they could play a major role in plant protection and improvement. This review summarizes different aspects of potential macroalgal applications in agriculture. Commercial production and exploitation of specific compounds with interesting biotechnological importance from marine macroalgae including microbicides, nematicides, insecticides, biofertilizers, biostimulators and soil conditioners are highlighted and discussed in detail. Bioactive compounds like fatty acids (in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, proteins (amino acids, bioflavonoids, sulfated polysaccharides, carotenoids, polyphenols and carbohydrates are considered to have bactericidal, antiviral and fungicidal effects against some plant-infecting pathogens. These biocontrol agents provide multiple benefits and act as useful pointers for improving cultivation practices in diverse habitats. Marine macroalgae can be generally considered as promising multifunctional bioinoculants and ecofriendly environmental tools in recent trends

  19. Lagrangian analysis of multi-satellite data in support of open ocean Marine Protected Area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Penna, Alice; Koubbi, Philippe; Cotté, Cedric; Bon, Cécile; Bost, Charles-André; d'Ovidio, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Compared to ecosystem conservation in territorial seas, protecting the open ocean has peculiar geopolitical, economic and scientific challenges. One of the major obstacle is defining the boundary of an open ocean Marine Protected Area (MPA). In contrast to coastal ecosystems, which are mostly constrained by topographic structures fixed in time, the life of marine organisms in the open ocean is entrained by fluid dynamical structures like eddies and fronts, whose lifetime occurs on ecologically-relevant timescales. The position of these highly dynamical structures can vary interannually by hundreds of km, and so too will regions identified as ecologically relevant such as the foraging areas of marine predators. Thus, the expected foraging locations suggested from tracking data cannot be directly extrapolated beyond the year in which the data were collected. Here we explore the potential of Lagrangian methods applied to multisatellite data as a support tool for a MPA proposal by focusing on the Crozet archipelago oceanic area (Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean). By combining remote sensing with biologging information from a key marine top predator (Eudyptes chrysolophus, or Macaroni penguin) of the Southern Ocean foodweb, we identify a highly dynamic branch of the Subantarctic front as a foraging hotspot. By tracking this feature in historical satellite data (1993-2012) we are able to extrapolate the position of this foraging ground beyond the years in which tracking data are available and study its spatial variability.

  20. Rapid assessment of risks to a mobile marine mammal in an ecosystem-scale marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, A; Marsh, H

    2008-06-01

    Ecosystem-scale networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are important conservation tools, but their effectiveness is difficult to quantify in a time frame appropriate to species conservation because of uncertainties in the data available. The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a mobile marine species that occurs in shallow inshore waters of an ecosystem-scale network of MPAs (the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area [GBRWHA]). We developed a rapid approach to assess risk to dugongs in the region and evaluate options to ameliorate that risk. We used expert opinion and a Delphi technique to identify and rank 5 human factors with the potential to adversely affect dugongs and their sea grass habitats: netting, indigenous hunting, trawling, vessel traffic, and poor-quality terrestrial runoff. We then quantified and compared the distribution of these factors with a spatially explicit model of dugong distribution. We estimated that approximately 96% of habitat of high conservation value for dugongs in the GBRWHA is at low risk from human activities. Using a sensitivity analysis, we found that to decrease risk, commercial netting or indigenous hunting had to be reduced in remote areas and the effects of vessel traffic, terrestrial runoff, and commercial netting had to be reduced in urban areas. This approach enabled us to compare and rank risks so as to identify the most severe risks and locate specific sites that require further management attention.

  1. Modelling the economic consequences of Marine Protected Areas using the BEMCOM model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, A.; Andersen, J.L.; Christensen, Asbjørn

    2013-01-01

    the question ‘what’s best?’, i.e. finds the overall optimal effort allocation, from an economic point of view, between multiple harvesting fleets fishing under a subset of restrictions on catches and effort levels. The BEMCOM model is described and applied to the case of the Danish sandeel fishery in the North......This paper introduces and describes in detail the bioeconomic optimization model BEMCOM (BioEconomic Model to evaluate the COnsequences of Marine protected areas) that has been developed to assess the economic effects of introducing Marine Protected Areas (MPA) for fisheries. BEMCOM answers...... Sea. It has several times been suggested to close parts of the sandeel fishery in the North Sea out of concern for other species feeding on sandeel and/or spawning in the sandeel habitats. The economic effects of such closures have been assessed using BEMCOM. The results indicate that the model yields...

  2. Contribution of Marine Protected Areas in Fisheries Governance in South Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Chaouki CHAKOUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available When studying fishing activities in south Mediterranean, particularly in Algeria, we face the particular case of coastal territory. The high dependence of human activities on marine territories and their resources is always related to the high level of conflicts, between fishing actors and other stakeholders, generated by some conservation projects. The aim of this paper is to highlight and illustrate the approach of MPAs (Marine Protected Areas governance and their role in conserving biodiversity, in order to clarify their economic, social and environmental impacts on human activities such as fishing. This paper defends the flowing thesis: in the long term, protection could reduce conflicts, contribute to sustainable management of fisheries and improve the welfare of fishers’ community.

  3. Conservation of rare species of marine flora and fauna of the Russian Arctic National Park, included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and in the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Gavrilo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Arctic National Park is a marine Protected Area playing a significant role in conservation of rare and protected endemic species of the Arctic fauna and flora, included in the IUCN Red List and/or in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The Russian Arctic National Park is considered to be: (1 the major ground for the reproduction of the Atlantic walrus stock inhabiting the north-eastern Kara-Barents Sea Region; (2 the key area maintaining the globally threatened Svalbard population of the bowhead whale; (3 the principal denning grounds of the Barents Sea sub-population of the polar bear in Russia; (4 important summer feeding grounds of the beluga whale; (5 the key breeding ground of the ivory gull in the European Arctic; (6 the only proved breeding grounds of the light-bellied brent goose in Russia. The major efforts in studying rare species in the Russian Arctic National Park are aimed at the monitoring and research on the ivory gull, Atlantic walrus and the polar bear. These studies are performed both by the scientists and staff of the National Park and by specialists working in other scientific institutes. The data on the other species are obtained occasionally. Here, we state the major threat for the rare marine species and define the activities of high priority for further conservation, monitoring and research.

  4. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. The carrying capacity and the effects of protection level in three marine protected areas in the Balearic Islands (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Coll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of fisheries target species in three marine protected areas (MPAs located in the NW Mediterranean provided important conclusions on management effects. The abundance, occurrence and biomass of large fish showed consistent and growing trends inside the MPAs. Fish diversity was also favoured by protection. Nevertheless, spatial variance of these indicators at a medium scale was often of the same order as that caused by time between different protection levels. The carrying capacity was determined for the first time in western Mediterranean MPAs in five out of six sites studied, and in all cases it was achieved within the first five years of protection. The observed values indicate that the system of the studied MPAs is representative of the general coastal environment of the Balearic Islands, but is far from the potential of other MPAs which are considered as hot spots in other localities. Likewise, this study shows that partially protected areas can also be fairly effective if their habitats fit with those required by target species and fishing modalities are suitably regulated or banned.

  6. Exploring the Effectiveness of Picture Books for Teaching Young Children the Concepts of Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ching-Yuan; Shih, Pei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the use of picture books by preschool teachers to instruct environmental concepts and their influence on resource saving by children. The study adopted qualitative research as a method to investigate 11 children aged 5-6 years in Taiwan. In addition, we used "the environmental protector" as a main…

  7. 4th European conference on protection against radon at home and at work. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Book of Abstracts contains 91 abstracts of all contributions, presented either in the oral form or in the poster form. In addition to those that had been input to INIS based on the Conference Programme and Presentations (document INIS-CZ-0037), 25 abstracts were selected from this publication for input to INIS. (P.A.)

  8. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  9. Analysis of the Effect of a Marine Energy Farm to Protect a Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacalin Peninsula in the Black Sea is a new land located south of the Saint George branch of the Danube. Since 1938 this area became a biosphere reserve since many rare species of animals and plants are to be found there. The generation of this new peninsula is due to the sedimentary process induced by the Danube River outflow and it was started more than 150 years ago. In the winter of 2013 this environment was seriously affected by some very strong storms putting in real danger this ecosystem. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the protection that might be offered to this area by a marine energy farm that would be deployed in front of the peninsula. In order to assess the coastal protection offered by the proposed solution, simulations with the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore wave model have been performed for the most relevant storm patterns. The results show that a marine energy farm can provide a real sheltering effect to the ecological reserve. Such approach seems to be also economically viable since this coastal environment represents a real hot spot in the Black Sea from the point of view of marine energy resources.

  10. The Support of MPA (Marine Protected Area) in Coral Triangle Area: Evidence from Kei Islands, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Syahibul K.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Rahantoknam, Meyske A.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Kei Islands located inside the coral triangle. Therefore, the biodiversity level on the sea in this area is considered high. United nation has proposed for water that included in the coral triangle has to apply marine protected area (MPA) to preserve the area. The main problem is most of the community especially in Kei Islands have depended on the sea as their sources of the economy even fisheries commodity like fish play a large part on the inflation rate and other prosperity indicators likes school and housing. Also, Kei Islands practice on form local wisdom for owning areal of the sea which calls “petuanan laut” by certain of villages or group of villages in one area. This study aimed to map the cluster of catching fisheries area based on the quantity of fish supply on a local market in Kei Islands and measure each cluster on their support and perspective on Marine Protected Area (MPA). We conducted a focus group discussion and collecting additional data by questionnaires with descriptive and quantitative analysis with logistic regression. The implication of this study can provide a clear view of coastal communities view on MPA program also to identify an area that has marine resources, human resources, and equipment to provide government an empirical view on catching fisheries in Kei Islands to issued better policy to develop fishing industry in Kei Islands.

  11. Shellfish Fishery Severely Reduces Condition and Survival of Oystercatchers Despite Creation of Large Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Verhulst

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and other human activities pose a global threat to the marine environment. Marine protected areas (MPAs are an emerging tool to cope with such threats. In the Dutch Wadden Sea, large MPAs (covering 31% of all intertidal flats have been created to protect shellfish-eating birds and allow recovery of important habitats. Even though shellfish fishing is prohibited in these areas, populations of shellfish-eating birds in the Wadden Sea have declined sharply. The role of shellfish fisheries in these declines is hotly debated, therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of MPAs for protecting oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus populations. Shellfish stocks (cockles, Cerastoderma edule were substantially higher in the MPAs, but surprisingly this has not resulted in a redistribution of wintering oystercatchers. Oystercatchers in unprotected areas had less shellfish in their diet and lower condition (a combined measure of mass and haematological parameters, and their estimated mortality was 43% higher. It is likely, therefore, that shellfish fishing explains at least part of the 40% decline in oystercatcher numbers in recent years. Condition and mortality effects were strongest in males, and the population sex ratio was female biased, in agreement with the fact that males rely more on shellfish. The unprotected areas apparently function as an "ecological trap," because oystercatchers did not respond as anticipated to the artificial spatial heterogeneity in food supply. Consequently, the MPAs are effective on a local scale, but not on a global scale. Similar problems are likely to exist in terrestrial ecosystems, and distribution strategies of target species need to be considered when designing terrestrial and marine protected areas if they are to be effective.

  12. Marine protected areas in Costa Rica: How do artisanal fishers respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Ballestero, Róger; Albers, Heidi J; Capitán, Tabaré; Salas, Ariana

    2017-11-01

    Costa Rica is considering expanding their marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve marine resources. Due to the importance of households' responses to an MPA in defining the MPA's ecological and economic outcomes, this paper uses an economic decision framework to interpret data from near-MPA household surveys to inform this policy discussion. The model and data suggest that the impact of expanding MPAs relies on levels of enforcement and on-shore wages. If larger near-shore MPAs can produce high wages through increased tourism, MPA expansions could provide ecological benefits with low burdens to communities. Due to distance costs and gear investments, however, MPAs farther off-shore may place high burdens on off-shore fishers.

  13. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-12-31

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia`s enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada`s reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia`s sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It`s co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the Northwest Passage on a

  14. Recovery Trends of Commercial Fish: The Case of an Underperforming Mediterranean Marine Protected Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Stefano; Coppa, Stefania; Camedda, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Wrachien, Francesco; Massaro, Giorgio; de Lucia, G Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Temporal trends in the recovery of exploited species in marine protected areas (MPAs) are useful for a proper assessment of the efficacy of protection measures. The effects of protection on the fish assemblages of the sublittoral rocky reefs in the "Penisola del Sinis-Isola di Mal di Ventre" MPA (W. Sardinia, Italy) were evaluated using a multi-year series of data. Four surveys, conducted 7, 10, 13 and 15 years after the area was designated as an MPA and carried out in the period spanning June and July, were used to estimate the abundance and biomass of commercial species. The surveys were carried out in zones with decreasing levels of fishing restrictions within the MPA (zones A, B, C) and in unprotected zones (OUT1 and OUT2), and underwater video visual census techniques were used. Protected zones only occasionally showed higher levels of abundance or biomass, and the trajectories of those metrics were not consistent across the years. In addition, the zone with the highest level of protection (zone A) never presented levels of abundance and biomass higher than those in zones B and C. This study shows that even 15 years after designation, protection has had no appreciable effect in the MPA studied. It is argued that this is emblematic of several shortcomings in the planning, regulation and enforcement frameworks of the MPA.

  15. Fishers' behaviour in response to the implementation of a Marine Protected Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Horta e Costa

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs have been widely proposed as a fisheries management tool in addition to their conservation purposes. Despite this, few studies have satisfactorily assessed the dynamics of fishers' adaptations to the loss of fishing grounds. Here we used data from before, during and after the implementation of the management plan of a temperate Atlantic multiple-use MPA to examine the factors affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of different gears used by the artisanal fishing fleet. The position of vessels and gear types were obtained by visual surveys and related to spatial features of the marine park. A hotspot analysis was conducted to identify heavily utilized patches for each fishing gear and time period. The contribution of individual vessels to each significant cluster was assessed to better understand fishers' choices. Different fisheries responded differently to the implementation of protection measures, with preferred habitats of target species driving much of the fishers' choices. Within each fishery, individual fishers showed distinct strategies with some operating in a broader area whereas others kept preferred territories. Our findings are based on reliable methods that can easily be applied in coastal multipurpose MPAs to monitor and assess fisheries and fishers responses to different management rules and protection levels. This paper is the first in-depth empirical study where fishers' choices from artisanal fisheries were analysed before, during and after the implementation of a MPA, thereby allowing a clearer understanding of the dynamics of local fisheries and providing significant lessons for marine conservation and management of coastal systems.

  16. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  17. Electronic book – paperless book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Ločniškar-Fidler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the electronic book, which is accessible on the Internet, with particularities and drawbacks that the present and future users and librarians may encounter.It also presents devices (such as scanners and hand-helds and software required for reading and designing electronic books, as well as the details we should pay attention to when buying and using the above mentioned devices. Some of the most significant web pages dedicated to the selling and promoting of electronic books are also presented. The protection of authors’ works, distributed via the Internet and digital media, is gaining importance. In September 1999, Slovenia also joined the international agreement on the protection of copyrights. It is expected that electronic books will gradually become part of the collection of all types of libraries. Therefore, libraries will need appropriate technical equipment as well as trained personnel for the usage of this new medium.

  18. Game theory and marine protected areas: the effects of conservation autarky in a multiple-use environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.J.; Weikard, H.P.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are gaining momentum as a possible tool for the protection and management of the ecosystem services provided by our seas and oceans. Their general approval is demonstrated by the fact that the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity have set the target that 10

  19. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model to exa...

  20. Collaboration between research institutions and Marine Protected Area contributes to Posidonia oceanica conservation: The Egadi Island’s experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocito, Silvia; Lombardi, Chiara; Peirano, Andrea; Donati, Stefano; Patti Genovese, Pietro; Ponzè, Niccolo

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results on the collaboration between the ENEA’s Marine Environment Research Center and the Egadi Islands’ Marine Protected Area (MPA), aimed to evaluate effectiveness of artificial reefs in limiting the impact of trawling on Posidonia oceanica meadow at Favignana Island, are reported. The methods and parameters chosen for monitoring showed their reliability in training non-experienced personnel for data collection within the MPA. The proposed monitoring approach is of great value to the MPA interested in both gathering basic and long-term data on the health status of protected habitats and acquiring baseline information useful for the evaluation of protection and conservation actions. [it

  1. The GLOFOULING Partnerships project and the anti-fouling systems: challenges for Marine Environment Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Ramírez Cabrales

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, the regulation of international maritime transport is a priority to face the challenges on the Protection of the Marine Environment. However, some states present difficulties in complying with international or normative agreements adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO. In particular, we revised the Guidelines for the control and management of ships’ biofouling to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species and their linkage with the Glofouling Associations project, including the adverse effects of the use of antifouling systems and the biocides that may contain. As preliminary results, we identified the challenges that this global project entails for States, shipbuilders, ship maintenance and cleaning companies, universities, port authorities, repair facilities, dry docks and ship recycling, manufacturers and suppliers of anti-fouling paints and other stakeholders. We concluded that the challenges for the international maritime community are linked to the ability of States and stakeholders to enhance scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology to mitigate marine biological contamination of ships.

  2. Tracking the Debate Around Marine Protected Areas: Key Issues and the BEG Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andy; Bavinck, Maarten; Coulthard, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Marine conservation is often criticized for a mono-disciplinary approach, which delivers fragmented solutions to complex problems with differing interpretations of success. As a means of reflecting on the breadth and range of scientific research on the management of the marine environment, this paper develops an analytical framework to gauge the foci of policy documents and published scientific work on Marine Protected Areas. We evaluate the extent to which MPA research articles delineate objectives around three domains: biological-ecological [B]; economic-social[E]; and governance-management [G]. This permits us to develop an analytic [BEG] framework which we then test on a sample of selected journal article cohorts. While the framework reveals the dominance of biologically focussed research [B], analysis also reveals a growing frequency of the use of governance/management terminology in the literature over the last 15 years, which may be indicative of a shift towards more integrated consideration of governance concerns. However, consideration of the economic/social domain appears to lag behind biological and governance concerns in both frequency and presence in MPA literature.

  3. Improving the interpretability of climate landscape metrics: An ecological risk analysis of Japan's Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Molinos, Jorge; Takao, Shintaro; Kumagai, Naoki H; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Burrows, Michael T; Fujii, Masahiko; Yamano, Hiroya

    2017-10-01

    Conservation efforts strive to protect significant swaths of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems from a range of threats. As climate change becomes an increasing concern, these efforts must take into account how resilient-protected spaces will be in the face of future drivers of change such as warming temperatures. Climate landscape metrics, which signal the spatial magnitude and direction of climate change, support a convenient initial assessment of potential threats to and opportunities within ecosystems to inform conservation and policy efforts where biological data are not available. However, inference of risk from purely physical climatic changes is difficult unless set in a meaningful ecological context. Here, we aim to establish this context using historical climatic variability, as a proxy for local adaptation by resident biota, to identify areas where current local climate conditions will remain extant and future regional climate analogues will emerge. This information is then related to the processes governing species' climate-driven range edge dynamics, differentiating changes in local climate conditions as promoters of species range contractions from those in neighbouring locations facilitating range expansions. We applied this approach to assess the future climatic stability and connectivity of Japanese waters and its network of marine protected areas (MPAs). We find 88% of Japanese waters transitioning to climates outside their historical variability bounds by 2035, resulting in large reductions in the amount of available climatic space potentially promoting widespread range contractions and expansions. Areas of high connectivity, where shifting climates converge, are present along sections of the coast facilitated by the strong latitudinal gradient of the Japanese archipelago and its ocean current system. While these areas overlap significantly with areas currently under significant anthropogenic pressures, they also include much of the MPA

  4. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 3: Volume VI. Automated response components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    The Catalog of Physical Protection Equipment presents information on currently available physical protection equipment that could be employed to safeguard special nuclear materials. The primary source of information was the responses of manufacturers and vendors to requests for literature and data. All equipment listed in the Catalog has been screened in accordance with the following general criteria, and only items meeting one or more of these criteria have been included: (1) equipment is commercially available off-the-shelf; (2) equipment is currently in use at commercial nuclear facilities licensed or to be licensed by NRC; (3) equipment is applicable for use at nuclear facilities licensed or to be licensed by NRC; (4) equipment can operate in the environmental conditions present at nuclear facilities; and (5) equipment is not designed solely or primarily for residential use. The final report describes the methodology and rationale used to create the Catalog of Physical Protection Equipment

  5. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Pina-Amargós

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope, inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  6. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Emerging marine protected area networks in the coral triangle: Lessons and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J Green

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks are valuable tools for protecting coral reef habitats and managing near-shore fisheries, while playing an essential role in the overall conservation of marine biodiversity. In addition, MPAs and their networks are often the core strategy for larger scale and more integrated forms of marine resource management that can lead to ecosystem-based management regimes for seascapes and eco-regions. This study conducted in 2008 documents the status of selected MPAs and MPA networks in Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea, to better understand development and their level of success in the Coral Triangle. Findings reveal that substantial gaps exist between the theory and practice of creating functional MPA networks. Across these sites, biophysical and social science knowledge, required to build functional and effective MPAs or MPA networks, lagged behind substantially. Aspects that appeared to require the most attention to improve MPA network effectiveness included essential management systems, institutional arrangements, governance and sustainable financing. Common indicators of success such as increased fish catch and habitat quality parameters were consistently associated with several independent variables: sustainable financing for management, clarity of MPA network rules, enforcement by community level enforcers, local skills development, and involvement in management by local elected politicians, a functional management board, multi-stakeholder planning mechanisms and participatory biophysical assessments. Conclusions are that although considerable investments have been made in MPAs and potential MPA networks in the Coral Triangle, management effectiveness is generally poor throughout the region and that not many large, formally declared MPAs are well managed.

  8. Community Change within a Caribbean Coral Reef Marine Protected Area following Two Decades of Local Management

    KAUST Repository

    Noble, Mae M.

    2013-01-14

    Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP). Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth) closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m) habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease) in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management. © 2013 Noble et al.

  9. Application of the ICRP approach for radiological protection of the marine environment in generic impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliaus, Viktoryia [Republican Scientific-Practical Centre of Hygiene, Laboratory of Radiation Safety, Akademicheskaya str. 8, 220012, Minsk (Belarus); Telleria, Diego M. [IAEA-Assessment and Management of Environmental Releases Unit, Wagramer Strasse 5 - PO Box 100, A-1400, Vienna (Austria); Cabianca, Tiberio [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, PHE, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a way to use the ICRP approach for protection of the environment in generic assessments of the radiological impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. Generic assessments of radiological impact to the environment are needed in certain circumstances, for example, when input data are limited or when the likely radiological consequences are expected to be not significant. Under these circumstances the effort in performing the assessment must be commensurate with the potential radiological consequences. The generic assessment described in this paper is a simple tool which provides reasonable and cautious results and is applicable to multiple exposure scenarios associated with the assessment of the radiological impact of releases to the marine the environment. This generic assessment can be also used to provide preliminary results which, when compared to radiological criteria, may determine the need of further specific assessments. The ICRP based its approach to protect the environment in the definition of a set of reference animals and plants and the use of related radiological criteria, in the form of derived consideration reference levels. The paper discusses selection and exposure conditions of the reference animals and plants, methods to estimate their doses and the use of the radiological criteria, for the purpose of a generic assessment. The IAEA is elaborating applications of these generic impact assessments presented in the paper to be included in international guidance under development. (authors)

  10. Financing marine protected areas through visitor fees: insights from tourists willingness to pay in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Fernandez, Miriam; Godoy, Cecilia; Biggs, Duan

    2013-12-01

    Tourism is a financing mechanism considered by many donor-funded marine conservation initiatives. Here we assess the potential role of visitor entry fees, in generating the necessary revenue to manage a marine protected area (MPA), established through a Global Environmental Facility Grant, in a temperate region of Chile. We assess tourists' willingness to pay (WTP) for an entry fee associated to management and protection of the MPA. Results show 97 % of respondents were willing to pay an entrance fee. WTP predictors included the type of tourist, tourists' sensitivity to crowding, education, and understanding of ecological benefits of the MPA. Nature-based tourists state median WTP values of US$ 4.38 and Sun-sea-sand tourists US$ 3.77. Overall, entry fees could account for 10-13 % of MPA running costs. In Chile, where funding for conservation runs among the weakest in the world, visitor entry fees are no panacea in the short term and other mechanisms, including direct state/government support, should be considered.

  11. Community change within a Caribbean coral reef Marine Protected Area following two decades of local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae M Noble

    Full Text Available Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs. While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP. Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management.

  12. Protection of the environment address book. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, B.

    1991-01-01

    This manual contains an extensive collection of non-commercial addresses relating to the protection of the environment: The collection includes the government-controlled, communal, scientific associations and groups, regional initiative groups, educational and advisory instances and foundations. When referring to scientific institutes, their main points of activity are given; referring to ecological educational instances, information on their programs is given. For the first time we are also given a list of environment protection authorities, divisions, coordination bureaus which have been set up in communities and big cities and the communal information and advisory programs. (orig.) [de

  13. Strengthening global practices for protecting nuclear material (NUMAT). Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Heissl, C.

    2002-08-01

    The International Conference on Physical Protection 'Strengthening Global Practices for Protecting Nuclear Material' was organized by the Institute of Physics and Biophysics, Salzburg University in cooperation with/supported by the European Commission, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, European Forum of the Stanford University's Institute for International Studies and Austria Institute for European Security. Its purpose was fostering exchange of information on the policy and technical aspects require to ensure the security of nuclear material around the world. There is a general concern that the international community needs to establish effective measures to counter theft, sabotage, and other illicit uses of nuclear fissile and other radioactive materials. The main subjects addressed by this conference were: a) global and local threat development and 'design basis'; b) standards for physical protection (PP), its adequacy and future needs; c) national practices in PP of nuclear materials (how to strengthen national security culture?); d) current R and D in security and detection technologies (identification of focus points for future R and D); e) programmes to aid in training, design, and implementation of physical protection systems (how to improve efficiency and assure sustainability of assistance programmes?). (nevyjel)

  14. Using community-level metrics to monitor the effects of marine protected areas on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soykan, Candan U; Lewison, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to protect species, communities, and their associated habitats, among other goals. Measuring MPA efficacy can be challenging, however, particularly when considering responses at the community level. We gathered 36 abundance and 14 biomass data sets on fish assemblages and used meta-analysis to evaluate the ability of 22 distinct community diversity metrics to detect differences in community structure between MPAs and nearby control sites. We also considered the effects of 6 covariates-MPA size and age, MPA size and age interaction, latitude, total species richness, and level of protection-on each metric. Some common metrics, such as species richness and Shannon diversity, did not differ consistently between MPA and control sites, whereas other metrics, such as total abundance and biomass, were consistently different across studies. Metric responses derived from the biomass data sets were more consistent than those based on the abundance data sets, suggesting that community-level biomass differs more predictably than abundance between MPA and control sites. Covariate analyses indicated that level of protection, latitude, MPA size, and the interaction between MPA size and age affect metric performance. These results highlight a handful of metrics, several of which are little known, that could be used to meet the increasing demand for community-level indicators of MPA effectiveness. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Guide for the evaluation of physical protection equipment. Book 1: Volumes I--III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    A guide for evaluating the performance of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared in partial fulfillment of Task 2 of MITRE contract AT(49-24)-0376 for use by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Separate evaluation procedures are provided for each generic type of equipment contained in the companion document, Catalog of Physical Protection Equipment. Among the equipment parameters evaluated, as appropriate, are sensitivity, area/volume of coverage, false/nuisance alarm rate, resistance to countermeasures, environmental requirements, installation parameters and maintenance. Four evaluation techniques are employed (inspections, analyses, demonstrations and tests); standard test equipment (both commercially available as well as developmental) to be used in the evaluation are listed

  16. Guide for the evaluation of physical protection equipment. Book 2: Volumes IV--VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    A guide for evaluating the performance of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared for use by U.S. NRC. Separate evaluation procedures are provided for each generic type of equipment contained in the companion document, Catalog of Physical Protection Equipment (NUREG-0274). Among the equipment parameters evaluated are sensitivity, area/volume of coverage, false/nuisance alarm rate, resistance to countermeasures, environmental requirements, installation parameters and maintenance. Four evaluation techniques are employed (inspections, analyses, demonstrations and tests); standard test equipment (both commercially available as well as developmental) to be used in the evaluation is listed. The following categories of equipment are covered: surveillance and alarm assessment components, contraband detection components, automated response components, general purpose display components, and general purpose communication components

  17. Diel activity and variability in habitat use of white sea bream in a temperate marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Manfredi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Badalamenti, Fabio; Guidetti, Paolo; Starr, Richard M; Giacalone, Vincenzo Maximiliano; Di Franco, Antonio; D'Anna, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Fish populations are often comprised of individuals that use habitats and associated resources in different ways. We placed sonic transmitters in, and tracked movements of, white sea bream (Diplodus sargus sargus) in the no-take zone of a Mediterranean marine protected area: the Torre Guaceto marine protected area, (Adriatic Sea, Italy). Tagged fish displayed three types of diel activity patterns in three different habitats: sand, rocky reefs and "matte" of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Individuals were more active during the day than at night. Overall, white sea bream displayed a remarkable behavioural plasticity in habitat use. Our results indicate that the observed behavioural plasticity in the marine protected area could be the result of multiple ecological and environmental drivers such as size, sex and increased intra-specific competition. Our findings support the view that habitat diversity helps support high densities of fishes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G Zarate-Barrera

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  19. Marine protected area design for Bahia Portete - La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Moreno, Carolina; Alonso C, David; Segura Quintero, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Using an ecorregional planning process for the selection of conservation priority sites in the Colombian Caribbean region and the qualification of ecological criteria, Bahia Portete was identified as a potential site for the establishment of a new Marine Protected Area (MPA). This bay encompass a great variety of marine and coastal ecosystems, including fish, planktonic, and benthic communities as well as species that in conjunction with the environmental features form an area of high heterogeneity and unique biodiversity in the province of La Guajira. The purpose of this research was to design the first MPA in the north of the Province through the evaluation of ecologic criteria, as well as proposed conservation and management objectives; setting up a management category within the existing National Protected Areas System (SINAP in Spanish). Therefore, based on secondary information and following the The five S framework, methodology design by The Nature Conservancy for site planning, five conservation objectives (OdC) of coarse-filter or habitats were identified: corals, sea grasses, sandy beaches, rocky coasts and mangroves ecosystems, and three OdC of fine filter: areas with presence of Crocodylus acutus, sea turtles feeding areas, and areas of birds congregation. A viability analysis was developed for each healthy object found within the area, thus reflecting the biodiversity health of the area. The analysis of criteria, viability and the definition of the management objectives for the area, allowed the election of National Natural Park as the most appropriate management category for the area. Based on a systematic process and with the use of the MARXAN (University of Queensland) Decision Support System (DSS), three no-take zones were identified, with which the protection of a minimum of 30% of the coverage area for each of the objects is guaranteed as the initial contribution to the internal zoning of the new MPA

  20. An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

    2015-02-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 1: Volume I. Barriers and structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    A catalog of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared for use by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Included is information on barrier structures and equipment, interior and exterior intrusion detection sensors, entry (access) control devices, surveillance and alarm assessment equipment, contraband detection sensors, automated response equipment, general purpose displays and general purpose communications, with one volume devoted to each of these eight areas. For each item of equipment the information included consists of performance, physical, cost and supply/logistics data. The entire catalog is contained in three notebooks for ease in its use by licensing and inspection staff at NRC

  2. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 3: Volume VII. General purpose display components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    A catalog of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared under MITRE contract AT(49-24)-0376 for use by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Included is information on barrier structures and equipment, interior and exterior intrusion detection sensors, entry (access) control devices, surveillance and alarm assessment equipment, contraband detection sensors, automated response equipment, general purpose displays and general purpose communications, with one volume devoted to each of these eight areas. For each item of equipment the information included consists of performance, physical, cost and supply/logistics data. The entire catalog is contained in three notebooks for ease in its use by licensing and inspection staff at NRC

  3. Anticipating changes to future connectivity within a network of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Melinda A; Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; Roughan, Moninya; Feng, Ming; van Sebille, Erik; Kelaher, Brendan P

    2017-09-01

    Continental boundary currents are projected to be altered under future scenarios of climate change. As these currents often influence dispersal and connectivity among populations of many marine organisms, changes to boundary currents may have dramatic implications for population persistence. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) often aim to maintain connectivity, but anticipation of the scale and extent of climatic impacts on connectivity are required to achieve this critical conservation goal in a future of climate change. For two key marine species (kelp and sea urchins), we use oceanographic modelling to predict how continental boundary currents are likely to change connectivity among a network of MPAs spanning over 1000 km of coastline off the coast of eastern Australia. Overall change in predicted connectivity among pairs of MPAs within the network did not change significantly over and above temporal variation within climatic scenarios, highlighting the need for future studies to incorporate temporal variation in dispersal to robustly anticipate likely change. However, the intricacies of connectivity between different pairs of MPAs were noteworthy. For kelp, poleward connectivity among pairs of MPAs tended to increase in the future, whereas equatorward connectivity tended to decrease. In contrast, for sea urchins, connectivity among pairs of MPAs generally decreased in both directions. Self-seeding within higher-latitude MPAs tended to increase, and the role of low-latitude MPAs as a sink for urchins changed significantly in contrasting ways. These projected changes have the potential to alter important genetic parameters with implications for adaptation and ecosystem vulnerability to climate change. Considering such changes, in the context of managing and designing MPA networks, may ensure that conservation goals are achieved into the future. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called "marine protected areas" (MPAs, which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and Birds Directives. Until 2004, the Dutch government granted permission for ~75% of the intertidal flats to be exploited by mechanical dredgers for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule. Here we show that dredged areas belonged to the limited area of intertidal flats that were of sufficient quality for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica, a long-distance migrant molluscivore specialist, to feed. Dredging led to relatively lower settlement rates of cockles and also reduced their quality (ratio of flesh to shell. From 1998 to 2002, red knots increased gizzard mass to compensate for a gradual loss in shellfish quality, but this compensation was not sufficient and led to decreases in local survival. Therefore, the gradual destruction of the necessary intertidal resources explains both the loss of red knots from the Dutch Wadden Sea and the decline of the European wintering population. This study shows that MPAs that do not provide adequate protection from fishing may fail in their conservation objectives.

  5. Biodiversity of the macrozoobenthos in some protected marine areas along Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this paper is to establish the biodiversity status of the macrozoobenthos in some protected marine areas (NATURA 2000 along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The observation stations in the period 2010-2012 were within the frames of the following habitats: 1160 – Large shallow inlets and bays; 1110 – Sandbanks, slightly covered by seawater and Sublittoral mussel banks on sediment. In general, the data shows steady state compared to the 1980s, except for the area near Kamchia River, characterized by low biodiversity due to water pollution from the river inflow (with contaminants from agricultural and industrial sources in the upper river stream and less salinity leading to marine mussel species reduction. In the border area, near the Emona zone, the black mussel catches varied between 160-600 kg in 2005, while only single specimens were detected in 2013. In the same field, the yield of Rapana venosa was within the limits of 5-40 kg in 2005 and between 80-160 kg in 2013. The established variability showed a dynamic balance between Mytilus galloprovicialis and Rapana venosa that pose a challenge for future stock of the black mussel and point the need of regular monitoring.

  6. Persistence of self-recruitment and patterns of larval connectivity in a marine protected area network

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2012-02-01

    The use of marine protected area (MPA) networks to sustain fisheries and conserve biodiversity is predicated on two critical yet rarely tested assumptions. Individual MPAs must produce sufficient larvae that settle within that reserve\\'s boundaries to maintain local populations while simultaneously supplying larvae to other MPA nodes in the network that might otherwise suffer local extinction. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to demonstrate that patterns of self-recruitment of two reef fishes (Amphiprion percula and Chaetodon vagabundus) in an MPA in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, were remarkably consistent over several years. However, dispersal from this reserve to two other nodes in an MPA network varied between species and through time. The stability of our estimates of self-recruitment suggests that even small MPAs may be self-sustaining. However, our results caution against applying optimization strategies to MPA network design without accounting for variable connectivity among species and over time. 2012 The Authors.

  7. Marine protected area design patterns in the Mediterranean Sea: Implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez, J; Blanco, J M; Abdul Malak, D

    2016-09-15

    Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA) design patterns regarding geographic distribution, size, spacing and shape were analysed as a proxy of the region's MPA's ecological effectiveness and a first step towards an ecologically coherent MPA network. Results for legally designated MPAs and ecologically functional MPAs accounting for overlaps are presented. Geographically, Mediterranean MPA area is very unevenly distributed, with four-fifths concentrated in just three countries of the north-western part of the basin. Average distance between functional MPAs lies within recommended ecological thresholds, which suggests adequate potential connectivity of the Mediterranean MPA system. Mediterranean designated MPAs are larger than MPAs worldwide on average, although they are generally smaller than international guidance suggests at different levels: ecoregion, country and designation category. On average, Mediterranean designated and functional MPAs have relatively high compactness, which makes them prone to spillover and adequate viability, and less vulnerable to edge effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of marine protected areas on overfished fishing stocks with multiple stable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, Nao; Mougi, Akihiko

    2014-01-21

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have attracted much attention as a tool for sustainable fisheries management, restoring depleted fisheries stocks and maintaining ecosystems. However, even with total exclusion of fishing effort, depleted stocks sometimes show little or no recovery over a long time period. Here, using a mathematical model, we show that multiple stable states may hold the key to understanding the tendency for fisheries stocks to recover because of MPAs. We find that MPAs can have either a positive effect or almost no effect on the recovery of depleted fishing stocks, depending on the fish migration patterns and the fishing policies. MPAs also reinforce ecological resilience, particularly for migratory species. In contrast to previous reports, our results show that MPAs have small or sometimes negative effects on the recovery of sedentary species. Unsuitable MPA planning might result in low effectiveness or even deterioration of the existing condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food insecurity and coping strategies in a marine protected area in southeastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Vinay R; Woo Kinshella, Mai-Lei

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the perceived food security and coping strategies in coastal communities located in a marine protected area (MPA) in southeastern Tanzania. Drawing on fieldwork concentrated in a representative coastal village, the article illustrates how women in particular understand their food security situation in relation to the MPA. Data from interviews with 120 women suggest that the majority of the households in the study area were food insecure. Only few respondents, however, specifically attributed their food insecurity to the MPA's presence in their village, suggesting that food security is multidimensional and is undergirded by several interrelated factors that vary over time. The findings query the assertion that MPAs can and do contribute to improved food security in coastal populations through increased fish biomass or ecotourism projects.

  10. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice E Harada

    Full Text Available In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment.

  11. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Alice E; Lindgren, Elise A; Hermsmeier, Maiko C; Rogowski, Peter A; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment.

  12. A Geographical Information System to Manage the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, K. L.; Hillier, M. C. J.; Thornborough, K. J.; Jenkyns, R.; Juniper, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (EHVMPA) is located approximately 250 km offshore of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Since its discovery in 1982, there have been hundreds of dives, samples collected, measurements made, and debris left behind at the EHVMPA. In 2003, the Canadian government declared the region as a Marine Protected Area (MPA) under Canada's Oceans Act, to be managed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates a cabled observatory in the EHVMPA, and streams data in near real-time via the Internet to science communities worldwide. ONC's observatory data, combined with observations made during maintenance expeditions provides insight assisting the management and preservation of the MPA. In 2014, DFO partnered with ONC to build a geodatabase to enhance and inform the knowledge base of the EHVMPA Management Plan. The geodatabase, built in ArcGIS, contains data integrated from ONC's Oceans 2.0 database, third parties, and relevant publications. Layers include annual observatory infrastructure deployments, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dive tracks, sampling activity, anthropogenic debris, high-resolution bathymetry, observations of species of interest, and locations of hydrothermal vents. The combined data show both efforts to better understand the environment and the resulting stressors that impact the MPA. The tool also links observed features such as debris and biological observations to the time-correlated ROV dive video using ONC's SeaTube video viewing tool allowing for further analysis. Through 2017, the geodatabase will be maintained by ONC and enriched with expedition data from organizations such as Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, and the University of Washington. The end result is a tool that can integrate many types of data obtained from the MPA, and encourages systematic management of a remote, dynamic and fragile environment.

  13. Coral reef ecosystem marine protected area monitoring in Fagamalo, American Samoa: comprehensive assessment of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) from belt transect surveys in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010 the village of Fagamalo, Tutuila, American Samoa, designated a no-take Marine Protected Area that sees the protection of 2.25 square kilometers of ocean....

  14. Fish Habitat Utilization Patterns and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Marine Protected Areas in Hawaii: Integration of NOAA Digital Benthic Habitat Mapping and Coral Reef Ecological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Brown, Eric; Monaco, Mark E.; Clarke, Athline

    2006-01-01

    Over the past four decades, the state of Hawaii has developed a system of eleven Marine Life Conservation Districts (MLCDs) to conserve and replenish marine resources around the state. Initially established to provide opportunities for public interaction with the marine environment, these MLCDs vary in size, habitat quality, and management regimes, providing an excellent opportunity to test hypotheses concerning marine protected area (MPA) design and function using multiple discreet sampling ...

  15. Oilfield development and protection of natural resources within the tropical marine environment of the Rowley shelf, northwest Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeProvost, M.I.; Gordon, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years a number of oilfields have been developed in tropical waters of the Rowley Shelf, north-west Australia. Along with Bass Strait and the Timor Sea, this region is the focus for Australia's current oil exploration and production. It supports major coral and mangrove habitats and fishing grounds sensitive to the effects of oil pollution. This paper provides a synthesis of the Rowley Shelf marine environment and reviews procedures protecting the marine resources of the region from the effects of oil spills. Recent government and industry initiatives for improving the protection of the environment are outlined and discussed on the basis of the improved understanding of the marine resources and experience being gained in oil spill contingency planning. The tropical habitats of the Rowley Shelf occur within the Indo-Pacific Zoogeographic Region, therefore experience gained in Western Australia is applicable to similar environments in the South East Asian region

  16. Does protecting humans protect the environment? A crude examination for UK nuclear power plants and the marine environment using information in the public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownless, G P

    2008-01-01

    Current activity around radiological protection of the environment implies concerns over the effectiveness of the current approach to this-namely if humans are adequately protected, then so are non-human species. This study uses models and data currently available in the public domain to carry out a 'quick and dirty' examination of whether protecting humans does indeed imply that other species are well protected. Using marine discharges and human habits data for operational coastal UK nuclear power stations, this study compares doses to humans and a set of reference non-human species. The study concludes that the availability of data and models, and consequent ease of studying potential effects on non-humans (as well as humans), vindicates recent efforts in this area, and that these imply a high level of protection, in general, for non-human biota from UK nuclear power station marine discharges. In general terms, the study finds that protection of non-human biota relies on taking ingestion and external exposure doses to humans into account; where only one of these pathways is considered, the level of protection of non-human biota through protection of humans would depend on the radionuclide(s) in question.

  17. Tourism as a driver of conflicts and changes in fisheries value chains in Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, P F M; Mendes, L; Fonseca, V; Villasante, S

    2017-09-15

    Although critical tools for protecting ocean habitats, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are sometimes challenged for social impacts and conflicts they may generate. Some conflicts have an economic base, which, once understood, can be used to resolve associated socioenvironmental problems. We addressed how the fish trade in an MPA that combines no-take zones and tourist or resident zones creates incentives for increased fisheries. We performed a value chain analysis following the fish supply and trade through interviews that assessed consumer demand and preference. The results showed a simple and closed value chain driven by tourism (70% of the consumption). Both tourists and local consumers preferred high trophic level species (predators), but the former preferred large pelagics (tuna and dolphinfish) and the latter preferred reef species (barracuda and snapper). Pelagic predators are caught with fresh sardines, which are sometimes located only in the no-take zone. Pelagic species are mainly served as fillet, and the leftover fish parts end up as waste, an issue that, if properly addressed, can help reduce fishing pressure. Whereas some of the target species may be sustainable (e.g., dolphinfish), others are more vulnerable (e.g., wahoo) and should not be intensively fished. We advise setting stricter limits to the number of tourists visiting MPAs, according to their own capacity and peculiarities, in order to avoid conflicts with conservations goals through incentives for increased resource use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A systematic approach towards the identification and protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardron, Jeff A.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Penney, Andrew J.; Hourigan, Thomas F.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Dunstan, Piers K.; Watling, Les; Shank, Timothy M.; Tracey, Di M.; Dunn, Matthew R.; Parker, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly in 2006 and 2009 adopted resolutions that call for the identification and protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) from significant adverse impacts of bottom fishing. While general criteria have been produced, there are no guidelines or protocols that elaborate on the process from initial identification through to the protection of VMEs. Here, based upon an expert review of existing practices, a 10-step framework is proposed: (1) Comparatively assess potential VME indicator taxa and habitats in a region; (2) determine VME thresholds; (3) consider areas already known for their ecological importance; (4) compile information on the distributions of likely VME taxa and habitats, as well as related environmental data; (5) develop predictive distribution models for VME indicator taxa and habitats; (6) compile known or likely fishing impacts; (7) produce a predicted VME naturalness distribution (areas of low cumulative impacts); (8) identify areas of higher value to user groups; (9) conduct management strategy evaluations to produce trade-off scenarios; (10) review and re-iterate, until spatial management scenarios are developed that fulfil international obligations and regional conservation and management objectives. To date, regional progress has been piecemeal and incremental. The proposed 10-step framework combines these various experiences into a systematic approach.

  19. Pathways from marine protected area design and management to ecological success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray A. Rudd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using an international dataset compiled from 121 sites in 87 marine protected areas (MPAs globally (Edgar et al., 2014, I assessed how various configurations of design and management conditions affected MPA ecological performance, measured in terms of fish species richness and biomass. The set-theoretic approach used Boolean algebra to identify pathways that combined up to five ‘NEOLI’ (No-take, Enforced, Old, Large, Isolated conditions and that were sufficient for achieving positive, and negative, ecological outcomes. Ecological isolation was overwhelming the most important condition affecting ecological outcomes but Old and Large were also conditions important for achieving high levels of biomass among large fishes (jacks, groupers, sharks. Solution coverage was uniformly low (0.50 for negative results (i.e., the absence of high biomass among the large commercially-exploited fishes, implying asymmetries in how MPAs may rebuild populations on the one hand and, on the other, protect against further decline. The results revealed complex interactions involving MPA design, implementation, and management conditions that affect MPA ecological performance. In general terms, the presence of no-take regulations and effective enforcement were insufficient to ensure MPA effectiveness on their own. Given the central role of ecological isolation in securing ecological benefits from MPAs, site selection in the design phase appears critical for success.

  20. The creation of the Chagos marine protected area: a fisheries perspective(☆).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Richard P; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Sand, Peter H; Johnson, Magnus L

    2014-01-01

    From a fisheries perspective, the declaration of a 640,000 km² "no-take" Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Chagos Archipelago in 2010 was preceded by inadequate consideration of the scientific rationale for protection. The entire area was already a highly regulated zone which had been subject to a well-managed fisheries licensing system. The island of Diego Garcia, the only area where there is evidence of overfishing has, because of its military base, been excluded from the MPA. The no-take mandate removes the primary source of sustenance and economic sustainability of any inhabitants, thus effectively preventing the return of the original residents who were removed for political reasons in the 1960s and 1970s. The principles of natural resource conservation and use have been further distorted by forcing offshore fishing effort to other less well-managed areas where it will have a greater negative impact on the well-being of the species that were claimed to be one of the primary beneficiaries of the declaration. A failure to engage stakeholders has resulted in challenges in both the English courts and before an international tribunal.

  1. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  2. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A Soler

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores was significantly greater (by 40% - 200% in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing.

  3. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Guidetti

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS and thermophilic species (ThS is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1 MPAs are numerous, 2 fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3 the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP, partially-protected MPAs (IP and fished areas (F at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators, but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

  4. Large-Scale Assessment of Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Effects on Fish Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo; Baiata, Pasquale; Ballesteros, Enric; Di Franco, Antonio; Hereu, Bernat; Macpherson, Enrique; Micheli, Fiorenza; Pais, Antonio; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Zabala, Mikel; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide. PMID:24740479

  5. Towards quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes: Insights from Australian marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Prue F E; Flander, Louisa B; Cook, Carly N

    2017-08-01

    Protected area management effectiveness (PAME) evaluation is increasingly undertaken to evaluate governance, assess conservation outcomes and inform evidence-based management of protected areas (PAs). Within PAME, quantitative approaches to assess biodiversity outcomes are now emerging, where biological monitoring data are directly assessed against quantitative (numerically defined) condition categories (termed quantitative condition assessments). However, more commonly qualitative condition assessments are employed in PAME, which use descriptive condition categories and are evaluated largely with expert judgement that can be subject to a range of biases, such as linguistic uncertainty and overconfidence. Despite the benefits of increased transparency and repeatability of evaluations, quantitative condition assessments are rarely used in PAME. To understand why, we interviewed practitioners from all Australian marine protected area (MPA) networks, which have access to long-term biological monitoring data and are developing or conducting PAME evaluations. Our research revealed that there is a desire within management agencies to implement quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes in Australian MPAs. However, practitioners report many challenges in transitioning from undertaking qualitative to quantitative condition assessments of biodiversity outcomes, which are hampering progress. Challenges include a lack of agency capacity (staff numbers and money), knowledge gaps, and diminishing public and political support for PAs. We point to opportunities to target strategies that will assist agencies overcome these challenges, including new decision support tools, approaches to better finance conservation efforts, and to promote more management relevant science. While a single solution is unlikely to achieve full evidence-based conservation, we suggest ways for agencies to target strategies and advance PAME evaluations toward best practice. Copyright

  6. Fishing-gear restrictions and biomass gains for coral reef fishes in marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart J; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Soler, German; Bates, Amanda E

    2018-04-01

    Considerable empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing-gear restrictions on nonselective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, few researchers have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. We tested for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass at the community and family level. We conducted 1,396 underwater surveys at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions that represented 5 realms. We compared total biomass across local fish assemblages and among 20 families of reef fishes inside marine protected areas (MPAs) with different fishing restrictions: no-take, hook-and-line fishing only, several fishing gears allowed, and sites open to all fishing gears. We included a further category representing remote sites, where fishing pressure is low. As expected, full fishery closures, (i.e., no-take zones) most benefited community- and family-level fish biomass in comparison with restrictions on fishing gears and openly fished sites. Although biomass responses to fishery closures were highly variable across families, some fishery targets (e.g., Carcharhinidae and Lutjanidae) responded positively to multiple restrictions on fishing gears (i.e., where gears other than hook and line were not permitted). Remoteness also positively affected the response of community-level fish biomass and many fish families. Our findings provide strong support for the role of fishing restrictions in building recovery of fish biomass and indicate important interactions among fishing-gear types that affect biomass of a diverse set of reef fish families. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. On the ecological relevance of landscape mapping and its application in the spatial planning of very large marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Oliver T; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin

    2018-06-01

    In recent years very large marine protected areas (VLMPAs) have become the dominant form of spatial protection in the marine environment. Whilst seen as a holistic and geopolitically achievable approach to conservation, there is currently a mismatch between the size of VLMPAs, and the data available to underpin their establishment and inform on their management. Habitat mapping has increasingly been adopted as a means of addressing paucity in biological data, through use of environmental proxies to estimate species and community distribution. Small-scale studies have demonstrated environmental-biological links in marine systems. Such links, however, are rarely demonstrated across larger spatial scales in the benthic environment. As such, the utility of habitat mapping as an effective approach to the ecosystem-based management of VLMPAs remains, thus far, largely undetermined. The aim of this study was to assess the ecological relevance of broadscale landscape mapping. Specifically we test the relationship between broad-scale marine landscapes and the structure of their benthic faunal communities. We focussed our work at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, site of one of the largest MPAs in the world. We demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between environmentally derived landscape mapping clusters, and the composition of presence-only species data from the region. To demonstrate this relationship required specific re-sampling of historical species occurrence data to balance biological rarity, biological cosmopolitism, range-restricted sampling and fine-scale heterogeneity between sampling stations. The relationship reveals a distinct biological signature in the faunal composition of individual landscapes, attributing ecological relevance to South Georgia's environmentally derived marine landscape map. We argue therefore, that landscape mapping represents an effective framework for ensuring representative protection of habitats in management

  8. Gbm.auto: A software tool to simplify spatial modelling and Marine Protected Area planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Officer, Rick; Clarke, Maurice; Reid, David G.; Brophy, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    Boosted Regression Trees. Excellent for data-poor spatial management but hard to use Marine resource managers and scientists often advocate spatial approaches to manage data-poor species. Existing spatial prediction and management techniques are either insufficiently robust, struggle with sparse input data, or make suboptimal use of multiple explanatory variables. Boosted Regression Trees feature excellent performance and are well suited to modelling the distribution of data-limited species, but are extremely complicated and time-consuming to learn and use, hindering access for a wide potential user base and therefore limiting uptake and usage. BRTs automated and simplified for accessible general use with rich feature set We have built a software suite in R which integrates pre-existing functions with new tailor-made functions to automate the processing and predictive mapping of species abundance data: by automating and greatly simplifying Boosted Regression Tree spatial modelling, the gbm.auto R package suite makes this powerful statistical modelling technique more accessible to potential users in the ecological and modelling communities. The package and its documentation allow the user to generate maps of predicted abundance, visualise the representativeness of those abundance maps and to plot the relative influence of explanatory variables and their relationship to the response variables. Databases of the processed model objects and a report explaining all the steps taken within the model are also generated. The package includes a previously unavailable Decision Support Tool which combines estimated escapement biomass (the percentage of an exploited population which must be retained each year to conserve it) with the predicted abundance maps to generate maps showing the location and size of habitat that should be protected to conserve the target stocks (candidate MPAs), based on stakeholder priorities, such as the minimisation of fishing effort displacement. Gbm

  9. Gbm.auto: A software tool to simplify spatial modelling and Marine Protected Area planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dedman

    Full Text Available Marine resource managers and scientists often advocate spatial approaches to manage data-poor species. Existing spatial prediction and management techniques are either insufficiently robust, struggle with sparse input data, or make suboptimal use of multiple explanatory variables. Boosted Regression Trees feature excellent performance and are well suited to modelling the distribution of data-limited species, but are extremely complicated and time-consuming to learn and use, hindering access for a wide potential user base and therefore limiting uptake and usage.We have built a software suite in R which integrates pre-existing functions with new tailor-made functions to automate the processing and predictive mapping of species abundance data: by automating and greatly simplifying Boosted Regression Tree spatial modelling, the gbm.auto R package suite makes this powerful statistical modelling technique more accessible to potential users in the ecological and modelling communities. The package and its documentation allow the user to generate maps of predicted abundance, visualise the representativeness of those abundance maps and to plot the relative influence of explanatory variables and their relationship to the response variables. Databases of the processed model objects and a report explaining all the steps taken within the model are also generated. The package includes a previously unavailable Decision Support Tool which combines estimated escapement biomass (the percentage of an exploited population which must be retained each year to conserve it with the predicted abundance maps to generate maps showing the location and size of habitat that should be protected to conserve the target stocks (candidate MPAs, based on stakeholder priorities, such as the minimisation of fishing effort displacement.By bridging the gap between advanced statistical methods for species distribution modelling and conservation science, management and policy, these

  10. Connecting Palau's marine protected areas: a population genetic approach to conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Annick; Toonen, Robert J.; Donahue, Megan J.; Karl, Stephen A.

    2017-09-01

    Bleaching events are becoming more frequent and are projected to become annual in Micronesia by 2040. To prepare for this threat, the Government of Palau is reviewing its marine protected area network to increase the resilience of the reefs by integrating connectivity into the network design. To support their effort, we used high-throughput sequencing of microsatellites to create genotypes of colonies of the coral Acropora hyacinthus to characterize population genetic structure and dispersal patterns that led to the recovery of Palau's reefs from a 1998 bleaching event. We found no evidence of a founder effect or refugium where colonies may have survived to recolonize the reef. Instead, we found significant pairwise F' st values, indicating population structure and low connectivity among most of the 25 sites around Palau. We used kinship to measure genetic differences at the individual level among sites and found that differences were best explained by the degree of exposure to the ocean [ F 1,20 = 3.015, Pr(> F) = 0.01], but with little of the total variation explained. A permutation test of the pairwise kinship coefficients revealed that there was self-seeding within sites. Overall, the data point to the population of A. hyacinthus in Palau recovering from a handful of surviving colonies with population growth primarily from self-seeding and little exchange among sites. This finding has significant implications for the management strategies for the reefs of Palau, and we recommend increasing the number and distribution of management areas around Palau to capture the genetic architecture and increase the chances of protecting potential refuges in the future.

  11. Disturbance of a rare seabird by ship-based tourism in a marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcella, Timothy K.; Gende, Scott M.; Roby, Daniel D.; Allignol, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Managers of marine protected areas (MPAs) must often seek ways to allow for visitation while minimizing impacts to the resources they are intended to protect. Using shipboard observers, we quantified the “zone of disturbance” for Kittlitz’s and marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris and B. marmoratus) exposed to large cruise ships traveling through Glacier Bay National Park, one of the largest MPAs in North America. In the upper reaches of Glacier Bay, where Kittlitz’s murrelets predominated, binary logistic regression models predicted that 61% of all murrelets within 850 m perpendicular distance of a cruise ship were disturbed (defined as flushing or diving), whereas in the lower reaches, where marbled murrelets predominated, this percentage increased to 72%. Using survival analysis, murrelets in both reaches were found to react at greater distances when ships approached indirectly, presumably because of the ship’s larger profile, suggesting murrelets responded to visual rather than audio cues. No management-relevant covariates (e.g., ship velocity, route distance from shore) were found to be important predictors of disturbance, as distance from ship to murrelet accounted for > 90% of the explained variation in murrelet response. Utilizing previously published murrelet density estimates from Glacier Bay, and applying an average empirical disturbance probability (68%) out to 850 m from a cruise ship’s typical route, we estimated that a minimum of 9.8–19.6% of all murrelets in Glacier Bay are disturbed per ship entry. Whether these disturbance levels are inconsistent with Park management objectives, which include conserving wildlife as well as providing opportunities for visitation, depends in large part on whether disturbance events caused by cruise ships have impacts on murrelet fitness, which remains uncertain.

  12. Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A J Graham

    Full Text Available Coral reefs have emerged as one of the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate variation and change. While the contribution of a warming climate to the loss of live coral cover has been well documented across large spatial and temporal scales, the associated effects on fish have not. Here, we respond to recent and repeated calls to assess the importance of local management in conserving coral reefs in the context of global climate change. Such information is important, as coral reef fish assemblages are the most species dense vertebrate communities on earth, contributing critical ecosystem functions and providing crucial ecosystem services to human societies in tropical countries. Our assessment of the impacts of the 1998 mass bleaching event on coral cover, reef structural complexity, and reef associated fishes spans 7 countries, 66 sites and 26 degrees of latitude in the Indian Ocean. Using Bayesian meta-analysis we show that changes in the size structure, diversity and trophic composition of the reef fish community have followed coral declines. Although the ocean scale integrity of these coral reef ecosystems has been lost, it is positive to see the effects are spatially variable at multiple scales, with impacts and vulnerability affected by geography but not management regime. Existing no-take marine protected areas still support high biomass of fish, however they had no positive affect on the ecosystem response to large-scale disturbance. This suggests a need for future conservation and management efforts to identify and protect regional refugia, which should be integrated into existing management frameworks and combined with policies to improve system-wide resilience to climate variation and change.

  13. Sub regional cooperation and protection of the arctic marine environments: The Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-07-01

    The report deals with questions related to effectiveness of subregional co-operation in the Barents Sea. Efforts have differed from global processes by their clearer programmatic profile. Relatively more resources, in terms of both expertise and financial funds, have been invested in order to enhance the knowledge-base for management decisions in the region as well as the administrative and technical capacity to avoid behaviour liable to threaten the marine environment. Many of the programmatic activities encouraged at other levels have been planned, financed and organised at the subregional level. Comparatively less attention has been given to establishing new regulative norms for environmental protection from either industrial or military activity in the region. The Regional Council ensures that both county level decision makers and representatives of the indigenous population are involved. A point is the general balance between the environmental and the economic component. Moreover, the inclusiveness of the Barents Council provides linkages to potential partners in development found beyond the Barents Sea area. The subregional level has served to relate environmental protection to broader foreign policy issues and has strengthened environmental networks across the Nordic Russian divide which in turn has generated financial resources and expertise. The main reason for the higher fund raising capacity of subregional processes is that geographic proximity ensures denser networks of interdependence partly by the fact that Nordic neighbours have a clear self interest in financing environmental projects in Russia, particularly those addressing industrial pollution from the border areas and those designed to prevent dumping of radioactive waste and partly by ensuring that environmental projects may serve broader purposes associated with national security. The willingness on the part of Norway and other Nordic states to use their financial powers for problem solving

  14. Subregional cooperation and protection of the arctic marine environment: The Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with questions related to effectiveness of subregional co-operation in the Barents Sea. Efforts have differed from global processes by their clearer programmatic profile. Relatively more resources, in terms of both expertise and financial funds, have been invested in order to enhance the knowledge-base for management decisions in the region as well as the administrative and technical capacity to avoid behaviour liable to threaten the marine environment. Many of the programmatic activities encouraged at other levels have been planned, financed and organised at the subregional level. Comparatively less attention has been given to establishing new regulative norms for environmental protection from either industrial or military activity in the region. The Regional Council ensures that both county level decision makers and representatives of the indigenous population are involved. A point is the general balance between the environmental and the economic component. Moreover, the inclusiveness of the Barents Council provides linkages to potential partners in development found beyond the Barents Sea area. The subregional level has served to relate environmental protection to broader foreign policy issues and has strengthened environmental networks across the Nordic Russian divide which in turn has generated financial resources and expertise. The main reason for the higher fund raising capacity of subregional processes is that geographic proximity ensures denser networks of interdependence partly by the fact that Nordic neighbours have a clear self interest in financing environmental projects in Russia, particularly those addressing industrial pollution from the border areas and those designed to prevent dumping of radioactive waste and partly by ensuring that environmental projects may serve broader purposes associated with national security. The willingness on the part of Norway and other Nordic states to use their financial powers for problem solving

  15. Small Marine Protected Areas in Fiji Provide Refuge for Reef Fish Assemblages, Feeding Groups, and Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Mathias M.; Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; Hoey, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5–0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and biomass of grazing herbivores and piscivores as well as a greater abundance of cleaners than fished areas. We also found differences in fish associations when foraging, with feeding groups being generally more diverse and having greater biomass within MPAs than adjacent non-MPAs. Grazing by parrotfishes was 3–6 times greater, and macroalgal browsing was 3–5 times greater in MPAs than in non-MPAs. On average, MPAs had 260–280% as much coral cover and only 5–25% as much macroalgal cover as their paired non-MPA sites. Finally, two of the three MPAs had three-fold more coral recruits than adjacent non-MPAs. The results of this study indicate that small MPAs benefit not only populations of reef fishes, but also enhance ecosystem processes that are critical to reef resilience within the MPAs. PMID:28122006

  16. Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Tim R; MacNeil, M Aaron; Wilson, Shaun K; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Jennings, Simon; Chabanet, Pascale; Clark, Susan; Spalding, Mark D; Letourneur, Yves; Bigot, Lionel; Galzin, René; Ohman, Marcus C; Garpe, Kajsa C; Edwards, Alasdair J; Sheppard, Charles R C

    2008-08-27

    Coral reefs have emerged as one of the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate variation and change. While the contribution of a warming climate to the loss of live coral cover has been well documented across large spatial and temporal scales, the associated effects on fish have not. Here, we respond to recent and repeated calls to assess the importance of local management in conserving coral reefs in the context of global climate change. Such information is important, as coral reef fish assemblages are the most species dense vertebrate communities on earth, contributing critical ecosystem functions and providing crucial ecosystem services to human societies in tropical countries. Our assessment of the impacts of the 1998 mass bleaching event on coral cover, reef structural complexity, and reef associated fishes spans 7 countries, 66 sites and 26 degrees of latitude in the Indian Ocean. Using Bayesian meta-analysis we show that changes in the size structure, diversity and trophic composition of the reef fish community have followed coral declines. Although the ocean scale integrity of these coral reef ecosystems has been lost, it is positive to see the effects are spatially variable at multiple scales, with impacts and vulnerability affected by geography but not management regime. Existing no-take marine protected areas still support high biomass of fish, however they had no positive affect on the ecosystem response to large-scale disturbance. This suggests a need for future conservation and management efforts to identify and protect regional refugia, which should be integrated into existing management frameworks and combined with policies to improve system-wide resilience to climate variation and change.

  17. Conservation, spillover and gene flow within a network of Northern European marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Brockstedt Olsen Huserbråten

    Full Text Available To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50% for almost a year (363 days within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km(2. Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7% of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810 to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%. Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated F ST of less than 0.0001 over a ≈ 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages.

  18. Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 in a central western Mediterranean marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the results obtained by applying the Arnason Schwartz multistate mark-recapture model to eight years of data collected in and around a small no-fishing marine protected area (MPA; 4 km2 in the central western Mediterranean. From 1997 to 2004, a total of 4044 specimens of Palinurus elephas (Fabr., 1787 were tagged and 317 recaptured. The most parsimonious model which best explained the data variability was that of a temporally constant rate of apparent survival and movement in each of the two strata. The absence of any temporal influence in the apparent survival rate inside the no-take area suggested that spillover and mortality are constant for each period of the study. The lower apparent survival rate in surrounding zones than inside the MPA (0.26 ± 0.04 (SE vs 0.94 ± 0.03 (SE is presumed to be a function of fishing effort. A continuous movement of P. elephas across the boundary of the small MPA was also tested. This information on retention of lobsters in the MPA contributes to our understanding of the effect of introducing MPAs into a managed commercial fishery system.

  19. A step-by-step framework to assess benefits of established temperate marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Götz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs have been advocated as a solution to the challenges of both conservation and modern fishery management, but their application remains controversial, partly because there are only general guidelines for evaluating their effectiveness. We propose a framework to specifically evaluate established MPAs in six steps. We tested the approach by reviewing published research and unpublished information on the Goukamma MPA in the centre of the South African temperate south coast. Information reviewed included effects on the structure of fish populations, catch and abundance indices of fish species, and ecosystem effects. We investigated factors that determine the usefulness of a MPA in fisheries management, including the movement behaviour of adult fishes, larval dispersal and fisher-displacement patterns. We found that differences in the rates of exploitation across the MPA border resulted in differences in abundance, size and condition of the main target species, roman (Chrysoblephus laticeps. The diversity and abundance of non-target fish species, and the composition of the benthic invertebrate community, were affected by the cessation of fishing. The potential for "spillover" of adult roman might be limited to the vicinity of the MPA by their small home range, but there is potential for self-seeding and dispersal of roman eggs and larvae over wider areas. These theoretical considerations were confirmed by an analysis of catch data from before and after MPA implementation. The framework presented here may help to identify and fill gaps in the knowledge of established MPAs along South Africa's temperate south coast.

  20. Establishment and Implementation of the Balingasay Marine Protected Area: A Community-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Salmo III

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A community-based approach in the establishment and implementation of a marine protected area (MPA in Balingasay, Bolinao, Pangasinan is presented. The factors necessary to facilitate the successful establishment and implementation of a community-managed MPA include heightening of environmental awareness, community mobilization, and legal/institutional and financial assistance. A heightened environmental awareness encouraged the community to undertake resource management action. The formation of a people’s organization, SAMMABAL (Samahan ng mga Mangingisda at Mamamayan ng Balingasay, was crucial in assessing environmental problems (e.g., overfishing and identifying the establishment of an MPA as a management tool to address the problem. SAMMABAL was also instrumental in eliciting community support for the issuance of a municipal ordinance in the establishment of the MPA. Subsequently, the organization initiated the patrolling of the MPA. Institutions involved in the community-based management of the MPA also included the multi-sectoral council (BRMC – Balingasay Resource Management Council and representatives from the barangay council and the municipal government. This institutional arrangement has proven to be very resilient, indicating a high probability of sustaining its successes despite some obstacles and shortcomings. Clear delineation of the role and functions of the institutions and the stakeholders was essential in advancing the initiative. This case study will draw on the lessons from the experience of a four-year community-managed MPA.

  1. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Can Static Habitat Protection Encompass Critical Areas for Highly Mobile Marine Top Predators? Insights from Coastal East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Pérez-Jorge

    Full Text Available Along the East African coast, marine top predators are facing an increasing number of anthropogenic threats which requires the implementation of effective and urgent conservation measures to protect essential habitats. Understanding the role that habitat features play on the marine top predator' distribution and abundance is a crucial step to evaluate the suitability of an existing Marine Protected Area (MPA, originally designated for the protection of coral reefs. We developed species distribution models (SDM on the IUCN data deficient Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in southern Kenya. We followed a comprehensive ecological modelling approach to study the environmental factors influencing the occurrence and abundance of dolphins while developing SDMs. Through the combination of ensemble prediction maps, we defined recurrent, occasional and unfavourable habitats for the species. Our results showed the influence of dynamic and static predictors on the dolphins' spatial ecology: dolphins may select shallow areas (5-30 m, close to the reefs (< 500 m and oceanic fronts (< 10 km and adjacent to the 100 m isobath (< 5 km. We also predicted a significantly higher occurrence and abundance of dolphins within the MPA. Recurrent and occasional habitats were identified on large percentages on the existing MPA (47% and 57% using presence-absence and abundance models respectively. However, the MPA does not adequately encompass all occasional and recurrent areas and within this context, we propose to extend the MPA to incorporate all of them which are likely key habitats for the highly mobile species. The results from this study provide two key conservation and management tools: (i an integrative habitat modelling approach to predict key marine habitats, and (ii the first study evaluating the effectiveness of an existing MPA for marine mammals in the Western Indian Ocean.

  3. Assessment of Carbon Status in Marine Protected Area of Payung Island Waters, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 is a greenhouse gas that receive more attention than the other gases because the properties of carbon easily deformed and diffuseed. Changes in the concentration of CO2 in the water will impact on changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that affect sea surface temperatures. It continuously will result in a change of marine capture fisheries. Payung Island is one of the important areas in South Sumatra that acts as the provider of the fishery. This because Payung Island is located in the mouth of Musi and Telang River covered by mangrove, has a very important ecological function. However, the condition of the carbon in the waters of the Payung Island has not explored further. This elementary study is to determine status on Payung Island waters as a sink or source of CO2. The study was conducted in June until August 2015. The research stages include surface water sampling, measurement of the CO2 in the atmosphere, the analysis of the concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC and Total Alkalinity (TA, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 calculation.  Atmospheric CO2 were measured insitu, while the DIC and TA were analyzed using titration methods. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 obtained from the calculation using the software CO2Calc using data of  DIC, TA, nutrients and atmospheric CO2. The results showed that the content of DIC and TA on the Payung Island waters has similar distribution pattern  i.e. high in areas close to the river, and getting lower in the area which were closer to the sea. The comparisons between pCO2 atmosphere and pCO2 waters showed that Payung Island waters generally act as a carbon sink in area towards the sea but however, in the territorial waters adjacent to the river as a source of carbon.   Keywords: carbon, marine protected area, Payung Island waters

  4. An ecotoxicological approach to evaluate the effects of tourism impacts in the Marine Protected Area of La Maddalena (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, V; Schintu, M; Marrucci, A; Marras, B; Nesto, N; Da Ros, L

    2017-09-15

    In the Marine Protected Area of La Maddalena Archipelago, environmental protection rules and safeguard measures for nautical activities have helped in reducing anthropogenic pressure; however, tourism related activities remain particularly significant in summer. With the aim of evaluating their impacts, the biomarker approach using transplanted Mytilus galloprovincialis as sentinel organisms coupled with POCIS deployment was applied. Mussels, translocated to four marine areas differently impacted by tourism activities, were sampled before, during and after the tourist season. Moreover, endocrine disruptors in passive samplers POCIS and the cellular toxicity of whole POCIS extracts on mussel haemocytes were evaluated to integrate ecotoxicological information. Lysosomal biomarkers, condition index and mortality rate, as well as metals in tissues suggested an alteration of the health status of mussels transplanted to the most impacted sites. The cellular toxicity of POCIS extracts was pointed out, notwithstanding the concentrations of the examined compounds were always below the detection limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plastic litter in sediments from a marine area likely to become protected (Aeolian Archipelago's islands, Tyrrhenian sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastelli, Paolo; Blašković, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulia; Romeo, Teresa; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Andaloro, Franco; Russo, Giovanni F; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2016-12-15

    This research aims to define for the first time levels and patterns of different litter groups (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments from a marine area designed for the institution of a new marine protected area (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy). Microplastics resulted the principal group and found in all samples analyzed, with shape and colours variable between different sampling sites. MPs levels measured in this study are similar to values recorded in harbour sites and lower than reported in Adriatic Sea, while macroplastics levels are notably lower than in harbor sites. Sediment grain-size and island extent resulted not significant in determining levels and distribution of plastic debris among islands. In the future, following the establishment of the MPA in the study area, these basic data will be useful to check for potential protective effects on the levels and distribution of plastic debris. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recovery trajectories of kelp forest animals are rapid yet spatially variable across a network of temperate marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Caselle, JE; Rassweiler, A; Hamilton, SL; Warner, RR

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Oceans currently face a variety of threats, requiring ecosystem-based approaches to management such as networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). We evaluated changes in fish biomass on temperate rocky reefs over the decade following implementation of a network of MPAs in the northern Channel Islands, California. We found that the biomass of targeted (i.e. fished) species has increased consistently inside all MPAs in the network, with an e...

  8. Assessment of fish populations and habitat on Oculina Bank, a deep-sea coral marine protected area off eastern Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Harter , Stacey L.; Ribera, Marta M.; Shepard, Andrew N.; Reed, John K.

    2009-01-01

    A portion of the Oculina Bank located off eastern Florida is a marine protected area (MPA) preserved for its dense populations of the ivory tree coral (Oculina varicosa), which provides important habitat for fish. Surveys of fish assemblages and benthic habitat were conducted inside and outside the MPA in 2003 and 2005 by using remotely operated vehicle video transects and digital still imagery. Fish species composition, biodiversity, and grouper densities were used to determine w...

  9. Changes in fish assemblages following the establishment of a network of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P Kelaher

    Full Text Available Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20-40 m depth between 2008-2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n = 4 BRUV stations per site. Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection.

  10. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V.; Milchakova, Nataliya A.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  11. Book Review: Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    The subject of the theory of vibrations has carried an aesthetic appeal to generations of engineering students for its richness of ideas, and for the intellectual challenges it offers. Also, the diverse range of its applications (covering civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures) has provided obvious motivations for its study. For most students, the subject provides, perhaps, the first encounter in substantial application of mathematical tools (differential equations, calculus of variations, Fourier/Laplace transforms, and matrix algebra) to engineering problems. The intimate relationship that the subject of mechanics has with mathematics strikes home probably for the first time. While teaching this subject, the instructor is spoilt for choice in selecting a text book and so are the students who wish to pursue a self-study of the subject. Many luminaries in the field have offered their own exposition of the subject: starting from the classics of Rayleigh, Timoshenko, Den Hartog, Bishop and Johnson, and the works of more recent vintage (e.g., the books by Meirovich, Clough, and Penzien, and works with computational flavour, such as, those by Bathe and Petyt), several works easily come to one's mind. Given this milieu, it requires a distinctive conviction to write a new book on this subject. And, here we have a book, written by a practitioner, which aims to deal with fundamental aspects of vibrations of engineering systems. The scepticism that this reviewer had on the need for having one more such book vanished as he browsed through the book and read selectively a few sections. The author's gift for elegant explanations is immediately noticeable even in such a preliminary reading. After a more careful reading, the reviewer has found this book to be insightful and he considers the book to be a welcome addition to the family of books on vibration engineering. The author has struck a fine balance between physical explanations, mathematical niceties

  12. A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Pelletier, Dominique; Dubreuil, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod stock collapsed as a consequence of climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and over fishing and has remained at historically low levels. Spatio-temporal fishing closures [Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)] have been implemented since 1995, to protect and restore......, combining an age-structured population module with a multifleet exploitation module and a management module in a single model environment. The model is parameterized based on (i) the large amount of biological knowledge available for cod and (ii) an analysis of existing spatially disaggregated fishery data...

  13. A Case Study in the Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): the Islands of Bonaire and Curacao, Dutch Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relles, Noelle J.

    The islands of Bonaire and Curacao, Dutch Caribbean, were both mapped along their leeward coasts for dominant coral community and other benthic cover in the early 1980s. This mapping effort offers a unique baseline for comparing changes in the benthic community of the two islands since that time, particularly given the marked differences between the two islands. Bonaire is well-protected and completely surrounded by a marine protected area (MPA), which includes two no-diving marine reserves; additionally, Bonaire's population is only around 15,000. In contrast, the island of Curacao is home to 140,000 inhabitants and marine protection is limited, with a reef area of 600 ha established as a "paper" park (i.e., little enforcement). Video transects collected by SCUBA over the reefs were collected on Bonaire in January of 2008; when compared to data from 1985, coral cover had declined in the shallowest portion of the reef ( 20%), predominantly sand (> 50%) and areas where hard coral and sand were mixed with soft corals, sea whips and marine plants. These modern maps (2007-09) were groundtruthed using the video data collected on Bonaire for accuracy and then compared to the early 1980s maps of the reefs on both islands. Bonaire experienced declines in coral cover overall and the remaining coral was increasingly patchy; however, changes in patch characteristics were not significant over the time period, but status as a marine reserve and the sheltering of the shoreline did appear to buffer against coral loss. Surprisingly, the island of Curacao did not experience a decline in total coral cover, but did become increasingly patchy, significantly more so than Bonaire. The Curacao Underwater Park afforded no additional protection against coral loss or fragmentation than an adjacent unprotected area of reef. The difference between the two islands in coral loss versus fragmentation has the potential for a unique natural experiment to study the effects of habitat fragmentation

  14. Legal protection is not enough: Posidonia oceanica meadows in marine protected areas are not healthier than those in unprotected areas of the northwest Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Morri, Carla; Parravicini, Valeriano; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2009-04-01

    Using the Conservation Index, which measures the proportional amount of dead matte relative to live Posidonia oceanica, we assessed the health of 15 P. oceanica meadows at a regional scale along the coast of Liguria (NW Mediterranean). These areas were characterized by different degrees of anthropization, from highly urbanized sites to marine protected areas. Two different scenarios were identified according to depth: in shallow zones, the health of P. oceanica meadows was related to the degree of anthropization along the coastline. In contrast, in deep zones, most meadows exhibited poor health, independent of both the degree of disturbance and the legal measures protecting the area. Working synergistically with the regional impact of increased water turbidity, local impacts from the coast were recognized as the main causes of the severe regression of most Ligurian P. oceanica meadows. We conclude that marine protected areas alone are not sufficient to guarantee the protection of P. oceanica meadows. We emphasize the need for a management network involving the Sites of Community Interest (SCIs) containing P. oceanica meadows.

  15. Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide

  16. Weak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Area

    KAUST Repository

    Campbell, Stuart J.

    2012-11-30

    The effectiveness of marine protected areas depends largely on whether people comply with the rules. We quantified temporal changes in benthic composition, reef fish biomass, and fishing effort among marine park zones (including no-take areas) to assess levels of compliance following the 2005 rezoning of the government-controlled Karimunjawa National Park (KNP), Indonesia. Four years after the rezoning awareness of fishing regulations was high amongst local fishers, ranging from 79.5±7.9 (SE) % for spatial restrictions to 97.7±1.2% for bans on the use of poisons. Despite this high awareness and strong compliance with gear restrictions, compliance with spatial restrictions was weak. In the four years following the rezoning reef fish biomass declined across all zones within KNP, with >50% reduction within the no-take Core and Protection Zones. These declines were primarily driven by decreases in the biomass of groups targeted by local fishers; planktivores, herbivores, piscivores, and invertivores. These declines in fish biomass were not driven by changes in habitat quality; coral cover increased in all zones, possibly as a result of a shift in fishing gears from those which can damage reefs (i.e., nets) to those which cause little direct damage (i.e., handlines and spears). Direct observations of fishing activities in 2009 revealed there was limited variation in fishing effort between zones in which fishing was allowed or prohibited. The apparent willingness of the KNP communities to comply with gear restrictions, but not spatial restrictions is difficult to explain and highlights the complexities of the social and economic dynamics that influence the ecological success of marine protected areas. Clearly the increased and high awareness of fishery restrictions following the rezoning is a positive step. The challenge now is to understand and foster the conditions that may facilitate compliance with spatial restrictions within KNP and marine parks worldwide. © 2012

  17. Large-scale assessment of benthic communities across multiple marine protected areas using an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Renata; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Ayroza, Camila Rezende; Jordan, Alan; Figueira, Will F; Byrne, Maria; Malcolm, Hamish A; Williams, Stefan B; Steinberg, Peter D

    2018-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are designed to reduce threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning from anthropogenic activities. Assessment of MPAs effectiveness requires synchronous sampling of protected and non-protected areas at multiple spatial and temporal scales. We used an autonomous underwater vehicle to map benthic communities in replicate 'no-take' and 'general-use' (fishing allowed) zones within three MPAs along 7o of latitude. We recorded 92 taxa and 38 morpho-groups across three large MPAs. We found that important habitat-forming biota (e.g. massive sponges) were more prevalent and abundant in no-take zones, while short ephemeral algae were more abundant in general-use zones, suggesting potential short-term effects of zoning (5-10 years). Yet, short-term effects of zoning were not detected at the community level (community structure or composition), while community structure varied significantly among MPAs. We conclude that by allowing rapid, simultaneous assessments at multiple spatial scales, autonomous underwater vehicles are useful to document changes in marine communities and identify adequate scales to manage them. This study advanced knowledge of marine benthic communities and their conservation in three ways. First, we quantified benthic biodiversity and abundance, generating the first baseline of these benthic communities against which the effectiveness of three large MPAs can be assessed. Second, we identified the taxonomic resolution necessary to assess both short and long-term effects of MPAs, concluding that coarse taxonomic resolution is sufficient given that analyses of community structure at different taxonomic levels were generally consistent. Yet, observed differences were taxa-specific and may have not been evident using our broader taxonomic classifications, a classification of mid to high taxonomic resolution may be necessary to determine zoning effects on key taxa. Third, we provide an example of statistical analyses and

  18. Assessment of habitat representation across a network of marine protected areas with implications for the spatial design of monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary; Carr, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are being adopted globally to protect ecosystems and supplement fisheries management. The state of California recently implemented a coast-wide network of MPAs, a statewide seafloor mapping program, and ecological characterizations of species and ecosystems targeted for protection by the network. The main goals of this study were to use these data to evaluate how well seafloor features, as proxies for habitats, are represented and replicated across an MPA network and how well ecological surveys representatively sampled fish habitats inside MPAs and adjacent reference sites. Seafloor data were classified into broad substrate categories (rock and sediment) and finer scale geomorphic classifications standard to marine classification schemes using surface analyses (slope, ruggedness, etc.) done on the digital elevation model derived from multibeam bathymetry data. These classifications were then used to evaluate the representation and replication of seafloor structure within the MPAs and across the ecological surveys. Both the broad substrate categories and the finer scale geomorphic features were proportionately represented for many of the classes with deviations of 1-6% and 0-7%, respectively. Within MPAs, however, representation of seafloor features differed markedly from original estimates, with differences ranging up to 28%. Seafloor structure in the biological monitoring design had mismatches between sampling in the MPAs and their corresponding reference sites and some seafloor structure classes were missed entirely. The geomorphic variables derived from multibeam bathymetry data for these analyses are known determinants of the distribution and abundance of marine species and for coastal marine biodiversity. Thus, analyses like those performed in this study can be a valuable initial method of evaluating and predicting the conservation value of MPAs across a regional network.

  19. Assessment of habitat representation across a network of marine protected areas with implications for the spatial design of monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Young

    Full Text Available Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs are being adopted globally to protect ecosystems and supplement fisheries management. The state of California recently implemented a coast-wide network of MPAs, a statewide seafloor mapping program, and ecological characterizations of species and ecosystems targeted for protection by the network. The main goals of this study were to use these data to evaluate how well seafloor features, as proxies for habitats, are represented and replicated across an MPA network and how well ecological surveys representatively sampled fish habitats inside MPAs and adjacent reference sites. Seafloor data were classified into broad substrate categories (rock and sediment and finer scale geomorphic classifications standard to marine classification schemes using surface analyses (slope, ruggedness, etc. done on the digital elevation model derived from multibeam bathymetry data. These classifications were then used to evaluate the representation and replication of seafloor structure within the MPAs and across the ecological surveys. Both the broad substrate categories and the finer scale geomorphic features were proportionately represented for many of the classes with deviations of 1-6% and 0-7%, respectively. Within MPAs, however, representation of seafloor features differed markedly from original estimates, with differences ranging up to 28%. Seafloor structure in the biological monitoring design had mismatches between sampling in the MPAs and their corresponding reference sites and some seafloor structure classes were missed entirely. The geomorphic variables derived from multibeam bathymetry data for these analyses are known determinants of the distribution and abundance of marine species and for coastal marine biodiversity. Thus, analyses like those performed in this study can be a valuable initial method of evaluating and predicting the conservation value of MPAs across a regional network.

  20. Incorporating Local Wisdom Sasi into Marine Zoning to Increase the Resilience of a Marine Protected Area Network in Raja Ampat, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, P., Jr.; Mangubhai, S.; Muhajir, M.; Hidayat, N. I.; Rumetna, L.; Awaludinnoer, A.; Thebu, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Raja Ampat government and local communities established 6 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in 2007 to protect the unique marine biodiversity and ensure sustainable fisheries in West Papua, Indonesia. Increasing human populations resulting in overfishing and the use of destructive fishing practices are the main threats and challenges the region faces. Biophysical, socioeconomic and climate change criteria and factors were developed for zoning the Raja Ampat MPA network. Resilience principles such as replication, habitat representation, protection of critical habitat and connectivity were applied to the final zoning design. Reef resilience data using global monitoring protocols were collected to provide insights into the resilience of different reefs to further guide zoning. Resilience rankings showed that fishing pressure on reef fish communities especially on piscivores, herbivores and excavators was the main factor lowering resilience in MPAs. In addition data were collected on `sasi' areas throughout the MPAs. Sasi is a type of traditional resource management practice used by local communities to open and close areas to fishing single or multiple fisheries species. Once the fishery recovers local communities then harvest the species for food or sale. Raja Ampat MPAs network managed as multi-objective zoning system. The current zoning system explicitly recognizes community sasi within Traditional Use Zones, which often are adjacent or close to No-Take Zones. The explicit inclusion of sasi areas within zoning plans for the MPAs will likely lead to good compliance by local communities, and the increase fish biomass. Improving the management of fisheries through the incorporation of traditional fisheries management will therefore increase the overall resilience of coral reefs in the Raja Ampat MPA network.

  1. Vulnerability of marine habitats to the invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea within a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Issaris, Yiannis; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2010-08-01

    The relative vulnerability of various habitat types to Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion was investigated in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Ionian Sea, Greece). The density of C. racemosa fronds was modelled with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), based on an information theory approach. The species was present in as much as 33% of 748 randomly placed quadrats, which documents its aggressive establishment in the area. The probability of presence of the alga within randomly placed 20 x 20 cm quadrats was 83% on 'matte morte' (zones of fibrous remnants of a former Posidonia oceanica bed), 69% on rocky bottoms, 86% along the margins of P. oceanica meadows, 10% on sandy/muddy substrates, and 6% within P. oceanica meadows. The high frond density on 'matte morte' and rocky bottoms indicates their high vulnerability. The lowest frond density was observed within P. oceanica meadows. However, on the margins of P. oceanica meadows and within gaps in fragmented meadows relative high C. racemosa densities were observed. Such gaps within meadows represent spots of high vulnerability to C. racemosa invasion.

  2. Meta-analysis review of fish trophic level at marine protected areas based on stable isotopes data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. de LOPE ARIAS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes (δ15N are used to determine trophic level in marine food webs. We assessed if Marine Protected Areas (MPAs affect trophic level of fishes based on stable isotopes on the Western Mediterranean. A total of 22 studies including 600 observations were found and the final dataset consisted of 11 fish species and 146 observations comparing trophic level inside and outside MPAs. The database was analysed by meta-analysis and the covariate selected was the level of protection (inside vs. outside MPAs. The results indicate significant difference between trophic levels inside and outside MPAs. However, results differ from expectations since the trophic level inside was lower than outside MPAs. Three habitats were analysed (coastal lagoons, demersal and littoral and significant differences were found among them. Trophic level was higher in demersal habitats than in coastal lagoons and littoral areas. No significant differences were found in species classified by trophic functional groups. We consider several hypotheses explaining the obtained results linked to protection level of the MPAs, time since protection and MPAs size. We debate the suitability of using the stable isotope (δ15N as direct indicator of trophic level in evaluating MPAs effects on food webs.

  3. Avoiding conflicts and protecting coral reefs: Customary management benefits marine habitats and fish biomass

    KAUST Repository

    Campbell, Stuart J.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Ardiwijaya, Rizya L.; Pardede, Shinta T.; Kartawijaya, Tasrif; Mukmunin, Ahmad; Herdiana, Yudi; Hoey, Andrew; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Baird, Andrew Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract One of the major goals of coral reef conservation is to determine the most effective means of managing marine resources in regions where economic conditions often limit the options available. For example, no-take fishing areas can

  4. Practicality of marine protected areas - Can there be solutions for the River Indus delta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwai, Samina; Fanning, Paul; Ahmed, Waqar; Tabrez, Mohsin; Zhang, Jing; Khan, Muhammad Wasim

    2016-12-01

    The River Indus delta is the most prominent feature on the Pakistan coast. Owing to its prominence, mangrove ecosystem, historical, ecological and economic significance it is also a proposed Marine Protected Area (MPA). Currently there are no designated MPAs in Pakistan. This paper presents findings of the Fishery Resource Appraisal Project of Pakistan (FRAPP) a fishery stock assessment carried out for the pelagic and demersal fishery resource of Pakistan from 2009 to 2015 and the Creek Survey Program (CSP) which was part of FRAPP. And discusses how the delta suffers from physical stress. The observations from FRAPP indicates deterioration in the mangrove ecosystem, that are evident in the form of loss of biodiversity and biological productivity. The 600 observations from 10 major creeks showed that trawl catches were a mix of generally small size fish and shrimp. Catches averaged less than 1 kg per tow in all the creeks sampled. Catch weights were somewhat higher in Isaro, WadiKhuddi, Paitiani, Dabbo, Richaal Creeks all of which were near mangrove areas and open sea. The most frequently occurring species of shrimps caught in the trawls belonged to 7 major taxa. The Khobar Creek and Upper Wari Creek are notable for the high rates of occurrence of every group except the Caridea. They are also the only two creeks where the freshwater family Paleomonidae is common. The size composition of the important penaeid family of shrimps in all study areas combined suggests that the smallest shrimps (0.5-1.5 cm carapace length CL) enter the creeks in February/March and adults (5-6 cm CL) move out again 6-12 months later. Four species of Penaeus (monodon, japonicus, semisulcatus, merguiensis), two species of Metapenaeus (monoceros, affinis), Parapeneoposis stylifera and Solenosera sp. were caught, all in low abundance, less than 0.5 Kg tow-1. The shrimp catches in the area off the Sindh coast, the catches averaged 4.30 ± 13.40 kg h-1 on the inner shelf (20-50 m) and 1.7 ± 6

  5. Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

    2011-05-01

    Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy.

  6. Designing Local-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reefs around the world are at risk from overexploitation and climate change, and coral reefs of the Red Sea are no exception. Science-based designation of marine protected areas (MPAs), within which human activities are restricted, has become a popular method for conserving biodiversity, restoring degraded habitats, and replenishing depleted populations. The aim of this project was to explore adaptable methods for designing locally-manageable MPAs for various conservation goals near Thuwal in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea while allowing human activities to continue. First, the potential for using simple spatial habitat distribution metrics to aid in designing MPAs that are well-connected with larval supply was explored. Results showed that the degree of habitat patchiness may be positively correlated with realized dispersal distances, making it possible to space MPAs further apart in patchier habitats while still maintaining larval connectivity. However, this relationship requires further study and may be informative to MPA design only in the absence of spatially-explicit empirical dispersal data. Next, biological data was collected, and the spatial variation in biomass, trophic structure, biodiversity, and community assemblages on Thuwal reefs was analyzed in order to inform the process of prioritizing reefs for inclusion in MPA networks. Inshore and offshore reef community assemblages were found to be different and indicated relatively degraded inshore habitats. These trends were used to select species and benthic categories that would be important to conserve in a local MPA. The abundances of these “conservation features” were then modeled throughout the study area, and the decision support software “Marxan” was used to design MPA networks in Thuwal that included these features to achieve quantitative objectives. While achieving objectives relevant to fisheries concerns was relatively more challenging, results showed that it is possible to

  7. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  8. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  9. Ocean Futures Under Ocean Acidification, Marine Protection, and Changing Fishing Pressures Explored Using a Worldwide Suite of Ecosystem Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Olsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based management (EBM of the ocean considers all impacts on and uses of marine and coastal systems. In recent years, there has been a heightened interest in EBM tools that allow testing of alternative management options and help identify tradeoffs among human uses. End-to-end ecosystem modeling frameworks that consider a wide range of management options are a means to provide integrated solutions to the complex ocean management problems encountered in EBM. Here, we leverage the global advances in ecosystem modeling to explore common opportunities and challenges for ecosystem-based management, including changes in ocean acidification, spatial management, and fishing pressure across eight Atlantis (atlantis.cmar.csiro.au end-to-end ecosystem models. These models represent marine ecosystems from the tropics to the arctic, varying in size, ecology, and management regimes, using a three-dimensional, spatially-explicit structure parametrized for each system. Results suggest stronger impacts from ocean acidification and marine protected areas than from altering fishing pressure, both in terms of guild-level (i.e., aggregations of similar species or groups biomass and in terms of indicators of ecological and fishery structure. Effects of ocean acidification were typically negative (reducing biomass, while marine protected areas led to both “winners” and “losers” at the level of particular species (or functional groups. Changing fishing pressure (doubling or halving had smaller effects on the species guilds or ecosystem indicators than either ocean acidification or marine protected areas. Compensatory effects within guilds led to weaker average effects at the guild level than the species or group level. The impacts and tradeoffs implied by these future scenarios are highly relevant as ocean governance shifts focus from single-sector objectives (e.g., sustainable levels of individual fished stocks to taking into account competing

  10. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  11. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.

    2014-12-23

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as “vulnerable” by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity (M = 259–1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited (M = 3–9) with high self-replenishment (68–93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations

  12. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not

  13. 6. Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Safety; 3. Iberian and Latin American Congress on Radiological Protection Societies; Regional IRPA Congress. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The 6th Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Safety was organized by the Peruvian Radiation Protection Society and the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, held in Lima, Peru, between 9 and 13 of november of 2003. In this event, were presented 227 papers that were articulated in the following sessions: radiation natural exposure, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instruments and dosimetry, radiological emergency and accidents, occupational radiation protection, radiological protection in medical exposure, radiological environmental protection, legal aspects, standards and regulations, training, education and communication, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, nuclear safety and biological effects of non-ionizing radiation. (APC)

  14. Protecting marine parks and sanctuaries from aquatic nuisance species releases from ballast during emergency response events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A. Green

    2011-01-01

    Commercial shipping activities that release aquatic invasive species are recognized globally as a dominant transport vector for marine invasions. Aquatic nuisance species (ANS) introductions have resulted in billions of dollars of damages and immeasurable biological devastation within the Great Lakes. National Park Service managers are working with United States...

  15. Protective role of marine macroalgae extracts against STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine macroalgae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anti-diabetic activity of marine macroalgae extracts (n = 31, purification and characterization of sulphated galactopyran (SGP from Gracilaria opuntia (FM4 in diabetic rats. Methods: The animals were separated into groups and STZ (55 mg/kg body weight was used to induce diabetics. Glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide levels and in vivo antioxidant levels were estimated and histopathological studies were done in STZ-induced diabetic and marine macroalgae treated rats. Results: Based on glucose and HbA1c levels and in vivo antioxidant levels, among the 31 marine macroalgae extracts, FM4 has showed high anti-diabetic activity. Hence, FM4 was purified and characterized by 1H-NMR spectra and FT-IR as sulphated galactopyran. During the survival analysis, SGP at dose of 100 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05 survival rate and elevations in C-peptide and insulin levels. The histopathological modulations of SGP were observed in diabetic rat tissues such as liver, kidney and brain. Hence obtained results reveal that SGP treated diabetic rats has significant changes in C-peptide and insulin levels which regulates the blood glucose levels and recovered the histopathological changes. Conclusions: Marine macroalgae have significant anti-diabetic activity. Hence, they could be used as nutraceutical supplement or natural green remedy against diabetes mellitus.

  16. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)—designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation—differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  17. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-05

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Book Review: Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina Yan

    2017-02-01

    The world class Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits associated with the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) are quite unique on earth in the sense that the energy source and origin were triggered by a large meteorite impact event. The ore deposits in the SIC make up one of the largest Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit camps in the world and have now been mined for over 100 years. This is the first complete reference book that focuses entirely on the SIC and covers the fields of economic geology, petrology, geochemistry and geophysics. The purpose of this book is to explore the linkage between sulfide and silicate magmas generated by the 1.85 Ga Sudbury impact event and to unite an understanding of the process of crustal melt sheet evolution with the formation of the magmatic sulfide mineralization. The author, Peter Lightfoot, has been based in Sudbury for 25 years. As a top scientist on magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits and a Chief Geologist with the Brownfield Exploration group at Vale Base Metals, Peter has been positioned to develop and assemble the ideas presented in this book, which are perfectly balanced between industry and academia.

  19. Book Review: Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Daan

    Writing a biography of a complex personality and mastermind like Albert Einstein is a daunting task for any historian of science. Yet the sheer temptation of writing his biography has apparently helped to overcome scholarly scruples, as biographies of Einstein have appeared quite regularly on the market. One of them is Einstein: his Life and Universe by journalist Walter Isaacson. It is a best-seller, which is one of the reasons the book deserves a critical evaluation. Isaacson is a man of considerable repute: he has been the chairman of CNN and managing editor of Time magazine. Isaacson's Einstein is written in a style that is accessible to a wide audience. Scholars who are already familiar with Einstein's physics may still enjoy the parts of the book that deal with the relation between Einstein and the press. Indeed, the breadth of its scope is the book's major merit, as it connects the personal, scientific, public and political dimensions of Einstein's life. In this review, I discuss Isaacson's treatment of these dimensions one-by-one.

  20. Book Review: Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Alberto A.

    The title Einstein's Generation immediately suggests names such as Ehrenfest, Ritz, Kaufmann, Born, Laue, and Laub. Staley's book discusses these individuals, but it actually has a broader scope. Both the title and the subtitle are not quite appropriate. A much more fitting title would be Michelson, Electrons, and the Rise of "Modern" Physics. The emphasis on Albert Michelson is evident in the Index: almost four columns on him, compared to just one and a half on Einstein. Likewise, "Einstein's generation" includes, for Staley, many other physicists who were quite older than Einstein, such as Lorentz, Planck, Poincaré, and Minkowski. The book exhibits a composite character because it includes and expands upon four articles that Staley had published earlier on Michelson, relativity, and the co-creation of modern and classical physics. Hence the book is partly a bridging work; it ambitiously connects areas in the history of physics, from the 1880s until 1911. Staley identifies how diverse interests produced crossfertilization, and how various disciplinary boundaries were crossed. He wants to discuss material culture, experiment, and theory, all on the same footing. Every page of the introduction seems to quadruple the scope; he writes about individuals and communities, consolidation and diversification, power and weakness, memory and neglect, the cultural and the material, the classical and the modern, and the absolute and the relative.

  1. Building partnership capacity for the collaborative management of marine protected areas in the UK: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J S; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2005-11-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary analysis of 15 case studies of inshore marine protected areas in the UK. It draws on the common-pool resource (CPR) literature and is premised on the thesis that building partnership capacity amongst relevant authorities and resource users provides a critical basis for overcoming collective action problems (CAPs), through the development of incentive structures and social capital, in order to achieve strategic objectives. Particular attention is paid to the influence of statutory marine biodiversity conservation obligations to the European Commission for marine special areas of conservation (MSACs), as these are an important external contextual factor. The risks of imposition and parochialism are outlined and the challenges of taking a balanced approach are discussed. The challenges posed by the attributes of the marine environment are considered, as are those posed by the policy framework for MSACs. The findings are discussed in relation to three questions: (i) which partnership models appear to have the potential to overcome the CAPs posed by inshore MSACs? (ii) what CAPs had to be addressed during the early phase of development of the MSAC co-management regimes? (iii) what are the likely future CAPs for the collaborative management of MSACs that each partnership will need to address? These preliminary findings will form the basis for future studies to analyse the outcomes of these 15 initiatives, in order to assess the strengths, in various contexts, of different approaches for building resilient and balanced, thereby effective, institutions for the co-management of MSACs in the UK.

  2. Population Structure and Growth of the Threatened Pen Shell, Pinna rudis (Linnaeus, 1758 in a Western Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. NEBOT COLOMER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are being extensively degraded by human activities. Benthic, slow-growing and long-lived species are highly vulnerable to these impacts. Marine protected areas might avoid biodiversity losses through habitat protection. The pen shell Pinna rudis is a protected species, but scarce data are available on its ecology and biology. The present study is a comprehensive ecological study encompassing several unknown aspects of the growth and inner record in relation to habitat types, density and size distribution. A total of 418 strip transects were conducted by scuba diving in the Marine Protected Area of Cabrera National Park (39.14° N, 2.96° E, during the summers of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Sampling was conducted across different habitats and depths exploring 152,146.35 m2 in total. Densities varied spatially within the park (from 0 to 6.89 ind./100 m2 corresponding to a wide range of sizes and ages. Most pen shells were patchily distributed and mainly concentrated in caves. Two hotspots with high densities represent the highest densities ever recorded worldwide, showing a possible link to high larval accumulation and settlement. The population size structure showed a unimodal distribution with shell width ranging from 6.2 to 25.0 cm, with an average shell width of 16.0 ± 3.4 cm. The absolute growth was asymptotic, with a maximum age and length of 28-31 years and 45 cm, respectively. This study on the biology and ecology of a well-established population of Pinna rudis in the Western Mediterranean could set a baseline for the conservation of this species in other areas.

  3. Principles of biofouling protection in marine sponges: a model for the design of novel biomimetic and bio-inspired coatings in the marine environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Proksch, Peter; Perry, Carole C; Osinga, Ronald; Gardères, Johan; Schröder, Heinz C

    2013-08-01

    The process of biofouling of marine structures and substrates, such as platforms or ship hulls, proceeds in multiple steps. Soon after the formation of an initial conditioning film, formed via the adsorption of organic particles to natural or man-made substrates, a population of different bacterial taxa associates under the formation of a biofilm. These microorganisms communicate through a complex quorum sensing network. Macro-foulers, e.g., barnacles, then settle and form a fouling layer on the marine surfaces, a process that globally has severe impacts both on the economy and on the environment. Since the ban of tributyltin, an efficient replacement of this antifouling compound by next-generation antifouling coatings that are environmentally more acceptable and also showing longer half-lives has not yet been developed. The sponges, as sessile filter-feeder animals, have evolved antifouling strategies to protect themselves against micro- and subsequent macro-biofouling processes. Experimental data are summarized and suggest that coating of the sponge surface with bio-silica contributes to the inhibition of the formation of a conditioning film. A direct adsorption of the surfaces by microorganisms can be impaired through poisoning the organisms with direct-acting secondary metabolites or toxic peptides. In addition, first, compounds from sponges have been identified that interfere with the anti-quorum sensing network. Sponge secondary metabolites acting selectively on diatom colonization have not yet been identified. Finally, it is outlined that direct-acting secondary metabolites inhibiting the growth of macro-fouling animals and those that poison the multidrug resistance pump are available. It is concluded that rational screening programs for inhibitors of the complex and dynamic problem of biofilm production, based on multidisciplinary studies and using sponges as a model, are required in the future.

  4. Assessing genotoxic effects in fish from a marine protected area influenced by former mining activities and other stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Santos, Gustavo Souza; Seraphim de Araújo, Giuliana; Feitosa Cruz, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to evaluate different genotoxicity tools in order to assess a marine protected area (MPA) affected by former mining activities and urban settlements. A catfish (Cathorops spixii) was analyzed for genotoxic effects at the (i) molecular and at the (ii) chromosomal levels. Through factor analysis, genotoxicity was found to be linked to levels of metals bioaccumulated and PAH metabolites in the bile. Micronucleus and nuclear alteration were less vulnerable to the effects of confounding factors in mildly contaminated areas since they were more frequently associated with bioaccumulated metals than the DNA analysis. The different genotoxicity responses allowed for the identification of sources of pollution in the MPA. This approach was important for detecting environmental risks related to genotoxic contaminants in a mildly contaminated MPA. -- Highlights: •We assessed genotoxicity and bioaccumulation in catfish from a marine protected area. •The area is under the influence of past mining activities and urban settlements. •Cellular level responses were highly associated with body burdens of metals and As. •Responses at the molecular level were less associated with body burdens. •Genotoxicity in different organs helped identify pollution sources in MPA.

  5. To brood or not to brood: Are marine invertebrates that protect their offspring more resilient to ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Noelle Marie; Lombardi, Chiara; Demarchi, Lucia; Schulze, Anja; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Calosi, Piero

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed by seawater resulting in increasingly acidic oceans, a process known as ocean acidification (OA). OA is thought to have largely deleterious effects on marine invertebrates, primarily impacting early life stages and consequently, their recruitment and species’ survival. Most research in this field has been limited to short-term, single-species and single-life stage studies, making it difficult to determine which taxa will be evolutionarily successful under OA conditions. We circumvent these limitations by relating the dominance and distribution of the known polychaete worm species living in a naturally acidic seawater vent system to their life history strategies. These data are coupled with breeding experiments, showing all dominant species in this natural system exhibit parental care. Our results provide evidence supporting the idea that long-term survival of marine species in acidic conditions is related to life history strategies where eggs are kept in protected maternal environments (brooders) or where larvae have no free swimming phases (direct developers). Our findings are the first to formally validate the hypothesis that species with life history strategies linked to parental care are more protected in an acidifying ocean compared to their relatives employing broadcast spawning and pelagic larval development.

  6. The Establishment of Marine Protected Areas in Senegal: Untangling the Interactions Between International Institutions and National Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Gianluca; Brans, Marleen; Dème, Moustapha; Failler, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    International institutions, understood as sets of rules contained in international agreements, are aimed at orienting national governments towards specific policy options. Nevertheless, they can determine a change in national policies and practices only if states are willing and capable of incorporating international obligations into their national legislations and ensuring their application and enforcement in areas that follow completely under national jurisdiction. The establishment of marine protected areas promoted by international agreements as a tool for the protection of marine resources represents an interesting case for revealing the complex interactions between international institutions and national actors. Particularly, the establishment of these areas in Senegal shows the salience of domestic constellations of actors who may support or undercut national commitments to international regimes: political elites, bureaucracies, the general public and target groups. By anchoring the empirical analysis to an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, the article explains how dynamic constellations of actors can distort the penetration of international objectives in the national policy framework. Different constellations of national actors can indeed bend international institutions at different moments: during the formulation of a new law in line with international obligations; in the definition of its implementation framework; and in the enforcement of national policies.

  7. The underwater acoustic environment at SGaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount Marine Protected Area: Characterizing vessel traffic and associated noise using satellite AIS and acoustic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ainsley S; Yurk, Harald; Vagle, Svein; Pilkington, James; Canessa, Rosaline

    2018-03-01

    Vessel traffic is one of the most wide-spread anthropogenic contributors to ocean noise worldwide and has the potential to alter ecosystems upon which cetaceans and other acoustically sensitive marine organisms rely. Canada's SGaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount Marine Protected Area (SK-B MPA) is one such area whose productive ecosystem could benefit from greater monitoring of human induced threats in order to inform management. Despite earning official designation as a Marine Protected Area under the Oceans Act in 2008, little remains known about vessel traffic in the region and the associated potential impacts on vulnerable marine species. Therefore, to increase our understanding of vessel traffic and accompanying noise at SK-B MPA, satellite AIS and acoustic data were investigated. The results of this study suggest that variations in ambient sound levels in the region are driven by near and distant shipping events, thus having implications for future management of the MPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Ocean Exploration and Research in the Creation and Management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette-Silver, N. J.; Pomponi, S.; Smith, J. R.; Potter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decades, the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), through its programs (Ocean Exploration Program and National Undersea Research Program), and in collaboration with its federal and academic partners, has contributed to the discovery of new ocean features, species, ecosystems, habitats and processes. These new discoveries have led to the development of new policies and management actions. Exploration, research and technology advancement have contributed to the characterization and the designation of marine sanctuaries, reserves, restricted fishing areas, and monuments in US waters. For example, the collaborative efforts of OER and partners from the Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) have resulted in the discovery of new species of deep sea corals on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the South Atlantic Bight. The species of coral found in these deep sea reefs are growing very slowly and provide habitat for many commercially valuable species of fish and other living resources. It is not yet completely clear how these habitats connect with the shallower reefs and habitats and if they could be playing a role of refugia for shallower species. Unfortunately, signs of fishing destruction on these unique and fragile habitats are obvious (e.g., abandoned nets, completely decimated habitats by trawling). OER funded research on mesophotic and deep-sea Lophelia coral reefs off the southeastern US was instrumental in the designation of the deep-water Coral Habitat Area of Particular Concern (CHAPC) that is now protecting these fragile reefs. Other examples of OER's contribution to discoveries leading to the designation of protected areas include the characterization and boundary determination of new designated Marine National Monuments and Marine Sanctuaries in the Pacific Ocean. After designation of a protected area, it is imperative to monitor the resource, improve understanding of its

  9. Spatial overlaps of foraging and resting areas of black-legged kittiwakes breeding in the English Channel with existing marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ponchon, A.; Aulert, C.; Le Guillou, G.; Gallien, F.; Peron, Clara; Gremillet, D.

    2017-01-01

    The English Channel is one of the most anthropized marine ecosystems due to increasing human pressures, both along the coasts and at sea. Numerous marine protected areas (MPAs) have been created in this area but their ecological relevance still needs to be demonstrated for mobile species such as seabirds. Here, we identified the at-sea foraging and resting areas of black-legged kittiwakes to quantify their spatial overlap with existing neighbouring MPAs. Using solar-powered GPS-UHF, we tracke...

  10. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  11. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  12. Avoiding conflicts and protecting coral reefs: Customary management benefits marine habitats and fish biomass

    KAUST Repository

    Campbell, Stuart J.

    2012-10-01

    Abstract One of the major goals of coral reef conservation is to determine the most effective means of managing marine resources in regions where economic conditions often limit the options available. For example, no-take fishing areas can be impractical in regions where people rely heavily on reef fish for food. In this study we test whether coral reef health differed among areas with varying management practices and socio-economic conditions on Pulau Weh in the Indonesian province of Aceh. Our results show that gear restrictions, in particular prohibiting the use of nets, were successful in minimizing habitat degradation and maintaining fish biomass despite ongoing access to the fishery. Reef fish biomass and hard-coral cover were two- to eight-fold higher at sites where fishing nets were prohibited. The guiding principle of the local customary management system, Panglima Laot, is to reduce conflict among community members over access to marine resources. Consequently, conservation benefits in Aceh have arisen from a customary system that lacks a specific environmental ethic or the means for strong resource-based management. Panglima Laot includes many of the features of successful institutions, such as clearly defined membership rights and the opportunity for resource users to be involved in making, enforcing and changing the rules. Such mechanisms to reduce conflict are the key to the success of marine resource management, particularly in settings that lack resources for enforcement. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

  13. Book Review: Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Newton C. A.; Krause, Décio

    This book contains a representative selection of Erhard Scheibe's writings on the philosophy of physics. It encompasses eight sections, with 38 papers, distributed as follows: (I) Between Rationalism and Empiricism (five papers from 1969 to 1994); (II) The Philosophy of the Physicists (five papers from 1988 to 1995); (III) Reconstruction (four papers, from 1979 to 1988); (IV) Laws of Nature (five papers, from 1989 to 1998); (V) Reduction (five papers from 1973 to 1995); (VI) Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (six papers from 1985 to 1993); (VII) Spacetime, Invariance, Covariance (four papers from 1982 to 1994), and (VIII) Mathematics and Physics (four papers from 1977 to 1997).

  14. Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  15. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Pittman

    Full Text Available Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness.

  16. The biology of marine plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dring, M.J

    1982-01-01

    Since over 90% of the species of marine plants are algae, most of the book is devoted to the marine representatives of this group, with examples from all oceans and coasts of the world where detailed work has been done...

  17. Designing cathodic protection systems for marine structures and vehicles. ASTM special technical publication 1370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, H.P. [ed.

    1999-07-01

    Cathodic protection is an important method of protecting structures and ships from the corrosive effects of seawater. Poor designs can be far more costly to implement than optimal designs, Improper design can cause overprotection, with resulting paint blistering and accelerated corrosion of some alloys, underprotection, with resultant structure corrosion, or stray current corrosion of nearby structures. The first ASTM symposium specifically aimed at cathodic protection in seawater was intended to compile all the criteria and philosophy for designing both sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems for structures and vehicles in seawater. The papers which are included in this STP are significant in that they summarize the major seawater cathodic protection system design philosophies. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  18. II International Conference: Radiation Protection Training. Future Strategies. Ciemat, 17-19 September, 2003. Book of Papers and Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Safety in the use of ionising radiation and protection against potential risks due to exposure to radiation sources are not static concepts, rather their evolution runs parallel with an increased knowledge of the technologies and basic concepts employed. Education and training, which are inherently tied to with research, are the means to disseminate the advances made to the scientists and professionals working with ionising radiation. At present, Radiation Protection (RP) training is considered to be the best means to promote a safety culture and to improve the competence of exposed workers. Indeed, progress in both RP teaching and training, which form part of this transfer of technology and specialized knowledge, are fields that are in continuous motion. The first conference on Radiation Protection training was celebrated in Saclay (France) under the slogan Radiation Protection: What are the Future Training needs?. It can be considered as the first such meeting dedicated to the community of professionals, from a wide range of scientific and technological backgrounds, related in some way to Radiation Protection training. (Author)

  19. Marine Radioactivity Mapping in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on data collection, mapping and also development of marine radioactivity which obtained from a few researchs from year 2003 until 2008. The aims of the database reported in this book is to become a benchmark as well to be a reference material for future researchers. Furthermore, this book contained the radionuclide pollution information and distribution pattern mapping in marine environment. To strengthen the content for this book, the authors also provide a complete technical information which consist methods, prepation and sample analysis either in field work or laboratory. By producing this book, the author hope that it will help future researcher who are involved in oceanography and marine radioactivity.

  20. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V Sheehan

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2 of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus. While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries.

  1. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian B Canales-Aguirre

    Full Text Available Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords, but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone, and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos. We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA.

  2. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries.

  3. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Aguirre, Cristian B; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA.

  4. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso Aller

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones and two unprotected (open-access sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania. We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  5. Community Change within a Caribbean Coral Reef Marine Protected Area following Two Decades of Local Management

    KAUST Repository

    Noble, Mae M.; van Laake, Gregoor; Berumen, Michael L.; Fulton, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures

  6. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Portman

    Full Text Available Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity.

  7. Efficient and equitable design of marine protected areas in Fiji through inclusion of stakeholder-specific objectives in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappa, Achille; Costabile, Salvatore

    2014-07-15

    The Egadi Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the western side of the Sicily Channel (Central Mediterranean) is exposed to a high risk of oil pollution from the tanker routes connecting the eastern and western basins of the Mediterranean Sea. Areas where an oil spill would do most damage, and thus where surveillance should be concentrated, are identified in this study by Lagrangian tracers tracked backwards in time from points along the MPA perimeter using data spanning six years from 2006 to 2011. Results indicate that the areas where oil surveillance would be most beneficial are segments of the tanker routes south of Sicily (highly frequented) and north of Sicily (scarcely frequented), both extending about 150 miles from November to March and 100 miles in the other months. The third route, close to the Tunisian shore, is the most frequented by oil tankers but the threat period is limited to November and December. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 46 CFR 14.305 - Entries in continuous discharge book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entries in continuous discharge book. 14.305 Section 14.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT... discharge book. If the merchant mariner holds a continuous discharge book, the master or individual in...

  10. Can citizen science contribute to fish assemblages monitoring in understudied areas? The case study of Tunisian marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lamine, Emna; Di Franco, Antonio; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Francour, Patrice

    2018-01-01

    Resource monitoring is a key issue in ecosystem management especially for marine protected areas (MPAs), where information on the composition and structure of fish assemblages is crucial to design a sound management plan. Data on fish assemblage are usually collected using Underwater Visual Censuses (UVC). However, fish assemblages monitoring in MPAs usually calls for considerable resources in terms of costs, time and technical/scientific skills. Financial resources and trained scientific divers may, however, not be available in certain geographical areas, that are thus understudied. Therefore, involving citizen volunteer divers in fish assemblage monitoring and adopting easy-to-use underwater visual census methods could be an effective way to collect crucial data. Citizen science can be used only if it can provide information that is consistent with that collected using standard scientific monitoring. Here, we aim to: 1) compare the consistency of results from a Standard scientific UVC (S-UVC) and an Easy-to-use UVC (E-UVC) method in assessing fish assemblage spatial variability, and 2) test the consistency of data collected by Scientific Divers (SD) and Scientifically-Trained Volunteer divers (STV), using E-UVC. We used, in two consecutive years, three Tunisian future Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and adjacent areas as case studies. E-UVC and S-UVC data were consistent in highlighting the same spatial patterns for the three MPAs (between MPAs and, inside and outside each one). No significant difference was recorded between data collected by SD or STV. Our results suggest that E-UVC can provide information representing simplified proxies for describing fish assemblages and can therefore be a valuable tool for fish monitoring by citizen divers in understudied areas. This evidence could foster citizen science as an effective tool to raise environmental awareness and involve stakeholders in resource management.

  11. moriam Books

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This slim, plastic covered, 'pocket' book comprises a total of 144 pages. It is written in text book form with a user- friendly indexing system. The book has a number of special features: • It is brief, contains core material, yet does not omit discussion on problems of definition and classification. • It straddles both ICD 10 and DSM ...

  12. Coral reef ecosystem marine protected area monitoring in Fagamalo, American Samoa: comprehensive assessment of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) from belt transect surveys from 2015-10-26 to 2015-11-13 (NCEI Accession 0166380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010 the village of Fagamalo, Tutuila, American Samoa, designated a no-take Marine Protected Area that sees the protection of 2.25 square kilometers of ocean....

  13. Novel material and structural design for large-scale marine protective devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Ang; Lin, Wei; Ma, Yong; Zhao, Chengbi; Tang, Youhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale protective devices with different structural designs have been optimized. • Large-scale protective devices with novel material designs have been optimized. • Protective devices constructed of sandwich panels have the best anti-collision performance. • Protective devices with novel material design can reduce weight and construction cost. - Abstract: Large-scale protective devices must endure the impact of severe forces, large structural deformation, the increased stress and strain rate effects, and multiple coupling effects. In evaluation of the safety of conceptual design through simulation, several key parameters considered in this research are maximum impact force, energy dissipated by the impactor (e.g. a ship) and energy absorbed by the device and the impactor stroke. During impact, the main function of the ring beam structure is to resist and buffer the impact force between ship and bridge pile caps, which could guarantee that the magnitude of impact force meets the corresponding requirements. The means of improving anti-collision performance can be to increase the strength of the beam section or to exchange the steel material with novel fiber reinforced polymer laminates. The main function of the buoyancy tank is to absorb and transfer the ship’s kinetic energy through large plastic deformation, damage, or friction occurring within itself. The energy absorption effect can be improved by structure optimization or by the use of new sandwich panels. Structural and material optimization schemes are proposed on the basis of conceptual design in this research, and protective devices constructed of sandwich panels prove to have the best anti-collision performance

  14. Edge scour at scour protections around piles in the marine environment - Laboratory and field investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    they go from buried to the transition piece on the foundation. Although much information is available on the design of scour protection systems around monopiles, little is known on the mechanisms causing edge scour and the equilibrium stages of the edge scour process in steady current, waves and combined...

  15. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  16. Assessing pollution in marine protected areas: the role of a multi-biomarker and multi-organ approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; Campos, Sandro; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Sousa; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to many pressures, including pollution. However, environmental quality monitoring in these areas traditionally relies on only water chemistry and microbiological parameters. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of a set of biomarkers in different target organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of fish in order to assess the environmental quality of an MPA (MTs, GPx, GST, GSH, DNA damage, LPO, AChE, and condition index). Chemical analyses were also performed on liver and muscle tissues to evaluate metal body burdens, and PAHs were identified in bile. A demersal fish (Cathorops spixii) that is widely consumed by the local population was used as bioindicator species, and the results were integrated using multivariate analysis. The use of the biomarker approach allowed for the identification of both seasonal and spatial variations in pollution sources around the Environmental Protected Area of Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (APA-CIP). Higher metal body burdens associated with biological responses were found in the sites under the influence of urban areas during the dry season, and they were found in the sites under the influence of the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR) during the rainy season. The liver was found to be more responsive in terms of its antioxidant responses, whereas gills were found to be more responsive to biomarkers of effect. These results show that this set of biomarker analyses in different organs of fish is a useful tool for assessing chemical pollution in an MPA.

  17. A geological-acoustical framework for an integrated environmental evaluation in Mediterranean marine protected areas. Marettimo Island, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agate, M.; Catalano, R.; Chemello, R.; Lo Iacono, C.; Riggio, S.

    2003-04-01

    A GEOLOGICAL-ACOUSTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION IN MEDITERRANEAN MARINE PROTECTED AREAS. MARETTIMO ISLAND, A CASE STUDY. M. Agate (1), R. Catalano (1), R. Chemello (2), C. Lo Iacono (1) &S. Riggio (2) (1)Dipartimento di Geologia e Geodesia dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 26, 90123 Palermo, clageo@katamail.com, rcatal@unipa.it (2)Dipartimento di Biologia animale dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo,rchemello@unipa.it New analytical methods have been designed to support an objective quantitative evaluation of geological components whose results dictate the lines for a sustainable use of the natural resources. We tried to adopt the fundaments of the seascape concept, based on the thematic elements of landscape ecology and translated into terms fitting with the principles of coastal ecology. The seascape concept is central to our view of the environment and is referred to as an integrated unit (Environmental Unit) resulting from a long multidisciplinary approach, carried out in both the field and the laboratory by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Side Scan Sonar and Multi Beam acoustical data collected in the Marettimo and Ustica Islands (south-western Tyrrhenian Sea))inner shelves, make possible to sketch geomorphological and sedimentological maps, whose details have been tested as deep as 45 m in diving surveys. On the basis of the collected data sets, the inner shelf (0-60 m) has been subdivided into different portions, following the concept of the Environmental Unit (E.U). Every E.U. presents constant morphological and sedimentological features that, probably, can be associated to specified biological communities. In order to find the relationships between physical settings and communities, geological thematic maps are eventually overlaid and fitted to macrobenthic and fishery spatial distribution maps. The result, based on the rule of the Environmental Impact Assessment, puts into evidence the

  18. A Review of Marine Growth Protection System (MGPS) Options for the Royal Australian Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    shipboard hypochlorite generators operate by piping sea water (from the vessel in-take) through an electrolyser cell (electrochlorinator) where a low voltage...experiences and trial results derived from power station cooling systems, ship ballast water treatments and industrial water treatment and...the water ).  The use of multiple point ozone injection into seawater systems as well as the sea chest as a preventative strategy to protect

  19. Chitosan nanoparticles from marine squid protect liver cells against N-diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2017-09-01

    Rationale of this study was framed to investigate the protective effect and anti-cancer property of nanoparticles based on chitosan isolated from squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, on hepatic cells in N-Nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. The results conferred that the chitosan nanoparticle supplementation had a protective effect on liver cells by reducing the levels of marker enzymes and bilirubin and thus increasing the albumin levels. The level of reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol significantly increased in both post- and pre-treatment with chitosan nanoparticles. The levels of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced and lipid peroxidation products were diminished while treating nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma with chitosan nanoparticles. Supplementation of chitosan nanoparticles had potent anti-hyperlipidemic property that was evidenced by monitoring the serum lipid levels and its components. Animals pre-treated with chitosan nanoparticles along with nitrosodiethylamine showed a significant reduction in the total cholesterol and triglycerides levels with increase in the levels of phospholipids and free fatty acids. Chitosan nanoparticles treated rats showed significant increment in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduction in low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol when compared with levels in nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Nitrosodiethylamine-induced carcinoma changes on circulation and hepatic antioxidant defense mechanism were regulated by chitosan nanoparticles, concluding that the chitosan nanoparticles have a potent protective effect on liver cells which might be due to its robust antioxidant and anti-lipidemic property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fishing inside or outside? A case studies analysis of potential spillover effect from marine protected areas, using food web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colléter, Mathieu; Gascuel, Didier; Albouy, Camille; Francour, Patrice; Tito de Morais, Luis; Valls, Audrey; Le Loc'h, François

    2014-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented worldwide as an efficient tool to preserve biodiversity and protect ecosystems. We used food web models (Ecopath and EcoTroph) to assess the ability of MPAs to reduce fishing impacts on targeted resources and to provide biomass exports for adjacent fisheries. Three coastal MPAs: Bonifacio and Port-Cros (Mediterranean Sea), and Bamboung (Senegalese coast), were used as case studies. Pre-existing related Ecopath models were homogenized and ecosystem characteristics were compared based on network indices and trophic spectra analyses. Using the EcoTroph model, we simulated different fishing mortality scenarios and assessed fishing impacts on the three ecosystems. Lastly, the potential biomass that could be exported from each MPA was estimated. Despite structural and functional trophic differences, the three MPAs showed similar patterns of resistance to simulated fishing mortalities, with the Bonifacio case study exhibiting the highest potential catches and a slightly inferior resistance to fishing. We also show that the potential exports from our small size MPAs are limited and thus may only benefit local fishing activities. Based on simulations, their potential exports were estimated to be at the same order of magnitude as the amount of catch that could have been obtained inside the reserve. In Port Cros, the ban of fishing inside MPA could actually allow for improved catch yields outside the MPA due to biomass exports. This was not the case for the Bonifacio site, as its potential exports were too low to offset catch losses. This insight suggests the need for MPA networks and/or sufficiently large MPAs to effectively protect juveniles and adults and provide important exports. Finally, we discuss the effects of MPAs on fisheries that were not considered in food web models, and conclude by suggesting possible improvements in the analysis of MPA efficiency.

  1. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Benthic habitat and fish assemblage structure from shallow to mesophotic depths in a storm-impacted marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesamis, Rene A.; Langlois, Tim; Birt, Matthew; Thillainath, Emma; Bucol, Abner A.; Arceo, Hazel O.; Russ, Garry R.

    2018-03-01

    Baseline ecological studies of mesophotic coral ecosystems are lacking in the equatorial Indo-West Pacific region where coral reefs are highly threatened by anthropogenic and climate-induced disturbances. Here, we used baited remote underwater video to describe benthic habitat and fish assemblage structure from 10 to 80 m depth at Apo Island, a well-managed marine protected area in the Philippines. We conducted surveys 2 yr after two storms (in 2011 and 2012) caused severe damage to shallow coral communities within the no-take marine reserve (NTMR) of Apo Island, which led to declines in fish populations that had built up over three decades. We found that hard coral cover was restricted to the storm-impacted NTMR and a nearby fished area not impacted by storms. Benthic cover at mesophotic depths (> 30 m) was dominated by sand/rubble and rock (dead coral) with low cover of soft corals, sponges and macroalgae. Storm damage appeared to have reached the deepest limit of the fringing reef (40 m) and reduced variability in benthic structure within the NTMR. Species richness and/or abundance of most trophic groups of fish declined with increasing depth regardless of storm damage. There were differences in taxonomic and trophic structure and degree of targeting by fisheries between shallow and mesophotic fish assemblages. Threatened shark species and a fish species previously unreported in the Philippines were recorded at mesophotic depths. Our findings provide a first glimpse of the benthic and fish assemblage structure of Philippine coral reef ecosystems across a wide depth gradient. This work also underscores how a combination of limited coral reef development at mesophotic depths close to shallow reefs and severe habitat loss caused by storms would result in minimal depth refuge for reef fish populations.

  3. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  4. Drivers of redistribution of fishing and non-fishing effort after the implementation of a marine protected area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Reniel B; Gaines, Steven D; Johnson, Brett A; Bell, Tom W; White, Crow

    2017-03-01

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is increasingly utilized to sustainably manage ocean uses. Marine protected areas (MPAs), a form of spatial management in which parts of the ocean are regulated to fishing, are now a common tool in MSP for conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries. However, the use of MPAs in MSP often neglects, or simplifies, the redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities inside and outside of MPAs following their implementation. This redistribution of effort can have important implications for effective MSP. Using long-term (14 yr) aerial surveys of boats at the California Channel Islands, we examined the spatial redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities and their drivers following MPA establishment. Our data represent 6 yr of information before the implementation of an MPA network and 8 yr after implementation. Different types of boats responded in different ways to the closures, ranging from behaviors by commercial dive boats that support the hypothesis of fishing-the-line, to behaviors by urchin, sport fishing, and recreational boats that support the theory of ideal free distribution. Additionally, we found that boats engaged in recreational activities targeted areas that are sheltered from large waves and located near their home ports, while boats engaged in fishing activities also avoided high wave areas but were not constrained by the distance to their home ports. We did not observe the expected pattern of effort concentration near MPA borders for some boat types; this can be explained by the habitat preference of certain activities (for some activities, the desired habitat attributes are not inside the MPAs), species' biology (species such as urchins where the MPA benefit would likely come from larval export rather than adult spillover), or policy-infraction avoidance. The diversity of boat responses reveals variance from the usual simplified assumption that all extractive boats respond similarly to MPA

  5. Management of fisheries in harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) marine protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    , Member States are obliged to nominate candidate protected areas in their waters to the EU Commission and within six years establish legislation to implement them as special areas of conservation and prepare management plans. Up to this point in time, however, no such management plans exist. This Ph...... thus be used as a tool to identify areas of porpoise bycatch risk and thereby support the management of both fisheries and harbour porpoises in accordance with the Habitats Directive. Thirdly, the behaviour of porpoises in relation to two different pinger types with different acoustic properties.......D. thesis focuses on research methods and management tools, which can contribute to a better scientific understanding in the preparation of fisheries management plans for Natura2000 sites designated for harbour porpoises. Firstly, it investigates the potential use of CCTV cameras to document bycatch...

  6. book reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    book reviews. Self-testing in ... This book is a useful tool for registrar trainees and practising psy- chiatrists alike. ... sultation service and is a Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard. Medical ... It is recommended as a study aid and provides the ideal ...

  7. Book Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... Book Review. World Health Organization 2003. Price Not Available. ISBN 9241545755. This is a paperback book updating three earlier WHO publications namely: • General Surgery at the District Hospital,. • Surgery at the District Hospital,. • Obstetric/Gynecology, Orthopedics/Traumatology, and Anesthesia ...

  8. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powicke, J. C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews of 10 recent books and one new journal ("Catalyst: A Journal of Policy Debate") are provided. Topics of the books reviewed include: economics in modern Britain, world economics, the mixed economy, Milton Friedman's thought, British industry, economic issues, and London as a financial center. (JDH)

  9. Research, protection and evaluation of Sicilian and Mediterranean marine cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Tusa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater archaeology in the Mediterranean should be based on a comprehensive, deep knowledge of a wide context of cultural environment. It is impossible to carry out an in-depth study of a specific wreck or site without having an overall cultural as well as historical perspective. It is, in fact, quite clear to everybody that even the most faraway shores of the Mediterranean were connected by means of a dense network of sea routes based on a rich trade throughout the centuries. But underwater archaeology also means the chance to understand the past environment due to the possibility of detecting ancient sea shores which nowadays are found below sea level. Today underwater archaeology also means deep sea research in extraterritorial waters. This aspect of underwater archaeological research is deeply connected with legal aspects that, in the framework of the recently approved UNESCO draft regarding the protection of underwater cultural heritage, should be planned according to international cooperation. 109 Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage Sicily has a great role in Mediterranean underwater archaeology because of its history and heritage, but also because Regional Government plays an important role in international debate in this field and because in Sicily a great impulse has been given to underwater archaeology research and cultural evaluation through the Soprintendenza del Mare

  10. Book Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phillip M. Morse and Herman Feshbach, Professors of Physics at the MIT, published their biblical-sized textbook ‘Methods of Theoretical Physics’ with McGraw-Hill in May 1953. At 1978 pages and published in two books, it is an intimidating twin tome that should still be atop the reading lists or the bookshelves of every mathematical physicist. What material is covered in this book? In the most concise of terms, this book is devoted to the study of differential equations and associated boundary conditions that describe physical fields. The thirteen chapters address what circumstances warrant the use of which differential equations, and most often addresses the question of coordinate system transformations, for example, how do Green's functions for Laplace's Equation transform under different coordinate systems? Under what circumstances the solutions can be expected to be separable? Many examples are covered to illustrate these points. Why is this book relevant to Software Programmers? This book is part of the background that any scientific programmer is likely to need in dealing with physical fields. This book was written before personal computers became ubiquitous, however it is still an outstanding effort to tie the methods of solving differential equations governing fields together in one book. The book never received a second edition, however, it was reprinted to an outstanding standard by Feshbach Publishing since 2004, run by the children of Herman Feshbach. Their website is feshbachpublishing.com. The majority of this review is a mini-commentary of the book showing what is covered in a very terse fashion, which may be useful as a summary even for those who have already read the full text. I then give a brief analysis of the approach to mathematical physics taken by the book. Finally, I will discuss who will benefit from reading this magnificent treatise, nearly 60 years after it was first published.

  11. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy: Constraint analysis for population conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. COPPA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy. During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was to provide a detailed map of the distribution of P. ferruginea and to investigate the effects of accessibility, wave exposure and slope of the coast on its occurrence. Patella ferrugineashowed the lowest mean density ever reported (0.02 ind/m and a unimodal population structure characterised by fewer females and juveniles. Accessibility had a major negative effect on the occurrence of P. ferruginea. Exposure was also an important factor in influencing its density, size composition and specimen position within the mesolittoral, while the slope had little influence. Morphometric analysis showed the dominance of the Rouxi form, while the Lamarcki form was confined to exposed sites. Our results demonstrate a highly endangered population of P. ferruginea and suggest that human pressure represents the main risk factor.

  12. Fish assemblages in a coastal bay adjacent to a network of marine protected areas in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pereira Cattani

    Full Text Available Abstract Baía Norte (North Bay in Santa Catarina State is considered a typical coastal bay and is surrounded by a network of Marine Protected Areas. The objectives of this study were to describe the composition of the demersal fish assemblage, identify seasonal and spatial structures on a fine scale and evaluate the role of habitat descriptors and abiotic variables affecting the fish assemblage structure. Seasonal samplings were conducted in 2005, using bottom trawls in six pre-established areas in Baía Norte in summer, fall, winter and spring. Simultaneously with each trawl, environmental data were collected with a multiparameter probe. Temporal and spatial differences in fish abundance were tested by a PERMANOVA. To illustratethe differences detected graphically we ran a canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP. The influence of environmental variables on the fish fauna was evaluated using a Distant Based Linear Model (DistLM with Akaike's information criterion (AIC. A total of 9,888 specimens, distributed in 27 families and 62 species, were collected. Citharichthys spilopterus was the most abundant species. PERMANOVA detected differences for abundance between seasons, areas and interaction among all the factors. The DISTLM selected temperature and pH. The results highlight seasonality as an important factor in the structuring of fish fauna of the study place.

  13. Marine protected areas in areas beyond national jurisdiction
    The pioneering efforts under the OSPAR Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Molenaar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The international community has committed itself to establishing a coherent network of marine protected areas (MPAs by 2012. This network should also extend to areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ, namely the high seas and the ‘Area’ (the seabed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. This article examines the pioneering efforts of OSPAR to establish MPAs in ABNJ in the North-East Atlantic Ocean. In that connection, OSPAR has to work out how to deal with the applicable international governance and regulatory framework, most importantly the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS and the various ‘competent’ international organizations functioning thereunder. The article’s most important conclusion is that an effective regime for ABNJ in general and also for holistic MPAs in ABNJ requires complementary action at the global and regional levels. OSPAR’s pioneering approach may, if pursued carefully – among other things by respecting the competence of other global and regional bodies – have a decisive impact on the development of the global legal regime in respect of the role of regional environmental organizations in the management of ABNJ.

  14. Loggerhead sea turtle bycatch data in artisanal fisheries within a marine protected area: fishermen surveys versus scientific observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Loggerhead sea turtles can be incidentally captured by artisanal gears but information about the impact of this fishing is inconsistent and scarce. Recent studies have observed that the bycatch, or incidental catch rate, in fishermen surveys is irregular. The aim of this study was to compare direct data (onboard observers concerning the incidental catch of loggerhead sea turtles by the artisanal vessels versus data from fishermen surveys. The study area was the Cabo de Gata-Níjar marine protected area, situated in the western Mediterranean (southeast of the Iberian peninsula. We observed two loggerhead turtles that were incidentally caught in a total of 165 fishing operations. According to fishermen surveys, a total of nine loggerheads were incidentally caught in 861 fishing operations. The differences between the loggerhead sea turtle bycatch reported by fishermen surveys and scientific observations versus random distribution (x2 = 0.3146, P = 0.575, df = 1 were not significant. We conclude that the surveys are useful but that findings should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Distribution and abundance of phytobenthic communities: Implications for connectivity and ecosystem functioning in a Black Sea Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berov, Dimitar; Todorova, Valentina; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Rinde, Eli; Karamfilov, Ventzislav

    2018-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of macroalgal communities in a Marine Protected Area (MPA) along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast were mapped and quantified, with particular focus on the previously unstudied P. crispa lower-infralittoral communities on Ostrea edulis biogenic reefs. Data from high resolution geophysical substrate mapping were combined with benthic community observations from georeferenced benthic photographic surveys and sampling. Multivariate analysis identified four distinct assemblages of lower-infralittoral macroalgal communities at depths between 10 and 17 m, dominated by Phyllophora crispa, Apoglossum ruscifoluim, Zanardinia typus and Gelidium spp. Maxent software analysis showed distinct preferences of the identified communities to areas with specific ranges of depth, inclination and curvature, with P. crispa more frequently occurring on vertical oyster biogenic reef structures. By combining production rates from literature, biomass measurements and the produced habitat maps, the highest proportion of primary production and DOC release was shown for the upper infralittoral Cystoseira barbata and Cystoseira bosphorica, followed by the production of the lower-infralittoral macroalgae. The observed distribution of P. crispa within the studied MPA was related to the network of Natura 2000 maritime MPAs along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, which indicated that the connectivity of the populations of the species within the established network is insufficient within this cell of ecosystem functioning.

  16. Sources and distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons in a tropical marine protected area estuary under influence of sugarcane cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda-Santos, Roxanny Helen de; Schettini, Carlos Augusto França; Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi; Maciel, Daniele Claudino; Zanardi-Lamardo, Eliete

    2018-05-15

    Goiana estuary is a well preserved marine protected area (MPA) located on the northeastern coast of Brazil. Despite its current state, human activities in the watershed represent a potential threat to long term local preservation. Dissolved/dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in water and sediments across the estuarine salt gradient. Concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons was low in all samples. According to results, aromatic hydrocarbons are associated to suspended particulate matter (SPM) carried to the estuary by river waters. An estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) was identified in the upper estuary, indicating that both sediments and contaminants are trapped prior to an occasional export to the adjacent sea. PAHs distribution in sediments were associated with organic matter and mud content. Diagnostic ratios indicated pyrolytic processes as the main local source of PAHs that are probably associated with sugarcane burning and combustion engines. Low PAH concentrations probably do not cause adverse biological effects to the local biota although their presence indicate anthropogenic contamination and pressure on the Goiana estuary MPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of mangrove ecosystem service functions of Ximen Island Marine Specially Protected Areas in Yueqing Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. G.; Sun, L.; Tan, Y. H.; Shi, A. Q.; Cheng, J.

    2017-08-01

    Taking the mangrove ecosystem of Ximen Island National Marine Specially Protected Areas as the research object, the ecological service value of the mangrove forest was evaluated and analyzed using a market value method, an ecological value method and a carbon tax method. The results showed that the ecosystem service value of the mangrove forest on Ximen Island is worth a total of 16,104,000 CNY/a. Among the value of individual ecosystem services, the direct value of material production function and leisure function reached 1,385,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 8.6%. The indirect value of disturbance regulation, gas regulation, water purification, habitat function and culture research reached 14,719,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 91.4%. Among the above sub-items, the proportion of disturbance regulation value, habitat function value and cultural research function value reached 78.8%, which reflects the important scientific value and ecological value of the Ximen Island mangrove ecosystem, especially its vital importance in providing a habitat for birds and playing a role in disaster prevention and mitigation.

  18. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Amorim

    Full Text Available Abstract This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13, in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area ‘Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras – MoNa Cagarras’, describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats are used to set three types of gillnets: “Corvineira” (target species – whitemouth croaker, “linguadeira” (target species – flounders and “rede-alta” (target species – bluefish. Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher’s local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone.

  19. Improved protection system for phase faults on marine vessels based on ratio between negative sequence and positive sequence of the fault current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Hong, Qiteng; Booth, Campbell

    2018-01-01

    algorithm is implemented in a programmable digital relay embedded in a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test set-up that emulates a typical maritime feeder using a real-time digital simulator. The HIL set-up allows testing of the new protection method under a wide range of faults and network conditions......This study presents a new method to protect the radial feeders on marine vessels. The proposed protection method is effective against phase–phase (PP) faults and is based on evaluation of the ratio between the negative sequence and positive sequence of the fault currents. It is shown...... that the magnitude of the introduced ratio increases significantly during the PP fault, hence indicating the fault presence in an electric network. Here, the theoretical background of the new method of protection is firstly discussed, based on which the new protection algorithm is described afterwards. The proposed...

  20. Revetements nanostructures pour la protection des metaux dans les environnements marins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Jean-Denis

    'adherence serait diminuee. Le fait que le revetement B possede un ARF plus eleve que le revetement A, alors qu'ils ont un angle de contact semblable, a 1° pres, est explique par le fait que la valeur des hauteurs des microrugosites Rrms y est plus elevee. Les essais d'accumulation en embruns marins ont permis d'observer que le revetement superhydrophobe accumulait moins de glace que ceux hydrophobe et hydrophile. Cette diminution peut s'expliquer par le fait que les gouttelettes d'eau surfondues vont rouler sans y adherer a cause de la nature superhydrophobe. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Temporal variation on environmental variables and pollution indicators in marine sediments under sea Salmon farming cages in protected and exposed zones in the Chilean inland Southern Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Mauricio A

    2016-12-15

    The impacts of any activity on marine ecosystems will depend on the characteristics of the receptor medium and its resilience to external pressures. Salmon farming industry develops along a constant gradient of hydrodynamic conditions in the south of Chile. However, the influence of the hydrodynamic characteristics (weak or strong) on the impacts of intensive salmon farming is still poorly understood. This one year study evaluates the impacts of salmon farming on the marine sediments of both protected and exposed marine zones differing in their hydrodynamic characteristics. Six physico-chemical, five biological variables and seven indexes of marine sediments status were evaluated under the salmon farming cages and control sites. Our results identified a few key variables and indexes necessary to accurately evaluate the salmon farming impacts on both protected and exposed zones. Interestingly, the ranking of importance of the variables and the temporality of the observed changes, varied depending on the hydrodynamic characteristics. Biological variables (nematodes abundance) and environmental indexes (Simpson's dominance, Shannon's diversity and Pielou evenness) are the first to reflect detrimental impacts under the salmon farming cages. Then the physico-chemical variables such as redox, sulphurs and phosphorus in both zones also show detrimental impacts. Based on the present results we propose that the hydrodynamic regime is an important driver of the magnitude and temporality of the effects of salmon farming on marine sediments. The variables and indexes that best reflect the effects of salmon farming, in both protected and exposed zones, are also described. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. BOOK MANAGERS CHOICE BOOKS RECEIVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The receipt of these books is acknowledged, and this listing must be regarded as sufficient return for the courtesy of the sender. Books that appear to be of particular interest will be reviewed as space permits. The SAMJ does not publish unsolicited reviews. ABO-incompatible Kidney Transplantation... By Kota. Takahashi.

  3. Conserving biodiversity in a human-dominated world: degradation of marine sessile communities within a protected area with conflicting human uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Parravicini

    Full Text Available Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM, that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.

  4. Marine environment protection of the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Special report - February 2004; Meeresumweltschutz fuer Nord- und Ostsee. Sondergutachten - Februar 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The marine environment of the North Sea and Baltic Sea is still heavily polluted. The marine ecosystems are under severe stress from overfishing, water pollution, raw materials production and tourism. Environmental protection in this region necessitates decisive political initiatives and strict corrections especially in fishery policy, agricultural policy and chemical substances control. This is the balance of the special expert opinion of the Council of Environmental Experts. The publication specifies the main problem areas, the current pollution situation, the fields where action is most urgently required - especially in fishery, chemical substances, agricultural and sea travel policies - and presents suggestions for an integrated European and national marine protection policy including a regional development concept for the marine environment. (orig.) [German] Die Meeresumwelt von Nord- und Ostsee ist nach wie vor stark belastet. Ueberfischung, Schadstoffeintraege und Ueberduengung sowie die intensive Nutzung durch Schifffahrt, Rohstoffabbau und Tourismus beeintraechtigen vielfach massiv die marinen Oekosysteme. Ein wirksamer Meeresumweltschutz erfordert daher einschneidende politische Initiativen und grundlegende Korrekturen insbesondere in der Fischereipolitik, der Agrarpolitik und bei der Chemikalienregulierung. Diese Bilanz zieht der Rat von Sachverstaendigen fuer Umweltfragen in seinem aktuellen Sondergutachten 'Meeresumweltschutz fuer Nord- und Ostsee'. Das Sondergutachen - gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die wichtigsten Problemfelder und die aktuelle Belastungslage, - zeigt den wesentlichen Handlungsbedarf auf, insbesondere fuer die Fischerei-, Chemikalien-, Agrar- und Schifffahrtspolitik und - entwickelt Vorschlaege fuer eine integrierte europaeische und nationale Meeresschutzpolitik einschliesslich einer Merresraumordnung. (orig.)

  5. Oil spill response in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The rapid economic development of many countries since World War II has caused a considerable increase in marine transportation of raw materials, especially of crude oils and in offshore activities. However, a significant amount of oil comes into the sea from operational discharges of ships (ballast and bilge water) as well as from incidents such as collisions, groundings and contacts, and offshore exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. These incidents have been the pivotal points in the approach of maritime nations to the protection of the marine environment through international legislation and implementation of rigorous requirements concerning the construction and exploitation of ships and offshore platforms, limiting the possibility and extent of oil spills. A new danger for marine environments has ensued recently though the increasing maritime transport of chemicals. The aim of this book is to introduce these problems, and reflect the level and trends of development in this field. (Author)

  6. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, D.J.; Duedall, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods

  7. Principles of Biofouling Protection in Marine Sponges: A Model for the Design of Novel Biomimetic and Bio-inspired Coatings in the Marine Environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, W.E.G.; Wang, X.; Proksch, P.; Perry, C.C.; Osinga, R.; Gardères, J.; Schröder, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    The process of biofouling of marine structures and substrates, such as platforms or ship hulls, proceeds in multiple steps. Soon after the formation of an initial conditioning film, formed via the adsorption of organic particles to natural or manmade substrates, a population of different bacterial

  8. 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-29

    The 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  9. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2015 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  10. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp; Tian, Tian

    2016-11-01

    The 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  11. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  12. Orange Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence (Orange Book or OB) is a list of drugs approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act...

  13. Book review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feminist scholarly circles, who acted as editors, consulting editors, project co- ... The organization of the book posed numerous difficulties to the editors, ... informs the reader, Mvemve was "keen to have Western science confirm the efficacy.

  14. Book Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The second edition of Computational Physics by Rubin Landau, Manuel Paez and Cristian C. Bordeianu (published by Wiley hit bookshelves in 2007, and is steadily making its way into physics classrooms across the United States. Your reviewer first encountered the book at the Stanford Campus Book Store, where it is presumably being put to good use by students and faculty. The first edition was published in 1997 with Landau and Paez as authors [Computational Physics, 1st edn, Wiley, New York, 1997]. Rubin Landau is a very experienced computational physicist and staff member of the Oregon State University in Corvallis, where he directs the Computational Physics for Undergraduates course and teaches using this book. Landau is an incredibly active teacher to put it mildly – the code for the book is supplied in an accompanying DVD and he also posts applets and video lectures for his courses on his web page (http://www.physics.orst.edu/~rubin/.

  15. Book Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Book Review. Water Resources Management in Ethiopia: Implications for the Nile Basin. ... general to specific issues within the Ethiopian context. ... properly made with regard to water source, ... of those of Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda,.

  16. Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevers, Jan G. P. W.

    2018-05-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and timely overview on all aspects of hyperspectral remote sensing combined with various applications. As such, it is an excellent book of reference for both students and professionals active in the field of optical remote sensing. It deals with all aspects of retrieving quantitative information on biophysical properties of the Earth's surface, the data corrections needed and the range of analysis approaches available.

  17. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Ninoslav; Motik, Boris; Šribar, Julijan; Bažant, Alen; Kos, Mladen; Glavinić, Vlado

    1996-01-01

    The PC System Architecture Series of books from MindShare, one of the leading technical training companies in the hardware industry, includes the following titles: ISA System Architecture, EISA System Architecture, 486 System Architecture, Pentium Processor System Architecture, Plug&Play System Architecture, Power PC System Architecture, PCI System Architecture, PCMCIA SystemArchitecture. Each of them is a powerful reference book for one particular type of chip or hardware, with the character...

  18. 78 FR 19002 - Marine Mammal Protection Act; Draft Revised Stock Assessment Reports for Two Stocks of West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... animals which will result in the maximum productivity of the population or the species, keeping in mind... which significant new information is available, and (c) at least once every 3 years for all other stocks... Science, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Marine Technology Society Journal, Wildlife Monographs, Gulf and...

  19. Discovery that theonellasterol a marine sponge sterol is a highly selective FXR antagonist that protects against liver injury in cholestasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Renga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The farnesoid-x-receptor (FXR is a bile acid sensor expressed in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Despite FXR ligands are under investigation for treatment of cholestasis, a biochemical condition occurring in a number of liver diseases for which available therapies are poorly effective, mice harboring a disrupted FXR are protected against liver injury caused by bile acid overload in rodent models of cholestasis. Theonellasterol is a 4-methylene-24-ethylsteroid isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Here, we have characterized the activity of this theonellasterol on FXR-regulated genes and biological functions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Interrogation of HepG2 cells, a human hepatocyte cell line, by microarray analysis and transactivation assay shows that theonellasterol is a selective FXR antagonist, devoid of any agonistic or antagonistic activity on a number of human nuclear receptors including the vitamin D receptor, PPARs, PXR, LXRs, progesterone, estrogen, glucorticoid and thyroid receptors, among others. Exposure of HepG2 cells to theonellasterol antagonizes the effect of natural and synthetic FXR agonists on FXR-regulated genes, including SHP, OSTα, BSEP and MRP4. A proof-of-concept study carried out to investigate whether FXR antagonism rescues mice from liver injury caused by the ligation of the common bile duct, a model of obstructive cholestasis, demonstrated that theonellasterol attenuates injury caused by bile duct ligation as measured by assessing serum alanine aminostrasferase levels and extent of liver necrosis at histopathology. Analysis of genes involved in bile acid uptake and excretion by hepatocytes revealed that theonellasterol increases the liver expression of MRP4, a basolateral transporter that is negatively regulated by FXR. Administering bile duct ligated mice with an FXR agonist failed to rescue from liver injury and downregulated the expression of MRP4. CONCLUSIONS: FXR antagonism in vivo

  20. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. © 2015 John Wiley

  1. Monitoring the habitat use of common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus using passive acoustics in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. LA MANNA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Tursiops truncatus subpopulation has been classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because of its decline. This species in coastal areas is exposed to a wide variety of threats: directed kills, bycatch, reduced prey availability caused by environmental degradation and overfishing, habitat degradation including disturbances from boat traffic and noise. Despite the increase in boat traffic in the Mediterranean Sea, the effect on T. truncatus’ habitat use has been studied in little detail and few data have been published. This study represents the first attempt to characterise spatial and temporal habitat use by T. truncatus and its relation to boat traffic in the Isole Pelagie Marine Protected Area (Italy on the basis of an originally developed passive acoustic monitoring system (PAM. The devices were deployed in 2 areas in the southern waters of Lampedusa, during 2 separate years (2006 and 2009, each time for 3 months (from July to September and in 6 time slots (3 diurnal and 3 nocturnal. Acoustic analysis showed that T. truncatus used the Southern coastal area of Lampedusa independently of the year, primarily during the early summer, a period coinciding with the peak of calving season. Dolphin occurrences appeared independent of boat traffic, with the exception of the smallest temporal scale (time slots: dolphin occurrences were more prevalent during the night when the level of boat traffic was lower. This study provides evidence on T. truncatus habitat use in the Mediterranean Sea and reveals that boat traffic could be one of the factors influencing it, thus stressing the need for further detailed investigation regarding this topic.

  2. BOOK MANAGER'S CHOICE BOOKS RECEIVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progression from qualitative to quantitative methods. He begins with an ethnography of concepts of mental illness held by care providers from both the ... research methods for the southern African context. I heartily recommend this book.

  3. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  4. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Ahlbäck

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Four book reviews are included in this issue of Approaching Religion:The Process of Buddhist-Christian Dialogue (2009 by Paul O. Ingram is reviewed by Dr Teuvo Laitila. The book deals with contemporary dialogues between Buddhists and Christians, mainly in the West, by applying a three-part perspective denoted conceptual, engaged and internal.Producing Islamic Knowledge. Transmission and Dissemination in Western Europe (2010 by Martin van Bruinessen and Stefano Allievi is reviewed by Dr Jeanette Jouili. The book investigates into Islamic knowledge production taking place in the contemporary European context, from a theoretical as well as from a richly varied empirical perspective.Grounding Religion. A Field Guide to the Study of Religion and Ecology (2011 by Whitney A. Bauman, Richard R. Bohannon II and Kevin J. O’Brien is reviewed by MA Laura Wickström. The book provides an introduction to the field of religion and ecology with special emphasis on interreligious co-operation.Mirakel, mysterier och moraliteter. Från puritanism till New Age – en religionshistorisk studie av Helen Shucman och A Course in Miracles (2010 is reviewed by Dr Tore Ahlbäck. The book is a doctoral thesis analysing the history of creation behind the highly influential spiritual guide A Course in Miracles (1965–72 and its originator Helen Shucman.

  5. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  6. Book reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2004-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this book, important developments in biotechnology and mushroom production made a new, revised version necessary. As it is written for the mushroom industry, it emphasizes on nutritional, medical, and cultivating aspects of edible and medicinal fungi. A

  7. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Alan; Goldin, Ian; Colman, David; Bickerton, Thomas W.; Beghin, John C.; Croci-Angelini, Elisabetta

    1992-01-01

    Books reviewed include: Principles of Agricultural Economics by D. Colman and T. Young; World Agriculture: Toward 2000 by Nikos Alexandratos; Food Subsidies in Developing Countries: Costs, Benefits and Policy Options; Elasticities in International Agricultural Trade by Colin A. Carter and W. H. Gardiner; Macroeconomics, Agriculture and Exchange Rates; Government and Agriculture in Western Europe, 1880-1988 by M. Tracy

  8. Book review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2003-01-01

    This book is entirely dedicated to the functional role of fungi in all kind of ecosystems, and it attempts to show how the world would function if fungi were not there. It is conceived as an introduction to the subject for students in mycology and ecology. The introductory chapters deal with

  9. Book reviews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publication of the Ethiopian atlas (see below). There is no serious competition for this book for the countries it covers, but I suspect it will become invaluable for many strictly East African birders too, given the high degree of overlap, the improved illustrations and the coverage of some potential vagrants to the south.

  10. BOOK REVIEWS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a story of the marvel of human life from conception to birth. Although the book was designed for young readers, it is suitable for use by anybody who wishes to know about our conception, development and birth. It can be appreciated at several levels. Firstly, it is a fascinating story, told simply and with wise.

  11. Book review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review. * Professor of Higher Education Studies, Centre for Higher and Adult Education, University of Stellenbosch. Email: mfourie@sun.ac.za. Worldwide, the composition of the student population in higher education has over the past two decades changed dramatically. With larger numbers of previously underserved.

  12. Book Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    At the turn of the millennium, a new phenomenon emerged: conservatives, who just decades before had rejected the expanding human rights culture, began to embrace human rights in order to advance their political goals. In this book, Nicola Perugini and Neve Gordon account for how human rights--gen...

  13. BOOKS JBOEKE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This book is about the poor in South Africa and how to achieve some redistribution ... nature of the zero-sum-game economic wars and plunder- ing ofthe 16th - 18th ..... no course in basic neurosciences taught to the level where this would be ...

  14. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews three books: (1) "Jeux Populaires Traditionnels pour les Enfants d'aujourd'hui" (Traditional Popular Games for Today's Children) (Jacqueline Theriault and Denise Garon); "Early Childhood Education" (B. Persky and L. Golubchick, editors); and "Playing to Learn: The Young Child, Teacher and the Classroom" (Weininger and Daniel). (AC)

  15. Book Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angela

    The book in review tells many tales of looting, rape and murder of prominent. Nuba figures as well as ordinary Nuba folk. As the government is increasing pressure on them, the Nuba are proving to be more resilient than ever to ensure their posterity. The picture that dominates the front cover may easily be overlooked by.

  16. Book review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The book ends with a section on the most sought-after bird of. Ethiopia, a brief discussion of the best sites where to find them, and a complete, indexed list of the country's birds. The keen combination of text, maps, lists and superb pictures makes 'Birding Ethiopia' an outstanding birding site guide that deserves a place on ...

  17. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  18. Book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC Thomas

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available This book appears to the present reviewer to be, if not the, at least a definitive volume for students of work motivation, whether organizational behaviourists or practising managers. This field has grown rapidly as the main focus of Organizational Psychology since Vroom's (1964 enunciation of a tenable theory of work motivation and satisfaction.

  19. Book review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review. * Dr Birgit Schreiber is the Director of the Centre for Student Support Services at the University of the. Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. Email: bschreiber@uwc.ac.za. Manuel Castells (2001), who is regarded as one of the most influential social scientists commenting on the role of higher education in ...

  20. Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Laurel A.

    2005-01-01

    Terje Hillesund points out that "information technology and especially the Internet have profoundly changed the ways of publishing." Recently, the book publishing industry has started to catch up, making digitized texts--including multimedia texts--available for sale through online bookstores, and in some cases, available for free downloading.…

  1. Book review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2003-01-01

    The Mycena specialist Robich, known from many publications, created his magnum opus with the present book, which, according to the title, covers all species known from Europe. Although many of his observations are based on southern European collections, his studies extended to other parts of Europe

  2. Banning Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trede, Mildred

    1991-01-01

    The "Game of Decisions" is presented to encourage students to consider the consequences of banning books and/or ideas. The game involves story writing, creating probability graphs, writing a letter protesting censorship from a chosen historical period, and examining a controversial science issue. Three thesis statements for generating group…

  3. Books received

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Books. Outcomes into Clinical Practice. Ed. by Tony Delamothe. Pp. xii + 164. Illustrated. London: BMJ. 1994. ISBN 0-7279-0888-X. At a recent conference which attracted a range of health professionals from the private and public sectors and examined South Africa's current and future health options, an eminent Australian ...

  4. Digital books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2011-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books.

  5. Book review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contributions to the authoritative bibliography of the scholarly writings on the literatures of the English - speaking world. As he states in the preface to the book, Abodunrin's aim in doing this is to make a compendium of reviews of. "scholarly writing on all aspects of African literature in English'' available to students, teachers ...

  6. Book notice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1999-01-01

    FOCKO WEBERLING & WILHELM TROLL: Die Infloreszenzen Band II, Teil 2, Monotele und polytele Synfloreszenzen. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, Germany, 1998. 483 pp., illus. ISBN 3-437-35436-1. Price: DEM 238. A new volume in the monumental series of books on inflorescences in the tradition of Troll’s

  7. Book review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work under review is Jack Mapanje's third volume of verse after Of Chameleons ... with which the new book opens, 'The Following Dawn the Boots', talks about the first ... 'St Margaret Chitherow of York', the poet acknowledges that his host country too has ... primary audience and learn to adjust his sights accordingly.

  8. Book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss academic publishing house 'Presses Polytechniques Universitaires Romandes'will be presenting its most recent scientific and technical publications at a book fair in the lobby of the Main Building (60) from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday 28 September 2006.

  9. BOOK REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as middlemen between writers and readers through lack of creativity and aggressiveness. Authors are not used to promote the sales of their books, and there is no attempt on the part of the publisher to take advantage of such forms of popular advertisement as newspapers, radio and television. Besides, there is a general ...

  10. book review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organisational structures and institutional policy. A number of universities in Africa have started to conduct student engagement/student experience surveys. This volume provides the theoretical underpinning for it while outlining how these theories were arrived at in the first place. However, a potential weak point of the book ...

  11. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Colin; Harvey, D. R.; Lane, S.

    1988-01-01

    Books Reviewed: The Economics of Oil Palm; Agricultural Policy Formation in the European Community: The Birth of Milk Quotas and CAP Reform by M. Petit, M. de Benedictis, D. Britton, M. de Groot, W. Henrichsmeyer, and F. Lechi; Agriculture's Future: America's Food System by T. L. Wallace

  12. Example book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnat, Ph.; Treimany, C.; Gouedard, C.; Morice, O.

    1998-06-01

    This document presents some examples which were used for debugging the code. It seemed useful to write these examples onto a book to be sure the code would not regret; to give warranties for the code's functionality; to propose some examples to illustrate the possibilities and the limits of Miro. (author)

  13. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Christopher C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Scholarly reviews of nine books are presented. Topics include nuclear deterrence, urban planning in France, human rights in the Republic of China, the United States' support of Israel, U. S. military policy, an analysis of Rousseau's social contract, political influences on the U. S. presidency, the state and political theory, and the loss of…

  14. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  15. Benthic and fish population monitoring associated with a marine protected area in the nearshore waters of Grenada, Eastern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Anderson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual benthic and fish population surveys were completed at five locations in the nearshore waters along Grenada´s southwest coast during 2008-2010. Two survey sites are located in a newly launched Marine Protected Area (MPA. Photo Quadrat (PQ and Point Line Intercept (PLI surveys were used to determine substrate cover. Algae was the primary live cover increasing significantly from 45.9% in 2008 to 52.7% in 2010 (PLI. Algae was also predominant (61.0%-59.3% in the PQ surveys although annual variation was not significant. Hard coral cover ranged from 16.5% to 15.4% (PLI and 11.4% to12.0% (PQ with no significant differences between years. Branching and encrusting corals occurred more frequently than massive corals. In the three annual surveys neither algal cover nor hard coral varied significantly between MPA and non-protected areas (PLI. Relative abundance of fishes along 30x2m belt transects did not vary significantly among years however density of fishes decreased significantly across years for most major groups. Chromis spp. dominated the survey sites at 65.2% in 2008 and 49.8% in 2010, followed by territorial damselfish,11.1% and 15.5%, wrasse increased from 7.3% to 15.5%. Both the substrate cover and fish survey data analyses indicated a stable but degraded community. Annual surveys are planned at these sites for the foreseeable future. Existing and future data from this project will be valuable in determining the efficacy of MPA management, guiding resource management decisions and monitoring the health status of Grenada’s valuable reef systemsUn estudio sobre poblaciones bentónicas y de peces fue realizado en cinco localidades en la zona costera en el suroeste de Grenada entre 2008 y 2010. Dos sitios se ubicaron en una Área Marina Portegida (AMP recientemente creada. Para determinar la cobertura se utilizaron foto-cuadrantes (FQ y transectos de intersección de puntos (TIP. Las algas fueron el principal componente del bentos

  16. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  17. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  18. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  19. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  20. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  1. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  2. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrusciel, P. T.

    2006-06-01

    Most of us sometimes have to face a student asking: 'What do I need to get started on this'. (In my case 'this' would typically be a topic in general relativity.) After thinking about it for quite a while, and consulting candidate texts again and again, a few days later I usually end up saying: read this chapter in book I (but without going too much detail), then that chapter in book II (but ignore all those comments), then the first few sections of this review paper (but do not try to work out equations NN to NNN), and then come back to see me. In the unlikely event that the student comes back without changing the topic, there follows quite a bit of explaining on a blackboard over the following weeks. From now on I will say: get acquainted with the material covered by this book. As far as Isham's book is concerned, 'this' in the student's question above can stand for any topic in theoretical physics which touches upon differential geometry (and I can only think of very few which do not). Said plainly: this book contains most of the introductory material necessary to get started in general relativity, or those branches of mathematical physics which require differential geometry. A student who has mastered the notions presented in the book will have a solid basis to continue into specialized topics. I am not aware of any other book which would be as useful as this one in terms of the spectrum of topics covered, stopping at the right place to get sufficient introductory insight. According to the publisher, these lecture notes are the content of an introductory course on differential geometry which is taken by first-year theoretical physics PhD students, or by students attending the one-year MSc course 'Quantum Fields and Fundamental Forces' at Imperial College, London. The volume is divided into six chapters: An Introduction to Topology Differential Manifolds Vector Fields and n-Forms Lie Groups Fibre Bundles Connections in a Bundle. It is a sad reflection on current

  3. Book Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Joseph L.

    1987-04-01

    Progress in the fields of integrated optics and fiber optics is continuing at a rapid pace. Recognizing this trend, the goal of the author is to provide an introductory textbook on time-harmonic electromagnetic theory, with an emphasis on optical rather than microwave technologies. The book is appropriate for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate course. Each chapter includes examples of problems. The book focuses on several areas of prime importance to intergrated optics. These include dielectric waveguide analysis, couple-mode thoery, Bragg scattering, and prism coupling There is very little coverage of active components such as electro-optic modulators and switches. The author assumes the reader has a working knowledge of vector calculus and is familiar with Maxwell's equations.

  4. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  5. The Impacts of Human Visitation on Mussel Bed Communities Along the California Coast: Are Regulatory Marine Reserves Effective in Protecting These Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jayson R.; Fong, Peggy; Ambrose, Richard F.

    2008-04-01

    Rocky intertidal habitats frequently are used by humans for recreational, educational, and subsistence-harvesting purposes, with intertidal populations damaged by visitation activities such as extraction, trampling, and handling. California Marine Managed Areas, particularly regulatory marine reserves (MRs), were established to provide legal protection and enhancement of coastal resources and include prohibitions on harvesting intertidal populations. However, the effectiveness of MRs is unclear as enforcement of no-take laws is weak and no regulations protect intertidal species from other detrimental visitor impacts such as trampling. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine impacts from human visitation on California mussel populations ( Mytilus californianus) and mussel bed community diversity; and (2) to investigate the effectiveness of regulatory MRs in reducing visitor impacts on these populations. Surveys of mussel populations and bed-associated diversity were compared: (1) at sites subjected to either high or low levels of human use, and (2) at sites either unprotected or with regulatory protection banning collecting. At sites subjected to higher levels of human visitation, mussel populations were significantly lower than low-use sites. Comparisons of mussel populations inside and outside of regulatory MRs revealed no consistent pattern suggesting that California no-take regulatory reserves may have limited effectiveness in protecting mussel communities. In areas where many people visit intertidal habitats for purposes other than collecting, many organisms will be affected by trampling, turning of rocks, and handling. In these cases, effective protection of rocky intertidal communities requires an approach that goes beyond the singular focus on collecting to reduce the full suite of impacts.

  6. Book Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Filippone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Arjen Markus is a veritable tour de force among the possibilities opened up by the latest incarnation of Fortran, the longest-lived programming language on the planet and still one of the favourites by scientific programmers. It is not an introduction to the syntax and semantics of the latest language standard: it is more of a gourmet cookbook showing off a wide range of examples of what the new features allow a daring programmer to do.

  7. Book reviews

    OpenAIRE

    NN

    2004-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this book, important developments in biotechnology and mushroom production made a new, revised version necessary. As it is written for the mushroom industry, it emphasizes on nutritional, medical, and cultivating aspects of edible and medicinal fungi. A short introduction deals with a definition of fungi and the world of fungi, including edible and poisonous species, and the relation between fungi and man. Two chapters deal with edible and medicin...

  8. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-01-01

    -Bill Maurer, Mimi Sheller, Consuming the Caribbean: From Arawaks to Zombies. New York: Routledge, 2003. ix + 252 pp. -Norman E. Whitten, Jr., Richard Price ,The root of roots: Or, how Afro-American anthropology got its start. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press/University of Chicago Press, 2003. 91 pp., Sally Price (eds) -Holly Snyder, Paolo Bernardini ,The Jews and the expansion of Europe to the West, 1450-1800. New York: Berghahn Books, 2001. xv + 567 pp., Norman Fiering (eds) -Bridget Brereto...

  9. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Mancusi-Materi

    2002-01-01

    Book reviews: Helmore, K. and N. Singh, Sustainable Livelihoods – Building on the Wealth of the poor (reviewed by Elena Mancusi-Materi); Scoones, I (ed.), Dinamics and Diversity: Soil fertility and farming livelihoods in africa (reviewed by Elena Mancusi-Materi); Uphoff, N. (ed.), Agroecological Innovations – Increasing Food Production with Pariciatory Development (reviewed by Elena Mancusi-Materi); Marten, G.G., Human Ecology, Basic Concepts for Sustianable Development (reviewed by Siobhán K...

  10. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folacci, Antoine; Jensen, Bruce

    2003-12-01

    Thanks to its impressive success in the second half of the 20th century, both in high-energy physics and in critical phenomena, quantum field theory has enjoyed an abundant literature. We therefore greet yet another book on this subject with caution: what can a monograph on quantum field theory bring now that is new, either conceptually or pedagogically? But when it is written by a physicist such as Bryce DeWitt, who has made his own contribution to the collection of field theory books with The Global Approach to Quantum Field Theory, all suspicion is naturally abandoned. One knows in advance that this book can only lead to a genuine enrichment of the literature. DeWitt has made a formidable contribution to various areas of physics: general relativity, the interpretation of quantum mechanics, and most of all the quantization of non-Abelian gauge theories and quantum gravity. In addition, his pedagogical publications, especially the Les Houches schools of 1963 and 1983 [1, 2], have had a great impact on quantum field theory. All this makes the reader keen to pick up his new work and a deeper reading confirms the reviewer's initial enthusiasm. We must begin by alerting the potential readers of this book that it cannot be compared to any other book in the field (unless of course we are talking about references [1] and [2], of which the book under review is an extension and reworking). This uniqueness applies to both the scientific content and the way the ideas are presented. A quick description of this book and a brief explanation of its title should convince the reader of the book's unique quality. For DeWitt, a central concept of field theory is that of `space of histories'. For a field varphii defined on a given spacetime M, the set of all varphii(x) for all x in all charts of M defines its history. It is the space Phi of all possible histories (dynamically allowed or not) of the fields defined on M which is called the `space of histories' by DeWitt. If only

  11. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    , Wildlife Sanctuaries, Marine Parks and Protected Areas. Detailed studies of 37 sites along the Maharashtra Coast, for their marine biota and also the ecological conditions, were taken up. Out of these, seven most luxuriant areas in marine biodiversity have...

  12. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Steven R; Raber, George T; Roberts, Jason J; Treml, Eric A; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  13. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Schill

    Full Text Available We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  14. The role of boundary organizations in co-management: examining the politics of knowledge integration in a marine protected area in Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noella J. Gray

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs are an increasingly popular tool for management of the marine commons. Effective governance is essential if MPAs are to achieve their objectives, yet many MPAs face conflicts and governance challenges, including lack of trust and knowledge integration between fishers, scientists, and policy makers. This paper considers the role of a boundary organization in facilitating knowledge integration in a co-managed MPA, the Gladden Spit and Silk Cayes Marine Reserve in Belize. Boundary organizations can play an important role in resource management, by bridging the science-policy divide, facilitating knowledge integration, and enabling communication in conditions of uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Belize, the paper identifies four challenges for knowledge integration. First, actors have divergent perspectives on whether and how knowledge is being integrated. Second, actors disagree on resource conditions within the MPA and how these should be understood. Third, in order to maintain accountability with multiple actors, including fishers, government, and funders, the boundary organization has promoted the importance of different types of knowledge for different purposes (science and fishers’ knowledge, rather than the integration of these. Finally, a lack of trust and uneven power relations make it difficult to separate knowledge claims from political claims. However, even if knowledge integration proves difficult, boundary organizations may still play an important role by maintaining accountability, providing space for conflicting understandings to co-exist, and ultimately for governance institutions to evolve.

  15. Macrobenthos in anthropogenically influenced zones of a coralline marine protected area in the Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, S.; Vijapure, T.; Mulik, J.; Rokade, M.A.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    . Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series 28, pp. 1-190. Fauchald, K., Jumars, P.A., 1979. The diet of worms: a study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 17, 193-284. Ferraro, S.P., Cole, F...

  16. Negotiation and Decision Making with Collaborative Software: How MarineMap 'Changed the Game' in California's Marine Life Protected Act Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Amanda E

    2016-02-01

    Environmental managers and planners have become increasingly enthusiastic about the potential of decision support tools (DSTs) to improve environmental decision-making processes as information technology transforms many aspects of daily life. Discussions about DSTs, however, rarely recognize the range of ways software can influence users' negotiation, problem-solving, or decision-making strategies and incentives, in part because there are few empirical studies of completed processes that used technology. This mixed-methods study-which draws on data from approximately 60 semi-structured interviews and an online survey--examines how one geospatial DST influenced participants' experiences during a multi-year marine planning process in California. Results suggest that DSTs can facilitate communication by creating a common language, help users understand the geography and scientific criteria in play during the process, aid stakeholders in identifying shared or diverging interests, and facilitate joint problem solving. The same design features that enabled the tool to aid in decision making, however, also presented surprising challenges in certain circumstances by, for example, making it difficult for participants to discuss information that was not spatially represented on the map-based interface. The study also highlights the importance of the social context in which software is developed and implemented, suggesting that the relationship between the software development team and other participants may be as important as technical software design in shaping how DSTs add value. The paper concludes with considerations to inform the future use of DSTs in environmental decision-making processes.

  17. Negotiation and Decision Making with Collaborative Software: How MarineMap `Changed the Game' in California's Marine Life Protected Act Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Amanda E.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental managers and planners have become increasingly enthusiastic about the potential of decision support tools (DSTs) to improve environmental decision-making processes as information technology transforms many aspects of daily life. Discussions about DSTs, however, rarely recognize the range of ways software can influence users' negotiation, problem-solving, or decision-making strategies and incentives, in part because there are few empirical studies of completed processes that used technology. This mixed-methods study—which draws on data from approximately 60 semi-structured interviews and an online survey—examines how one geospatial DST influenced participants' experiences during a multi-year marine planning process in California. Results suggest that DSTs can facilitate communication by creating a common language, help users understand the geography and scientific criteria in play during the process, aid stakeholders in identifying shared or diverging interests, and facilitate joint problem solving. The same design features that enabled the tool to aid in decision making, however, also presented surprising challenges in certain circumstances by, for example, making it difficult for participants to discuss information that was not spatially represented on the map-based interface. The study also highlights the importance of the social context in which software is developed and implemented, suggesting that the relationship between the software development team and other participants may be as important as technical software design in shaping how DSTs add value. The paper concludes with considerations to inform the future use of DSTs in environmental decision-making processes.

  18. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespignani, A.

    2004-09-01

    Networks have been recently recognized as playing a central role in understanding a wide range of systems spanning diverse scientific domains such as physics and biology, economics, computer science and information technology. Specific examples run from the structure of the Internet and the World Wide Web to the interconnections of finance agents and ecological food webs. These networked systems are generally made by many components whose microscopic interactions give rise to global structures characterized by emergent collective behaviour and complex topological properties. In this context the statistical physics approach finds a natural application since it attempts to explain the various large-scale statistical properties of networks in terms of local interactions governing the dynamical evolution of the constituent elements of the system. It is not by chance then that many of the seminal papers in the field have been published in the physics literature, and have nevertheless made a considerable impact on other disciplines. Indeed, a truly interdisciplinary approach is required in order to understand each specific system of interest, leading to a very interesting cross-fertilization between different scientific areas defining the emergence of a new research field sometimes called network science. The book of Dorogovtsev and Mendes is the first comprehensive monograph on this new scientific field. It provides a thorough presentation of the forefront research activities in the area of complex networks, with an extensive sampling of the disciplines involved and the kinds of problems that form the subject of inquiry. The book starts with a short introduction to graphs and network theory that introduces the tools and mathematical background needed for the rest of the book. The following part is devoted to an extensive presentation of the empirical analysis of real-world networks. While for obvious reasons of space the authors cannot analyse in every detail all the

  19. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimondo, Ennio

    2004-07-01

    For many years the Institute of Physics has published books on hot topics based on a collection of reprints from different journals, including some remarks by the editors of each volume. The book on Optical Angular Momentum, edited by L Allen, S M Barnett and M J Padgett, is a recent addition to the series. It reproduces forty four papers originally published in different journals and in a few cases it provides direct access to works not easily accessible to a web navigator. The collection covers nearly a hundred years of progress in physics, starting from an historic 1909 paper by Poynting, and ending with a 2002 paper by Padgett, Barnett and coworkers on the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon. The field of optical angular momentum has expanded greatly, creating an interdisciplinary attraction for researchers operating in quantum optics, atomic physics, solid state physics, biophysics and quantum information theory. The development of laser optics, especially the control of single mode sources, has made possible the specific design of optical radiation modes with a high degree of control on the light angular momentum. The editors of this book are important figures in the field of angular momentum, having contributed to key progress in the area. L Allen published an historical paper in 1999, he and M J Padgett (together with M Babiker) produced few years ago a long review article which is today still the most complete basic introduction to the angular momentum of light, while S M Barnett has contributed several high quality papers to the progress of this area of physics. The editors' choice provides an excellent overview to all readers, with papers classified into eight different topics, covering the basic principles of the light and spin and orbital angular momentum, the laboratory tools for creating laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum, the optical forces and torques created by laser beams carrying angular momentum on

  20. Reefs and islands of the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean: why it is the world’s largest no-take marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEPPARD, C. R. C.; ATEWEBERHAN, M.; BOWEN, B. W.; CARR, P.; CHEN, C. A.; CLUBBE, C.; CRAIG, M. T.; EBINGHAUS, R.; EBLE, J.; FITZSIMMONS, N.; GAITHER, M. R.; GAN, C-H.; GOLLOCK, M.; GUZMAN, N.; GRAHAM, N. A. J.; HARRIS, A.; JONES, R.; KESHAVMURTHY, S.; KOLDEWEY, H.; LUNDIN, C. G.; MORTIMER, J. A.; OBURA, D.; PFEIFFER, M.; PRICE, A. R. G.; PURKIS, S.; RAINES, P.; READMAN, J. W.; RIEGL, B.; ROGERS, A.; SCHLEYER, M.; SEAWARD, M. R. D; SHEPPARD, A. L. S.; TAMELANDER, J.; TURNER, J. R.; VISRAM, S.; VOGLER, C.; VOGT, S.; WOLSCHKE, H.; YANG, J. M-C.; YANG, S-Y.; YESSON, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Chagos Archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (MPA) in 2010; it covers 550 000 km2, with more than 60 000 km2 shallow limestone platform and reefs. This has doubled the global cover of such MPAs.It contains 25–50% of the Indian Ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world’s largest contiguous undamaged reef area. It has suffered from warming episodes, but after the most severe mortality event of 1998, coral cover was restored after 10 years.Coral reef fishes are orders of magnitude more abundant than in other Indian Ocean locations, regardless of whether the latter are fished or protected.Coral diseases are extremely low, and no invasive marine species are known.Genetically, Chagos marine species are part of the Western Indian Ocean, and Chagos serves as a ‘stepping-stone’ in the ocean.The no-take MPA extends to the 200 nm boundary, and. includes 86 unfished seamounts and 243 deep knolls as well as encompassing important pelagic species.On the larger islands, native plants, coconut crabs, bird and turtle colonies were largely destroyed in plantation times, but several smaller islands are in relatively undamaged state.There are now 10 ‘important bird areas’, coconut crab density is high and numbers of green and hawksbill turtles are recovering.Diego Garcia atoll contains a military facility; this atoll contains one Ramsar site and several ‘strict nature reserves’. Pollutant monitoring shows it to be the least polluted inhabited atoll in the world. Today, strict environmental regulations are enforced.Shoreline erosion is significant in many places. Its economic cost in the inhabited part of Diego Garcia is very high, but all islands are vulnerable.Chagos is ideally situated for several monitoring programmes, and use is increasingly being made of the archipelago for this purpose. PMID:25505830

  1. The importance of high-level predators in marine protected area management: Consequences of their decline and their potential recovery in the Mediterranean context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Prato

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-level predators have been depleted in the oceans worldwide following centuries of selective fishing. There is widespread evidence that high-level predators’ extirpation may trigger trophic cascades leading to the degradation of marine ecosystems. Restoration of large carnivores to former levels of abundance might lead to ecosystem recovery, but very few pristine ecosystems are left as baselines for comparison. Marine protected areas (MPAs can trigger initial rapid increases of high-level predator abundance and biomass. Nevertheless, long term protection is needed before the ecosystem's carrying capacity for large carnivores is approached and indirect effects on lower trophic levels are observed. The Mediterranean is probably very far from its pristine condition, due to a long history of fishing. Today small to medium-sized consumers (e.g. sea breams are the most abundant predators shaping coastal benthic communities, while historical reconstructions depict abundant populations of large piscivores and sharks inhabiting coastal areas. Mediterranean MPAs are following a promising trajectory of ecosystem recovery, as suggested by a strong gradient of fish biomass increase. Consistent monitoring methods to assess relative variations of high-level predators, together with food-web models aimed at disentangling the indirect effects of their recovery, could be useful tools to help set up appropriate management strategies of MPAs.

  2. Book Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Numerical Methods for Special Functions” by Gil, Seguar and Temme is a collection of methods and approaches for finding the most efficient and accurate ways of computing values of functions that have no general definition. “Numerical Methods for Special Functions” might appear at first glance to be a boring and perhaps dry subject for non-mathematicians, and indeed it is a little difficult to approach without being an expert in the area, but if you do find yourself in need of some hints for the best implementations available, this book might be a life saver.

  3. Golden book

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 19 October, CERN reached the climax of its Jubilee with the official celebration in the presence of very high representatives of the Member and Observer States. Above, one of the high moments of the day: the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain, Juan Carlos, and at his right the Director-General of CERN, Robert Aymar, the President of the Swiss Confederation, Joseph Deiss, and the President of the Republic of France, Jacques Chirac. A complete report of this event will be in the next issue of the Bulletin.

  4. Best Books 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 45 children's books and 29 young adult books selected by School Library Journal's Book Review staff and Young Adult Review committee, respectively. Arrangement is alphabetical by author with the grade level indicated for children's books. (EJS)

  5. Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-11-01

    Ever since the days of William Blake there has been an underground resistance against the soulless yet triumphant science and its unholy alliance with money, technology and political power. With the nearly undisputed hegemony that science and technological innovation has attained in the post-World War II era, this kind of resistance has resulted in numerous books and articles that in different ways warn against the dark sides of science and the socio-economic system that nourishes a science in degeneration. Classical examples include Herbert Marcuse's One-Dimensional Man (1964), Jacques Ellul's The Technological Society (1965), Theodore Roszak's The Making of a Counter Culture (1968), and Paul Feyerabend's Science in a Free Society (1978). A fair part of the literature written by sociologists and philosophers is not only critical to trends in modern science, but tends to or is overtly anti-science. The book under review belongs in some respects to this heterogeneous literary tradition, but Twilight of the Scientific Age is primarily directed against the institutional system of science and its associated ideology and not against science itself. Indeed, the author is himself a practicing scientist, an astrophysicist, and he emphasizes several times that he firmly believes in science, even that he loves it. He is not a "stupid cultural relativist," he asserts (p. 11), but a critical freethinker independent of dogmatic beliefs.

  6. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Steve

    2008-11-01

    The Polish physicist Józio (Joseph, Josh, Jo) Rotblat was catapulted into the public eye when he (and the 'Pugwash Conferences' organization) received the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize. His life prior to that had been most distinguished but conducted well out of the public eye. Born and raised as a Jewish physicist in pre-World War II Poland, and thus potentially educationally disadvantaged, he battled away for education and scientific achievement. He came to Liverpool University just before the outbreak of World War II, worked in James Chadwick's laboratory on the early beginnings of neutron fission physics, moved to Los Alamos to take part in the US-UK collaborative Manhattan Project to build a nuclear bomb and was motivated by a desire to rid Poland of Nazi 'racial cleansing'. On realizing the US-UK goal was somewhat wider, he resigned this work and dedicated his life to the peaceful uses of radiation and the campaigns to rid the world of the potential world-eliminating possibility of nuclear war. For this purpose he interacted with Albert Einstein and Bertrand Russell, and in July 1957 founded the 'Pugwash Conferences', named for a small fishing village in Nova Scotia, Canada where the first was held. Along the way his personal life was no less dramatic. Cruel events conspired, and his wife Tola remained in Poland and was killed in the Nazi extermination camp at Majdanek. He grieved for his beloved Poland and those left behind or unaccounted for. He was suspected by some Americans of being a spy and had his personal papers and family artefacts impounded. After the war he was Professor of Medical Physics at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London for 30 years up to retirement. After John Roberts, he was the second editor of this journal Physics in Medicine and Biology from 1961-72 (see e.g. Bob Burns' paper in our 50th birthday issue, 2006. Kit Hill's little book which chronicles the life and times of Rotblat weaves together the key events in his personal and professional

  7. Ocean Futures Under Ocean Acidification, Marine Protection, and Changing Fishing Pressures Explored Using a Worldwide Suite of Ecosystem Models

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Olsen; Isaac C. Kaplan; Cameron Ainsworth; Gavin Fay; Sarah Gaichas; Robert Gamble; Raphael Girardin; Cecilie H. Eide; Thomas F. Ihde; Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna; Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna; Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna; Kelli F. Johnson; Marie Savina-Rolland; Howard Townsend

    2018-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of the ocean considers all impacts on and uses of marine and coastal systems. In recent years, there has been a heightened interest in EBM tools that allow testing of alternative management options and help identify tradeoffs among human uses. End-to-end ecosystem modeling frameworks that consider a wide range of management options are a means to provide integrated solutions to the complex ocean management problems encountered in EBM. Here, we leverage the glo...

  8. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, E.

    2006-09-01

    The motion of a charged particle interacting with its own electromagnetic field is an area of research that has a long history; this problem has never ceased to fascinate its investigators. On the one hand the theory ought to be straightforward to formulate: one has Maxwell's equations that tell the field how to behave (given the motion of the particle), and one has the Lorentz-force law that tells the particle how to move (given the field). On the other hand the theory is fundamentally ambiguous because of the field singularities that necessarily come with a point particle. While each separate sub-problem can easily be solved, to couple the field to the particle in a self-consistent treatment turns out to be tricky. I believe it is this dilemma (the theory is straightforward but tricky) that has been the main source of the endless fascination. For readers of Classical and Quantum Gravity, the fascination does not end there. For them it is also rooted in the fact that the electromagnetic self-force problem is deeply analogous to the gravitational self-force problem, which is of direct relevance to future gravitational wave observations. The motion of point particles in curved spacetime has been the topic of a recent Topical Review [1], and it was the focus of a recent Special Issue [2]. It is surprising to me that radiation reaction is a subject that continues to be poorly covered in the standard textbooks, including Jackson's bible [3]. Exceptions are Rohrlich's excellent text [4], which makes a very useful introduction to radiation reaction, and the Landau and Lifshitz classic [5], which contains what is probably the most perfect summary of the foundational ideas (presented in characteristic terseness). It is therefore with some trepidation that I received Herbert Spohn's book, which covers both the classical and quantum theories of a charged particle coupled to its own field (the presentation is limited to flat spacetime). Is this the text that graduate students

  9. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, E.

    2005-10-01

    The ever growing relevance of general relativity to astrophysics and cosmology continues to motivate the publication of new textbooks which put the theory in a fresh perspective informed by recent developments. In the last few years we have witnessed the appearance of two new books which reflect this trend, and which stand proud among the classic relativity texts. While the 1970s were the decade of Weinberg [1] and Misner et al [2], and the 80s the decade of Schutz [3] and Wald [4], this is clearly the decade of Hartle [5] and Carroll. Hartle has introduced a novel pedagogical approach to teaching general relativity, which he convincingly argues [6] should be done in the standard undergraduate physics curriculum. His 'physics-first approach' emphasizes physical phenomena and minimizes mathematical formalism. Hartle achieves a lot by introducing only the spacetime metric and the geodesic equation, which are the main tools needed to explore curved spacetime and extract physical consequences. To be sure, to explain how the metric is obtained in the first place does require a background of differential geometry and the formulation of the Einstein field equations. But in Hartle's book this material is wisely presented at a later stage, after an ample sampling of the physics of curved spacetime has motivated the need for the advanced mathematics. Carroll follows instead the traditional route, what Hartle calls the 'math-first approach', in which one introduces first the required mathematical formalism and only then derives the physical consequences. He is, of course, in good company, as this is the method followed in all existing textbooks (with Hartle's being the sole exception). Carroll's approach may not be original, but it is tried and true, and the result of Carroll's efforts is an excellent introduction to general relativity. The book covers the standard topics that would be found in virtually all textbooks (differential geometry, the field equations, linearized

  10. Lobster and cod benefit from small-scale northern marine protected areas: inference from an empirical before–after control-impact study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben Moland; Knutsen, Halvor; Garrigou, Pauline; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Kleiven, Alf Ring; André, Carl; Knutsen, Jan Atle

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented as tools to conserve and manage fisheries and target species. Because there are opportunity costs to conservation, there is a need for science-based assessment of MPAs. Here, we present one of the northernmost documentations of MPA effects to date, demonstrated by a replicated before–after control-impact (BACI) approach. In 2006, MPAs were implemented along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast offering complete protection to shellfish and partial protection to fish. By 2010, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) had increased by 245 per cent in MPAs, whereas CPUE in control areas had increased by 87 per cent. Mean size of lobsters increased by 13 per cent in MPAs, whereas increase in control areas was negligible. Furthermore, MPA-responses and population development in control areas varied significantly among regions. This illustrates the importance of a replicated BACI design for reaching robust conclusions and management decisions. Partial protection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was followed by an increase in population density and body size compared with control areas. By 2010, MPA cod were on average 5 cm longer than in any of the control areas. MPAs can be useful management tools in rebuilding and conserving portions of depleted lobster populations in northern temperate waters, and even for a mobile temperate fish species such as the Atlantic cod. PMID:23303544

  11. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  12. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherds, P.

    2005-03-01

    This book achieves what its subtitle indicates. The author skilfully weaves together the story of Bragg's life and of the scientific developments with which he was most closely involved. The author has a good understanding of Bragg's scientific work which he explains in considerable detail, with a number of diagrams reproduced from Bragg's papers, and manages to convey the excitement generated by Bragg's discoveries. The salient points of Bragg's life are well known. He was born and brought up in Australia and is still the youngest ever winner of a Nobel prize (though Josephson did his seminal work at a comparable age, it took many years for him to get his Prize). From 1914 to 1918 Bragg was involved with acoustic methods of detecting enemy guns. From 1919 to 1938 he was Professor of Physics in Manchester, and for about a year he was Director of the National Physical Laboratory. He then went to Cambridge as Cavendish Professor until 1953, when he moved to the Royal Institution (where his father had been). While an undergraduate at Cambridge 'Bragg's most influential teacher was...C T R Wilson [Nobel Laureate, 1927]...[whose] lectures "were the best, and delivery the worst, of any lectures to which I have ever been. He mumbled facing the board, he was very hesitant in his delivery, and yet the way he presented the subject was quite brilliant'' '. One wonders how long Wilson's inspirational teaching would survive today, with continual inspections and the requirement to satisfy the demands of the jobsworths. Bragg's comments on this would make interesting reading! Bragg was a very successful public lecturer on science. He made use of vivid analogies, many of which are quoted by Hunter. Since this book is published by Oxford University Press, I hope that some of them may appear in future editions of The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. (Bragg is included in Mackay's A Dictionary of Scientific Quotations (Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing)). There are too many

  13. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, C.

    2005-10-01

    The most difficult unsolved problem in fundamental theoretical physics is the consistent implementation of the gravitational interaction into a quantum framework, which would lead to a theory of quantum gravity. Although a final answer is still pending, several promising attempts do exist. Despite the general title, this book is about one of them - loop quantum gravity. This approach proceeds from the idea that a direct quantization of Einstein's theory of general relativity is possible. In contrast to string theory, it presupposes that the unification of all interactions is not needed as a prerequisite for quantum gravity. Usually one divides theories of quantum general relativity into covariant and canonical approaches. Covariant theories employ four-dimensional concepts in its formulation, one example being the path integral approach. Canonical theories start from a classical Hamiltonian version of the theory in which spacetime is foliated into spacelike hypersurfaces. Loop quantum gravity is a variant of the canonical approach, the oldest being quantum geometrodynamics where the fundamental configuration variable is the three-metric. Loop quantum gravity has developed from a new choice of canonical variables introduced by Abhay Ashtekar in 1986, the new configuration variable being a connection defined on a three-manifold. Instead of the connection itself, the loop approach employs a non-local version in which the connection is integrated over closed loops. This is similar to the Wilson loops used in gauge theories. Carlo Rovelli is one of the pioneers of loop quantum gravity which he started to develop with Lee Smolin in two papers written in 1988 and 1990. In his book, he presents a comprehensive and competent overview of this approach and provides at the same time the necessary technical background in order to make the treatment self-contained. In fact, half of the book is devoted to 'preparations' giving a detailed account of Hamiltonian mechanics, quantum

  14. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcher, J.

    2006-10-01

    This book is a find. Mariño meets the challenge of filling in less than 200 pages the need for an accessible review of topological gauge / gravity duality. He is one of the pioneers of the subject and a clear expositor. It is no surprise that reading this book is a great pleasure. The existence of dualities between gauge theories and theories of gravity remains one of the most surprising recent discoveries in mathematical physics. While it is probably fair to say that we do not yet understand the full reach of such a relation, the impressive amount of evidence that has accumulated over the past years can be regarded as a substitute for a proof, and will certainly help to delineate the question of what is the most fundamental quantum mechanical theory. As has been the case in the past, it is in the context of Witten's 'topological' quantum theories that the mathematical framework is well enough established to firmly ground, and fully benefit from, the development of the physical theories. This book makes an important contribution to this new chapter in the math / physics interaction. There are two main instances of topological gauge/gravity duality. In the A-model, Chern Simons gauge theory on the 3-sphere is related to the closed topological string theory on the local Calabi Yau 3-fold {\\mathcal O}_{{\\mathbb P}^1}(-1) \\oplus{\\mathcal O}_{{\\mathbb P}^1} (-1), also known as the resolved conifold (Gopakumar-Vafa duality). In the B-model, certain types of matrix models are related on the gravity side to topological strings on certain cousins of the deformed conifold (Dijkgraaf-Vafa duality). In both cases, and similarly to the more physical AdS/CFT correspondence, the duality can be discovered by realizing the gauge theory as the target space theory of open strings ending on particular D-branes in a geometry closely related to the closed string background of the gravity theory. The A-branes supporting Chern Simons theory are wrapped on the Lagrangian three

  15. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, W.

    2006-07-01

    The evaporation of a black hole formed by the collapse of matter is a nonunitary process involving loss of information. At least, this is how it appears in Hawking's semiclassical description, in which gravity is not quantized and the emergent radiation appears thermal. Since unitarity is one of the pillars of quantum mechanics there has been an understandable reluctance to accept this as an ironclad conclusion. Conformal field theories in flat space are manifestly unitary, and the AdS/CFT correspondence therefore suggests that the information trapped in the depths of the hole must find some way to escape—a conclusion almost universally accepted today, at least among particle theorists. Just how it could escape remains a mystery, however, since nothing can escape without violating causality until the black hole has shrunk too far to hold much information. Gerard 't Hooft and the senior author of this book, Leonard Susskind, have been vocal advocates of the view that the information paradox poses a real crisis for physics requiring significant paradigm shifts. They suggest that locality must be given up as an objective property of physical phenomena (even on large scales) and replaced by a new principle of 'black hole complementarity'. Specifically, there are two very different ways to view the process of collapse and evaporation. To a free-falling observer, nothing unusual happens at the horizon and matter and information fall deep into the hole. To a stationary observer hovering just outside the hole it appears instead that the matter and information are deposited on the horizon (which he experiences as very hot because of his large acceleration), to be eventually re-emitted from there as Hawking radiation. According to 't Hooft and Susskind, these must be viewed as equally valid, 'complementary' descriptions of the same process. Black hole complementarity is essentially the statement (supported by operational arguments) that their simultaneous validity cannot

  16. Neutrino book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, Michel

    1995-01-01

    André Rousset's book (in French - Gargamelle et les Courants Neutres - Ecole des Mines de Paris) tells the story of Gargamelle and the discovery at CERN in 1973 of neutral currents, the cornerstone of the electroweak theory. This vital discovery helped to give credence to the Standard Model of particle physics. Rousset is both an observer and one of the key figures in the story. His book is lively and well documented; in it he uses archive material to ensure the accuracy of his information on dates, choices and decisions. After an introduction to particle physics which puts into perspective the electroweak theory unifying weak and electromagnetic interactions, Rousset comes straight to the point. From the late 1950s onwards he was involved in the construction of the first heavy liquid bubble chambers by the BP1, BP2 and BP3 teams at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris. For Gargamelle a bigger laboratory was needed, and it was at the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) in Saclay that the chamber was designed by teams from the Saturne accelerator and the Ecole Polytechnique. However, the decision to build Gargamelle was taken in 1965 through the impetus of André Lagarrigue, in defiance of the normal CERN procedures. Gargamelle was then in competition with the other big bubble chamber project, BEBC; was it really necessary to build two big chambers? The decision by Francis Perrin and the CEA to contribute ''generously'' to the project was probably what swung the decision. Construction took five years, during which many problems were encountered, right up to the fault in the main part of the chamber which caused delays and, a few years later, was to prove fatal to the detector. As Rousset correctly states, Gargamelle was probably the first big detector designed to be built on industrial lines, in direct cooperation with industry. The reward: the first neutrino interaction was photographed on 28 January 1971

  17. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, J. B.

    2007-02-01

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference to a far better review article or book on modern

  18. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2007-05-01

    Here are two textbooks, both published by Springer and each roughly half devoted to cosmology—the large scale structure and evolution of the Universe. I can imagine a context (not the same context) in which each would be useful. And there the similarities largely end. Bergstrom and Goobar's (hereafter B&G) other topic is particle astrophysics, and they are addressing students who already have some knowledge of advanced quantum mechanics and classical field theory (or who can master some relativistic dynamics and the Dirac equation on the basis of a couple of very information-dense appendices). The book is meant for use at the graduate level, probably the second year by US standards (the authors are from Stockholm). Schneider (hereafter PS), on the other hand, begins with galaxies, and then alternates between cosmological topics of gradually increasing sophistication (expanding universe to CMB fluctuations) and additional galactic topics—clusters, quasars and all. The book is meant as the second half of an introductory astronomy/astrophysics course for physics majors, and in the US would fit into an upper division `capstone' course. Each is meant for a single semester class at the target level, and might be squeezed into a 10-week term with elimination of some topics. B&G is a paperback of a second edition, with colour confined to a central block of plates, relatively few graphs and drawings, but lots of complex equations. PS is a hard cover translation from a German original, with colour used freely in astronomical images and graphs throughout, with fewer and less complex equations. Though the nominal difference in copyright date is only two years (2006 for PS, 2004 for B&G), the former is considerably more up to date, mentioning, for instance, that the third year WMAP results are not different enough from the first year to justify redoing drawings and such (I agree). What can you expect to get if you buy one or both of these? B&G have a homepage of error

  19. Higher Abundance Of Marine Predators And Changes In Fishers’ Behavior Following Spatial Protection Within The World’s Biggest Shark Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Flora Jaiteh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries are complex social-ecological systems, where managers struggle to balance the socio-economic interests of fishing communities with the biology and ecology of fisheries species. Spatial closures are a popular measure to address conservation and fisheries management goals, including the protection of shark populations. However, very little research has been published on the effectiveness of shark-specific closures to protect sharks, or their impacts on fisher behavior. Situated within the global center of tropical marine biodiversity, Indonesia’s shark fishery contributes more to the international shark fin trade than any other nation. Here we evaluate the effect of shark-specific closures on sharks and other species of interest, as well as shark fishers’ responses to losing access to their former fishing grounds. We assessed shark diversity and abundance in an open access zone (OAZ and two No-Take Zones (NTZs of a Marine Protected Area within the recently established shark sanctuary in Raja Ampat, Indonesia, where sharks have high monetary value as a tourism attraction. Shark abundance was significantly higher in the privately managed NTZs than in the OAZ. Across all management zones, neither zone size, depth nor reef complexity explained variations in shark abundance, suggesting that governance is the main driver of successful shark conservation areas. These trends were also reflected in species targeted by small-scale reef fisheries, including snappers, emperor, groupers, tunas, mackerels, and large-bodied wrasse and parrotfish. Interviews with shark fishers who lost access to their primary fishing grounds when the shark sanctuary was established showed that while most fishers (88% knew that sharks were protected in Raja Ampat, many were unsure about the purpose of the sanctuary. Few fishers felt that the agencies implementing fishing bans understood their livelihood needs. We found that shark fishers adapted to the loss of former

  20. Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, James. B.

    2006-01-01

    Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X‐ and Gamma Ray Radiotherapy Facilities; National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP Report 151); Issued December 2005, ISBN‐13: 987‐0‐29600‐87‐1; Price $100 USD (hard copy), $80 (down loadable PDF), $170 (combined package)

  1. Marine tourism and the locations of protected turtles on Sukamade Beach, Meru Betiri National Park, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihadi, D. J.; Shofiyullah, A.; Dhahiyat, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The research was conducted in Sukamade Beach, Meru Betiri National Park, East Java. The purpose of this research was to identify marine tourism activity and to determine the differences in the characteristics of turtle-nesting beaches towards the number and species of turtles that came to the beach. Data collection conducted in August-September 2014. The method used in this research was a survey method at 7 reseach stations to collect primary data (biophysical characteristics) and secondary data. The Primary data was collected by monitoring turtles, width and slope of the beach, temperature, pH, moisture, sand texture, and beach vegetation conditions at each station. The results of the research shows that marine tourisms always involve tourists who attend to see turtle nesting, when turtles arrive at the beach, and turtles return to the sea, how large the turtles and how they lay eggs on the beach, and the release of little turtles (tukik). The number of turtles that landed from station 1 to station 7 is as many as 311 individuals of three species. The most dominant species of turtles that arrived at the beach is green turtle (Chelonia mydas), followed by olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivaceae) and leatherbacks turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

  2. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Goor

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, Christine Dobbin, Asian entrepreneurial minorities; Conjoint communities in the making of the world economy, 1570-1940. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1996, xiii + 246 pp. [Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series 71.] - Ian Brown, Fukuda Shozo, With sweat and abacus; Economic roles of Southeast Asian Chinese on the eve of World War II, edited by George Hicks. Singapore: Select Books, 1995, xii + 246 pp. - Ian Brown, George Hicks, Chinese organisations in Southeast Asia in the 1930s. Singapore: Select Books, 1996, xv + 168 pp. - Matthew I. Cohen, Laurie J. Sears, Shadows of empire; Colonial discourse and Javanese tales. Durham/London: Duke University Press, 1996, xxi + 349 pp. - J. van Goor, Anthony Reid, Southeast Asia in the age of commerce 1450-1680. Vol. II: Expansion and crisis. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1993, xv + 390 pp. - J. van Goor, Anthony Reid, Southeast Asia in the age of commerce 1450-1680. Vol. I: The lands below the winds. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1988, xvi + 275 pp. - David Henley, Saya S. Shiraishi, Young heroes; The Indnesian family in politics. Ithaca/New York: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program Publications, 1997, 183 pp. [Studies on Southeast Asia 22.] - Gerrit Knaap, P. Jobse, Bronnen betreffende de Midden-Molukken 1900-1942. Den Haag: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis, 1997. 4 volumes. Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, Kleine Serie, 81, 82, 83, 84. Volume 1 bewerkt door P. Jobse, 2 en 3 door Ch.F. van Fraassen, 4 door Ch.F van Fraassen en P. Jobse. xii + 578, xii + 578, xii + 711, x + 655, xi + 261 pp., Ch. F. van Fraassen (eds. - Indro Nugroho-Heins, Clara Brakel-Papenhuyzen, Classical Javanese dance; The Surakarta tradition and its terminology. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1995, xi + 252 pp. [Verhandelingen 155.] - László Sluimers, Shigeru Sato, War, nationalism and peasants; Java under the Japanese occupation, 1942-1945. Armonk, New

  3. Plastic Debris Occurrence, Convergence Areas and Fin Whales Feeding Ground in the Mediterranean Marine Protected Area Pelagos Sanctuary: A Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Fossi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is greatly affected by marine litter. In this area, research on the impact of plastic debris (including microplastics on biota, particularly large filter-feeding species such as the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, is still in its infancy. We investigated the possible overlap between microplastic, mesoplastic and macrolitter accumulation areas and the fin whale feeding grounds in in a pelagic Specially Protected Area of Mediterranean Importance (SPAMI: the Pelagos Sanctuary. Models of ocean circulation and fin whale potential habitat were merged to compare marine litter accumulation with the presence of whales. Additionally, field data on microplastics, mesoplastics, and macrolitter abundance and cetacean presence were simultaneously collected. The resulting data were compared, as a multi-layer, with the simulated distribution of plastic concentration and the whale habitat model. These data showed a high occurrence of microplastics (mean: 0.082 items/m2, STD ± 0.079 items/m2 spatial distribution agreed with our modeling results. Areas with high microplastic density significantly overlapped with areas of high macroplastic density. The most abundant polymer detected in all the sampling sites was polyethylene (PE, suggesting fragmentation of larger packaging items as the primary source. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the Pelagos Sanctuary in which the simulated microplastic distribution has been confirmed by field observations. The overlap between the fin whale feeding habitat and the microplastic hot spots is an important contribution for risk assessment of fin whale exposure to microplastics.

  4. Symbolic Representation and Protection of the Marine Landscape in the Natural Park of Cabo de Gata-Níjar (Almería- Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gaona Pisonero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This case study article centered on the Natural Park of Cabo de Gata-Níjar (Almería-España on the correspondence or mismatch between the virtual landscape representations and the socio-cultural reality of the protected natural space. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze the reconstruction of the natural market of Cabo de Gata Níjar in some sectors of the Spanish public sphere. The reflection focuses on the visibility of the virtual symbolic representative plains of space. The analysis of the results detects the virtual emic representations a reframing of the Park characterized by an on-line spectacular landscape. A dreamy exaltation in the emic representations virtual which practically invisibilizan real problems attacking against the coasts and reserve marine of this area. On the contrary, the media representation reflects with greater correspondence the dialectical reality of the landscape.

  5. Strategic approach for the promotion of an active participation in the IAEA program in the field of protection of the marine and terrestial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Han, Moon Hee

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the general attributes of the current IAEA programs and their prospects in the arena of protection of the marine and terrestrial environment, thus responding to a need to attain a consolidated understanding of the Agency's programs for an effective and efficient deployment of the respective national R and D projects in Korea. In addition, the considerable and beneficial benefits from a participation in the IAEA programs have been analyzed and their immediate relevance has been emphasized. A strategy for the enhancement of an active participation in the program and its efficient implementation has also been established. It is expected that the suggested recommendations such as the long term strategy and the relevant guidelines will be helpful in establishing a nuclear policy for the further development of the international cooperative projects in the future

  6. Investigating the Marine Protected Areas most at risk of current-driven pollution in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, using a Lagrangian transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole C; Soomere, Tarmo

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of current-driven propagation of contaminants released along a major fairway polluting the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is examined using a 3D circulation model, a Lagrangian transport model and statistics. Not surprisingly, the number of hits to the MPA decreases almost linearly with its distance from the fairway. In addition, the potential pollution released during a ship accident with the pollutants carried by currents may affect MPAs at very large distances. Typically, a fairway section approximately 125 km long (covering about 1/3 of the approximate 400-km-long gulf) may serve as a source of pollution for each MPA. The largest MPA (in the Eastern Gulf of Finland) may receive pollution from an approximately 210-km-long section (covering about 1/2 of the entire length of the gulf). This information may be useful in assisting maritime management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Abdel-Motey., C. Urfels., K. Rodriguez., J. Mardikian., J.A. Drobnicki., V. Diodato.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Title:(1 The Library and Information Professional’s Guide to the Internet. (2 Reinvention of the Public Library for the 21st Century. (3 Public Library Collection Development in the Information Age. (4 Making Sense of Journals in the Life Science: From Specialty Origins to Contemporary Assortment. (5 The Holocaust: Memories, Research, Reference. (6 How to Index Your Local Newspaper Using WordPerfect or Microsoft Word for Windows. (7 Effective Utilization and Management of Emerging Information Technologies. (8 Information Technology and Organizations: Challenges of New Technologies. (9 Facilities Planning for School Media and Technology Centers. (10 Libraries Without Walls 2: The Delivery of Library Services to Distance Users. (11 New International Directions in HIV Prevention for Gay and Bisexual Men. (12 Soaring to Excellence Videos: Tools of Our Trade III: Books, the Internet, and Beyond.Author:(1Reviewed by Teresa Abdel-Motey. (2Review by Claire Urfels. (3Reviewed by Dr. Ketty Rodriguez. (4Reviewed by Jackie Mardikian. (5Reviewed by John A. Drobnicki.(6Reviewed by Dr. Virgil Diodato. (7Reviewed by Dr. Lisa M. Covi. (8Reviewed by Tom Zillner. (9Reviewed by Dr. W. Bernard Lukenbill. (10Reviewed by Dr. Elizabeth Buchanan. (11Reviewed by Aisha White. (12Reviewed by Phyllis Tragash

  8. Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, René J.

    2006-01-01

    Editors Note: This book is written in Spanish and the review is given in both English and Spanish. Both reviews were written by the same individual and essentially have the same content. Code of Practice for Quality Control of Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) in Radiation Therapy, by José Miguel Delgado Rodríguez, Feliciano García Vicente, Esther Millán Cebrián. Sociedad Española de Física Médica. Ramírez de Arellano Editores, S. L. 2005, Madrid, Spain; available. secretaria@sefm.es, 50ε Protocolo para Control de Calidad en Sistemas de Planificación de Terapia con Radiaciones Ionizantes, por José Miguel Delgado Rodríguez, Feliciano García Vicente, Esther Millán Cebrián. Sociedad Española de Física Médica. Ramírez de Arellano Editores, S. L. 2005, Madrid, Spain. secretaria@sefm.es, 50ε

  9. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogister, A. L.

    2004-03-01

    John Wesson’s well known book, now re-edited for the third time, provides an excellent introduction to fusion oriented plasma physics in tokamaks. The author’s task was a very challenging one, for a confined plasma is a complex system characterised by a variety of dimensionless parameters and its properties change qualitatively when certain threshold values are reached in this multi-parameter space. As a consequence, theoretical description is required at different levels, which are complementary: particle orbits, kinetic and fluid descriptions, but also intuitive and empirical approaches. Theory must be carried out on many fronts: equilibrium, instabilities, heating, transport etc. Since the properties of the confined plasma depend on the boundary conditions, the physics of plasmas along open magnetic field lines and plasma surface interaction processes must also be accounted for. Those subjects (and others) are discussed in depth in chapters 2 9. Chapter 1 mostly deals with ignition requirements and the tokamak concept, while chapter 14 provides a list of useful relations: differential operators, collision times, characteristic lengths and frequencies, expressions for the neoclassical resistivity and heat conduction, the bootstrap current etc. The presentation is sufficiently broad and thorough that specialists within tokamak research can either pick useful and up-to-date information or find an authoritative introduction into other areas of the subject. It is also clear and concise so that it should provide an attractive and accurate initiation for those wishing to enter the field and for outsiders who would like to understand the concepts and be informed about the goals and challenges on the horizon. Validation of theoretical models requires adequately resolved experimental data for the various equilibrium profiles (clearly a challenge in the vicinity of transport barriers) and the fluctuations to which instabilities give rise. Chapter 10 is therefore

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Lamb

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available - B.V.A. Röling, Paul Shepard, Psycholex. Megwa, New York, 1960. 144 blz. - L. Sluimers, J.F. Cady, Southeast Asia: Its historical development. New York etc., McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964. XVII, 657, IX blz., foto, krtn. - H.J. de Graaf, Nicholas Tarling, Piracy and politics in the Malay world. A study of British imperialism in nineteenth-century Sout-East Asia. F.W. Cheshire, Melbourne, Canberra, Sydney, 1963. 273 pp., frontispiece, endpaper maps. - W. Brand, N.A. Simoniya, Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia - A Russian study. Data Paper Number 45, Southeast Asia Program, Department of Far Eastern Studies, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, December 1961, 151 blz. - B.H.M. Vlekke, Alistair Lamb, The China-India border, The origins of the disputed boundaries. Published for the Royal Institute of International Affairs by Oxford University Press, London 1964, XVI + 192 pp. - R.S. Karni, Beda Lim, Malaya, a background bibilography. Journal Malayan Branch, RAS, vol. XXXV, pts. 2 & 3, 1962; V. 199 pp. - L. Sluimers, R.K. Goldsen, Factors related to acceptance of innovation in Bang Chan, Thailand; Analysis of a survey conducted by the Cornell Cross-cultural Methodology Project, May 1955. Cornell Thailand Project Interim Report Series no. 3. Data Paper: No. 25 Southeast Asia Program Department of Far Eastern Studies Cornell University. 3de druk, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1963. VIII, 72, X blz., M. Rallis (eds.

  11. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. M.

    2006-02-01

    In 1952, Mme Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published a major paper, Théorème d'existence pour certains systèmes d'équations aux dérivées partielles non linéaires (Acta Math. 88 141-225), which laid the foundation for modern studies of the Cauchy problem in general relativity. The fiftieth anniversary of this event was celebrated with an eponymous Cargèse Summer School in 2002. The proceedings of that summer school are summarized electronically (as audio, video, transparencies and lecture notes, where available) on a DVD archive included with this volume, and are also available on the internet. However the organizers decided that a separate volume describing the 'state of the art in mathematical general relativity' would be useful, and this book is the result. It includes some material not covered in the school and excludes some school material which has been covered adequately elsewhere. Unfortunately, I was unable to find, electronically, a table of contents, which every prospective purchaser would wish to see, and so this review does in fact list all the articles, ordered, roughly, by length. About one fifth of the book is devoted to a survey of Smoothness at Null Infinity and the Structure of Initial Data by Helmut Friedrich. This is a modern study of gravitational radiation, and the analysis of Einstein's equations. It is extremely helpful to survey all of this material, including some of the latest developments, using a consistent notation. This article is strongly recommended to anyone hoping to gain a foothold in this area. Note also that 47 pages of transparencies have become 84 book pages. Lars Andersson has surveyed, in The Global Existence Problem in General Relativity, some results and conjectures about the global properties of 3+1-dimensional spacetimes with a compact Cauchy surface. Again it is very useful to have essentially all of the known results presented in a consistent notation. This material is not on the DVD. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat has

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Antlöv

    1996-04-01

    , vii + 231 pp., Ulricht Mai (eds. - Tineke Hellwig, Brigitte Müller, Op de wipstoel; De niet-gewettigde inheemse vrouw van de blanke Europeaan in Nederlands-Indië (1890-1940; Een literatuuronderzoek naar beeldvorming en werkelijkheid. Amsterdam: Vakgroep Culturele Antropologie/Sociologie der Niets-Westerse Samenlevingen, 1995, xii + 131 pp. - Jan van der Putten, Liaw Yock Fang, Standard Malay made simple. Singapore: Times Books International, 1988. - Jan van der Putten, Liaw Yock Fang, Standard Indonesian made simple, written with the assistance of Nini Tiley-Notodisuryo, Singapore: Times Books International, 1990. - Jan van der Putten, Liaw Yock Fang, Speak standard Malay; A beginner’s guide. Singapore: Times Books International, 1993, xxii + 280 pp. - Jan van der Putten, Liaw Yock Fang, Speak Indonesian; A beginner’s guide, written in collaboration with Munadi Padmadiwiria and Abdullah Hassan. Singapore: Times Books International, 1990. - Alle G. Hoekema, Chr.G.F. de Jong, Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Zending op Zuid-Sulawesi 1852-1966; Een bronnenpublicatie. Oegstgeest: Raad voor de Zending der Nederlands Hervormde Kerk, 1995, xi + 524 pp. - George Hotze, Ronald G. Gill, De Indische stad op Java en Madura; Een morfologische studie van haar ontwikkeling. Delft: Publikatieburo Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft, 1995, 350 pp. - H.A.J. Klooster, Holk H. Dengel, Neuere Darstellung der Geschichte Indonesiens in Bahasa Inonesia; Entwicklung und Tendenzen der indonesischen Historiographie. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1994, vii + 269 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Hans Antlöv, Imperial policy and Southeast Asian nationalism 1930-1957. Richmond: Curzon Press, 1995, xiii + 323 pp., Stein Tonnesson (eds. - P.W. Preston, Michael Hill, The politics of nation building and citizenship in Singapore. London: Routledge, 1995, x + 285 pp., Lian Kwen Fee (eds. - J.W. (Pim Schoorl, Michael Southon, The navel of the perahu; Meaning and values in the maritime trading economy of a Butonese

  13. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, John

    2007-04-01

    The present volume is an introduction to general relativity and cosmology, at a level suitable for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates. The book consists of two main parts, the first entitled `Elements of differential geometry', and the second `The theory of gravitation'. Chapters 2-7, part I, introduce the basic ideas of differential geometry in a general setting, and are based on previously unpublished notes by one of the authors. On the one hand, the treatment is modern in that it uses a `top-down' approach, i.e. starting with general differentiable manifolds, and deferring the introduction of a metric tensor until after the notions of affine connection and curvature have been introduced. On the other hand, the treatment is classical in that it relies heavily, though not exclusively, on index notation. The general material, chapters 1-7, is then followed by four more specialized chapters dealing with matters of specific interest for general relativity. Topics include symmetry groups acting on Riemannian manifolds, with spherically symmetric spacetimes and spatially homogeneous spacetimes as examples, the efficient calculation of curvature, and the Petrov classification of the Weyl curvature tensor using spinors. Part II deals with general relativity and cosmology. The basic assumptions of the theory and its application to spherically symmetric gravitational fields are discussed in two chapters, and there is some historical material and motivation for the basic assumptions at the beginning of the book. The final chapter contains a detailed discussion of the Kerr solution. But the main emphasis in part II is on relativistic cosmology, in particular the analysis of cosmological models more general than the familiar Friedmann-Lemaitre (FL) models. The material on cosmology begins with a discussion of relativistic hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The kinematical quantities (rate of expansion, shear, etc, of a timelike congruence) are introduced

  14. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Tomasini, Jean-Antoine; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Dominique; Mouillot, David

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR), a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1) in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  15. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR, a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1 in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  16. The Economics of Books

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canoy, M.F.M.; van Ours, J.C.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2005-01-01

    The tensions between books and book markets as expressions of culture and books as products in profit-making businesses are analysed and insights from the theory of industrial organisation are given.Governments intervene in the market for books through laws concerning prices of books, grants for

  17. Best Books of 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Lillian N.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    School Library Journal book review editors have selected and annotated their choices for the best children's and young adults' books from those books that were submitted for review during 1977 by general book trade book publishers. Included in the annotations are: author, title, publisher, price, and recommended reading and interest levels. (JPF)

  18. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2010-09-01

    upland Southeast Asia. (Guido Sprenger Guido Sprenger, Die Männer, die den Geldbaum fällten; Konzepte von Austausch und Gesellschaft bei den Rmeet von Takheung, Laos. (Oliver Tappe Review Essay Two books on East Timor. Carolyn Hughes, Dependent communities; Aid and politics in Cambodia and East Timor. David Mearns (ed., Democratic governance in Timor-Leste; Reconciling the local and the national. (Helene van Klinken Review Essay Two books on Islamic terror Zachary Abuza, Political Islam and violence in Indonesia. Noorhaidi Hasan, Laskar jihad; Islam, militancy, and the quest for identity in post-New Order Indonesia. (Gerry van Klinken Korte Signaleringen Janneke van Dijk, Jaap de Jonge en Nico de Klerk, J.C. Lamster, een vroege filmer in Nederlands-Indië. Griselda Molemans en Armando Ello, Zwarte huid, oranje hart; Afrikaanse KNIL-nazaten in de diaspora. Reisgids Indonesië; Oorlogsplekken 1942-1949. Hilde Janssen, Schaamte en onschuld; Het verdrongen oorlogsverleden van troostmeisjes in Indonesië. Jan Banning, Comfort women/Troostmeisjes. (Harry Poeze

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianus Koster

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available - H.J.M. Claessen, David Lewis, From Maui to Cook: The discovery and settlement of the Pacific, Drawings by Walter Stackpool. Sydney: Doubleday, 1977. Bibliography. - P. van Emst, Carl Lumholtz, Among Cannibals. An account of four years travel in Australia and of camp life with the aborigines of Queensland. Firle: Caliban Books. 383 pp. Maps, illustrations and index. Reprinted from the first edition, London: John Murray. - D.C. Geirnaert-Martin, Robert Wessing, Cosmology and social behaviour in a West Javanese settlement, Papers in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series no. 47, Ohio University Center for International Studies, Southeast Asia Program, 1978, Athens, Ohio. - B.G. Grijpstra, William Wood, Cultural-ecological perspectives in Southeast Asia, edited and with an introduction by William Wood, Papers in International Studies, Southeast Asia Studies no. 41, Ohio University Center for International Studies, Southeast Asia Program, 1977, Athens, Ohio. - R. Hagesteijn, M. Jacq-Hergoualc’h, L’armement et l’organisation de l’armée khmère aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles; d’après les bas-reliefs d’Angkor Vat, du Bayon et de Bantay Chmar. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. - C.K. Jonker-de Putter, John Ingleson, Road to exile; The Indonesian nationalist movement, 1927-1934. ASAA Southeast Asia Publications Series, No. 1. Heinemann Educational Books (Asia Ltd., Singapore, 1979. xii + 254 blz. Bibliographie, index. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Roland Werner, Jah-het of Malaysia: art and culture, 1975. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya. xxxv, 626 pp., 39 figs., 2 maps, 746 plates. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Roland Werner, Mah-Meri of Malaysia: Art and culture, 1974. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya. xxvi, 485 pp., 13 figs., 3 maps, 460 plates. - Simon Kooijman, Peter Gathercole, The art of the Pacific Islands. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1979, 365 pp., 386 illustrations + 6 sketch-maps., Adrienne L

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noorduyn

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available - C. van Dijk, M.C. Ricklefs, A history of modern Indonesia. C. 1300 to the present, London and Basingstoke, The MacMillan Press Ltd., 1981. xii + 335 pp. MacMillan Asian Histories Series. - L.A. Hoedemaker, S.C. Graaf van Randwijck, Handelen en denken in dienst der zending (Oestgeest 1897-1942, 2 delen, Den Haag Boekencentrum, 1981. - G.J. Knaap, Hubert Jacobs SJ, Documenta Malucensia II (1577-1606, annotated by Hubert Jacobs SJ, Monumenta Missionum Societatis Iesu volumen XXXIX, Missiones Orientalis, Rome, Jesuit Historical Institute; 1980, XXXI + 65* + 794 blz. - David S. Moyer, H. Sutherland, The making of a bureaucratic elite; The colonial transformation of the Javanese Priyayi, Asian studies association of Australia, Southeast Asia publication series no. 2, Heinemann educational books (Asia, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong, 1979, xx + 182 pp. - S.A. Niessen, Garrett Solyom, The world of the Javanese Keris, 1978, East-West Centre, Honolulu, Hawaii., Bronwen Solyom (eds. - S.A. Niessen, Anne Leonard, Patterns of Paradise; The styles and significance of bark cloth around the world, 1980, Field museum of natural history., John Terrell (eds. - S.A. Niessen, Kirk Endicott, Batek Negrito Religion, 1979, Oxford Clarendon Press. - J. Noorduyn, Olivier Carré, L’Islam et l’état dans le monde d’aujourd’hui, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1982. 270 p. - H.A. Poeze, Joop Morriën, Indonesië los van Holland. De CPN en de PKI in hun strijd tegen het Nederlands kolonialisme, Pegasus Amsterdam, 1982, 272 pp.

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Oosten

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available - M.A. van Bakel, Frederic L. Pryor, The origins of the economy. A comparative study of distribution in primitive and peasant economies. Academic Press, New York 1977. XVIII + 475 blz. - H.J. de Graaf, W. Ph. Coolhaas, Generale missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan heren XVII der Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie. Deel VII. 1713-1725. ‘s-Gravenhage 1979. Rijks geschiedkundige publicatiën. Grote Serie 164. - F.G.P. Jaquet, P. Sutikno, J. Bastin, Nineteenth century prints and illustrated books of Indonesia; with particular reference to the print collection of the Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam; a descriptive bibliography. Utrecht etc., Het Spectrum, 1979. XIV, 386 pp. Ills., B. Brommer (eds. - S. Kooijman, Adrienne L. Kaeppler, “Artificial curiosities” being an exposition of native manufactures collected on the three Pacific voyages of Captain James Cook, R.N. at the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum January 18, 1978 - August 31, 1978 on the occasion of the Bicentennial of the European discovery of the Hawaiian islands by Captain Cook - January 18, 1778. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication 65, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1978. - J.G. Oosten, Marcel Mauss, Seasonal variations of the Eskimo. A study in social morphology. Marcel Mauss in collaboration with Henri Beuchat. Translated, with a foreword by James J. Fox. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, Boston and Henley 1979. - Jérôme Rousseau, W.F. Schneeberger, Contributions to the ethnology of central Northeast Borneo (parts of Kalimantan, Sarawak and Sabah. The University of Berne, Institute of Ethnology, Berne 1979. Series: Studia ethnologica Bernensia, no. 2. 143 pages. Maps, figures, plates.

  2. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Maretin

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available - J. Prins, Buiten de grenzen, sociologische opstellen aangeboden aan Prof. Dr. W.F. Wertheim, benevens een “bibliografie van de geschriften van W.F. Wertheim”. Boom, Meppel 1971. 365 blz. - H.C.G. Schoenaker, Ethnologische Zeitschrift Zuerich I, 1972. Festschrift Alfred Steinmann. Verlag Herbert Lang & Cie A.G., Bern. 397 pp. - J.C. Neuteboom, Harald Eidheim, Aspects of the Lappish minority situation. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo 1971. 86 pags. Fig. - H.J.M. Claessen, Paul Ottino, Rangiroa; parenté étendue, résidence et terres dans un atoll ploynésien. Editions Cujas. Paris 1972. 530 p. Bibl., appendices, 37 fig. en kaarten, registers. - David S. Moyer, Adelin Linton, Ralph Linton. Leaders of Modern Anthropological Series, American University Publishers Group. London 1971, pp. 196., C. Wagley (eds. - R.A.M. van Zantwijk, Carlo J.E. Gay, Chalcacingo. Drawings by Frances Pratt. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt. Graz 1971. 119 blz., geïll., XXIV fotopag. - P. van Emst, Yu. V. Maretin, Countries and peoples of the East. Vol. XIII, Countries and peoples of the Pacific Basin. Book 2. Nauka Publishing House. Central Department of Oriental Literature. Moscow 1972. (Strany i narody vostoka. Pod obscej redakciej D.A. Ol’derogge. Vypusk XIII. Strany i narody bassejna Tichogo Okeana. Kniga 2. - H. van Mierlo, Atlantische Commissie, De school en het buitenlands beleid IX. De internationale politieke vormingstaak van de school. Atlantische Commissie, Den Haag 1970, 56 blz. - Geert A. Banck, Philip Staniford, Pioneers in the tropics. The political organization of Japanese in an immigrant community in Brazil. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology no. 45. London; The Athlone Press. 1973. xvi + 201 pag.

  3. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, R.

    2005-06-01

    This book gives a clear exposition of quantum field theory at the graduate level and the contents could be covered in a two semester course or, with some effort, in a one semester course. The book is well organized, and subtle issues are clearly explained. The margin notes are very useful, and the problems given at the end of each chapter are relevant and help the student gain an insight into the subject. The solutions to these problems are given in chapter 12. Care is taken to keep the numerical factors and notation very clear. Chapter 1 gives a clear overview and typical scales in high energy physics. Chapter 2 presents an excellent account of the Lorentz group and its representation. The decomposition of Lorentz tensors under SO(3) and the subsequent spinorial representations are introduced with clarity. After giving the field representation for scalar, Weyl, Dirac, Majorana and vector fields, the Poincaré group is introduced. Representations of 1-particle states using m2 and the Pauli Lubanski vector, although standard, are treated lucidly. Classical field theory is introduced in chapter 3 and a careful treatment of the Noether theorem and the energy momentum tensor are given. After covering real and complex scalar fields, the author impressively introduces the Dirac spinor via the Weyl spinor; Abelian gauge theory is also introduced. Chapter 4 contains the essentials of free field quantization of real and complex scalar fields, Dirac fields and massless Weyl fields. After a brief discussion of the CPT theorem, the quantization of electromagnetic field is carried out both in radiation gauge and Lorentz gauge. The presentation of the Gupta Bleuler method is particularly impressive; the margin notes on pages 85, 100 and 101 invaluable. Chapter 5 considers the essentials of perturbation theory. The derivation of the LSZ reduction formula for scalar field theory is clearly expressed. Feynman rules are obtained for the λphi4 theory in detail and those of QED

  4. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available -Selwyn R. Cudjoe, John Thieme, The web of tradition: uses of allusion in V.S. Naipaul's fiction, -A. James Arnold, Josaphat B. Kubayanda, The poet's Africa: Africanness in the poetry of Nicolás Guillèn and Aimé Césaire. Westport CT: Greenwood, 1990. xiv + 176 pp. -Peter Mason, Robin F.A. Fabel, Shipwreck and adventures of Monsieur Pierre Viaud, translated by Robin F.A. Fabel. Pensacola: University of West Florida Press, 1990. viii + 141 pp. -Alma H. Young, Robert B. Potter, Urbanization, planning and development in the Caribbean, London: Mansell Publishing, 1989. vi + 327 pp. -Hymie Rubinstein, Raymond T. Smith, Kinship and class in the West Indies: a genealogical study of Jamaica and Guyana, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. xiv + 205 pp. -Shepard Krech III, Richard Price, Alabi's world, Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990. xx + 445 pp. -Graham Hodges, Sandra T. Barnes, Africa's Ogun: Old world and new, Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1989. xi + 274 pp. -Pamela Wright, Philippe I. Bourgois, Ethnicity at work: divided labor on a Central American banana plantation, Baltimore MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1989. xviii + 311 pp. -Idsa E. Alegría-Ortega, Andrés Serbin, El Caribe zona de paz? geopolítica, integración, y seguridad, Caracas: Editorial Nueva Sociedad, 1989. 188 pp. (Paper n.p. [Editor's note. This book is also available in English: Caribbean geopolitics: towards security through peace? Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner, 1990. -Gary R. Mormino, C. Neale Ronning, José Martí and the émigré colony in Key West: leadership and state formation, New York; Praeger, 1990. 175 pp. -Gary R. Mormino, Gerald E. Poyo, 'With all, and for the good of all': the emergence of popular nationalism in the Cuban communities of the United States, 1848-1898, Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1989. xvii + 182 pp. -Fernando Picó, Raul Gomez Treto, The church and socialism in Cuba, translated from

  5. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1992-07-01

    W. Collinwood ,Modern Bahamian society. Parkersburg IA: Caribbean Books, 1989. 278 pp., Steve Dodge (eds -Peter Hulme, Pierrette Frickey, Critical perspectives on Jean Rhys. Washington DC: Three Continents Press, 1990. 235 pp. -Alvina Ruprecht, Lloyd W. Brown, El Dorado and Paradise: Canada and the Caribbean in Austin Clarke's fiction. Parkersburg IA: Caribbean Books, 1989. xv + 207 pp. -Ineke Phaf, Michiel van Kempen, De Surinaamse literatuur 1970-1985: een documentatie. Paramaribo: Uitgeverij de Volksboekwinkel, 1987. 406 pp. -Genevieve Escure, Barbara Lalla ,Language in exile: three hundred years of Jamaican Creole. Tuscaloosa AL: University of Alabama Press, 1990. xvii + 253 pp., Jean D'Costa (eds -Charles V. Carnegie, G. Llewellyn Watson, Jamaican sayings: with notes on folklore, aesthetics, and social control.Tallahassee FL: Florida A & M University Press, 1991. xvi + 292 pp. -Donald R. Hill, Kaiso, calypso music. David Rudder in conversation with John La Rose. London: New Beacon Books, 1990. 33 pp. -Mark Sebba, John Victor Singler, Pidgin and creole tense-mood-aspect systems. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1990. xvi + 240 pp. -Dale Tomich, Pedro San Miguel, El mundo que creó el azúcar: las haciendas en Vega Baja, 1800-873. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Ediciones Huracán, 1989. 224 pp. -César J. Ayala, Juan José Baldrich, Sembraron la no siembra: los cosecheros de tabaco puertorriqueños frente a las corporaciones tabacaleras, 1920-1934. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Ediciones Huracán, 1988. -Robert Forster, Jean-Michel Deveau, La traite rochelaise. Paris: Kathala, 1990. 334 pp. -Ernst van den Boogaart, Johannes Menne Postma, The Dutch in the Atlantic slave trade, 1600-1815. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xiv + 428 pp. -W.E. Renkema, T. van der Lee, Plantages op Curacao en hun eigenaren (1708-1845: namen en data voornamelijk ontleend aan transportakten. Leiden, the Netherlands: Grafaria, 1989. xii + 87 pp. -Mavis C. Campbell, Wim

  6. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulling, S. A.

    2006-05-01

    saying that gravity was not only an honourable member of the forces of nature, but ultimately the source of them all. It has become a cliche that the unification of relativity with quantum theory is the central problem of contemporary physics. In the 1950s, before strings, non-Abelian monopoles, or even quasars, Bryce DeWitt was applying the quantum-field-theoretical methods and conceptual framework of his mentor, Julian Schwinger, to gravity. His central insight was that the conceptual and technical problems of quantum gravity were closely analogous to those of gauge theories. He developed a unified, relentlessly abstract, and highly personal vision of the fundamentals of physical theory. It was, and is, expressed in idiosyncratic and condensed notation often different from the languages of mainstream field theorists, traditional relativists, and mathematicians alike. In short, he has never been easy reading. His ideas were systematically presented in famous lecture series at the Les Houches summer schools on Relativity, Groups and Topology in 1963 [1] and 1983 [2], the book Supermanifolds [3], and a number of (relatively) shorter expositions that have been widely read. By the middle 1970s the methods that he had developed mainly for gravity were widely recognized as very useful for Yang Mills gauge theories, and his work had become part of the mainstream. Now, another 20 years after the second Les Houches, we have this final testament of Bryce DeWitt's ideas. At over 1000 pages in two volumes in a fabric-covered slipcase, it is the sort of work usually described as 'magisterial' (meaning, perhaps, 'no one has yet succeeded in reading it all the way through'). Over the years, of course, DeWitt learned many new things and thought of ways to say the old things better. Accordingly, the new books consist of reworkings of the most important parts of the older writings together with some new material. Oxford University Press is to be thanked and congratulated for the care it

  7. A Bayesian-Based Approach to Marine Spatial Planning: Evaluating Spatial and Temporal Variance in the Provision of Ecosystem Services Before and After the Establishment Oregon's Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B.; Harte, M.; Goldfinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Participating in a ten-year monitoring project to assess the ecological, social, and socioeconomic impacts of Oregon's Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), we have worked in partnership with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) to develop a Bayesian geospatial method to evaluate the spatial and temporal variance in the provision of ecosystem services produced by Oregon's MPAs. Probabilistic (Bayesian) approaches to Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) show considerable potential for addressing issues such as uncertainty, cumulative effects, and the need to integrate stakeholder-held information and preferences into decision making processes. To that end, we have created a Bayesian-based geospatial approach to MSP capable of modelling the evolution of the provision of ecosystem services before and after the establishment of Oregon's MPAs. Our approach permits both planners and stakeholders to view expected impacts of differing policies, behaviors, or choices made concerning Oregon's MPAs and surrounding areas in a geospatial (map) format while simultaneously considering multiple parties' beliefs on the policies or uses in question. We quantify the influence of the MPAs as the shift in the spatial distribution of ecosystem services, both inside and outside the protected areas, over time. Once the MPAs' influence on the provision of coastal ecosystem services has been evaluated, it is possible to view these impacts through geovisualization techniques. As a specific example of model use and output, a user could investigate the effects of altering the habitat preferences of a rockfish species over a prescribed period of time (5, 10, 20 years post-harvesting restrictions, etc.) on the relative intensity of spillover from nearby reserves (please see submitted figure). Particular strengths of our Bayesian-based approach include its ability to integrate highly disparate input types (qualitative or quantitative), to accommodate data gaps, address uncertainty, and to

  8. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ger P. Reesink

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available - Rogier Busser, Peter Post, Japanse bedrijvigheid in Indonesië, 1868-1942; Structurele elementen van Japan’s vooroorlogse economische expansie in Zuidoost Azië. Proefschrift Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 1991, xviii + 374 pp. - H.J.M. Claessen, Arne Aleksej Perminow, The long way home; Dilemmas of everyday life in a Tongan village. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1993, 166 pp. - Aone van Engelenhoven, René van den Berg, Studies in Sulawesi linguistics III. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri Nusa, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, 1994, xii + 116 pp. [NUSA, Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 36.] - Will Derks, Wolfgang Marschall, Texts from the Islands; Oral and written traditions of Indonesia and the Malay world, (Procedings of the 7th European Colloquium on Indonesia and Malay Studies, Berne, June 1989 1994, iii + 411 pp. [Ethnologica Bernensia 4]. - Michael Kaden, Krishna Sen, Indonesian Cinema; Framing the New Order, London: Zed Books, 1994, x + 188 pp. - Nico Kaptein, Mona Abaza, Indonesian Students in Cairo; Islamic education perceptions and exchanges, Paris: Association Archipel, 1994, 198 pp. [Cahier d’Archipel 23.] - P. Keppy, Chris Manning, Indonesia assessment 1993; Labour: Sharing in the benefits of growth? Canberra: Australian National University, 1993, xxi + 326 pp., Joan Hardjono (eds. - Anke Niehof, Jan-Paul Dirkse, Development and social welfare; Indonesia’s experiences under the New Order, Leiden: KITLV Press, 1993, xi + 295 pp., Frans Hüsken, Mario Rutten (eds. - Hetty Nooy-Palm, Michale C. Howard, Textiles of Southeast Asia; An annotated and illustrated bibliography. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1994, 212 pp. + 64 pp. pf photographs in colour. - Harry A. Poeze, Hans van Miert, Een koel hoofd en een warm hart; Nationalisme, Javanisme en jeugdbeweging in Nederlands-Indië, 1918-1930. Amsterdam: De Bataafsche Leeuw, 1995, 424 pp. - Ger P. Reesink, Jürg Wassmann, Historical atlas of

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available -Stephen J. Appold, Heidi Dahles ,Tourism and small entrepreneurs; Development, national policy, and entrepreneurial culture: Indonesian cases. Elmsford, New York: Cognizant Communication Corporation, 1999, vi + 165 pp., Karin Bras (eds -Jean-Pascal Bassino, Peter Boothroyd ,Socioeconomic renovation in Vietnam; The origin, evolution and impact of Doi Moi. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2001, xv + 175 pp., Pham Xuan Nam (eds -Peter Boomgaard, Patrick Vinton Kirch, The wet and the dry; Irrigation and agricultural intensification in Polynesia. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994, xxii + 385 pp. -A.Th. Boone, Chr.G.F. de Jong, De Gereformeerde Zending in Midden-Java 1931-1975; Een bronnenpublicatie. Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum, 1997, xxiv + 890 pp. [Uitgaven van de Werkgroep voor de Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Zending en Overzeese Kerken, Grote Reeks 6.] -Okke Braadbaart, Colin Barlow, Institutions and economic change in Southeast Asia; The context of development from the 1960s to the 1990s. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, xi + 204 pp. -Freek Colombijn, Abidin Kusno, Behind the postcolonial; Architecture, urban space, and political cultures in Indonesia. London: Routledge, 2000, xiv + 250 pp. -Raymond Corbey, Michael O'Hanlon ,Hunting the gatherers; Ethnographic collectors, agents and agency in Melanesia, 1870s -1930s. Oxford: Bergahn Books, 2000, xviii + 286 pp. [Methodology and History in Anthropology 6.], Robert L. Welsch (eds -Olga Deshpande, Hans Penth, A brief histroy of Lan Na; Civilizations of North Thailand. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2000, v + 74 pp. -Aone van Engelenhoven, I Ketut Artawa, Ergativity and Balinese syntax. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggaran Seri NUSA, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, 1998, v + 169 pp (in 3 volumes. [NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 42, 43, 44.] -Rens Heringa, Jill Forshee, Between the folds; Stories of cloth, lives, and travels from Sumba

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-10-01

    : KITLV Press, 2002, viii + 246 pp. [Proceedings 5.], Nico Kaptein (eds -Anton Ploeg, William C. Clarke, Remembering Papua New Guinea; An eccentric ethnography. Canberra: Pandanus Books, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, 2003, 178 pp. -Nathan Porath, Gerco Kroes, Same hair, different hearts; Semai identity in a Malay context; An analysis of ideas and practices concerning health and illness. Leiden: Research School of Asian, African and Amerindian Studies (CNWS, Universiteit Leiden, 2002, 188 pp. -Guido Sprenger, Grant Evans, Laos; Culture and society. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1999, xi + 313 pp. -Gerard Termorshuizen, Dik van der Meulen, Multatuli; Leven en werk van Eduard Douwes Dekker. Nijmegen: SUN, 2002, 912 pp. -Paige West, Karl Benediktsson, Harvesting development; The construction of fresh food markets in Papua New Guinea. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies/Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002, xii + 308 pp. -Edwin Wieringa, Amirul Hadi, Islam and state in Sumatra; A study of seventeenth-century Aceh. Leiden: Brill, 2004, xiii + 273 pp. [Islamic History and Civilization, 48.] -Robin Wilson, Pamela J. Stewart ,Remaking the world; Myth, mining and ritual change among the Duna of Papua New Guinea. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002, xvi + 219 pp. [Smithsonian Series in Ethnographic Enquiry.], Andrew Strathern (eds

  11. Larval abundances of rockfishes that were historically targeted by fishing increased over 16 years in association with a large marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R; Chen, Dustin C; Guo, Lian W; Hyde, John R; Watson, William

    2017-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) can facilitate recovery of diminished stocks by protecting reproductive adults. To effectively augment fisheries, however, reproductive output must increase within the bounds of MPAs so that larvae can be exported to surrounding areas and seed the region. In response to dramatic declines of rockfishes ( Sebastes spp.) in southern California by the late 1990s two large MPAs, the Cowcod Conservation Areas (CCAs), were established in 2001. To evaluate whether the CCAs affected rockfish productivity we evaluated the dynamics of 8 species that were, and 7 that were not, historically targeted by fishing. Abundances of 6/8 targeted and 4/7 non-targeted species increased regionally from 1998 to 2013. These upturns were probably affected by environmental conditions in addition to changes in fishing pressure as the presence of most species correlated negatively with temperature, and temperature was lower than the historic average in 11/15 years. Seventy-five per cent of the targeted, but none of the non-targeted species increased at a greater rate inside than outside the CCAs while controlling for environmental factors. Results indicate that management actions, coupled with favourable environmental conditions, facilitated the resurgence of multiple rockfish species that were targeted by intense fishing effort for decades.

  12. Projections of change in key ecosystem indicators for planning and management of marine protected areas: An example study for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Susan; Butenschön, Momme

    2018-02-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely used as tools to maintain biodiversity, protect habitats and ensure that development is sustainable. If MPAs are to maintain their role into the future it is important for managers to understand how conditions at these sites may change as a result of climate change and other drivers, and this understanding needs to extend beyond temperature to a range of key ecosystem indicators. This case study demonstrates how spatially-aggregated model results for multiple variables can provide useful projections for MPA planners and managers. Conditions in European MPAs have been projected for the 2040s using unmitigated and globally managed scenarios of climate change and river management, and hence high and low emissions of greenhouse gases and riverborne nutrients. The results highlight the vulnerability of potential refuge sites in the north-west Mediterranean and the need for careful monitoring at MPAs to the north and west of the British Isles, which may be affected by changes in Atlantic circulation patterns. The projections also support the need for more MPAs in the eastern Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea, and can inform the selection of sites.

  13. TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS: THE CASE OF THE NATIONAL MARINE PARK OF ALONISSOS-NORTHERN SPORADES IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanos Paraskevopoulos

    2017-01-01

    The tourist development of Greece began in the '50s to become one of the main sources of income, both nationally and locally, since many areas are the main source of tourism revenue. The concepts of sustainability and viability of this product and its operation, is being strongly marked recent decades in many conferences, notices, and scientific research. Greece established 30 Management Bodies to integrated management of protected areas belonging to this network. One of the main problems fac...

  14. The Cool 100 book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselip, J.; Pointing, D.

    2011-07-01

    substantially reduced energy use and costs and supported the lifestyles and needs of communities. 8. The Runde Environmental Centre on Norway's western coast, which supports research into impacts on the marine environment and the development of innovative and sustainable technologies for fisheries and aquaculture, marine transport and renewable ocean energy. 9. A suite of online calculators, developed by the Energy Agency Iceland, that assist consumers in selecting cars for purchase or hire, planning trips, and neutralising associated carbon emissions, based on the fuel consumption data of almost all modern cars. 10. The H2SEED project, which reduces fossil fuel use in the Western Isles of Scotland, an area where the electricity grid can't support more renewable energy, by producing hydrogen for energy storage and as a transport fuel, from renewable energy sources. 11. The Chaninik Wind Group project, a collaboration between Native communities in remote areas of Alaska that harnesses wind power to reduce energy costs, promotes selfsufficiency and economic development. An additional 89 projects are examined in less detail, though each entry provides relevant links to further information. These projects range from examples of successfully operating sustainable energy systems in isolated communities around the world, to community education and outreach-focused programs, regional and national initiatives and networks, and other specific information resources and tools. The locations of the projects featured in the book range across the northern hemisphere, but also Antarctica, and less cold regions of the planet, but have a particular focus on communities in the northern hemisphere. In addition to the printed publication, the Cool 100 is also an evolving database of practical and sustainable energy solutions for isolated communities in cooler regions. All projects featured in the book are located on an online, wiki-style portal, which anyone can edit and/or make

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danker H. Schaareman

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available - H.J.M. Claessen, Jan van Bremen, Symposion. Tijdschrift voor Maatschappijwetenschap. Onder redactie van Jan van Bremen, Cees Cruson, Helle Snel, Jojada Verrips, Willem Wolters en Ton Zwaan. Uitgave: Stichting voor Maatschappijwetenschappelijk Onderzoek., Cees Cruson, Helle Snel (eds. - H.J.M. Claessen, Neil Lifuka, Logs in the current of the sea. Neil Lifuka’s story of Kioa and the Vaitupu colonists. Edited and introduced by Klaus-Friedrich Koch. With a foreword by Professor H.E. Maude. Cambridge, Mass.: Langdon Associates Press. 1978. - H.J.M. Claessen, R.R. Nayacakalou, Leadership in Fiji. 1975. Melbourne etc.: Oxford University Press. 170 pp. Appendices, tables, notes. - H.J.M. Claessen, Michael W. Young, The ethnography of Malinowski; The Trobriand Islands 1915-1918. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979. Bibliography, Index, illustrations. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, G.B. Milner, Natural symbols in South East Asia. School of Oriental and African Studies, London 1978. 181 p., 13 plates. - P. Kloos, G.N. Appell, Ethical dilemmas in anthropological inquiry: A case book, Waltham (Mass., Crossroads Press, 1978, xii + 291 pp. - David S. Moyer, M.B. Hooker, A concise legal history of South-East Asia. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978. 289 pp. - J.G. Oosten, Henri J.M. Claessen, The early state. Mouton Publishers. The Hague, The Netherlands 1978. XII + 690 pages., P. Skalník (eds. - J.G. Oosten, Jean Poirier, Ethnologie Régionale 2. Asie-Amérique-Mascareignes. Sous la direction de Jean Poirier. Encyclopédie de la Pleiade. Gallimard, Paris 1978. - J.G. Oosten, A. de Ruyter, Een speurtocht naar het denken. Een inleiding tot het structuralisme van Claude Lévi Strauss. Van Gorcum & Comp. N.V., Assen 1979. Serie: Terreinverkenningen in de Culturele Anthropologie, nr. 16. - Anton Ploeg, Raymond C. Kelly, Etoro Social Structure. A study in structural contradiction. Foreword by Marshall Sahlins. The University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, 1974, 1977

  16. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. P.

    1981-04-01

    In July 1976, some thirty young scientists and their lecturers were privileged to participate in a conference on "Metrology and the Fundamental Constants" at Varenna, this being the 68th course in the "Enrico Fermi International School of Physics". Now, at last, we are all privileged to share in that experience—to a large degree—with the appearance of the Proceedings, published last summer under the auspices of the Italian Physical Society. This rather massive volume (800 pages) places in one's hands a summary of the "state of the art" in the greater part of physical metrology. It is not, however, a metrology handbook, designed to assist the unskilled in making trustworthy measurements. It summarizes, via the lectures of internationally-recognized experts, the most recent attempts to realize with enhanced accuracy the basic units of measurement and, in so doing, it presents the subject of measurement science as the central (or all-pervasive) topic in physics itself. Clearly demonstrated is the progress from discovery to "understanding" of physical phenomena which is made possible through the historical alternation of observation and measurement. The volume includes informative reviews of the fundamentals of this fundamental science, namely, the concepts of quantities and units (Allisy); systems of units and the Système International, SI. (Terrien); international aspects of metrology and standards (Terrien); practical considerations in a hierarchy of standards (Terrien); materials problems affecting metrology (Ferro Milone and Sourdo) and statistical methods (Allisy). These discussions alone, being brought together in one place, are of particular usefulness. The remaining, and major, part of the book is taken up by authoritative and generally very readable discussions of measurement topics, for the most part separately focused on one of the base units. For these one cannot help noticing nor refrain from recording a measure of imbalance: some quantities (for

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available -Monika Arnez, Niels Mulder, Southeast Asian images; Towards civil society? Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2003, ix + 253 pp. -Adriaan Bedner, Connie Carter, Eyes on the prize; Law and economic development in Singapore. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, xviii + 307 pp. [The London-Leiden series on law, administration and development 7.] -Amrit Gomperts, J.R. van Diessen ,Grote atlas van Nederlands Oost-Indië/Comprehensive atlas of the Netherlands East Indies. Zierikzee: Asia Maior, Utrecht: Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap (KNAG, 2004, 480 pp. (editors, with the collaboration of R.C.M. Braam, W. Leijnse, P.A. Levi, J.J. Reijnders, R.P.G.A. Voskuil and M.P.B. Ziellemans, F.J. Ormeling (eds -Stuart R. Harrop, Adriaan Bedner ,Towards integrated environmental law in Indonesia? Leiden: Research school CNWS, School of Asian, African and Amerindian studies, 2003, 161 pp. [CNWS publications 127.], Nicole Niessen (eds -David Henley, Paul H. Kratoska ,Locating Southeast Asia: Geographies of knowledge and politics of space. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2005, xi + 326 pp., Remco Raben, Henk Schulte Nordholt (eds -Gerry van Klinken, Anthony J. Langlois, The politics of justice and human rights; Southeast Asia and universalist theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, xi + 214 pp. [Cambridge Asia-Pacific studies.] -Koh Keng We, Jurrien van Goor, Prelude to colonialism; The Dutch in Asia. Hilversum: Verloren, 2004, 127 pp. -Lim Beng Soon, Thomas H. Slone, Prokem; An analysis of a Jakartan slang. Oakland: Masalai Press, 2003, 95 pp. -Lim Beng Soon, Neil Khor Jin Keong ,The Penang Po Leung Kuk; Chinese women, prostitution and a welfare organisation. Kuala Lumpur; The Malaysian branch of the Royal Asiatic society (MBRAS, 2004, VII + 181 pp., Khoo Keat Siew (eds -Dick van der Meij, J. Thomas Lindblad ,Macht en majesteit; Opstellen voor Cees Fasseur bij zijn afscheid als hoogleraar in de geschiedenis van Indonesië aan de

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Römer

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available - A.J.C. Lach de Bére, Fernand van Langenhove, Consciences Tribales et Nationales en Afrique Noire. Institut Royal des Relations Internationales, Bruxelles. Martinus Nijhoff, ‘s-Gravenhage, 1960; 444 blz. - J.H. Scherer, A.H.J. Prins, The Swahili-speaking peoples of Zanzibar and the E. African Coast (Arabs, Shirazi and Swahili. Ethnographic Survey of Africa: East Central Africa, part XII. Uitgave van het International African Institute, London, 1961. 143 pp., m. kaart. - P. Driessens, Carol Brubaker, Geesten van het woud. Servire Luxe Pockets nr. 66. Servire, Den Haag 1963. 175 pp., 24 foto’s. - Joh. J. Hanrath, Indonesian Economics. The concept of dualism in theory and policy. Den Haag (W. van Hoeve 1961. 443 pp. - W. Ph. Coolhaas, H.R.C. Wright, East-Indian economic problems of the age of Cornwallis and Raffles. Luzac, London, 1961; 271 pp. - H.J. de Graaf, M.A.P. Meilink-Roelofsz, Asian trade and European influence in the Indonesian Archipelago between 1500 and about 1630. Academisch Proefschrift Amsterdam (S.U.. M. Nijhoff, ‘s-Gravenhage 1962. 471 pp. - Logemann, Herbert Feith, The decline of constitutional democracy in Indonesia. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1962. XX en 608 blz. - F.D.K. Bosch, G. Coedés, Les peuples de la péninsule indochinoise. 228 pp., 16 pl., 1 carte; Ed. Dunod, Paris, 1962. - L. Sluimers, Sirdar Ikbal Ali Shah, Viet-nam. London, Octagon Press, 1960. XV, 232 blz., krt. - L. Sluimers, J.G. Keyes, A bibliography of North Vietnamese Publications in the Cornell University Library. Ithaca, Cornell University, 1962. Data paper: Number 47. Southeast Asia Program. Department of Asian Studies. Cornell University. X, 116 blz., X. - A.F.P. Hulsewé, G.P. Oery, The Man-Shu (Book of the Southern Barbarians, translated by Gordon H. Luce, edited by G.P. Oery; Data Paper Nr. 44, Southeast Asia Program, Dept. of Far Eastern Studies, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y.; 1961. (X + 116 pp., 1 map. - C.H.M. Palm, Felix M

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-01-01

    Jeroen Kemperman. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2002, 570 pp. [Verhandelingen 206.] -Gerry van Klinken, Grayson Lloyd ,Indonesia today; Challenges of history. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 2001, 359 pp., Shannon Smith (eds -Johanna van Reenen, Frédéric Durand, Timor Lorosa'e, pays au carrefour de l'Asie et du Pacifique; Un atlas géo-historique. Marne-la-Vallée: Presses Universitaires de Marne-la-Vallée, 2002, 208 pp. -William R. Roff, Mona Abaza, Debates on Islam and knowledge in Malaysia and Egypt; Shifting worlds. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002, xix + 304 pp. -Mariëtte van Selm, Chr. van Fraassen ,G.E. Rumphius, De Ambonse eilanden onder de VOC, zoals opgetekend in 'De Ambonse landbeschrijving'. Utrecht: Landelijk Steunpunt Educatie Molukkers, 2002, 254 pp., H. Straver (eds -K. Thirumaran, Prema-Chandra Athukorala, Crisis and recovery in Malaysia; The role of capital controls. Cheltenham: Elgar, 2001, xii + 159 pp. -K. Thirumaran, John Hilley, Malaysia; Mahathirism, hegemony and the new opposition. London: Zed books, 2001, xiii + 305 pp. -Reina van der Wiel, Damien Kingsbury ,Foreign devils and other journalists. Clayton VIC: Monash Asia Institute, 2000, vi + 277 pp. [Monash papers on Southeast Asia 52.], Eric Loo, Patricia Payne (eds -Jennifer Fraser, Philip Yampolsky, Music of Indonesia. Washington DC: Smithsonian Folkways recordings, 1991-2000, 20 compact discs plus a CD of selections from the series, Discover Indonesia. All with accompanying booklets. -Robert Wessing, Nicola Tannenbaum ,Founders' cults in Southeast Asia; Ancestors, polity, and identity. New Haven CT: Yale University Southeast Asian studies, 2003, xi + 373 pp. [Yale Southeast Asia studies Monograph 52.], Cornelia Ann Kammerer (eds -Robert Wessing, Henri Chambert-Loir ,The potent dead; Ancestors, saints and heroes in contemporary Indonesia. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen and Unwin, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2002, xxvi + 243 pp. [Southeast Asia publications series

  20. 50 CFR 270.13 - Books, records and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Books, records and reports. 270.13 Section 270.13 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 270.13 Books, records and reports. (a) The Council must submit to NMFS the following documents...

  1. Setting an ecological baseline prior to the bottom-up establishment of a marine protected area in Santorini island, Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALOMIDI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, a bottom-up initiative has been launched in Santorini Island (Aegean Sea, Eastern Mediterranean for the establishment of the first fully-protected marine protected area in the Cyclades, aiming at improving fisheries and enhancing responsible recreational uses at sea. Following discussions with local small-scale fishers and divers, two sites along the southern and southeastern coasts of the island were suggested as suitable to this end. In 2012, a baseline study was conducted at these areas to assess their state and provide an ecological snapshot that would enable sound designation and monitoring. Several ad hoc indices and metrics were applied, taking into account structural and functional features of the upper infralittoral algae and Posidonia oceanica beds. An integrated assessment of the infralittoral fish assemblages and their associated benthic communities was also performed. Our most important findings were: (i the low total fish biomass and the absence of adult top predators, indicating overfishing; (ii the overgrazing effects of the overabundant alien herbivore spinefoot fishes (Siganus spp., as reflected by the abnormal structure of the algal communities; (iii the scarcity of signs of pollution or other direct anthropogenic pressures, as indicated by the good environmental status of the P. oceanica meadows and the upper infralittoral vegetation; and (iv the presence of a rich diversity of species and habitats, especially along the Akrotiri Peninsula and the wider volcanic Caldera. These findings provide useful insights on strengths and weaknesses of the study area and are discussed together with their implications for protection and management.

  2. Are we missing the boat? Current uses of long-term biological monitoring data in the evaluation and management of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, P F E; Flander, L B; Cook, C N

    2015-02-01

    Protected area management agencies are increasingly using management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) to better understand, learn from and improve conservation efforts around the globe. Outcome assessment is the final stage of MEE, where conservation outcomes are measured to determine whether management objectives are being achieved. When quantitative monitoring data are available, best-practice examples of outcome assessments demonstrate that data should be assessed against quantitative condition categories. Such assessments enable more transparent and repeatable integration of monitoring data into MEE, which can promote evidence-based management and improve public accountability and reporting. We interviewed key informants from marine protected area (MPA) management agencies to investigate how scientific data sources, especially long-term biological monitoring data, are currently informing conservation management. Our study revealed that even when long-term monitoring results are available, management agencies are not using them for quantitative condition assessment in MEE. Instead, many agencies conduct qualitative condition assessments, where monitoring results are interpreted using expert judgment only. Whilst we found substantial evidence for the use of long-term monitoring data in the evidence-based management of MPAs, MEE is rarely the sole mechanism that facilitates the knowledge transfer of scientific evidence to management action. This suggests that the first goal of MEE (to enable environmental accountability and reporting) is being achieved, but the second and arguably more important goal of facilitating evidence-based management is not. Given that many MEE approaches are in their infancy, recommendations are made to assist management agencies realize the full potential of long-term quantitative monitoring data for protected area evaluation and evidence-based management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bastin

    1982-04-01

    . - F.G.P. Jaquet, H.J. de Graaf, Wonderlijke verhalen uit de Indische historie, ‘s-Gravenhage, Moesson 1981. 173 pp. Ills. - F.G.P. Jaquet, J. Landwehr, De Nederlander uit en thuis; spiegel van het dagelijks leven uit bijzondere zeventiende-eeuwse boeken. Alphen aan den Rijn, Sijthoff, 1981. 200 pp. Ills. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Michael G. Peletz, Social history and evolution in the interrelationship of adat and Islam in Rembau, Negeri Sembilan, Research Notes and Discussions Paper no. 27, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore 1981. 59 pages. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Anthony Reid, Perceptions of the past in Southeast Asia, Heinemann Educational Books for Asian Studies Asociation of Australia, Singapore 1979. 436 pp. Bibliographical Appendix, Index, 3 maps., David Marr (eds. - J.E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, J. Bastin, Prints of Southeast Asia in the India Office Library - The East India Company in Malaysia and Indonesia 1786-1824, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1979, XIII + 228 pp. including 98 pls., frontispiece in colour., P. Rohatgi (eds. - Anke Niehof, Victor T. King, Essays on Borneo Society, Hull Monographs on South-East Asia 7, Oxford University Press, 1978, 256 pp. - C.H.M. Nooy-Palm, Renato Rosaldo, Ilongot headhunting 1883-1974, a study in society and history. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1980. 313 pp., maps, photographs and diagrams. Chronological and general index. - Els Postel-Coster, Clio Presvelou, The household, women and agricultural development, Proceedings of a symposium organised by the Department of Home Economics, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Miscellaneous Papers 17, 1980, Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, The Netherlands., Saskia Spijkers-Zwart (eds. - G.J. van Reenen, Claudine Salmon, Les Chinois de Jakarta; Temples et vie collective [The Chinese of Jakarta; Temples and communal life], Etudes insulindiennes - Archipel 1, Association Archipel, Paris, 1980 (deuxième impression, xxviii + 358 pp

  4. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Rodenburg

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available - Leonard Y. Andaya, H.A. Poeze, Excursies in Celebes; Een bundel bijdragen bij het afscheid van J. Noorduyn als directeur-secretaris van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1991, 348 pp., P. Schoorl (eds. - Anne Booth, Adrian Clemens, Changing economy in Indonesia Volume 12b; Regional patterns in foreign trade 1911-40. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, 1992., J.Thomas Lindblad, Jeroen Touwen (eds. - A.P. Borsboom, James F. Weiner, The empty place; Poetry space, and being among the Foi of Papua New Guinea. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991. - Martin van Bruinessen, Ozay Mehmet, Islamic identity and development; Studies of the Islamic periphery. London and New York: Routledge, 1990 (cheap paperback edition: Kula Lumpur: Forum, 1990, 259 pp. - H.J.M. Claessen, Timothy Earle, Chiefdoms: power, economy, and ideology. A school of American research book. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. 341 pp., bibliography, maps, figs. - H.J.M. Claessen, Henk Schulte Nordholt, State, village, and ritual in Bali; A historical perspective. (Comparitive Asian studies 7. Amsterdam: VU University press for the centre for Asian studies Amsterdam, 1991. 50 pp. - B. Dahm, Ruby R. Paredes, Philippine colonial democracy. (Monograph series 32/Yale University Southeast Asia studies. New Haven: Yale Center for international and Asia studies, 1988, 166 pp. - Eve Danziger, Bambi B. Schieffelin, The give and take of everyday life; Language socialization of Kaluli children. (Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language 9. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. - Roy Ellen, David Hicks, Kinship and religion in Eastern Indonesia. (Gothenburg studies in social anthropology 12. Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1990, viii 132 pp., maps, figs, tbls. - Paul van der Grijp, Pierre Lemonnier, Guerres et festins; Paix, échanges et competition dans les highlands de Nouvelle

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available -Louis Allaire, Samuel M. Wilson, Hispaniola: Caribbean chiefdoms in the age of Columbus. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1990. xi + 170 pp. -Douglas Melvin Haynes, Philip D. Curtin, Death by migration: Europe's encounter with the tropical world in the nineteenth century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. xviii + 251 pp. -Dale Tomich, J.H. Galloway, The sugar cane industry: An historical geography from its origins to 1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. xii + 266 pp. -Myriam Cottias, Dale Tomich, Slavery in the circuit of sugar: Martinique and the world economy, 1830 -1848. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1990. xiv + 352 pp. -Robert Forster, Pierre Dessalles, La vie d'un colon à la Martinique au XIXe siècle. Pré-senté par Henri de Frémont. Courbevoie: s.n., 1984-1988, four volumes, 1310 pp. -Hilary Beckles, Douglas V. Armstrong, The old village and the great house: An archaeological and historical examination of Drax Hall Plantation, St Ann's Bay, Jamaica. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1990. xiii + 393 pp. -John Stewart, John A. Lent, Caribbean popular culture. Bowling Green OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1990. 157 pp. -W. Marvin Will, Susanne Jonas ,Democracy in Latin America: Visions and realities. New York: Bergin & Garvey Publishers, 1990. viii + 224 pp., Nancy Stein (eds -Forrest D. Colburn, Kathy McAfee, Storm signals: Structural adjustment and development alternatives in the Caribbean. London: Zed books, 1991. xii + 259 pp. -Derwin S. Munroe, Peggy Antrobus ,In the shadows of the sun: Caribbean development alternatives and U.S. policy. Carmen Diana Deere (coordinator, Peter Phillips, Marcia Rivera & Helen Safa. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1990. xvii + 246 pp., Lynne Bolles, Edwin Melendez (eds -William Roseberry, Louis A. Pérez, Jr., Lords of the mountain: Social banditry and peasant protest in Cuba, 1878-1918. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1989

  6. Book Review:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    whole, although the discussions may be too detailed for the casual reader (who need read only the introduction and conclusions) and yet without sufficient detail for the person who requires a basic understanding (who then will consult the citations). Although he cannot anticipate the recommendations of the CCT for a new international temperature scale, the clues certainly are present in the discussions which he gives. Most important are the descriptions of the deviations of the IPTS-68 from thermodynamic temperatures, the limitations of thermocouples, and the need, which currently is met by the provisionally adopted EPT-76, for an extension of the international scale to temperatures below 13.8 K. I am pleased to have this monograph available and anticipate making good use of it. Over the past several years I often have felt the need for a resource book to answer general questions or to obtain an introduction to an unfamiliar area of temperature measurement, and regret very much that "Temperature" was not available earlier. This monograph undoubtedly will be a necessity for any laboratory where thermodynamic measurements are carried out and thermometers are used as serious tools. A great deal of basic and developmental work has been done on thermometry in the past ten years or so, probably considerably more than remains to be done in many areas of the temperature scale. The publication of "Temperature" is timely in this respect, and it should have a long, useful life as a standard reference. The author may consider a second edition when a new international temperature scale is adopted, but there will be few corrections and only relatively minor changes and additions beyond the details of the new scale.

  7. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. de Ridder

    1986-01-01

    (50 pp. - R. de Ridder, Dennis Tedlock, The spoken word and the work of interpretation, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983. ix + 365 pp., 8 ill. - R. de Ridder, Dennis Tedlock, Popol Vuh, The definitive edition of the Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life and the Glories of Gods and Kings, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985. 380 pp., 32 ill. - G. van Roon, Dietmar Rothermund, Die Peripherie in der Weltwirtschaftskrise: Afrika, Asien und Lateinamerika 1929-1939, Paderborn: Ferdinand Schýningh, 1983, 295 pp. - Thilo C. Schadeberg, Gýnter Dabitz, Geschichte der erforschung der Nuba-Berge, Arbeiten aus dem Seminar fýr Výlkerkunde der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitýt Frankfurt am Main, Band 17, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1985. 280 pp., maps, tables, illus. - L. van Vroonhoven, Ger van Roon, Derde Wereld in depressie, Leiden: Nijhoff, 1985, 139 p. - Wim van Zanten, Nigel Phillips, Sijobang, sung narrative poetry of West Sumatra, Cambridge Studies in Oral and Literate Culture, no. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. xi + 255 pp., photos, texts and translations, short glossary of Minangkabau words, Bibliography, index.

  8. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available -Bill Maurer, Mimi Sheller, Consuming the Caribbean: From Arawaks to Zombies. New York: Routledge, 2003. ix + 252 pp. -Norman E. Whitten, Jr., Richard Price ,The root of roots: Or, how Afro-American anthropology got its start. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press/University of Chicago Press, 2003. 91 pp., Sally Price (eds -Holly Snyder, Paolo Bernardini ,The Jews and the expansion of Europe to the West, 1450-1800. New York: Berghahn Books, 2001. xv + 567 pp., Norman Fiering (eds -Bridget Brereton, Seymour Drescher, The mighty experiment: Free labor versus slavery in British emancipation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. 307 pp. -Jean Besson, Kathleen E.A. Monteith ,Jamaica in slavery and freedom: History, heritage and culture. Kingston; University of the West Indies Press, 2002. xx + 391 pp., Glen Richards (eds -Michaeline A. Crichlow, Jean Besson, Martha Brae's two histories: European expansion and Caribbean culture-building in Jamaica. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. xxxi + 393 pp. -Christopher Schmidt-Nowara, Joseph C. Dorsey, Slave traffic in the age of abolition: Puerto Rico, West Africa, and the Non-Hispanic Caribbean, 1815-1859. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. xvii + 311 pp. -Arnold R. Highfield, Erik Gobel, A guide to sources for the history of the Danish West Indies (U.S. Virgin Islands, 1671-1917. Denmark: University Press of Southern Denmark, 2002. 350 pp. -Sue Peabody, David Patrick Geggus, Haitian revolutionary studies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002. xii + 334 pp. -Gerdès Fleurant, Elizabeth McAlister, Rara! Vodou, power, and performance in Haiti and its Diaspora. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. xviii + 259 pp. and CD demo. -Michiel Baud, Ernesto Sagás ,The Dominican people: A documentary history. Princeton NJ: Marcus Wiener, 2003. xiii + 278 pp., Orlando Inoa (eds -Samuel Martínez, Richard Lee Turits, Foundations of despotism: Peasants, the Trujillo regime

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available -Timothy Barnard, J.M. Gullick, A history of Selangor (1766-1939. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1989, vi + 220 pp. [MBRAS Monograph 28.] -Okke Braadbaart, Michael L. Ross, Timber booms and institutional breakdown in Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, xvi + 237 pp. -H.J.M. Claessen, Patrick Vinton Kirch ,Hawaiki, ancestral Polynesia; An essay in historical anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, xvii + 375 pp., Roger C. Green (eds -Harold Crouch, R.E. Elson, Suharto; A political biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, xix + 389 pp. -Kees van Dijk, H.W. Arndt ,Southeast Asia's economic crisis; Origins, lessons, and the way forward. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 1999, ix + 182 pp., Hal Hill (eds -Kees van Dijk, Sebastiaan Pompe, De Indonesische algemene verkiezingen 1999. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1999, 290 pp. -David van Duuren, Albert G. van Zonneveld, Traditional weapons of the Indonesian archipelago. Leiden: Zwartenkot art books, 2001, 160 pp. -Peter van Eeuwijk, Christian Ph. Josef Lehner, Die Heiler von Samoa. O Le Fofo; Monographie über die Heiler und die Naturheilmethoden in West-Samoa. Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1999, 234 pp. [Mensch und Gesellschaft 4.] -Hans Hägerdal, Frans Hüsken ,Reading Asia; New research of Asian studies. Richmond: Curzon, 2001, xvi + 338 pp., Dick van der Meij (eds -Terence E. Hays, Jelle Miedema ,Perspectives on the Bird's head of Irian Jaya, Indonesia; Proceedings of the conference, Leiden, 13-17 October 1997. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998, xiii + 982 pp. (editors with the assistance of Connie Baak, Cecilia Odé, Rien A.C. Dam (eds -Menno Hekker, Peter Metcalf, They lie, we lie; Getting on with anthropology. London: Routledge, 2002, ix + 155 pp. -David Henley, Foong Kin, Social and behavioural aspects of malaria control; A study among the Murut of Sabah. Phillips, Maine: Borneo research council , 2000, xx

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Aquilina

    1976-01-01

    .J. Zoetmulder, Himansu Bhusan Sarkar, Corpus of the inscriptions of Java (Corpus Inscriptionum Javanicorum (up to 928 A.D., K.L. Mukhopadhyay, Calcutta, 1972. Vol. I 314 pp., Vol. II 359 pp. - J.G. Oosten, Wilhelmina van Wetering, Hekserij bij de Djuka. Een sociologische benadering. Academisch proefschrift, gestencilde uitgave, 1973. - Willem F.L. Buschkens, Richard Price, Maroon societies, rebel slave communities in the Americas. Anchor Books, Anchor Press/Doubleday Garden City, New York 1973. 429 pag., 7 ill.

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1996-07-01

    . xiv + 217 pp., Lou Anne Barclay (eds -Catherine Levesque, Allison Blakely, Blacks in the Dutch world: The evolution of racial imagery in a modern society. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993. xix + 327 pp. -Dennis J. Gayle, Frank Fonda Taylor, 'To hell with paradise': A history of the Jamaican tourist industry. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993. ix + 239 pp. -John P. Homiak, Frank Jan van Dijk, Jahmaica: Rastafari and Jamaican society, 1930-1990. Utrecht: ISOR, 1993. 483 pp. -Peter Mason, Arthur MacGregor, Sir Hans Sloane: Collector, scientist, antiquary, founding Father of the British Museum. London: British Museum Press, 1994. -Philip Morgan, James Walvin, The life and times of Henry Clarke of Jamaica, 1828-1907. London: Frank Cass, 1994. xvi + 155 pp. -Werner Zips, E. Kofi Agorsah, Maroon heritage: Archaeological, ethnographic and historical perspectives. Kingston: Canoe Press, 1994. xx + 210 pp. -Michael Hoenisch, Werner Zips, Schwarze Rebellen: Afrikanisch-karibischer Freiheitskampf in Jamaica. Vienna Promedia, 1993. 301 pp. -Elizabeth McAlister, Paul Farmer, The uses of Haiti. Monroe ME: Common Courage Press, 1994. 432 pp. -Robert Lawless, James Ridgeway, The Haiti files: Decoding the crisis. Washington DC: Essential Books, 1994. 243 pp. -Bernadette Cailler, Michael Dash, Edouard Glissant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. xii + 202 pp. -Peter Hulme, Veronica Marie Gregg, Jean Rhys's historical imagination: Reading and writing the Creole. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. xi + 228 pp. -Silvia Kouwenberg, Francis Byrne ,Focus and grammatical relations in Creole languages. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993. xvi + 329 pp., Donald Winford (eds -John H. McWhorter, Ingo Plag, Sentential complementation in Sranan: On the formation of an English-based Creole language. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1993. ix + 174 pp. -Percy C. Hintzen, Madan M. Gopal, Politics, race, and youth in Guyana. San Francisco: Mellen

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available -Peter Hulme, Simon Gikandi, Writing in limbo: Modernism and Caribbean literature. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992. x + 260 pp. -Charles V. Carnegie, Alistair Hennessy, Intellectuals in the twentieth-century Caribbean (Volume 1 - Spectre of the new class: The Commonwealth Caribbean. London: Macmillan, 1992. xvii 204 pp. -Nigel Rigby, Anne Walmsley, The Caribbean artists movement, 1966-1972: A literary and cultural history. London: New Beacon Books, 1992. xx + 356 pp. -Carl Pedersen, Tyrone Tillery, Claude McKay: A black poet's struggle for identity. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. xii + 235 pp. -Simone Dreyfus, Irving Rouse, The Tainos: Rise and decline of the people who greeted Columbus. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. xii + 211 pp. -Louis Allaire, Antonio M. Stevens-Arroyo, Cave of the Jagua: The mythological world of the Taino. Alburquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988. xiii + 282 pp. -Irving Rouse, William F. Keegan, The people who discovered Columbus: The prehistory of the Bahamas. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1992. xx + 279 pp. -Neil L. Whitehead, Philip P. Boucher, Cannibal encounters: Europeans and Island Caribs, 1492-1763. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1992. xii + 217 pp. -Peter Kloos, Kaliña, des amérindiens à Paris: Photographies du prince Roland. Présentées par Gérard Collomb. Paris: Créaphis, 1992. 119 pp. -Maureen Warner-Lewis, Alan Gregor Cobley ,The African-Caribbean connection: Historical and cultural perspectives. Bridgetown, Barbados: Department of History, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, 1990. viii + 171 pp., Alvin Thompson (eds -H. Hoetink, Jean-Luc Bonniol, La couleur comme maléfice: une illustration créole de la généalogie des 'Blancs' et des 'Noirs'. Paris: Albin Michel, 1992. 304 pp. -Michael Aceto, Richard Price ,Two evenings in Saramaka. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1991. xvi + 417 pp., Sally Price (eds -Jorge P

  13. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available -Peter Hulme, Stephen Greenblatt, New World Encounters. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. xviii + 344 pp. -Nigel Rigby, Alan Riach ,The radical imagination: Lectures and talks by Wilson Harris. Liège: Department of English, University of Liège, xx + 126 pp., Mark Williams (eds -Jonathan White, Rei Terada, Derek Walcott's poetry: American Mimicry. Boston: North-eastern University Press, 1992. ix + 260 pp. -Ray A. Kea, John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the making of the Atlantic world, 1400-1680. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. xxxviii + 309 pp. -B.W. Higman, Barbara L. Solow, Slavery and the rise of the Atlantic system. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. viii + 355 pp. -Sidney W. Mintz, Michael Mullin, Africa in America: Slave acculturation and resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean, 1736-1831. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 412 pp. -Karen Fog Olwig, Corinna Raddatz, Afrika in Amerika. Hamburg: Hamburgisches Museum für Völkerkunde, 1992. 264 pp. -Lee Haring, William Bascom, African folktales in the new world. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992. xxv + 243 pp. -Frank Jan van Dijk, Dale A. Bisnauth, History of religions in the Caribbean. Kingston: Kingston Publishers, 1989. 225 pp. -Gloria Wekker, Philomena Essed, Everyday racism: Reports from women of two cultures. Alameda CA: Hunter House, 1990. xiii + 288 pp.''Understanding everyday racism: An interdisciplinary theory. Newbury Park CA: Sage, 1991. x + 322 pp. -Deborah S. Rubin, Vron Ware, Beyond the Pale: White women, racism, and history. London: Verso, 1992. xviii + 263 pp. -Michael Hanchard, Peter Wade, Blackness and race mixture: The dynamics of racial identity in Colombia. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1993. xv + 415 pp. -Rosalie Schwartz, Louis A. Pérez, Jr., Slaves, sugar, & colonial society: Travel accounts of Cuba, 1801-1899. Wilmington DE: SR Books, 1992. xxvi + 259 pp. -Susan Eckstein, Sandor

  14. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available -Gesa Mackenthun, Stephen Greenblatt, Marvelous Possessions: The wonder of the New World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. ix + 202 pp. -Peter Redfield, Peter Hulme ,Wild majesty: Encounters with Caribs from Columbus to the present day. An Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. x + 369 pp., Neil L. Whitehead (eds -Michel R. Doortmont, Philip D. Curtin, The rise and fall of the plantation complex: Essays in Atlantic history. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xi + 222 pp. -Roderick A. McDonald, Hilary McD.Beckles, A history of Barbados: From Amerindian settlement to nation-state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xv + 224 pp. -Gertrude J. Fraser, Hilary McD.Beckles, Natural rebels; A social history of enslaved black women in Barbados. New Brunswick NJ and London: Rutgers University Press and Zed Books, 1990 and 1989. ix + 197 pp. -Bridget Brereton, Thomas C. Holt, The problem of freedom: Race, labor, and politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832-1938. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1991. xxxi + 517 pp. -Peter C. Emmer, A. Meredith John, The plantation slaves of Trinidad, 1783-1816: A mathematical and demographic inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. xvi + 259 pp. -Richard Price, Robert Cohen, Jews in another environment: Surinam in the second half of the eighteenth century. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1991. xv + 350 pp. -Russell R. Menard, Nigel Tattersfield, The forgotten trade: comprising the log of the Daniel and Henry of 1700 and accounts of the slave trade from the minor ports of England, 1698-1725. London: Jonathan Cape, 1991. ixx + 460 pp. -John D. Garrigus, James E. McClellan III, Colonialism and science: Saint Domingue in the old regime. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1992. xviii + 393 pp. -Lowell Gudmundson, Richard H. Collin, Theodore Roosevelt's Caribbean: The Panama canal, the Monroe doctrine, and the Latin American context. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J.M. Claessen

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available - J. van Baal, Gert Oostindie, Roosenburg en Mon Bijou: Twee Surinaamse plantages, 1720-1870. Caribbean series II, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde; Dordrecht: Foris, 1989. xii + 548 pp. - C. Baks, Marine Carrin-Bouez, La fleur et l’os; Symbolisme et rituel chez les Santal, Cahier de l’Homme, Nouvelle Serie XXVI, Paris: Éditions de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 1986. 193 pp., figures et tableaux, photos, carte. - C. Baks, Serge Bouez, Réciprocité et hiérarchie; l’Alliance chez les Ho et les Santal de l’Inde, Recherches sur la Haute Asie 7, Paris: Société d’Ethnographie, 1985. 232 pp., annexes, figures et tableaux, photos, carte. - René van den Berg, Bambang Kaswanti Purwo, Towards a description of contemporary Indonesian: Preliminary studies, Part III. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA/Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya [=Nusa, Linguistic studies of Indonesian and other languages in Indonesia. Volume 30]. 1988. ix + 94 pp. - Martin van Bruinessen, Elly Touwen-Bouwsma, Staat, Islam en lokale leiders in West Madura, Indonesië. Een historisch-antropologische studie. Kampen: Uitgeverij Mondiss, 1988 [dissertatie Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1988]. xx, 276 pp. - J.G. de Casparis, John Miksic, Small finds: Ancient Javanese gold, Singapore: National Museum, 1988. VIII + 88 pp. 20 Plates, 56 Figures. - B.F. Drewes, Asian women doing theology, vol. XVI-47 of Exchange, Bulletin of Third World Christian Literature and Ecumenical Research, September 1987, ii + 78 pp. - Ch. van Fraassen, Femme Gaastra, Bewind en beleid bij de VOC 1672-1702, De Walburg Pers, 1989. 343 pp., ill. - B.F. Galjart, James C. Scott, Weapons of the weak. Everyday forms of peasant resistance. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1985. - R. Giel, R. van Lier, Tropische Tribaden: Een verhandeling over homoseksualiteit en homoseksuele vrouwen in Suriname, Dordrecht: Foris, 1986. 84 pp. - Paul van der Grijp

  16. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1992-01-01

    studies. New Haven, 1990. xiii + 369 pp., W.J. O’Malley, A. Weidemann (eds. - Gisele de Meur, F. Tjon Sie Fat, Representing kinship; Simple models of elementary structures. 1990. (Doctoral thesis. Leiden, published by the author. - Toon van Meijl, Maurice Godelier, Big men and great men; Personifications of power in Melanesia, Cambridge/Paris: Cambridge University Press/Editions de la maison des sciences de l’Homme, 1991, xviii, 328 pp., maps, tables, figures, bibliography, index., Marilyn Strathern (eds. - J.A. de Moor, B.A. Hussainmiya, Orang rejimen; The Malays of the Ceylon rifle regiment. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1990, 185 pp. - Pieter Muysken, J.M.W. Verhaar, Melanesian pidgin and tok pisin; Studies in language companion series 20. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1990, xiv + 409 pp. - Niels Mulder, Paul Voogt, Thailand. Amsterdam/’s-Gravenhage: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen/NOVIB, 1991. 70 pp. + kaart, slappe kaft., Han ten Brummelhuis, Irene Stengs (eds. - Ton van Naerssen, George Cho, The Malaysian economy; Spatial perspectives. London: Routledge. 1990, 300 pp. - Julianti Parani, J.R. van Diessen, Jakarta/Batavia. Het centrum van het Nederlandse koloniale rijk in Azië en zijn cultuurhistorische nalatenschap. Cantecleer Kunst - Reisgidsen. De Bilt: Cantecleer, 1989. 343 pp. - A. Ploeg, Christopher J. Healey, Pioneers of the mountain forest, University of Sydney, 1985, Oceania Monographs no. 29, v + 64 pp., plates, figures, maps. - Els Postel-Coster, Carla Risseeuw, The fish don’t talk about the water; Gender transformation, power and resistance among women in Sri Lanka, Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1988, 415 pp., also published as Gender transformation, power and resistance among women in Sri Lanka; The fish don’t speak about the water, New Delhi: Manohar Book service, 1991. Ca. 400 pp., - Willem van Schendel, Mya Tan, Myanmar dilemmas and options; The challenge of economic transition in the 1990’s. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 1990

  18. Conservation targets in marine protected area management suffer from shifting baseline syndrome: A case study on the Dogger Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumeridge, Annabel A; Roberts, Callum M

    2017-03-15

    The Dogger Bank is a subtidal hill in the North Sea that is a candidate Special Area of Conservation under the EU Habitats Directive in UK waters. Historical records indicate that the Bank has been subject to human exploitation from before the 16th century but conservation objectives have been developed using recent survey data. This has the potential to significantly underestimate the alteration this ecosystem has experienced, making the Dogger Bank an example of shifting baseline syndrome in protected area management. We compile quantitative and qualitative descriptions from historical records of change in catch rates, fishing effort, price and fish size to show that there have been prolonged declines in abundance of fish on the Bank since the early 19th century. Use of present day data to inform conservation has led to unambitious recovery targets. Historical data, we argue, are an essential input to conservation decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The book thief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Book Thief (The Book Thief, in the original is an Australian writer of the novel juvenile Markus Zusak, published in 2006. In Brazil, his work was launched in March 2007 by the publisher Intrinsically, translated by Vera Ribeiro, and so far has sold nationally more than 105 thousand copies. Among the nine books that the author has published, only two books have translated into Portuguese: I am the messenger and The Book Thief.

  20. The difference biocultural "place" makes to community efforts towards sustainable development: Youth participatory action research in a marine protected area of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRuer, Jennifer; Zethelius, Margarita

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American concept of "(collective) biocultural heritage" arose from Indigenous knowledge and practices with respect to local natural resources and environment, including the food being hunted, the crops being grown, and the landscapes being created. The term is now used more widely to describe community practices, goals and priorities that are determined, maintained and managed by diverse cultural relationships with "place". The study presented in this article investigated biocultural place relationships in connection with well-being and sustainability. In the context of learning and action for sustainability in Isla Grande, an island in a marine protected area of Colombia, this study targeted the significance of place to the everyday lives of Afro-Colombian youth - from their perspective. Beyond aiming to merely observe and collect data, the methodology included a research design which actively involved local youth and incorporated the aspect of place. The authors describe and reflect on the processes, learning and action that emerged throughout the research, as well as the study's limitations. They discuss broad implications in terms of how place relationships influence research, and how research influences place relationships. Local implications include supporting the voice of youth in community efforts to re-imagine and transform place relationships in response to critical place issues such as climate change, top-down resource management, privatisation, commodification and growing environmental injustice.

  1. Levels of metals, arsenic and phosphorus in sediments from two sectors of a Brazilian Marine Protected Area (Tupinambás Ecological Station).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Natasha T; Figueira, Rubens C L; Abessa, Denis M S

    2015-02-28

    The Tupinambás Ecological Station (TES) is a Marine Protected Area consisting of two sectors: the Archipelago of Alcatrazes and the Cabras and Palmas islets. This investigation aimed to provide a first diagnosis of the concentrations of metals (Al,Cr,Cu,Fe,Hg,Ni,Pb,Zn), As and P in sediments from the TES. 24 sediment samples were collected in both sectors using a Van Veen grab sampler. Sediment textures and levels of Organic Matter (OM) and CaCO3 were determined, as well as the concentrations of the above-mentioned elements after partial acid digestion. Sediments were predominantly sandy. Higher levels of CaCO3 occurred in the Alcatrazes sector, whereas the OM contents were higher in the islets sector. Metals concentrations were low and associated with fines, while P and As presented a different behavior. The observed concentrations to all studies elements in sediments from the TES were considered as background values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  3. Book Review Fur Seals and Sea Lions By Roger Kirkwood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australian Natural History Series, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia 160 pages, softcover and eBook. ISBN: 9780643096929 (softcover), 9780643109841 (eBook). Price AU$39.95 (softcover); eBook available from various retailers. African Journal of Marine Science 2014, 36(4): 529–530 ...

  4. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  5. Assessing the living and dead proportions of cold-water coral colonies: implications for deep-water Marine Protected Area monitoring in a changing ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Vad

    2017-10-01

    technique could be applied to monitor deep-water marine protected areas in the future.

  6. Limited differences in fish and benthic communities and possible cascading effects inside and outside a protected marine area in Sagres (SW Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Fernández, C; Paulo, D; Serrão, E A; Engelen, A H

    2016-03-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a relatively recent fisheries management and conservation tool for conservation of marine ecosystems and serve as experimental grounds to assess trophic cascade effects in areas were fishing is restricted to some extent. A series of descriptive field studies were performed to assess fish and benthic communities between two areas within a newly established MPA in SW Portugal. We characterized benthic macroalgal composition and determined the size, density and biomass of the main benthic predatory and herbivorous fish species as well as the main benthic herbivorous invertebrates to assess indications of top-down control on the phytobenthic assemblages. Fish species were identical inside and outside the MPA, in both cases Sarpa salpa was the most abundant fish herbivore and Diplodus spp. accounted for the great majority of the benthic predators. However, size and biomass of D. spp. were higher inside than outside the MPA. The main herbivorous invertebrate was the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, which was smaller and predominantly showing a crevice-dwelling behaviour in the MPA. In addition, P. lividus size frequency distribution showed a unimodal pattern outside and a bimodal pattern inside the MPA. We found significant differences in the algal assemblages between inside and outside the MPA, with higher abundance of turf and foliose algae inside, and articulated calcareous and corticated macrophytes outside the MPA, but no differences in the invasive Asparagopsis spp. The obtained results show differences in predatory fish and benthic community structure, but not in species richness, inside and outside the MPA. We hypothesize these differences lead to variation in species interactions: directly through predation and indirectly via affecting sea urchins behavioural patterns, predators might drive changes in macroalgal assemblages via trophic cascade in the study area. However due to non-biological differences between the two areas it

  7. Opportunities in Marine and Maritime Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzmann, Wm. Ray

    This book describes careers related to the sea. The following chapters are included: (1) "The World of Water"; (2) "Cruise Ship Careers"; (3) "Oceanography and the Marine Sciences"; (4) "Fishing"; (5) "Commerical Diving"; (6) "Maritime Transportation"; (7) "Shipbuilding"; (8) "Military Careers Afloat"; (9) "Miscellaneous Marine and Maritime…

  8. Protective relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Mu Ji; Jung, Hae Sang

    1974-10-01

    This book is divided into two chapters, which deals with protective relay. The first chapter deals with the basic knowledge of relay on development of relay, classification of protective relay, rating of protective relay general structure of protective relay, detecting of ground protection, about point of contact, operating relay and trip relaying. The second chapter is about structure and explanation of relay on classification by structure such as motor type and moving-coil type, explanation of other relays over current relay, over voltage relay, short voltage relay, relay for power, relay for direction, test of over voltage relay, test of short voltage relay and test of directional circuit relay.

  9. 76 FR 7548 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  10. 75 FR 16754 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  11. The New Russian Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed, Birgitte Beck

    This book takes up the obtrusive problem of visual representation of fiction in contemporary Russian book design. By analyzing a broad variety of book covers, the study offers an absolutely unique material that illustrates a radically changing notion of literature in the transformation of Soviet ...... the fields of Russian studies, contemporary book and media history, art, design, and visual studies.......This book takes up the obtrusive problem of visual representation of fiction in contemporary Russian book design. By analyzing a broad variety of book covers, the study offers an absolutely unique material that illustrates a radically changing notion of literature in the transformation of Soviet...... print culture to a post-Soviet book market. It delivers a profound and critical exploration of Russian visual imaginary of classic, popular, and contemporary prose. Among all the carelessly bungled covers of mass-published post-Soviet series the study identifies gems from experimental designers...

  12. BOOKS I BOEKE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African reader in using this book should bear in mind that there ... practice. This book does an admirable job in bringing the .... encouraged its use for these purposes locally. .... translator's error in confusing schrecken (startle, alarin).

  13. Keeping Books of Account

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Books of account are a record of a company’s income and spending. These records may be kept in paper or electronic form. The books of account contain the information for preparing the company’s annual financial statements.

  14. BOOKS I BOEKE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    butions porentially of broad imerest to all medical practi- tioners. ... tures; forensic psychiany; and some issues of special rele- vance to the ... research projects'. The book .... quizzical whimsicality, and endurance, running through the book.

  15. 76 FR 18062 - U.S. Securities; Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds; Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ...; Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds; Book-Entry Treasury Bonds... longer be opened and transfers of securities from other book-entry systems will no longer be [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Legacy Treasury Direct [supreg] is a book- entry, non...

  16. Book Reviews | Sheppey | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Authors: Edited by Richard E. Brown & David W. Macdonald. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1985. 556 pp. Book Review 4. Book Title: Biology of Communication. Book Authors: D. Brian Lewis & D. Michael Gower. Blackie & Son, Glasgow. 239 pp. Book Review 5. Book Title: Animal Osmoregulation. Book Authors: J.

  17. BookFinder.com

    CERN Document Server

    BookFinder.com is produced by the bibliophiles at 13th Generation Media of Berkeley, California. Our goal is to provide fellow readers unbiased realtime information about books available online. Rather than selling books ourselves (does the world rea Amazon.com wannabe?), we've teamed up with over 15,000 of the finest booksellers online to bring you the largest book catalog available anywhere, either online or offline.

  18. 75 FR 54095 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Seismic Survey in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Seismic Survey in the Eastern... low-energy marine seismic survey. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is... funding provided by the National Science Foundation, a low-energy marine seismic survey. NMFS reviewed SIO...

  19. Preface to: Special issue on Marine mycology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    the fourth symposium were published in The Biology of Marine Fungi by the late S.T.Moss from the Portsmouth Polytechnic in 1986. Interestingly, the books so far were exclusively devoted to true or obligate marine fungi but several papers describing... thraustochytrids as contaminants in their primary cell cultures of marine tunicates. They are describing six closely related species of thraustochytrids, identified by molecular markers and claim that a close biological association exist between tunicates...

  20. Book Reviews Boekbesprekings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Reviews. HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES. Hypothalamic Hypophysiotropic Hormones. Physiological and clinical studies. Proceedings of the Conference .... tricians, it certainly succeeds in its aim. 'A book is of little use if it has no pictures', thought Alice. This book has many. Of particular interest is the last chapter in ...

  1. The Book of Luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that focused on the supernatural in which students create their own "Book Of Luck" using plastic videocassette containers. Discusses how each student created a book and the types of things that were included in the book. Includes examples. (CMK)

  2. Modeling fine-scale coral larval dispersal and interisland connectivity to help designate mutually-supporting coral reef marine protected areas: Insights from Maui Nui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chen, Yi-Leng; Elias, Edwin P. L.

    2017-01-01

    Connectivity among individual marine protected areas (MPAs) is one of the most important considerations in the design of integrated MPA networks. To provide such information for managers in Hawaii, USA, a numerical circulation model was developed to determine the role of ocean currents in transporting coral larvae from natal reefs throughout the high volcanic islands of the Maui Nui island complex in the southeastern Hawaiian Archipelago. Spatially- and temporally-varying wind, wave, and circulation model outputs were used to drive a km-scale, 3-dimensional, physics-based circulation model for Maui Nui. The model was calibrated and validated using satellite-tracked ocean surface current drifters deployed during coral-spawning conditions, then used to simulate the movement of the larvae of the dominant reef-building coral, Porites compressa, from 17 reefs during eight spawning events in 2010–2013. These simulations make it possible to investigate not only the general dispersal patterns from individual coral reefs, but also how anomalous conditions during individual spawning events can result in large deviations from those general patterns. These data also help identify those reefs that are dominated by self-seeding and those where self-seeding is limited to determine their relative susceptibility to stressors and potential roadblocks to recovery. Overall, the numerical model results indicate that many of the coral reefs in Maui Nui seed reefs on adjacent islands, demonstrating the interconnected nature of the coral reefs in Maui Nui and providing a key component of the scientific underpinning essential for the design of a mutually supportive network of MPAs to enhance conservation of coral reefs.

  3. Perceptions of Australian marine protected area managers regarding the role, importance, and achievability of adaptation for managing the risks of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Cvitanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of adaptation as a mainstream strategy for managing the risks of climate change has led to the emergence of a broad range of adaptation policies and management strategies globally. However, the success of such policies or management interventions depends on the effective integration of new scientific research into the decision-making process. Ineffective communication between scientists and environmental decision makers represents one of the key barriers limiting the integration of science into the decision-making process in many areas of natural resource management. This can be overcome by understanding the perceptions of end users, so as to identify knowledge gaps and develop improved and targeted strategies for communication and engagement. We assessed what one group of environmental decision makers, Australian marine protected area (MPA managers, viewed as the major risks associated with climate change, and their perceptions regarding the role, importance, and achievability of adaptation for managing these risks. We also assessed what these managers perceived as the role of science in managing the risks from climate change, and identified the factors that increased their trust in scientific information. We do so by quantitatively surveying 30 MPA managers across 3 Australian management agencies. We found that although MPA managers have a very strong awareness of the range and severity of risks posed by climate change, their understanding of adaptation as an option for managing these risks is less comprehensive. We also found that although MPA managers view science as a critical source of information for informing the decision-making process, it should be considered in context with other knowledge types such as community and cultural knowledge, and be impartial, evidence based, and pragmatic in outlining policy and management recommendations that are realistically achievable.

  4. Give a Book, Take a Book | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection has begun for the 15th Annual Book & Media Swap sponsored by the Scientific Library. NCI at Frederick staff can use this opportunity to clear out personal book and DVD shelves of unwanted materials, donate them to the swap, and then receive “new” materials in return. The library staff will collect materials through Tuesday, Oct. 27. Kick-off day for the event is

  5. Radioactivity content of books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    The natural and fallout radioactivity was measured in a large number of books produced in various countries after 1955. Results of these measurements showed that the books contained radioactivity due to fallout 137 Cs and 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K radioisotopes of primordial origin. Books printed in the U.S.A. had low radioactivity of 40K and 226 Ra origin compared to books printed in the European subcontinent. Books printed during high fallout rate (1962-64) or thereafter did not exhibit any significantly higher 137 Cs levels. The maximum radiation dose to the eyes calculated for the radioactivity content of the books was 0.8 μR/hr and the minimum was 0.07 μR/hr; most of the books were in the range 0.3-0.5 μR/hr. (U.K.)

  6. Book Reviews | Bernard | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Review 1. Book Title: The Physiology of Reproduction. Book Authors: Editors-in-Chief: E. Knobil, & J.D. Kneill. Raven Press, 1988. 2633 pages. Book Review 2. Book Title: Long-term Studies in Ecology: Approaches and Alternatives. Book Author: Gene E. Likens. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988. 214 pages ...

  7. The Impact of Marine Protected Areas on Reef-Wide Population Structure and Fishing-Induced Phenotypes in Coral-Reef Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Robert Young, III

    Overfishing and destructive fishing practices threaten the sustainability of fisheries worldwide. In addition to reducing population sizes, anthropogenic fishing effort is highly size-selective, preferentially removing the largest individuals from harvested stocks. Intensive, size-selective mortality induces widespread phenotypic shifts toward the predominance of smaller and earlier-maturing individuals. Fish that reach sexual maturity at smaller size and younger age produce fewer, smaller, and less viable larvae, severely reducing the reproductive capacity of exploited populations. These directional phenotypic alterations, collectively known as "fisheries-induced evolution" (FIE) are among the primary causes of the loss of harvestable fish biomass. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are one of the most widely utilized components of fisheries management programs around the world, and have been proposed as a potential mechanism by which the impacts of FIE may be mitigated. The ability of MPAs to buffer exploited populations against fishing pressure, however, remains debated due to inconsistent results across studies. Additionally, empirical evidence of phenotypic shifts in fishes within MPAs is lacking. This investigation addresses both of these issues by: (1) using a categorical meta-analysis of MPAs to standardize and quantify the magnitude of MPA impacts across studies; and (2) conducting a direct comparison of life-history phenotypes known to be influenced by FIE in six reef-fish species inside and outside of MPAs. The Philippines was used as a model system for analyses due to the country's significance in global marine biodiversity and reliance on MPAs as a fishery management tool. The quantitative impact of Philippine MPAs was assessed using a "reef-wide" meta-analysis. This analysis used pooled visual census data from 39 matched pairs of MPAs and fished reefs surveyed twice over a mean period of 3 years. In 17 of these MPAs, two additional surveys were conducted

  8. Book review: 'Four Decades of Marine Geosciences in India - A Retrospect, National Seminar organised in connection with 150 th year celebration of Geological Survey of India. Mangalore 14-16, March 2001'

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P

    , Geological Survey of India, 27 Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Kolkata - 700 016. 325p, Price INR: 575/-, US$: 32/-, UK?: 20/- Marine Geology is a relatively young branch of Geology. It was initiated in India at the Andhra University, Waltair in the late 40's... group at NIO, Goa. Further, it is not out of place to mention the names of Professors C. Mahadevan, M. Poornachandra Rao and M. Subba Rao from Andhra University, and Shri R.R. Nair and Dr. M.G.A.P. Setty from NIO, Dr. V.V. Sastry from Oil and Natural Gas...

  9. English Book Club

    CERN Multimedia

    English Book Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN English Book Club will hold its 2012 AGM at 17h30 on Monday 5th March in the club rooms (club barrack 564). Club members are invited to attend. Any members wishing to add points on to the agenda should contact one of the committee before February 27th. The English Book Club has a collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books are purchased regularly and the books are shelved in our club room which is accessible to members at all times. Membership is open to all (staff and external) and there is a special tariff for short term students. See the club’s website at http://cern.ch/englishbookclub for more details.

  10. English Book Club

    CERN Document Server

    CERN English Book Club

    2010-01-01

    AGM  --  AGM  -- 2010 --  AGM  --  AGM The CERN ENGLISH BOOK CLUB will hold its 2010 AGM at 18h00 on Monday November 22nd in the club rooms (club barrack 564). Club members are invited to attend. Any members wishing to add points on to the agenda should contact one of the committee before November 12th. AGM  --  AGM  -- 2010 --  AGM  --  AGM The English Book Club has a collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books are purchased regularly and the books are shelved in our club room which is accessible to members at all times. Membership is open to all (staff and external) and there is a special tariff for short term students. See the club’s website at http://cern.ch/englishbookclub for more details.  

  11. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  12. Coastal sea radiation environment and biodiversity protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Senming; Shang Zhaorong

    2009-01-01

    This paper characterizes the types, trend and the potential of radiation contamination in the sea against the development of nuclear power stations. Combined with the present status of radioactive contamination and marine biodiversity in China seas, it is pointed out that non-human radiation protection should be considered on the bases of marine biodiversity protection. Besides, the reference species for marine radiation protection and some viewpoints on the work of marine radiation protection in China are pro- posed. (authors)

  13. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  14. Software engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineer's Pocket Book provides a concise discussion on various aspects of software engineering. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of concerns in software engineering. Chapter 1 discusses software development, and Chapter 2 covers programming languages. Chapter 3 deals with operating systems. The book also tackles discrete mathematics and numerical computation. Data structures and algorithms are also explained. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the specification, design, development, implementation, testing, maintenance, and qualit

  15. The Leporello Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Referring to the festival's overall framework "Distribution and Markets" this historical photobook exhibition will discuss the mass-produced travel books of the 19th century and their impact on the global development of the city as a commodity and tourist attraction. The exhibition focuses...... examples from the nineteenth century and contemporary ones. It showcases books from many countries, books of different sizes and qualities, with or without text, and containing black-and-white photographs or colour reproductions. It illustrates the variety of the book typology and documents its development...

  16. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  17. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  18. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  19. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  20. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.