WorldWideScience

Sample records for book endangered species

  1. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  2. Endangered Species Protection Bulletins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endangered Species Protection Bulletins set forth geographically specific pesticide use limitations for the protection of threatened and endangered (listed) species and their designated critical habitat. Find out how to get and use Bulletins.

  3. Endangered Species: An Educator's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jean, M., Comp.

    Presented are two articles, an annotated bibliography, and other information useful in teaching about endangered species, especially those found in Florida. The articles provide an ethical rationale, teaching suggestions, and a discussion of the value of wildlife. Descriptions of over 100 pertinent books, periodicals, movies, and filmstrips are in…

  4. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  5. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  6. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  7. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act are major federal statutes designed to protect plant and animal resources from adverse effects due to development projects. Both Acts require consultation with wildlife authorities prior to committing resources to certain types of projects. The purposes and requirements of the two statutes are summarized in the following subsections. Also presented is a list of contacts in the regional and field offices of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. 75 FR 78974 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...-XA086 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit...

  9. 76 FR 2348 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    .... 15596] Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The North Carolina Aquarium at Fort Fisher has been...

  10. 76 FR 74778 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    .... 16439] Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and...

  11. 76 FR 1405 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...-XA128 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The five-year permit... above- named organization. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered...

  12. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community…

  13. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for each...

  14. 3 CFR - The Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Endangered Species Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 3, 2009 The Endangered Species Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Endangered Species Act (ESA), 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq...

  15. Endangered Lilium Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Demir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, which is among the major gene centers of the world and has a special place in plant genetic diversity. However, many plant genetic resources, including geophytes, are under genetic erosion because of the environmental and other problems and therefore face with the danger of extinction. Lilium ciliatum is endemic to North East Anatolia. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources Red List Category of this species is Endangered (EN. Lilium ciliatum naturally grown in Zigana pass, Bayburt, Trabzon, Bulancak, Giresun and Gümüşhane is endangered and major threats of L. ciliatum are road construction and human disturbance related to ecotourism and recreation. It was reported that Lilium carniolicum naturally grown in Turkey is endangered although it isn’t in the IUCN Red List. Distribution areas of L. carniolicum are Trabzon, Rize, Artvin and it is also endemic to North East Anatolia. These species have high potential for use as ornamental plants with their colorful big flowers. In addition, the bulbs of these species are also used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. These are the main properties that increase the importance of L. ciliatum and L. carniolicum species. Therefore it is very important to protect the habitats of these species, ensure the continuity of their generations. The disappearance of these endemic species from our country means to disappear from the world. This review has been given in order to give some information about the endangered Lilium species of Turkey and conservation actions on these species in Turkey flora and take attention to the issue.

  16. Threatened & Endangered Species Occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The database consists of a single statewide coverage of location records for 54 species contained in the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory database of the Kansas...

  17. The Army and the Endangered Species Act: Who's Endangering Whom?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diner, David N

    1993-01-01

    Mankind is causing a mass extinction of plant and animal species. The Army, as steward of 25 million acres of public lands, is being asked to play an increasingly decisive role in recovering endangered species...

  18. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  19. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  20. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  1. Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lynette K.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of "Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions" is to create awareness about a critical environmental issue. There is a special urgency to this project because large numbers of animal species are currently endangered or on the brink of extinction. In addition to being enlightened about this important topic through research, students…

  2. Endangered species toxicity extrapolation using ICE models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Research Council’s (NRC) report on assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species (T&E) included the recommendation of using interspecies correlation models (ICE) as an alternative to general safety factors for extrapolating across species. ...

  3. Economics of the Endangered Species Act

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner M. Brown; Jason F. Shogren

    1998-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of our most far-reaching and controversial environmental laws. While the benefits of protecting endangered species accrue to the entire nation, a significant fraction of the costs are borne by the private landowners who shelter about 90 percent of the nearly 1,000 listed species. The pressure to know whether the social benefits of preservation exceed the private costs has thrust economics into ongoing reauthorization debate. This paper examines how ec...

  4. Density of Threatened and Endangered Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...

  5. Density of Threatened and Endangered Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...

  6. Bioeconomic analysis supports the endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salau, Kehinde R; Fenichel, Eli P

    2015-10-01

    The United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted to protect and restore declining fish, wildlife, and plant populations. The ESA mandates endangered species protection irrespective of costs. This translates to the restriction of activities that harm endangered populations. We discuss criticisms of the ESA in the context of public land management and examine under what circumstance banning non-conservation activity on multiple use federal lands can be socially optimal. We develop a bioeconomic model to frame the species management problem under the ESA and identify scenarios where ESA-imposed regulations emerge as optimal strategies. Results suggest that banning harmful activities is a preferred strategy when valued endangered species are in decline or exposed to poor habitat quality. However, it is not optimal to sustain such a strategy in perpetuity. An optimal plan involves a switch to land-use practices characteristic of habitat conservation plans.

  7. 32 CFR 643.32 - Policy-Endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Endangered species. 643.32 Section 643.32... ESTATE Policy § 643.32 Policy—Endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), declares the intention of Congress to conserve threatened and endangered species of fish...

  8. 75 FR 69699 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  9. 50 CFR 451.03 - Endangered Species Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endangered Species Committee. 451.03... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS APPLICATION PROCEDURE § 451.03 Endangered Species Committee. (a) Scope. This section contains...

  10. 77 FR 51042 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  11. 78 FR 37840 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity...

  12. 78 FR 57650 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  13. 77 FR 71818 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  14. 75 FR 79387 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  15. 75 FR 20857 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  16. 75 FR 53708 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  17. 76 FR 70160 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  18. 78 FR 55287 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  19. ESUSA: US endangered species distribution file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J.; Calef, C.E.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes a file containing distribution data on endangered species of the United States of Federal concern pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Included for each species are (a) the common name, (b) the scientific name, (c) the family, (d) the group (mammal, bird, etc.), (e) Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listing and recovery priorities, (f) the Federal legal status, (g) the geographic distribution by counties or islands, (h) Federal Register citations and (i) the sources of the information on distribution of the species. Status types are endangered, threatened, proposed, formally under review, candidate, deleted, and rejected. Distribution is by Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code and is of four types: designated critical habitat, present range, potential range, and historic range.

  20. 75 FR 63196 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... (Panthera tigris) to worldwide locations for the purpose of enhancement of the species. The permit numbers... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY: Fish and... certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA...

  1. 75 FR 13255 - Endangered Species; File No. 15338

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... form for a permit pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The Permit... of the ESA and Federal regulations prohibit the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or... regulations governing permits for threatened and endangered species are promulgated at 50 CFR 222.307. Species...

  2. National Wildlife. Special Issue: Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, John, Ed.

    This is the first special issue in the 12-year history of "National Wildlife," and is devoted entirely to endangered species of animals and plants in the United States. An overview of the problem stresses the impact of man's haphazard development, suburban sprawl, and urban pollution upon a fragile environment, resulting in dozens of…

  3. CONSERVATION METHODS OF ENDANGERED SPECIES GUNDU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    conservation as well as some measures that can be employed in saving some endangered species from extinction. The paper also recommends ... breeding of fish and other aquatic animals. In the past, aquaria were only used for ... a baby boy through artificial insemination of sperm obtained from her late husband who.

  4. Energy resellers - An endangered species?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ygge, F.

    1999-04-01

    Many markets, including the travel, music, and book markets, are undergoing dramatic changes due do the development of electronic commerce. Reseller margins often decrease significantly and some times even entire links in the supply chain are becoming completely superfluous. Even though power markets have been deregulated already for some years in many countries, electronic commerce has not yet had a major impact on the business logic. This paper presents some of the major obstacles to electronic power trade, and presents promising solutions to these obstacles. In particular it is described how software agent mediated trade may enable medium and small size consumers and producers to trade directly from power pools, without the need of traditional energy resellers. The conclusion that is there are good reasons to believe that energy resellers are as threatened in the new information era as, e.g., traditional travel agencies, and music and book-shops are

  5. Book review: Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act is authored by Lowell E. Baier, an attorney, political scientist, and historian whose conservation portfolio includes the J. N. “Ding” Darling Conservation Award from the National Wildlife Federation (2016), Citizen Conservationist Award from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (2013), Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life magazine (2010), and Conservationist of the Year Award from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (2008). In the book, Baier stresses the need to reform the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) because of unintended provisions that incentivize and reward environmental litigants for filing suit against federal regulatory and land management agencies, consequentially hindering pro-active, cooperative, conservation efforts. The book is the culmination of several years of legal research, case history analyses, and personal interviews with several key individuals from congress, conservation management agencies, and non-government organizations.

  6. Quantifying Temporal Genomic Erosion in Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Del-Molino, David; Sánchez-Barreiro, Fatima; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dalén, Love

    2018-03-01

    Many species have undergone dramatic population size declines over the past centuries. Although stochastic genetic processes during and after such declines are thought to elevate the risk of extinction, comparative analyses of genomic data from several endangered species suggest little concordance between genome-wide diversity and current population sizes. This is likely because species-specific life-history traits and ancient bottlenecks overshadow the genetic effect of recent demographic declines. Therefore, we advocate that temporal sampling of genomic data provides a more accurate approach to quantify genetic threats in endangered species. Specifically, genomic data from predecline museum specimens will provide valuable baseline data that enable accurate estimation of recent decreases in genome-wide diversity, increases in inbreeding levels, and accumulation of deleterious genetic variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cooperation and the Endangered Species Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973 set the stage for some of the nations most polemic environmental battles. One of these is in the Colorado River Basin which is home to four native and rare fish species. Acrimonious confrontation has characterized the consultations under the ESA regarding these fish species. In 1983, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced that no new water depletions such as for hydropower plants, from the Upper Colorado River Basin would be allowed. This created no small stir among basin states and water developers and a negotiated solution was sought. The result was the Recovery Implementation Program for Endangered Fish Species in the Upper Colorado River Basin. This paper reports that models of political negotiation indicate conceptually, that the Recovery Program with its decisions made by unanimity of consensus, its open process and sharing of information, its shared budget and users fees, is a vehicle of political compromise and cooperation

  8. 78 FR 22517 - Endangered Species; File No. 16549

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Permit Holder is issued a five... to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes...

  9. 78 FR 22239 - Endangered Species; File No. 16556

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts... operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the...

  10. 76 FR 22877 - Endangered Species; File No. 15566

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The five... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with...

  11. 75 FR 78227 - Endangered Species; File No. 14400

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S... black abalone, a species listed as endangered on February 13, 2009. The objective of this monitoring is...) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent...

  12. 75 FR 22106 - Endangered Species; File No. 14510

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    .... The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The purpose of the proposed research..., (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is...

  13. 77 FR 1062 - Endangered Species; File No. 16146

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Dr. Hart is authorized to study green, hawksbill... for in good faith, (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species...

  14. 77 FR 55194 - Endangered Species; File No. 17095

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    .... The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Permit Holder is issued a five-year... operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the...

  15. 77 FR 21751 - Endangered Species; File No. 16645

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The permit application is for the incidental take of ESA... appointment in the following office: Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315.... Mail: Submit written comments to Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315...

  16. 75 FR 26715 - Endangered Species; File No. 10022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No... for in good faith, (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species...

  17. 78 FR 59657 - Endangered Species; File No. 17304

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No... operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the...

  18. 78 FR 31519 - Endangered Species; File No. 13543

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... organization. The requested modification has been granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 13543 authorizes the permit... disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set...

  19. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section... Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not cause or contribute to the taking of any endangered or threatened species of plants, fish, or wildlife. (b...

  20. 78 FR 27255 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  1. 75 FR 7443 - Endangered Species; File No. 14381

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ...-named organization. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The researchers will... to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes...

  2. 78 FR 41034 - Endangered Species; File No. 18102

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... applied in due form for a permit pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The... also available upon written request or by appointment in the following office: Endangered Species... written comments to Endangered Species Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315...

  3. 76 FR 32144 - Endangered Species; File No. 15677

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts..., (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is...

  4. 75 FR 53278 - Endangered Species; File No. 14759

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts...) was applied for in good faith; (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered species...

  5. 77 FR 34061 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  6. 77 FR 10724 - Endangered Species; File No. 16253

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The SEFSC... disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set...

  7. 75 FR 61133 - Endangered Species; File No. 14176

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    .... The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant is authorized to conduct a... such endangered or threatened species; and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth...

  8. 78 FR 2659 - Endangered Species; File No. 16645

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... written request or by appointment in the following office: Endangered Species Conservation Division... GA DNR. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The permit authorizes take of ESA...

  9. 78 FR 44096 - Endangered Species; File No. 17381

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The above... disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set...

  10. 78 FR 38952 - Endangered Species; File No. 17506

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Ms. Holloway-Adkins has been issued a 5-year... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with...

  11. 77 FR 15997 - Endangered Species; File No. 15672

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ...-named individual. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act..., and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The five year permit... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2...

  12. 77 FR 61745 - Endangered Species; File No. 16803

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The SWFSC... to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes...

  13. 78 FR 15706 - Endangered Species; File No. 17316

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The permit... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2...

  14. 75 FR 21601 - Endangered Species; File No. 14604

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with...

  15. 78 FR 13642 - Endangered Species; File No. 17506

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC518 Endangered...

  16. 76 FR 58471 - Endangered Species; File No. 15634

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The SWFSC proposes to conduct research on... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA714 Endangered...

  17. 78 FR 57132 - Endangered Species; File No. 16230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... authorization for incidental take of sea turtles listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) associated with..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). This permit authorizes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC289 Endangered...

  18. 76 FR 66042 - Endangered Species; File No. 1551

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA785 Endangered...

  19. 78 FR 3882 - Endangered Species; File No. 13543

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XJ40 Endangered...

  20. 77 FR 24686 - Endangered Species; File No. 15634

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S... disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA714 Endangered...

  1. 75 FR 26715 - Endangered Species; File No. 1596

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... 29, 2009 (74 FR 38585), is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 1596-02 authorizes the SWFSC to capture... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW36 Endangered...

  2. 77 FR 31586 - Endangered Species; File No. 16556

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The NEFSC requests a five-year permit... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC037 Endangered...

  3. 77 FR 40588 - Endangered Species; File No. 16598

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB054 Endangered...

  4. 75 FR 13488 - Endangered Species; File No. 14949

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The purpose of the research is to provide... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV33 Endangered...

  5. 76 FR 48146 - Endangered Species; File No. 1551

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... subject modification to Permit No. 1551- 02 is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 1551, issued on July 24, 2008... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA620 Endangered...

  6. 76 FR 27306 - Endangered Species; File No. 15661

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The CNMI Division of Fish and Wildlife proposes to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA425 Endangered...

  7. 76 FR 19052 - Endangered Species; File No. 14344

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...-named organization. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The permit authorizes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA340 Endangered...

  8. 76 FR 45230 - Endangered Species; File No. 15802

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The applicant proposes to monitor smalltooth... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA603 Endangered...

  9. 76 FR 77781 - Endangered Species; File No. 15802

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). On July 28, 2011 (76 FR 45230), notice was... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA603 Endangered...

  10. 78 FR 39258 - Endangered Species; File No. 18069

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant requests a five-year... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC725 Endangered...

  11. 77 FR 72326 - Endangered Species; File No. 17381

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The applicant requests a 5-year permit to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC372 Endangered...

  12. 77 FR 57559 - Endangered Species; File No. 13330

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... been granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB144 Endangered...

  13. 75 FR 9868 - Endangered Species; File No. 14622

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU82 Endangered...

  14. 77 FR 67341 - Endangered Species; File No. 15809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC325 Endangered...

  15. 76 FR 45781 - Endangered Species; File No. 15552

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The five... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA601 Endangered...

  16. 76 FR 22677 - Endangered Species; File No. 14949

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Dr. Diez was issued a 5-year permit... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA382 Endangered...

  17. 75 FR 13256 - Endangered Species; File No. 14176

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of..., and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The applicant is seeking a five... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV28 Endangered...

  18. 78 FR 50396 - Endangered Species; File No. 17405

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S... to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC519 Endangered...

  19. 76 FR 77780 - Endangered Species; File No. 10022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... been granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA867 Endangered...

  20. 78 FR 26323 - Endangered Species; File No. 17183

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC078 Endangered...

  1. 78 FR 5779 - Endangered Species; File No. 16248

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC322 Endangered...

  2. 77 FR 58812 - Endangered Species; File No. 16733

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The SEFSC requests a five-year permit to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC253 Endangered...

  3. 76 FR 18725 - Endangered Species; File No. 16174

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA348 Endangered...

  4. 77 FR 30261 - Endangered Species; File No. 16306

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Maine Department... to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA712 Endangered...

  5. 78 FR 16255 - Endangered Species; File No. 17022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC059 Endangered...

  6. 78 FR 38013 - Endangered Species; File No. 15661

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA425 Endangered...

  7. 77 FR 13096 - Endangered Species; File No. 16598

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB054 Endangered...

  8. 77 FR 65673 - Endangered Species; File No. 16248

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The Riverbanks Zoo and Garden is requesting a permit to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC322 Endangered...

  9. 78 FR 17355 - Endangered Species; File No. 17787

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant proposes to gather life... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC576 Endangered...

  10. 76 FR 51945 - Endangered Species; File No. 16548

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Springfield Science Museum is... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA648 Endangered...

  11. Man...An Endangered Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  12. Estimating Effects of Species Interactions on Populations of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Tobias; Bühler, Christoph; Amrhein, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    Global change causes community composition to change considerably through time, with ever-new combinations of interacting species. To study the consequences of newly established species interactions, one available source of data could be observational surveys from biodiversity monitoring. However, approaches using observational data would need to account for niche differences between species and for imperfect detection of individuals. To estimate population sizes of interacting species, we extended N-mixture models that were developed to estimate true population sizes in single species. Simulations revealed that our model is able to disentangle direct effects of dominant on subordinate species from indirect effects of dominant species on detection probability of subordinate species. For illustration, we applied our model to data from a Swiss amphibian monitoring program and showed that sizes of expanding water frog populations were negatively related to population sizes of endangered yellow-bellied toads and common midwife toads and partly of natterjack toads. Unlike other studies that analyzed presence and absence of species, our model suggests that the spread of water frogs in Central Europe is one of the reasons for the decline of endangered toad species. Thus, studying population impacts of dominant species on population sizes of endangered species using data from biodiversity monitoring programs should help to inform conservation policy and to decide whether competing species should be subject to population management.

  13. 76 FR 61733 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    .... Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, the Endangered... (Saguinus bicolor), Cottontop tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), Francois langur (Trachypithecus francoisi), Lion...

  14. 77 FR 74506 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... by the applicant over a 3-year period. Applicant: Utah State University-Intermountain Herbarium.../herbarium specimens of endangered and threatened species (excluding animals) previously legally accessioned...

  15. 78 FR 40669 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Aboriginal Prickly-Apple, and Designation of Critical Habitat for Cape Sable Thoroughwort AGENCY: Fish and... public comment period on the October 11, 2012, proposed rule to list Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable...-apple) as endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to...

  16. Endangered Species Act and energy facility planning: compliance and conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreeve, D; Calef, C; Nagy, J

    1978-05-01

    New energy facilities such as coal mines, gasification plants, refineries, and power plants--because of their severe environmental impacts--may, if sited haphazardly, jeopardize endangered species. By law, conflicts between energy-facility siting and endangered species occurrence must be minimized. To assess the likelihood of such conflicts arising, the authors used data from the Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Office, that describe the species' ranges by county. This data set was matched with county-level occurrences of imminent energy developments to find counties of overlap and hence potential conflict. An index was developed to measure the likelihood of actual conflict occurring in such counties. Factors determining the index are: numbers of endangered species inhabiting the county, number of energy-related developments, and to what degree the county remains in a wild or undeveloped state. Maps were prepared showing (1) geographic ranges of endangered species by taxonomic groups (mammals, fish, etc.) and (2) counties of conflict.

  17. 78 FR 29114 - Endangered Species; File No. 17304

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC667 Endangered Species; File No. 17304 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  18. 76 FR 76950 - Endangered Species; File No. 16134

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA848 Endangered Species; File No. 16134 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  19. 76 FR 35842 - Endangered Species; File No. 15685

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA502 Endangered Species; File No. 15685 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  20. 77 FR 34349 - Endangered Species; File No. 16803

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC058 Endangered Species; File No. 16803 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  1. 75 FR 67682 - Endangered Species; File No. 15566

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA013 Endangered Species; File No. 15566 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  2. 77 FR 58812 - Endangered Species; File No. 17316

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The applicant proposes to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC252 Endangered Species; File No. 17316 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  3. 76 FR 58471 - Endangered Species; File No. 16306

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA712 Endangered Species; File No. 16306 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  4. 78 FR 51712 - Endangered Species; File No. 16733

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC253 Endangered Species; File No. 16733 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  5. 77 FR 1671 - Endangered Species; File No. 16194

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The five-year permit... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA925 Endangered Species; File No. 16194 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  6. Are LDC marketing units an endangered species?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, J.

    1995-01-01

    Local distribution company (LDC) marketing affiliates are an ''endangered species,'' according to consultant Porter Bennett, president of Bentek Energy Research. This is true, he says, because the gas marketing industry is ''rapidly becoming a large-volume, low-margin business.'' As a result, the need for economies of scale will produce mergers in the gas marketing business until all that's left are six or 12 national companies. But Bruce Henning, A.G.A.'s chief economist, says don't bury LDC marketing units yet. Though he agrees that ''there is increasing pressure on marketers of energy services to reduce their margins to remain competitive,'' he adds that ''it's hard to say how big a company will have to be to capture the economies of scale necessary to be effective.'' These differing views are discussed in terms of size of company, the concerns about retail markets, and the trends towards mergers

  7. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  8. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA (CUSA). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC): the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides), and Hoover's wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205), which declaresthat it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered SpeciesAct. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1992 (FY92)

  9. Endangered Species Program Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. (CUSA). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides) and Hoover's Wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205), which declares that it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for the continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1991 (FY91)

  10. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ramakrushna

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, human gene pools, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. We propose cryopreservation of germplasms by constructing a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions. Rationale: Under such alarming circumstances, we turned to cryopreservation as an option but over thousands of years economic depression, sabotage, conflicts, warfare or even a brief disruption to the precise cryopreservation can hamper the storage of genetic samples.When we are considering conservation it is always preferable to go for a more secure and permanent solution. It was found out that the climatic and strategic location of the lunar polar craters are adequately hospitable, remote and free of maintenance and human observation as they provide naturally cryogenic temperature, reduced gravity and vacuum environment, non-reactive surface, safety from celestial intrusion and permanent shadow which doesn't allow the temperature to fluctuate thus providing most suitable storage facilities for the germplasms. PSRs provide steady temperature of 40- 60K and immunity to earthquakes due to low seismic activity. At these sites, burial in one meter or more of the regolith will provide protection against the solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays and micrometeorite impact. It provides the minimum necessary barrier from human intervention and at the same time enables easy retrieval for future usage. Genetic samples of endangered species can enable restoration even after its extinction. Preserved

  11. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Berisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are characterized by low level of principal plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and exceptionally high levels of Mg and Fe. Serpentines play particular importance for flora of the country due to their richness in endemic plant species. The following 11 plant species have been studied: Aristolochia merxmuelleri, Colchicum hungaricum, Crocus flavus, Crocus kosaninii, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana punctata, Gladiolus illyricus, Lilium albanicum, Paeonia peregrina, Tulipa gesneriana and Tulipa kosovarica. Five out of eleven studied geophytes fall within Critically Endangered IUCN based threat category and five out of eleven are local endemics. Aristolochia merxmuelleri and Tulipa kosovarica are steno-endemic plant species that are found exclusively in serpentine soils. Information in our database should prove to be valuable to efforts in ecology, floristics, biosystematics, conservation and land management.

  12. Management of Maritime Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehlhausen, Sophia

    1998-01-01

    ...). Since the DoD mission has not required large-scale urbanization of the coast, these ecosystems also provide high quality habitat for several federally threatened and endangered plant and animal species (TES...

  13. 78 FR 56924 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... 17.21(g) to include the Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra) to enhance their propagation or... export and re-import non-living museum/herbarium specimens of endangered and threatened species...

  14. Threatened and Endangered Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all U.S. listed threatened and endangered mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in the Middle-Atlantic...

  15. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mammalian Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Nun, Inbar Friedrich; Montague, Susanne C; Houck, Marlys L; Ryder, Oliver; Loring, Jeanne F

    2015-01-01

    For some highly endangered species there are too few reproductively capable animals to maintain adequate genetic diversity, and extraordinary measures are necessary to prevent their extinction. Cellular reprogramming is a means to capture the genomes of individual animals as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which may eventually facilitate reintroduction of genetic material into breeding populations. Here, we describe a method for generating iPSCs from fibroblasts of mammalian endangered species.

  16. 78 FR 12776 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... comment before issuing these permits. DATES: To ensure consideration, written comments must be received on... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...) Permit TE-64710A Applicant: Jacob Jackson, Austin, Texas. Applicant requests a new permit for research...

  17. 78 FR 45954 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... to do so. II. Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species.... Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Association for the Conservation of Threatened... permit to export biological samples of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to the African Lion Safari...

  18. 78 FR 38731 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... (Parahyaena brunnea), and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This...-bred male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) from the Hoedspruit Endangered Species Center instead of the De Wildt Cheetah Breeding Center, South Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the...

  19. Endangered Fish Species in Kansas: Historic vs Contemporary Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Kansas state has more freshwater fish species than other states in the west and northern US. Based on recent count, more than 140 fishes have been documented in Kansas rivers. And at least five are categorized as endangered species in Kansas (and thre...

  20. The Endangered Species Act: Interfacing with Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides protective measures and a framework for establishing compliance criteria for actions that may affect species (and their habitat) listed under the Act. In many cases, the ESA can be effectively used under Section & of the Act, which provides procedures for c...

  1. In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal timber species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The over exploitation of African mahogany in tropical forest has threatened the genetic base of this useful timber and medicinal tree species and as such, an experiment was conducted on the in vitro culture of Khaya grandifoliola, an endangered tree species commonly found in the high forest zones of West Africa to explore ...

  2. 77 FR 25733 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... species pursuant to section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531... is provided under section 10(c) of the Act. If you wish to comment, you may submit comments by any...: Irene Liu, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina Applicant requests authorization to monitor nests...

  3. 77 FR 19552 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Range Extension for Endangered Central California Coast Coho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ..., biology, and habitat of this coho salmon ESU, see ``Endangered and Threatened Species: Final Listing...: Viability of Coho Populations South of San Francisco Bay and Their Contribution to the Evolutionary Legacy...'' populations that are ephemeral and do not contribute to the evolutionary legacy of the CCC coho salmon ESU...

  4. Decision support systems for recovery of endangered species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The listing of a species as endangered under the Endangered Species Act invokes a suite of responses to help improve conditions for the recovery of that species, to include identification of stressors contributing to population loss, decision analysis of the impacts of proposed recovery options, and implementation of optimal recovery measures. The ability of a decision support system to quantify inherent stressor uncertainties and to identify the key stressors that can be controlled or eliminated becomes key to ensuring the recovery of an endangered species. The listing of the Snake River sockeye, spring/summer chinook, and fall chinook salmon species in the Snake River as endangered provides a vivid example of the importance of sophisticated decision support systems. Operational and physical changes under consideration at eight of the hydroelectric dams along the Columbia and Lower Snake River pose significant financial impacts to a variety of stakeholders involved in the salmon population recovery process and carry significant uncertainties of outcome. A decision support system is presented to assist in the identification of optimal recovery actions for this example that includes the following: creation of datamarts of information on environmental, engineering, and ecological values that influence species survival; incorporation of decision analysis tools to determine optimal decision policies; and the use of geographic information systems (GIS) to provide a context for decision analysis and to communicate the impacts of decision policies

  5. When should we save the most endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Howard B; Joseph, Liana N; Moore, Alana L; Possingham, Hugh P

    2011-09-01

    At the heart of our efforts to protect threatened species, there is a controversial debate about whether to give priority to cost-effective actions or whether focusing solely on the most endangered species will ultimately lead to preservation of the greatest number of species. By framing this debate within a decision-analytic framework, we show that allocating resources solely to the most endangered species will typically not minimise the number of extinctions in the long-term, as this does not account for the risk of less endangered species going extinct in the future. It is only favoured when our planning timeframe is short or we have a long-term view and we are optimistic about future conditions. Conservation funding tends to be short-term in nature, which biases allocations to more endangered species. Our work highlights the need to consider resource allocation for biodiversity over the long-term; 'preventive conservation', rather than just short-term fire-fighting. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberlet, P; Valentini, A; Rezaei, H R; Naderi, S; Pompanon, F; Negrini, R; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2008-01-01

    For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic characteristics, and reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced. This corresponded to a strong fragmentation of the initial populations. A few decades ago, the selection pressures were increased again in order to further improve productivity, without enough emphasis on the preservation of the overall genetic diversity. The efficiency of modern selection methods successfully increased the production, but with a dramatic loss of genetic variability. Many industrial breeds now suffer from inbreeding, with effective population sizes falling below 50. With the development of these industrial breeds came economic pressure on farmers to abandon their traditional breeds, and many of these have recently become extinct as a result. This means that genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. It is therefore important to take measures that promote a sustainable management of these genetic resources; first, by in situ preservation of endangered breeds; second, by using selection programmes to restore the genetic diversity of industrial breeds; and finally, by protecting the wild relatives that might provide useful genetic resources.

  7. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    OpenAIRE

    Casazza, ML; Overton, CT; Bui, TVD; Hull, JM; Albertson, JD; Bloom, VK; Bobzien, S; McBroom, J; Latta, M; Olofson, P; Rohmer, TM; Schwarzbach, S; Strong, DR; Grijalva, E; Wood, JK

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 by the author(s). Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habit...

  8. Species recovery in the United States: Increasing the effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Evans; Judy P. Che-Castaldo; Deborah Crouse; Frank W. Davis; Rebecca Epanchin-Niell; Curtis H. Flather; R. Kipp Frohlich; Dale D. Goble; Ya-Wei Li; Timothy D. Male; Lawrence L. Master; Matthew P. Moskwik; Maile C. Neel; Barry R. Noon; Camille Parmesan; Mark W. Schwartz; J. Michael Scott; Byron K. Williams

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) has succeeded in shielding hundreds of species from extinction and improving species recovery over time. However, recovery for most species officially protected by the ESA - i.e., listed species - has been harder to achieve than initially envisioned. Threats to species are persistent and pervasive, funding has been insufficient...

  9. The Economics of Captive Breeding and Endangered Species Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damania, R.; Bulte, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing concern that the traditional ¿protectionist¿ approach to conservation is expensive and insufficient to deliver the desired environmental outcomes. ¿Supply side¿ policies to conserve endangered species have drawn support. By generating supplies from captive-bred animals, wildlife

  10. 76 FR 57757 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... ESA law requires that we invite public comment before issuing these permits. DATES: We must receive... analyses of, the applicable laws and regulations. We will not consider or include in our administrative... Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Graham Banes, Miami, FL; PRT-49805A The applicant requests a...

  11. 75 FR 6184 - Endangered Species; File No. 14754

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU00 Endangered Species; File No. 14754 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... subsequent years of the permit, studies would take place evaluating toxic effects of other contaminants. The...

  12. 75 FR 19363 - Endangered Species; File No. 14754

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV76 Endangered Species; File No. 14754 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... contaminants. The permit would not authorize any takes from the wild, nor would it authorize any release of...

  13. 76 FR 63322 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 1306, Room 6034, Albuquerque, NM at (505) 248-6920. Please refer to the...: Susan Jacobsen, Chief, Endangered Species Division, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 87103; (505) 248-6920... loggerhead (Caretta caretta) sea turtles within the Sea Life Center, Galveston, Texas. Permit TE-42739A...

  14. 76 FR 35235 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ..., Ecological Services, P.O. Box 1306, Room 6034, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Documents and other information.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Jacobsen, Chief, Endangered Species Division, P.O. Box 1306... requests a new permit for husbandry and holding of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and Kemps ridley sea...

  15. 76 FR 26313 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ..., Ecological Services, P.O. Box 1306, Room 6034, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Documents and other information.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Jacobsen, Chief, Endangered Species Division, P.O. Box 1306.... Applicant requests a new permit for husbandry and holding of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill...

  16. 75 FR 11863 - Endangered Species; File No. 15135

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... take threatened and endangered sea turtles for purposes of scientific research. DATES: Written... Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa... turtle bycatch. The research would involve testing modified large mesh (> 5 inches) commercial gillnets...

  17. 78 FR 30327 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    .... Applicant Federal Register notice Permit issuance date Endangered Species 65816A Lewis Henderson........ 77... FR 24510; April 24, June 1, 2012. 2012. 69106A Lewis Henderson........ 77 FR 24510; April 24, June 1... 11, 2012. 2012. 213382 Virginia Safari Park & 77 FR 26779; May 7, July 21, 2012. Preservation Center...

  18. Scientific Encounters of the Endangered Kind. Reading Activities That Explore Nature's Endangered Species. Grades 4-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embry, Lynn

    Many forms of wildlife are being threatened by changing ecological conditions, pollution, pesticides, human carelessness, and conditions. Efforts are being made to preserve endangered wildlife species. This document provides a partial listing of endangered and threatened species of mammals, birds, and reptiles in North America and its nearby…

  19. Reproductive Impacts of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on Wildlife Species: Implications for Conservation of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Christopher W; McDonough, Caitlin E

    2018-02-15

    Wildlife have proven valuable to our understanding of the potential effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health by contributing considerably to our understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of EDC exposure. But the threats EDCs present to populations of wildlife species themselves are significant, particularly for endangered species whose existence is vulnerable to any reproductive perturbation. However, few studies address the threats EDCs pose to endangered species owing to challenges associated with their study. Here, we highlight those barriers and review the available literature concerning EDC effects on endangered species. Drawing from other investigations into nonthreatened wildlife species, we highlight opportunities for new approaches to advance our understanding and potentially mitigate the effects of EDCs on endangered species to enhance their fertility.

  20. Endangered Species, Provincialism, and a Continental Approach to Bird Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Craig

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available I examined lists of endangered species from northeastern and midwestern United States to assess the extent to which they were dominated by species considered rare due to their vulnerability to anthropogenic stressors or, instead, by species whose rarity might be explained otherwise. Northeastern states had longer species lists than midwestern states, and more species associated with locally rare prairie habitats. More species at the edge of their geographic range appeared on lists from the Northeast than the Midwest. About 70% of listed species overall have shown either no significant population trend, or increases, at the continental scale, but wetland and prairie species were frequently listed, consistent with the generally acknowledged, widespread loss of these habitats. Curiously, midwestern states tended to list fewer forest species, despite evidence that forest fragmentation there has had strongly deleterious effects on regional bird populations. Overall, species appear to be listed locally for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to their risk of extinction generally, potentially contributing to inefficient distributions of limited resources to deal effectively with species that legitimately require conservation attention. I advocate a continental perspective when listing species locally, and propose enhanced criteria for characterizing species as endangered at the local level.

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart G of... - Implementation Procedures for the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Implementation Procedures for the Endangered Species... for the Endangered Species Act 1. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 shall implement the consultation procedures required under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act as specified in...

  2. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16 U.S.C...

  3. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathways and their Utility to Ecological Risk Assessments of Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological risk assessments of endangered species are often hampered by a lack of knowledge about the sensitivity of endangered species to chemicals of concern. However, traditional in vivo toxicity testing of endangered species is often not possible for practical and ethical rea...

  4. Species recovery in the united states: Increasing the effectiveness of the endangered species act

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, DM; Che-Castaldo, JP; Crouse, D; Davis, FW; Epanchin-Niell, R; Flather, CH; Frohlich, RK; Goble, DD; Li, YW; Male, TD; Master, LL; Moskwik, MP; Neel, MC; Noon, BR; Parmesan, C

    2016-01-01

    © The Ecological Society of America. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) has succeeded in shielding hundreds of species from extinction and improving species recovery over time. However, recovery for most species officially protected by the ESA - i.e., listed species-has been harder to achieve than initially envisioned. Threats to species are persistent and pervasive, funding has been insufficient, the distribution of money among listed species is highly uneven, and at least 10 times more specie...

  5. Endangered Species Litigation and Associated Pesticide Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has been subject to several citizen suits. As a result we have conducted scientific assessments and made effects determinations for various pesticide products as related to specific species of concern.

  6. Interspecies Management and Land Use Strategies to Protect Endangered Species

    OpenAIRE

    Melstrom, Richard; Horan, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We consider an ecosystem management problem where managers can use habitat creation and predator removal to conserve an endangered species. Predator removal may become particularly important in the face of habitat loss, and ecosystem management strategies that ignore the influence of habitat are likely to be inefficient. Using a bioeconomic model, we show that the marginal impact of prey habitat on predators is a key factor in determining the substitutability or complementarity of habitat and...

  7. The Pricelessness of Biodiversity: Using the Endangered Species Act to Help Combat Extinction and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Falberg, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    The science is clear. Climate change is happening, and it has aserious adverse effect on the majority of biodiversity, species,and ecosystems. Currently, there are no laws that serve to protect biodiversity and species from the oncoming changes; however, there is a law that serves to protect endangered and threatened species generally: the Endangered Species Act. This paper proposes using conservation biology principles to suggest several amendments to the Endangered Species Act to help save ...

  8. Protectiveness of Species Sensitivity Distribution Hazard Concentrations for Acute Toxicity Used in Endangered Species Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A primary objective of threatened and endangered species conservation is to ensure that chemical contaminants and other stressors do not adversely affect listed species. Assessments of the ecological risks of chemical exposures to listed species often rely on the use of surrogate...

  9. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: finding the common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Casazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway's Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail, a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora. California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora à - S. foliosa readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict

  10. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose

  11. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Gibbs

    Full Text Available It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task.

  12. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Katherine E; Currie, David J

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task.

  13. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  14. Protecting Endangered Species: Do the Main Legislative Tools Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Katherine E.; Currie, David J.

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task. PMID:22567111

  15. Discovering Engangered Species. A Learning and Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nancy; Machlis, Sally

    Up to 33 million species share the earth; no one knows the exact number for sure. All over the world, many species are becoming extinct. This workbook is designed to help children become more aware of the concept of extinction, and to develop personal strategies for helping with the problem of endangered species. Included are 31 activities…

  16. The endangered species act: science, policy, and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Michael J

    2009-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of the nation's most significant and most controversial environmental laws. Over three-and-a-half decades, it has profoundly influenced both private and federal agency behavior. As the scope of that influence has come to be recognized, a law that is ostensibly to be guided by science has inevitably become entangled in politics. The generality of many of the law's key provisions has produced continuing uncertainty and conflict over some basic issues. Among these are what species or other taxa are potentially subject to the Act's protections, what the extent of those protections is, and whether the Act's ultimate goal of recovery is one that is being effectively achieved. New challenges face the administrators of this law, including that of incorporating climate change considerations into the decisions made under the Act, and responding to the information made available by recent advances in genetics. This paper provides a brief overview of the Endangered Species Act's history and its key provisions, and a more in-depth look at some of the current and recurrent controversies that have attended its implementation.

  17. Endangered Species and Safe Harbor Agreements: How Should They Be Used?

    OpenAIRE

    Housein, John Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    In its original format, the Endangered Species Act of 1973 was a classic example of the â command and controlâ model of environmental management. The â command and controlâ model creates unintended effects opposite to the stated purpose of the Endangered Species Act such as clandestine destruction of endangered species and their habitat. In order to resolve this issue the Endangered Species Act has moved away from the â command and controlâ model towards a more collaborative contra...

  18. 76 FR 18239 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Argentina for the purpose of scientific research. Applicant: Museum of Zoology and Herbarium, University of... museum/herbarium specimens of endangered and threatened species (excluding bald eagles) previously...

  19. Environmental DNA for Detection of Endangered Grouper Species (Epinephelus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet A. Doğdu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems nestle species or populations known to be threatened due to human overexploitation. Reliable detection and monitoring of threatened organisms is crucial for data-driven conservation actions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA obtained directly from seawater samples to detect endangered grouper species (Epinephelus spp.. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI fragment of mtDNA was used to detect groupers species in the Mediterranean Coasts. We conducted eDNA sampling at sites by underwater diving across the range of the Grouper species habitats in Northeastern Mediterranean (Antalya-Kas Region and Iskenderun Bay. eDNA was isolated from 2 liter seawater samples which were vacuum-filtered onto 0.45-mm membrane filters. Filters were then folded inwards, placed in 2 ml tubes and stored at -20 oC until DNA extraction, which took place within 24 hours. DNA was extracted from the water sample filters using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen, USA. Manufacturer’s protocols were used during all steps. PCR amplification of eDNA samples were done using selective primers of COI region of mitochondrial DNA, and next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR application was conducted. For the successfully obtained COI sequences, maximum matching rates were revealed as 80% for Epinephelus marginatus, 78,95% for Epinephelus aeneus, 73,48% for Epinephelus costae, 63,45% for Epinephelus caninus, 60,12% for Mycteroperca rubra and 57,12% for Hyporthodus haifensis. Despite the methodological challenges inherent in eDNA analysis, the results demonstrated that eDNA method may be proved to step towards a new beginning to detect and monitor endangered grouper species.

  20. 18 CFR 380.13 - Compliance with the Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Endangered Species Act. 380.13 Section 380.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.13 Compliance with the Endangered Species Act. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Listed species and critical habitat have the same meaning as provided in 50 CFR 402...

  1. Biological review of 82 species of coral petitioned to be included in the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Russell E.; Birkeland, Charles; Eakin, C. Mark; McElhany, Paul; Miller, Margaret W.; Patterson, Matt; Piniak, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The petition was based on a predicted decline in available habitat for the species, citing anthropogenic climate change and ocean acidification as the lead factors among the various stressors responsible for the potential decline. The NMFS identified 82 of the corals as candidate species, finding that the petition provided substantive information for a potential listing of these species. The NMFS established a Biological Review Team (BRT) to prepare this Status Review Report that examines the status of these 82 candidate coral species and evaluates extinction risk for each of them. This document makes no recommendations for listing, as that is a separate evaluation to be conducted by the NMFS.

  2. Intelligent Tinkering: the Endangered Species Act and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Harm. Benson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Endangered Species Act (ESA is one of the most powerful and controversial environmental laws in the United States. As a result of its uncompromising position against biodiversity loss, the ESA has become the primary driver of many ecological restoration efforts in the United States. This article explains why the ESA has become the impetus for so many of these efforts and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the ESA as a primary driver from a resilience-based perspective. It argues that in order to accommodate resilience theory, several changes to ESA implementation and enforcement should be made. First and foremost, there is a need to shift management strategies from a species-centered to a systems-based approach. Chief among the shifts required will be a more integrated approach to governance that includes a willingness to reassess demands placed on ecological systems by our social systems. Building resilience will also require more proactive management efforts that support the functioning of system processes before they are endangered and on the brink of regime change. Finally, resilience thinking requires a reorientation of management away from goals associated with achieving preservation, restoration, and optimization and toward goals associated with fostering complexity and adaptive capacity.

  3. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L; Treglia, Michael L; Grant, William E; Smeins, Fred E; Rogers, William E

    2015-04-21

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  4. Valuing local endangered species. The role of intra-species substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Maria L.; Ojea, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Valuation of endangered species is important in many circumstances, and particularly when assessing the impact of large accidental oil spills. Previous studies have tested the effects of including in the contingent valuation survey reminders about the existence of diverse substitutes (in terms of other natural resources also in danger of extinction in the same area, other programs to be valued, or alternative uses of money). We include a reminder about the existence of the same biological species not being under danger of extinction elsewhere. We believe this reminder allows individuals to make an easy assessment of the biological scarcity of the species they are supposed to value. Thus, the key difference with previous studies is that valuation of endangered species is combined with an assessment of preferences towards conservation of local and native species. Our WTP results are not sensitive to the information provided about other foreign substitutes. Implications of this finding are discussed. (author)

  5. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....11). The Department of Commerce has authority over some threatened and endangered marine mammals, fish and reptiles. (b) Possible loss of values: The major potential impacts on threatened or endangered...

  6. Videographic evidence of endangered species depredation by feral cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth; Lippert, Jill S.; Misajon, Kathleen; Hu, Darcy; Hess, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis cafus) have long been implicated as nest predators of endangered 'Ua'u (Hawaiian Petrel; Pterodroma sandwichensis) on Hawaii Island, but until recently, visual confirmation has been limited by available technology. 'Ua'u nest out of view, deep inside small cavities, on alpine lava flows. During the breeding seasons of 2007 and 2008, we monitored known burrows within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Digital infrared video cameras assisted in determining the breeding behaviour and nesting success at the most isolated of burrows. With 7 cameras, we collected a total of 819 videos and 89 still photographs of adult and nestling 'Ua'u at 14 burrows. Videos also confirmed the presence of rats (Rattus spp.) at 2 burrows, 'Ōmao (Myadestes obscurus) at 8 burrows, and feral cats at 6 burrows. A sequence of videos showed a feral cat taking a downy 'Ua'u chick from its burrow, representing the first direct evidence of 'Ua'u depredation by feral cat in Hawai'i. This technique provides greater understanding of feral cat behaviour in 'Ua'u colonies, which may assist in the development of more targeted management strategies to reduce nest predation on endangered insular bird species.

  7. 78 FR 69310 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Protective Regulations for the Gulf of Maine Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, Word... United States from: (A) Importing any endangered species into, or exporting any endangered species from..., Exports, Imports, Transportation. Dated: November 13, 2013. Alan D. Risenhoover, Director, Office of...

  8. Southwesterners’ views of threatened and endangered species management: does ethnic/racial diversity make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; George T. Cvetkovich

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of trust in the Forest Service to manage threatened and endangered species as measured through a survey of residents of four Southwestern States. Of particular interest were variations by ethnic/racial group, gender, concern about threatened and endangered species, and self-assessed knowledge. Increasing diversity in the United States...

  9. Adaptive management to protect biodiversity: best available science and the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although flawed, the most powerful tool for protecting biodiversity in the United States is the Endangered Species Act, which requires the use of the best available science to ensure that endangered and threatened species are not put in jeopardy of extinction. Unfortunately, the ...

  10. Restoration of heterogeneous disturbance regimes for the preservation of endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Warren; Reiner Buttner

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance is a natural component of ecosystems. All species, including threatened and endangered species, evolved in the presence of, and are adapted to natural disturbance regimes that vary in the kind, frequency, severity, and duration of disturbance. We investigated the relationship between the level of visible soil disturbance and the density of four endangered...

  11. A conservation framework for the Critically Endangered endemic species of the Caribbean palm Coccothrinax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    With 30 threatened species [14 Critically Endangered (CR) and 16 Endangered, sensu IUCN)] Coccothrinax (c. 54 species) is the flagship palm genus for conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot. Coccothrinax has its center of taxonomic diversity in these islands, with c. 51 endemic spe...

  12. 75 FR 17377 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... list of endangered and threatened wildlife and plant species at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12... endangered nor threatened for one or more of the following reasons: (1) the species is considered extinct; (2...

  13. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  14. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  15. Monitoring of Federally Threatened and Endangered Species on U.S. Army Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mellon, Robert H; Balbach, Harold E; Ward, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ...) species on United States Army installations, and the results of a survey conducted to ascertain the kinds and quality of efforts being made to monitor these species in compliance with the Endangered...

  16. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. Production Company (CPDN). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo rat, Tipton kangaroo rat, and Hoover`s wooly-star. All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is ``...the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.`` DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPRC is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during fiscal year 1993.

  17. SAIGA TATARICA L. RUSSIA’S ENDANGERED SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Minoranskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica L. is the last hoofed mammal surviving in the Russian steppe which is on the verge of extinction today. The aim of this article is to assess the current state of the saiga in Russia, determine the causes of the reduction in its population and area and to develop recommendations for the conservation of this species.Methods. The material, presented in the paper, is the result of the analysis of the available literature sources on the Saiga, personal observations on the animals in the period of 1959-2015 in nature and various nurseries, including the Center for rare animals of European steppes founded in 2004.Results. The article highlights the issues of population dynamics in Saiga distributions in the last century, the reasons for the reduction in its amount, the measures taken for the protection of this species and its present condition. We consider specific measures for Saiga conservation in the modern world. We also take into account the experience of the Association "Wildlife of the Steppe", where they have developed the biotechnology of breeding Saiga in nurseries, zoos and farms. And for many years this association has been home for self-reproducing groupings of this animal.Main conclusions. Currently, Saiga antelope in Russia is an endangered species, and conservation requires the state and public to take serious urgent measures to protect and restore the population, including breeding in artificial conditions and release into the wild.

  18. 50 CFR 222.103 - Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... international commitments of the United States to protect endangered or threatened species; (ii) The readiness... initiate a program to restore and protect an endangered or threatened species in terms of survival of the... conservation of endangered and threatened species. 222.103 Section 222.103 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

  19. 78 FR 2893 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Experimental Population for Middle Columbia River Steelhead above the Pelton Round Butte Hydroelectric Project... Counties, Oregon, and designate them as a nonessential experimental population (NEP) under the Endangered... (Secretary) to authorize the release of an experimental population of an endangered or threatened species...

  20. Reproductive conflict delays the recovery of an endangered social species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Norris, Ken; Kokko, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    1. Evolutionary theory predicts that individuals, in order to increase their relative fitness, can evolve behaviours that are detrimental for the group or population. This mismatch is particularly visible in social organisms. Despite its potential to affect the population dynamics of social animals, this principle has not yet been applied to real-life conservation. 2. Social group structure has been argued to stabilize population dynamics due to the buffering effects of nonreproducing subordinates. However, competition for breeding positions in such species can also interfere with the reproduction of breeding pairs. 3. Seychelles magpie robins, Copsychus sechellarum, live in social groups where subordinate individuals do not breed. Analysis of long-term individual-based data and short-term behavioural observations show that subordinates increase the territorial takeover frequency of established breeders. Such takeovers delay offspring production and decrease territory productivity. 4. Individual-based simulations of the Seychelles magpie robin population parameterized with the long-term data show that this process has significantly postponed the recovery of the species from the Critically Endangered status. 5. Social conflict thus can extend the period of high extinction risk, which we show to have population consequences that should be taken into account in management programmes. This is the first quantitative assessment of the effects of social conflict on conservation.

  1. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part II. chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Wang, N.; Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at ??? 11 ??g/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 ??g/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  2. 78 FR 3381 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. You may access a copy... Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports. For the reasons set out in the preamble, we propose to...

  3. 77 FR 31835 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC049 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  4. Status of Federally Listed Threatened and Endangered Species at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thompson, Brent E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berryhill, Jesse Tobias [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, David Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wright, Marjorie Alys [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-04

    Compliance with the Endangered Species Act at LANL is achieved through the implementation of the LANL Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan (HMP; LANL 2017a). This plan is a formal agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for the management of endangered species and their habitats at LANL. Actions and activities approved in the HMP were reviewed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and do not require further consultations. Projects that cannot follow the HMP requirements must go through separate section 7 consultations. The controls for Endangered Species Act compliance are incorporated into an internal project review process through which all LANL projects are reviewed for environmental compliance (LANL 2017b).

  5. 78 FR 34653 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC717 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of decision and availability of...

  6. 78 FR 43145 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC767 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This...

  7. Management of Peatland Shrub- and Forest-Dominated Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    ... or agricultural uses, and they support several threatened, endangered, and sensitive species (TES). Several of these plant communities are rare due to alterations in fire and hydrology over large expanses of the region...

  8. Installation Summaries from the 1996 Survey of Threatened and Endangered Species on Army Lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schreiber, Eric

    1997-01-01

    ...) species residing on and contiguous to its lands. This report, intended for installation use, provides quick access to basic information from the survey on the Federally Threatened, Endangered, Proposed, and Candidate (TEPC...

  9. Endangered Species and North American Waterfowl Management Plan Joint Venture Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allred, Karla

    1996-01-01

    ...) Endangered Species Recovery Plans that meet the recovery plan requirements; and the percent of Corps acreage included within North American Waterfowl Management Joint Venture Implementation Plans where proposed work has been accomplished...

  10. 77 FR 68809 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... captive-bred male and one captive-bred female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) from the Hoedspruit Endangered... captive-bred female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) from the De Wildt Cheetah Breeding Center, South Africa...

  11. 77 FR 67631 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 17367 and 17364

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC348 Endangered... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of applications. SUMMARY: Notice is... Southeast Region of the USFWS. Research would include nutrition, physiology, propagation, contaminants...

  12. 78 FR 17640 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 17367 and 17364

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC348 Endangered... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Issuance of permits. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., but is not limited to, nutrition, physiology, propagation, contaminants, genetics, fish health...

  13. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region....

  14. Endangered plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    A total of 15 vascular plant taxa, currently appearing on the Endangered Species list, occur in southern Nye County, Nevada, and/or adjacent Inyo County, California. It is the purpose of this report to record in detail the locations of the plant collections upon which the distributions are based, and other information relevant to their status as Endangered Species, and to recommend the areas to be designated critical habitats.

  15. Adaptive Management to Protect Biodiversity: Best Available Science and the Endangered Species Act

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Odom Green; Ahjond S. Garmestani

    2012-01-01

    Although flawed, the most powerful tool for protecting biodiversity in the United States is the Endangered Species Act, which requires the use of the best available science to ensure that endangered and threatened species are not put in jeopardy of extinction. Unfortunately, the best available science mandate is virtually meaningless and imposes no additional scientific rigor in agency decision making beyond what is normally required of administrative procedures. In this paper, we propose to ...

  16. Endangered plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    A total of 15 vascular plant taxa, currently appearing on the Endangered Species list, occur in southern Nye County, Nevada, and/or adjacent Inyo County, California. It is the purpose of this report to record in detail the locations of the plant collections upon which the distributions are based, and other information relevant to their status as Endangered Species, and to recommend the areas to be designated critical habitats

  17. Vulnerability of species to climate change in the Southwest: threatened, endangered, and at-risk species at Fort Huachuca, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Bagne; Deborah M. Finch

    2013-01-01

    Future climate change is anticipated to result in ecosystem changes, and consequently, many species are expected to become increasingly vulnerable to extinction. This scenario is of particular concern for threatened, endangered, and at-risk species (TER-S) or other rare species. The response of species to climate change is uncertain and will be the outcome of complex...

  18. 78 FR 45074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Diamond Darter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ..., such as acid mine drainage from abandoned mined lands, continue to be a significant source of water..., erosion and sedimentation, timber harvesting, water quality degradation, and poor wastewater treatment as... have determined that the diamond darter is endangered by water quality degradation; habitat loss; a...

  19. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  20. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two surrogate species (fathead minnow, Pimephales...

  1. 77 FR 22604 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: Jon W. Holman, West Fargo, ND; PRT-47905A Applicant... discretion of the Service Director. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Wild Acres... Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species through captive breeding and...

  2. Analysis of endangered Kansas fish species distribution during historical and contemporary periods (pre- and post-1969)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Kansas has more freshwater fish species than other states in the west and northern US. More than 140 fishes have recently been documented in Kansas rivers; of these, at least five are categorized as endangered species in Kansas (and threatened species ...

  3. 76 FR 61090 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Counterpart Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ..., National Fire Plan Counterpart Regulation Alternative Consultation Agreements (ACAs). DATES: This is effective on October 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: The final decision of revocation is available on the internet at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/laws/esa/policies.htm#consultation and http://www.fws.gov/endangered/esa...

  4. 76 FR 33245 - Endangered Species; File No. 15135

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ..., 132 Conch Court, Emerald Isle, NC 28594, has been issued a permit to take threatened and endangered...) commercial gillnets targeting southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) in shallow waters of Core Sound... reduce sea turtle bycatch. Two contracted commercial gillnet vessels will conduct a total of 60 fishing...

  5. Incorporating population viability models into species status assessment and listing decisions under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor P. McGowan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of a species' status is a key part of management decision making for endangered and threatened species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Predicting the future state of the species is an essential part of species status assessment, and projection models can play an important role in developing predictions. We built a stochastic simulation model that incorporated parametric and environmental uncertainty to predict the probable future status of the Sonoran desert tortoise in the southwestern United States and North Central Mexico. Sonoran desert tortoise was a Candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, and decision makers wanted to use model predictions in their decision making process. The model accounted for future habitat loss and possible effects of climate change induced droughts to predict future population growth rates, abundances, and quasi-extinction probabilities. Our model predicts that the population will likely decline over the next few decades, but there is very low probability of quasi-extinction less than 75 years into the future. Increases in drought frequency and intensity may increase extinction risk for the species. Our model helped decision makers predict and characterize uncertainty about the future status of the species in their listing decision. We incorporated complex ecological processes (e.g., climate change effects on tortoises in transparent and explicit ways tailored to support decision making processes related to endangered species.

  6. Public Preferences for Endangered Species Recovery: An Examination of Geospatial Scale and Non-Market Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy eWallmo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-market valuation allows society to express their preferences for goods and services whose economic value is not reflected in traditional markets. One issue that arises in applying non-market values in policy settings is defining the extent of the economic jurisdiction – the area that includes all people who hold values – for a good or service. In this paper we estimate non-market values for recovering eight threatened and endangered marine species in the US for two geographically embedded samples: households on the west coast of the US and households throughout the nation. We statistically compare species values between the two samples to help determine the extent of and variation in the economic jurisdiction for endangered species recovery. Our findings offer support to the tenet that the summation of non-market values across the country is appropriate when evaluating alternative policies for endangered species recovery.

  7. Structuring decisions for managing threatened and endangered species in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robin; Arvai, Joseph; Gerber, Leah R

    2013-12-01

    The management of endangered species under climate change is a challenging and often controversial task that incorporates input from a variety of different environmental, economic, social, and political interests. Yet many listing and recovery decisions for endangered species unfold on an ad hoc basis without reference to decision-aiding approaches that can improve the quality of management choices. Unlike many treatments of this issue, which consider endangered species management a science-based problem, we suggest that a clear decision-making process is equally necessary. In the face of new threats due to climate change, managers' choices about endangered species require closely linked analyses and deliberations that identify key objectives and develop measurable attributes, generate and compare management alternatives, estimate expected consequences and key sources of uncertainty, and clarify trade-offs across different dimensions of value. Several recent cases of endangered species conservation decisions illustrate our proposed decision-focused approach, including Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recovery framework development, Cultus Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) management, and Upper Columbia River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recovery planning. Estructuración de Decisiones para Manejar Especies Amenazadas y en Peligro en un Clima Cambiante. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology No claim to original US government works.

  8. 76 FR 6383 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Delist Coho Salmon South of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... near the edge of a species' range provide potential genetic benefits by fostering evolution in a.... 100323162-0595-02] RIN 0648-XV30 Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Delist... the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. Coho salmon populations in this region are...

  9. 75 FR 53272 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct Population...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of the... Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of the Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) under the Endangered Species... Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of the Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) under the Endangered Species...

  10. Endangered Species Act listing: three case studies of data deficiencies and consequences of ESA 'threatened' listing on research output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijerman, M.W.; Birkeland, C.; Piniak, G.A.; Miller, M.W.; Eakin, C.M.; McElhany, P.; Dunlap, M.J.; Patterson, M.; Brainard, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a species warrants listing as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act depends on the government's assessment of the species' extinction risk, usually in response to a petition. Deciding whether data are sufficient to make a listing determination is a

  11. Acute toxicity prediction to threatened and endangered species using Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating contaminant sensitivity of threatened and endangered (listed) species and protectiveness of chemical regulations often depends on toxicity data for commonly tested surrogate species. The U.S. EPA’s Internet application Web-ICE is a suite of Interspecies Correlati...

  12. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... federal agencies within the group of states served by the TSC and keep state conservationists informed of... conservationist will also: (i) Keep NRCS area and field offices informed of species listed as being threatened or... threatened and endangered species will be continually alert to conditions, actions, or trends that may...

  13. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the highly endangered Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) and related species

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Godoy, José A.; Negro, Juan J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.

    2002-01-01

    Here we describe the development of 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endangered Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Microsatellites were tested in five other raptor species. These markers were revealed as good molecular tools for genetic population studies, individual identification and parentage assessment in Spanish imperial eagle and closely related species.

  14. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the highly endangered Spanish imperial eagle ( Aquila adalberti ) and related species

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; David, Victor A.; Godoy, José A.; Negro, Juan J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.

    2002-01-01

    Here we describe the development of 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endangered Spanish imperial eagle ( Aquila adalberti ). Microsatellites were tested in five other raptor species. These markers were revealed as good molecular tools for genetic population studies, individual identification and parentage assessment in Spanish imperial eagle and closely related species.

  15. Incorporating climate science in applications of the US endangered species act for aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle M; Alexander, Michael; Borggaard, Diane; Boughton, David; Crozier, Lisa; Griffis, Roger; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Lindley, Steven T; Nye, Janet; Rowland, Melanie J; Seney, Erin E; Snover, Amy; Toole, Christopher; VAN Houtan, Kyle

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic species are threatened by climate change but have received comparatively less attention than terrestrial species. We gleaned key strategies for scientists and managers seeking to address climate change in aquatic conservation planning from the literature and existing knowledge. We address 3 categories of conservation effort that rely on scientific analysis and have particular application under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA): assessment of overall risk to a species; long-term recovery planning; and evaluation of effects of specific actions or perturbations. Fewer data are available for aquatic species to support these analyses, and climate effects on aquatic systems are poorly characterized. Thus, we recommend scientists conducting analyses supporting ESA decisions develop a conceptual model that links climate, habitat, ecosystem, and species response to changing conditions and use this model to organize analyses and future research. We recommend that current climate conditions are not appropriate for projections used in ESA analyses and that long-term projections of climate-change effects provide temporal context as a species-wide assessment provides spatial context. In these projections, climate change should not be discounted solely because the magnitude of projected change at a particular time is uncertain when directionality of climate change is clear. Identifying likely future habitat at the species scale will indicate key refuges and potential range shifts. However, the risks and benefits associated with errors in modeling future habitat are not equivalent. The ESA offers mechanisms for increasing the overall resilience and resistance of species to climate changes, including establishing recovery goals requiring increased genetic and phenotypic diversity, specifying critical habitat in areas not currently occupied but likely to become important, and using adaptive management. Incorporación de las Ciencias Climáticas en las Aplicaciones del

  16. Updating known distribution models for forecasting climate change impact on endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio-Román; Márquez, Ana Luz; Real, Raimundo

    2013-01-01

    To plan endangered species conservation and to design adequate management programmes, it is necessary to predict their distributional response to climate change, especially under the current situation of rapid change. However, these predictions are customarily done by relating de novo the distribution of the species with climatic conditions with no regard of previously available knowledge about the factors affecting the species distribution. We propose to take advantage of known species distribution models, but proceeding to update them with the variables yielded by climatic models before projecting them to the future. To exemplify our proposal, the availability of suitable habitat across Spain for the endangered Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata) was modelled by updating a pre-existing model based on current climate and topography to a combination of different general circulation models and Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our results suggested that the main threat for this endangered species would not be climate change, since all forecasting models show that its distribution will be maintained and increased in mainland Spain for all the XXI century. We remark on the importance of linking conservation biology with distribution modelling by updating existing models, frequently available for endangered species, considering all the known factors conditioning the species' distribution, instead of building new models that are based on climate change variables only.

  17. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  18. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as 'endangered' when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A 'threatened' classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals

  19. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  20. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).

  1. Review of psittacine beak and feather disease and its effect on Australian endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidal, S R; Sarker, S; Peters, A

    2015-12-01

    Since it was first described in the early 1980s, psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) has become recognised as the dominant viral pathogen of psittacine birds in Australia. Our aim was to evaluate and review the effect of PBFD and its position as a key threatening process to Australian psittacine bird species. We review the origin/evolutionary pathways and potential threat of PBFD to endangered psittacine bird populations and captive-breeding flocks. The most recent beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) phylogenetic analyses indicate that all endangered Australian psittacine bird species are susceptible to, and equally likely to be infected by, BFDV genotypes from a range of host psittacine species. Management of the disease in captive-breeding programs has relied on testing and culling, which has proven costly. The risk of PBFD should be considered very carefully by management teams contemplating the establishment of captive-breeding flocks for endangered species. Alternative disease prevention tools, including vaccination, which are increasingly being used in wildlife health, should be considered more seriously for managing and preventing PBFD in captive flocks of critically endangered species. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Ecosystem studies, endangered species survey - Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report is published as a product of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. The objective of this program is the development of terminal waste storage facilities in deep stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the federal government is responsible. This report is part of the location and site characterization phase and contains threatened and endangered species information for the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas of the Paradox Region. The threatened and endangered species information was obtained through site surveys designed and implemented by area experts. The site surveys were performed during the period late summer 1981 - spring 1982 in the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge Study Areas. No threatened or endangered species were identified in either Lavender or Davis canyons. Additional studies at the borehole locations in Beef Basin did identify the nearest occurrence of a species proposed for endangered status (Astragalus monumentalis, a monument milkvetch, member of the legume family). The species was identified approximately 160 to 300 m (500 to 1000 ft) from a hydro testing drill site. Consequently, construction and operation activity should not cause any adverse impacts. This report will be used to satisfy Section 7 requirements of the Endangered Species Act (PL 93-205 as amended) and to allow the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to verify that no protected species are subject to disturbance as the result of project activities occurring in the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas

  3. Photoactivated toxicity of PAH to endangered fishes and standard laboratory test species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, D.R.; Mount, D.R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been detected in water and sediment from the San Juan River Basin, located in the Four Corners area of the southwestern US. In addition to possessing extensive oil and gas deposits, the San Juan contains several threatened or endangered fish species such as Colorado squawfish and razorback suckers. Proposed expansion of oil and gas development in the basin has sparked concerns that potential increases in PAH loading may jeopardize these and other native fishes. In response, the authors conducted laboratory exposures of threatened and endangered species to various PAH both with and without accompanying exposure to UV light. As predicted from the literature, exposure to UV light caused a marked photo-activated toxicity response in all species; however, the sensitivity to PAH both with and without UV exposure varied among species and lifestages. Supplemental studies were conducted to evaluate the physiological mechanisms for variation in sensitivity between species and lifestage

  4. Young, Black, and Male In America: An Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor, Ed.; And Others

    This book evolved out of a presentation on the psychosocial problems of black adolescents and youth at a colloquium jointly sponsored by the Bay Area Black United Fund and the School of Social Welfare at the University of California at Berkeley in the Spring of 1982. The problems of black inner-city males are so severe that society tends to ignore…

  5. 78 FR 47582 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Sharpnose Shiner...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... expertise in the biology and ecology of riverine fishes and are currently reviewing the species status..., these species also need unobstructed river lengths to allow for upstream and downstream movements to... impoundments are currently restricting the upstream and downstream movement of migrating fish and prevent...

  6. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... the best scientific and commercial data available at the time of the review; therefore, we are... Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Endangered Species Division, 1325 East West... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR...

  7. 76 FR 77006 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... final action is taken. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Mountain Gorilla... samples from Eastern lowland gorillas (Gorilla berengei), for the purpose of enhancement of the survival... teeth from wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) from government-managed herds such as the Mackenzie...

  8. 76 FR 43986 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ..., in the form of Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act... Busack, National Marine Fisheries Service, Salmon Management Division, 1201 NE. Lloyd Boulevard, Suite... permit applications should be directed to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Salmon Management...

  9. 77 FR 27188 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Wildlife (ODFW) has submitted four Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the protective regulations promulgated for Pacific salmon and steelhead under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The HGMPs specify the operations of four hatchery programs rearing salmon and steelhead in the Sandy River subbasin...

  10. 75 FR 14133 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ..., in the form of Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act..., National Marine Fisheries Services, Salmon Recovery Division, 1201 N.E. Lloyd Boulevard, Suite 1100... should be directed to the National Marine Fisheries Services, Salmon Recovery Division, 1201 N.E. Lloyd...

  11. 76 FR 28715 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Experimental Population for Middle Columbia River Steelhead Above the Pelton Round Butte Hydroelectric Project... central Oregon, as a nonessential experimental population (NEP) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA... as an experimental population the MCR steelhead currently being reintroduced to the upper Deschutes...

  12. 75 FR 22738 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The... for the Historical Ecology of the Salish Sea (KWIAHT) is seeking a five-year permit to take juvenile.... Permit 15230 Forest and Channel Metrics, Inc., (FCM) is seeking a five-year permit to take juvenile PS...

  13. Bio-safe: Assessing the impact of physical reconstruction on protected and endangered species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, R.J.W. de; Lenders, H.J.R.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Blust, G. de; Geilen, N.; Goldschmidt, B.; Muller, S.; Poudevigne, I.; Nienhuis, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Assessing actual and potential biodiversity of river-floodplain ecosystems on the basis of policy and legislation concerning endangered and protected species is necessary for consistency between different policy goals. It is thus a prerequisite to sustainable and integrated river management. This

  14. 77 FR 20774 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  15. 76 FR 14883 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of..., published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the... published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the...

  16. Trust and social representations of the management of threatened and endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Cvetkovich; Patricia L. Winter

    2003-01-01

    Using quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses, observations during focus group discussions, and qualitative assessment of discussion statements, the present study examined trust and social representations of the U.S. Forest Service's management of Southern California national forests for the protection of endangered species. Supporting expectations based...

  17. 77 FR 15019 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...-R9-IA-2010-0083; 96300-1671-0000-R4] RIN 1018-AW82 Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following... Service (FWS or Service), published a proposed rule to revise the regulations that implement the...

  18. It is just not fair: the Endangered Species Act in the United States and Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Olive

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The United States and the Canadian province of Ontario have enacted endangered species laws that regulate private land. The rationale for this is that the vast majority of endangered species in the two countries rely on private lands for survival. However, from a landowner perspective the law is deemed unfair. This paper presents analysis from 141 interviews with landowners in three U.S. states and Ontario. In recognition of distributive justice claims, both the U.S. government and the Ontario government have enacted programs aimed at increasing financial incentives for participation and compliance with the law. However, the law is still perceived as unfair. The central argument of this paper is that future amendments and new policies for endangered species should confront two other forms of environmental justice: procedural justice and justice-as-recognition. Landowners in both countries expressed not only concerns about compensation, but also a deep desire to be included in the protection and recovery process, as well as to be recognized by government and society as good stewards of the land. The paper concludes by stating that future policy amendments need to address justice-as-recognition if endangered species conservation on private lands is to be considered fair by landowners.

  19. 76 FR 5339 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA182 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... are issued in accordance with and are subject to the ESA and NMFS regulations governing listed fish...

  20. 77 FR 67796 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC342 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... NMFS regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226). Those individuals...

  1. 77 FR 2037 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA928 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... advises the public that a direct take permit has been issued to the Washington Department of Fish and...

  2. 78 FR 77659 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XD040 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... NMFS regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. [[Page 77660...

  3. 78 FR 31518 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC690 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and U.S. Bureau of...

  4. 76 FR 5338 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA183 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. [[Page 5339

  5. 76 FR 6401 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA110 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife submitted to NMFS, pursuant to the protective...

  6. The Influence of the Academic Conservation Biology Literature on Endangered Species Recovery Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stinchcombe

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the volume of the academic conservation biology literature, there is little evidence as to what effect this work is having on endangered species recovery efforts. Using data collected from a national review of 136 endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we evaluated whether recovery plans were changing in response to publication trends in four areas of the academic conservation biology literature: metapopulation dynamics, population viability analysis, conservation corridors, and conservation genetics. We detected several changes in recovery plans in apparent response to publication trends in these areas (e.g., the number of tasks designed to promote the recovery of an endangered species shifted, although these tasks were rarely assigned a high priority. Our results indicate that, although the content of endangered species recovery plans changes in response to the literature, results are not uniform across all topics. We suggest that academic conservation biologists need to address the relative importance of each topic for conservation practice in different settings. [See Erratum

  7. 78 FR 46563 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Proposed Rule To Designate Critical Habitat for the Northwest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 226 [Docket No. 130513467-3467-01] RIN 0648-BD27 Endangered and Threatened Species: Proposed Rule To Designate Critical Habitat for the Northwest Atlantic Ocean Loggerhead Sea Turtle Distinct Population Segment (DPS) and...

  8. 77 FR 24469 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Endangered Species Act (ESA). The proposed research activities are intended to increase knowledge of the... movement into the Delta, enabling the implementation of adaptive management practices to protect juveniles... habitat restoration, and fish management practices within the San Francisco Estuary and its watershed. As...

  9. Factors influencing willingness to donate to marine endangered species recovery in the Galapagos National Park, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A Cardenas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Willingness to donate money for the conservation of endangered species may depend on numerous factors. In this paper, we analyze data from a survey given to tourists visiting Ecuador’s Galapagos National Park and Marine Reserve to investigate determinants of their willingness to donate (WTD towards the conservation of two marine endangered species--the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini and the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas. Specifically, we use regression analysis to analyze the influence of attitudes and beliefs toward species conservation, levels of concern for specific species, recreational motivations, and past donation patterns on WTD, while also controlling for individual characteristics such as age, gender, place of residence, and other demographics. Additionally, we evaluate the sensitivity of WTD to the species being protected by conservation efforts. Our results demonstrate that specific concern about the species, beliefs about donating to the protection program, and past donation behavior significantly influence the intention to donate money towards the recovery of the two marine endangered species. The likelihood of donating to green sea turtle conservation efforts is marginally higher than for hammerhead sharks, possibly due to its more charismatic nature. In contrast, visitors who are more willing to donate for shark conservation appear to be those with a strong desire to see them in the wild. The results provide useful information on the heterogeneity of tourist preferences towards donating to species conservation efforts, which has broad implications for resource agencies seeking ways to fund conservation actions.

  10. Resource implications of listing Columbia River Basin salmon stocks under the endangered species act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velehradsky, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Columbia River and Snake River dams and reservoirs provide substantial benefits in the Northwest through their operation for hydropower, flood control, irrigation, navigation, and fish and wildlife. The listing of certain Snake River salmon stocks as endangered and threatened, under provisions of the Endangered Species Act, has surfaced major public policy issues. Protection and enhancement of these salmon stocks has resulted in proposals to significantly modify the operation of the reservoir projects. Implementation of these proposals could have significant economic, environmental and social impacts in the region

  11. 76 FR 31556 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... habitat and ecosystem relationships; population status and trends; and factors contributing to the species... purse seiners and resulted in a deterioration of Atlantic bluefin tuna catch at size (CAS) data reported...

  12. Evaluating the "recovery level" of endangered species without prior information before alien invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Yuya; Nishijima, Shota; Fukasawa, Marina; Yamada, Fumio; Abe, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    For maintaining social and financial support for eradication programs of invasive species, quantitative assessment of recovery of native species or ecosystems is important because it provides a measurable parameter of success. However, setting a concrete goal for recovery is often difficult owing to lack of information prior to the introduction of invaders. Here, we present a novel approach to evaluate the achievement level of invasive predator management based on the carrying capacity of endangered species estimated using long-term monitoring data. In Amami-Oshima Island, Japan, where the eradication project of introduced small Indian mongoose is ongoing since 2000, we surveyed the population densities of four endangered species threatened by the mongoose (Amami rabbit, the Otton frog, Amami tip-nosed frog, and Amami Ishikawa's frog) at four time points ranging from 2003 to 2011. We estimated the carrying capacities of these species using the logistic growth model combined with the effects of mongoose predation and environmental heterogeneity. All species showed clear tendencies toward increasing their density in line with decreased mongoose density, and they exhibited density-dependent population growth. The estimated carrying capacities of three endangered species had small confidence intervals enough to measure recovery levels by the mongoose management. The population density of each endangered species has recovered to the level of the carrying capacity at about 20-40% of all sites, whereas no individuals were observed at more than 25% of all sites. We propose that the present approach involving appropriate monitoring data of native organism populations will be widely applicable to various eradication projects and provide unambiguous goals for management of invasive species.

  13. New find of the rare and endangered species Bangia atropurpurea (Roth C. Agardh (Rhodophyta in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about distribution of Bangia atropurpurea (Roth C. Agardh indicate that this species was found on relatively small number of localities in freshwaters in Europe and world. In Red List of Algae, in some countries, this species is defined as a extinct (Ex (Poland or as endangered (En (Slovakia. In this study, morphological and ecological characteristics of rare and endangered species B. atropurpurea that was found on three localities in Serbia: in Trgoviški Timok River (East Serbia, Gvozdačka Reka River (West Serbia and Raška River (South-western Serbia. The Raška River is new find of the species B. atropurpurea.

  14. Potentials of Treculia Africana Decne – An endangered species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treculia africana Decne is an important multipurpose indigenous tree species in Nigeria and Africa as a whole. The species is best known for the edible seeds and oil it produces. In addition, it has numerous environmental, socio-economic, traditional and industrial uses. However, the species is declining at an alarming rate ...

  15. Genomic signatures of near-extinction and rebirth of the crested ibis and other endangered bird species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shengbin; Li, Bo; Cheng, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundNearly a quarter of all avian species is either threatened or nearly threatened. Of these, 73 species are currently being rescued from going extinct in wildlife sanctuaries. One of the previously most critically-endangered is the crested ibis, Nipponia nippon. Once widespread across North...... of near extinction events in association with environmental and behavioral attributes of species. We confirm that both loss of genetic diversity and enrichment of deleterious mutations of protein-coding genes contribute to the major genetic defects of the endangered species. We further identify...... practices, to facilitate sustainable recovery of endangered species.ConclusionsThese findings demonstrate common genomic signatures of population decline across avian species and pave a way for further effort in saving endangered species and enhancing conservation genomic efforts....

  16. Physiological Response and Habituation of Endangered Species to Military Training Activities: SERDP 2006 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    544. Gill, S.A., and S.G. Sealy. 1996. Nest defence by yellow warblers: Recognition of predator and brood parasite . Behaviour 133:263–282. Greenberg... birds . Military training often is conducted within habitats that support endangered bird species, thus exposing indi- viduals of these species to...passerines, 2) heart rate can be con- tinuously monitored and recorded in these birds for at least 60 hours, and 3) heart rate is a robust measure of

  17. Wanted dead and alive: Are hunting and protection of endangered species compatible?

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson

    2004-01-01

    This paper asks under what conditions it is possible for a wildlife department in west Africa without an external budget to protect all rare and endangered species, and if so, what is the impact on rural inhabitants engaged in hunting. Protecting wildlife in this region is particularly tricky. Hunting is important for rural livelihoods, but when unregulated can result in the loss of species. Government funding for wildlife departments is rarely sufficient and so they must increasingly look to...

  18. Chromosome number and karyotype of the endangered Amazonian woody Centrolobium paraense Tul. species

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Dahmer; Maria Teresa Schifino Wittmann; Paulo Emilio Kaminski

    2009-01-01

    Centrolobium paraense Tul., popularly known in Brazil as “pau-rainha”, is a species with a high timberpotential, presently endangered due to deforestation of the Amazonian region and indiscriminate wood extraction. Chromosomenumber and karyotype morphology of this species are presented for the first time. All the individuals of the three populationsanalyzed are diploid, with 2n=2x=20 chromosomes. The chromosomes ranging from ca. 1.7 to 4 μm in size. The karyotypeis composed of three metacentr...

  19. In search of critically endangered species: the current situation of two tiny salamander species in the Neotropical mountains of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Comte, Adriana; Pineda, Eduardo; Aguilar-López, José L

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, one in every three species of amphibian is endangered, 39 species have gone extinct in the last 500 years and another 130 species are suspected to have gone extinct in recent decades. Of the amphibians, salamanders have the highest portion of their species in one of the risk categories, even higher than the frogs. To date there have been few studies that have used recent field data to examine the status of populations of endangered salamanders. In this study we evaluate the current situation of two tiny salamanders, Parvimolge townsendi and Thorius pennatulus, both of which are distributed at intermediate elevations in the mountains of the northern Neotropics and are considered to be critically endangered; the first has been proposed as possibly extinct. By carrying out exhaustive surveys in both historical and potentially suitable sites for these two species, we evaluated their abundance and the characteristics of their habitats, and we estimated their potential geographic distribution. We visited 22 sites, investing 672 person-hours of sampling effort in the surveys, and found 201 P. townsendi salamanders in 11 sites and only 13 T. pennatulus salamanders in 5 sites. Both species were preferentially found in cloud forest fragments that were well conserved or only moderately transformed, and some of the salamanders were found in shade coffee plantations. The potential distribution area of both species is markedly fragmented and we estimate that it has decreased by more than 48%. The results of this study highlight the importance of carrying out exhaustive, systematic field surveys to obtain accurate information about the current situation of critically endangered species, and help us better understand the crisis that amphibians are facing worldwide.

  20. 78 FR 51277 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    .... Because a species' genetic makeup is shaped through natural selection by the environments it has... purposes; (C) Disease or predation; (D) The inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; or (E) Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. We have determined that the Austin blind...

  1. 77 FR 60749 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Species Status for the Florida...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    .... 857). Like other molossids, color is highly variable; color varies from black to brown to brownish... appear varied, with the species occurring in forested, suburban, and urban areas (Timm and Arroyo... cavities, including woodpecker holes and cavities in royal palms, ``dagame'' trees (Callycophyllum...

  2. 75 FR 18959 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    .... ADDRESSES: This final rule and economic impact analysis are available on the Internet at http://www... specific analysis for each species within the context of the broader ecosystem in which it occurs to avoid... 1999, p. 32). Because of its age and relative isolation, levels of floristic diversity and endemism are...

  3. 78 FR 58938 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... vertical drains, and sedimentation. The species is found only in one county in Missouri and has a... regarding vertical drains. Commenters wanted information about best management practices pertaining to vertical drains, cost-share used for installation and maintenance of vertical drains, and subsequent...

  4. 76 FR 51051 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Fiji crested iguanas (Brachylophus vitiensis), banded igunas (Brachylophus bulabula) and Fiji banded iguanas (Brachylophus fasciatus) from Fiji for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species...

  5. 78 FR 54479 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... (Caiman latirostris), Cuban ground iguana (Cyclura nubila nubila), Grand Cayman blue iguana (Cyclura lewisi), and Cayman Brac ground iguana (Cyclura nubila caymanensis) to enhance the species' propagation...

  6. 78 FR 7447 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... jubatus) Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Spectacled bear...) Gekkonidae Testudinidae Species: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) Applicant: Panther Ridge Sanctuary...

  7. How to Have Fewer Endangered Species to Avoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    pickeringii (Pickering morning-glory) Eastern indigo snake (Drymarchon corais couperi) SE Kestrel (Falco sparverius paulus) Pine snake (Pituophis...can preserve an entire species  Does it “take a village to raise a child ?”  It takes a whole state to save a species  Better yet, a whole region

  8. Dorstenia triseriata (Moraceae) a new and endangered species from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Anderson F. P.; Pereira, Jorge Fontella; Carauta, J. Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Moraceae is described, illustrated and compared to its close morphological relatives. Dorstenia triseriata presents similarities with Dorstenia turnerifolia but distinguished by size of peduncle, diameter of receptacle, number of bract rows, color of marginal bracts, and by an indistinct fringe on inflorescence. A conservation assessment based on IUCN criteria determines the new species to be vulnerable (VU). PMID:25009436

  9. 78 FR 25296 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This notification covers activities to be... lechwe (Kobus leche), bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus), slender-horned gazelle (Gazella leptoceros... (Nanger dama), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This...

  10. 78 FR 19731 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This notification covers activities to be... leche) from the captive herd maintained at their facility, for the purpose of enhancement of the... (Oryx dammah), addax (Addax nasomaculatus), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species...

  11. 78 FR 4162 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This notification covers activities...), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or... (Rucervus eldii), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) from the captive herd...

  12. Balancing urban development and endangered species: The coachella valley habitat conservation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatley, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    Habitat conservation plans (HCPs) permitted under Section 10(A) of the federal Endangered Species Act, have been increasingly used to overcome conflicts between urban development and species conservation. This article profiles one such HCP, the Coachella Valley (CA) Fringe-Toed Lizard Habitat Conservation Plan. The second HCP officially approved by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Coachella Valley case is frequently cited as a model for resolving conservation and development conflicts. The article begins with a discussion of the use of HCPs, and then provides a detailed discussion of Coachella Valley experience, its history, specific provisions, and success to date. A final section examines whether Coachella Valley does in fact represent a positive model. It is argued that the HCP has been less than fully successful and leaves unresolved a series of fundamental ethical and policy questions concerning the protection of endangered species.

  13. Cloning of an endangered species (Bos gaurus) using interspecies nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, R P; Cibelli, J B; Diaz, F; Moraes, C T; Farin, P W; Farin, C E; Hammer, C J; West, M D; Damiani, P

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 100 species become extinct a day. Despite increasing interest in using cloning to rescue endangered species, successful interspecies nuclear transfer has not been previously described, and only a few reports of in vitro embryo formation exist. Here we show that interspecies nuclear transfer can be used to clone an endangered species with normal karyotypic and phenotypic development through implantation and the late stages of fetal growth. Somatic cells from a gaur bull (Bos gaurus), a large wild ox on the verge of extinction, (Species Survival Plan animals) were electrofused with enucleated oocytes from domestic cows. Twelve percent of the reconstructed oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage, and 18% of these embryos developed to the fetal stage when transferred to surrogate mothers. Three of the fetuses were electively removed at days 46 to 54 of gestation, and two continued gestation longer than 180 (ongoing) and 200 days, respectively. Microsatellite marker and cytogenetic analyses confirmed that the nuclear genome of the cloned animals was gaurus in origin. The gaur nuclei were shown to direct normal fetal development, with differentiation into complex tissue and organs, even though the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within all the tissue types evaluated was derived exclusively from the recipient bovine oocytes. These results suggest that somatic cell cloning methods could be used to restore endangered, or even extinct, species and populations.

  14. Modeling of the spatial distribution of ten endangered bird species in jurisdiction of Corantioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez M, Ana Maria; Alvarez, Esteban

    2006-01-01

    Recently, thanks to advances made in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), techniques have been developed for the construction of models that predict the spatial distribution of species and other attributes of biodiversity. These methods have allowed for the development of objective criteria that are fundamental for making decisions regarding the creation of protected areas systems throughout the world. In this research, the spatial distribution of ten endangered species of birds found within the jurisdiction of CORANTIOQUIA (JDC from here on) was modelled, using GIS techniques. The JDC was divided into 177 squares of 15 x 10 Km and the following variables were quantified within each one: presence or absence of endangered species of birds, rainfall, temperature, sun brightness, relative humidity, day duration, altitude, vegetal cover, slope and primary net productivity. With the help of logistic regression were made predictive models. Based on logistic regressions techniques predictive models were made. These models allow to explain a percentage between 24% and 80% of spatial distribution variability of these species. Those results can help in the identification of valuable zones for the biodiversity conservation. In places where there are neither the time or the economic resources to carry out exhaustive analyses of biodiversity, the models can predict the probable presence of this endangered species

  15. 78 FR 17711 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...) Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii) Pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus... Cercopithecidae Hominidae Hylobatidae Lemuridae Tapiridae Species Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi) Golden parakeet (Guarouba guarouba) Bali starling (Leucopsar rothschildi) Radiated tortoise...

  16. 76 FR 40699 - Endangered Species; File No. 16229

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 16229 from the list of.... Activities would include the continued maintenance and educational display of one captive-bred, non...

  17. 75 FR 61424 - Endangered Species; File No. 15596

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and... maintenance and educational display of five captive-bred, non-releaseable adult shortnose sturgeon. This...

  18. 78 FR 16292 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This notification covers activities... excess scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), addax (Addax nasomaculatus), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) from...

  19. 78 FR 21627 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...), dama gazelle (Nanger dama), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or... dama), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) from the captive herd maintained at their facility, for the purpose...

  20. 77 FR 64121 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... tigers (Panthera tigris) for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species from Alexander... of their permits to re-export and re-import three captive born tigers (Panthera tigris) to worldwide...

  1. 75 FR 61513 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Applicant: Paul Johnson... species ranges in Florida. Applicant: Peter Frederick, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, TE...

  2. 77 FR 22749 - Petition To List 83 Species of Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... commercial information that we have compiled to date on the 82 species of coral under review. The review of... dispersed nature of coral species involved. Therefore, with the approval of a federal court, NMFS and CBD... petition presented substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing may be...

  3. Adaptive Management to Protect Biodiversity: Best Available Science and the Endangered Species Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Odom Green

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although flawed, the most powerful tool for protecting biodiversity in the United States is the Endangered Species Act, which requires the use of the best available science to ensure that endangered and threatened species are not put in jeopardy of extinction. Unfortunately, the best available science mandate is virtually meaningless and imposes no additional scientific rigor in agency decision making beyond what is normally required of administrative procedures. In this paper, we propose to define best available science in a way that shifts from a way of using science to a way of doing science, and a sound method of doing science for wildlife management and climate change is via the principles of adaptive management [1]. Adaptive management, as a means of data accumulation and continuous learning, can fulfill and give teeth to the best available science mandate while increasing the adaptive capacity of wildlife management agencies to protect biodiversity in an unpredictably dynamic environment.

  4. 77 FR 59961 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from the wild in St. Kitts, West Indies, for the purpose of... Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: John Panettiere, Atlanta, GA; PRT-85524A Applicant: John Deford, Long Valley, NJ; PRT-84244A Applicant: Rian Burkes...

  5. 78 FR 42540 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... be to the disadvantage of the listed species, and that the terms and conditions of the permit were... UNIVERSITY 207948 3/4/2013 12/31/2017 WESTERN ECOSYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC 050706 10/1/2012 12/31/2015 WESTERN...

  6. 77 FR 49453 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... citations to, and analyses of, the applicable laws and regulations. We will not consider or include in our... collect saliva for hormonal analyses, from common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) from 151 animals, wild and... Republic of South Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: Don...

  7. 76 FR 15300 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 16266 and 16291

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa... maintenance and educational display of eight captive-bred, non-releaseable adult shortnose sturgeon, as well... educational display of those specimens. Both displays would be used to increase public awareness of the...

  8. 75 FR 71670 - Endangered Species; File No. 15606

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Andre Landry, Ph.D., Texas A&M University at Galveston, Department of Marine Biology, 5007 Avenue U... Species; File No. 15606 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc. 2010-29667 Filed 11-23-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-22-P ...

  9. 76 FR 20324 - Endangered Species; File No. 15606

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ..., Ph.D., Texas A&M University at Galveston, Department of Marine Biology, 5007 Avenue U, Galveston, TX... Species; File No. 15606 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc. 2011-8593...

  10. Weighing conservation objectives: maximum expected coverage versus endangered species protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey L. Arthur; Jeffrey D. Camm; Robert G. Haight; Claire A. Montgomery; Stephen Polasky

    2004-01-01

    Decision makers involved in land acquisition and protection often have multiple conservation objectives and are uncertain about the occurrence of species or other features in candidate sites. Model informing decisions on selection of sites for reserves need to provide information about cost-efficient trade-offs between objectives and account for incidence uncertainty...

  11. 77 FR 298 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ...), leopard (Panthera pardus), Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus... Species: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Applicant: Topeka Zoological Park, Topeka, KS; PRT-52995A The... pardus) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), to enhance their propagation or survival. This notification...

  12. 76 FR 44306 - Endangered Species; File No. 16146

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... mydas), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) sea turtles for scientific research. DATES: Written... Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa... five-year permit to study green, hawksbill, and loggerhead sea turtles at Buck Island Reef National...

  13. 76 FR 6118 - Endangered Species; File No. 14726

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Public Comment'' from the Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home...), and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) sea turtles, to quantify threats to pelagic sea turtles, and to... swab sea turtles. A subset of animals may be skin biopsied, lavaged or have a satellite tag attached...

  14. 76 FR 23305 - Endangered Species; File No. 15672

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... applied in due form for a permit to take leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) for purposes of... Public Comment from the Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home... would characterize the distribution, movements and dive behavior of leatherback sea turtles in the...

  15. 76 FR 37065 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 16266 and 16291

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    .... Clyde Morris Boulevard, Newport News, VA 23602 [Chris Crippen, Responsible Party], and the Maritime... species (50 CFR Parts 222-226). The Virginia Living Museum and the Maritime Aquarium at Norwalk have been..., respectively. Activities include the continued maintenance, transport and educational display of captive-bred...

  16. 78 FR 55091 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) and black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) within Texas. Permit TE-030115... conduct presence/absence surveys for the following species in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas: Black-capped... silvery minnows (Hybognathus amarus) at the field station in Yankton, South Dakota. [[Page 55093

  17. Genetic diversity of an endangered species, Fokienia hodginsii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fokienia hodginsii (Cupressaceae) is distributed in montane evergreen forests in North and Central Vietnam and extends to southeastern China at 900 m above sea level. The species has been threatened in its area of distribution in recent years because of habitat destruction and over-exploitation. The genetic variation of ...

  18. Coverage of endangered species in environmental risk assessments at EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The EFSA performs environmental risk assessment (ERA) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives, and for invasive alien species that are harmful to plant health. This ERA focusses primarily on the use or spread of such

  19. 78 FR 112 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... (Pharomachrus mocinno) from Mexico for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: St... derived from captive-bred specimens of Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) to Canada for the purpose of...-89184A The applicant requests a permit authorizing interstate and foreign commerce, export, and cull of...

  20. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  1. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  2. 76 FR 62375 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist Coho Salmon Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... programs: the Cole Rivers Hatchery (ODFW stock 52), Trinity River Hatchery, and Iron Gate Hatchery coho... Endangered Species Act Listing Determinations for Pacific Salmon and Steelhead'' (70 FR 37204; June 28, 2005...

  3. Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments of Some Military Munitions and Obscurant-related Compounds for Selected Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Von Stackleberg, Katherine; Amos, Craig; Butler, C; Smith, Thomas; Famely, J; McArdle, M; Southworth, B; Steevens, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    ...) associated with munitions. This study evaluates the potential long-term impacts on selected threatened and endangered species resulting from dispersion and deposition of vapors and particles found in the fog oils...

  4. Bonus Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  5. 76 FR 44564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), of seven animal and plant species. We conduct these reviews... Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for plants). Section 4(c)(2)(A) of the... following reasons (50 CFR 424.11(d)): (A) The species is considered extinct; (B) The species is considered...

  6. 75 FR 28636 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for plants) (List). We... following reasons: (1) The species is considered extinct; (2) the species is considered to be recovered; and... Animal Species and 18 Plant Species in California and Nevada Common name Scientific name Status Where...

  7. 77 FR 38762 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... reviews under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), of seven animal and plant species. We... Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for plants). Section 4(c)(2)(A) of the... CFR 424.11(d)): (A) The species is considered extinct; (B) The species is considered to be recovered...

  8. Contaminant sensitivity of threatened and endangered fishes compared to standard surrogate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, L.C.; Mayer, F.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Buckler, D.R.; Jones, J.R.; Ellersieck, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Standard environmental assessment procedures are designed to protect terrestrial and aquatic species. However, it is not known if endangered species are adequately protected by these procedures. At present, toxicological data obtained from studies with surrogate test fishes are assumed to be applicable to endangered fish species, but this assumption has not been validated. Static acute toxicity tests were used to compare the sensitivity of rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows to several federally listed fishes (Apache trout, Lahontan cutthroat trout, greenback cutthroat trout, bonytail chub, Colorado pikeminnow, razorback sucker, Leon Springs pupfish, and desert pupfish). Chemicals tested included carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin. Results indicated that the surrogates and listed species were of similar sensitivity. In two cases, a listed species had a 96-h LC50 (lethal concentration to 50% of the population) that was less than one half of its corresponding surrogate. In all other cases, differences between listed and surrogate species were less than twofold. A safety factor of two would provide a conservative estimate for listed cold-water, warm-water, and euryhaline fish species.

  9. Karyotype and identification of sex in two endangered crane species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodpasture, C.; Seluja, G.; Gee, G.; Wood, Don A.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory procedure for sex identification of monomorphic birds was developed using modern cytological methods of detecting chromosome abnormalities in human amniotic fluid samples. A pin feather is taken from a pre-fledging bird for tissue culture and karyotype analysis. Through this method, the sex was identified and the karyotype described of the whooping crane (Grus americana) and the Mississippi sandhill crane (G. canadensis pulla). Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these species showed an identical chromosome constitution with 2n = 78 + 2. However, differences in the amount of centromeric heterochromatin were observed in the Mississippi sandhill crane when compared to the whooping crane C-banded karyotype.

  10. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  11. Endangered species: review of law triggered by tellico impasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, C

    1977-06-24

    To condense the evolution of life on Earth . . . suppose the whole history of the planet is contained within a single year. The conditions suitable for life do not develop until late June. The oldest known fossils are living creatures around mid-October, and life is abundant . . . by the end of that month. In mid-December, dinosaurs and other reptiles dominate the scene. Mammals . . . appear in large numbers only a little before Christmas. On New Year's Eve, at about five minutes to midnight, man emerges. . . . The period since 1600 A.D., when man-induced extinction began to increase rapidly, amounts to three seconds, and the quarter century just begun, when the disappearance of species may be on the scale of all the mass extinctions of the past put together, will take another sixth of a second-a twinkling of an eye in evolutionary time.

  12. Do laboratory species protect endangered species? Interspecies variation in responses to 17β-estradiol, a model endocrine active compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of estrogens on model laboratory species are well documented, their utility as surrogates for other species, including those listed as endangered, are less clear. Traditionally, conservation policies are evaluated based on model organism responses but are intended to protect all species in an environment. We tested the hypothesis that the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) is more vulnerable to endocrine disruption—as assessed through its larval predator-escape performance, survival, juvenile sex ratios, and whole-body vitellogenin concentration—than the commonly used toxicological model species fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Fish were exposed concurrently for 21 days to the model endocrine active compound (EAC) 17ß-estradiol (E2) at 10 ng E2/L and 30 ng E2/L in a flow-through system using reconstituted water that simulated the physicochemical conditions of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, USA. No significant differences were observed between the fathead and silvery minnow in larval predator-escape response or juvenile sex ratio. Rio Grande silvery minnow survival decreased significantly at day 14 compared with the other two species; by day 21, both cyprinid species (silvery minnow and fathead minnow) exhibited a significant decrease in survival compared with bluegill sunfish, a member of the family Centrarchidae. Male Rio Grande silvery minnow showed a significant increase in whole-body vitellogenin concentration in the 10 ng/L treatment, whereas fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish showed no significant increases in vitellogenin concentrations across treatments. Our study showed response differences to estrogen exposures between the two cyprinid species and further divergence in responses between the families Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae. These results suggest that commonly used laboratory model organisms may be less sensitive to EACs than the endangered

  13. Do laboratory species protect endangered species? Interspecies variation in responses to 17β-estradiol, a model endocrine active compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Z G; Buhl, K; Bartell, S E; Schoenfuss, H L

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of estrogens on model laboratory species are well documented, their utility as surrogates for other species, including those listed as endangered, are less clear. Traditionally, conservation policies are evaluated based on model organism responses but are intended to protect all species in an environment. We tested the hypothesis that the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) is more vulnerable to endocrine disruption-as assessed through its larval predator-escape performance, survival, juvenile sex ratios, and whole-body vitellogenin concentration-than the commonly used toxicological model species fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Fish were exposed concurrently for 21 days to the model endocrine active compound (EAC) 17ß-estradiol (E2) at 10 ng E2/L and 30 ng E2/L in a flow-through system using reconstituted water that simulated the physicochemical conditions of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, USA. No significant differences were observed between the fathead and silvery minnow in larval predator-escape response or juvenile sex ratio. Rio Grande silvery minnow survival decreased significantly at day 14 compared with the other two species; by day 21, both cyprinid species (silvery minnow and fathead minnow) exhibited a significant decrease in survival compared with bluegill sunfish, a member of the family Centrarchidae. Male Rio Grande silvery minnow showed a significant increase in whole-body vitellogenin concentration in the 10 ng/L treatment, whereas fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish showed no significant increases in vitellogenin concentrations across treatments. Our study showed response differences to estrogen exposures between the two cyprinid species and further divergence in responses between the families Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae. These results suggest that commonly used laboratory model organisms may be less sensitive to EACs than the endangered Rio

  14. Overview on the Role of Advance Genomics in Conservation Biology of Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a “sixth” mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various ex situ and in situ measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for developing modern and fast monitoring tools for endangered biodiversity. This review article focuses on the applications of advanced genomics mainly demographic, adaptive genetic variations, inbreeding, hybridization and introgression, and disease susceptibilities, in the conservation of threatened biota. In short, it provides the fundamentals for novice readers and advancement in genomics for the experts working for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species.

  15. Overview on the Role of Advance Genomics in Conservation Biology of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suliman; Nabi, Ghulam; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Yousaf, Muhammad; Manan, Sehrish; Siddique, Rabeea; Hou, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a "sixth" mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various ex situ and in situ measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for developing modern and fast monitoring tools for endangered biodiversity. This review article focuses on the applications of advanced genomics mainly demographic, adaptive genetic variations, inbreeding, hybridization and introgression, and disease susceptibilities, in the conservation of threatened biota. In short, it provides the fundamentals for novice readers and advancement in genomics for the experts working for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species.

  16. Plasticity in carbon acquisition of the heterophyllous Luronium natans: an endangered freshwater species in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Luronium natans (L.) Raf. (Floating Water-plantain) is an endangered amphibious freshwater species endemic to Europe. We examined the plasticity in carbon acquisition and photosynthesis in L. natans to assess if lack of plasticity could contribute to explain the low competitive ability...... of the species. The plasticity of photosynthesis in submerged leaves towards inorganic carbon availability was examined and the photosynthesis of submerged, floating and aerial leaves was contrasted. L. natans was shown to be plastic in inorganic carbon uptake, as it was able to effectively acclimate to changed...

  17. Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, David Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thompson, Brent E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan (HMP) fulfills a commitment made to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Mitigation Action Plan” (DOE 1996). The HMP received concurrence from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1999 (USFWS consultation numbers 2-22-98-I-336 and 2-22-95-I-108). This 2017 update retains the management guidelines from the 1999 HMP for listed species, and updates some descriptive information.

  18. Species diversity, structure and dynamics of two populations of an endangered species, Magnolia dealbata (Magnoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro R Sánchez-Velásquez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the ecology and demography of the genus Magnolia. Magnolia dealbata Zucc. is an endangered species endemic to Mexico. Two contrasting populations of M. dealbata (one from the grasslands and other from a secondary cloud forest were studied. We asked the following questions: (a Are size structure (diameter at breast height, DBH and infrutescence production significantly different between the two populations? (b What are the populations’ growth rates (λ based on an initial 1987 study? (c Are the associated species diversity indices of these M. dealbata populations significantly different? The results show no significant differences between the population size structure (p=.094; the growth rates of the populations were 0.992 in grassland and 1.053 in secondary cloud forest. The number of infrutescences produced in year 2001 and DBH relationship were significantly linear (p.01 between their slopes. The diversity indices were not significantly different (p>.05, and only 54% of the species were common to both sites. Our study suggests that both populations are relatively stable and that the management history could impact more on the species composition than on the diversity indices. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 997-1002. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.La ecología y demografía del género Magnolia han sido poco estudiadas. Magnolia dealbata Zucc. es una especie endémica de México y es considerada en peligro de extinción. Se estudiaron dos poblaciones contrastantes de M. dealbata (una dentro de un pastizal y la otra dentro de vegetación secundaria del bosque mesófilo de montaña -bosque de niebla-. Buscamos respuestas a las siguientes preguntas: (a ¿La estructura de tamaños y la producción de frutos de ambas poblaciones son significativamente diferentes? (b ¿Cuáles son las tasas de crecimiento poblacional (λ, tomando como población inicial un estudio de 1987? (c ¿Son significativamente diferentes los valores de diversidad de

  19. Risk assessment considerations with regard to the potential impacts of pesticides on endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Teed, R Scott; Bang, JiSu; Thorbek, Pernille; Perine, Jeff; Peranginangin, Natalia; Kim, Myoungwoo; Valenti, Ted; Chen, Wenlin; Breton, Roger L; Rodney, Sara I; Moore, Dwayne R J

    2015-01-01

    Simple, deterministic screening-level assessments that are highly conservative by design facilitate a rapid initial screening to determine whether a pesticide active ingredient has the potential to adversely affect threatened or endangered species. If a worst-case estimate of pesticide exposure is below a very conservative effects metric (e.g., the no observed effects concentration of the most sensitive tested surrogate species) then the potential risks are considered de minimis and unlikely to jeopardize the existence of a threatened or endangered species. Thus by design, such compounded layers of conservatism are intended to minimize potential Type II errors (failure to reject a false null hypothesis of de minimus risk), but correspondingly increase Type I errors (falsely reject a null hypothesis of de minimus risk). Because of the conservatism inherent in screening-level risk assessments, higher-tier scientific information and analyses that provide additional environmental realism can be applied in cases where a potential risk has been identified. This information includes community-level effects data, environmental fate and exposure data, monitoring data, geospatial location and proximity data, species biology data, and probabilistic exposure and population models. Given that the definition of "risk" includes likelihood and magnitude of effect, higher-tier risk assessments should use probabilistic techniques that more accurately and realistically characterize risk. Moreover, where possible and appropriate, risk assessments should focus on effects at the population and community levels of organization rather than the more traditional focus on the organism level. This document provides a review of some types of higher-tier data and assessment refinements available to more accurately and realistically evaluate potential risks of pesticide use to threatened and endangered species. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Freeze-dried spermatozoa: An alternative biobanking option for endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Debora Agata; Palazzese, Luca; Iuso, Domenico; Martino, Giuseppe; Loi, Pasqualino

    2018-03-01

    In addition to the iconic wild species, such as the pandas and Siberian tigers, an ever-increasing number of domestic species are also threatened with extinction. Biobanking of spermatozoa could preserve genetic heritages of extinct species, and maintain biodiversity of existing species. Because lyophilized spermatozoa retain fertilizing capacity, the aim was to assess whether freeze-dried spermatozoa are an alternative option to save endangered sheep breeds. To achieve this objective, semen was collected from an Italian endangered sheep breed (Pagliarola), and a biobank of cryopreserved and freeze-dried spermatozoa was established, and evaluated using IVF (for frozen spermatozoa) and ICSI procedures (for frozen and freeze-dried spermatozoa). As expected, the fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved Pagliarola's spermatozoa was comparable to commercial semen stocks. To evaluate the activating capability of freeze-dried spermatozoa, 108 MII sheep oocytes were subjected to ICSI, and allocated to two groups: 56 oocytes were activated by incubation with ionomycin (ICSI-FDSa) and 52 were not activated (ICSI-FDSna). Pronuclear formation (2PN) was investigated at 14-16 h after ICSI in fixed presumptive zygotes. Only artificially activated oocytes developed into blastocysts after ICSI. In the present study, freeze-dried ram spermatozoa induced blastocyst development following ICSI at a relatively high proportion, providing evidence that sperm lyophilization is an alternative, low cost storage option for biodiversity preservation of domestic species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vulnerability of species to climate change in the Southwest: threatened, endangered, and at-risk species at the Barry M. Goldwater Range, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Bagne; Deborah M. Finch

    2012-01-01

    Future climate change is anticipated to result in ecosystem changes, and consequently, many species are expected to become increasingly vulnerable to extinction. This scenario is of particular concern for threatened, endangered, and at-risk species (TER-S) or other rare species. The response of species to climate change is uncertain and will be the outcome of complex...

  2. 75 FR 18232 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 15 Caribbean Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ..., and improved analytical methods. Definitions A. Species includes any species or subspecies of fish... mature. B. Endangered means any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant... be supported by documentation such as maps, bibliographic references, methods used to gather and...

  3. Ecology of Hawaiian marine mammals emphasizing the impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on endangered species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.; Hartwig, E.O.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty-two marine mammal species including 2 baleen whales, 20 toothed whales, and one pinniped occur in Hawaiian waters. Among these are two endangered species, the migratory humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) around the main islands, and the non-migratory Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in the extreme northwestern island chain. The endangered species are among those most commonly sighted, while spinner dolphins (Stenella spp.), bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops sp.), and false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are sighted less frequently. Most Hawaiian cetacean species are Odontoceti, or toothed whales, and feed on fish and squid. The Mysteceti or baleen whales feed on plankton, however the endangered humpback whale, which migrates to Hawaii to breed and calve, presumably does not feed there. The endangered monk seal feeds on cephalopods and fish. The impact of OTEC on endangered and non-endangered marine mammals results from several direct and indirect effects and is discussed in the text. Careful siting of OTEC plants away from humpback breeding areas and monk seal breeding and feeding areas will avoid adverse effects on these populations.

  4. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits.

  5. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  6. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Caitlin M; Gerber, Leah R

    2015-10-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States was enacted in 1973 to prevent the extinction of species. Recovery plans, required by 1988 amendments to the ESA, play an important role in organizing these efforts to protect and recover species. To improve the use of science in the recovery planning process, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) commissioned an independent review of endangered species recovery planning in 1999. From these findings, the SCB made key recommendations for how management agencies could improve the recovery planning process, after which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service redrafted their recovery planning guidelines. One important recommendation called for recovery plans to make threats a primary focus, including organizing and prioritizing recovery tasks for threat abatement. We sought to determine the extent to which results from the SCB study were incorporated into these new guidelines and whether the SCB recommendations regarding threats manifested in recovery plans written under the new guidelines. Recovery planning guidelines generally incorporated the SCB recommendations, including those for managing threats. However, although recent recovery plans have improved in their treatment of threats, many fail to adequately incorporate threat monitoring. This failure suggests that developing clear guidelines for monitoring should be an important priority in improving ESA recovery planning. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Characterization of Microsatellites for the Endangered Ruta oreojasme (Rutaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Meloni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Ruta oreojasme is an endangered species endemic to Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, where it occurs in small populations with disjunct distribution. Nothing is known about the genetic structure of these populations. Methods and Results: Using a microsatellite-enriched library method, 10 microsatellite markers have been developed from R. oreojasme, all of which showed polymorphism. The transferability of the 10 markers was tested in two other Canarian endemic species, R. microcarpa and R. pinnata, as well as in the widespread species R. montana. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the value of these newly developed microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic structure in R. oreojasme and show their potential applicability for population genetic studies in other Ruta species.

  8. Evaluation of protected, threatened, and endangered fish species in Upper Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, M.G.

    1998-07-01

    The East Bear Creek Site for the proposed centralized waste facility on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation was evaluated for potential rare, threatened or endangered (T and E) fish species in the six primary tributaries and the main stem of Bear Creek that are within or adjacent to the facility footprint. These tributaries and portion of Bear Creek comprise the upper Bear Creek watershed. One T and E fish species, the Tennessee dace (Phoxinus tennesseensis), was located in these streams. The Tennessee dace is listed by the State of Tennessee as being in need of management, and as such its habitat is afforded some protection. Surveys indicated that Tennessee dace occupy the northern tributaries NT-1, NT-4, and NT-5, as well as Bear Creek. Several specimens of the dace were gravid females, indicating that the streams may function as reproductive habitat for the species. The implications of impacts on the species are discussed and mitigation objectives are included

  9. Ecology and Conservation of the Critically Endangered Tree Species Gymnocladus assamicus in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, B.I.; Khan, M.L.; Arunachalam, A.; Das, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically endangered leguminous tree species endemic to Northeast India. Mature pods of the trees yield soap material and are collected by local people for domestic purposes and religious activities. G. assamicus grows on hill slopes and along banks of streams. Male and hermaphrodite flowers are borne by separate individual trees. Altogether 28 mature trees were documented from nine populations. Of these, very few regenerating trees were found. This species regenerates only through seeds. The major constraints to natural regeneration are over harvesting of mature fruits, habitat destruction, grazing, predation of seeds by scatter-hoarding animals, poor percentage of seed germination due to their hard-waxy seed coats, and the lack of seed dispersal. Effective conservation initiatives should emphasize sustainable harvesting of mature pods, awareness among local people, and preservation of surviving individuals of the species. Nonetheless, reintroduction of the species to suitable ecological habitats is also recommended.

  10. Applying iPSCs for Preserving Endangered Species and Elucidating the Evolution of Mammalian Sex Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Arata

    2018-04-06

    The endangered species Tokudaia osimensis has the unique chromosome constitution of 2n = 25, with an XO/XO sex chromosome configuration (2n = 25; XO). There is urgency to preserve this species and to elucidate the regulator(s) that can discriminate the males and females arising from the indistinguishable sex chromosome constitution. However, it is not realistic to examine this rare animal species by sacrificing individuals. Recently, true naïve induced pluripotent stem cells were successfully generated from a female T. osimensis, and the sexual plasticity of its germ cells was elucidated. This achievement constitutes the basis of an attractive research area, including embryonic fate determination, sex determination, and factor(s) that can replace the Y chromosome. In this essay, concrete strategies to conserve rare animal species and to reveal their specific characteristics using other compatible and abundant animals are proposed. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Predictive policing in an endangered species context: Combating rhino poaching in the Kruger National Park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, H

    2012-10-10

    Full Text Available in an endangered species context: Combating rhino poaching in the Kruger National Park Emerging Researcher Symposium Presented by Hildegarde Mouton 10 October 2012 A new approach ? CSIR 2012 Slide 2 * Images courtesy of web.up.ac.za and Google Earth... ? this is what is happening ? CSIR 2012 Slide 5 2011 2012 388 to date Reasons for this situation ? CSIR 2012 Slide 6 * Image courtesy of http://www.rhinoconservation.org. Reasons for this situation ? CSIR 2012 Slide 7 * Images courtesy of http...

  12. Identification of Bottlenecks in the Plant Life Cycle for Sustainable Conservation of Rare and Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Aronne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Long term survival of a species relies on maintenance of genetic variability and natural selection by means of successful reproduction and generation turnover. Although, basic to monitor the conservation status of a plant species, life history data are rarely available even for threatened species due to the gap between the large amount of information required and the limits in terms of time and available economic resources to gather these data. Here, the focus on bottlenecks in life-cycle of rare endangered plant species is proposed as a resolving approach to address the challenges of feasible conservation actions. Basic considerations for this approach are: (a all biological and ecological studies on plant species can be scientifically important, but not all of them are equally relevant to conservation planning and management requirements; (b under a changing environment, long term survival of a species relies on generation turnover; (c for conservation purposes, priority should be given to studies aimed to focus on bottlenecks in the succession of generations because they prevent, or slow down natural selection processes. The proposed procedure, named Systematic Hazard Analysis of Rare-endangered Plants (SHARP, consists of a preliminary survey of the already available information on the species and two main components. The first component is the identification of the bottlenecks in the life cycle by means of field surveys. The second is the diagnosis of the causes of the bottleneck by appropriate experimental methods. The target is to provide researchers, managers and practitioners with substantiated indications for sustainable conservation measures.

  13. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom, Jacob W; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-12-29

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act's prohibitions on "jeopardizing" listed species or "destroying or adversely modifying" these species' critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations.

  14. Advances in conservation endocrinology: the application of molecular approaches to the conservation of endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Christopher; McDonough, Caitlin E; Felton, Rachel; Milnes, Matthew R

    2014-07-01

    Among the numerous societal benefits of comparative endocrinology is the application of our collective knowledge of hormone signaling towards the conservation of threatened and endangered species - conservation endocrinology. For several decades endocrinologists have used longitudinal hormone profiles to monitor reproductive status in a multitude of species. Knowledge of reproductive status among individuals has been used to assist in the management of captive and free-ranging populations. More recently, researchers have begun utilizing molecular and cell-based techniques to gain a more complete understanding of hormone signaling in wildlife species, and to identify potential causes of disrupted hormone signaling. In this review we examine various in vitro approaches we have used to compare estrogen receptor binding and activation by endogenous hormones and phytoestrogens in two species of rhinoceros; southern white and greater one-horned. We have found many of these techniques valuable and practical in species where access to research subjects and/or tissues is limited due to their conservation status. From cell-free, competitive binding assays to full-length receptor activation assays; each technique has strengths and weaknesses related to cost, sensitivity, complexity of the protocols, and relevance to in vivo signaling. We then present a novel approach, in which receptor activation assays are performed in primary cell lines derived from the species of interest, to minimize the artifacts of traditional heterologous expression systems. Finally, we speculate on the promise of next generation sequencing and transcriptome profiling as tools for characterizing hormone signaling in threatened and endangered species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. General rules for managing and surveying networks of pests, diseases, and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadès, Iadine; Martin, Tara G; Nicol, Samuel; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2011-05-17

    The efficient management of diseases, pests, or endangered species is an important global issue faced by agencies constrained by limited resources. The management challenge is even greater when organisms are difficult to detect. We show how to prioritize management and survey effort across time and space for networks of susceptible-infected-susceptible subpopulations. We present simple and robust rules of thumb for protecting desirable, or eradicating undesirable, subpopulations connected in typical network patterns (motifs). We further demonstrate that these rules can be generalized to larger networks when motifs are combined in more complex formations. Results show that the best location to manage or survey a pest or a disease on a network is also the best location to protect or survey an endangered species. The optimal starting point in a network is the fastest motif to manage, where line, star, island, and cluster motifs range from fast to slow. Managing the most connected node at the right time and maintaining the same management direction provide advantages over previously recommended outside-in strategies. When a species or disease is not detected and our belief in persistence decreases, our results recommend shifting resources toward management or surveillance of the most connected nodes. Our analytic approximation provides guidance on how long we should manage or survey networks for hard-to-detect organisms. Our rules take into account management success, dispersal, economic cost, and imperfect detection and offer managers a practical basis for managing networks relevant to many significant environmental, biosecurity, and human health issues.

  16. Agency interaction at the Savannah River Plant under the Endangered Species Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The 300 square mile Savannah River Plant (SRP) offers a variety of protected habitats for endangered species including the alligator (resident), red-cockaded woodpecker (resident), short-nose sturgeon (migratory), and wood stork (fish-forager). The most recent of these four species to be listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (US FWS) is the wood stork. It had been observed prior to 1983 as an infrequent forager in the SRP Savannah River Swamp which adjoins SRP on the south and southwest. In anticipation of its listing as an endangered species, DOE-SR requested in the spring of 1983 that the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, conduct field surveys and studies of the nearest colony of wood storks to SRP (the Birdsville colony in north-central Georgia). The objective of these studies was to determine potential effects of the flooding of the Steel Creek swamp area with cooling water from L-Reactor. L-Reactor, which is proposed for restart, has not been operated since 1968. The survey found that wood storks forage in the Steel Creek delta swamp area of the Savannah River at SRP. Based on the numbers of storks at various foraging locations, sites at SRP ranked higher than non-SRP sites during the pre-fledging phase of the colony. Cold flow testing of L-Reactor also demonstrated that foraging sites in the Steel Creek delta would be unavailable during L-Reactor operation because of increased water levels

  17. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  18. Application of environmental DNA to detect an endangered marine skate species in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Weltz

    Full Text Available Environmental DNA (eDNA techniques have only recently been applied in the marine environment to detect the presence of marine species. Species-specific primers and probes were designed to detect the eDNA of the endangered Maugean skate (Zearaja maugeana from as little as 1 L of water collected at depth (10-15 m in Macquarie Harbour (MH, Tasmania. The identity of the eDNA was confirmed as Z. maugeana by sequencing the qPCR products and aligning these with the target sequence for a 100% match. This result has validated the use of this eDNA technique for detecting a rare species, Z. maugeana, in the wild. Being able to investigate the presence, and possibly the abundance, of Z. maugeana in MH and Bathurst harbour (BH, would be addressing a conservation imperative for the endangered Z. maugeana. For future application of this technique in the field, the rate of decay was determined for Z. maugeana eDNA under ambient dissolved oxygen (DO levels (55% saturation and lower DO (20% saturation levels, revealing that the eDNA can be detected for 4 and 16 hours respectively, after which eDNA concentration drops below the detection threshold of the assay. With the rate of decay being influenced by starting eDNA concentrations, it is recommended that samples be filtered as soon as possible after collection to minimize further loss of eDNA prior to and during sample processing.

  19. Application of environmental DNA to detect an endangered marine skate species in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltz, Kay; Lyle, Jeremy M; Ovenden, Jennifer; Morgan, Jessica A T; Moreno, David A; Semmens, Jayson M

    2017-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) techniques have only recently been applied in the marine environment to detect the presence of marine species. Species-specific primers and probes were designed to detect the eDNA of the endangered Maugean skate (Zearaja maugeana) from as little as 1 L of water collected at depth (10-15 m) in Macquarie Harbour (MH), Tasmania. The identity of the eDNA was confirmed as Z. maugeana by sequencing the qPCR products and aligning these with the target sequence for a 100% match. This result has validated the use of this eDNA technique for detecting a rare species, Z. maugeana, in the wild. Being able to investigate the presence, and possibly the abundance, of Z. maugeana in MH and Bathurst harbour (BH), would be addressing a conservation imperative for the endangered Z. maugeana. For future application of this technique in the field, the rate of decay was determined for Z. maugeana eDNA under ambient dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (55% saturation) and lower DO (20% saturation) levels, revealing that the eDNA can be detected for 4 and 16 hours respectively, after which eDNA concentration drops below the detection threshold of the assay. With the rate of decay being influenced by starting eDNA concentrations, it is recommended that samples be filtered as soon as possible after collection to minimize further loss of eDNA prior to and during sample processing.

  20. Chromosome number and karyotype of the endangered Amazonian woody Centrolobium paraense Tul. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Dahmer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrolobium paraense Tul., popularly known in Brazil as “pau-rainha”, is a species with a high timberpotential, presently endangered due to deforestation of the Amazonian region and indiscriminate wood extraction. Chromosomenumber and karyotype morphology of this species are presented for the first time. All the individuals of the three populationsanalyzed are diploid, with 2n=2x=20 chromosomes. The chromosomes ranging from ca. 1.7 to 4 μm in size. The karyotypeis composed of three metacentric, three submetacentric (one with a satellite on the short arm, three acrocentric and onesubacrocentric chromosome pairs. Other Centrolobium species and populations should be analyzed in order to assess theextent of intraspecific and interspecific variation in chromosome number and morphology, if any.

  1. Eithea lagopaivae, a new critically endangered species in the previously monotypic genus Eithea Ravenna (Amaryllidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Rocha, Antonio; Meerow, Alan William; Lopes, Edimar Faria Menezes; Semir, João; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Dutilh, Julie Henriette Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    Eithea lagopaivae Campos-Rocha & Dutilh, sp. nov. is described as the second species of the formerly monotypic genus Eithea . It is characterized by a one flowered inflorescence, completely hollow scape, white or lightly magenta-striated flower that is enclosed by spathe bracts fused for more than the lower fifth of its length. Comments on its range, habitat, phenology, as well as photographs and illustrations are provided. In addition, a distribution map and an identification key for the two species of the genus are presented and anatomical and ecological differences compared. Known by only two small populations exposed to several types of threats and without any guarantee of protection, E. lagopaivae is considered a Critically Endangered (CR) species.

  2. The role of demographic compensation theory in incidental take assessments for endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Ryan, Mark R.; Runge, Michael C.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cochrane, Jean Fitts

    2011-01-01

    Many endangered species laws provide exceptions to legislated prohibitions through incidental take provisions as long as take is the result of unintended consequences of an otherwise legal activity. These allowances presumably invoke the theory of demographic compensation, commonly applied to harvested species, by allowing limited harm as long as the probability of the species' survival or recovery is not reduced appreciably. Demographic compensation requires some density-dependent limits on survival or reproduction in a species' annual cycle that can be alleviated through incidental take. Using a population model for piping plovers in the Great Plains, we found that when the population is in rapid decline or when there is no density dependence, the probability of quasi-extinction increased linearly with increasing take. However, when the population is near stability and subject to density-dependent survival, there was no relationship between quasi-extinction probability and take rates. We note however, that a brief examination of piping plover demography and annual cycles suggests little room for compensatory capacity. We argue that a population's capacity for demographic compensation of incidental take should be evaluated when considering incidental allowances because compensation is the only mechanism whereby a population can absorb the negative effects of take without incurring a reduction in the probability of survival in the wild. With many endangered species there is probably little known about density dependence and compensatory capacity. Under these circumstances, using multiple system models (with and without compensation) to predict the population's response to incidental take and implementing follow-up monitoring to assess species response may be valuable in increasing knowledge and improving future decision making.

  3. Survival and growth of three endangered oak species in a Mexican montane cloud forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Andrea Valdés-Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud forests are amongst the world’s most impacted and endangered forest types, with Mexican cloud forests amongst the most degraded. These species rich forests are characterized by a diversity of congeneric oak species which dominate the canopy of mature forests. An improved understanding of the establishment requirements of oak seedlings in cloud forests is needed for conservation and restoration purposes. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of light conditions during early establishment of three endangered Quercus species. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in Quercus insignis M. Martens & Galeotti, Q. sartorii Liebm. and Q. xalapensis Bonpl. was determined under two light levels: light gap (1338 µmol m-2 s-1 and closed canopy (118 µmol m-2 s-1 in a cloud forest in Veracruz, Mexico. Growth and development were evaluated over the first 13 months. Results suggest there was a significant effect of light conditions on growth rate and biomass allocation. Although survival rate was similar among both environments, the three species showed lower growth rates under the closed canopy during the first nine months, while elongation rate was higher during the last three months under this environment compared to the light gap. Across all species, fresh biomass and dry biomass of roots, stem and leaves were almost 50% higher in light gap than under closed canopy. Q. insignis produced more biomass in shoots and roots than Q. sartorii and Q. xalapensis, which may increase its establishment success in shaded conditions. Results suggest that these three oak species are suited to planting in small gaps, but also in shaded understory conditions, as high early survival (>90% may allow enrichment planting in advance of gap creation.

  4. Does bioelectrical impedance analysis accurately estimate the condition of threatened and endangered desert fish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yard, Micheal D.; Ward, David L.; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a nonlethal tool with which to estimate the physiological condition of animals that has potential value in research on endangered species. However, the effectiveness of BIA varies by species, the methodology continues to be refined, and incidental mortality rates are unknown. Under laboratory conditions we tested the value of using BIA in addition to morphological measurements such as total length and wet mass to estimate proximate composition (lipid, protein, ash, water, dry mass, energy density) in the endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha and Bonytail G. elegans and the species of concern Roundtail Chub G. robusta and conducted separate trials to estimate the mortality rates of these sensitive species. Although Humpback and Roundtail Chub exhibited no or low mortality in response to taking BIA measurements versus handling for length and wet-mass measurements, Bonytails exhibited 14% and 47% mortality in the BIA and handling experiments, respectively, indicating that survival following stress is species specific. Derived BIA measurements were included in the best models for most proximate components; however, the added value of BIA as a predictor was marginal except in the absence of accurate wet-mass data. Bioelectrical impedance analysis improved the R2 of the best percentage-based models by no more than 4% relative to models based on morphology. Simulated field conditions indicated that BIA models became increasingly better than morphometric models at estimating proximate composition as the observation error around wet-mass measurements increased. However, since the overall proportion of variance explained by percentage-based models was low and BIA was mostly a redundant predictor, we caution against the use of BIA in field applications for these sensitive fish species.

  5. Impacts of phylogenetic nomenclature on the efficacy of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Matthew S

    2015-02-01

    Cataloging biodiversity is critical to conservation efforts because accurate taxonomy is often a precondition for protection under laws designed for species conservation, such as the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Traditional nomenclatural codes governing the taxonomic process have recently come under scrutiny because taxon names are more closely linked to hierarchical ranks than to the taxa themselves. A new approach to naming biological groups, called phylogenetic nomenclature (PN), explicitly names taxa by defining their names in terms of ancestry and descent. PN has the potential to increase nomenclatural stability and decrease confusion induced by the rank-based codes. But proponents of PN have struggled with whether species and infraspecific taxa should be governed by the same rules as other taxa or should have special rules. Some proponents advocate the wholesale abandonment of rank labels (including species); this could have consequences for the implementation of taxon-based conservation legislation. I examined the principles of PN as embodied in the PhyloCode (an alternative to traditional rank-based nomenclature that names biological groups based on the results of phylogenetic analyses and does not associate taxa with ranks) and assessed how this novel approach to naming taxa might affect the implementation of species-based legislation by providing a case study of the ESA. The latest version of the PhyloCode relies on the traditional rank-based codes to name species and infraspecific taxa; thus, little will change regarding the main targets of the ESA because they will retain rank labels. For this reason, and because knowledge of evolutionary relationships is of greater importance than nomenclatural procedures for initial protection of endangered taxa under the ESA, I conclude that PN under the PhyloCode will have little impact on implementation of the ESA. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Snail Darters and Sacred Places: Creative Application of the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Robert Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Rather than exploring how indigenous people have been alienated from resources by environmental policies, this paper explores how indigenous peoples have worked with environmental organizations to use the broad protections provided by environmental laws to protect cultural resources. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, along with other concerned groups, partnered with environmentalists in opposing the destruction of the endangered snail darter’s critical habitat by the Tennessee Valley Authority’s Tellico Dam. The dam had been opposed by a shifting alliance of Cherokees, local farmers, trout fisherman, and environmentalists since it was announced in 1963. A previous lawsuit by this coalition delayed the project from 1972 to 1974 under the National Environmental Policy Act. The Endangered Species Act provided this coalition with a powerful tool for opposing the destruction of burial grounds and sacred village sites throughout the lower Little Tennessee River valley. The coalition of environmental organizations, Cherokees, and others was ultimately unsuccessful in stopping the dam from being built, but was successful in establishing a strict precedent for the enforcement of the Endangered Species Act. The lawsuit also created a space for the Eastern Band to negotiate for the return of Cherokee remains and halt the removal of any additional burials. In this situation, the strategic support of environmental regulation enabled the Eastern Band to exert some degree of control over the fate of cultural resources in the valley, and also demonstrates the significant role American Indian peoples played in one of the seminal events of the environmental movement during the 1970s.

  7. 78 FR 25044 - Listing Endangered or Threatened Species: 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Include the Killer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lynne...'' that a species is or is not either threatened or endangered to support a positive 90-day finding. To... words, conclusive information indicating that the species may meet the ESA's requirements for listing or...

  8. 75 FR 17947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 69 Species in Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... collectively refer to as the List) in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and... more of the following reasons (50 CFR 424.11(d)): (A) The species is considered extinct; (B) The.... Endangered Species Act Common name Scientific name Status Where listed Final listing rule ANIMALS Pomace fly...

  9. Actual and potential use of population viability analyses in recovery of plant species listed under the US endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Sara L; Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2013-12-01

    Use of population viability analyses (PVAs) in endangered species recovery planning has been met with both support and criticism. Previous reviews promote use of PVA for setting scientifically based, measurable, and objective recovery criteria and recommend improvements to increase the framework's utility. However, others have questioned the value of PVA models for setting recovery criteria and assert that PVAs are more appropriate for understanding relative trade-offs between alternative management actions. We reviewed 258 final recovery plans for 642 plants listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to determine the number of plans that used or recommended PVA in recovery planning. We also reviewed 223 publications that describe plant PVAs to assess how these models were designed and whether those designs reflected previous recommendations for improvement of PVAs. Twenty-four percent of listed species had recovery plans that used or recommended PVA. In publications, the typical model was a matrix population model parameterized with ≤5 years of demographic data that did not consider stochasticity, genetics, density dependence, seed banks, vegetative reproduction, dormancy, threats, or management strategies. Population growth rates for different populations of the same species or for the same population at different points in time were often statistically different or varied by >10%. Therefore, PVAs parameterized with underlying vital rates that vary to this degree may not accurately predict recovery objectives across a species' entire distribution or over longer time scales. We assert that PVA, although an important tool as part of an adaptive-management program, can help to determine quantitative recovery criteria only if more long-term data sets that capture spatiotemporal variability in vital rates become available. Lacking this, there is a strong need for viable and comprehensive methods for determining quantitative, science-based recovery criteria for

  10. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-08-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina), and a protozoa (Balantidium coli) were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  11. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  12. Linking density, productivity and trends of an endangered species: The Bonelli's eagle in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal, Luis M.; Seoane, Javier

    2009-05-01

    Whether regional population density is a good indicator of environmental quality according to demographic variables such as breeding success or short-term population trends is controversial. In this paper we analyze the interrelationships among regional population density, breeding success and recent population trends of an endangered species, Bonelli's eagle in the Iberian Peninsula. We also analyze the different influence of geographical, climatic, landscape structure and human impact variables on regional variation in those demographic variables. Breeding success was higher and population decrease was lower in those areas where the population density of Bonelli's eagle was greater. Breeding success, density and recent population trends of Bonelli's eagle were tightly related, increasing from northern to southern Iberian Peninsula (with highest figures at intermediate latitudes), and as sun radiation increased, and altitude decreased. Breeding success and population density were significantly lower in the periphery of the distribution range than in core areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Population trends between 2000 and 2005 were also more negative (decreasing) in the periphery. Overall, these results suggest that population density in this endangered species of large home-range is a good indicator of environmental quality and reproductive output, and that peripheral populations occupy low-suitability areas with lower breeding success, where negative short-term population trends are more likely.

  13. Cyanobacteria blooms induce embryonic heart failure in an endangered fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Jinmei; Pan, Xiaofu; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Yang, Junxing; Xu, Runbing; Chen, Shanyuan; Chang, Xuexiu

    2018-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms drive water-quality and aquatic-ecosystem deterioration in eutrophic lakes worldwide, mainly owing to their harmful, secondary metabolites. The response of fish exposed to these cyanobacterial chemicals, however, remains largely unknown. In this paper, we employed an endangered fish species (Sinocyclocheilus grahami) in Dianchi Lake, China to evaluate the risks of cell-free exudates (MaE) produced by a dominant cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) on embryo development, as well as the molecular mechanisms responsible. MaE (3d cultured) caused a reduction of fertilization (35.4%) and hatching (15.5%) rates, and increased mortality rates (≤90.0%) and malformation rate (27.6%), typically accompanied by heart failure. Proteomics analysis revealed that two greatest changed proteins - protein S100A1 (over-expressed 26 times compared with control) and myosin light chain (under-expressed 25 fold) - are closely associated with heart function. Further study revealed that heart failure was due to calcium ion imbalance and malformed cardiac structure. We conclude that harmful secondary metabolites from cyanobacteria may adversely affect embryo development in this endangered fish, and possibly contribute to its disappearance and unsuccessful recovery in Dianchi Lake. Hazardous consequences of substances released by cyanobacteria should raise concerns for managers addressing recovery of this and other imperiled species in affected lakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Restricting Grazing on Federal Lands in the West to Protect Threatened and Endangered Species: Ranch and Livestock Sector Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Lewandrowski; Kevin Ingram

    2002-01-01

    Ranch and livestock sector impacts are estimated for a 10% reduction in grazing on federal lands in the West to protect threatened and endangered species. Two sets of species are considered. One set targets species listed due to grazing and the other targets species whose recovery plans include restrictions on grazing. Using the former set and assuming no substitution between alternative sources of forage, the grazing restriction reduces annual ranch and livestock sector incomes by $54.4 and ...

  15. Biobanking efforts and new advances in male fertility preservation for rare and endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Comizzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and sustaining biodiversity is a multi-disciplinary science that benefits highly from the creation of organized and accessible collections of biomaterials (Genome Resource Banks. Large cryo-collections are invaluable tools for understanding, cataloging, and protecting the genetic diversity of the world′s unique animals and plants. Specifically, the systematic collection and preservation of semen from rare species has been developed significantly in recent decades with some biobanks now being actively used for endangered species management and propagation (including the introduction of species such as the black-footed ferret and the giant panda. Innovations emerging from the growing field of male fertility preservation for humans, livestock species, and laboratory animals are also becoming relevant to the protection and the propagation of valuable domestic and wild species. These new approaches extend beyond the "classical" methods associated with sperm freezing to include testicular tissue preservation combined with xenografting or in vitro culture, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused germplasm. There also are other options under development that are predicted to have a high impact within the next decade (stem cell technologies, bio-stabilization of sperm cells at ambient temperatures, and the use of genomics tools. However, biobanking efforts and new fertility preservation strategies have to expand the way beyond mammalian species, which will offer knowledge and tools to better manage species that serve as valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment.

  16. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover's Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus)

  17. Two new endangered species of Anomaloglossus (Anura: Aromobatidae) from Roraima State, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Souza, Sergio Marques; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Kok, Philippe J R; Curcio, Felipe Franco; De Carvalho, Celso Morato; Grant, Taran; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-03-05

    We describe two new species of Anomaloglossus from Roraima State, Brazil, that are likely endemic to single mountains currently isolated among lowland forest and savanna ecosystems. The first species, Anomaloglossus tepequem sp. nov. was collected in 1986 and 1992 along a single stream at >500 m elevation on a tepui-like mountain named Tepequém, but was not detected during recent investigations. It is mainly diagnosed from other Anomaloglossus species by its well developed foot webbing, immaculate cream abdomen colouration and small body size (males: 18.2-20.1 mm, females: 21.7-24.5). The second species, Anomaloglossus apiau sp. nov. was found along several streams between 500 and 1400 m elevation on Serra do Apiaú, and is mainly diagnosed from congeners by its weakly webbed feet, males with swollen third finger and ventrolateral stripe formed by white dots, and its advertisement call; a long trill (up to almost 40 s) consisting of pairs of very short pulses. The discovery of these two apparently microendemic species suggests that additional Anomaloglossus species remain to be described in the Guiana Shield. Both species should be considered critically endangered given their seemingly reduced range size, association with highland habitat, and the anthropogenic pressure they currently face.

  18. Biobanking efforts and new advances in male fertility preservation for rare and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comizzoli, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and sustaining biodiversity is a multi-disciplinary science that benefits highly from the creation of organized and accessible collections of biomaterials (Genome Resource Banks). Large cryo-collections are invaluable tools for understanding, cataloging, and protecting the genetic diversity of the world's unique animals and plants. Specifically, the systematic collection and preservation of semen from rare species has been developed significantly in recent decades with some biobanks now being actively used for endangered species management and propagation (including the introduction of species such as the black-footed ferret and the giant panda). Innovations emerging from the growing field of male fertility preservation for humans, livestock species, and laboratory animals are also becoming relevant to the protection and the propagation of valuable domestic and wild species. These new approaches extend beyond the "classical" methods associated with sperm freezing to include testicular tissue preservation combined with xenografting or in vitro culture, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused germplasm. There also are other options under development that are predicted to have a high impact within the next decade (stem cell technologies, bio-stabilization of sperm cells at ambient temperatures, and the use of genomics tools). However, biobanking efforts and new fertility preservation strategies have to expand the way beyond mammalian species, which will offer knowledge and tools to better manage species that serve as valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment.

  19. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae, Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H L Nunes-de-Almeida

    Full Text Available Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus.

  20. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-de-Almeida, Carlos H L; Assis, Clodoaldo L; Feio, Renato N; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note) with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus.

  1. Microsatellite markers for the critically endangered elm species Ulmus gaussenii (Ulmaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qi-Fang; Yang, Jie; He, Jia; Wang, Dan-Bi; Shi, En; Xu, Wei-Xiang; Jeelani, Nasreen; Wang, Zhong-Sheng; Liu, Hong

    2016-07-20

    The Anhui elm Ulmus gaussenii is listed as a critically endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and is endemic to China, where its only population is restricted to Langya Mountain in Chuzhou, Anhui Province. To better understand the population genetics of U. gaussenii, we developed 12 microsatellite markers using an improved technique. The 12 markers were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from two to nine. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.021 to 0.750 and 0.225 to 0.744, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient ranged from -0.157 to 0.960. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected for two pairs of loci, and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found in nine loci. These microsatellite markers will contribute to the studies of population genetics in U. gaussenii, which in turn will contribute to species conservation and protection.

  2. Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, David Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-11-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan (HMP) fulfills a commitment made to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Mitigation Action Plan” (DOE 1996). The HMP received concurrence from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1999 (USFWS consultation numbers 2-22-98-I-336 and 2-22-95-I-108). This 2015 update retains the management guidelines from the 1999 HMP for listed species, updates some descriptive information, and adds the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) and Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) which were federally listed in 2014 (Keller 2015: USFWS consultation number 02ENNM00- 2015-I-0538).

  3. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  4. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    .... (C). Canavalia pubescens awikiwiki Proposed--Endangered Proposed. (C). Cyanea asplenifolia haha Proposed--Endangered Proposed. (C). Cyanea duvalliorum haha Proposed--Endangered... Proposed. Cyanea horrida haha nui Proposed--Endangered... Proposed. Cyanea kunthiana haha Proposed--Endangered Proposed. (C...

  5. Status of endangered and threatened plant species on Tonopah Test Range: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, W.A.; Cochrane, S.A.; Williams, M.P.

    1979-10-01

    Six species under consideration by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) for endangered or threatened status were found on or near the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in southern central Nevada. Based on recognized threats to these species, their overall distribution, rarity, and other factors, status recommendations were prepared for Sandia Corporation. In addition, ten species that occur in the vicinity of TTR, and which may yet be found on TTR, are discussed in brief. Each species is discussed in relation to distribution, rarity, taxonomy, habitat requirements, endangerment, assessment of status, and proposed protection and monitoring needs. Construction activities and off-road vehicle travel are the most prominent man-caused threats to species on TTR; habitat destruction by trampling and over-grazing by feral horses and non-permit cattle significantly modifies habitats of certain species. We recommend two kinds of protective measures. First is the planning of activities so that habitats, particularly the suggested protected habitats, are not disturbed. Second, and directed to the same end, off-road traffic should be curtailed in the regions of the proposed protected habitats

  6. Naming Potentially Endangered Parasites: Foliicolous Mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Highly Threatened Brazilian Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Meiriele; Pinho, Danilo B.; Pereira, Olinto L.; Fernandes, Fernando M.; Barreto, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae) was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D. mollis, which is a common species with a broad geographical distribution that co-occurs with D. wilsonii, was examined simultaneously to exclude fungal species occurring on both species from further consideration for conservation because microfungi associated with D. wilsonii should not be regarded as under threat of co-extinction. Fourteen ascomycete fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated namely: Byssogene wilsoniae sp. nov., Geastrumia polystigmatis, Janetia dimorphandra-mollis sp. nov., Janetia wilsoniae sp. nov., Johansonia chapadiensis, Microcalliopsis dipterygis, Phillipsiella atra, Piricauda paraguayensis, Pseudocercospora dimorphandrae sp. nov., Pseudocercosporella dimorphandrae sp. nov., Ramichloridiopsis wilsoniae sp. and gen. nov., Stomiopeltis suttoniae, Trichomatomyces byrsonimae and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis. Three fungi were exclusively found on D. wilsonii and were regarded as potentially threatened of extinction: B. wilsoniae, J. wilsoniae and R. wilsoniae. PMID:26910334

  7. Naming Potentially Endangered Parasites: Foliicolous Mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Highly Threatened Brazilian Tree Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiriele da Silva

    Full Text Available A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D. mollis, which is a common species with a broad geographical distribution that co-occurs with D. wilsonii, was examined simultaneously to exclude fungal species occurring on both species from further consideration for conservation because microfungi associated with D. wilsonii should not be regarded as under threat of co-extinction. Fourteen ascomycete fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated namely: Byssogene wilsoniae sp. nov., Geastrumia polystigmatis, Janetia dimorphandra-mollis sp. nov., Janetia wilsoniae sp. nov., Johansonia chapadiensis, Microcalliopsis dipterygis, Phillipsiella atra, Piricauda paraguayensis, Pseudocercospora dimorphandrae sp. nov., Pseudocercosporella dimorphandrae sp. nov., Ramichloridiopsis wilsoniae sp. and gen. nov., Stomiopeltis suttoniae, Trichomatomyces byrsonimae and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis. Three fungi were exclusively found on D. wilsonii and were regarded as potentially threatened of extinction: B. wilsoniae, J. wilsoniae and R. wilsoniae.

  8. Endangered species act : the U.S. Fish and Wildlife service has incomplete information about effects on listed species from section 7 consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The western United States, including vast stretches of federal land, is home to more than a third of the 1,317 species listed under the Endangered Species Act. Under section 7 of the act, federal agencies must ensure that any actions they authorize, ...

  9. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  10. The effect of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species on scientific collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David L; Solow, Andrew R

    2008-01-01

    The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) was conceived in the spirit of cooperation, with the aim of ensuring that the international trade in wild animals and plants, including all parts and derivatives, did not threaten their survival. However, concerns have been raised by scientists that CITES hinders the cross-border movement of scientific specimens. To our knowledge, no empirical analysis has been undertaken to demonstrate the existence of this effect. We test for a CITES effect on the collection record of orchids from Brazil and Costa Rica using the collection records of bromeliads, which are not covered by CITES, as a control. Highly significant effects are found in both countries. PMID:18252676

  11. Endangered and threatened plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and central-southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-07-01

    Three plant species included among the Nevada Threatened or Endangered Flora of the Federal Register list of July 1, 1975, were omitted from the recent reports dealing with these groups of plants in central-southern Nevada. Two of the species, Ephedra funerea and Mirabilis pudica, were not included because they are both widely distributed and locally common in southern Nevada and were understood (unofficially) to be no longer considered candidates for either an Endangered or Threatened status. The third species, Machaeranthera ammophila, is now included with M. arida, an uncommon species of central and eastern Mojave Desert of southern California (to southern Nevada, Arizona, and Sonora), and is therefore no longer a candidate for the status of Threatened Species in Nevada.

  12. Biodiversity and the Recovery of Threatened and Endangered Salmon Species in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report of 8 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, C. R. (Cleveland R.)

    1993-06-01

    The stated purpose of the Endangered Species Act is to provide a means whereby the ecosystem upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved. Conservation of the Columbia River ecosystem and the diversity of gene pools, life histories, species, and communities that comprise it, should become a major objective of species recovery and fish and wildlife management programs in the Columbia River Basin. Biodiversity is important to both species and ecosystem health, and is a prerequisite to long-term sustainability of biological resources. In this paper, I provide an overview of various approaches to defining, measuring, monitoring, and protecting biodiversity. A holistic approach is stressed that simultaneously considers diverse species and resource management needs. Emphasis is on threatened and endangered species of salmon and their associated habitat.

  13. Hearing sensitivity in context: Conservation implications for a highly vocal endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Owen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sensitivity is a fundamental determinant of a species’ vulnerability to anthropogenic noise, however little is known about the hearing capacities of most conservation dependent species. When audiometric data are integrated with other aspects of species’ acoustic ecology, life history, and characteristic habitat topography and soundscape, predictions can be made regarding probable vulnerability to the negative impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise. Here we used an adaptive psychoacoustic technique to measure hearing thresholds in the endangered giant panda; a species that uses acoustic communication to coordinate reproduction. Our results suggest that giant pandas have functional hearing into the ultrasonic range, with good sensitivity between 10.0 and 16.0 kHz, and best sensitivity measured at 12.5–14.0 kHz. We estimated the lower and upper limits of functional hearing as 0.10 and 70.0 kHz respectively. While these results suggest that panda hearing is similar to that of some other terrestrial carnivores, panda hearing thresholds above 14.0 kHz were significantly lower (i.e., more sensitive than those of the polar bear, the only other bear species for which data are available. We discuss the implications of this divergence, as well as the relationship between hearing sensitivity and the spectral parameters of panda vocalizations. We suggest that these data, placed in context, can be used towards the development of a sensory-based model of noise disturbance for the species.

  14. Phenology, in vitro cultivation, and acclimatization of the endangered bromeliad species Nidularium minutum Mez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Kazue Kurita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the phenology of a species indicates the most favorable period to harvest mature seeds, which may be used for producing seedlings through effective methods as in vitro cultivation. This technique has been regarded as a strategy for the propagation of endangered species, such as the bromeliad species Nidularium minutum Mez. This article aimed at identifying the time of fructification and seed production of in situ specimens of N. minutum and establishing a protocol of in vitro cultivation through seeds. The species phenology was followed up for 12 months in plants at the Alto da Serra Biological Station, in Paranapiacaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The results showed that the best time to harvest seeds was from June to August 2008. The germination process occurred at all temperatures tested, being more effective at 26°C, with no need of mineral nutrients. The best conditions for growing plants occurred with the same temperature, with Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing half the macronutrient concentration. By means of this protocol, it is possible to preserve in vitro plants and optimize their production to be used in restocking programs.

  15. Explicit Not Implicit Preferences Predict Conservation Intentions for Endangered Species and Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, Alejandra; Callahan, Megan M; Chan, Kai M A; Satterfield, Terre; Zhao, Jiaying

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity is determined in part by human preferences. Preferences relevant to conservation have been examined largely via explicit measures (e.g., a self-reported degree of liking), with implicit measures (e.g., preconscious, automatic evaluations) receiving relatively less attention. This is the case despite psychological evidence from other contexts that implicit preferences are more informative of behavior. Thus, the type of measure that predicts conservation intentions for biodiversity is unknown. We conducted three studies to examine conservation intentions in light of people's explicit and implicit preferences toward four endangered species (sea otter, American badger, caribou, yellow-breasted chat) and four biomes (forest, ocean, grassland, tundra). In Study 1 (n = 55), we found that people implicitly preferred caribou most, but explicitly preferred sea otter most, with a significant multiple regression where participants' explicit preferences dictated their stated intended donations for conservation of each species. In Study 2 (n = 57) we found that people implicitly and explicitly preferred forest and ocean over grassland and tundra. Explicit rather than implicit preferences predicted the intended donation for conservation of the ocean biome. Study 3 involved a broader online sample of participants (n = 463) and also found that explicit preferences dictated the intended donations for conservation of biomes and species. Our findings reveal discrepancies between implicit and explicit preferences toward species, but not toward biomes. Importantly, the results demonstrate that explicit rather than implicit preferences predict conservation intentions for biodiversity. The current findings have several implications for conservation and the communication of biodiversity initiatives.

  16. Personal Moral Norms and Attitudes Toward Endangered Species Policies on Private Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research across multiple disciplines has shown that personal moral norms can play an important role in shaping individuals′ attitudes and behaviour. Despite this, we know relatively little about patterns of support among landowners for either a personal moral norm favouring a strong, ′intrinsic′ right of private ownership, or a moral duty to prevent extinction. In addition, we know even less about the ability of such norms to predict attitudes toward species protection on private lands, especially for non-charismatic species with few qualities that typically generate positive attitudes for conservation. Results from a mail survey of central Indiana landowners suggest broad support for a personal moral norm favouring a strong, ′intrinsic′ right of ownership as well as a personal moral norm to prevent extinction, and that these norms are better predictors of attitudes toward endangered species policies than partisan identification, identification as an environmentalist, strong religious beliefs, or several other demographic factors. The results suggest that those seeking to influence landowner attitudes toward species protection policies should pay closer attention to the influence of these personal moral norms.

  17. The role of scientists in statutory interpretation of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhere, George F

    2017-04-01

    Like many federal statutes, the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) contains vague or ambiguous language. The meaning imparted to the ESA's unclear language can profoundly impact the fates of endangered and threatened species. Hence, conservation scientists should contribute to the interpretation of the ESA when vague or ambiguous language contains scientific words or refers to scientific concepts. Scientists need to know at least these 2 facts about statutory interpretation: statutory interpretation is subjective and the potential influence of normative values results in different expectations for the parties involved. With the possible exception of judges, all conventional participants in statutory interpretation are serving their own interests, advocating for their preferred policies, or biased. Hence, scientists can play a unique role by informing the interpretative process with objective, policy-neutral information. Conversely, scientists may act as advocates for their preferred interpretation of unclear statutory language. The different roles scientists might play in statutory interpretation raise the issues of advocacy and competency. Advocating for a preferred statutory interpretation is legitimate political behavior by scientists, but statutory interpretation can be strongly influenced by normative values. Therefore, scientists must be careful not to commit stealth policy advocacy. Most conservation scientists lack demonstrable competence in statutory interpretation and therefore should consult or collaborate with lawyers when interpreting statutes. Professional scientific societies are widely perceived by the public as unbiased sources of objective information. Therefore, professional scientific societies should remain policy neutral and present all interpretations of unclear statutory language; explain the semantics and science both supporting and contradicting each interpretation; and describe the potential consequences of implementing each interpretation

  18. 77 FR 16538 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the North Atlantic Right Whale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... review is based on the best scientific and commercial data available at the time of the review; therefore... Service, Office of Protected Resources, Endangered Species Division, 1325 East West Highway, Silver Spring... Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  19. 77 FR 61573 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Kemp's Ridley, Olive Ridley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... commercial data available at the time of the review; therefore, we are requesting submission of any such... Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Endangered Species Division, 1325 East West Highway... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR...

  20. Deriving a Benefit Transfer Function for Threatened and Endangered Species in Interaction with Their Level of Charisma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and species conservation are among the most urgent global issues. Both are under serious threat because of human intrusion and as a result, it is likely that present and future projects will affect threatened and endangered species. Thus, it is important to account for these impacts when evaluating and conducting cost and benefit analyses of projects. Due to their public good character and non-tradability, the total economic value of threatened and endangered species cannot be reflected by a market price and therefore, alternative approaches (stated preference method are needed to determine their monetary value. This paper reviews and compares the valuation literature on threatened and endangered animals and conducts a meta-analysis regression to identify explanatory variables for the variation in willingness to pay for threatened and endangered species. The main findings of the meta-analysis show that the interaction of the level of threat and charisma have a positive effect on willingness to pay. Furthermore, developed countries have a higher willingness to pay compared to developing countries. Similarly, visitors of conservation sites have higher willingness to pay than residents. The provided example of a benefit transfer of the estimated function shows the practicability of our results.

  1. Pollination of pima pineapple cactus (Coryphantha sheeri var. robustispina): does pollen flow limit abundance of this endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. McDonald; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Pima pineapple cactus (PPC) (Coryphantha sheeri var. robustispina), a federally listed endangered species, occurs throughout southeastern Arizona and has relatively low population densities. To determine whether pollination limits reproduction of PPC we used florescent dye to quantify pollen flow between individuals in a PPC...

  2. Phylogeography of the European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio): A critically endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Olivier; Desse-Berset, Nathalie; Hänni, Catherine; Hughes, Sandrine; Berrebi, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) was once a common species throughout Europe, but the sole remaining natural population presently inhabits the Gironde Estuary in France (Atlantic coast). The species was classified as 'Critically Endangered' in 1996, and the Gironde population is now on the verge of extinction. In this setting, and for the first time, we present the past phylogeographical features of this species throughout Europe along with an assessment of its former genetic diversity. This study was based on a molecular analysis (mtDNA CR sequencing) of 10 living specimens from the Gironde Estuary, 55 museum specimens that had been caught along 19th and 20th centuries, and 59 archaeological remains dating back to 260-5000years BP, from which mitochondrial DNA was extracted and amplified. Although discontinuous, the produced data provided a realistic image of the former structure of A. sturio in Europe. Reconstruction of the phylogenetic trees and haplotypes network led to the identification of several clades. The mitochondrial genetic diversity of this species was found to be much greater at the core (Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean and Adriatic regions) than along the margins (Atlantic-Northern Europe, Black Sea) of its range. A series of hypotheses on the dates and causes of changes in the species' major structures are put forward on the basis of these data. Finally, competition with A. oxyrinchus, a sibling species whose presence in Northern Europe was recently reconsidered, is presented as a major factor in the evolution of this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Keeping All the PIECES: Phylogenetically Informed Ex Situ Conservation of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Daniel J; Jacobi, Sarah K; Hipp, Andrew L; Kramer, Andrea T

    2016-01-01

    Ex situ conservation in germplasm and living collections is a major focus of global plant conservation strategies. Prioritizing species for ex situ collection is a necessary component of this effort for which sound strategies are needed. Phylogenetic considerations can play an important role in prioritization. Collections that are more phylogenetically diverse are likely to encompass more ecological and trait variation, and thus provide stronger conservation insurance and richer resources for future restoration efforts. However, phylogenetic criteria need to be weighed against other, potentially competing objectives. We used ex situ collection and threat rank data for North American angiosperms to investigate gaps in ex situ coverage and phylogenetic diversity of collections and to develop a flexible framework for prioritizing species across multiple objectives. We found that ex situ coverage of 18,766 North American angiosperm taxa was low with respect to the most vulnerable taxa: just 43% of vulnerable to critically imperiled taxa were in ex situ collections, far short of a year-2020 goal of 75%. In addition, species held in ex situ collections were phylogenetically clustered (P species been drawn at random. These patterns support incorporating phylogenetic considerations into ex situ prioritization in a manner balanced with other criteria, such as vulnerability. To meet this need, we present the 'PIECES' index (Phylogenetically Informed Ex situ Conservation of Endangered Species). PIECES integrates phylogenetic considerations into a flexible framework for prioritizing species across competing objectives using multi-criteria decision analysis. Applying PIECES to prioritizing ex situ conservation of North American angiosperms, we show strong return on investment across multiple objectives, some of which are negatively correlated with each other. A spreadsheet-based decision support tool for North American angiosperms is provided; this tool can be customized to

  4. Genetic variability of an endangered Bromeliaceae species (Pitcairnia albiflos) from the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, R; Machado, M A; Forzza, R C; Melo, T D; Wohlres-Viana, S; Viccini, L F

    2011-10-13

    Pitcairnia albiflos is a Bromeliaceae species endemic to Brazil that has been included as data-deficient in the extinction risk list of Brazilian flora. We analyzed genetic variability in P. albiflos populations using RAPD markers to investigate population structure and reproductive mechanisms and also to evaluate the actual extinction risk level of this species. Leaves of 56 individuals of P. albiflos from three populations were collected: Urca Hill (UH, 20 individuals), Chacrinha State Park (CSP, 24 individuals) and Tijuca National Park (TNP, 12 individuals). The RAPD technique was effective in characterizing the genetic diversity in the P. albiflos populations since it was possible to differentiate the populations and to identify exclusive bands for at least two of them. Even if there is low genetic diversity among them (CSP-UH = 0.463; CSP-TNP = 0.440; UH-TNP = 0.524), the populations seem to be isolated according to the low genetic diversity observed within them (H(pop) CSP = 0.060; H(pop) UH = 0.042; H(pop) TNP = 0.130). This fact might be the result of clonal and self-reproduction predominance and also from environmental degradation around the collection areas. Consequently, it would be important to protect all populations both in situ and ex situ to prevent the decrease of genetic variability. The low genetic variability among individuals of the same population confirms the inclusion of this species as critically endangered in the risk list for Brazilian flora.

  5. Validity and sensitivity of a model for assessment of impacts of river floodplain reconstruction on protected and endangered species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooij, R.J.W. de; Lotterman, K.M.; Sande, P.H.J. van de; Pelsma, T.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Lenders, H.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) must account for legally protected and endangered species. Uncertainties relating to the validity and sensitivity of EIA arise from predictions and valuation of effects on these species. This paper presents a validity and sensitivity analysis of a model (BIO-SAFE) for assessment of impacts of land use changes and physical reconstruction measures on legally protected and endangered river species. The assessment is based on links between species (higher plants, birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, butterflies and dragon- and damselflies) and ecotopes (landscape ecological units, e.g., river dune, soft wood alluvial forests), and on value assignment to protected and endangered species using different valuation criteria (i.e., EU Habitats and Birds directive, Conventions of Bern and Bonn and Red Lists). The validity of BIO-SAFE has been tested by comparing predicted effects of landscape changes on the diversity of protected and endangered species with observed changes in biodiversity in five reconstructed floodplains. The sensitivity of BIO-SAFE to value assignment has been analysed using data of a Strategic Environmental Assessment concerning the Spatial Planning Key Decision for reconstruction of the Dutch floodplains of the river Rhine, aimed at flood defence and ecological rehabilitation. The weights given to the valuation criteria for protected and endangered species were varied and the effects on ranking of alternatives were quantified. A statistically significant correlation (p < 0.01) between predicted and observed values for protected and endangered species was found. The sensitivity of the model to value assignment proved to be low. Comparison of five realistic valuation options showed that different rankings of scenarios predominantly occur when valuation criteria are left out of the assessment. Based on these results we conclude that linking species to ecotopes can be used for adequate impact assessments

  6. Improving the assessment and reporting on rare and endangered species through species distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sousa-Silva

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to highlight the potential of SDMs for the assessment of threatened species within the periodical report on their conservation status. We used a spatially explicit modeling approach, which predicts species distributions by spatially combining two SDMs: one fitted with climate data alone and the other fitted solely with landscape variables. A comparison between the modeled distribution and the range obtained by classical methods (minimum convex polygon and Range Tool is also presented. Our results show that while data-based approaches only consider the species known distribution, model-based methods allow a more complete evaluation of species distributions and their dynamics, as well as of the underlying pressures. This will ultimately improve the accuracy and usefulness of assessments in the context of EU reporting obligations.

  7. Conservation genetics of a critically endangered limpet genus and rediscovery of an extinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarmaid Ó Foighil

    Full Text Available A third of all known freshwater mollusk extinctions worldwide have occurred within a single medium-sized American drainage. The Mobile River Basin (MRB of Alabama, a global hotspot of temperate freshwater biodiversity, was intensively industrialized during the 20(th century, driving 47 of its 139 endemic mollusk species to extinction. These include the ancylinid limpet Rhodacmea filosa, currently classified as extinct (IUCN Red List, a member of a critically endangered southeastern North American genus reduced to a single known extant population (of R. elatior in the MRB.We document here the tripling of known extant populations of this North American limpet genus with the rediscovery of enduring Rhodacmea filosa in a MRB tributary and of R. elatior in its type locality: the Green River, Kentucky, an Ohio River Basin (ORB tributary. Rhodacmea species are diagnosed using untested conchological traits and we reassessed their systematic and conservation status across both basins using morphometric and genetic characters. Our data corroborated the taxonomic validity of Rhodacmea filosa and we inferred a within-MRB cladogenic origin from a common ancestor bearing the R. elatior shell phenotype. The geographically-isolated MRB and ORB R. elatior populations formed a cryptic species complex: although overlapping morphometrically, they exhibited a pronounced phylogenetic disjunction that greatly exceeded that of within-MRB R. elatior and R. filosa sister species.Rhodacmea filosa, the type species of the genus, is not extinct. It persists in a Coosa River tributary and morphometric and phylogenetic analyses confirm its taxonomic validity. All three surviving populations of the genus Rhodacmea merit specific status. They collectively contain all known survivors of a phylogenetically highly distinctive North American endemic genus and therefore represent a concentrated fraction of continental freshwater gastropod biodiversity. We recommend the establishment

  8. INSECTS INCLUDED IN THE RED BOOK OF MOLDOVA: LIMITATION FACTORS AND PROTECTION MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea M. Timuş

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of insect species in Moldova with a rarity status: vulnerable, critically endangered and endangered, officially included in the "Red Book of the Republic of Moldova", in two editions: 37 species in the 2nd edition (2001 and 80 species in the 3rd edition (2015. The 80 insects of the 3rd edition of the "Red Book of the Republic of Moldova" belong to 8 orders (Odonatoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera. These species are classified according to the rarity status: vulnerable (VU – 33 species, critically endangered (CR – 39 species and endangered (EN – 8 species. The third edition also contains 35 species not included in the previous editions, which for the first time obtained a rarity status: VU – 16 species, CR – 17 and EN – 2 (2 species of the order Odonatoptera, 1 of Mantodea, 1 of Orthoptera, 10 of Coleoptera, 18 of Lepidoptera, and 3 of Hymenoptera.

  9. 77 FR 57647 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 23 Species on Oahu and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ...: coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane wet, dry cliff, and wet cliff (Table 1). Table 1--The 23 Species and the Ecosystems Upon Which They Depend Ecosystem Species Coastal Plants: Bidens...) due to erosion (Gavenda et al. 1998, p. 92). Because of its age and relative isolation, species...

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from an endangered tree species, Toona ciliata var. pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Sun, Z-X; Chen, Y-T; Jiang, J-M

    2012-12-17

    Toona ciliata var. pubescens is considered an endangered tree species native to China. In order to help develop a conservation program for this species, we evaluated its genetic diversity and population genetics. We isolated microsatellite DNA loci using streptavidin beads. A genomic library, enriched with microsatellites, was constructed and screened by sequencing. We detected 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci from the tree tissue samples. The population of T. ciliata var. pubescens used in this study is located within the Guanshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi Province, China. Sixty-five individuals were collected for the study. The Guanshan population was split into two subpopulations due to terrain. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 6, with expected heterozygosity from 0.2386 to 0.6772. Four of the 8 loci, except loci Tc02, Tc04, Tc05, and Tc07 showed no significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The mean observed heterozygosity was 0.59. The average coefficient of genetic differentiation between the two subpopulations was quite low (F(ST) = 0.0235). The level of gene flow (N(m)) was 10.39, reflecting a high degree of gene flow between the two subpopulations.

  11. Microsatellites in the endangered species Dyckia distachya (Bromeliaceae) and cross-amplification in other bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Camila M; Janke, Aline; Paggi, Gecele M; Goetze, Márcia; Reis, Mauricio S; Bered, Fernanda

    2012-11-27

    Microsatellite markers were isolated in Dyckia distachya, an endangered bromeliad from southern Brazil, which will be useful to assess the population genetic structure and reproductive success in introduced and natural populations of this species. Twenty microsatellite loci were developed from an enriched genomic library, and nine of these were amplified. The loci were characterized in 43 individuals from introduced and wild D. distachya populations. All nine loci were polymorphic, with four to ten alleles per locus. In an introduced population the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.136-0.667 and 0.543-0.877, respectively, while in a wild population it ranged from 0.000 to 0.895 and from 0.050 to 0.811, respectively. The development of these microsatellite markers will contribute to investigations of the reproductive potential and viability of introduced populations of D. distachya as well as the single known wild population. Cross-amplification in other Bromeliaceae species was successful, with high rates in four loci, demonstrating the applicability of these microsatellite markers in other taxa.

  12. Microsatellites in the Endangered Species Dyckia distachya (Bromeliaceae and Cross-Amplification in Other Bromeliads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila M. Zanella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers were isolated in Dyckia distachya, an endangered bromeliad from southern Brazil, which will be useful to assess the population genetic structure and reproductive success in introduced and natural populations of this species. Twenty microsatellite loci were developed from an enriched genomic library, and nine of these were amplified. The loci were characterized in 43 individuals from introduced and wild D. distachya populations. All nine loci were polymorphic, with four to ten alleles per locus. In an introduced population the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.136–0.667 and 0.543–0.877, respectively, while in a wild population it ranged from 0.000 to 0.895 and from 0.050 to 0.811, respectively. The development of these microsatellite markers will contribute to investigations of the reproductive potential and viability of introduced populations of D. distachya as well as the single known wild population. Cross-amplification in other Bromeliaceae species was successful, with high rates in four loci, demonstrating the applicability of these microsatellite markers in other taxa.

  13. Response of an endangered tree species from Caatinga to mycorrhization and phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schinopsis brasiliensis is an endangered tree species found in the Caatinga biome. It presents a characteristic slow development and difficult propagation, although it has been traditionally exploited in the region. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and phosphorus (P fertilization may be beneficial to S. brasiliensis development at the seedling stage, which at the same time may help species conservation and the recovery of degraded areas in the Caatinga biome. We assessed the response of S. brasiliensis to AMF inoculation (Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Acaulospora longula and P fertilization (0, 12, 24, and 48 mg dm−3 addition of P2O5. S. brasiliensis responded positively to both AMF inoculation and P fertilization. At low P concentrations, the inoculated plants showed higher leaf area and enhanced vegetative development, nutrient content and biomass production compared with non-inoculated plants. Conversely, increasing levels of P fertilization decreased the level of mycorrhizal colonization, plant responsiveness to inoculation, and spore production in C. etunicatum. Thus, P concentrations were able to influence the response of S. brasiliensis to mycorrhization and responsiveness to increased mycorrhization with the decrease in P availability. These results showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis plays an essential role in the development of S. brasiliensis.

  14. Endangered species and cultural resources program Naval petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In FY96, Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc. (EASI) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on federal properties. Population monitoring activities were conducted for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. Kit fox abundance and distribution was assessed by live-trapping over a 329-km{sup 2} area. Kit fox reproduction and mortality were assessed by radiocollaring and monitoring 22 adults and two pups. Reproductive success and litter size were determined through live-trapping and den observations. Rates and sources of kit fox mortality were assessed by recovering dead radiocollared kit foxes and conducting necropsies to determine cause of death. Abundance of coyotes and bobcats, which compete with kit foxes, was determined by conducting scent station surveys. Kit fox diet was assessed through analysis of fecal samples collected from live-trapped foxes. Abundance of potential prey for kit foxes was determined by conducting transect surveys for lagornorphs and live-trapping small mammals.

  15. Comparative Proteomics Analyses of Pollination Response in Endangered Orchid Species Dendrobium Chrysanthum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollination is a crucial stage in plant reproductive process. The self-compatibility (SC and self-incompatibility (SI mechanisms determined the plant genetic diversity and species survival. D. chrysanthum is a highly valued ornamental and traditional herbal orchid in Asia but has been declared endangered. The sexual reproduction in D. chrysanthum relies on the compatibility of pollination. To provide a better understanding of the mechanism of pollination, the differentially expressed proteins (DEP between the self-pollination (SP and cross-pollination (CP pistil of D. chrysanthum were investigated using proteomic approaches—two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique. A total of 54 DEP spots were identified in the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE maps between the SP and CP. Gene ontology analysis revealed an array of proteins belonging to following different functional categories: metabolic process (8.94%, response to stimulus (5.69%, biosynthetic process (4.07%, protein folding (3.25% and transport (3.25%. Identification of these DEPs at the early response stage of pollination will hopefully provide new insights in the mechanism of pollination response and help for the conservation of the orchid species.

  16. Comparative Proteomics Analyses of Pollination Response in Endangered Orchid Species Dendrobium Chrysanthum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yu, Hongyang; Li, Tinghai; Li, Lexing; Zhang, Guoqiang; Liu, Zhongjian; Huang, Tengbo; Zhang, Yongxia

    2017-11-23

    Pollination is a crucial stage in plant reproductive process. The self-compatibility (SC) and self-incompatibility (SI) mechanisms determined the plant genetic diversity and species survival. D. chrysanthum is a highly valued ornamental and traditional herbal orchid in Asia but has been declared endangered. The sexual reproduction in D. chrysanthum relies on the compatibility of pollination. To provide a better understanding of the mechanism of pollination, the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) between the self-pollination (SP) and cross-pollination (CP) pistil of D. chrysanthum were investigated using proteomic approaches-two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique. A total of 54 DEP spots were identified in the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) maps between the SP and CP. Gene ontology analysis revealed an array of proteins belonging to following different functional categories: metabolic process (8.94%), response to stimulus (5.69%), biosynthetic process (4.07%), protein folding (3.25%) and transport (3.25%). Identification of these DEPs at the early response stage of pollination will hopefully provide new insights in the mechanism of pollination response and help for the conservation of the orchid species.

  17. Geographic variation and genetic structure in the Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi, a critically endangered synanthropic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Price

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bird species may exhibit unexpected population structuring over small distances, with gene flow restricted by geographic features such as water or mountains. The Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi is a critically endangered, synanthropic island endemic with a declining population of fewer than 300 individuals. It now remains only on Andros Island (The Bahamas, which is riddled with waterways that past studies assumed did not hinder gene flow. We examined 1,858 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA sequenced from four gene regions in 14 birds (roughly 5% of the remaining population found on the largest land masses of Andros Island (North Andros and Mangrove Cay/South Andros. We sought to discern genetic structuring between the remaining subpopulations and its relationship to current conservation concerns. Four unique haplotypes were identified, with only one shared between the two subpopulations. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity were higher for the North Andros subpopulation than for the Mangrove Cay/South Andros subpopulation. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA yielded a Wright’s fixation index (Fst of 0.60 (PFst = 0.016, with 40.2% of the molecular variation explained by within-population differences and 59.8% by among-population differences. Based on the mitochondrial regions examined in this study, we suggest the extant subpopulations of Bahama Oriole exhibit significant population structuring over short distances, consistent with some other non-migratory tropical songbird species.

  18. Biological Assessment of the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally Listed Threatened and Endangered Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2006-09-19

    This biological assessment considers the effects of continuing to operate Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally listed threatened or endangered species, based on current and future operations identified in the 2006 Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS; DOE In Prep.). We reviewed 40 projects analyzed in the SWEIS as well as two aspects on ongoing operations to determine if these actions had the potential to affect Federally listed species. Eighteen projects that had not already received U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) consultation and concurrence, as well as the two aspects of ongoing operations, ecological risk from legacy contaminants and the Outfall Reduction Project, were determined to have the potential to affect threatened or endangered species. Cumulative impacts were also analyzed.

  19. Endangered species program Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In FY94, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to conserve endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 400 preactivity surveys covering approximately 315 acres were conducted in FY94. Mitigation measures implemented as a result of survey findings resulted in avoidance of incidental takes of listed species during construction activities. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. Third-party projects in FY94 included three pipeline projects and two well abandonment/clean-up projects. Cultural resource support provided to NPRC consisted primarily of conducting preliminary surveys for cultural resources, and preparing a Cultural Resource Management Plan and Programmatic Agreement for NPR-1. These two documents will be finalized in FY95. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY94, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was initiated to assess reclamation efficacy. Results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In addition to this effort, 347 reclaimed sites were assessed to evaluate reclamation success.

  20. MODELING SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF A RARE AND ENDANGERED PLANT SPECIES (Brainea insignis IN CENTRAL TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-C. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in the rate of species extinction, we should choose right methods that are sustainable on the basis of appropriate science and human needs to conserve ecosystems and rare species. Species distribution modeling (SDM uses 3S technology and statistics and becomes increasingly important in ecology. Brainea insignis (cycad-fern, CF has been categorized a rare, endangered plant species, and thus was chosen as a target for the study. Five sampling schemes were created with different combinations of CF samples collected from three sites in Huisun forest station and one site, 10 km farther north from Huisun. Four models, MAXENT, GARP, generalized linear models (GLM, and discriminant analysis (DA, were developed based on topographic variables, and were evaluated by five sampling schemes. The accuracy of MAXENT was the highest, followed by GLM and GARP, and DA was the lowest. More importantly, they can identify the potential habitat less than 10% of the study area in the first round of SDM, thereby prioritizing either the field-survey area where microclimatic, edaphic or biotic data can be collected for refining predictions of potential habitat in the later rounds of SDM or search areas for new population discovery. However, it was shown unlikely to extend spatial patterns of CFs from one area to another with a big separation or to a larger area by predictive models merely based on topographic variables. Follow-up studies will attempt to incorporate proxy indicators that can be extracted from hyperspectral images or LIDAR DEM and substitute for direct parameters to make predictive models applicable on a broader scale.

  1. A framework for developing objective and measurable recovery criteria for threatened and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes Boor, Gina K

    2014-02-01

    For species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service are tasked with writing recovery plans that include "objective, measurable criteria" that define when a species is no longer at risk of extinction, but neither the act itself nor agency guidelines provide an explicit definition of objective, measurable criteria. Past reviews of recovery plans, including one published in 2012, show that many criteria lack quantitative metrics with clear biological rationale and are not meeting the measureable and objective mandate. I reviewed how objective, measureable criteria have been defined implicitly and explicitly in peer-reviewed literature, the ESA, other U.S. statutes, and legal decisions. Based on a synthesis of these sources, I propose the following 6 standards be used as minimum requirements for objective, measurable criteria: contain a quantitative threshold with calculable units, stipulate a timeframe over which they must be met, explicitly define the spatial extent or population to which they apply, specify a sampling procedure that includes sample size, specify a statistical significance level, and include justification by providing scientific evidence that the criteria define a species whose extinction risk has been reduced to the desired level. To meet these 6 standards, I suggest that recovery plans be explicitly guided by and organized around a population viability modeling framework even if data or agency resources are too limited to complete a viability model. When data and resources are available, recovery criteria can be developed from the population viability model results, but when data and resources are insufficient for model implementation, extinction risk thresholds can be used as criteria. A recovery-planning approach centered on viability modeling will also yield appropriately focused data-acquisition and monitoring plans and will facilitate a seamless transition

  2. Profiles for High-Priority Species. Focus of the Army Threatened and Endangered Species Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Guatemala, it is found primarily above 1,300 m in pine-oak forest (Rappole et al. 1999) where the dominant pine species was ocote ( Pinus oocarpa) the...may ad- versely alter germination sites. Food requirements of the lesser long-nosed bat are very specific. Adequate numbers of flowers or fruits...the pollen will begin to germinate in the sugar of the bat’s stomach (Howell 1974). Under these conditions, the pollen can be converted to amino

  3. Demography of a reintroduced population: moving toward management models for an endangered species, the whooping crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servanty, Sabrina; Converse, Sarah J.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2014-01-01

    The reintroduction of threatened and endangered species is now a common method for reestablishing populations. Typically, a fundamental objective of reintroduction is to establish a self-sustaining population. Estimation of demographic parameters in reintroduced populations is critical, as these estimates serve multiple purposes. First, they support evaluation of progress toward the fundamental objective via construction of population viability analyses (PVAs) to predict metrics such as probability of persistence. Second, PVAs can be expanded to support evaluation of management actions, via management modeling. Third, the estimates themselves can support evaluation of the demographic performance of the reintroduced population, e.g., via comparison with wild populations. For each of these purposes, thorough treatment of uncertainties in the estimates is critical. Recently developed statistical methods - namely, hierarchical Bayesian implementations of state-space models - allow for effective integration of different types of uncertainty in estimation. We undertook a demographic estimation effort for a reintroduced population of endangered whooping cranes with the purpose of ultimately developing a Bayesian PVA for determining progress toward establishing a self-sustaining population, and for evaluating potential management actions via a Bayesian PVA-based management model. We evaluated individual and temporal variation in demographic parameters based upon a multi-state mark-recapture model. We found that survival was relatively high across time and varied little by sex. There was some indication that survival varied by release method. Survival was similar to that observed in the wild population. Although overall reproduction in this reintroduced population is poor, birds formed social pairs when relatively young, and once a bird was in a social pair, it had a nearly 50% chance of nesting the following breeding season. Also, once a bird had nested, it had a high

  4. Threatened and Endangered Species Survey for Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Larson, Vickie L.; Hall, Patrice; Hensley, Melissa A.

    1997-01-01

    A review of previous environmental work conducted at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) indicated that several threatened, endangered, or species of special concern occurred or had the potential to occur there. This study was implemented to collect more information on protected species at PAFB. A map of landcover types was prepared for PAFB using aerial photography, groundtruthing, and a geographic information system (GIS). Herbaceous vegetation was the most common vegetation type. The second most abundant vegetation type was disturbed shrubs/exotics. The beach and associated dune vegetation comprised 3.2% of the land area, but was the most extensive natural community within PAFB. A few isolated mangrove communities exist along the Banana River. Seventy-seven species of vascular plants occurred on the dunes, including four species listed by state agencies: spider lily (Hymenocallis latifolia), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia stricta), beach star (Remirea maritima), and inkberry (Scaevola plumien). Surveys of other habitats revealed eighty-four species of vascular plants including two state-listed species: spider lily and prickly pear cactus. Many of these areas are dominated by invasive, exotic species, particularly Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), and native species of open or disturbed sites such as camphorweed (Heterotheca subaxillaris) and beardgrass (Andropogon spp.). Due to the isolation of PAFB from other natural areas, most exotic plant populations on the base are not an immediate threat to intact native plant communities. Dune habitat was surveyed for the southeastem beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris) by quarterly trapping along eight 100 m transects. No beach mice were found. The limited extent of dune habitat, its fragmented condition, and the isolation of PAFB from extant populations of the beach mouse probably accounts for its absence. Surveys of birds on PAFB found an avifauna

  5. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC.

  6. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover's wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC

  7. The importance and potential of artificial insemination in CANDES (companion animals, non-domestic, endangered species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, B S

    2009-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is the least invasive assisted reproductive technology, and is therefore of great interest to breeders of companion animals, non-domestic, and endangered species (CANDES). This most fundamental artificial breeding technique circumvents physical or behavioral impediments to natural mating and provides the means for genetic exchange between populations without transfer of live animals. In addition, because oocytes grow, mature and are fertilized in vivo and embryos are not subjected to in vitro culture conditions, AI eliminates the epigenetic effects on the female gamete that are inherent in more invasive assisted reproductive technologies. Although the management of CANDES differs significantly from current livestock husbandry practices, the cattle industry is a powerful example of the potential for AI to enhance the genetic health and sustainability of animal populations. Ultimately, successful AI requires sperm of adequate quality and quantity, oocytes that have attained nuclear maturation and cytoplasmic competence, operational gamete transport systems, accurate timing, and proper placement of sperm in the female reproductive tract. Increased understanding of semen collection, evaluation and preservation techniques, estrus synchronization and superovulation, estrus and ovulation detection, and insemination instrumentation is needed for each CANDES before AI success rates will approach those of the livestock industry. Concentrated, collaborative research in these areas must be encouraged among private breeders, universities and zoological institutions to realize the full potential of AI in the management of CANDES.

  8. Using MiddRAD-seq data to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers for an endangered yew species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantao Qin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are highly polymorphic markers which have been used in a wide range of genetic studies. In recent years, various sources of next-generation sequencing data have been used to develop new microsatellite loci, but compared with the more common shotgun genomic sequencing or transcriptome data, the potential utility of RAD-seq data for microsatellite ascertainment is comparatively under-used. In this study, we employed MiddRAD-seq data to develop polymorphic microsatellite loci for the endangered yew species Taxus florinii. Of 8,823,053 clean reads generated for ten individuals of a population, 94,851 (∼1% contained microsatellite motifs. These corresponded to 2993 unique loci, of which 526 (∼18% exhibited polymorphism. Of which, 237 were suitable for designing microsatellite primer pairs, and 128 loci were randomly selected for PCR validation and microsatellite screening. Out of the 128 primer pairs, 16 loci gave clear, reproducible patterns, and were then screened and characterized in 24 individuals from two populations. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from two to ten (mean = 4.875, and within-population expected heterozygosity from zero to 0.789 (mean = 0.530, indicating that these microsatellite loci will be useful for population genetics and speciation studies of T. florinii. This study represents one of few examples to mine polymorphic microsatellite loci from ddRAD data.

  9. Sylvatic plague vaccine: A new tool for conservation of threatened and endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Bunck, Christine M.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Plague, a disease caused by Yersinia pestis introduced into North America about 100 years ago, is devastating to prairie dogs and the highly endangered black-footed ferret. Current attempts to control plague in these species have historically relied on insecticidal dusting of prairie dog burrows to kill the fleas that spread the disease. Although successful in curtailing outbreaks in most instances, this method of plague control has significant limitations. Alternative approaches to plague management are being tested, including vaccination. Currently, all black-footed ferret kits released for reintroduction are vaccinated against plague with an injectable protein vaccine, and even wild-born kits are captured and vaccinated at some locations. In addition, a novel, virally vectored, oral vaccine to prevent plague in wild prairie dogs has been developed and will soon be tested as an alternative, preemptive management tool. If demonstrated to be successful, oral vaccination of selected prairie dog populations could decrease the occurrence of plague epizootics in key locations, thereby reducing the source of bacteria while avoiding the indiscriminate environmental effects of dusting. Just as rabies in wild carnivores has largely been controlled through an active surveillance and oral vaccination program, we believe an integrated plague management strategy would be similarly enhanced with the addition of a cost-effective, bait-delivered, sylvatic plague vaccine for prairie dogs. Control of plague in prairie dogs, and potentially other rodents, would significantly advance prairie dog conservation and black-footed ferret recovery.

  10. Sylvatic plague vaccine: a new tool for conservation of threatened and endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C; Osorio, Jorge E; Bunck, Christine M; Rocke, Tonie E

    2012-09-01

    Plague, a disease caused by Yersinia pestis introduced into North America about 100 years ago, is devastating to prairie dogs and the highly endangered black-footed ferret. Current attempts to control plague in these species have historically relied on insecticidal dusting of prairie dog burrows to kill the fleas that spread the disease. Although successful in curtailing outbreaks in most instances, this method of plague control has significant limitations. Alternative approaches to plague management are being tested, including vaccination. Currently, all black-footed ferret kits released for reintroduction are vaccinated against plague with an injectable protein vaccine, and even wild-born kits are captured and vaccinated at some locations. In addition, a novel, virally vectored, oral vaccine to prevent plague in wild prairie dogs has been developed and will soon be tested as an alternative, preemptive management tool. If demonstrated to be successful, oral vaccination of selected prairie dog populations could decrease the occurrence of plague epizootics in key locations, thereby reducing the source of bacteria while avoiding the indiscriminate environmental effects of dusting. Just as rabies in wild carnivores has largely been controlled through an active surveillance and oral vaccination program, we believe an integrated plague management strategy would be similarly enhanced with the addition of a cost-effective, bait-delivered, sylvatic plague vaccine for prairie dogs. Control of plague in prairie dogs, and potentially other rodents, would significantly advance prairie dog conservation and black-footed ferret recovery.

  11. Microsatellite markers for the endangered Roanoke logperch, Percina rex (Percidae) and their potential utility for other darter species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, D.J.; Roberts, J.H.; Angermeier, P.L.; Hallerman, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Roanoke logperch (Percina rex Jordan and Evermann), an endangered fish, occurs in only six watersheds in the Roanoke and Chowan river drainages of Virginia, USA. The species' population genetic structure is poorly known. We developed 16 microsatellite markers that were reliably scorable and polymorphic P. rex. Markers were also screened in seven other darter species of the genus Percina. Most markers exhibited successful amplification and polymorphism in several species. These markers may therefore prove useful for population genetic studies in other darters, a diverse but highly imperiled group. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  12. 77 FR 21936 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... areas, and adults perch on streamside vegetation and patrol along stream corridors. For species like... with fewer than 500 employees, wholesale trade entities with fewer than 100 employees, retail and...

  13. 78 FR 25243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... measures for the species and their habitat. (4) Comments on our proposal to revise taxonomic classification... Marine Zoology, through the examination of two specimens collected by the Hawaii Department of Natural...

  14. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Robles, José Manuel; Talavera Lozano, Salvador; García Castaño, Juan Luis; Terrab Benjelloun, Anass; Navarro Sampedro, Laura; Balao Robles, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other ...

  15. Growth dynamics of Dracaena cinnabari under controlled conditions as the most effective way to protect endangered species

    OpenAIRE

    Hubálková, Irena; Maděra, Petr; Volařík, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Dracaena cinnabari Balf. fil. is an endangered endemic species growing on the Yemeni island of Soqotra. Dracaena woodlands are considered as one of the oldest forest communities on Earth. Uncontrolled grazing unfortunately caused a lack of naturally occurring regeneration. Our two-year research was focused on the growth dynamics of Dracaena seedlings from two separate populations. One hundred of germinated seeds from two different altitudes from the island were sown and planted under the same...

  16. Darwin's Book: "On the Origin of Species"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's "Origin of Species". It focuses on the contents of the "Origin" as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  17. Inventory of endangered species and wildlife resources at the US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1988 (NODC Accession 0000631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An inventory of endangered species and the wildlife resources at the US Army Kwajelein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Island were conducted from 30 October 1998 to...

  18. CHEMICAL RISKS TO THREATENED AND ENDANGERED FISH SPECIES AT CONCENTRATIONS BELOW WATER QUALITY CRITERIA: IS IT FEASIBLE TO ENSURE PROTECTION OF INDIVIDUALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USGS Laboratory in Columbia, Missouri has evaluated the acute sensitivities of 17 threatened and endangered fish species (including three salmonids), to five different chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin). The results of these studie...

  19. Endangered Species and Wildlife Resources Inventory Kwajalein Atoll, U.S. Army , Republic of the Marshall Islands 1996 (NODC Accession 0000251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report summarizes the results of the first Environmental Standards and Procedures (UES) inventory of endangered species and wildlife resources at United States...

  20. To be or not to be - common and endangered arable weed species in the face of Global Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rühl, Anna Theresa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land use management with the application of herbicides and fertilisers, enhanced seed cleaning, simplified crop rotations and abandonment of marginal arable sites are the main causes for the continuous decline of arable weeds. However, besides these changes in land use also global climate change may challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Most scientists agree that the frequency of extreme meteorological conditions will increase in the future. As a consequence, plants of Central Europe will be subject to higher temperatures and reduced water supply due to longer intervals without precipitation during the growing season. We exposed seeds of five common and five endangered arable weed species to different temperatures and water potentials to study i how this plant group responds to higher temperatures and lower moisture during germination in general and ii whether there is a significant difference between common and endangered species in this respect.

  1. Differences in carbon source utilisation by orchid mycorrhizal fungi from common and endangered species of Caladenia (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, S; Morrison, P D; Coates, F; Lawrie, A C

    2017-02-01

    Terrestrial orchids depend on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) as symbionts for their survival, growth and nutrition. The ability of OMF from endangered orchid species to compete for available resources with OMF from common species may affect the distribution, abundance and therefore conservation status of their orchid hosts. Eight symbiotically effective OMF from endangered and more common Caladenia species were tested for their ability to utilise complex insoluble and simple soluble carbon sources produced during litter degradation by growth with different carbon sources in liquid medium to measure the degree of OMF variation with host conservation status or taxonomy. On simple carbon sources, fungal growth was assessed by biomass. On insoluble substrates, ergosterol content was assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The OMF grew on all natural materials and complex carbon sources, but produced the greatest biomass on xylan and starch and the least on bark and chitin. On simple carbon sources, the greatest OMF biomass was measured on most hexoses and disaccharides and the least on galactose and arabinose. Only some OMF used sucrose, the most common sugar in green plants, with possible implications for symbiosis. OMF from common orchids produced more ergosterol and biomass than those from endangered orchids in the Dilatata and Reticulata groups but not in the Patersonii and Finger orchids. This suggests that differences in carbon source utilisation may contribute to differences in the distribution of some orchids, if these differences are retained on site.

  2. Monitoring rarity: the critically endangered Saharan cheetah as a flagship species for a threatened ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbachir, Farid; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Wacher, Tim; Belbachir-Bazi, Amel; Durant, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    Deserts are particularly vulnerable to human impacts and have already suffered a substantial loss of biodiversity. In harsh and variable desert environments, large herbivores typically occur at low densities, and their large carnivore predators occur at even lower densities. The continued survival of large carnivores is key to healthy functioning desert ecosystems, and the ability to gather reliable information on these rare low density species, including presence, abundance and density, is critical to their monitoring and management. Here we test camera trap methodologies as a monitoring tool for an extremely rare wide-ranging large felid, the critically endangered Saharan cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki). Two camera trapping surveys were carried out over 2-3 months across a 2,551 km2 grid in the Ti-n-hağğen region in the Ahaggar Cultural Park, south central Algeria. A total of 32 records of Saharan cheetah were obtained. We show the behaviour and ecology of the Saharan cheetah is severely constrained by the harsh desert environment, leading them to be more nocturnal, be more wide-ranging, and occur at lower densities relative to cheetah in savannah environments. Density estimates ranged from 0.21-0.55/1,000 km2, some of the lowest large carnivore densities ever recorded in Africa, and average home range size over 2-3 months was estimated at 1,583 km2. We use our results to predict that, in order to detect presence of cheetah with p>0.95 a survey effort of at least 1,000 camera trap days is required. Our study identifies the Ahaggar Cultural Park as a key area for the conservation of the Saharan cheetah. The Saharan cheetah meets the requirements for a charismatic flagship species that can be used to "market" the Saharan landscape at a sufficiently large scale to help reverse the historical neglect of threatened Saharan ecosystems.

  3. Monitoring rarity: the critically endangered Saharan cheetah as a flagship species for a threatened ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Belbachir

    Full Text Available Deserts are particularly vulnerable to human impacts and have already suffered a substantial loss of biodiversity. In harsh and variable desert environments, large herbivores typically occur at low densities, and their large carnivore predators occur at even lower densities. The continued survival of large carnivores is key to healthy functioning desert ecosystems, and the ability to gather reliable information on these rare low density species, including presence, abundance and density, is critical to their monitoring and management. Here we test camera trap methodologies as a monitoring tool for an extremely rare wide-ranging large felid, the critically endangered Saharan cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki. Two camera trapping surveys were carried out over 2-3 months across a 2,551 km2 grid in the Ti-n-hağğen region in the Ahaggar Cultural Park, south central Algeria. A total of 32 records of Saharan cheetah were obtained. We show the behaviour and ecology of the Saharan cheetah is severely constrained by the harsh desert environment, leading them to be more nocturnal, be more wide-ranging, and occur at lower densities relative to cheetah in savannah environments. Density estimates ranged from 0.21-0.55/1,000 km2, some of the lowest large carnivore densities ever recorded in Africa, and average home range size over 2-3 months was estimated at 1,583 km2. We use our results to predict that, in order to detect presence of cheetah with p>0.95 a survey effort of at least 1,000 camera trap days is required. Our study identifies the Ahaggar Cultural Park as a key area for the conservation of the Saharan cheetah. The Saharan cheetah meets the requirements for a charismatic flagship species that can be used to "market" the Saharan landscape at a sufficiently large scale to help reverse the historical neglect of threatened Saharan ecosystems.

  4. Pollen viability of Salix myrtilloides L. – an endangered species in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salix myrtilloides L. (swamp willow is the most endangered species among the boreal Salix species in Poland. The number and size of its population have been decreasing constantly since the 1990s. The main aim of the study was to determine the viability of collected S. myrtilloides pollen and optimal conditions for its in vitro germination. The pollen of S. myrtilloides was collected from 25 male individuals from a population growing in the mid-forest peat bog Dekowina (Sobibór Landscape Park in May 2014. Two methods were applied to estimate the viability of fresh and stored pollen: staining pollen with 2% acetocarmine solution and in vitro germinability. Various temperature (11°C, 23°C and light conditions as well as different concentrations of glucose (1%, 2.5%, 5%, or 7.5% were tested for the optimization of in vitro germination. We documented relatively high S. myrtilloides pollen viability. Pollen tube growth was found to be largely affected by both glucose content in the medium and thermal conditions during germination. Fresh pollen germinated most effectively on the medium with 2.5% glucose (stored pollen – in 5% glucose, at 23°C and in the presence of light. We conclude that pollen viability of S. myrtilloides does not seem to be a limiting factor for reproductive success. Moreover, the pollen is not sterile even after storage for 12 months. The S. myrtilloides individuals from the Dekowina peat bog produce viable pollen grains that are able to germinate and therefore it can be used to pollinate other populations present in the Polesie Lubelskie region for gene pool enrichment.

  5. Endangered Species Case – Northwest Center for Alternatives to Pesticides v. EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is reinstating streamside no-spray buffer zones to protect endangered or threatened Pacific salmon and steelhead in California, Oregon and Washington State, which were originally established in prior litigation brought against EPA by WTC and others.

  6. 75 FR 76704 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 13307, 13544, and 14586

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... after ocean energy technology testing via vessel and aerial surveys. The permit expires on November 30... applied for in good faith, (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened...

  7. 76 FR 46361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... plants and 3 damselflies) are found in 7 ecosystem types: coastal, lowland dry, lowland mesic, lowland... Which They Depend Ecosystem Species Coastal Plants: Bidens amplectens. Lowland Dry Plants: Bidens... horizontal layers) due to erosion (Gavenda et al. 1998, p. 92). Because of its age and relative isolation...

  8. A decision-analytic approach to the optimal allocation of resources for endangered species consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Shelley, Kevin J.; Morey, Steve; Chan, Jeffrey; LaTier, Andrea; Scafidi, Carolyn; Crouse, Deborah T.; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The resources available to support conservation work, whether time or money, are limited. Decision makers need methods to help them identify the optimal allocation of limited resources to meet conservation goals, and decision analysis is uniquely suited to assist with the development of such methods. In recent years, a number of case studies have been described that examine optimal conservation decisions under fiscal constraints; here we develop methods to look at other types of constraints, including limited staff and regulatory deadlines. In the US, Section Seven consultation, an important component of protection under the federal Endangered Species Act, requires that federal agencies overseeing projects consult with federal biologists to avoid jeopardizing species. A benefit of consultation is negotiation of project modifications that lessen impacts on species, so staff time allocated to consultation supports conservation. However, some offices have experienced declining staff, potentially reducing the efficacy of consultation. This is true of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Washington Fish and Wildlife Office (WFWO) and its consultation work on federally-threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). To improve effectiveness, WFWO managers needed a tool to help allocate this work to maximize conservation benefits. We used a decision-analytic approach to score projects based on the value of staff time investment, and then identified an optimal decision rule for how scored projects would be allocated across bins, where projects in different bins received different time investments. We found that, given current staff, the optimal decision rule placed 80% of informal consultations (those where expected effects are beneficial, insignificant, or discountable) in a short bin where they would be completed without negotiating changes. The remaining 20% would be placed in a long bin, warranting an investment of seven days, including time for negotiation. For formal

  9. Effect of Cobalt on Sperm Motility in an Endangered Trout Species, Salmo coruhensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabaş, Mehmet; Kutluyer, Filiz

    2017-12-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the in vitro effect of cobalt on sperm motility of the endangered trout species (Salmo coruhensis). Sperm samples were diluted in an immobilizing solution, and activated in a motility-activation solution that was supplemented with cobalt at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 mg/L. The percentage of motile sperm and duration of motility were determined. Cobalt concentrations of 1-100 mg/L had a positive effect on the percentage of motile sperm and duration of motility compared to the control group, while a concentration of 1000 mg/L resulted in decreases in these parameters (p cobalt concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 mg/L were 83.33% ± 0.25%, 88.33% ± 0.34%, 89.00% ± 0.57%, 90.00% ± 0.87% and 42.50% ± 0.45%, respectively; and the time durations over which the sperm remained motile were 72.00 ± 0.63, 74.83 ± 0.28, 77.40 ± 0.47, 81.14 ± 0.78, and 50.25 ± 0.67 s, respectively. This study has shown that sperm motility and duration were significantly enhanced (p cobalt concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 mg/L, relative to controls, and significantly decreased at 1000 mg/L.

  10. Endangered Species. Management Improvements Could Enhance Recovery Program. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    Extinction of animal and plant species has become a serious problem that threatens to become more acute in coming years. The endangered species program was established to prevent further extinctions and ultimately recover species designated as threatened or endangered through the development and implementation of species recovery plans. Concerned…

  11. Development and validation of a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method to identify endangered species in complex samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J.; Staats, Martijn; Hagelaar, Rico; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Prins, Theo W.; Scholtens, Ingrid; Costessi, Adalberto; Duijsings, Danny; Rechenmann, François; Gaspar, Frédéric B.; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Birck, Matthew; Burns, Malcolm; Haynes, Edward; Hochegger, Rupert; Klingl, Alexander; Lundberg, Lisa; Natale, Chiara; Niekamp, Hauke; Perri, Elena; Barbante, Alessandra; Rosec, Jean-Philippe; Seyfarth, Ralf; Sovová, Tereza; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; van Ruth, Saskia; Peelen, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract DNA metabarcoding provides great potential for species identification in complex samples such as food supplements and traditional medicines. Such a method would aid Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) enforcement officers to combat wildlife crime by preventing illegal trade of endangered plant and animal species. The objective of this research was to develop a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method for forensic wildlife species identification and to evaluate the applicability and reproducibility of this approach across different laboratories. A DNA metabarcoding method was developed that makes use of 12 DNA barcode markers that have demonstrated universal applicability across a wide range of plant and animal taxa and that facilitate the identification of species in samples containing degraded DNA. The DNA metabarcoding method was developed based on Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing of well-defined experimental mixtures, for which a bioinformatics pipeline with user-friendly web-interface was developed. The performance of the DNA metabarcoding method was assessed in an international validation trial by 16 laboratories, in which the method was found to be highly reproducible and sensitive enough to identify species present in a mixture at 1% dry weight content. The advanced multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method assessed in this study provides reliable and detailed data on the composition of complex food products, including information on the presence of CITES-listed species. The method can provide improved resolution for species identification, while verifying species with multiple DNA barcodes contributes to an enhanced quality assurance. PMID:29020743

  12. Development and validation of a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method to identify endangered species in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; Staats, Martijn; Hagelaar, Rico; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid; Costessi, Adalberto; Duijsings, Danny; Rechenmann, François; Gaspar, Frédéric B; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Birck, Matthew; Burns, Malcolm; Haynes, Edward; Hochegger, Rupert; Klingl, Alexander; Lundberg, Lisa; Natale, Chiara; Niekamp, Hauke; Perri, Elena; Barbante, Alessandra; Rosec, Jean-Philippe; Seyfarth, Ralf; Sovová, Tereza; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; van Ruth, Saskia; Peelen, Tamara; Kok, Esther

    2017-10-01

    DNA metabarcoding provides great potential for species identification in complex samples such as food supplements and traditional medicines. Such a method would aid Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) enforcement officers to combat wildlife crime by preventing illegal trade of endangered plant and animal species. The objective of this research was to develop a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method for forensic wildlife species identification and to evaluate the applicability and reproducibility of this approach across different laboratories. A DNA metabarcoding method was developed that makes use of 12 DNA barcode markers that have demonstrated universal applicability across a wide range of plant and animal taxa and that facilitate the identification of species in samples containing degraded DNA. The DNA metabarcoding method was developed based on Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing of well-defined experimental mixtures, for which a bioinformatics pipeline with user-friendly web-interface was developed. The performance of the DNA metabarcoding method was assessed in an international validation trial by 16 laboratories, in which the method was found to be highly reproducible and sensitive enough to identify species present in a mixture at 1% dry weight content. The advanced multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method assessed in this study provides reliable and detailed data on the composition of complex food products, including information on the presence of CITES-listed species. The method can provide improved resolution for species identification, while verifying species with multiple DNA barcodes contributes to an enhanced quality assurance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Conservation and fruit biology of Sichou oak (Quercus sichourensis, Fagaceae – A critically endangered species in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several conservation programs have been started for the critically endangered Sichou oak (Quercus sichourensis since 2007. These programs include detailed field investigations, seedling cultivation and research on the fruit biology of the species. In this study, we first report on the five mature individual trees found in our 9-year field investigation. Thus far, a total of 10 mature individuals have been recorded. All Q. sichourensis trees are healthy and most produce healthy acorns. Acorns of Q. sichourensis are large with dry masses of 8.0–14.0 g. These acorns had high moisture contents at collection and died shortly after (7–28 d when dried with silica gel. Characteristics of Q. sichourensis acorns varied between populations. Compared with the acorns from Funing, the acorns collected from Ceheng were bigger, more viable (germination percentage was up to 96%, less sensitive to desiccation, and germinated faster. Q. sichourensis occurs in regions with a distinct 5–6 month dry season. Habitat degradation is largely responsible for the rareness of Quercus sichorensis, but desiccation sensitivity of the acorns may also limit the regeneration of the species and potentially lead to its continued rareness. As a species with extremely small populations (PSESP, Q. sichourensis is facing high risk of extinction and should be defined as a Critically Endangered species in the global IUCN Red List.

  14. Flower-visiting insects observed on the critically endangered alpine plant species Callianthemum kernerianum Freyn ex A. Kerner (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Gobbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we provide the first contribution to the knowledge of the flower-visiting insect assemblages of the alpine plant species Callianthemum kernerianum Freyn ex A. Kerner (Ranunculaceae. This focal plant species was selected since it is a steno-endemic and critically endangered species belonging to the IUCN red-list. Fifteen taxa were recorded, among which very few are true pollinators, whereas all the others can be considered only indirect pollinators. The peculiar phenology of the plant and the harsh habitat conditions in which it grows probably affect the richness and abundance of flower-visiting insects as well as of true pollinators. This could be the reason for this plant to be a self-compatible species.

  15. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Navarro-Sampedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454 data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  16. Nuclear microsatellite primers for the endangered relict fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and cross-amplification in related Mediterranean Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-11-05

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  17. 76 FR 43985 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... . Mail: Angela Somma, National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Endangered..., if you wish to remain anonymous). You may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word... Recovery Plan is to provide a research strategy to obtain data necessary to estimate population abundance...

  18. 76 FR 15932 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... relevance to the assessment of risk of extinction to the Northwest Atlantic Ocean DPS of the loggerhead... throughout its worldwide range on July 28, 1978 (43 FR 32800). On July 12, 2007, we received a petition from... designate nine loggerhead DPSs worldwide, seven as endangered (North Pacific Ocean DPS, South Pacific Ocean...

  19. 75 FR 78226 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... contribute to the genetic management and hatchery operations regarding Chinook salmon and steelhead... (16083). These permits would affect the Federally endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon and the threatened Central Valley spring-run Chinook salmon Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs...

  20. 76 FR 57717 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... relevant to Federally endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), threatened Central Valley spring-run Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), threatened California Central Valley... Fish and Game Central Valley Salmonid Tissue Archive to UC Davis, for purposes of genetic investigation...

  1. 78 FR 66139 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Delisting of the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... the listing status of the western DPS to endangered, and keep the eastern DPS listed as threatened. In... the basic trend of this DPS, we briefly explain below the way in which population abundance is...; identify data available on which to evaluate trends in abundance; and summarize the information available...

  2. Generation Conservation: Children's Developing Folkbiological and Moral Conceptions of Protecting Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Jolina H.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated folkbiological concepts that structure children's moral reasoning regarding conservation. Participants (N = 52; 7- and 10-year-olds, gender balanced) were interviewed regarding their values, moral obligations, and rights concerns for endangered and extinct animals. Across the 2 ages, children drew on the…

  3. The novel primers for mammal species identification-based mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence: implication for reserved wild animals in Thailand and endangered mammal species in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Amano, Akira; Sukmak, Manakorn

    2018-01-01

    We presented the powerful techniques for species identification using the short amplicon of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence. Two faecal samples and one single hair sample of the Asian tapir were tested using the new cytochrome b primers. The results showed a high sequence similarity with the mainland Asian tapir group. The comparative sequence analysis of the reserved wild mammals in Thailand and the other endangered mammal species from Southeast Asia comprehensibly verified the potential of our novel primers. The forward and reverse primers were 94.2 and 93.2%, respectively, by the average value of the sequence identity among 77 species sequences, and the overall mean distance was 35.9%. This development technique could provide rapid, simple, and reliable tools for species confirmation. Especially, it could recognize the problematic biological specimens contained less DNA material from illegal products and assist with wildlife crime investigation of threatened species and related forensic casework.

  4. Effects of Mountain Uplift and Climatic Oscillations on Phylogeography and Species Divergence in Four Endangered Notopterygium Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Shahzad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain uplift and climatic fluctuations are important driving forces that have affected the geographic distribution and population dynamics history of organisms. However, it is unclear how geological and climatic events might have affected the phylogeographic history and species divergence in high-alpine herbal plants. In this study, we analyzed the population demographic history and species differentiation of four endangered Notopterygium herbs on the high-altitude Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP and adjacent areas. We combined phylogeographic analysis with species distribution modeling to detect the genetic variations in four Notopterygium species (N. incisum, N. franchetii, N. oviforme, and N. forrestii. In total, 559 individuals from 74 populations of the four species were analyzed based on three maternally inherited chloroplast fragments (matK, rbcL, and trnS-trnG and one nuclear DNA region (internal transcribed spacer, ITS. Fifty-five chloroplast DNA (cpDNA and 48 ITS haplotypes were identified in the four species. All of the cpDNA and ITS haplotypes were species-specific, except N. franchetii and N. oviforme shared one cpDNA haplotype, H32. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that all four species formed a monophyletic clade with high bootstrap support, where N. franchetii and N. oviforme were sisters. In addition, each Notopterygium species generated an individual clade that corresponded to their respective species in the ITS tree. Population dynamics analyses and species distribution modeling showed that the two widely distributed herbs N. incisum and N. franchetii exhibited obvious demographic expansions during the Pleistocene ice ages. Molecular dating suggested that the divergence of the four Notopterygium species occurred approximately between 3.6 and 1.2 Mya, and it was significantly associated with recent extensive uplifts of the QTP. Our results support the hypothesis that mountain uplift and Quaternary climatic oscillations

  5. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Lu?s; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-01-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from bo...

  6. Managing Endangered Species Within the Use-Preservation Paradox: The Florida Manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris) as a Tourism Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G.; Shafer, C. Scott; Ditton, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    A significant challenge to wildlife managers in tourism settings is to provide visitors with opportunities to observe rare and endangered wildlife while simultaneously protecting the target species from deleterious impacts. Nearly 100,000 people annually visit Crystal River, Florida, USA to observe and swim with the Florida manatee, an endangered species. This research aimed to investigate and describe human-manatee interactions in a tourism context, to understand the salient issues related to such interactions as identified by stakeholders, and to recommend a course of action to address multiple interests in the planning and management of human-manatee interactions. Five issues were identified by all stakeholder groups: water quality, harassment, density and crowding, education, and enforcement. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is responsible for manatee management, does not have mechanisms in place to manage the tourism component of the manatee encounter. Although a regulatory approach can be taken, a better approach would be to create an organization of tour operators to establish “best practices” that reflect the goal of the managing agency to enhance manatee protection (and thus ensure their livelihood) and to enhance the visitor experience.

  7. Genetic pool information reflects highly suitable areas: the case of two parapatric endangered species of Tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomiydae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Galiano

    Full Text Available Conservation of small mammals requires knowledge of the genetically and ecologically meaningful spatial scales at which species respond to habitat modifications. Conservation strategies can be improved through the use of ecological niche models and genetic data to classify areas of high environmental suitability. In this study, we applied a Maxent model integrated with genetic information (nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and Fu's Fs neutrality tests to evaluate potential genetic pool populations with highly suitable areas for two parapatric endangered species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys minutus and C. lami. Our results demonstrated that both species were largely influenced by vegetation and soil variables at a landscape scale and inhabit a highly specific niche. Ctenomys minutus was also influenced by the variable altitude; the species was associated with low altitudes (sea level. Our model of genetic data associated with environmental suitability indicate that the genetic pool data were associated with highly suitable areas for C. minutus. This pattern was not evident for C. lami, but this outcome could be a consequence of the restricted range of the species. The preservation of species requires not only detailed knowledge of their natural history and genetic structure but also information on the availability of suitable areas where species can survive, and such knowledge can aid significantly in conservation planning. This finding reinforces the use of these two techniques for planning conservation actions.

  8. Willingness to pay for threatened and endangered marine species:A review of the literature and prospects for policy use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Lew

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-market valuation methods have been employed to estimate willingness to pay for numerous threatened, endangered, and rare (TER species over the past few decades. While most of these efforts have focused on terrestrial species, over 30 published studies have been conducted to measure economic values associated with the preservation, protection, and enhancement of scores of marine species. In this paper, this literature is reviewed and assessed, and an evaluation of the suitability of existing TER species values as inputs for the analysis of marine and coastal policies, and the prospects and challenges for improving them, are discussed. The published literature is found to suffer from coverage issues, both geographical and in terms of species types. It includes stated preference valuation studies focused on marine species only in developed countries (United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, Spain, and Greece, with the highest concentration of studies occurring in the United States. The species valued primarily can be classified as charismatic megafauna—seals and sea lions, whales, and sea turtles—plus well-known fish species, like salmon. Only a small handful of lesser known species are included among those valued to date. Species value estimates were as much as $356 (2013 U.S. dollars, but differed in the frequency of payments (e.g., lump sum vs. annual, the entity paying (e.g., household, resident, or visitor, and the specific good being valued (e.g., species preservation or a type of enhancement. Potential sources of errors arising from the use of these values for policy analyses, and the temporal stability of them, provide reasons to be cautious in their application. Nevertheless, several trends in the literature appear to provide reasons to be optimistic about the literature, particularly the recent expansion of types of species valued and more policy-relevant values.

  9. AFLP diversity and spatial structure of Calycophyllum candidissimum (Rubiaceae), a dominant tree species of Nicaragua's critically endangered seasonally dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Lara, A; Affenzeller, M; Tribsch, A; Díaz, V; Comes, H P

    2017-10-01

    The Central American seasonally dry tropical (SDT) forest biome is one of the worlds' most endangered ecosystems, yet little is known about the genetic consequences of its recent fragmentation. A prominent constituent of this biome is Calycophyllum candidissimum, an insect-pollinated and wind-dispersed canopy tree of high socio-economic importance, particularly in Nicaragua. Here, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms across 13 populations of this species in Nicaragua to elucidate the relative roles of contemporary vs historical factors in shaping its genetic variation. Genetic diversity was low in all investigated populations (mean H E =0.125), and negatively correlated with latitude. Overall population differentiation was moderate (Φ ST =0.109, Pforest regions may be genetically resilient to habitat fragmentation due to species-typical dispersal characteristics, the necessity of broad-scale measures for their conservation notwithstanding.

  10. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  11. 78 FR 8185 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Status Reviews of 44 Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    .... 04/1994. Haha Cyanea Endangered U.S.A (HI)....... 59 FR 10305; 03/ hamatiflora ssp. 04/1994. carlsonii. Haha Cyanea shipmanii. Endangered U.S.A (HI)....... 59 FR 10305; 03/ 04/1994. Asplenium-leaved...

  12. Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae Ground Beetle Worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kôji Sasakawa

    Full Text Available Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae; currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky, was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3-4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C. The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23-42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment and have somewhat "coiled" apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide.

  13. Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Ground Beetle Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae); currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky), was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3-4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C). The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23-42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment) and have somewhat "coiled" apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide.

  14. 77 FR 13248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 46 Species in Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Cenchrus Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 61 FR 53123; 10/10/ agrimonioides. 1996. Haha Cyanea dunbarii... Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 61 FR 53137; 10/10/ 1996. Haha Cyanea hamatiflora Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 64 FR 48323; 9/3/ ssp. hamatiflora. 1999. Haha Cyanea lobata...

  15. Determinants of public support for threatened and endangered species management: A case study of Cape Lookout National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lena; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cook, Philip S.; Leong, Kirsten M.; DiDonato, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Gaining public support for management actions is important to the success of public land management agencies’ efforts to protect threatened and endangered species. This is especially relevant at national parks, where managers balance two aspects of their conservation mission: to protect resources and to provide for public enjoyment. This study examined variables potentially associated with support for management actions at Cape Lookout National Seashore, a unit of the National Park Service. Two visitor surveys were conducted at the park at different seasons, and a resident survey was conducted for households in Carteret County, North Carolina, where the park is located. The goal of the project was to provide park managers with information that may help with the development of communication strategies concerning the park’s conservation mission. These communication strategies may help to facilitate mutual understanding and garner public support for management actions. Several variables were examined as potential determinants that park managers ought to consider when developing communication strategies. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to examine the relationships between these variables and the likelihood of support for or opposition to management actions. The variables examined included perceived shared values of park resources, general environmental attitudes, level of familiarity with park resources and regulations, knowledge about threatened and endangered species, level of trust in the decision-making process, and perceived shared values with park management. In addition, demographic variables such as income level, respondent age, residency status, and visitor type were also used. The results show that perceived values of threatened and endangered species, trust in park managers and the decision-making process, and perceived share values with park managers were among the strongest indicators of support for management actions. Different user groups

  16. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF Shorea mujongensis P.S. Ashton, A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES OF DIPTEROCARPS FROM KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listya Mustika Dewi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy of Shorea mujongensis P.S. Ashton was investigated in order to ensure this species belongs to yellow meranti group. Such study is very important since this species is already listed in the red list of IUCN and classified as critically endangered species. The microscopic slides were prepared according to the Johansen's method, while the anatomical features observed according to the IAWA  List. The results show that S. mujongensis wood exhibit brown heartwood, light brown sapwood, rough texture, straight grain sometimes interlocked and somewhat rough. The main microscopic characters are growth rings indistinct; vessel diffuse, mostly solitary, rounded to oval; simple perforation plate and alternate intervessel pits; parenchyma scanty paratracheal to thin vasicentric; axial intercellular canals in long tangential line, radial intercellular canal and vasicentric tracheids present; rays uniseriate and multiseriate, prismatic crystal in procumbent cells; fiber length 1,294 µm, diameter 26 µm and wall thickness 4µm. Macroscopic and microscopic observation of S. mujongensis wood confirms the species belongs to yellow meranti group. The assesment on fiber dimensions and derived values of the wood fibers classified the wood into class quality II. It indicates that this species is moderately favorable as raw material for pulp and paper manufacture.

  17. The Role of Biotechnology for Conservation and Biologically Active Substances Production of Rhodiola rosea: Endangered Medicinal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimira Tasheva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, more than 50 000 plant species are used in phytotherapy and medicine. About 2/3 of them are harvested from nature leading to local extinction of many species or degradation of their habitats. Biotechnological methods offer possibilities not only for faster cloning and conservation of the genotype of the plants but for modification of their gene information, regulation, and expression for production of valuable substances in higher amounts or with better properties. Rhodiola rosea is an endangered medicinal species with limited distribution. It has outstanding importance for pharmaceutical industry for prevention and cure of cancer, heart and nervous system diseases, and so forth. Despite the great interest in golden root and the wide investigations in the area of phytochemistry, plant biotechnology remained less endeavoured and exploited. The paper presents research on initiation of in vitro cultures in Rhodiola rosea and some other Rhodiola species. Achievements in induction of organogenic and callus cultures, regeneration, and micropropagation varied but were a good basis for alternative in vitro synthesis of the desired metabolites and for the development of efficient systems for micropropagation for conservation of the species.

  18. Estimating effects of tidal power projects and climate change on threatened and endangered marine species and their food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, D Shallin; Greene, Correigh M; Good, Thomas P

    2013-12-01

    Marine hydrokinetic power projects will operate as marine environments change in response to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We considered how tidal power development and stressors resulting from climate change may affect Puget Sound species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) and their food web. We used risk tables to assess the singular and combined effects of tidal power development and climate change. Tidal power development and climate change posed risks to ESA-listed species, and risk increased with incorporation of the effects of these stressors on predators and prey of ESA-listed species. In contrast, results of a model of strikes on ESA-listed species from turbine blades suggested that few ESA-listed species are likely to be killed by a commercial-scale tidal turbine array. We applied scenarios to a food web model of Puget Sound to explore the effects of tidal power and climate change on ESA-listed species using more quantitative analytical techniques. To simulate development of tidal power, we applied results of the blade strike model. To simulate environmental changes over the next 50 years, we applied scenarios of change in primary production, plankton community structure, dissolved oxygen, ocean acidification, and freshwater flooding events. No effects of tidal power development on ESA-listed species were detected from the food web model output, but the effects of climate change on them and other members of the food web were large. Our analyses exemplify how natural resource managers might assess environmental effects of marine technologies in ways that explicitly incorporate climate change and consider multiple ESA-listed species in the context of their ecological community. Estimación de los Efectos de Proyectos de Energía de las Mareas y el Cambio Climático sobre Especies Marinas Amenazadas y en Peligro y su Red Alimentaria. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology No claim to original US government works.

  19. 78 FR 30325 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This notification covers activities to be... leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This notification covers activities to be...

  20. Quantitative tools for implementing the new definition of significant portion of the range in the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E; Nicol, Sam; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Semmens, Darius; Flockhart, D T Tyler; Mattsson, Brady J; McCracken, Gary; Norris, D Ryan; Thogmartin, Wayne E; López-Hoffman, Laura

    2018-02-01

    In 2014, the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service announced a new policy interpretation for the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). According to the act, a species must be listed as threatened or endangered if it is determined to be threatened or endangered in a significant portion of its range (SPR). The 2014 policy seeks to provide consistency by establishing that a portion of the range should be considered significant if the associated individuals' "removal would cause the entire species to become endangered or threatened." We reviewed 20 quantitative techniques used to assess whether a portion of a species' range is significant according to the new guidance. Our assessments are based on the 3R criteria-redundancy (i.e., buffering from catastrophe), resiliency (i.e., ability to withstand stochasticity), and representation (i.e., ability to evolve)-that the FWS uses to determine if a species merits listing. We identified data needs for each quantitative technique and considered which methods could be implemented given the data limitations typical of rare species. We also identified proxies for the 3Rs that may be used with limited data. To assess potential data availability, we evaluated 7 example species by accessing data in their species status assessments, which document all the information used during a listing decision. In all species, an SPR could be evaluated with at least one metric for each of the 3Rs robustly or with substantial assumptions. Resiliency assessments appeared most constrained by limited data, and many species lacked information on connectivity between subpopulations, genetic variation, and spatial variability in vital rates. These data gaps will likely make SPR assessments for species with complex life histories or that cross national boundaries difficult. Although we reviewed techniques for the ESA, other countries require identification of significant areas and could benefit from this research. © 2017

  1. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  2. The ex situ conservation strategy for endangered plant species: small samples, storage and lessons from seed collected from US national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ex situ collections of seeds sampled from wild populations provide germplasm for restoration and for scientific study about biological diversity. Seed collections of endangered species are urgent because they might forestall ever-dwindling population size and genetic diversity. However, collecting ...

  3. Quantitative tools for implementing the new definition of significant portion of the range in the U.S. Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E.; Nicol, Samuel; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Semmens, Darius J.; Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Mattsson, Brady; McCracken, Gary; Norris, D. Ryan; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service announced a new policy interpretation for the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). According to the act, a species must be listed as threatened or endangered if it is determined to be threatened or endangered in a significant portion of its range (SPR). The 2014 policy seeks to provide consistency by establishing that a portion of the range should be considered significant if the associated individuals’ “removal would cause the entire species to become endangered or threatened.” We reviewed 20 quantitative techniques used to assess whether a portion of a species’ range is significant according to the new guidance. Our assessments are based on the 3R criteria—redundancy (i.e., buffering from catastrophe), resiliency (i.e., ability to withstand stochasticity), and representation (i.e., ability to evolve)—that the FWS uses to determine if a species merits listing. We identified data needs for each quantitative technique and considered which methods could be implemented given the data limitations typical of rare species. We also identified proxies for the 3Rs that may be used with limited data. To assess potential data availability, we evaluated 7 example species by accessing data in their species status assessments, which document all the information used during a listing decision. In all species, an SPR could be evaluated with at least one metric for each of the 3Rs robustly or with substantial assumptions. Resiliency assessments appeared most constrained by limited data, and many species lacked information on connectivity between subpopulations, genetic variation, and spatial variability in vital rates. These data gaps will likely make SPR assessments for species with complex life histories or that cross national boundaries difficult. Although we reviewed techniques for the ESA, other countries require identification of significant areas and could benefit from this research.

  4. 75 FR 78731 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... species in the wild. This notification covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year... the survival of the species. Applicant: John Estes, Abilene, TX; PRT-29150A Applicant: Timothy Reiger...

  5. An FPGA-Based WASN for Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Endangered Species: A Case Study on the Birdsong Recognition of Botaurus stellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Marcos; Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Alías, Francesc; Salvador, Martí

    2017-06-08

    Fast environmental variations due to climate change can cause mass decline or even extinctions of species, having a dramatic impact on the future of biodiversity. During the last decade, different approaches have been proposed to track and monitor endangered species, generally based on costly semi-automatic systems that require human supervision adding limitations in coverage and time. However, the recent emergence of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) has allowed non-intrusive remote monitoring of endangered species in real time through the automatic identification of the sound they emit. In this work, an FPGA-based WASN centralized architecture is proposed and validated on a simulated operation environment. The feasibility of the architecture is evaluated in a case study designed to detect the threatened Botaurus stellaris among other 19 cohabiting birds species in The Parc Natural dels Aiguamolls de l'Empord.

  6. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered species: correlations with physiologic events and use as a marker of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bernard G; Brown, Janine L; Roth, Terri L; Czekala, Nancy

    2005-05-01

    Many mammalian species are facing extinction due to problems created by human encroachment, agriculture, pollution, and willful slaughter. Among those at risk are the Asian and African elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, and giant panda. Conservation groups try to save species in the wild by preserving habitat and limiting animal-human conflicts, often with limited success. Another alternative is to preserve the extant gene pool through captive breeding as a hedge against extinction. Measurement of circulating reproductive hormones is impractical for most wildlife species; determination of urinary or fecal hormone metabolites provides a more viable approach. To aid breeding management, one important tool is the ability to diagnose and monitor pregnancy, especially in species with long gestations (e.g., rhinos over 15 mo and elephants over 20 mo). Unfortunately, measuring progestins often is not useful diagnostically, because concentrations are similar during at least part of the pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase in some species (e.g., elephants, rhinoceroses, and giant pandas). As serum relaxin reliably distinguishes between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in bitches, relaxin measurement might also provide a method for detecting a successful pregnancy in endangered species. Appropriate immunoassay reagents have enabled the estimation of relaxin concentrations in the serum of elephants and rhinos and the determination of pregnancy establishment and the outcome. Relaxin was also detected in panda serum and urine. However, the extreme variability of the time between observed mating and parturition and the confounding factors of delayed implantation, pseudopregnancy, and frequent fetal resorptions made it impossible to use the panda relaxin data as a specific marker of pregnancy.

  7. 75 FR 2106 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... NMFS regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in... steelhead not to exceed 2 percent of the total number of fish captured for each life stage and species...

  8. 76 FR 12308 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Six Species of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... discussing the species' status and trends, or in information describing impacts and threats to the species... for the species at issue (e.g., population abundance and trends, productivity, spatial structure, age... responding in a negative fashion; then we assess the potential significance of that negative response. Many...

  9. Book Review: The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red books list everything endangered; green books revitalize the endangered. That is exactly what Hinton and Hale set out to do when they brought together no less than-thirty three essays, divided into categories such as Language Policy, Language Planning, Maintenance and Revitalization of National Indigenous ...

  10. Responses to Drought and Salinity in the Endangered Species Ligularia sibirica (L. Cass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Natalia Matei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects of environmental stress factors on plant distribution and survival are increasing due to climate change and anthropogenic activities. We have analysed some responses to abiotic stress in Ligularia sibirica, a postglacial relict that is critically endangered in Europe. L. sibirica seedlings were subjected to water or salt stress treatments in the greenhouse. After the treatments, plant material was harvested and several growth parameters were measured; leaf contents of common osmolytes, the degree of oxidative stress affecting the plants and the level of antioxidant phenolic compounds were also determined. Both, drought and, especially, salt stress had a negative effect on the growth of L. sibirica plants. Treated plants showed an increase in proline (Pro and total soluble sugars (TSS levels, stronger under salt stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress biomarker contents almost doubled, and antioxidant phenolics increased significantly in salt-stressed, but not in water-stressed plants. Pro accumulation can be used as a salt and drought stress biomarker in L. sibirica and, together with TSS, likely contributes to osmotic adjustment under stress. Increase of antioxidant phenolics appears to partly compensate the salt-induced generation of oxidative stress.

  11. Testing decision rules for categorizing species' extinction risk to help develop quantitative listing criteria for the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Tracey J; Taylor, Barbara L; Thompson, Grant G; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Ralls, Katherine; Runge, Michael C; Merrick, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Lack of guidance for interpreting the definitions of endangered and threatened in the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) has resulted in case-by-case decision making leaving the process vulnerable to being considered arbitrary or capricious. Adopting quantitative decision rules would remedy this but requires the agency to specify the relative urgency concerning extinction events over time, cutoff risk values corresponding to different levels of protection, and the importance given to different types of listing errors. We tested the performance of 3 sets of decision rules that use alternative functions for weighting the relative urgency of future extinction events: a threshold rule set, which uses a decision rule of x% probability of extinction over y years; a concave rule set, where the relative importance of future extinction events declines exponentially over time; and a shoulder rule set that uses a sigmoid shape function, where relative importance declines slowly at first and then more rapidly. We obtained decision cutoffs by interviewing several biologists and then emulated the listing process with simulations that covered a range of extinction risks typical of ESA listing decisions. We evaluated performance of the decision rules under different data quantities and qualities on the basis of the relative importance of misclassification errors. Although there was little difference between the performance of alternative decision rules for correct listings, the distribution of misclassifications differed depending on the function used. Misclassifications for the threshold and concave listing criteria resulted in more overprotection errors, particularly as uncertainty increased, whereas errors for the shoulder listing criteria were more symmetrical. We developed and tested the framework for quantitative decision rules for listing species under the U.S. ESA. If policy values can be agreed on, use of this framework would improve the implementation of the ESA by

  12. 76 FR 71315 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... types present, their spatial and temporal distribution, their feeding ecology, and interactions with... interactions. That information would be used to direct management actions to benefit listed species. Juvenile...

  13. 77 FR 21084 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Rosa, CA (ph.: 707-575-6097, email.: [email protected] ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Species...), anesthetized, handled (identified, measured, weighed), sampled (fin clips, opercle, scales, gastric lavage...

  14. Biological Assessment of the Effects of Military Associated Activities on Endangered Species at Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    food), accidental (a species washed, fallen, or carried into caves and not part of the cave ecosystem). CECKLIST OF SPECIES KINGDOM PLANTAE DIVISION...MAMMALIA Order Chiroptera (bats) Undetermin~d material ’trogloxene) RCeords.--CORYELZ COUNTY: Egypt Cave; Shell Mountain Bat Cave. Order Carnivora Family

  15. 77 FR 40171 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Two Foreign Macaw Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... 1989a, pp. 1-7). An Appendix-I listing includes species threatened with extinction whose trade is... vulnerable species is considered to be one that is not in imminent danger of extinction in the near future... the Important Bird Area (IBA) program, which is a worldwide initiative to identify and protect...

  16. 77 FR 61627 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... nasomaculatus), dama gazelle (Nanger dama), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or... nasomaculatus), dama gazelle (Nanger dama), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or... nasomaculatus), dama gazelle (Nanger dama), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) from the captive herd maintained at...

  17. 76 FR 2663 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and steelhead, and natural juvenile green sturgeon while carrying out a study measuring fish response... species, taking of length measurements), tissue sampling, release of moribund fish or fish carcasses back...

  18. SeqAPASS: Predicting chemical susceptibility to threatened/endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of a molecular target across species can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS; https://seqapass.epa.gov/seqapass/) application was devel...

  19. Clonal Re-Introduction of Endangered Plant Species: The Case of German False Tamarisk in Pre-Alpine Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christiane; Kollmann, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    The scope of re-introduction as a measure for plant species protection is increasing, but as long as no standardized methods are available, species-specific assessments are necessary to determine whether seeds, adult plants or plant fragments should be used. The endangered German False Tamarisk ( Myricaria germanica), which occurs on gravel bars along pre-alpine rivers, is difficult to grow from seeds. Thus, propagation of stem cuttings was investigated as an alternative method. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse and a field site with three treatments: cutting length 5 or 10 cm, vertical burial 5 or 10 cm, and water level low or high. Plants grown in the greenhouse were transplanted to the River Isar to test establishment of rooted cuttings on gravel bars. The cuttings in the greenhouse showed high survival (34-96 %). Survival and biomass production were greatest for 10-cm cuttings buried at 10-cm depth, while only one of the 5-cm cuttings survived at this depth, and no significant effect of variation in water level was observed. None of the cuttings transplanted to field sites survived, most likely because of drought stress and competition. We conclude that for re-introduction of Myricaria germanica rooted cuttings can be easily produced in large quantities, while transplantation to near-natural environments has to be improved to reduce mortality.

  20. Decline in Endangered Species as an Indication of Anthropic Pressures: The Case of European Mink Mustela lutreola Western Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodé, Thierry; Cormier, Jean-Paul; Le Jacques, Dominique

    2001-12-01

    Populations of threatened species, especially predators at the top of the food chain, may be affected by anthropic pressures. The endangered western population of European mink Mustela lutreola has shown a large decline over 50% of its natural range. M. lutreola disappeared from northwestern France between 1984 and 1997, and the decline was associated with an increase in mustelid trapping, changes in watercourse quality, and habitat modifications due to agricultural practices. The pattern of decline showed a fragmentation restricting the minks into very small areas. Trapping was the first known cause of mortality. Although feral American mink Mustela vison may compete with autochthonous carnivores, M. lutreola had disappeared from streams before the introduction of the American species, suggesting that competitive interactions were not responsible. Furthermore, American mink has never been found or has remained rare in 62.4% of the area from which M. lutreola has disappeared. During the past 25 years, permanent grassland surfaces were reduced by 40%, whereas fodder culture increased by 470%, causing considerable habitat changes. Furthermore, 55.7% of water courses were classified as being of bad quality or polluted. Therefore, our data suggests that a conjunction of intensive trapping, alterations in water quality and habitat modification was critical for the European mink's decline. Although there are difficulties in ascribing specific cause to distribution changes in a top predator, this decline can be regarded as an indication for anthropic pressures on natural habitats.