WorldWideScience

Sample records for book endangered species

  1. Texas Endangered Species Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kathleen Marie; Campbell, Linda

    This publication is the result of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Division's (TPWD's) commitment to education and the fertile partnerships formed between TPWD biologists and educators. This activity book brings together the expertise and practical knowledge of a classroom teacher with the technical knowledge and skills of a TPWD biologist and artist.…

  2. Book review: Implementing the Endangered Species Act on the Platte Basin water commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The Platte River is a unique midcontinent ecosystem that is world-renowned for its natural resources, particularly the spectacular spring concentrations of migratory birds, such as sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis), ducks, and geese. The Platte River basin also provides habitat for four federally listed endangered or threatened species—interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), whooping crane (G. americana), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)—that require specific hydrological conditions in order for habitat to be suitable. Flows on the Platte River are subject to regulation by a number of dams, and it is heavily relied upon for irrigation in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. Accordingly, it also has become a political battleground for the simple reason that the demand for water exceeds supply. David Freeman’s book takes a detailed look at water-use issues on the Platte River, focusing on how implementation of the Endangered Species Act influences decision-making about water allocations. 

  3. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  4. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  5. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act are major federal statutes designed to protect plant and animal resources from adverse effects due to development projects. Both Acts require consultation with wildlife authorities prior to committing resources to certain types of projects. The purposes and requirements of the two statutes are summarized in the following subsections. Also presented is a list of contacts in the regional and field offices of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  6. Protecting Endangered Species in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, Jason F.; Tschirhart, John

    2001-05-01

    Protecting Endangered Species in the United States is a collection of original papers by economists, biologists and political scientists with a common theme--protecting species at risk while safeguarding social order is a policy challenge that entangles biology, politics, and economics. The volume begins by assessing the biological needs that define the endangered species problem. The authors then explore the political realities that delimit the debate--who pays the costs and receives the benefits, and how interest groups affect species protection. The book addresses the economic choices that must be confronted for effective protection strategies including incentive schemes to promote preservation on public and private land.

  7. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community about the…

  8. 75 FR 53708 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  9. 77 FR 71818 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  10. 78 FR 57650 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  11. 78 FR 16703 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  12. 76 FR 50751 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  13. 76 FR 20004 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  14. 76 FR 14424 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  15. 78 FR 55287 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  16. 77 FR 37700 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with ] endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows...

  17. 76 FR 70160 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  18. 76 FR 33337 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  19. 75 FR 20857 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  20. 75 FR 66123 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  1. 75 FR 69699 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  2. 75 FR 79387 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  3. 75 FR 23287 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  4. 78 FR 37840 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  5. 78 FR 27249 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  6. 77 FR 51042 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  7. 76 FR 6490 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  8. 78 FR 9727 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  9. Threatened & Endangered Species Occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The database consists of a single statewide coverage of location records for 54 species contained in the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory database of the Kansas...

  10. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  11. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  12. Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lynette K.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of "Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions" is to create awareness about a critical environmental issue. There is a special urgency to this project because large numbers of animal species are currently endangered or on the brink of extinction. In addition to being enlightened about this important topic through research, students…

  13. ESUSA: US endangered species distribution file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J.; Calef, C.E.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes a file containing distribution data on endangered species of the United States of Federal concern pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Included for each species are (a) the common name, (b) the scientific name, (c) the family, (d) the group (mammal, bird, etc.), (e) Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listing and recovery priorities, (f) the Federal legal status, (g) the geographic distribution by counties or islands, (h) Federal Register citations and (i) the sources of the information on distribution of the species. Status types are endangered, threatened, proposed, formally under review, candidate, deleted, and rejected. Distribution is by Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code and is of four types: designated critical habitat, present range, potential range, and historic range.

  14. ENDANGERED SPECIES SENSITIVITY AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service share a common responsibility for the protection of our nation's aquatic species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The EPA, under the Federal Insectici...

  15. 76 FR 7577 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys for the following species: Texas blind salamander... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and... with endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The Act...

  16. 78 FR 20352 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... current permit for research and recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys of following species... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and... conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973,...

  17. 76 FR 46837 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... recovery purposes to collect voucher specimens and seeds from the following species within New Mexico... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and... with endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The Act...

  18. 78 FR 55091 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys for the following species in Arizona, New Mexico, and... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  19. 77 FR 69890 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... research and recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys of the following species within Texas... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and... conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973,...

  20. 77 FR 7175 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... research and recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys of the following species within Arizona... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and... conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973,...

  1. 77 FR 12611 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... the species' survival. Public Comments We invite public review and comment on each of these recovery... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act...

  2. 77 FR 51819 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... identified tasks and mandates of the recovery program for this species. This notification covers activities... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY: Fish and... certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act...

  3. 76 FR 14985 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Species Applicant: Tom Stehn, Whooping Crane Recovery Plan Coordinator, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY: Fish and... certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act...

  4. Knowledge Discovery in Endangered Species Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of regional territories and countries related to endangered species has been investigated by data mining techniques and graphical modeling using an extensive data set of species. We developed the graphical models (hereafter referred to as ‘ESDI’ using cosine, jaccard similarity, K Mean clustering and cliques in graph modeling for a large number of countries. Environmental variables associated with species records were identified in context of their diversification to integration with our proposed prototype. We have shown that the problem of finding the most coherent clusters is reducible to finding maximum clique. Key findings include the urge to ameliorate communication about the loss and protection of endangered species and their concerned projects. The proposed framework is presented to serves a portal to knowledge discovery. We have concluded that the proposed framework model and its associated data mining similarity measures can be useful for investigating various scientific and management oriented questions related to protection of endangered species with emphasis on collaboration among regional countries. The rationale behind the proposed approach is that the countries which have been grouped into same clique inherit a lot of argues illustrating common reasons of their struggles towards ecological safety with minimization of perils for endangered species. The development and implementation of a regional approach based on this similar grouping address the actions that could offer significant benefits in achieving their goal for ecological policies. Other critical actions at this clique level include fortifying and elevating harmonization of legal frameworks with emphasis on prevention procedural issues; awareness realizations of endangered species issues and its priority. Such actions will eventually lead towards implementation of essential plans fulfilling co-operative expertise and common endeavors.

  5. Threatened and Endangered Species: Tour Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Victoria; Samia, Cory

    This resource unit contains a teacher information packet and a middle school student activity packet to be used in creating a threatened and endangered species unit. The packet of student activities is designed to help maximize a field trip to the zoo and build on students' zoo experience in the classroom. The teacher information packet covers the…

  6. National Wildlife. Special Issue: Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, John, Ed.

    This is the first special issue in the 12-year history of "National Wildlife," and is devoted entirely to endangered species of animals and plants in the United States. An overview of the problem stresses the impact of man's haphazard development, suburban sprawl, and urban pollution upon a fragile environment, resulting in dozens of wild animals…

  7. FWS Critical Habitat for Threatened and Endangered Species Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — When a species is proposed for listing as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service must consider whether there...

  8. Energy resellers - An endangered species?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many markets, including the travel, music, and book markets, are undergoing dramatic changes due do the development of electronic commerce. Reseller margins often decrease significantly and some times even entire links in the supply chain are becoming completely superfluous. Even though power markets have been deregulated already for some years in many countries, electronic commerce has not yet had a major impact on the business logic. This paper presents some of the major obstacles to electronic power trade, and presents promising solutions to these obstacles. In particular it is described how software agent mediated trade may enable medium and small size consumers and producers to trade directly from power pools, without the need of traditional energy resellers. The conclusion that is there are good reasons to believe that energy resellers are as threatened in the new information era as, e.g., traditional travel agencies, and music and book-shops are

  9. Energy resellers - An endangered species?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ygge, F. [EnerSearch AB, Chalmers Science Park, Goeteborg (Sweden). E-mail: ygge at enersearch.se

    1999-04-01

    Many markets, including the travel, music, and book markets, are undergoing dramatic changes due do the development of electronic commerce. Reseller margins often decrease significantly and some times even entire links in the supply chain are becoming completely superfluous. Even though power markets have been deregulated already for some years in many countries, electronic commerce has not yet had a major impact on the business logic. This paper presents some of the major obstacles to electronic power trade, and presents promising solutions to these obstacles. In particular it is described how software agent mediated trade may enable medium and small size consumers and producers to trade directly from power pools, without the need of traditional energy resellers. The conclusion that is there are good reasons to believe that energy resellers are as threatened in the new information era as, e.g., traditional travel agencies, and music and book-shops are.

  10. 77 FR 54565 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC192 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery... the adoption of a Final Endangered Species Act (ESA) recovery plan for the Central California Coast... 56138). Due to severe declines, we uplisted the species to endangered status on June 28, 2005 (70...

  11. 78 FR 41911 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC008 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery... Endangered Species Act (ESA) recovery plan for Lower Columbia River Chinook salmon (Oncoryhnchus tschawytscha... the time and costs required to implement recovery actions. The Endangered Species Act (ESA)...

  12. 76 FR 52317 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA647 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery... the adoption of an Endangered Species Act (ESA) recovery plan for the Upper Willamette Chinook salmon... recovery plans for the conservation and survival of threatened and endangered species under...

  13. 78 FR 77430 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC279 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery... the adoption of an Endangered Species Act (ESA) recovery plan for the South-Central California Coast... implement recovery plans for the conservation and survival of threatened and endangered species under...

  14. Man...An Endangered Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  15. 75 FR 78974 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit 10022-01, issued on May 12, 2010 (75 FR 26715) authorizes the...-net or set-net. Animals may be weighed, measured, photographed, skin biopsied, flipper and passive... by hand/dip net, flipper and PIT tagged, measured, weighed, photographed, and temporarily...

  16. Book review: Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John

    2016-01-01

    Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act is authored by Lowell E. Baier, an attorney, political scientist, and historian whose conservation portfolio includes the J. N. “Ding” Darling Conservation Award from the National Wildlife Federation (2016), Citizen Conservationist Award from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (2013), Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life magazine (2010), and Conservationist of the Year Award from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (2008). In the book, Baier stresses the need to reform the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) because of unintended provisions that incentivize and reward environmental litigants for filing suit against federal regulatory and land management agencies, consequentially hindering pro-active, cooperative, conservation efforts. The book is the culmination of several years of legal research, case history analyses, and personal interviews with several key individuals from congress, conservation management agencies, and non-government organizations.

  17. 78 FR 47582 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Sharpnose Shiner...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... endangered or threatened species under the Act include recognition, recovery actions, requirements for... recovery plans for the conservation of endangered and threatened species. The recovery planning process... of such conservation efforts is the recovery of these listed species, so that they no longer need...

  18. MEDICINAL USES OF ADANSONIA DIGITATA L.: AN ENDANGERED TREE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sugandha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adansonia digitata L. belongs to the Bombacaceae family and is generally known as the African Baobab. It is called “Kalpvriksha” in India and has mythological significance in India and elsewhere. The tree already faces a crisis of survival and is listed as an endangered species in the Red Data Book. It is a massive, deciduous tree up to 25 m in height and may live for hundreds of years. It is considered to be the queen of all carbon storage trees as it absorbs huge quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Currently the tree is suffering from drought and desertification and fear has been expressed about its regeneration. It is also reported that baobab seeds have very hard seed coats and germination rate is usually less than 20%. There is lack of awareness by the local population on the need to plant, protect and manage this endangered tree species. Several parts of the tree are reported to have interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and are used for healing purposes. For the conservation of such a multipurpose tree species, tissue culture studies are found to be the most lucrative and promising alternative as recently some tissue culture reports are coming up. The conservation strategy under Indian subtropical states will help in studying its medicinal properties for further research. To explore its other pharmacological uses and isolation of bioactive components of this species, cell and suspension culture technology will be the most promising in near future.

  19. 76 FR 51945 - Endangered Species; File No. 16548

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... recovery plan outline for this species. The permit would not authorize any takes from the wild, nor would... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA648 Endangered Species; File No. 16548 AGENCY... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA;...

  20. 78 FR 57410 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... issued the following permits to conduct activities with endangered species in response to recovery and... research or would benefit the recovery or the enhancement of survival of the species, and that the terms... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  1. 76 FR 40699 - Endangered Species; File No. 16229

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... responds directly to a recommendation from the NMFS recovery plan outline for this species. The permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA516 Endangered Species; File No. 16229 AGENCY... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the...

  2. 77 FR 67631 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 17367 and 17364

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... species recovery in four facilities in the Southeast Region of the USFWS. Research would include nutrition... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC348 Endangered Species; File Nos. 17367 and... of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the...

  3. 76 FR 15300 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 16266 and 16291

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... from the NMFS recovery plan outline for this species. The permits would not authorize any takes from... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA306 Endangered Species; File Nos. 16266 and... requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et...

  4. 76 FR 45517 - Endangered Species; File No. 13330-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... endangered smalltooth sawfish to facilitate recovery of the species. Sampling with the goal of taking 45... the recovery plan for the species. Issuance of this permit modification, as required by the ESA, was... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA605 Endangered Species; File No. 13330-01...

  5. 78 FR 23909 - Endangered Species; Permit No. 16507-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... sampling program to help assess recovery of the species. The permit holder is now authorized to capture and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA713 Endangered Species; Permit No. 16507-01... granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et...

  6. Endangered Species Act and energy facility planning: compliance and conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreeve, D; Calef, C; Nagy, J

    1978-05-01

    New energy facilities such as coal mines, gasification plants, refineries, and power plants--because of their severe environmental impacts--may, if sited haphazardly, jeopardize endangered species. By law, conflicts between energy-facility siting and endangered species occurrence must be minimized. To assess the likelihood of such conflicts arising, the authors used data from the Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Office, that describe the species' ranges by county. This data set was matched with county-level occurrences of imminent energy developments to find counties of overlap and hence potential conflict. An index was developed to measure the likelihood of actual conflict occurring in such counties. Factors determining the index are: numbers of endangered species inhabiting the county, number of energy-related developments, and to what degree the county remains in a wild or undeveloped state. Maps were prepared showing (1) geographic ranges of endangered species by taxonomic groups (mammals, fish, etc.) and (2) counties of conflict.

  7. 76 FR 39432 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... endangered species (76 FR 36934). We made an error by omitting one animal in the Feld Entertainment, Inc. application, which starts at the bottom of column 3 on page 36934. The omitted animal is a captive-born tiger... applications. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Feld Entertainment Inc., Vienna,...

  8. 77 FR 55191 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC008 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery... notice on May 16, 2012, announcing that the Proposed Endangered Species Act (ESA) Recovery Plan for Lower... comment (77 FR 28855; May 16, 2012) or our Web site at...

  9. 75 FR 25204 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV18 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery... Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service..., announced the release of the Draft Recovery Plan for Central California Coast coho salmon (Draft Plan)...

  10. 77 FR 40375 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... (Nicrophorus americanus) for the purpose of scientific study and species recovery efforts. These activities... Fish and Wildlife Service Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits AGENCY: Fish and... public to comment on the following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered...

  11. 78 FR 56924 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... the purpose of conducting presence/absence/population surveys and assisting in species recovery... Fish and Wildlife Service Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits AGENCY: Fish and... public to comment on the following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered...

  12. 75 FR 31812 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... recovery efforts, Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates), and three species of sea turtles... Fish and Wildlife Service Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits AGENCY: Fish and... public to comment on the following applications to conduct certain activities with ] endangered...

  13. 77 FR 7134 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA907 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery..., 2012. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine... announced the release of the Draft Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast Recovery Plan (Draft Plan)...

  14. 77 FR 28855 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC008 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery... the Proposed Endangered Species Act (ESA) Recovery Plan for Lower Columbia River Chinook Salmon, Lower... listed under the ESA of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Recovery means that the listed...

  15. 75 FR 27705 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV18 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery.... Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. Dated: May 12, 2010. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division..., NMFS, extended the public comment period for the Draft Recovery Plan for Central California Coast...

  16. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Biological Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.30 Threatened and endangered species. (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or a... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR...

  17. Are LDC marketing units an endangered species?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local distribution company (LDC) marketing affiliates are an ''endangered species,'' according to consultant Porter Bennett, president of Bentek Energy Research. This is true, he says, because the gas marketing industry is ''rapidly becoming a large-volume, low-margin business.'' As a result, the need for economies of scale will produce mergers in the gas marketing business until all that's left are six or 12 national companies. But Bruce Henning, A.G.A.'s chief economist, says don't bury LDC marketing units yet. Though he agrees that ''there is increasing pressure on marketers of energy services to reduce their margins to remain competitive,'' he adds that ''it's hard to say how big a company will have to be to capture the economies of scale necessary to be effective.'' These differing views are discussed in terms of size of company, the concerns about retail markets, and the trends towards mergers

  18. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  19. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ramakrushna

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, human gene pools, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. We propose cryopreservation of germplasms by constructing a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions. Rationale: Under such alarming circumstances, we turned to cryopreservation as an option but over thousands of years economic depression, sabotage, conflicts, warfare or even a brief disruption to the precise cryopreservation can hamper the storage of genetic samples.When we are considering conservation it is always preferable to go for a more secure and permanent solution. It was found out that the climatic and strategic location of the lunar polar craters are adequately hospitable, remote and free of maintenance and human observation as they provide naturally cryogenic temperature, reduced gravity and vacuum environment, non-reactive surface, safety from celestial intrusion and permanent shadow which doesn't allow the temperature to fluctuate thus providing most suitable storage facilities for the germplasms. PSRs provide steady temperature of 40- 60K and immunity to earthquakes due to low seismic activity. At these sites, burial in one meter or more of the regolith will provide protection against the solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays and micrometeorite impact. It provides the minimum necessary barrier from human intervention and at the same time enables easy retrieval for future usage. Genetic samples of endangered species can enable restoration even after its extinction. Preserved

  20. Allocating Conservation Resources under the Endangered Species Act

    OpenAIRE

    Langpap, Christian; Kerkvliet, Joe

    2007-01-01

    The necessity to develop a priority system to guide the allocation of resources to the conservation of endangered species is widely recognized. The economic theory of biodiversity has established a framework to do so, and has identified priority criteria that should be considered when making conservation decisions. This paper uses a random effects ordered probit model of endangered species recovery to simulate the effects of reallocating conservation funds among species listed under the Endan...

  1. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Berisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are characterized by low level of principal plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and exceptionally high levels of Mg and Fe. Serpentines play particular importance for flora of the country due to their richness in endemic plant species. The following 11 plant species have been studied: Aristolochia merxmuelleri, Colchicum hungaricum, Crocus flavus, Crocus kosaninii, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana punctata, Gladiolus illyricus, Lilium albanicum, Paeonia peregrina, Tulipa gesneriana and Tulipa kosovarica. Five out of eleven studied geophytes fall within Critically Endangered IUCN based threat category and five out of eleven are local endemics. Aristolochia merxmuelleri and Tulipa kosovarica are steno-endemic plant species that are found exclusively in serpentine soils. Information in our database should prove to be valuable to efforts in ecology, floristics, biosystematics, conservation and land management.

  2. 78 FR 16292 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... museum/herbarium specimens of endangered and threatened species of plants and animals (excluding...

  3. Threatened and Endangered Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all U.S. listed threatened and endangered mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in the Middle-Atlantic...

  4. 76 FR 14650 - Endangered Species; Permit No. 13330-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... sawfish to facilitate recovery of the species. Sampling with the goal of taking 45 smalltooth sawfish per... accomplish actions items identified in the recovery plan for the species. Dated: March 11, 2011. Tammy C... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA299 Endangered Species; Permit No....

  5. 77 FR 28402 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... research and recovery purposes to conduct presence/absences surveys of the following wildlife species, and... for research and recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys of the following species within... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish...

  6. 78 FR 9067 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... assisting in species recovery efforts. These activities will be conducted in Escambia and Walton Counties... purpose of scientific research and species recovery. These activities will occur in North Carolina. Permit... Fish and Wildlife Service Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits AGENCY: Fish...

  7. 78 FR 17640 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 17367 and 17364

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... needed for achieving species recovery in four facilities located in the Southeast Region of the USFWS..., cryopreservation, and other methods for population conservation, recovery, or enhancement of the species in the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC348 Endangered Species; File Nos. 17367...

  8. Endangered fish species of the world - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Hărşan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper summarizes a large part of the endangered and critically endangered fish species of the world. The list was constructed using the comprehensive IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (available in December 2008 and the well elaborated FISHBASE (available on the official website, in 2008 for taxonomy and accepted scientific names of the species. To these two important sources, many scientific papers and communications were added when recent and useful reports were found. However, there is a long way from the fish species list of this review to the world?s complete list of endangered and critically endangered fish species. In our list were not included subspecies, populations, varieties, or species having a debatable taxonomic status. The scope of this review was not to inventorize all the fishes included in these two categories, but to make possible drawing some general conclusions regarding most important possible causes of fish species extinction and to make suggestions concerning fish species conservation possibilities through aquaculture.

  9. Refuge Trip Report Endangered Species Meeting - White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report reviews endangered species management activities on White River National Wildlife Refuge with endangered species personnel. Target species include bald...

  10. 78 FR 61003 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Florida Bonneted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Florida bonneted bat's historical distribution is provided in the proposed listing rule (77 FR 60750). We... bonneted bat as an endangered species (77 FR 60750). After careful consideration of all public and peer... details about the Florida bonneted bat can be found in the proposed listing rule (77 FR 60750)....

  11. Decision support systems for recovery of endangered species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The listing of a species as endangered under the Endangered Species Act invokes a suite of responses to help improve conditions for the recovery of that species, to include identification of stressors contributing to population loss, decision analysis of the impacts of proposed recovery options, and implementation of optimal recovery measures. The ability of a decision support system to quantify inherent stressor uncertainties and to identify the key stressors that can be controlled or eliminated becomes key to ensuring the recovery of an endangered species. The listing of the Snake River sockeye, spring/summer chinook, and fall chinook salmon species in the Snake River as endangered provides a vivid example of the importance of sophisticated decision support systems. Operational and physical changes under consideration at eight of the hydroelectric dams along the Columbia and Lower Snake River pose significant financial impacts to a variety of stakeholders involved in the salmon population recovery process and carry significant uncertainties of outcome. A decision support system is presented to assist in the identification of optimal recovery actions for this example that includes the following: creation of datamarts of information on environmental, engineering, and ecological values that influence species survival; incorporation of decision analysis tools to determine optimal decision policies; and the use of geographic information systems (GIS) to provide a context for decision analysis and to communicate the impacts of decision policies

  12. Rare and endangered orchids’species in forest plant communities of the Tungussky state nature reserve (southern Evenkia)

    OpenAIRE

    E. E. Timoshok; Yu. G. Raiskaya; S. N. Skorohodov; V. Yu. Sopin

    2016-01-01

    We provide information on distribution, ecosystems occurrence and density of local populations of 7 rare and en-dangered species of Orchidaceae family (Orchidaceae Juss.). The species were investigated on representative for the Sountern Evenkia area of state natural reserve ‘Tungussky’. Four of these species (Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes, Cypripedium calceolus L., C. macranthon Sw., C. ventricosum Sw) are included to the Red Book of the Russian Fed-eration (2008) and three (Cypripedium guttatu...

  13. 77 FR 26777 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    .... 812907 Disney's Animal 77 FR 298; January March 9, 2012. Kingdom. 4, 2012. 52995A Topeka Zoological 77 FR.... 012505 Akron Zoological 77 FR 298; January March 9, 2012. Park. 4, 2012. 720230 Feld Entertainment 77 FR... application Federal Permit issuance date Register notice Endangered Species 758093 Florida Fish & 76 FR...

  14. 78 FR 9725 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... certain activities with endangered species (76 FR 51052). We are now reopening the comment period to allow... Applicant: Hawthorn Corporation, Grayslake, IL; PRT-058735, 059163, 068350, 068353, 154232, 154233,...

  15. 77 FR 2314 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... oryx (Oryx leucoryx), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), Addax (Addax nasomaculatus), and dama gazelle... Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685... comment on several applications for permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species (77...

  16. All about Owls: Studying Owls, State Birds, and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Leonard P.

    1991-01-01

    Activities are included that acquaint students with the parts of birds and the structure of feathers; that identify the prey of owls by opening owl pellets; working with information about threatened and endangered species of birds; and follow-up activities for bird study. A list of state and provincial birds of the United States and Canada and…

  17. 77 FR 3493 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009.... III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Jeremy Searle, Cornell University, Ithaca... applicant requests a permit to import a sport-hunted trophy of one male bontebok (Damaliscus...

  18. 76 FR 34095 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, the Endangered... brain specimens from lar gibbon (Hylobates lar), orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), from the Primate Brain Bank, the Netherlands, for the purpose of scientific research....

  19. The Economics of Captive Breeding and Endangered Species Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damania, R.; Bulte, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing concern that the traditional ¿protectionist¿ approach to conservation is expensive and insufficient to deliver the desired environmental outcomes. ¿Supply side¿ policies to conserve endangered species have drawn support. By generating supplies from captive-bred animals, wildlife com

  20. Endangered Species, Provincialism, and a Continental Approach to Bird Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Craig

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available I examined lists of endangered species from northeastern and midwestern United States to assess the extent to which they were dominated by species considered rare due to their vulnerability to anthropogenic stressors or, instead, by species whose rarity might be explained otherwise. Northeastern states had longer species lists than midwestern states, and more species associated with locally rare prairie habitats. More species at the edge of their geographic range appeared on lists from the Northeast than the Midwest. About 70% of listed species overall have shown either no significant population trend, or increases, at the continental scale, but wetland and prairie species were frequently listed, consistent with the generally acknowledged, widespread loss of these habitats. Curiously, midwestern states tended to list fewer forest species, despite evidence that forest fragmentation there has had strongly deleterious effects on regional bird populations. Overall, species appear to be listed locally for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to their risk of extinction generally, potentially contributing to inefficient distributions of limited resources to deal effectively with species that legitimately require conservation attention. I advocate a continental perspective when listing species locally, and propose enhanced criteria for characterizing species as endangered at the local level.

  1. Conservation triage or injurious neglect in endangered species recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Leah R

    2016-03-29

    Listing endangered and threatened species under the US Endangered Species Act is presumed to offer a defense against extinction and a solution to achieve recovery of imperiled populations, but only if effective conservation action ensues after listing occurs. The amount of government funding available for species protection and recovery is one of the best predictors of successful recovery; however, government spending is both insufficient and highly disproportionate among groups of species, and there is significant discrepancy between proposed and actualized budgets across species. In light of an increasing list of imperiled species requiring evaluation and protection, an explicit approach to allocating recovery funds is urgently needed. Here I provide a formal decision-theoretic approach focusing on return on investment as an objective and a transparent mechanism to achieve the desired recovery goals. I found that less than 25% of the $1.21 billion/year needed for implementing recovery plans for 1,125 species is actually allocated to recovery. Spending in excess of the recommended recovery budget does not necessarily translate into better conservation outcomes. Rather, elimination of only the budget surplus for "costly yet futile" recovery plans can provide sufficient funding to erase funding deficits for more than 180 species. Triage by budget compression provides better funding for a larger sample of species, and a larger sample of adequately funded recovery plans should produce better outcomes even if by chance. Sharpening our focus on deliberate decision making offers the potential to achieve desired outcomes in avoiding extinction for Endangered Species Act-listed species. PMID:26976572

  2. Alabama's many endangered aquatic species are unprotected

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on the vulnerability of watercress darter and other fish species in Alabama after a significant fish kill in Roebuck Spring pond in 2008.

  3. FORUM: Using the Best Scientific Data for Endangered Species Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood; Beyea; Morrison

    1999-11-01

    / The Endangered Species Act calls for the use of the best scientific data in conserving threatened or endangered species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The language of this act and other environmental laws and relevant judicial rulings also require assessments based on modern scientific standards that are routinely applied in ecological research. Particularly for the Endangered Species Act, "take" decisions should be made only after the supporting documents provide: (1) designation of critical habitat based on use and availability methods; (2) risk assessment(s) for proposed take and other project impacts; (3) ecosystem assessment by trained ecosystem ecologists; (4) a description of an adaptive management program involving more than post hoc adjustments to problems in mitigation design; (5) a description of the proposed scientific monitoring along with thresholds for application of adaptive management; (6) uncertainty analysis along with estimates of species' abundance and project impacts; (7) nonselective, academic-quality referencing of data, methods, and theory supporting the conclusions; and (8) reviews of the assessment by independent scientists. These standards have been rarely applied to assessments of environmental take, due to lack of incentives for cooperation among academic scientists, environmental consultants, and the government regulatory agencies. Particularly important is requiring the type of independent review used by academic scientists. Such review would help ensure that take decisions are based on use of the appropriate scientific standards, thereby qualifying the supporting data as scientific and the best available, no matter how limited the data. Until these standards are applied prior to political trade-off and pragmatism, the environmental laws will continue to have little bearing on conservation.KEY WORDS: Endangered Species Act; Habitat conservation plans; Independent review; Risk assessment; Scientific data; Uncertainty

  4. Endangered plant species; 1 : 3 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These are represented by taxons, existence of which in the localities are threatened directly or indirectly by a wide range of, above all, anthropic factors (complete liquidation of sites in the consequence of construction activities and extraction of minerals and organogenic raw material such as peat or by gathering of individual plants). Many of the threatened species grow in small number of localities and in small populations. Asplenium adulterinum - is a slim fern linked to ultra-basic rocks with higher magnesium contents. In Slovakia it grows on chloritic phyllites and gneiss. Slovak localities are situated in the eastern boundary of its area. This legally protected species is threatened in Slovakia and it is simultaneously included in the world red list. Small populations are threatened by succession, collecting, and mechanical destruction of soil substratum (in the consequence of extraction and transport of timber). Veronica agrestis - annual field weed, which accompanies cereals and root crops. It prefers light nutritious soils, rich in humus and nitrogen, humid and slightly acid soils poor in calcium, and altitudes below 700 m a. s. l. Affected by agro-technical interference it joined the rare and threatened taxons of Slovak's flora. Alyssum desertorum - is the typical species of psammophyte associations with high carbonate content. It grows on sites with discovered sandy surface. The species is threatened by destruction of its sites by economic activities such as extraction of sand. It is legally protected Hippuris vulgaris - water herb growing in stationary or slowly flowing waters, water reservoirs and canals with sandy bottom. It requires water high in nutrient and calcium content. It is threatened by control of water streams, disappearance of dead or blind arms of the rivers and melioration. It is threatened and legally protected species. (authors)

  5. 76 FR 36934 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... the Service Director. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Saint Louis Zoo, St... enhancement of the species through conservation education, one African leopard (Panthera pardus), one...

  6. A bioeconomic perspective on the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salau, K. R.; Fenichel, E. P.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat destruction threatens species existence and has recently accelerated due to population growth, urban sprawl, agricultural development and other profitable land conversions on public and private lands. To exacerbate this issue, the public good nature of species existence creates strong incentives for landowners to engage in free-riding behavior and forego conservation on managed lands. To reverse these negative effects, the United States Congress passed the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1973 to create a set of rules for planning government intervention to protect dwindling fish, wildlife, and plant populations and create a platform for recovery and conservation. The ESA is quite explicit about how to make tradeoffs when listing a species as threatened or endangered - only evaluation of biological risks faced are considered. But the act is unclear about what information can or should be used when determining delisting criteria for endangered species. The ESA mandates federal participation in conservation and, in many cases, agencies must curtail socially beneficial activities (e.g. grazing, renewable energy development, mining, military training) in order to meet species recovery objectives. As funding for conservation on federal lands is limited, this creates an implicit tradeoff between recovering species - to gain post-delisting managerial flexibility - and preventing extinction - to minimize management costs. In this respect, reconciliation of biological recovery goals amidst budget constraints and alternate land-use benefits should be supplemented by economic analysis. Economic tradeoffs are inherent in species recovery under the ESA, but the act does not discuss how agencies should structure a recovery plan in light of such factors. This study outlines a bioeconomic approach to framing the recovery problem under the ESA and provides a framework for simultaneously establishing measurable delisting criteria and a least-cost path to recovery. This

  7. Misuse of Checklist Assessments in Endangered Species Recovery Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Ruckelshaus

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource agencies worldwide must develop species recovery plans that specify threats, propose targets required for recovery, and evaluate the extent to which habitat alteration and restoration may influence species decline and recovery. To evaluate the impacts of proposed habitat alterations on species of conservation concern, standardized protocols may be adopted even when supporting data are scarce. For example, a habitat matrix was developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS to guide consultations under the Endangered Species Act for actions that may affect the functioning of the freshwater habitat used by several federally listed salmonid species. The habitat matrix has also been advocated as a tool for recovery planning by agencies apart from the NMFS, who could use it to define the habitat conditions assumed to be necessary for salmonid population viability and hence recovery. This use of the habitat matrix in a recovery context has not been evaluated, and, despite its widespread use as a regulatory tool, the empirical relationships between many of the habitat matrix variables and salmonid populations remain unexplored. By amassing data on habitat assessments and trends in fish abundance, we empirically evaluate the relationship between habitat matrix scores and salmonid population metrics. We found that abundance trends for populations of three species of threatened and endangered salmonids (chinook, coho, and steelhead were unrelated to these habitat matrix assessments. This study reveals the danger of assuming quantitative relationships between habitat and organism and cautions against co-opting protocols from the regulatory realm for recovery planning for endangered species.

  8. The Pricelessness of Biodiversity: Using the Endangered Species Act to Help Combat Extinction and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Falberg, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    The science is clear. Climate change is happening, and it has aserious adverse effect on the majority of biodiversity, species,and ecosystems. Currently, there are no laws that serve to protect biodiversity and species from the oncoming changes; however, there is a law that serves to protect endangered and threatened species generally: the Endangered Species Act. This paper proposes using conservation biology principles to suggest several amendments to the Endangered Species Act to help save ...

  9. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose

  10. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: finding the common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Casazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway's Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail, a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora. California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora à - S. foliosa readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict

  11. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Gibbs

    Full Text Available It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task.

  12. 76 FR 18239 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Argentina for the purpose of scientific research. Applicant: Museum of Zoology and Herbarium, University of... museum/herbarium specimens of endangered and threatened species (excluding bald eagles)...

  13. 75 FR 78731 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... requests a permit to photograph Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus) above and underwater for commercial... certain activities with endangered species (75 FR 57977). The applicant subsequently submitted...

  14. 78 FR 32013 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 38 Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Endangered. Stenogyne kauaulaensis Endangered. Wikstroemia villosa akia Endangered. Animals: Newcombia... proposed rule (77 FR 34464), which was published on that date. Publication of the proposed rule opened a 60-day comment period, which was extended on August 9, 2012 (77 FR 47587), for an additional 30 days...

  15. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appropriate protective action. (v) Assisting recovery teams, as appropriate, in preparing species recovery... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals....

  16. Intelligent Tinkering: the Endangered Species Act and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Harm. Benson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Endangered Species Act (ESA is one of the most powerful and controversial environmental laws in the United States. As a result of its uncompromising position against biodiversity loss, the ESA has become the primary driver of many ecological restoration efforts in the United States. This article explains why the ESA has become the impetus for so many of these efforts and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the ESA as a primary driver from a resilience-based perspective. It argues that in order to accommodate resilience theory, several changes to ESA implementation and enforcement should be made. First and foremost, there is a need to shift management strategies from a species-centered to a systems-based approach. Chief among the shifts required will be a more integrated approach to governance that includes a willingness to reassess demands placed on ecological systems by our social systems. Building resilience will also require more proactive management efforts that support the functioning of system processes before they are endangered and on the brink of regime change. Finally, resilience thinking requires a reorientation of management away from goals associated with achieving preservation, restoration, and optimization and toward goals associated with fostering complexity and adaptive capacity.

  17. An introduction to adaptive management for threatened and endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Management of threatened and endangered species would seem to be a perfect context for adaptive management. Many of the decisions are recurrent and plagued by uncertainty, exactly the conditions that warrant an adaptive approach. But although the potential of adaptive management in these settings has been extolled, there are limited applications in practice. The impediments to practical implementation are manifold and include semantic confusion, institutional inertia, misperceptions about the suitability and utility, and a lack of guiding examples. In this special section of the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, we hope to reinvigorate the appropriate application of adaptive management for threatened and endangered species by framing such management in a decision-analytical context, clarifying misperceptions, classifying the types of decisions that might be amenable to an adaptive approach, and providing three fully developed case studies. In this overview paper, I define terms, review the past application of adaptive management, challenge perceived hurdles, and set the stage for the case studies which follow.

  18. 76 FR 14299 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: Correction To Codify in the Code of Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... (Orcinus orca) distinct population segment (DPS) as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act... under the ESA on November 18, 2005 (70 FR 69903). That final rule became effective on February 16, 2006... separate and unrelated rulemaking, we published a final rule on March 6, 2008 (73 FR 12024), to list...

  19. 77 FR 15019 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 14200), we published a proposed rule to revise the regulations that implement CITES... Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES... implement the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)...

  20. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Naim Berisha; Fadil Millaku; Elez Krasniqi; Bekim Gashi

    2014-01-01

    Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are cha...

  1. Mycorrhizal dependency of some endemic and endangered Hawaiian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemma, J N; Koske, R E; Habte, M

    2002-02-01

    Four endemic species of Hawaiian plants were tested for their response to inoculation with a Hawaiian isolate of Glomus aggregatum (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus [AMF]) when grown in a native soil with or without P added to achieve different soil-solution P levels. The endangered species (Sesbania tomentosa [Fabaceae] and Colubrina oppositifolia [Rhamnaceae]) and two nonendangered species (Bidens sandvicensis and B. asymmetrica × sandvicensis [Asteraceae]) were tested. When soil-solution P levels in greenhouse trials were similar to unfertilized field soils (e.g., 0.005-0.020 mg P/L), shoots of inoculated plants were 2.1 to 7.0 times larger than noninoculated plants. Leaf tissue P levels and root biomass in these species showed similar responses to inoculation. Mycorrhizal dependencies ranging from 44 to 88% were measured when plants were grown in low-P soils and were -4-42% in soil with P levels typical of highly productive agricultural soils. A survey of P levels in a variety of native (nonagricultural) Hawaiian soils indicated the widespread occurrence of P-limited sites (mean = 0.010 mg P/L, range = <0.001-0.030 mg P/L; N = 41). The terms "ecological mycorrhizal dependency" (EMD) and "agricultural mycorrhizal dependency" (AMD) are introduced to refine the concept of mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:21669742

  2. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  3. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  4. 76 FR 27016 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... to Pacific salmon. The proposed research would increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and help guide management and conservation efforts. DATES: Comments or requests... sediment retention structure. Also, researchers would collect information that would increase...

  5. 78 FR 64637 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for 15...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Endangered. Stenogyne cranwelliae........ NCN Endangered. Animals: Drosophila digressa picture-wing fly... kavaiense, as proposed in the Federal Register (77 FR 63928; October 17, 2012), is still under development... 17, 2012, are outlined in our proposed rule (77 FR 63928), which was published on that...

  6. Recovery of imperiled species under the Endangered Species Act: The need for a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J.M.; Goble, D.D.; Wiens, J.A.; Wilcove, D.S.; Bean, M.; Male, T.

    2005-01-01

    The recovery (delisting) of a threatened or endangered species is often accompanied by the expectation that conservation management of the species will no longer be necessary. However, the magnitude and pace of human impacts on the environment make it unlikely that substantial progress will be made in delisting many species unless the definition of "recovery" includes some form of active management. Preventing delisted species from again being at risk of extinction may require continuing, species-specific management actions. We characterize such species as "conservation-reliant", and suggest that viewing "recovery" as a continuum of states rather than as a simple "recovered/not recovered" dichotomy may enhance our ability to manage such species within the framework of the Endangered Species Act. With ongoing loss of habitat, disruption of natural disturbance regimes, and the increasing impacts of non-native invasive species, it is probable that the number of conservation-reliant species will increase. We propose the development of "recovery management agreements", with legally and biologically defensible contracts that would provide for continu-ing conservation management following delisting. The use of such formalized agreements will facilitate shared management responsibilities between federal wildlife agencies and other federal agencies, and with state, local, and tribal governments, as well as with private entities that have demonstrated the capability to meet the needs of conservation-reliant species. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  7. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. Production Company (CPDN). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo rat, Tipton kangaroo rat, and Hoover`s wooly-star. All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is ``...the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.`` DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPRC is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during fiscal year 1993.

  8. Establishing endangered species recovery criteria using predictive simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Catlin, Daniel H.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Gratto-Trevor, Cheri L.; Aron, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Listing a species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and developing a recovery plan requires U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to establish specific and measurable criteria for delisting. Generally, species are listed because they face (or are perceived to face) elevated risk of extinction due to issues such as habitat loss, invasive species, or other factors. Recovery plans identify recovery criteria that reduce extinction risk to an acceptable level. It logically follows that the recovery criteria, the defined conditions for removing a species from ESA protections, need to be closely related to extinction risk. Extinction probability is a population parameter estimated with a model that uses current demographic information to project the population into the future over a number of replicates, calculating the proportion of replicated populations that go extinct. We simulated extinction probabilities of piping plovers in the Great Plains and estimated the relationship between extinction probability and various demographic parameters. We tested the fit of regression models linking initial abundance, productivity, or population growth rate to extinction risk, and then, using the regression parameter estimates, determined the conditions required to reduce extinction probability to some pre-defined acceptable threshold. Binomial regression models with mean population growth rate and the natural log of initial abundance were the best predictors of extinction probability 50 years into the future. For example, based on our regression models, an initial abundance of approximately 2400 females with an expected mean population growth rate of 1.0 will limit extinction risk for piping plovers in the Great Plains to less than 0.048. Our method provides a straightforward way of developing specific and measurable recovery criteria linked directly to the core issue of extinction risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Community habitats and biodiversity in the Taburno-Camposauro Regional Park. Woodland, rare species, endangered species and their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarino C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taburno-Camposauro Regional Park is an area of major natural interest in the region of Campania (southern Italy: it represents a protected area isolated from the main axis of the Campanian Apennines, including two sites of community importance (SCIs - ITA8020007 - ITA8020008 covering about 75% of the whole area. The present study aims to identify and describe the community habitats and forest biodiversity in the park, as well as to provide suggestions for their conservation. By a large survey carried out from March 2004 to October 2005, nine community-interest habitats were identified, five of which are priority habitats. Some 26 tree forest species and 971 other plant species including grasses and shrubs were also identified and classified, 14 of which are listed in the red data book of plants. As conservation of each species is strictly linked to the conservation of its habitat, on the basis of legislation in force at regional, national and EU levels, management guidelines were drawn up for the various habitat types and for the most endangered species in order to ensure biodiversity conservation.

  10. Endangered Species Consultation Request : Opening to Sports & Commercial Fishing Ottawa and Cedar Point NWR’s

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Endangered Species Consultation Request states that the Ottawa and Cedar Point NWRs Fishery Management Plan will not affect bald eagles on the Refuge.

  11. An evaluation of contaminant exposure of three endangered bat species in Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A background contaminant study was conducted on bat guano and insects in Virginia caves to determine the possibility of exposure of endangered species of bats in...

  12. 78 FR 56924 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... export and re-import non-living museum/herbarium specimens of endangered and threatened...

  13. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic...

  14. The Influence of the Academic Conservation Biology Literature on Endangered Species Recovery Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Hudgens, Brian R.; Moyle, Leonie C.; John Stinchcombe; Bloch, Philip L.; Sathya Chinnadurai; Morris, William F.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the volume of the academic conservation biology literature, there is little evidence as to what effect this work is having on endangered species recovery efforts. Using data collected from a national review of 136 endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we evaluated whether recovery plans were changing in response to publication trends in four areas of the academic conservation biology literature: metapopulation dynamics, population viability analysis, conservation corridors...

  15. Endangered plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    A total of 15 vascular plant taxa, currently appearing on the Endangered Species list, occur in southern Nye County, Nevada, and/or adjacent Inyo County, California. It is the purpose of this report to record in detail the locations of the plant collections upon which the distributions are based, and other information relevant to their status as Endangered Species, and to recommend the areas to be designated critical habitats.

  16. Endangered plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 15 vascular plant taxa, currently appearing on the Endangered Species list, occur in southern Nye County, Nevada, and/or adjacent Inyo County, California. It is the purpose of this report to record in detail the locations of the plant collections upon which the distributions are based, and other information relevant to their status as Endangered Species, and to recommend the areas to be designated critical habitats

  17. 78 FR 57749 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... proposed rule (77 FR 59518) to list the Mount Charleston blue butterfly as endangered, and the lupine blue... in his study, and in light of the geographic isolation and distinctiveness of the Shasta blue... al. 1997. (n), 2010 (y), adults Boyd 2006; 2011 (y), 2012 consistently Kingsley 2007; (y)....

  18. Rare and endangered orchids’species in forest plant communities of the Tungussky state nature reserve (southern Evenkia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Timoshok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide information on distribution, ecosystems occurrence and density of local populations of 7 rare and en-dangered species of Orchidaceae family (Orchidaceae Juss.. The species were investigated on representative for the Sountern Evenkia area of state natural reserve ‘Tungussky’. Four of these species (Calypso bulbosa (L. Oakes, Cypripedium calceolus L., C. macranthon Sw., C. ventricosum Sw are included to the Red Book of the Russian Fed-eration (2008 and three (Cypripedium guttatum Sw., Dactylorhiza cruenta (O. F. Muell. Soo, Epipactis helleborine (L. Grantz to the Red Book of the Krasnoyarsky Krai (2012. Six of rare and endangered orchid species (except for Cypripedium guttatum found in the reserve are near the north boundary of their range. Six of the species (except for Dactylorhiza cruenta are typical forest plants and occur mostly in herb-shrub story of rare Larix and Pinus-Larix forests with shrub-green moss or low-herb-green moss cover, on warm southern and western slopes. The habitats of Dactylorhiza cruenta are very different from other species. Local populations of the species are located on the narrow coast of the Hushma river, covered with shrub-leguminous meadows and shrub thickets. The density of populations of Calypso bulbosa varies from very low (1 specimen/sq.m. to dense (19 specimen/sq.m.. The density of Cypri-pedium calceolus и C. macranthon varies similarly from 1.2 to 6.3 specimen/sq.m. The density of local populations of C. ventricosum is low. It is about 2.5 specimen/sq.m. Long-root species C. guttatum has population density from 11.15 to 78.18 partial scions/sq.m. Epipactis helleborine occurrence is very rare. This species occurs only as singular specimen. The density of populations of Dactylorhiza cruenta is from 4.3 to 9.2 species/sq.m. Despite that most of the rare and endangered Orchid species exist on the boundary of their range, all species found in the reserve are stable, blossom and produce harvest

  19. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Kristopher J. L.; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L.; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C.

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  20. 78 FR 60254 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... to Pacific salmon. The proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The...; they would not be removed from the stream. The research would benefit listed species by...

  1. 76 FR 14923 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... to Pacific salmonids. The proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and help guide management and conservation efforts. The applications..., chlorophyll fluorescence, and irradiance near bottom). The research would benefit listed species by...

  2. 75 FR 50746 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... application requests relating to Pacific salmon. The proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation... research on carp. The research would benefit listed species by helping managers determine the...

  3. 77 FR 74506 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR.... Applicant: Utah State University-Intermountain Herbarium, Logan, UT; PRT-92157A The applicant requests a permit to export and re-import non-living museum/herbarium specimens of endangered and threatened...

  4. SUCCESS OR FAILURE? ORDERED PROBIT APPROACHES TO MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT

    OpenAIRE

    Langpap, Christian; Kerkvliet, Joe

    2002-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) is one of the most controversial pieces of environmental legislation. Part of the controversy stems from doubts about its effectiveness in generating improvements in species viability. This paper uses ordered probit models to test whether the ESA has been successful in promoting species recovery. We find a negative correlation between listing and species recovery. Additionally, we find evidence of positive effects for species-specific spending and the achievem...

  5. Public Preferences for Endangered Species Recovery: An Examination of Geospatial Scale and Non-Market Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy eWallmo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-market valuation allows society to express their preferences for goods and services whose economic value is not reflected in traditional markets. One issue that arises in applying non-market values in policy settings is defining the extent of the economic jurisdiction – the area that includes all people who hold values – for a good or service. In this paper we estimate non-market values for recovering eight threatened and endangered marine species in the US for two geographically embedded samples: households on the west coast of the US and households throughout the nation. We statistically compare species values between the two samples to help determine the extent of and variation in the economic jurisdiction for endangered species recovery. Our findings offer support to the tenet that the summation of non-market values across the country is appropriate when evaluating alternative policies for endangered species recovery.

  6. Structuring decisions for managing threatened and endangered species in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robin; Arvai, Joseph; Gerber, Leah R

    2013-12-01

    The management of endangered species under climate change is a challenging and often controversial task that incorporates input from a variety of different environmental, economic, social, and political interests. Yet many listing and recovery decisions for endangered species unfold on an ad hoc basis without reference to decision-aiding approaches that can improve the quality of management choices. Unlike many treatments of this issue, which consider endangered species management a science-based problem, we suggest that a clear decision-making process is equally necessary. In the face of new threats due to climate change, managers' choices about endangered species require closely linked analyses and deliberations that identify key objectives and develop measurable attributes, generate and compare management alternatives, estimate expected consequences and key sources of uncertainty, and clarify trade-offs across different dimensions of value. Several recent cases of endangered species conservation decisions illustrate our proposed decision-focused approach, including Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recovery framework development, Cultus Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) management, and Upper Columbia River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recovery planning. Estructuración de Decisiones para Manejar Especies Amenazadas y en Peligro en un Clima Cambiante. PMID:24299087

  7. 75 FR 76400 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of the species and to help guide management and conservation efforts. DATES: Written comments on the permit... attributes associated with high productivity areas and could help identify areas of poor productivity...

  8. 76 FR 31590 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The proposed research programs are intended to increase knowledge of the species and to help guide management and conservation efforts. DATES: Written comments on... will be captured by dip-net and transported to a perennial flow section downstream on their...

  9. 78 FR 1201 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... application requests relating to Pacific salmon. The proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation... to monitor listed salmonid health, help guide sockeye salmon recovery operations, and out...

  10. 77 FR 33717 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of the species and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The application and related... Federal Register on December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76400). No comments were received for this...

  11. 75 FR 23671 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish; Research Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The applications may be viewed online at: https... collection locations and increase the numbers of listed fish that may be taken. Under the modified...

  12. 75 FR 22738 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... to Pacific salmon. The proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The... is designed to help assess juvenile habitat use in the San Juan Islands. The researchers...

  13. 75 FR 44760 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Pacific salmon. The proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The application may be... protection and restoration actions in the estuary help Chinook salmon populations in the Snohomish...

  14. 75 FR 56986 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... to Pacific salmon. The proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The... the fish by helping managers determine the effectiveness of current recovery measures and design...

  15. 76 FR 12308 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Six Species of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... depending on sex and study (Simpfendorfer, 2000; Clarke et al., 2004). Tanaka (1991) produced a growth curve....S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish as endangered on April 1, 2003 (68 FR 15674). Smalltooth sawfish whose... reclassifying a species under the ESA (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS...

  16. Updating Known Distribution Models for Forecasting Climate Change Impact on Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio-Román; Márquez, Ana Luz; Real, Raimundo

    2013-01-01

    To plan endangered species conservation and to design adequate management programmes, it is necessary to predict their distributional response to climate change, especially under the current situation of rapid change. However, these predictions are customarily done by relating de novo the distribution of the species with climatic conditions with no regard of previously available knowledge about the factors affecting the species distribution. We propose to take advantage of known species distribution models, but proceeding to update them with the variables yielded by climatic models before projecting them to the future. To exemplify our proposal, the availability of suitable habitat across Spain for the endangered Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata) was modelled by updating a pre-existing model based on current climate and topography to a combination of different general circulation models and Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our results suggested that the main threat for this endangered species would not be climate change, since all forecasting models show that its distribution will be maintained and increased in mainland Spain for all the XXI century. We remark on the importance of linking conservation biology with distribution modelling by updating existing models, frequently available for endangered species, considering all the known factors conditioning the species' distribution, instead of building new models that are based on climate change variables only. PMID:23840330

  17. Darwin's Book: On the Origin of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. It focuses on the contents of the Origin as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  18. Advances in the reintroduction of rare and endangered wild plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai; Jian, ShuGuang; Liu, HongXiao; Zhang, QianMei; Lu, HongFang

    2014-06-01

    Human disturbance and climate change have increased the risk of extinction for rare and endangered wild plant species. One effective way to conserve these rare and endangered species is through reintroduction. In this review, we summarize the advances in wild plant reintroduction from five perspectives: the establishment of reintroduction biology as an important tool for biodiversity conservation; the importance of genetic diversity in reintroduction; reintroduction under global climate change; recruitment limitation in reintroduction; and reintroduction and ecological restoration. In addition, we consider the future of plant reintroduction strategies. PMID:24824586

  19. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  20. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as 'endangered' when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A 'threatened' classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals

  1. Species diversity, structure and dynamics of two populations of an endangered species, Magnolia dealbata (Magnoliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Pineda-López, María del Rosario

    2006-09-01

    Little is known about the ecology and demography of the genus Magnolia. Magnolia dealbata Zucc. is an endangered species endemic to Mexico. Two contrasting populations of M. dealbata (one from the grasslands and other from a secondary cloud forest) were studied. We asked the following questions: (a) Are size structure (diameter at breast height, DBH) and infrutescence production significantly different between the two populations? (b) What are the populations' growth rates (lambda) based on an initial 1987 study? (c) Are the associated species diversity indices of these M. dealbata populations significantly different? The results show no significant differences between the population size structure (p=.094); the growth rates of the populations were 0.992 in grassland and 1.053 in secondary cloud forest. The number of infrutescences produced in year 2001 and DBH relationship were significantly linear (p.01) between their slopes. The diversity indices were not significantly different (p>.05), and only 54% of the species were common to both sites. Our study suggests that both populations are relatively stable and that the management history could impact more on the species composition than on the diversity indices. PMID:18494171

  2. By the numbers: how is recovery defined by the U.S. Endangered Species Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Maile C.; Leidner, Allison K.; Haines, Aaron; Goble, Dale D.; Scott, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 40 years after passage of the US Endangered Species Act, the prospects for listed species remain dim because they are too severely imperiled by the time they receive the act's protection. Even if threats are abated, the low abundances required for recovery often preclude a high probability of persistence. The lack of sufficient data for setting recovery objectives also remains a barrier. Delisting is considered possible for only 74% of the 1173 species with recovery plans—92% of threatened and 69% of endangered species. The median number of populations required for delisting (8) was at or below the historical numbers for 64% and at or below the numbers at listing for 37% of the species. The median number of individuals required for recovery (2400) exceeded the abundances at listing for 93% of the species, but most were below the levels considered necessary for long-term persistence, especially in changing environments.

  3. Potential Risk of Hybridization in Ex Situ Collections of Two Endangered Species of Sinojackia Hu (Styracaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous hybridization in ex situ facilities can undermine the genetic integrity of ex situ collections and potentially contaminate open-pollinated seeds or seedlings destined for the reintroduction of endangered plant species into the wild. In the present study, the potential risk of hybridization between two endangered Chinese endemic species, namely Sinojackia xylocarpa Hu and S. rehderiana Hu, which are naturally allopatric species but were conserved ex situ in Wuhan Botanical Garden (WBG), Wuhan, China, were investigated over three consecutive years from 2003 to 2005. The entire overlapping flowering period of the two species was 14-20 d and the two species shared the same pollinator insects during the entire flowering season in WBG. The floral isolation between the two species was not an issue in the ex situ collection at WBG. The results suggest an opportunity for pollen transfer between species and a potential risk of genetic introgression and loss of genetic identity of open-pollinated seeds produced in the ex situ collection of these two endangered species. An artificial reciprocal cross between S. xylocarpa and S. rehderiana confirmed that the two congener species could readily set seeds, indicating no post-pollination barriers to hybridization and the importance of spatial isolation as a barrier to inter-specific crossing. Therefore, to manage these crossable species with overlapping flowering times and shared pollination vectors in ex situ facilities, spatial isolation should be carefully considered to minimize the possibility of spontaneous hybridization.

  4. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).

  5. Mine spoil prairies expand critical habitat for endangered and threatened amphibian and reptile species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoo, Michael J.; Kinney, Vanessa C.; Heemeyer, Jennifer L.; Engbrecht, Nathan J.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  6. 78 FR 48898 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... recovery efforts. These activities will be conducted throughout the range of these species: Alabama... species recovery efforts. These activities will be conducted throughout the range of the species in... for the purpose of conducting presence/absence/population surveys and assisting in species...

  7. Photoactivated toxicity of PAH to endangered fishes and standard laboratory test species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been detected in water and sediment from the San Juan River Basin, located in the Four Corners area of the southwestern US. In addition to possessing extensive oil and gas deposits, the San Juan contains several threatened or endangered fish species such as Colorado squawfish and razorback suckers. Proposed expansion of oil and gas development in the basin has sparked concerns that potential increases in PAH loading may jeopardize these and other native fishes. In response, the authors conducted laboratory exposures of threatened and endangered species to various PAH both with and without accompanying exposure to UV light. As predicted from the literature, exposure to UV light caused a marked photo-activated toxicity response in all species; however, the sensitivity to PAH both with and without UV exposure varied among species and lifestages. Supplemental studies were conducted to evaluate the physiological mechanisms for variation in sensitivity between species and lifestage

  8. 78 FR 55599 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Santa Fe National Forest for management and conservation of the species (New Mexico Endemic Salamander... salamander is one of two species of plethodontid salamanders' endemic (native and restricted to a particular... Laboratory, with some habitat located on tribal land and private lands (New Mexico Endemic Salamander...

  9. 75 FR 81584 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the Sperm Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... endangered species under the ESA on December 2, 1970 (35 FR 18319). Sperm whales have a global distribution and can be found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. They were subject to commercial whaling... comments from the public on July 6, 2006 (71 FR 38385). A summary of comments and NMFS responses...

  10. 75 FR 57977 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    .... Endangered Species Applicant: University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT; PRT-14240A The applicant requests a... applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Christina Marisa Tellez, University of California Los Angeles... permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of one male bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus) culled...

  11. 78 FR 50083 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... discretion of the Service Director. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: University of... following applicants each request a permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of one male...

  12. The Influence of the Academic Conservation Biology Literature on Endangered Species Recovery Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Hudgens

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the volume of the academic conservation biology literature, there is little evidence as to what effect this work is having on endangered species recovery efforts. Using data collected from a national review of 136 endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we evaluated whether recovery plans were changing in response to publication trends in four areas of the academic conservation biology literature: metapopulation dynamics, population viability analysis, conservation corridors, and conservation genetics. We detected several changes in recovery plans in apparent response to publication trends in these areas (e.g., the number of tasks designed to promote the recovery of an endangered species shifted, although these tasks were rarely assigned a high priority. Our results indicate that, although the content of endangered species recovery plans changes in response to the literature, results are not uniform across all topics. We suggest that academic conservation biologists need to address the relative importance of each topic for conservation practice in different settings. [See Erratum

  13. 76 FR 20179 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of Critical Habitat for Cook Inlet Beluga Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ..., 2008, we published a Final Rule to list the Cook Inlet beluga whale as an endangered species (73 FR... beluga whales. This critical habitat was subsequently proposed on December 2, 2009 (74 FR 63080). The... the Cook Inlet beluga whale may be found in the Proposed Listing Rule (72 FR 19854; April 20,...

  14. 75 FR 77475 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Subspecies of the Ringed Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... species. In the 2008 status review of the ribbon seal (Boveng, et al., 2008; see also 73 FR 79822... seals. In 1993, the Saimaa seal was listed as endangered under the ESA (58 FR 26920; May 6, 1993) and as... estimated at 160-180 seals (57 FR 60162; December 18, 1992). Summary of Factors Affecting the Ringed...

  15. 78 FR 43005 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of Critical Habitat for the Northwest Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... (supralittoral)--the nesting beach where oviposition (egg laying), embryonic development, and hatching occurs. (2... habitat. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service addressed terrestrial areas (nesting beaches) in a separate... the species as threatened to nine DPSs, listed as either threatened or endangered (76 FR...

  16. 75 FR 12597 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... loggerhead sea turtle as threatened throughout its worldwide range on July 28, 1978 (43 FR 32800). On July 12... endangered species under the ESA. NMFS published a notice in the Federal Register on November 16, 2007 (72 FR... Federal Register on March 5, 2008 (73 FR 11849), concluding that the petitioners (Center for...

  17. FY 1994 Endangered Species Recovery Activities on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — St. Vincent NWR received endangered species recovery funds 1113 for the red wolf 25,000 and sea turtles 3,000 in. FY 1994. The refuge also hosted nesting and...

  18. Student Science Teachers' Ideas about Endangered Bird Species: Hermit Ibis, Chukar Partridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa

    2009-01-01

    In this study, student science teachers' ideas and views of endangered bird species and their protection are analysed. 173 student science teachers studying at Selcuk University in the department of science education, participated in the study. Data analysis provides evidence that the majority of students thought that human intervention is…

  19. Factors influencing willingness to donate to marine endangered species recovery in the Galapagos National Park, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A Cardenas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Willingness to donate money for the conservation of endangered species may depend on numerous factors. In this paper, we analyze data from a survey given to tourists visiting Ecuador’s Galapagos National Park and Marine Reserve to investigate determinants of their willingness to donate (WTD towards the conservation of two marine endangered species--the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini and the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas. Specifically, we use regression analysis to analyze the influence of attitudes and beliefs toward species conservation, levels of concern for specific species, recreational motivations, and past donation patterns on WTD, while also controlling for individual characteristics such as age, gender, place of residence, and other demographics. Additionally, we evaluate the sensitivity of WTD to the species being protected by conservation efforts. Our results demonstrate that specific concern about the species, beliefs about donating to the protection program, and past donation behavior significantly influence the intention to donate money towards the recovery of the two marine endangered species. The likelihood of donating to green sea turtle conservation efforts is marginally higher than for hammerhead sharks, possibly due to its more charismatic nature. In contrast, visitors who are more willing to donate for shark conservation appear to be those with a strong desire to see them in the wild. The results provide useful information on the heterogeneity of tourist preferences towards donating to species conservation efforts, which has broad implications for resource agencies seeking ways to fund conservation actions.

  20. Resource implications of listing Columbia River Basin salmon stocks under the endangered species act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Columbia River and Snake River dams and reservoirs provide substantial benefits in the Northwest through their operation for hydropower, flood control, irrigation, navigation, and fish and wildlife. The listing of certain Snake River salmon stocks as endangered and threatened, under provisions of the Endangered Species Act, has surfaced major public policy issues. Protection and enhancement of these salmon stocks has resulted in proposals to significantly modify the operation of the reservoir projects. Implementation of these proposals could have significant economic, environmental and social impacts in the region

  1. 78 FR 19517 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... surveys and assisting in species recovery efforts. These activities may be conducted throughout the States... presence/absence surveys and assisting in species recovery efforts. These activities may be conducted... presence/absence surveys and assisting in species recovery efforts. These activities will be conducted...

  2. 75 FR 61513 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... ensure agency activities contribute to species recovery efforts. This activity will take place across... to take the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) for the purpose of species recovery activities... authorization to take the Florida panther for the purpose of species recovery activities. Such...

  3. 77 FR 59959 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys of the following species within Texas: Barton Springs... permit for research and recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys of the following species... for research and recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys of the following species...

  4. Genomic signatures of near-extinction and rebirth of the crested ibis and other endangered bird species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shengbin; Li, Bo; Cheng, Cheng;

    2014-01-01

    practices, to facilitate sustainable recovery of endangered species.ConclusionsThese findings demonstrate common genomic signatures of population decline across avian species and pave a way for further effort in saving endangered species and enhancing conservation genomic efforts.......BackgroundNearly a quarter of all avian species is either threatened or nearly threatened. Of these, 73 species are currently being rescued from going extinct in wildlife sanctuaries. One of the previously most critically-endangered is the crested ibis, Nipponia nippon. Once widespread across North...... of near extinction events in association with environmental and behavioral attributes of species. We confirm that both loss of genetic diversity and enrichment of deleterious mutations of protein-coding genes contribute to the major genetic defects of the endangered species. We further identify...

  5. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in the endangered species Taxus wallichiana (Taxaceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prasad Gajurel; Carolina Cornejo; Silke Werth; Krishna Kumar Shrestha; Christoph Scheidegger

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the endangered tree species Taxus wallichiana from Nepal to investigate regional genetic differentiation, local genetic diversity, and gene flow for the conservation of this species under climate- and land-use change scenarios in mountain regions of Nepal. Methods and Results: We developed 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers from 454 DNA sequencing. Characterization of the new microsatellite loci was done in 99 indivi...

  6. 78 FR 60607 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Echinomastus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... the effects of drought and climate change (Factor A) in combination with predation by native insect... effects of drought and climate change; predation by native insect and small mammal predators; habitat... species. Summary of Changes From Proposed Rule Since the publication of the October 3, 2012 (77 FR...

  7. 78 FR 51277 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... a species' genetic makeup is shaped through natural selection by the environments it has experienced... included in nine Candidate Notices of Review (67 FR 40657, June 13, 2002; 69 FR 24876, May 4, 2004; 70 FR 24870, May 11, 2005; 71 FR 53756, September 12, 2006; 72 FR 69034, December 6, 2007; 73 FR...

  8. Misuse of Checklist Assessments in Endangered Species Recovery Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Mary H. Ruckelshaus; Harms, Tamara K.; Thomas P. Good

    2003-01-01

    Natural resource agencies worldwide must develop species recovery plans that specify threats, propose targets required for recovery, and evaluate the extent to which habitat alteration and restoration may influence species decline and recovery. To evaluate the impacts of proposed habitat alterations on species of conservation concern, standardized protocols may be adopted even when supporting data are scarce. For example, a habitat matrix was developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service...

  9. 76 FR 60862 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... species. Applicant: Ivan Schwab, University of California, Department of Ophthalmology, Sacramento, CA... The following applicants each request a permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of one male...

  10. 77 FR 68809 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR.... Families: Psittacidae (does not include thick-billed parrots) Species: Galapagos tortoise...

  11. 78 FR 47277 - Listing Endangered or Threatened Species: 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Delist the Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ...We, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), are issuing a 12-month finding on a petition to delist the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca) Distinct Population Segment (DPS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We listed the Southern Resident killer whale DPS as endangered under the ESA in 2005. We accepted the petition to delist the Southern Resident killer whale DPS on......

  12. Modeling of the spatial distribution of ten endangered bird species in jurisdiction of Corantioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, thanks to advances made in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), techniques have been developed for the construction of models that predict the spatial distribution of species and other attributes of biodiversity. These methods have allowed for the development of objective criteria that are fundamental for making decisions regarding the creation of protected areas systems throughout the world. In this research, the spatial distribution of ten endangered species of birds found within the jurisdiction of CORANTIOQUIA (JDC from here on) was modelled, using GIS techniques. The JDC was divided into 177 squares of 15 x 10 Km and the following variables were quantified within each one: presence or absence of endangered species of birds, rainfall, temperature, sun brightness, relative humidity, day duration, altitude, vegetal cover, slope and primary net productivity. With the help of logistic regression were made predictive models. Based on logistic regressions techniques predictive models were made. These models allow to explain a percentage between 24% and 80% of spatial distribution variability of these species. Those results can help in the identification of valuable zones for the biodiversity conservation. In places where there are neither the time or the economic resources to carry out exhaustive analyses of biodiversity, the models can predict the probable presence of this endangered species

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Threatened and Endangered Species REST Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data characterize the marine and coastal environments and wildlife based on sensitivity to spilled oil. Coastal species that...

  14. 76 FR 51051 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: Valley Zoological Society dba Gladys Porter Zoo... (Crocodylus intermedius) from Ontario, Canada for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the...

  15. 78 FR 14817 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... applicant over a 5-year period. Species: Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis)...

  16. 76 FR 14682 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... take of the following species for the purposes of research, management, and captive propagation in... Chionanthus pygmaeus (pygmy fringe tree) from Federal lands in Florida, to retain as voucher specimens at...

  17. Endangered Species and Natural Resource Exploitation: Extinction vs. Coexistence

    OpenAIRE

    Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos

    1994-01-01

    The threat on the survival of animal species due to intensive use of natural resources is incorporated within resource management models, paying special attention to uncertainty regarding the conditions that lead to extinction. The manner in which the potential benefits forgone due to the species extinction (denoted extinction penalty) induce more conservative exploitation policies is studied in detail. When the extinction penalty is ignored, the optimal policy is to drive the resource stock ...

  18. Conservation triage or injurious neglect in endangered species recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Leah R.

    2016-01-01

    Although government funding available for species protection and recovery is one of the best predictors of successful recovery, government spending is both insufficient and highly disproportionate among groups of species. Here I demonstrate that expenditures for recovery in excess of the recommended recovery budget would not necessarily translate into better conservation outcomes. More importantly, elimination of the budget surplus for “costly yet futile” recovery plans can provide sufficient...

  19. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, These data provide a tabulation, by parish, of species regarded as threatened or endangered., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2001. It is described as 'These data provide a tabulation, by...

  20. 78 FR 59951 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... CFR 17.21(g) for scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) to enhance the species' propagation or survival... interstate and foreign commerce, export, and cull of excess for scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) and addax... registration under 50 CFR 17.21(g) for scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) to enhance the......

  1. 78 FR 112 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...) for the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This... commerce, export, and cull of excess scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) from the captive herd maintained at... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74...

  2. 78 FR 59052 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... 50 CFR 17.21(g) for scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) to enhance the species' propagation or... interstate and foreign commerce, export, and cull of excess for scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) from the... Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009), which call on all Federal agencies to promote openness...

  3. 78 FR 53473 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... registration under 50 CFR 17.21(g) for the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) to enhance the species...), Eld's deer (Rucervus eldii), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), addax... authorizing interstate and foreign commerce, export, and cull of excess scimitar-horned oryx......

  4. 78 FR 24432 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... for the purpose of conducting presence/absence/population surveys and assisting in species recovery... conducting presence/absence surveys, studies to document habitat use, and population monitoring. Permit... spider (Microhexura montivaga) during habitat studies in North Carolina and Virginia. Permit...

  5. 77 FR 65673 - Endangered Species; File No. 16248

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    .... ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Riverbanks Zoo and..., Permits, Conservation and Education Division at the address listed above. The request should set forth the... species (50 CFR 222-226). The Riverbanks Zoo and Garden is requesting a permit to continue...

  6. Conservation of Endangered Species: What Do Children Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Sarah; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes results of questionnaire studies of children's ideas on which species most warrant conservation and why. When six animals meriting conservation were presented, children listed them in the following order: whale, panda, elephant, monkey, shark, and crocodile. The study showed that children tend to be most influenced toward the worthiness…

  7. 78 FR 34120 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    .... 77 FR 44264; July 27, 2012 October 22, 2012. 724896 Species Survival Fund..... 77 FR 44264; July 27, 2012 October 22, 2012. 73893A A.C. Ranch 77 FR 46514; August 3, September 27, 2012. 2012. 75535A Dub...; August 3, September 27, 2012. 2012. 75592A Dub Wallace Ranch LLC..... 77 FR 46514; August 3, September...

  8. Limitations of captive breeding in endangered species recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Derrickson, S.R.; Beissenger, S.R.; Wiley, J.W.; Smith, T.B.; Toone, W.D.; Miller, B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3.) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other recovery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been significant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a careful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a species population is declining or bas fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be reviewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in recovery of some species for witch effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive efforts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding programs should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic/behavioral management. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.

  9. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  10. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  11. The sustainability of endangered species under intensive management: the case of the scimitarhorned oryx Oryx dammah

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Tania

    2011-01-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented loss of biodiversity caused by anthropogenic environmental change. Captive breeding and reintroduction can help mitigate the effects of biodiversity loss for some endangered species, but to accomplish this, captive populations need to be self-sustainable. Intensive population management aims to achieve sustainability by maximising the retention of genetic diversity, maintaining demographic stability, and reducing adaptation to captivity. Recent evaluations...

  12. Rare and endangered plant species of the Chinese Altai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina; V.OLONOVA

    2010-01-01

    Altai (also named Altay in China) Mountain Country (Mountain System) is a unique natural region,located on the border between different floristic regimes of the Boreal and ancient Mediterranean sub-kingdoms,where distribution of plant species is actually limited. It is known to have sufficient endemic floral biodiversity in the Northern Asia. Many plants of Altai Mountain System need effective care and proper conservation measures for their survival and longer-term protection. Important Plant Area identified as the IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature),specified criteria attract global attention for protection of floral biodiversity across the world. The records of 71 plant species from the Chinese Altai Mountains attributed to the criterion A and the dark conifer forests of Chinese Altai Mountains satisfied the criterion C,which may help qualify to fulfill the national obligation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  13. On the value of endangered and other species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoff, Mark

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes two frameworks—utilitarian and Kantian—society uses to make decisions concerning environmental management and, in particular, species protection. The utilitarian framework emphasizes the consequences of choices for prior preferences. A perfectly competitive market, on this model, correctly values environmental resources. The Kantian approach identifies rules appropriate to recognized situations given the identity of the decision maker. It relies on democratic political processes and institutions to provide the means by which citizens determine the identity of their community—its moral character and aspirations—and match appropriate rules to recognized situations. This paper argues that markets do not fail in any general way in measuring the economic value of plants and animals. Market prices, in general, correctly represent the marginal or exchange value of species. If society legislates against extinction, this must be understood as an exercise in Kantian decision making in view of the moral value of species, not as an attempt to “correct” a market failure or to promote social welfare or utility.

  14. The World of Endangered Wildlife. [Filmstrip, Cassette Tape Narration, Teacher's Guide, Two Copies of National Wildlife Magazine's Special Issue on Endangered Species, State-by-State List of Endangered Animals, and Wildlife Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    The gradual disappearance of many species of wildlife, too often a prelude to extinction, is a problem of large proportions and increasing urgency. This filmstrip kit is designed to help students and teachers to understand the more serious threats to endangered species, what is being done about them, and how the individual can help. The kit…

  15. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, pdog seed, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  16. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, dogs 1995, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  17. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, exist dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  18. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, dog area, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  19. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, dog study, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  20. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, xx024600000, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  1. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, pdogs 2004, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  2. Karyotype and identification of sex in two endangered crane species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodpasture, C.; Seluja, G.; Gee, G.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory procedure for sex identification of monomorphic birds was developed using modern cytological methods of detecting chromosome abnormalities in human amniotic fluid samples. A pin feather is taken from a pre-fledging bird for tissue culture and karyotype analysis. Through this method, the sex was identified and the karyotype described of the whooping crane (Grus americana) and the Mississippi sandhill crane (G. canadensis pulla). Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these species showed an identical chromosome constitution with 2n = 78 + 2. However, differences in the amount of centromeric heterochromatin were observed in the Mississippi sandhill crane when compared to the whooping crane C-banded karyotype.

  3. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W

    2009-04-01

    The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

  4. An overview of methods for developing bioenergetic and life history models for rare and endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fish species are at risk to some degree, and conservation efforts are planned or underway to preserve sensitive populations. For many imperiled species, models could serve as useful tools for researchers and managers as they seek to understand individual growth, quantify predator-prey dynamics, and identify critical sources of mortality. Development and application of models for rare species however, has been constrained by small population sizes, difficulty in obtaining sampling permits, limited opportunities for funding, and regulations on how endangered species can be used in laboratory studies. Bioenergetic and life history models should help with endangered species-recovery planning since these types of models have been used successfully in the last 25 years to address management problems for many commercially and recreationally important fish species. In this paper we discuss five approaches to developing models and parameters for rare species. Borrowing model functions and parameters from related species is simple, but uncorroborated results can be misleading. Directly estimating parameters with laboratory studies may be possible for rare species that have locally abundant populations. Monte Carlo filtering can be used to estimate several parameters by means of performing simple laboratory growth experiments to first determine test criteria. Pattern-oriented modeling (POM) is a new and developing field of research that uses field-observed patterns to build, test, and parameterize models. Models developed using the POM approach are closely linked to field data, produce testable hypotheses, and require a close working relationship between modelers and empiricists. Artificial evolution in individual-based models can be used to gain insight into adaptive behaviors for poorly understood species and thus can fill in knowledge gaps. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  5. 78 FR 69376 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 19 Species and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... species under the ESA (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if... that the petitioned action may be warranted for 10 species and 3 subpopulations: Carcharhinus borneensis, Carcharhinus hemiodon, Carcharias taurus (Southwest Atlantic subpopulation), Cetorhinus...

  6. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits.

  7. Ecology and Conservation of the Critically Endangered Tree Species Gymnocladus assamicus in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically endangered leguminous tree species endemic to Northeast India. Mature pods of the trees yield soap material and are collected by local people for domestic purposes and religious activities. G. assamicus grows on hill slopes and along banks of streams. Male and hermaphrodite flowers are borne by separate individual trees. Altogether 28 mature trees were documented from nine populations. Of these, very few regenerating trees were found. This species regenerates only through seeds. The major constraints to natural regeneration are over harvesting of mature fruits, habitat destruction, grazing, predation of seeds by scatter-hoarding animals, poor percentage of seed germination due to their hard-waxy seed coats, and the lack of seed dispersal. Effective conservation initiatives should emphasize sustainable harvesting of mature pods, awareness among local people, and preservation of surviving individuals of the species. Nonetheless, reintroduction of the species to suitable ecological habitats is also recommended.

  8. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Caitlin M; Gerber, Leah R

    2015-10-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States was enacted in 1973 to prevent the extinction of species. Recovery plans, required by 1988 amendments to the ESA, play an important role in organizing these efforts to protect and recover species. To improve the use of science in the recovery planning process, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) commissioned an independent review of endangered species recovery planning in 1999. From these findings, the SCB made key recommendations for how management agencies could improve the recovery planning process, after which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service redrafted their recovery planning guidelines. One important recommendation called for recovery plans to make threats a primary focus, including organizing and prioritizing recovery tasks for threat abatement. We sought to determine the extent to which results from the SCB study were incorporated into these new guidelines and whether the SCB recommendations regarding threats manifested in recovery plans written under the new guidelines. Recovery planning guidelines generally incorporated the SCB recommendations, including those for managing threats. However, although recent recovery plans have improved in their treatment of threats, many fail to adequately incorporate threat monitoring. This failure suggests that developing clear guidelines for monitoring should be an important priority in improving ESA recovery planning. PMID:26108948

  9. Short Communication: Rediscovery of a remnant habitat of the critically endangered species, Hopea sangal, in Pasuruan District, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEJONO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soejono. 2014. Rediscovery of a remnant habitat of the critically endangered species, Hopea sangal, in Pasuruan District, East Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 15: 236-239. During recent exploration for surviving indigenous flora carried out in Pasuruan District, East Java, the endangered tree species, Hopea sangal Korth., has been rediscovered in a previously unknown location in East Java. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2012, stated that H. sangal is critically endangered, A1cd, B1+2c, C1, D ver 2.3. This discovery of H. sangal, and other supporting species that may still survive, can support the program of recovery of threatened plant species. At least for Pasuruan region, the remaining habitat, can be used as the core for H. sangal protection, thus H. sangal can breed naturally and sustainably. This information also can be used as one of the references or consideration tools for stakeholders to determine the priority of restoration policy.

  10. Bonus Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  11. Public preferences for endangered species recovery: an examination of geospatial scale and non-market values

    OpenAIRE

    Wallmo, Kristy; Daniel K Lew

    2015-01-01

    Non-market valuation allows society to express their preferences for goods and services whose economic value is not reflected in traditional markets. One issue that arises in applying non-market values in policy settings is defining the extent of the economic jurisdiction—the area that includes all people who hold values—for a good or service. In this paper, we estimate non-market values for recovering eight threatened and endangered marine species in the US for two geographically embedded sa...

  12. Public Preferences for Endangered Species Recovery: An Examination of Geospatial Scale and Non-Market Values

    OpenAIRE

    Kristy eWallmo; Daniel K Lew

    2015-01-01

    Non-market valuation allows society to express their preferences for goods and services whose economic value is not reflected in traditional markets. One issue that arises in applying non-market values in policy settings is defining the extent of the economic jurisdiction – the area that includes all people who hold values – for a good or service. In this paper we estimate non-market values for recovering eight threatened and endangered marine species in the US for two geographically embedd...

  13. INTRODUCTION OF SOME RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WESTERN CAUCASUS FLORA TO IN VITRO CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov R. N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There were developed some methods of sterilization and introduction of the following endangered species of Caucasian flora to in vitro culture: Campanula sclerophylla Kolak., Lilium caucasicum Miscz. ex Grossh., Daphne woronowii Kolak., Pancratium maritimum L.. The effect of different plant hormones as well as their combinations and concentrations on the regeneration, growth and development of plants is studied. As a result of clonal propagation, more than 100 plants of Campanula sclerophylla Kolak, about 30 plants of Pancratium maritimum L., and 150 samples of Lilium caucasicum Miscz. Ex Grossh are saved in tissue culture

  14. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  15. General rules for managing and surveying networks of pests, diseases, and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadès, Iadine; Martin, Tara G; Nicol, Samuel; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2011-05-17

    The efficient management of diseases, pests, or endangered species is an important global issue faced by agencies constrained by limited resources. The management challenge is even greater when organisms are difficult to detect. We show how to prioritize management and survey effort across time and space for networks of susceptible-infected-susceptible subpopulations. We present simple and robust rules of thumb for protecting desirable, or eradicating undesirable, subpopulations connected in typical network patterns (motifs). We further demonstrate that these rules can be generalized to larger networks when motifs are combined in more complex formations. Results show that the best location to manage or survey a pest or a disease on a network is also the best location to protect or survey an endangered species. The optimal starting point in a network is the fastest motif to manage, where line, star, island, and cluster motifs range from fast to slow. Managing the most connected node at the right time and maintaining the same management direction provide advantages over previously recommended outside-in strategies. When a species or disease is not detected and our belief in persistence decreases, our results recommend shifting resources toward management or surveillance of the most connected nodes. Our analytic approximation provides guidance on how long we should manage or survey networks for hard-to-detect organisms. Our rules take into account management success, dispersal, economic cost, and imperfect detection and offer managers a practical basis for managing networks relevant to many significant environmental, biosecurity, and human health issues. PMID:21536884

  16. Application of cytochrome b DNA sequences for the authentication of endangered snake species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Lok; Wang, Jun; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2004-01-01

    In order to enforce the conservation program and curbing the illegal trading and consumption of endangered snake species, the value of cytochrome b sequence in the authentication of snake species was evaluated. As an illustration, DNA was extracted, selected cytochrome b DNA sequences amplified and sequenced from six snakes commonly consumed in Hong Kong. Cataloging with sequences available in public, a cytochrome b database containing 90 species of snakes was constructed. In this database, sequence homology between snakes ranged from 70.68 to 95.11%. On the other hand, intraspecific variation of three tested snakes was 0-0.98%. Using the database, we were able to determine the identity of six meat samples confiscated by the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, HKSAR. PMID:14687773

  17. Snail Darters and Sacred Places: Creative Application of the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Robert Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Rather than exploring how indigenous people have been alienated from resources by environmental policies, this paper explores how indigenous peoples have worked with environmental organizations to use the broad protections provided by environmental laws to protect cultural resources. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, along with other concerned groups, partnered with environmentalists in opposing the destruction of the endangered snail darter’s critical habitat by the Tennessee Valley Authority’s Tellico Dam. The dam had been opposed by a shifting alliance of Cherokees, local farmers, trout fisherman, and environmentalists since it was announced in 1963. A previous lawsuit by this coalition delayed the project from 1972 to 1974 under the National Environmental Policy Act. The Endangered Species Act provided this coalition with a powerful tool for opposing the destruction of burial grounds and sacred village sites throughout the lower Little Tennessee River valley. The coalition of environmental organizations, Cherokees, and others was ultimately unsuccessful in stopping the dam from being built, but was successful in establishing a strict precedent for the enforcement of the Endangered Species Act. The lawsuit also created a space for the Eastern Band to negotiate for the return of Cherokee remains and halt the removal of any additional burials. In this situation, the strategic support of environmental regulation enabled the Eastern Band to exert some degree of control over the fate of cultural resources in the valley, and also demonstrates the significant role American Indian peoples played in one of the seminal events of the environmental movement during the 1970s.

  18. 77 FR 69993 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    .... Dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria), an invasive, nonnative plant that may prevent germination of Siskiyou... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing...

  19. 50 CFR 222.103 - Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal/state cooperation in the... Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species. (a) Application for... threatened resident species, the conservation of which may be enhanced by cooperation of such states,...

  20. 78 FR 64691 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Five Foreign Bird Species in Colombia and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... published in our annual notices of review (ANOR) on May 21, 2004 (69 FR 29354), and April 23, 2007 (72 FR... 2007 ANOR (72 FR 20184), published on April 23, 2007. In that notice, the five species included in this... numerous threats and warrant listing under the Act as endangered species (74 FR 32308). Therefore,...

  1. Children's Books in Review. Saving and Appreciating Our Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews books for preschool through elementary school students, focusing on environmental issues in urban and rural areas. The literature examines such topics as saving the tropical rainforests, conserving energy and resources, decreasing pollution, and saving endangered species. (SM)

  2. Linking density, productivity and trends of an endangered species: The Bonelli's eagle in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal, Luis M.; Seoane, Javier

    2009-05-01

    Whether regional population density is a good indicator of environmental quality according to demographic variables such as breeding success or short-term population trends is controversial. In this paper we analyze the interrelationships among regional population density, breeding success and recent population trends of an endangered species, Bonelli's eagle in the Iberian Peninsula. We also analyze the different influence of geographical, climatic, landscape structure and human impact variables on regional variation in those demographic variables. Breeding success was higher and population decrease was lower in those areas where the population density of Bonelli's eagle was greater. Breeding success, density and recent population trends of Bonelli's eagle were tightly related, increasing from northern to southern Iberian Peninsula (with highest figures at intermediate latitudes), and as sun radiation increased, and altitude decreased. Breeding success and population density were significantly lower in the periphery of the distribution range than in core areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Population trends between 2000 and 2005 were also more negative (decreasing) in the periphery. Overall, these results suggest that population density in this endangered species of large home-range is a good indicator of environmental quality and reproductive output, and that peripheral populations occupy low-suitability areas with lower breeding success, where negative short-term population trends are more likely.

  3. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-08-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina), and a protozoa (Balantidium coli) were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species. PMID:27358768

  4. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  5. Unveiling the conservation biogeography of a data-deficient endangered bird species under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    It remains a challenge to identify the geographical patterns and underlying environmental associations of species with unique ecological niches and distinct behaviors. This in turn hinders our understanding of the ecology as well as effective conservation management of threatened species. The white-eared night heron (Gorsachius magnificus) is a non-migratory nocturnal bird species that has a patchy distribution in the mountainous forests of East Asia. It is currently categorized as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List, primarily due to its restricted range and fragmented habitat. To improve our knowledge of the biogeography and conservation of this species, we modeled the geographical pattern of its suitable habitat and evaluated the potential impacts of climate change using ecological niche modeling with a maximum entropy approach implemented in Maxent. Our results indicated that the amount of suitable habitat in all of East Asia was about 130 000 km(2), which can be spatially subdivided into several mountain ranges in southern and southwestern China and northern Vietnam. The extent of suitable habitat range may shrink by more than 35% under a predicted changing climate when assuming the most pessimistic condition of dispersal, while some more suitable habitat would be available if the heron could disperse unrestrainedly. The significant future changes in habitat suitability suggested for Gorsachius magnificus urge caution in any downgrading of Red List status that may be considered. Our results also discern potentially suitable areas for future survey efforts on new populations. Overall, this study demonstrates that ecological niche modeling offers an important tool for evaluating the habitat suitability and potential impacts of climate change on an enigmatic and endangered species based on limited presence data. PMID:24404169

  6. Unveiling the conservation biogeography of a data-deficient endangered bird species under climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Hu

    Full Text Available It remains a challenge to identify the geographical patterns and underlying environmental associations of species with unique ecological niches and distinct behaviors. This in turn hinders our understanding of the ecology as well as effective conservation management of threatened species. The white-eared night heron (Gorsachius magnificus is a non-migratory nocturnal bird species that has a patchy distribution in the mountainous forests of East Asia. It is currently categorized as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List, primarily due to its restricted range and fragmented habitat. To improve our knowledge of the biogeography and conservation of this species, we modeled the geographical pattern of its suitable habitat and evaluated the potential impacts of climate change using ecological niche modeling with a maximum entropy approach implemented in Maxent. Our results indicated that the amount of suitable habitat in all of East Asia was about 130 000 km(2, which can be spatially subdivided into several mountain ranges in southern and southwestern China and northern Vietnam. The extent of suitable habitat range may shrink by more than 35% under a predicted changing climate when assuming the most pessimistic condition of dispersal, while some more suitable habitat would be available if the heron could disperse unrestrainedly. The significant future changes in habitat suitability suggested for Gorsachius magnificus urge caution in any downgrading of Red List status that may be considered. Our results also discern potentially suitable areas for future survey efforts on new populations. Overall, this study demonstrates that ecological niche modeling offers an important tool for evaluating the habitat suitability and potential impacts of climate change on an enigmatic and endangered species based on limited presence data.

  7. Biobanking efforts and new advances in male fertility preservation for rare and endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Comizzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and sustaining biodiversity is a multi-disciplinary science that benefits highly from the creation of organized and accessible collections of biomaterials (Genome Resource Banks. Large cryo-collections are invaluable tools for understanding, cataloging, and protecting the genetic diversity of the world′s unique animals and plants. Specifically, the systematic collection and preservation of semen from rare species has been developed significantly in recent decades with some biobanks now being actively used for endangered species management and propagation (including the introduction of species such as the black-footed ferret and the giant panda. Innovations emerging from the growing field of male fertility preservation for humans, livestock species, and laboratory animals are also becoming relevant to the protection and the propagation of valuable domestic and wild species. These new approaches extend beyond the "classical" methods associated with sperm freezing to include testicular tissue preservation combined with xenografting or in vitro culture, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused germplasm. There also are other options under development that are predicted to have a high impact within the next decade (stem cell technologies, bio-stabilization of sperm cells at ambient temperatures, and the use of genomics tools. However, biobanking efforts and new fertility preservation strategies have to expand the way beyond mammalian species, which will offer knowledge and tools to better manage species that serve as valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment.

  8. DNA Barcoding and Microsatellites Help Species Delimitation and Hybrid Identification in Endangered Galaxiid Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaecke, Delphine; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Young, Kyle; Sanzana, Jose; Orellana, Gabriel; Fowler, Daniel; Howes, Paul; Monzon-Arguello, Catalina; Consuegra, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of data deficient species is often hampered by inaccurate species delimitation. The galaxiid fishes Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus are endemic to Patagonia (and for A. zebra the Falkland Islands), where they are threatened by invasive salmonids. Conservation of Aplochiton is complicated because species identification is hampered by the presence of resident as well as migratory ecotypes that may confound morphological discrimination. We used DNA barcoding (COI, cytochrome b) and a new developed set of microsatellite markers to investigate the relationships between A. zebra and A. taeniatus and to assess their distributions and relative abundances in Chilean Patagonia and the Falkland Islands. Results from both DNA markers were 100% congruent and revealed that phenotypic misidentification was widespread, size-dependent, and highly asymmetric. While all the genetically classified A. zebra were correctly identified as such, 74% of A. taeniatus were incorrectly identified as A. zebra, the former species being more widespread than previously thought. Our results reveal, for the first time, the presence in sympatry of both species, not only in Chilean Patagonia, but also in the Falkland Islands, where A. taeniatus had not been previously described. We also found evidence of asymmetric hybridisation between female A. taeniatus and male A. zebra in areas where invasive salmonids have become widespread. Given the potential consequences that species misidentification and hybridisation can have for the conservation of these endangered species, we advocate the use of molecular markers in order to reduce epistemic uncertainty. PMID:22412956

  9. DNA barcoding and microsatellites help species delimitation and hybrid identification in endangered galaxiid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Vanhaecke

    Full Text Available The conservation of data deficient species is often hampered by inaccurate species delimitation. The galaxiid fishes Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus are endemic to Patagonia (and for A. zebra the Falkland Islands, where they are threatened by invasive salmonids. Conservation of Aplochiton is complicated because species identification is hampered by the presence of resident as well as migratory ecotypes that may confound morphological discrimination. We used DNA barcoding (COI, cytochrome b and a new developed set of microsatellite markers to investigate the relationships between A. zebra and A. taeniatus and to assess their distributions and relative abundances in Chilean Patagonia and the Falkland Islands. Results from both DNA markers were 100% congruent and revealed that phenotypic misidentification was widespread, size-dependent, and highly asymmetric. While all the genetically classified A. zebra were correctly identified as such, 74% of A. taeniatus were incorrectly identified as A. zebra, the former species being more widespread than previously thought. Our results reveal, for the first time, the presence in sympatry of both species, not only in Chilean Patagonia, but also in the Falkland Islands, where A. taeniatus had not been previously described. We also found evidence of asymmetric hybridisation between female A. taeniatus and male A. zebra in areas where invasive salmonids have become widespread. Given the potential consequences that species misidentification and hybridisation can have for the conservation of these endangered species, we advocate the use of molecular markers in order to reduce epistemic uncertainty.

  10. Recent advances and prospects in germplasm preservation of rare and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comizzoli, Pierre; Holt, William V

    2014-01-01

    Fertility preservation strategies using cryopreservation have enormous potential for helping sustain and protect rare and endangered species, especially to assist managing or 'rescuing' the genomes of genetically valuable individuals. However, wide-scale applications are still limited by significant physiological variations among species and a sheer lack of fundamental knowledge about basic reproductive traits as well as in germplasm cryobiology. Cryo-studies have been conducted in more species (mainly vertebrates) in the recent years but a vast majority still remains un-studied. Semen cryopreservation represents the most extensive effort with live births reported in more and more species after artificial insemination. Oocyte freezing remains challenging and unsuccessful in wild species and will require more research before becoming a standard procedure. As an alternative to fully grown gametes, gonadal tissue preservation has become a promising option in vertebrates. Yet, more fertility preservation options are necessary to save species so a change in strategy might be required. It is worthwhile thinking beyond systematic characterizations and considering the application of cutting edge approaches to universally preserve the fertility of a vast array of species. PMID:25091916

  11. A comparison of regional and national values for recovering threatened and endangered marine species in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2016-09-01

    It is generally acknowledged that willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates for environmental goods exhibit some degree of spatial variation. In a policy context, spatial variation in threatened and endangered species values is important to understand, as the benefit stream from policies affecting threatened and endangered species may vary locally, regionally, or among certain population segments. In this paper we present WTP estimates for eight different threatened and endangered marine species estimated from a stated preference choice experiment. WTP is estimated at two different spatial scales: (a) a random sample of over 5000 U.S. households and (b) geographically embedded samples (relative to the U.S. household sample) of nine U.S. Census regions. We conduct region-to-region and region-to-nation statistical comparisons to determine whether species values differ among regions and between each region and the entire U.S. Our results show limited spatial variation between national values and values estimated from regionally embedded samples, and differences are only found for three of the eight species. More variation exists between regions, and for all species there is a significant difference in at least one region-to-region comparison. Given that policy analyses involving threatened and endangered marine species can often be regional in scope (e.g., ecosystem management) or may disparately affect different regions, our results should be of high interest to the marine management community. PMID:27160027

  12. Age Structure and Growth Pattern of an Endangered Species, Amentotaxus formosana Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinsu Lin; Ming-Hsun Chan; Feng-Sheng Chen; Ya-Nan Wang

    2007-01-01

    Amentotaxus formosana Li is a native, tolerant, and under-wood species in Taiwan. This particular species is only distributed around the Chachayalaishan and Dawushan areas. Because of its rarity, and the endangered and native properties of the species, we explored the regeneration process of the species in the native environment. This paper, therefore, aims to outline the age distribution and growth characteristics of A. formosana in the native stand using the techniques of tree ring analysis. An inventory was conducted in a site at the Chachayalaishan area from 2004 to 2006. According to the inventory, there are 67 trees in the sampling plot among which 16 individual A.formosana trees were counted. This is roughly 24% of the total population. This particular species is distributed around the understory space, while other species such as Litsea spp., Meliosma squamulata Hance, Schefflera octophylla Harms, Elaeocarpus japonicus Sieb et Zucc and Cleyera japonica Thunb are the major species whose canopy occupying the upperstory space of the stand. Results of tree-ring analysis suggest that the age of most of the trees in the sampling plot is between 31 and 90 years old with an average of 56. For the endangered species, A.formosana, age of the individuals varied from 14 and 126 years old and the average was 58 years old. Age distribution of the species was modeled using the Weibull probability density function and was statistically assessed using Sigmaplot statistical software. The estimate of shape parameter is 1.404 5 indicating a medium regeneration situation. The diameter growth rate of A. formosana is 0.32 cm and ranks 20th among the 26 species in the sampling plot. Using the age as a regressor variable, we can predict the diameter increment of A. formosana efficiently. The coefficient of determination, R2, is 0.832 2. The diameter growth among the trees of the upperstory and understory was competitive. Relationship between the growth change percentage of A

  13. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  14. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Endangered Species Taxus wallichiana (Taxaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prasad Gajurel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the endangered tree species Taxus wallichiana from Nepal to investigate regional genetic differentiation, local genetic diversity, and gene flow for the conservation of this species under climate- and land-use change scenarios in mountain regions of Nepal. Methods and Results: We developed 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers from 454 DNA sequencing. Characterization of the new microsatellite loci was done in 99 individuals collected from three valleys with different climatic regimes. The number of alleles per locus varied from four to 12. Observed heterozygosity of populations, averaged across loci, ranged from 0.30 to 0.59. Conclusions: The new markers provided by this study will substantially increase the resolution for detailed studies in phylogeography, population genetics, and parentage analysis.

  15. Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, David Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-11-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan (HMP) fulfills a commitment made to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Mitigation Action Plan” (DOE 1996). The HMP received concurrence from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1999 (USFWS consultation numbers 2-22-98-I-336 and 2-22-95-I-108). This 2015 update retains the management guidelines from the 1999 HMP for listed species, updates some descriptive information, and adds the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) and Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) which were federally listed in 2014 (Keller 2015: USFWS consultation number 02ENNM00- 2015-I-0538).

  16. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  17. Naming Potentially Endangered Parasites: Foliicolous Mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Highly Threatened Brazilian Tree Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Meiriele; Pinho, Danilo B; Pereira, Olinto L; Fernandes, Fernando M; Barreto, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae) was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D. mollis, which is a common species with a broad geographical distribution that co-occurs with D. wilsonii, was examined simultaneously to exclude fungal species occurring on both species from further consideration for conservation because microfungi associated with D. wilsonii should not be regarded as under threat of co-extinction. Fourteen ascomycete fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated namely: Byssogene wilsoniae sp. nov., Geastrumia polystigmatis, Janetia dimorphandra-mollis sp. nov., Janetia wilsoniae sp. nov., Johansonia chapadiensis, Microcalliopsis dipterygis, Phillipsiella atra, Piricauda paraguayensis, Pseudocercospora dimorphandrae sp. nov., Pseudocercosporella dimorphandrae sp. nov., Ramichloridiopsis wilsoniae sp. and gen. nov., Stomiopeltis suttoniae, Trichomatomyces byrsonimae and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis. Three fungi were exclusively found on D. wilsonii and were regarded as potentially threatened of extinction: B. wilsoniae, J. wilsoniae and R. wilsoniae. PMID:26910334

  18. Status of endangered and threatened plant species on Tonopah Test Range: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six species under consideration by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) for endangered or threatened status were found on or near the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in southern central Nevada. Based on recognized threats to these species, their overall distribution, rarity, and other factors, status recommendations were prepared for Sandia Corporation. In addition, ten species that occur in the vicinity of TTR, and which may yet be found on TTR, are discussed in brief. Each species is discussed in relation to distribution, rarity, taxonomy, habitat requirements, endangerment, assessment of status, and proposed protection and monitoring needs. Construction activities and off-road vehicle travel are the most prominent man-caused threats to species on TTR; habitat destruction by trampling and over-grazing by feral horses and non-permit cattle significantly modifies habitats of certain species. We recommend two kinds of protective measures. First is the planning of activities so that habitats, particularly the suggested protected habitats, are not disturbed. Second, and directed to the same end, off-road traffic should be curtailed in the regions of the proposed protected habitats

  19. Using structured decision making to help implement a precautionary approach to endangered species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robin; Long, Graham

    2009-04-01

    Endangered species protection is a significant risk management concern throughout North America. An extensive conceptual literature emphasizes the role to be played by precautionary approaches. Risk managers, typically working in concert with concerned stakeholders, frequently cite the concept as key to their efforts to prevent extinctions. Little has been done, however, to evaluate the multidimensional impacts of precautionary frameworks or to assist in the examination of competing precautionary risk management options as part of an applied risk management decision framework. In this article we describe how decision-aiding techniques can assist in the creation and analysis of alternative precautionary strategies, using the example of a multistakeholder committee charged with protection of endangered Cultus Lake salmon on the Canadian west coast. Although managers were required to adopt a precautionary approach, little attention had been given to how quantitative analyses could be used to help define the concept or to how a precautionary approach might be implemented in the face of difficult economic, social, and biological tradeoffs. We briefly review key steps in a structured decision-making (SDM) process and discuss how this approach was implemented to help bound the management problem, define objectives and performance measures, develop management alternatives, and evaluate their consequences. We highlight the role of strategy tables, employed to help participants identify, alternative management options. We close by noting areas of agreement and disagreement among participants and discuss the implications of decision-focused processes for other precautionary resource management efforts. PMID:19144073

  20. Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, R.; Witte, J.; van Bodegom, P.; Dam, J. V.; Aerts, R.

    2010-12-01

    capture climate change effects. We demonstrate that increased rainfall variability in interaction with predicted changes in temperature and CO2, affects soil moisture conditions and plant oxygen and water demands such, that both oxygen stress and water stress will intensify due to climate change. Moreover, these stresses will increasingly coincide, causing variable stress conditions. These variable stress conditions were found to decrease future habitat suitability, especially for plant species that are presently endangered. The future existence of such species is thus at risk by climate change, which has direct implications for policies to maintain endangered species, as applied by international nature management organisations (e.g. IUCN). Our integrated mechanistic analysis of two stresses combined, which has never been done so far, reveals large impacts of climate change on species extinctions and thereby on biodiversity.

  1. Endangered and threatened plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and central-southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-07-01

    Three plant species included among the Nevada Threatened or Endangered Flora of the Federal Register list of July 1, 1975, were omitted from the recent reports dealing with these groups of plants in central-southern Nevada. Two of the species, Ephedra funerea and Mirabilis pudica, were not included because they are both widely distributed and locally common in southern Nevada and were understood (unofficially) to be no longer considered candidates for either an Endangered or Threatened status. The third species, Machaeranthera ammophila, is now included with M. arida, an uncommon species of central and eastern Mojave Desert of southern California (to southern Nevada, Arizona, and Sonora), and is therefore no longer a candidate for the status of Threatened Species in Nevada.

  2. Hearing sensitivity in context: Conservation implications for a highly vocal endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Owen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sensitivity is a fundamental determinant of a species’ vulnerability to anthropogenic noise, however little is known about the hearing capacities of most conservation dependent species. When audiometric data are integrated with other aspects of species’ acoustic ecology, life history, and characteristic habitat topography and soundscape, predictions can be made regarding probable vulnerability to the negative impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise. Here we used an adaptive psychoacoustic technique to measure hearing thresholds in the endangered giant panda; a species that uses acoustic communication to coordinate reproduction. Our results suggest that giant pandas have functional hearing into the ultrasonic range, with good sensitivity between 10.0 and 16.0 kHz, and best sensitivity measured at 12.5–14.0 kHz. We estimated the lower and upper limits of functional hearing as 0.10 and 70.0 kHz respectively. While these results suggest that panda hearing is similar to that of some other terrestrial carnivores, panda hearing thresholds above 14.0 kHz were significantly lower (i.e., more sensitive than those of the polar bear, the only other bear species for which data are available. We discuss the implications of this divergence, as well as the relationship between hearing sensitivity and the spectral parameters of panda vocalizations. We suggest that these data, placed in context, can be used towards the development of a sensory-based model of noise disturbance for the species.

  3. Personal Moral Norms and Attitudes Toward Endangered Species Policies on Private Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research across multiple disciplines has shown that personal moral norms can play an important role in shaping individuals′ attitudes and behaviour. Despite this, we know relatively little about patterns of support among landowners for either a personal moral norm favouring a strong, ′intrinsic′ right of private ownership, or a moral duty to prevent extinction. In addition, we know even less about the ability of such norms to predict attitudes toward species protection on private lands, especially for non-charismatic species with few qualities that typically generate positive attitudes for conservation. Results from a mail survey of central Indiana landowners suggest broad support for a personal moral norm favouring a strong, ′intrinsic′ right of ownership as well as a personal moral norm to prevent extinction, and that these norms are better predictors of attitudes toward endangered species policies than partisan identification, identification as an environmentalist, strong religious beliefs, or several other demographic factors. The results suggest that those seeking to influence landowner attitudes toward species protection policies should pay closer attention to the influence of these personal moral norms.

  4. Phenology, in vitro cultivation, and acclimatization of the endangered bromeliad species Nidularium minutum Mez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Kazue Kurita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the phenology of a species indicates the most favorable period to harvest mature seeds, which may be used for producing seedlings through effective methods as in vitro cultivation. This technique has been regarded as a strategy for the propagation of endangered species, such as the bromeliad species Nidularium minutum Mez. This article aimed at identifying the time of fructification and seed production of in situ specimens of N. minutum and establishing a protocol of in vitro cultivation through seeds. The species phenology was followed up for 12 months in plants at the Alto da Serra Biological Station, in Paranapiacaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The results showed that the best time to harvest seeds was from June to August 2008. The germination process occurred at all temperatures tested, being more effective at 26°C, with no need of mineral nutrients. The best conditions for growing plants occurred with the same temperature, with Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing half the macronutrient concentration. By means of this protocol, it is possible to preserve in vitro plants and optimize their production to be used in restocking programs.

  5. Genetic diversity of the endangered species Rosa rugosa Thunb. in China and implications for conservation strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Hong YANG; Shu-Ping ZHANG; Jian LIU; Wen ZHAI; Ren-Qing WANG

    2009-01-01

    Rosa rugosa Thunb. is one of the dominant and important shrub species in estuary dunes and shingle beaches of northern China. However, its area of distribution, the number of populations, and the size of each population have decreased rapidly in the past two decades because of habitat degradation and loss. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to determine the genetic diversity of four remaining large natural populations of R. rugosa and to discuss an effective conservation strategy for this endangered species in China. High genetic variations were detected in R. rugosa populations in China. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci (P%) within four local populations was 57.99%, with the P% of the total population being 75.30%. Mean Shannon's information index (H_0) was 0.2826, whereas total H_0 was 0.3513. The genetic differentiation among populations was 0.1878, which indicates that most genetic diversity occurs within populations. Population Tumenjiang (TMJ) showed the highest genetic diversity (P% = 66.27%; H_0 = 0.3117) and contained two exclusive bands. Population Changshandao (CSD) showed higher genetic diversity (P% = 59.04%; H_0 = 0.3065). Populations TMJ and CSD contained 95.33% and 99.33%, respectively, of loci with moderate to high frequency (P>0.05) of the total population. These results indicate that populations TMJ and CSD should be given priority for in situ conservation and regarded as seed or propagule sources for ex situ conservation. The results of the present study also suggest that R. rugosa in China has become endangered as a result of human actions rather than genetic depression of populations; thus, human interference should be absolutely forbidden in R. rugosa habitats.

  6. Biodiversity and the Recovery of Threatened and Endangered Salmon Species in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report of 8 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, C. R. (Cleveland R.)

    1993-06-01

    The stated purpose of the Endangered Species Act is to provide a means whereby the ecosystem upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved. Conservation of the Columbia River ecosystem and the diversity of gene pools, life histories, species, and communities that comprise it, should become a major objective of species recovery and fish and wildlife management programs in the Columbia River Basin. Biodiversity is important to both species and ecosystem health, and is a prerequisite to long-term sustainability of biological resources. In this paper, I provide an overview of various approaches to defining, measuring, monitoring, and protecting biodiversity. A holistic approach is stressed that simultaneously considers diverse species and resource management needs. Emphasis is on threatened and endangered species of salmon and their associated habitat.

  7. 77 FR 43433 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    .... 195; Fjelds 2004, p. 199; Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA) 1996, p. 3; Ramsen et al... INFORMATION: Executive Summary On January 5, 2010, we published a proposed rule (75 FR 606) to list these six... proposed rule (75 FR 606) to list these six species as endangered: Ash-breasted tit-tyrant...

  8. An endemic and Critically Endangered species, Gymnema khandalense Santapau (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae - a new record to Goa State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Deokule

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema khandalense Santapau (Apocynaceae - Asclepiadoideae, an endemic and critically endangered species, is reported here for the first time from Goa State. A detailed description, phenology, distribution and ecology along with a photo plate are provided for its easy identification.

  9. 77 FR 71012 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Parties at the meetings. On November 9, 2012, we published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 67390... Fish and Wildlife Service Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in..., as a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and...

  10. Plasticity in carbon acquisition of the heterophyllous Luronium natans: an endangered freshwater species in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Luronium natans (L.) Raf. (Floating Water-plantain) is an endangered amphibious freshwater species endemic to Europe. We examined the plasticity in carbon acquisition and photosynthesis in L. natans to assess if lack of plasticity could contribute to explain the low competitive ability of the spe...

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of Bretschneidera sinensis, an endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangbiao Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Amounts and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation provide benchmarks for developing conservation strategies. Bretschneidera sinensis is a monotypic relic species listed in the First Grade of the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch in China. We examined the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 219 B. sinensis individuals sampled from 15 natural populations distributed in Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Guizhou using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers generated by seven ISSR primers. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB at the species and population level was 74.42% and 38.06%, respectively. Shannon’s index (I of phenotypic diversity at the species and population level was 0.3630 and 0.2081, respectively, and Nei’s genetic diversity (He at the species and population level was 0.2397 and 0.1405, respectively. These results indicate that B. sinensis contains relatively high levels of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and estimates of the coefficient of genetic differentiation based on phenotypic diversity index also indicated high levels of population subdivision (GST = 0.2973; FST = 0.4267 in the species. Analysis of the ISSR data using UPGMA further revealed that populations were genetically clustered into two groups, while a Mantel test showed that genetic divergence was significantly correlated with geographical distance among populations (Mantel test; r = 0.3096, P = 0.008. We conclude from our results that B. sinensis is not endangered due to low evolutionary potential stemming from low genetic diversity, but by habitat destruction coupled with a low reproductive capacity, poor adaptability and weak competitiveness. The Mt. Yangming, Mt. Mangshan, Ruyang, and Mt. Bamianshan populations of the species with higher genetic diversity should be given priority for conservation, and inbreeding depression monitoring should be conducted.

  12. 外来的捕食物种对濒危物种的影响%EFFECTS OF EXOTIC SPECIES ON ENDANGERED SPECIES THROUGH PREDATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少林

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an important problem arising from conservation biology is considered. Namely, how does the introduced species affect the survival of a native endangered species through predation? By using Kamke comparison theorem and some results in Cui and Chen's paper(1998), some sufficient conditions that guarantee the permanence of the species and global stability of a unique positive periodic solution are obtained. Biological implication of these results are discussed.

  13. Discovery of the Critically Endangered Tarantula Species of the Genus Poecilotheria (Araneae: Theraphosidae, Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica, From Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranil P. Nanayakkara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The arboreal spiders in the genus Poecilotheria is represented by 16 species and restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Each country has eight endemic species. During a survey on mygalomorph spiders in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, the critically endangered species of Theraphosidae Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica was discovered for the first time outside of its native habitat in India, expanding its range to northern Sri Lanka. The discovery of P. hanumavilasumica is unique, as it used to be a critically endangered and endemic species of the genus Poecilotheria found in India, and it is evident that during the land bridge connection between India and Sri Lanka, when the Pleistocene epoch biotic exchange took place between the two countries, taxa were dispersed through the land connections.

  14. Validity and sensitivity of a model for assessment of impacts of river floodplain reconstruction on protected and endangered species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) must account for legally protected and endangered species. Uncertainties relating to the validity and sensitivity of EIA arise from predictions and valuation of effects on these species. This paper presents a validity and sensitivity analysis of a model (BIO-SAFE) for assessment of impacts of land use changes and physical reconstruction measures on legally protected and endangered river species. The assessment is based on links between species (higher plants, birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians, butterflies and dragon- and damselflies) and ecotopes (landscape ecological units, e.g., river dune, soft wood alluvial forests), and on value assignment to protected and endangered species using different valuation criteria (i.e., EU Habitats and Birds directive, Conventions of Bern and Bonn and Red Lists). The validity of BIO-SAFE has been tested by comparing predicted effects of landscape changes on the diversity of protected and endangered species with observed changes in biodiversity in five reconstructed floodplains. The sensitivity of BIO-SAFE to value assignment has been analysed using data of a Strategic Environmental Assessment concerning the Spatial Planning Key Decision for reconstruction of the Dutch floodplains of the river Rhine, aimed at flood defence and ecological rehabilitation. The weights given to the valuation criteria for protected and endangered species were varied and the effects on ranking of alternatives were quantified. A statistically significant correlation (p < 0.01) between predicted and observed values for protected and endangered species was found. The sensitivity of the model to value assignment proved to be low. Comparison of five realistic valuation options showed that different rankings of scenarios predominantly occur when valuation criteria are left out of the assessment. Based on these results we conclude that linking species to ecotopes can be used for adequate impact assessments

  15. Impacts of climate change and land-use scenarios on Margaritifera margaritifera, an environmental indicator and endangered species

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, R.M.B.; Sanches Fernandes, L.F.; Varandas, Simone; Pereira, M.G.; Sousa, Ronaldo; Teixeira, Amílcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Cortes, R.; Pacheco, F. A. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assess the impacts of future climate and land-use in the Beça River (northern Portugal) under different scenarios and how this will translate into the conservation status of the endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758). This species is currently present in several stretches of the Beça River that still hold adequate ecological conditions. However, the species is threatened by projected declines in precipitation for the 21st century, with implicati...

  16. Endangered species and cultural resources program Naval petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In FY96, Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc. (EASI) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on federal properties. Population monitoring activities were conducted for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. Kit fox abundance and distribution was assessed by live-trapping over a 329-km{sup 2} area. Kit fox reproduction and mortality were assessed by radiocollaring and monitoring 22 adults and two pups. Reproductive success and litter size were determined through live-trapping and den observations. Rates and sources of kit fox mortality were assessed by recovering dead radiocollared kit foxes and conducting necropsies to determine cause of death. Abundance of coyotes and bobcats, which compete with kit foxes, was determined by conducting scent station surveys. Kit fox diet was assessed through analysis of fecal samples collected from live-trapped foxes. Abundance of potential prey for kit foxes was determined by conducting transect surveys for lagornorphs and live-trapping small mammals.

  17. Response of an endangered tree species from Caatinga to mycorrhization and phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schinopsis brasiliensis is an endangered tree species found in the Caatinga biome. It presents a characteristic slow development and difficult propagation, although it has been traditionally exploited in the region. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and phosphorus (P fertilization may be beneficial to S. brasiliensis development at the seedling stage, which at the same time may help species conservation and the recovery of degraded areas in the Caatinga biome. We assessed the response of S. brasiliensis to AMF inoculation (Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Acaulospora longula and P fertilization (0, 12, 24, and 48 mg dm−3 addition of P2O5. S. brasiliensis responded positively to both AMF inoculation and P fertilization. At low P concentrations, the inoculated plants showed higher leaf area and enhanced vegetative development, nutrient content and biomass production compared with non-inoculated plants. Conversely, increasing levels of P fertilization decreased the level of mycorrhizal colonization, plant responsiveness to inoculation, and spore production in C. etunicatum. Thus, P concentrations were able to influence the response of S. brasiliensis to mycorrhization and responsiveness to increased mycorrhization with the decrease in P availability. These results showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis plays an essential role in the development of S. brasiliensis.

  18. Geographic variation and genetic structure in the Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi), a critically endangered synanthropic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melissa R; Person, Carl; Hayes, William K

    2015-01-01

    Bird species may exhibit unexpected population structuring over small distances, with gene flow restricted by geographic features such as water or mountains. The Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi) is a critically endangered, synanthropic island endemic with a declining population of fewer than 300 individuals. It now remains only on Andros Island (The Bahamas), which is riddled with waterways that past studies assumed did not hinder gene flow. We examined 1,858 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA sequenced from four gene regions in 14 birds (roughly 5% of the remaining population) found on the largest land masses of Andros Island (North Andros and Mangrove Cay/South Andros). We sought to discern genetic structuring between the remaining subpopulations and its relationship to current conservation concerns. Four unique haplotypes were identified, with only one shared between the two subpopulations. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity were higher for the North Andros subpopulation than for the Mangrove Cay/South Andros subpopulation. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) yielded a Wright's fixation index (F st) of 0.60 (P Fst = 0.016), with 40.2% of the molecular variation explained by within-population differences and 59.8% by among-population differences. Based on the mitochondrial regions examined in this study, we suggest the extant subpopulations of Bahama Oriole exhibit significant population structuring over short distances, consistent with some other non-migratory tropical songbird species. PMID:26644974

  19. Optimization methods for selecting founder individuals for captive breeding or reintroduction of endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Webb; Wright, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu; Schuster, Stephan C; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2010-01-01

    Methods from genetics and genomics can be employed to help save endangered species. One potential use is to provide a rational strategy for selecting a population of founders for a captive breeding program. The hope is to capture most of the available genetic diversity that remains in the wild population, to provide a safe haven where representatives of the species can be bred, and eventually to release the progeny back into the wild. However, the founders are often selected based on a random-sampling strategy whose validity is based on unrealistic assumptions. Here we outline an approach that starts by using cutting-edge genome sequencing and genotyping technologies to objectively assess the available genetic diversity. We show how combinatorial optimization methods can be applied to these data to guide the selection of the founder population. In particular, we develop a mixed-integer linear programming technique that identifies a set of animals whose genetic profile is as close as possible to specified abundances of alleles (i.e., genetic variants), subject to constraints on the number of founders and their genders and ages. PMID:19908356

  20. Guidance on the Use of Best Available Science under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dennis D.; Weiland, Paul S.

    2016-07-01

    The Endangered Species Act's best available science mandate has been widely emulated and reflects a Congressional directive to ensure that decisions made under the Act are informed by reliable knowledge applied using a structured approach. We build on a standing literature by describing the role of the best science directive in the Act's implementation and best practices that can be employed to realize the directive. Next we describe recurring impediments to realizing determinations by the federal wildlife agencies that are based on the best available science. We then identify the types of data, analyses, and modeling efforts that can serve as best science. Finally, we consider the role and application of best available science in effects analysis and adaptive management. We contend that more rigorous adherence by the wildlife agencies to the best available science directive and more assiduous judicial oversight of agency determinations and actions is essential for effective implementation of the Act, particularly where it has substantial ramifications for listed species, stakeholder segments of society, or both.

  1. Guidance on the Use of Best Available Science under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dennis D; Weiland, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    The Endangered Species Act's best available science mandate has been widely emulated and reflects a Congressional directive to ensure that decisions made under the Act are informed by reliable knowledge applied using a structured approach. We build on a standing literature by describing the role of the best science directive in the Act's implementation and best practices that can be employed to realize the directive. Next we describe recurring impediments to realizing determinations by the federal wildlife agencies that are based on the best available science. We then identify the types of data, analyses, and modeling efforts that can serve as best science. Finally, we consider the role and application of best available science in effects analysis and adaptive management. We contend that more rigorous adherence by the wildlife agencies to the best available science directive and more assiduous judicial oversight of agency determinations and actions is essential for effective implementation of the Act, particularly where it has substantial ramifications for listed species, stakeholder segments of society, or both. PMID:27085854

  2. Biological Assessment of the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally Listed Threatened and Endangered Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2006-09-19

    This biological assessment considers the effects of continuing to operate Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally listed threatened or endangered species, based on current and future operations identified in the 2006 Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS; DOE In Prep.). We reviewed 40 projects analyzed in the SWEIS as well as two aspects on ongoing operations to determine if these actions had the potential to affect Federally listed species. Eighteen projects that had not already received U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) consultation and concurrence, as well as the two aspects of ongoing operations, ecological risk from legacy contaminants and the Outfall Reduction Project, were determined to have the potential to affect threatened or endangered species. Cumulative impacts were also analyzed.

  3. Modeling Spatial Distribution of a Rare and Endangered Plant Species (Brainea insignis) in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-C.; Lo, N.-J.; Chang, W.-I.; Huang, K.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    With an increase in the rate of species extinction, we should choose right methods that are sustainable on the basis of appropriate science and human needs to conserve ecosystems and rare species. Species distribution modeling (SDM) uses 3S technology and statistics and becomes increasingly important in ecology. Brainea insignis (cycad-fern, CF) has been categorized a rare, endangered plant species, and thus was chosen as a target for the study. Five sampling schemes were created with different combinations of CF samples collected from three sites in Huisun forest station and one site, 10 km farther north from Huisun. Four models, MAXENT, GARP, generalized linear models (GLM), and discriminant analysis (DA), were developed based on topographic variables, and were evaluated by five sampling schemes. The accuracy of MAXENT was the highest, followed by GLM and GARP, and DA was the lowest. More importantly, they can identify the potential habitat less than 10% of the study area in the first round of SDM, thereby prioritizing either the field-survey area where microclimatic, edaphic or biotic data can be collected for refining predictions of potential habitat in the later rounds of SDM or search areas for new population discovery. However, it was shown unlikely to extend spatial patterns of CFs from one area to another with a big separation or to a larger area by predictive models merely based on topographic variables. Follow-up studies will attempt to incorporate proxy indicators that can be extracted from hyperspectral images or LIDAR DEM and substitute for direct parameters to make predictive models applicable on a broader scale.

  4. A framework for developing objective and measurable recovery criteria for threatened and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes Boor, Gina K

    2014-02-01

    For species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service are tasked with writing recovery plans that include "objective, measurable criteria" that define when a species is no longer at risk of extinction, but neither the act itself nor agency guidelines provide an explicit definition of objective, measurable criteria. Past reviews of recovery plans, including one published in 2012, show that many criteria lack quantitative metrics with clear biological rationale and are not meeting the measureable and objective mandate. I reviewed how objective, measureable criteria have been defined implicitly and explicitly in peer-reviewed literature, the ESA, other U.S. statutes, and legal decisions. Based on a synthesis of these sources, I propose the following 6 standards be used as minimum requirements for objective, measurable criteria: contain a quantitative threshold with calculable units, stipulate a timeframe over which they must be met, explicitly define the spatial extent or population to which they apply, specify a sampling procedure that includes sample size, specify a statistical significance level, and include justification by providing scientific evidence that the criteria define a species whose extinction risk has been reduced to the desired level. To meet these 6 standards, I suggest that recovery plans be explicitly guided by and organized around a population viability modeling framework even if data or agency resources are too limited to complete a viability model. When data and resources are available, recovery criteria can be developed from the population viability model results, but when data and resources are insufficient for model implementation, extinction risk thresholds can be used as criteria. A recovery-planning approach centered on viability modeling will also yield appropriately focused data-acquisition and monitoring plans and will facilitate a seamless transition

  5. Threatened and Endangered Species Survey for Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Larson, Vickie L.; Hall, Patrice; Hensley, Melissa A.

    1997-01-01

    A review of previous environmental work conducted at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) indicated that several threatened, endangered, or species of special concern occurred or had the potential to occur there. This study was implemented to collect more information on protected species at PAFB. A map of landcover types was prepared for PAFB using aerial photography, groundtruthing, and a geographic information system (GIS). Herbaceous vegetation was the most common vegetation type. The second most abundant vegetation type was disturbed shrubs/exotics. The beach and associated dune vegetation comprised 3.2% of the land area, but was the most extensive natural community within PAFB. A few isolated mangrove communities exist along the Banana River. Seventy-seven species of vascular plants occurred on the dunes, including four species listed by state agencies: spider lily (Hymenocallis latifolia), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia stricta), beach star (Remirea maritima), and inkberry (Scaevola plumien). Surveys of other habitats revealed eighty-four species of vascular plants including two state-listed species: spider lily and prickly pear cactus. Many of these areas are dominated by invasive, exotic species, particularly Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), and native species of open or disturbed sites such as camphorweed (Heterotheca subaxillaris) and beardgrass (Andropogon spp.). Due to the isolation of PAFB from other natural areas, most exotic plant populations on the base are not an immediate threat to intact native plant communities. Dune habitat was surveyed for the southeastem beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris) by quarterly trapping along eight 100 m transects. No beach mice were found. The limited extent of dune habitat, its fragmented condition, and the isolation of PAFB from extant populations of the beach mouse probably accounts for its absence. Surveys of birds on PAFB found an avifauna

  6. Demography of a reintroduced population: moving toward management models for an endangered species, the whooping crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servanty, Sabrina; Converse, Sarah Joanne; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2014-01-01

    The reintroduction of threatened and endangered species is now a common method for reestablishing populations. Typically, a fundamental objective of reintroduction is to establish a self-sustaining population. Estimation of demographic parameters in reintroduced populations is critical, as these estimates serve multiple purposes. First, they support evaluation of progress toward the fundamental objective via construction of population viability analyses (PVAs) to predict metrics such as probability of persistence. Second, PVAs can be expanded to support evaluation of management actions, via management modeling. Third, the estimates themselves can support evaluation of the demographic performance of the reintroduced population, e.g., via comparison with wild populations. For each of these purposes, thorough treatment of uncertainties in the estimates is critical. Recently developed statistical methods - namely, hierarchical Bayesian implementations of state-space models - allow for effective integration of different types of uncertainty in estimation. We undertook a demographic estimation effort for a reintroduced population of endangered whooping cranes with the purpose of ultimately developing a Bayesian PVA for determining progress toward establishing a self-sustaining population, and for evaluating potential management actions via a Bayesian PVA-based management model. We evaluated individual and temporal variation in demographic parameters based upon a multi-state mark-recapture model. We found that survival was relatively high across time and varied little by sex. There was some indication that survival varied by release method. Survival was similar to that observed in the wild population. Although overall reproduction in this reintroduced population is poor, birds formed social pairs when relatively young, and once a bird was in a social pair, it had a nearly 50% chance of nesting the following breeding season. Also, once a bird had nested, it had a high

  7. Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Peter) van Bodegom, P. M.; (Jos) van Dam, J. C.; (Rien) Aerts, R.

    2010-05-01

    soil moisture contents hamper oxygen transport from the atmosphere, through the soil - where part of the oxygen additionally disappears by soil microbial oxygen consumption - and to the root cells. Reduced respiration negatively affects the energy supply to plant metabolism. Plant transpiration, which responds to increased temperatures and atmospheric CO2-concentrations, is the first physiological process that will be inhibited by low soil moisture contents, negatively affecting both photosynthesis and cooling. As both the supply and demand of oxygen and water depend strongly on the prevailing meteorological conditions, both oxygen and water stress were calculated dynamically in time to capture climate change effects. We demonstrate that increased rainfall variability in interaction with predicted changes in temperature and CO2, affects soil moisture conditions and plant oxygen and water demands such, that both oxygen stress and water stress will intensify due to climate change. Moreover, these stresses will increasingly coincide, causing variable stress conditions. These variable stress conditions were found to decrease future habitat suitability, especially for plant species that are presently endangered. The future existence of such species is thus at risk by climate change, which has direct implications for policies to maintain endangered species, as applied by international nature management organisations (e.g. IUCN). Our integrated mechanistic analysis of two stresses combined, which has never been done so far, reveals large impacts of climate change on species extinctions and thereby on biodiversity.

  8. 76 FR 46361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... encroachment by nonnative plant and animal species. Oahu Ecosystems The seven Oahu ecosystems that support the... ecosystem, but may include some specialized plants and animals such as nesting seabirds and the rare native... extinction of plant species that currently have fewer than 50 individuals remaining in the wild on...

  9. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC.

  10. Effects of nonylphenol and ethinylestradiol on copper redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi), an endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Domynick; Roy, Robert L

    2014-10-01

    The copper redhorse, Moxostoma hubbsi, is an endangered species endemic to Quebec. The presence of contaminants, in particular endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in its habitat has been advanced as partly responsible for the reproductive difficulties encountered by the species. In the present study, immature copper redhorse were exposed to the estrogenic surfactant nonylphenol (NP; 1, 10 and 50µg/l) and the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2; 10ng/l) for 21 days in a flow-through system. The endpoints investigated included general health indicators (hepatosomatic index and hematocrit), thyroid hormones, sex steroids, brain aromatase activity, plasma and mucus vitellogenin (VTG), cytochrome P4501A protein expression and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and muscle acetylcholinesterase. Exposure to 10ng EE2/l significantly increased brain aromatase activity. Exposure to 50µg NP/l resulted in a significant reduction of plasma testosterone concentrations and a significant induction of hepatic HSP70 protein expression. NP at 50µg/l also induced plasma and mucus VTG. The presence of elevated VTG levels in the surface mucus of immature copper redhorse exposed to NP, and its correlation to plasma VTG, supports the use of mucus VTG as a non-invasive biomarker to evaluate copper redhorse exposure to EDCs in the environment and contribute to restoration efforts of the species. The results of the present study indicate that exposure to high environmentally relevant concentrations of NP and EE2 can affect molecular endpoints related to reproduction in the copper redhorse. PMID:25063883

  11. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover's wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC

  12. Integrating land cover modeling and adaptive management to conserve endangered species and reduce catastrophic fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process, where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources, and then, decision makers can use this information to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision-making, where science allows us to learn in order to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by the specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuel monitoring with decision-making focused on the dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy; other conditions require tradeoffs between objectives. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by developing hypotheses based on ideas about fire behavior and then applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and to increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility and identifies a clear role for land cover modeling programs intended to inform decision-making.

  13. Effects of Population Size on Reproductive Success of the Endangered and Endemic Species Primula merrilliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Wen Shao; Xiao-Ping Zhang; Zhong-Xing Zhang; Guo-Ping Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive ability related to the population size of the endangered and endemic species Primula merrilliana Schltr.was investigated.In 26 populations observed,only four contain more than 500 flowering individuals,whereas most of them(53.8%) consist of less than 100 flowering individuals.Though the ratio of pin and thrum plants keeps its balance at 1:1 for all populations,the frequency of pin and thrum flowers was significantly biased in most small populations.Population size strongly affected reproductive success; plants in small populations produced significantly fewer flowers and fruits per plant and fewer seeds per fruit,and therefore fewer seeds per plant.The floral density was another important factor that influenced the reproductive success of P.merrilliana,because four main reproductive success parameters (fruits per plant,seeds per fruit,seeds per plant,and the proportion of flowers setting fruit) were all positively correlated with floral density.The size of plants and the number of leaves per plant (measure of habitat quality) were not influenced by the variation of population size,suggesting that the reduced fecundity in small populations may not be a consequence of lower habitat quality,inbreeding depression and pollen limitation as a result of less attractiveness in small populations are therefore likely explanations for these patterns.

  14. To be or not to be - common and endangered arable weed species in the face of Global Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Rühl, Anna Theresa; Donath, Tobias W.; Eckstein, R. Lutz; Otte, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land use management with the application of herbicides and fertilisers, enhanced seed cleaning, simplified crop rotations and abandonment of marginal arable sites are the main causes for the continuous decline of arable weeds. However, besides these changes in land use also global climate change may challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Most scientists agree that the frequency of extre...

  15. To be or not to be - common and endangered arable weed species in the face of Global Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rühl, Anna Theresa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land use management with the application of herbicides and fertilisers, enhanced seed cleaning, simplified crop rotations and abandonment of marginal arable sites are the main causes for the continuous decline of arable weeds. However, besides these changes in land use also global climate change may challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Most scientists agree that the frequency of extreme meteorological conditions will increase in the future. As a consequence, plants of Central Europe will be subject to higher temperatures and reduced water supply due to longer intervals without precipitation during the growing season. We exposed seeds of five common and five endangered arable weed species to different temperatures and water potentials to study i how this plant group responds to higher temperatures and lower moisture during germination in general and ii whether there is a significant difference between common and endangered species in this respect.

  16. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, pdog seed shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  17. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, 1300 ft dogs 98, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  18. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, dog buff 1300 ft shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  19. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, dog area shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  20. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, b list shp - prairie dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  1. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, irco 30 - 40 shp - prairie dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  2. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, exist dogs c shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  3. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, 1300 ft dogs 98 shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  4. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, exist dogs c, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  5. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, irco 50 - 100 shp - prairie dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  6. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, irco 5-10 shp - prairie dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  7. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, Piute no dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  8. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, IC dog relocate shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  9. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, irco 10 - 20 shp - prairie dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  10. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, exist dogs shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  11. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, irco 40 - 50 shp - prairie dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  12. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, dog buff 1300 ft, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  13. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, dog study area, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  14. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, irco 20- 30 shp - prairie dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  15. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, irco 100 shp - prairie dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  16. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, Piute no dogs shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  17. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, IC dog relocate, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  18. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, dog study shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  19. An endemic and Critically Endangered species, Gymnema khandalense Santapau (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) - a new record to Goa State, India

    OpenAIRE

    Deokule, S. S.; S.P. Kavade; P. Lakshminarasimhan; V.B. Berde

    2013-01-01

    Gymnema khandalense Santapau (Apocynaceae - Asclepiadoideae), an endemic and critically endangered species, is reported here for the first time from Goa State. A detailed description, phenology, distribution and ecology along with a photo plate are provided for its easy identification.

  20. Inventory of endangered species and wildlife resources at the US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1988 (NODC Accession 0000631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An inventory of endangered species and the wildlife resources at the US Army Kwajelein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Island were conducted from 30 October 1998 to...

  1. Endangered Species and Wildlife Resources Inventory Kwajalein Atoll, U.S. Army , Republic of the Marshall Islands 1996 (NODC Accession 0000251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report summarizes the results of the first Environmental Standards and Procedures (UES) inventory of endangered species and wildlife resources at United States...

  2. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, a list shp - prairie dogs, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  3. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, dogs 1995 shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  4. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, Study tier join, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  5. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, ic relocate shp, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  6. Endangered and Threatened Animal Species and Subspecies of U.S., Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and Trust Territory. 1979 and 1980 Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    Presented is a listing of threatened and endangered animal species and subspecies both by State and collectively for the United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and Trust Territory. (BW)

  7. THE ENDANGERED SPECIES Aristelliger georgeensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae IN RONCADOR CAY, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo LÓPEZ-VICTORIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aristelliger georgeensis, previously known to occur in the Yucatan peninsula (Mexico, the coasts and islands from Belize and Honduras, and the oceanic islands of Colombia in the Caribbean (San Andres, Providence and Saint Catalina was registered for the first time in Roncador Cay, a flat and small island of coralline origin, located in the southwest of the Caribbean. Being considered as an endangered species at the national level, the new locality for this gecko constitutes an opportunity for its conservation. Some topics regarding the possible origins of this new population are discussed. This new locality represents the eastern most documented record of this species so far.La especie amenazada Aristelliger georgeensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae en el Cayo Roncador, Caribe colombianoAristelliger georgeensis, previamente conocido de la península de Yucatán (México, las costas e islas de Belice y Honduras y de las islas oceánicas de Colombia en el Caribe (San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, fue registrado por primera vez en el Cayo Roncador, una isla plana y pequeña de origen coralino, ubicada en el suroccidente del Caribe. Siendo considerada como una especie amenazada a nivel nacional, la nueva localidad para este geco constituye una oportunidad para su conservación. Se discuten algunos tópicos relacionados con el posible origen de esta nueva población. Esta nueva localidad representa el registro documentado más al Este para la especie. 

  8. Optimal regeneration planning for old-growth forest: addressing scientific uncertainty in endangered species recovery through adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic and structural uncertainties about forest dynamics present challenges in the management of ephemeral habitat conditions for endangered forest species. Maintaining critical foraging and breeding habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) requires an uninterrupted supply of old-growth forest. We constructed and optimized a dynamic forest growth model for the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge (Georgia, USA) with the objective of perpetuating a maximum stream of old-growth forest habitat. Our model accommodates stochastic disturbances and hardwood succession rates, and uncertainty about model structure. We produced a regeneration policy that was indexed by current forest state and by current weight of evidence among alternative model forms. We used adaptive stochastic dynamic programming, which anticipates that model probabilities, as well as forest states, may change through time, with consequent evolution of the optimal decision for any given forest state. In light of considerable uncertainty about forest dynamics, we analyzed a set of competing models incorporating extreme, but plausible, parameter values. Under any of these models, forest silviculture practices currently recommended for the creation of woodpecker habitat are suboptimal. We endorse fully adaptive approaches to the management of endangered species habitats in which predictive modeling, monitoring, and assessment are tightly linked.

  9. Species diversity of critically endangered pristid sawfishes (Elasmobranchii: Pristidae of Nusantara waters (Malay Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTARNO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pristid sawfishes (Pristidae are notable because of their saw-like rostrum and large body size (up to seven meters. All pristids are listed as critically endangered by IUCN, since decreasing population; Nusantara is home for five pristid species, namely: Anoxypristis cuspidata Latham, 1794, Pristis clavata Garman, 1906, Pristis microdon Latham, 1794, Pristis zijsron Bleeker, 1851, and Pristis pectinata Latham, 1794. A. cuspidata differ from Pristid spp. by the presence of a very narrow rostral saw, with 16 to 29 pairs of teeth but no teeth along the quarter of the rostral saw nearest to the head. P. microdon has a highly defined groove runs along the entire posterior edge of the tooth into and beyond its confluence with the rostrum. This groove is absent in juvenile P. clavata and whilst it develops in larger individuals it rarely runs along the entire posterior edge of the tooth or reach its confluence with the rostrum. P. clavata possibly have been misidentified as P. pectinata, whose distribution in the Indo-West Pacific is uncertain. P. clavata can be distinguished from P. pectinata and P. zijsron by the possession of fewer rostral teeth (18 to 22 in P. clavata cf. 24 to 28 in P. zijsron and 24 to 34 in P. pectinata, and by its smaller body size (i.e. less than 250 cm TL in P. clavata. P. microdon indicate different sexes of the number of rostral teeth, i.e. 17-21 in female cf. 19-23 in male, but in P. clavata, it can not be used to differentiate male from female, with both sexes possessing an average of 42 rostral teeth. In P. clavata the dorsal fin origin is opposite or slightly behind the pelvic fin origin, the rostum is relatively shorter (22-24% of TL, the lower cauda fin lobe is smaller.

  10. A Crosswalk from the Endangered Species Act to the HCP Handbook and Real HCPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMALLWOOD

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Departments of Interior and Commerce published the HCP handbook in 1996 to guide the issuance of incidental take permits (ITPs). The HCP handbook lists six guidelines and provides many others throughout the text. However, the guidelines sometimes contradict the intent of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and some are vague due to their use of improperly defined terms, such as ecosystem, region(al), net benefits, and habitat types. A proposed addendum provides little improvement to the HCP handbook. The guidelines in the HCP handbook could be prepared to better match those that scientists would expect from the language of the ESA. Three HCPs met only 3-10% of the 39 guidelines I would expect based on the ESA, and they met only 7-20% of the 30 guidelines in the HCP handbook. Based on a recent legal decision on the Alabama Beach Mouse HCP, ITP applicants are expected to follow the guidelines in the HCP handbook. The three HCPs I reviewed are vulnerable to similar legal decisions. However, many of the guidelines in the HCP handbook are inconsistent with the ESA. Therefore, I recommend that the HCP handbook be revised so that it is consistent with the ESA and with academic standards in the use of scientific methods. The guidelines need to be more explicit to be operationally consistent. Such a revision would provide ITP applicants and all the stakeholders with much more certainty in the outcome of the process. In lieu of a revised HCP handbook, I recommend that ITP applicants prepare their HCPs using the standards presented in Smallwood and others (Environmental Management, 1999, 24:421-435), thereby giving their HCPs a strong scientific foundation. PMID:10801988

  11. "Endangered Spaces, Enduring Places: Change, Identity, and Survival in Rural America," by Janet M. Fitchen. Book Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Judi

    1994-01-01

    Reviews a book that describes changes affecting rural America including the farm crisis, growing poverty, and in-migration of those who contribute little to the local economy. Addresses implications for rural service delivery and government policy. (LP)

  12. A Study on Photosynthetic Physiological Characteristics of Six Rare and Endangered Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tailin ZHONG; Guangwu ZHAO; Jiamiao CHU; Xiaomin GUO; Genyou LI

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyl fluorescence in leaves of six rare and endangered species Neolitsea sericea, Cinnamomum japonicum var. cheni , Sinojackia microcarpa, Discocleidion glabrum var. trichocarpum, Parrotia sub-aequalis, Cercidiphyl um japonicum were measured in fields. The results showed that there were significant differences in photosynthetic capacity, intrinsic water use effi-ciency (WUEi ), the efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ and its potential activity, the quantum yield of PSⅡ electron transport, and the potential ca-pacity of heat dissipation among the six species. However, there was no significant difference in WUE. The highest values of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (gs) occurred in D. glabrum var. trichocarpum and the lowest in S. microcarpa. On the contrary, D. glabrum var. trichocarpum had the lowest WUE, intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi ) and S. microcarpa had the highest. The results indicated that D. glabrum var. trichocarpum had higher photo-synthetic capacity and poorer WUE, while S. microcarpa had lower photosynthetic capacity and greater WUE. Furthermore, the mean values of maximal fluorescence (Fm), potential efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm),ΦPSⅡ, actual efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ (F′v/F′m) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) were the highest in S. micro-carpa, indicating that its PSⅡ had higher capacity of heat dissipation and could prevent photosynthetic apparatus from damage by excessive light energy. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations among photosynthetic physi-ological parameters. However, the initial fluorescence (Fo) was not significantly cor-related with any other parameters. This study also revealed the extremely significant positive correlations between Pn and Tr, gs, apparent quantum yield (AQY), be-tween Tr and

  13. Endangered Species. Management Improvements Could Enhance Recovery Program. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    Extinction of animal and plant species has become a serious problem that threatens to become more acute in coming years. The endangered species program was established to prevent further extinctions and ultimately recover species designated as threatened or endangered through the development and implementation of species recovery plans. Concerned…

  14. Darwin's Book: "On the Origin of Species"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's "Origin of Species". It focuses on the contents of the "Origin" as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  15. A new species of Dactylogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on an endangered freshwater fish, Rhodeus atremius atremius, endemic to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    A new dactylogyrid monogenean Dactylogyrus bicorniculus sp. nov. is described from the gills of the kazetoge bitterling, Rhodeus atremius atremius (Jordan and Thompson, 1914), an endemic species in Japan, from Saga Prefecture, northern Kyūshū. D. bicorniculus sp. nov. resembles Dactylogyrus bicornis Malevitskaja, 1941 and Dactylogyrus lophogonus Zhang and Ji, 1980 because they have two common features, a large V-shaped ventral bar and well-developed second marginal hooks. However, the new species is distinguished from these congeners by a shorter penis and an accessory piece. A phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA shows that D. bicorniculus sp. nov. is a basal species with the T-shaped ventral bar in the genus. The new species has strict host-specificity to R. a. atremius, one of the endangered freshwater fishes in Japan, and may face the danger of co-extinction with its host. PMID:27377236

  16. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Gomes; Sofia Fortalezas; Rui Pimpão; Inês Figueira; João Maroco; Carlos Aguiar; Ricardo B. Ferreira; Célia Miguel; Cláudia N. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territor...

  17. 78 FR 34347 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and... Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica). ADDRESSES: Electronic copies of the Final Recovery Plan are... recovery. The Northern right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) has been listed as ``endangered'' under...

  18. 75 FR 62139 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...; PRT-22592A; Applicant: Anthony Clemenza, Brooklyn, NY; PRT-22557A; Applicant: Richard Young, West..., Wimberley, TX; PRT-23150A. B. Endangered Marine Mammals and Marine Mammals Applicant: Florida Fish and... the permit to allow additional sampling and harassment of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)...

  19. ISSR Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of the Endangered Species Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying from Western Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xiao; Qun Li; Li Wang; Liang Guo; Jing Li; Lin Tang; Fang Chen

    2006-01-01

    Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying Is an important medicinal and endangered species. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis was conducted on seven natural populations from western Sichuan Province to investigate the genetic diversity of S. hexandrum. Leaf samples of 140 individuals were collected.Of the 139 discernible fragments generated by 12 selected primers (among 100 primers), 54 appeared to be polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 38.85% at the species level, and PPB within a population ranged from 7.91% to 23.74%. Low levels of genetic variation (He=0.092, Ho=0.142) and high levels of genetic differentiation among the populations (Gst= 62.25%) was detected on the basis of results from POPGENE and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), respectively. Furthermore, the limited gene flow (Nm=0.361) may result from biological characteristics, such as self-pollination and short distance seed dispersal. Based on the genetic and ecological information available for S. hexandrum, we propose some appropriate strategies for the conservation of the endangered medicinal species in this region,namely rescuing and conserving the core populations for in situ conservation and sampling and preserving more populations with fewer individuals from each population for ex situ conservation.

  20. Wildlife mortality investigation and disease research: contributions of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center to endangered species management and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey—National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) provides diagnostic services, technical assistance, applied research, and training to federal, state, territorial, and local government agencies and Native American tribes on wildlife diseases and wildlife health issues throughout the United States and its territories, commonwealth, and freely associated states. Since 1975, >16,000 carcasses and specimens from vertebrate species listed under the Endangered Species Act have been submitted to NWHC for determination of causes of morbidity or mortality or assessment of health/disease status. Results from diagnostic investigations, analyses of the diagnostic database, technical assistance and consultation, field investigation of epizootics, and wildlife disease research by NWHC wildlife disease specialists have contributed importantly to the management and recovery of listed species.

  1. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-01-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from bo...

  2. Wildlife Preservation and Endangered Species: Decision, Discretion and Policy Implementation in the Island Special Constabulary Force, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Brooks

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is worldwide interest to preserve wild and endangered species. Several countries have become signatories to, or have acceded to international agreements, and have developed appropriate law enforcement institutions. Simultaneously, and within the context of Jamaica, law enforcement emphases have instead been occupied with ‘major crimes’. Jamaican police are expected to prioritize the solution of ‘serious crimes’ rather than enforcing the Wildlife Protection Act (WPA and the Endangered Species Act (ESA. The Island Special Constabulary Force (ISCF has been mandated to enforce the WPA and the ESA. The aim of this case study was to investigate how capacity impacts implementation of the WPA and the ESA; to assess the discretion across the different ISCF ranks impacts implementation of the WPA and the ESA; to conduct an investigation into how the level of import/seriousness placed on WPA and the ESA impacts implementation; and to evaluate how implementation of the WPA and the ESA stacked in relation to the enforcement of other offences. Enforcement was influenced by; 1 ignorance by ignorance of the complexities of the law; 2 lack of sufficient emphasis within the ISCF; 3 disconnect between ISCF strategic goals and operational realities; 4 implementation susceptible to excessive use of discretion and 5 a strong organizational culture that defined and placed emphasis on traditional notions of crime. The findings are far reaching and can be employed to provide action, direction and focus for policy makers, particularly in the ISCF.

  3. Managing Endangered Species Within the Use-Preservation Paradox: The Florida Manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris) as a Tourism Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G.; Shafer, C. Scott; Ditton, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    A significant challenge to wildlife managers in tourism settings is to provide visitors with opportunities to observe rare and endangered wildlife while simultaneously protecting the target species from deleterious impacts. Nearly 100,000 people annually visit Crystal River, Florida, USA to observe and swim with the Florida manatee, an endangered species. This research aimed to investigate and describe human-manatee interactions in a tourism context, to understand the salient issues related to such interactions as identified by stakeholders, and to recommend a course of action to address multiple interests in the planning and management of human-manatee interactions. Five issues were identified by all stakeholder groups: water quality, harassment, density and crowding, education, and enforcement. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is responsible for manatee management, does not have mechanisms in place to manage the tourism component of the manatee encounter. Although a regulatory approach can be taken, a better approach would be to create an organization of tour operators to establish “best practices” that reflect the goal of the managing agency to enhance manatee protection (and thus ensure their livelihood) and to enhance the visitor experience.

  4. Genetic Pool Information Reflects Highly Suitable Areas: The Case of Two Parapatric Endangered Species of Tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomiydae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiano, Daniel; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of small mammals requires knowledge of the genetically and ecologically meaningful spatial scales at which species respond to habitat modifications. Conservation strategies can be improved through the use of ecological niche models and genetic data to classify areas of high environmental suitability. In this study, we applied a Maxent model integrated with genetic information (nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and Fu's Fs neutrality tests) to evaluate potential genetic pool populations with highly suitable areas for two parapatric endangered species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys minutus and C. lami). Our results demonstrated that both species were largely influenced by vegetation and soil variables at a landscape scale and inhabit a highly specific niche. Ctenomys minutus was also influenced by the variable altitude; the species was associated with low altitudes (sea level). Our model of genetic data associated with environmental suitability indicate that the genetic pool data were associated with highly suitable areas for C. minutus. This pattern was not evident for C. lami, but this outcome could be a consequence of the restricted range of the species. The preservation of species requires not only detailed knowledge of their natural history and genetic structure but also information on the availability of suitable areas where species can survive, and such knowledge can aid significantly in conservation planning. This finding reinforces the use of these two techniques for planning conservation actions. PMID:24819251

  5. Willingness to pay for threatened and endangered marine species:A review of the literature and prospects for policy use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Lew

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-market valuation methods have been employed to estimate willingness to pay for numerous threatened, endangered, and rare (TER species over the past few decades. While most of these efforts have focused on terrestrial species, over 30 published studies have been conducted to measure economic values associated with the preservation, protection, and enhancement of scores of marine species. In this paper, this literature is reviewed and assessed, and an evaluation of the suitability of existing TER species values as inputs for the analysis of marine and coastal policies, and the prospects and challenges for improving them, are discussed. The published literature is found to suffer from coverage issues, both geographical and in terms of species types. It includes stated preference valuation studies focused on marine species only in developed countries (United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, Spain, and Greece, with the highest concentration of studies occurring in the United States. The species valued primarily can be classified as charismatic megafauna—seals and sea lions, whales, and sea turtles—plus well-known fish species, like salmon. Only a small handful of lesser known species are included among those valued to date. Species value estimates were as much as $356 (2013 U.S. dollars, but differed in the frequency of payments (e.g., lump sum vs. annual, the entity paying (e.g., household, resident, or visitor, and the specific good being valued (e.g., species preservation or a type of enhancement. Potential sources of errors arising from the use of these values for policy analyses, and the temporal stability of them, provide reasons to be cautious in their application. Nevertheless, several trends in the literature appear to provide reasons to be optimistic about the literature, particularly the recent expansion of types of species valued and more policy-relevant values.

  6. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  7. 77 FR 13248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 46 Species in Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ...)....... 50 FR 33731; 8/21/ 1985. Kopa Hedyotis Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 64 FR 48323; 9/3... listing rule Animals Akepa, Maui Loxops coccineus Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 35 FR 16047; 10/13/ ochraceus. 1970. Creeper, Molokai Paroreomyza Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 35 FR 16047;...

  8. 78 FR 8185 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Status Reviews of 44 Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ...; 05/ (=Hedyotis 15/1992. coriacea). Koki`o Kokia Endangered U.S.A (HI)....... 49 FR 47400; 12..., nightingale reed...... Acrocephalus Endangered Western Pacific 35 FR 8491; 06/02/ luscinia. Ocean--U.S.A 1970. (Guam, Alamagan, Saipan). Swiftlet, Mariana gray (=Guam Aerodramus Endangered Western Pacific 49...

  9. Low-coverage vaccination strategies for the conservation of endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, D T; Randall, D A; Matthews, L; Knobel, D L; Tallents, L A; Gravenor, M B; Williams, S D; Pollinger, J P; Cleaveland, S; Woolhouse, M E J; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Marino, J; Macdonald, D W; Laurenson, M K

    2006-10-12

    The conventional objective of vaccination programmes is to eliminate infection by reducing the reproduction number of an infectious agent to less than one, which generally requires vaccination of the majority of individuals. In populations of endangered wildlife, the intervention required to deliver such coverage can be undesirable and impractical; however, endangered populations are increasingly threatened by outbreaks of infectious disease for which effective vaccines exist. As an alternative, wildlife epidemiologists could adopt a vaccination strategy that protects a population from the consequences of only the largest outbreaks of disease. Here we provide a successful example of this strategy in the Ethiopian wolf, the world's rarest canid, which persists in small subpopulations threatened by repeated outbreaks of rabies introduced by domestic dogs. On the basis of data from past outbreaks, we propose an approach that controls the spread of disease through habitat corridors between subpopulations and that requires only low vaccination coverage. This approach reduces the extent of rabies outbreaks and should significantly enhance the long-term persistence of the population. Our study shows that vaccination used to enhance metapopulation persistence through elimination of the largest outbreaks of disease requires lower coverage than the conventional objective of reducing the reproduction number of an infectious agent to less than one. PMID:17036003

  10. UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-Guided Dereplication of the Endangered Chinese Species Garcinia paucinervis to Identify Additional Benzophenone Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Anandhi Senthilkumar, Harini; Figueroa, Mario; Wu, Shi-Biao; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chunlin

    2016-06-24

    A number of Garcinia species accumulate benzophenone derivatives that may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer. The dereplication of new benzophenone derivatives from Garcinia species is challenging due to the occurrence of multiple isomers and the known compounds found in their extracts. In the current study, a strategy is described using the UPLC-QTOFMS(E) technique to identify tentatively the known and uncharacterized benzophenones of interest based upon the characteristic fragmentation ions. Several UPLC-QTOFMS peaks (a-ee) appeared to contain benzophenone derivatives, and 12 of these peaks contained compounds with MS ionization profiles not consistent with previously identified compounds from the seeds of Garcinia paucinervis, an endangered Chinese species. The targeted isolation of unidentified compounds of interest afforded five new benzophenones, paucinones E-I (1-5), which were determined by MS and NMR analysis and ECD spectroscopy. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three breast cancer cell lines inclusive of MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, and MCF-7. These results indicate that the UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-guided isolation procedure is an efficient strategy for isolating new benzophenones from Garcinia species. PMID:27266714

  11. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species. PMID:26844014

  12. What Factors Affect Diversity and Species Composition of Endangered Tumbesian Dry Forests in Southern Ecuador?

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Iñiguez, Carlos Ivan; Cabrera, Omar; Luzuriaga, Arantzazu L.; Escudero, Adrián

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study on species richness and composition of Tumbesian dry forest communities. We tested two alternative hypotheses about species assemblage processes in tropical dry forests: (1) species assemblage is determined by the filtering effect of environmental conditions and (2) species assemblage is determined by facilitative processes along the gradient of water availability, and thus, species richness and evenness increase as water becomes limited. In addition, we also explor...

  13. Book of abstracts: biodiversity hotspots in the mediterranean area: species, communities and landscape level

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2009-01-01

    This Book of Abstracts contains 264 contributions and in particular 69 oral invited and proposed comunications and 195 posters. The congress was attended by 602 participants from 30 countries.It was the 45th International SISV & FIP Congress on “Biodiversity Hotspots in the Mediterranean Area: species, communities and landscape level" held in Sardinia, Italy, at the University of Cagliari on June 22-24, 2009.

  14. 18 CFR Appendix I to Subpart F of... - Procedures for Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 402.02. The certificate holder shall be deemed in compliance with § 157.206(b)(2)(vi) of the... appropriate) as determined pursuant to 50 CFR 402.01 for the purpose of initiating informal consultations. 2... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) I Appendix I to Subpart F...

  15. Limited population structure, genetic drift and bottlenecks characterise an endangered bird species in a dynamic, fire-prone ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Brown

    Full Text Available Fire is a major disturbance process in many ecosystems world-wide, resulting in spatially and temporally dynamic landscapes. For populations occupying such environments, fire-induced landscape change is likely to influence population processes, and genetic patterns and structure among populations. The Mallee Emu-wren Stipiturus mallee is an endangered passerine whose global distribution is confined to fire-prone, semi-arid mallee shrublands in south-eastern Australia. This species, with poor capacity for dispersal, has undergone a precipitous reduction in distribution and numbers in recent decades. We used genetic analyses of 11 length-variable, nuclear loci to examine population structure and processes within this species, across its global range. Populations of the Mallee Emu-wren exhibited a low to moderate level of genetic diversity, and evidence of bottlenecks and genetic drift. Bayesian clustering methods revealed weak genetic population structure across the species' range. The direct effects of large fires, together with associated changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of suitable habitat, have the potential to cause population bottlenecks, serial local extinctions and subsequent recolonisation, all of which may interact to erode and homogenise genetic diversity in this species. Movement among temporally and spatially shifting habitat, appears to maintain long-term genetic connectivity. A plausible explanation for the observed genetic patterns is that, following extensive fires, recolonisation exceeds in-situ survival as the primary driver of population recovery in this species. These findings suggest that dynamic, fire-dominated landscapes can drive genetic homogenisation of populations of species with low-mobility and specialised habitat that otherwise would be expected to show strongly structured populations. Such effects must be considered when formulating management actions to conserve species in fire-prone systems.

  16. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered species: correlations with physiologic events and use as a marker of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bernard G; Brown, Janine L; Roth, Terri L; Czekala, Nancy

    2005-05-01

    Many mammalian species are facing extinction due to problems created by human encroachment, agriculture, pollution, and willful slaughter. Among those at risk are the Asian and African elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, and giant panda. Conservation groups try to save species in the wild by preserving habitat and limiting animal-human conflicts, often with limited success. Another alternative is to preserve the extant gene pool through captive breeding as a hedge against extinction. Measurement of circulating reproductive hormones is impractical for most wildlife species; determination of urinary or fecal hormone metabolites provides a more viable approach. To aid breeding management, one important tool is the ability to diagnose and monitor pregnancy, especially in species with long gestations (e.g., rhinos over 15 mo and elephants over 20 mo). Unfortunately, measuring progestins often is not useful diagnostically, because concentrations are similar during at least part of the pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase in some species (e.g., elephants, rhinoceroses, and giant pandas). As serum relaxin reliably distinguishes between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in bitches, relaxin measurement might also provide a method for detecting a successful pregnancy in endangered species. Appropriate immunoassay reagents have enabled the estimation of relaxin concentrations in the serum of elephants and rhinos and the determination of pregnancy establishment and the outcome. Relaxin was also detected in panda serum and urine. However, the extreme variability of the time between observed mating and parturition and the confounding factors of delayed implantation, pseudopregnancy, and frequent fetal resorptions made it impossible to use the panda relaxin data as a specific marker of pregnancy. PMID:15956734

  17. Moving Targets and Biodiversity Offsets for Endangered Species Habitat: Is Lesser Prairie Chicken Habitat a Stock or Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. BenDor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The US Fish and Wildlife Service will make an Endangered Species Act listing decision for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus; “LPC” in March 2014. Based on the findings of a single, Uzbek antelope study, conservation plans put forth for the LPC propose to modify and re-position habitat in the landscape through a series of temporary preservation/restoration efforts. We argue that for certain species, including the LPC, dynamic habitat offsets represent a dangerous re-interpretation of habitat provision and recovery programs, which have nearly-universally viewed ecosystem offsets (habitat, wetlands, streams, etc. as “stocks” that accumulate characteristics over time. Any effort to create a program of temporary, moving habitat offsets must consider species’ (1 life history characteristics, (2 behavioral tendencies (e.g., avoidance of impacted areas, nesting/breeding site fidelity, and (3 habitat restoration characteristics, including long temporal lags in reoccupation. If misapplied, species recovery programs using temporary, moving habitat risk further population declines.

  18. In Vitro Propagation of R. maddeni Hook. F. an Endangered Rhododendron Species of Sikkim Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Kumar SINGH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A protocol is described for rapid and large scale propagation of an endangered, important Sikkim Himalayan rhododendron (R. maddeni Hook. f. by in vitro culture of cotyledonary nodes from 15 days old seedlings. Several cytokinin types were evaluated for their effect on shoot multiplication from cotyledonary nodes. Maximum numbers of shoot (12.00 �0.58 were observed on the AM containing 7 mg/l 2iP, 0.1 mg/l IAA after eight weeks of culture. Incorporation of 0.1 mg/l IAA in the medium during the first subculture after establishment and initiation of shoot buds significantly improved the shoot elongation. Regenerated shoots were separated and rooted on same strength AM medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/l of IBA alone for three weeks. Well-developed complete plantlets were transferred on to specially made plastic cup containing soilrite. The rooted plantlets were hardened and successfully established in greenhouse, the plants were transferred to field site at Pangthang arboretum of the Institute and the �Rare & Threatened Plant Conservation Park� of Zoological Park, Gangtok, Sikkim.

  19. Unveiling the Conservation Biogeography of a Data-Deficient Endangered Bird Species under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Junhua Hu; Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    It remains a challenge to identify the geographical patterns and underlying environmental associations of species with unique ecological niches and distinct behaviors. This in turn hinders our understanding of the ecology as well as effective conservation management of threatened species. The white-eared night heron (Gorsachius magnificus) is a non-migratory nocturnal bird species that has a patchy distribution in the mountainous forests of East Asia. It is currently categorized as "Endangere...

  20. DNA barcoding and microsatellites help species delimitation and hybrid identification in endangered galaxiid fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhaecke, D.; García de Leániz, C.; G. Gajardo; Young, K.; Sanzana, J.; Orellana, G.; Fowler, D.; Howes, P.; Monzon-Arguello, C.; Consuegra, S.

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of data deficient species is often hampered by inaccurate species delimitation. The galaxiid fishes Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus are endemic to Patagonia (and for A. zebra the Falkland Islands), where they are threatened by invasive salmonids. Conservation of Aplochiton is complicated because species identification is hampered by the presence of resident as well as migratory ecotypes that may confound morphological discrimination. We used DNA barcoding (COI, cyto...

  1. 76 FR 15946 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... increase knowledge of the species and to help guide management and conservation efforts. These documents... the Guadalupe River watershed. Increased information regarding CCC steelhead habitat use...

  2. 76 FR 49201 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Four Foreign Parrot Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... remaining parrot species for which a 90-day finding was made on July 14, 2009 (74 FR 33957) in subsequent... Federal Regulations (50 CFR 424.14(a)). On July 14, 2009 (74 FR 33957), we published a 90-day finding in... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Four Foreign Parrot Species; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  3. 75 FR 50813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Bird Species From Latin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... (ANOR) on May 21, 2004 (69 FR 29354), and April 23, 2007 (72 FR 20184). Per the Service's listing priority guidelines (September 21, 1983; 48 FR 43098), our 2007 ANOR identified the listing priority... FR 26464) for 58 foreign species, noting that 2 of the foreign species identified in the...

  4. Using species distribution model to estimate the wintering population size of the endangered scaly-sided merganser in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zeng

    Full Text Available Scaly-sided Merganser is a globally endangered species restricted to eastern Asia. Estimating its population is difficult and considerable gap exists between populations at its breeding grounds and wintering sites. In this study, we built a species distribution model (SDM using Maxent with presence-only data to predict the potential wintering habitat for Scaly-sided Merganser in China. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC method suggests high predictive power of the model (training and testing AUC were 0.97 and 0.96 respectively. The most significant environmental variables included annual mean temperature, mean temperature of coldest quarter, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of driest quarter. Suitable conditions for Scaly-sided Merganser are predicted in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, especially in Jiangxi, Hunan and Hubei Provinces. The predicted suitable habitat embraces 6,984 km of river. Based on survey results from three consecutive winters (2010-2012 and previous studies, we estimated that the entire wintering population of Scaly-sided Merganser in China to be 3,561 ± 478 individuals, which is consistent with estimate in its breeding ground.

  5. Cross-amplification of nonspecific microsatellites markers: a useful tool to study endangered/vulnerable species of southern Andes deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, J C; Orozco-terWengel, P; Romero, K; Vásquez, J P; Varas, V; Vianna, J A

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-nine microsatellite loci that are highly conserved in red deer, sika deer, reindeer, Soay sheep, and other artiodactyls were tested in two vulnerable and endangered Neotropical deer (pudu: Pudu puda and huemul: Hippocamelus bisulcus) with the aim of producing a standardized set of markers that can be used successfully in noninvasive samples from these species. We also compared these nonspecific loci against eight polymorphic loci that were recently developed for huemul to determine whether the nonspecific markers could reflect the huemul's genetic variation that was observed with the specific loci. We identified 10 suitable loci, six of which constitute a standardized set for the two species and can be used to identify them in the absence of phenotypic data. The expected heterozygosity per locus for the panel of six loci ranged from 0.461 to 0.889 (average 0.665), and the maximum probability of identity value was 6.9x10(-6) and 3.2x10(-4) in pudu and huemul, respectively. This set of loci has potential applications in evolutionary, ecological, forensic, and conservation studies in pudu and huemul. PMID:24841651

  6. Clonal re-introduction of endangered plant species: the case of German False Tamarisk in pre-alpine rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christiane; Kollmann, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    The scope of re-introduction as a measure for plant species protection is increasing, but as long as no standardized methods are available, species-specific assessments are necessary to determine whether seeds, adult plants or plant fragments should be used. The endangered German False Tamarisk (Myricaria germanica), which occurs on gravel bars along pre-alpine rivers, is difficult to grow from seeds. Thus, propagation of stem cuttings was investigated as an alternative method. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse and a field site with three treatments: cutting length 5 or 10 cm, vertical burial 5 or 10 cm, and water level low or high. Plants grown in the greenhouse were transplanted to the River Isar to test establishment of rooted cuttings on gravel bars. The cuttings in the greenhouse showed high survival (34-96 %). Survival and biomass production were greatest for 10-cm cuttings buried at 10-cm depth, while only one of the 5-cm cuttings survived at this depth, and no significant effect of variation in water level was observed. None of the cuttings transplanted to field sites survived, most likely because of drought stress and competition. We conclude that for re-introduction of Myricaria germanica rooted cuttings can be easily produced in large quantities, while transplantation to near-natural environments has to be improved to reduce mortality. PMID:22648658

  7. Species discovery and validation in a cryptic radiation of endangered primates: coalescent-based species delimitation in Madagascar's mouse lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Scott; Foley, Mary E; Lawrence, Nicolette M; Bocanegra, Jose; Blanco, Marina B; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Kappeler, Peter M; Barrett, Meredith A; Yoder, Anne D; Weisrock, David W

    2016-05-01

    Implementation of the coalescent model in a Bayesian framework is an emerging strength in genetically based species delimitation studies. By providing an objective measure of species diagnosis, these methods represent a quantitative enhancement to the analysis of multilocus data, and complement more traditional methods based on phenotypic and ecological characteristics. Recognized as two species 20 years ago, mouse lemurs (genus Microcebus) now comprise more than 20 species, largely diagnosed from mtDNA sequence data. With each new species description, enthusiasm has been tempered with scientific scepticism. Here, we present a statistically justified and unbiased Bayesian approach towards mouse lemur species delimitation. We perform validation tests using multilocus sequence data and two methodologies: (i) reverse-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling to assess the likelihood of different models defined a priori by a guide tree, and (ii) a Bayes factor delimitation test that compares different species-tree models without a guide tree. We assess the sensitivity of these methods using randomized individual assignments, which has been used in bpp studies, but not with Bayes factor delimitation tests. Our results validate previously diagnosed taxa, as well as new species hypotheses, resulting in support for three new mouse lemur species. As the challenge of multiple researchers using differing criteria to describe diversity is not unique to Microcebus, the methods used here have significant potential for clarifying diversity in other taxonomic groups. We echo previous studies in advocating that multiple lines of evidence, including use of the coalescent model, should be trusted to delimit new species. PMID:26946180

  8. An integrative taxonomy on the locally endangered species of the Korean Scarabaeus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taeman; Kim, Jin Ill; Yi, Dae-Am; Jeong, Jongchel; An, Seung Lak; Park, In Gyun; Park, Haechul

    2016-01-01

    The ball-rolling dung beetles of the genus Scarabaeus are very ecologically important for the recycling of feces of large herbivores and the related nature management. There has been a significant decline, however, in the numbers of many species at the population and individual levels. S. typhon is currently thought to be the sole member of Scarabaeus distributed in Korea; however, that species underwent serious local extinctions in the 1970s. Before planning a full-scale species recovery, it is important to have an understanding of the exact species diversity and genetic structures of the focal species. We therefore attempted an integrative taxonomy focused on the Korean population of S. typhon and also on S. pius and S. sacer, which were once thought to be distributed in Korea, using both morphological and molecular approaches. The results of both approaches reveal the Korean species of Scarabaeus to be S. typhon and S. pius. In particular, our molecular results inferred from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genetic analysis show that S. typhon should be considered a single species despite having various haplotypes throughout its wide geographical range from Europe to Korea. We identified two distinct lineages of S. pius (groups A and B) across a wide distributional range. We conclude that the Korean specimens of S. pius belong to group A and that S. pius is new to Korea under the current taxonomic treatment. PMID:27470822

  9. Impacts of climate change and land-use scenarios on Margaritifera margaritifera, an environmental indicator and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Varandas, S G P; Pereira, M G; Sousa, R; Teixeira, A; Lopes-Lima, M; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we assess the impacts of future climate and land-use in the Beça River (northern Portugal) under different scenarios and how this will translate into the conservation status of the endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758). This species is currently present in several stretches of the Beça River that still hold adequate ecological conditions. However, the species is threatened by projected declines in precipitation for the 21st century, with implication on the river flows and water depths that might decrease below the species requisites. This situation could be especially critical during summer conditions since the ecological flows may not be assured and several river stretches may be converted into stagnant isolated pools. The habitat connectivity will also be affected with reverberating effects on the mobility of Salmo trutta, the host of M. margaritifera, with consequences in the reproduction and recruitment of pearl mussels. In addition, human-related threats mostly associated with the presence of dams and an predicted increases in wildfires in the future. While the presence of dams may decrease even further the connectivity and river flow, with wildfires the major threat will be related to the wash out of burned areas during storms, eventually causing the disappearance of the mussels, especially the juveniles. In view of future climate and land-use change scenarios, conservation strategies are proposed, including the negotiation of ecological flows with the dam promoters, the replanting of riparian vegetation along the water course and the reintroduction of native tree species throughout the catchment. PMID:25574975

  10. Umbrella species in marine systems: using the endangered humphead wrasse to conserve coral reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Kevin C.; Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Del Raye, Gen A.;

    2015-01-01

    humphead wrasse as an umbrella species for coral reef conservation, we conducted a multi-year study of humphead wrasse home range at Palmyra Atoll, Central Tropical Pacific, tagging juvenile, female, and male individuals with acoustic transmitters. We quantified home range using 2 metrics, length and area...... study was 0.4 to 14 km and changed with ontogeny. Females had larger home ranges than other reef fishes studied to date (n = 68), indicating value as an umbrella species for coral reefs. We compared the home range of the species to the size distribution of tropical marine protected areas (MPAs), and...

  11. 75 FR 71726 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 58 Species in Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... common name Hedyotis Endangered U.S.A. (HI).... 56 FR 55770; 10/29/1991. parvula. No common name... listing rule ANIMALS Butterfly, Oregon silverspot Speyeria zerene Threatened U.S.A. (CA, OR, 45 FR 44935; 7/2/1980. hippolyta. WA). Creeper, Oahu Paroreomyza Endangered U.S.A. (HI).... 35 FR 16047;...

  12. 76 FR 20870 - Protective Regulations for Killer Whales in the Northwest Region Under the Endangered Species Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... (91.4 m) approach limit for endangered humpback whales in Hawaii (60 FR 3775, January 19, 1995). While... approaching endangered North Atlantic right whales closer than 500 yards (457.2 m) (62 FR 6729, February 13... path of any killer whale in inland waters of Washington (74 FR 3764, July 29, 2009). The...

  13. 78 FR 24382 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... activities (e.g., timber sales, grazing plans, road building) in such a way as to conserve listed species... proposes to capture and euthanize the fish so they can take blood, tissue, and organ samples for...

  14. 76 FR 71315 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... plans for listed species. Juvenile salmonids would be collected using backpack electrofishing equipment...; and with a backpack electrofishing unit, three sequential passes would be conducted. Fish stunned... boat and backpack electrofishing equipment to capture, handle, and release juvenile UCR Chinook...

  15. 77 FR 27186 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... would be collected (using backpack electrofishers, minnow traps, angling, seines, and weir traps... surveys, and habitat surveys. The GPNF would also capture (using backpack electrofishing equipment or... species share. Researchers would use backpack electrofishing equipment to capture fish. The FWS...

  16. 77 FR 42278 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... research activities are intended to increase knowledge of the species and to help guide management and... Register (76 FR 57717) with a 30 day comment period from September 16, 2011 to October 17, 2011....

  17. 78 FR 5481 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... marine otters (Lontra felina), sea otters (Enhydra lutris), all species of Sirenia (Trichechus manatus, T... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26,...

  18. Interspecific relationships in the forest community dominated by Pinus kwangtungensis,an endangered species endemic to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lu; SU Zhiyao; CHEN Beiguang

    2007-01-01

    Interspecific relationships in a natural forest dominated by Pinus kwangtungensis,a rare and endangered pine species endemic to China,were studied based on inventory data from 7,200 m2 plots in Nanling National Nature Reserve.With the aim to quantitatively analyze the relationships of P kwangtungensis to other species in the forest community and to their habitat,the continuous transect sampling method was employed by placing a horizontal transect (10 m ×120 m) at a 100 m altitudinal interval from 1,100 m to 1,600 m a.s.l.,which represents the altitudinal range of P kwangtungensis in Nanling National Nature Reserve.Each transect was further divided into 12 contiguous quadrats (10 m × 10 m) for plant censuses.Both canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and cluster analysis were used to detect the interspecific relationships.The results showed the following: 1) occurrence frequency of P kwangtungensis in Nanling was ranked Class A in terms of Raunkiaer's law of frequency.P.kwangtungensis dominated in the canopy more than in the subcanopy and understory;2)both Spearman rank correlation (SRC) coefficients and Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that the number of positive covariation couplets was significantly higher than the negative covariation couplets in the forest community,although SRC appeared to be more sensitive than Pearson correlation analysis.Except for the negative covariation with Litsea elongata,P.kwangtungensis exhibited no significant correlation with other dominant species;3) altitude,slope,slope aspect,slope shape,thickness of humus layer,and thickness of litter all had significant correlations with the three axes in CCA plot,and the environmental factors in the first two axes defined the ecological conditions of the community.The grouping of the 105 canopy tree species was made according to the characteristics of the species along the first axis.Altitude was the most effective factor influencing the distribution of P.kwangtungensis;4

  19. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, Layer identifies occurrences of rare, threatened and endangered plants, animals, exemplary or unique natural communities, and important animal assemblages., Published in 1995, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, NC DENR / Office of Conservation, Planning, and Community Affairs / Natural Heritage Program.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of...

  20. Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy in groupers (Epinephelus spp. in southern Italy: a threat for wild endangered species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vendramin Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER. To date, more than 50 species have proved to be susceptible and among them, those found in genus Epinephelus are highly represented. Clinical disease outbreaks are generally characterized by typical nervous signs and significant mortalities mainly associated with aquaculture activities, although some concerns for the impact of this infection in wild fish have been raised. In this study, the authors present the first documented report describing an outbreak of VER in wild species in the Mediterranean basin. Case presentation In late summer - early winter 2011 (September-December, significant mortalities affecting wild Dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus, Golden grouper (Epinephelus costae and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reported in the municipality of Santa Maria di Leuca (Northern Ionian Sea, Italy. The affected fish showed an abnormal swimming behavior and swollen abdomens. During this epizootic, five moribund fish showing clear neurological signs were captured and underwent laboratory investigations. Analytical results confirmed the diagnosis of VER in all the specimens. Genetic characterization classified all betanodavirus isolates as belonging to the RGNNV genotype, revealing a close genetic relationship with viral sequences obtained from diseased farmed fish reared in the same area in previous years. Conclusion The close relationship of the viral sequences between the isolates collected in wild affected fish and those isolated during clinical disease outbreaks in farmed fish in the same area in previous years suggests a persistent circulation of betanodaviruses and transmission between wild and farmed stocks. Further investigations are necessary to assess the risk of viral transmission between wild and farmed fish populations, particularly in marine protected areas where endangered species are present.

  1. 76 FR 27017 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... tags, measured, and released. Some individuals would have their stomach contents sampled via non-lethal... Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin rockfish. The proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of species...): threatened PS. Chum salmon (O. nerka): Hood Canal (HC) summer-run. Rockfish: Puget Sound/Georgia Basin...

  2. Ex situ Conservation of Three Endemic and/or Endangered Dianthus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria CRISTEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the current context of declining biodiversity, the botanical gardens play an essential role in its conservation. Dianthus callizonus, D. glacialis ssp. gelidus and D. spiculifolius are the species that we seek to preserve in "Alexandru Borza" Botanical Garden of Cluj-Napoca (Romania. Several replicates were collected for each taxon from different populations in order to avoid the genetic uniformity. The material collected from the natural sites, was planted on a rockery, specially designed for this collection in the Botanical Garden. At the time of planting, each individual was sampled for setting up an in vitro collection and further biochemical and molecular analyses. In case of ex situ outdoor conservation of the three Dianthus species, 80.6% of the individuals collected in the field survived during the first year but the percentage decreased drastically after four years. In the case of in situ collected individuals, as well as in the case of in vitro individuals, D. spiculifolius had the best ability to acclimatize in the Botanical Garden, and D. callizonus presented the lowest number of surviving individuals. The ex vitro acclimatization of the plantlets had 80% efficiency at 10ºC, using three different substrates: soil and pearl stone mix 1/1, soil and sand mix 1/1 and pearl stone. All the three species are preserved in vitro, whereas the plantlets are acclimatized outdoors. Ex situ conservation of these species will have a positive impact on the biodiversity conservation.

  3. 77 FR 43108 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... Taxidermy, Brady, TX; PRT-75675A The applicant requests a permit to export the sport-hunted trophy/ trophies... species. Applicant: University of Florida, Davie, FL; PRT-71355A The applicant requests a permit to...

  4. 78 FR 3381 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... salmon ESU (70 FR 37160; June 28, 2005) is listed as threatened under the ESA, and its threatened status... natural runs. Habitat monitoring will focus on long-term trends in the productive capacity of the... Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Central Valley Spring-Run Chinook...

  5. 78 FR 79622 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... focus on long- term trends in the productive capacity of the reintroduction area (i.e., habitat... Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Central Valley Spring-Run Chinook Salmon... experimental population of Central Valley spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) under...

  6. 78 FR 2725 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lower Columbia River Coho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... the role they play in the salmon's life cycle. Salmon are anadromous--born in fresh water, migrating... predators. During all life stages salmon and steelhead require cool water that is free of contaminants. They... component in the evolutionary legacy of the biological species (56 FR 58612, November 20, 1991)....

  7. 77 FR 3743 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... increase knowledge of the species and to help guide management and conservation efforts. DATES: Written... an ongoing effort to monitor and increase the success of restoration and enhancement efforts... will be used to help assess land management practices and will be shared with interested state...

  8. 77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... longitude. On April 10, 1990, the FWS took emergency action (55 FR 13488) to add the Steller sea lion to the... to list the Steller sea lion as a threatened species (55 FR 29793), and on November 26, 1990, we published the final rule listing the Steller sea lion as threatened under the ESA (55 FR 49204). On...

  9. 78 FR 12011 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Macaw Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) (77 FR 39965), and a combined 12-month finding and proposed rule to list two macaw species, the military macaw (Ara militaris) and great green macaw (Ara ambiguus) (77 FR 40172), as..., proposed listing rules (77 FR 39965; 77 FR 40172). If you previously submitted comments or information...

  10. 77 FR 46514 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA; PRT-130062 On July 27, 2012, (77 FR 44264), we published... species. Applicant: Wildlife Artistry Taxidermy, Centreville, MD; PRT-77276A The applicant requests...

  11. 78 FR 12702 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Rule To List 66 Reef-Building Coral Species; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... proposed rule in the Federal Register (77 FR 73219) in response to a petition submitted by the Center for... 1110, Honolulu, HI 96814, Attn: 82 coral species. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chelsey Young, NMFS... Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Florida, Hawaii, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and...

  12. Addressing Potential Cumulative Impacts of Development on Threatened Species: The Case of the Endangered Black-Throated Finch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Peter Vanderduys

    Full Text Available Where threatened biodiversity is adversely affected by development, policies often state that "no net loss" should be the goal and biodiversity offsetting is one mechanism available to achieve this. However, developments are often approved on an ad hoc basis and cumulative impacts are not sufficiently examined. We demonstrate the potential for serious threat to an endangered subspecies when multiple developments are planned. We modelled the distribution of the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta using bioclimatic data and Queensland's Regional Ecosystem classification. We overlaid granted, extant extractive and exploratory mining tenures within the known and modelled ranges of black-throated finches to examine the level of incipient threat to this subspecies in central Queensland, Australia. Our models indicate that more than half of the remaining P. cincta cincta habitat is currently under extractive or exploratory tenure. Therefore, insufficient habitat exists to offset all potential development so "no net loss" is not possible. This has implications for future conservation of this and similarly distributed species and for resource development planning, especially the use of legislated offsets for biodiversity protection.

  13. Addressing Potential Cumulative Impacts of Development on Threatened Species: The Case of the Endangered Black-Throated Finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderduys, Eric Peter; Reside, April E; Grice, Anthony; Rechetelo, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Where threatened biodiversity is adversely affected by development, policies often state that "no net loss" should be the goal and biodiversity offsetting is one mechanism available to achieve this. However, developments are often approved on an ad hoc basis and cumulative impacts are not sufficiently examined. We demonstrate the potential for serious threat to an endangered subspecies when multiple developments are planned. We modelled the distribution of the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta) using bioclimatic data and Queensland's Regional Ecosystem classification. We overlaid granted, extant extractive and exploratory mining tenures within the known and modelled ranges of black-throated finches to examine the level of incipient threat to this subspecies in central Queensland, Australia. Our models indicate that more than half of the remaining P. cincta cincta habitat is currently under extractive or exploratory tenure. Therefore, insufficient habitat exists to offset all potential development so "no net loss" is not possible. This has implications for future conservation of this and similarly distributed species and for resource development planning, especially the use of legislated offsets for biodiversity protection. PMID:26934622

  14. Movement patterns for a critically endangered species, the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea, linked to foraging success and population status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Bailey

    Full Text Available Foraging success for pelagic vertebrates may be revealed by horizontal and vertical movement patterns. We show markedly different patterns for leatherback turtles in the North Atlantic versus Eastern Pacific, which feed on gelatinous zooplankton that are only occasionally found in high densities. In the Atlantic, travel speed was characterized by two modes, indicative of high foraging success at low speeds (<15 km d(-1 and transit at high speeds (20-45 km d(-1. Only a single mode was evident in the Pacific, which occurred at speeds of 21 km d(-1 indicative of transit. The mean dive depth was more variable in relation to latitude but closer to the mean annual depth of the thermocline and nutricline for North Atlantic than Eastern Pacific turtles. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that Eastern Pacific turtles rarely achieve high foraging success. This is the first support for foraging behaviour differences between populations of this critically endangered species and suggests that longer periods searching for prey may be hindering population recovery in the Pacific while aiding population maintenance in the Atlantic.

  15. Conservation of charismatic endangered species in Wehea Forest, Borneo: Interplay of ecological and social factors in a community-based conservation project

    OpenAIRE

    Loken, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Borneo is blessed with incredible biodiversity, including some of the most charismatic endangered species on the planet. Yet despite being recognized as a biodiversity hotspot, Borneo’s forests, and the biodiversity contained therein, are being lost faster than anywhere else on the planet, with the main threats from habitat loss and hunting. Given the perceived failure of protected areas on Borneo to conserve biodiversity, some NGOs are implementing community-based conservation (CBC) and beli...

  16. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extract of the endangered tree species, Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb.) Schott and Endl

    OpenAIRE

    Saradha Maran; Paulsamy Subramanium

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was aimed at to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extracts of the endangered medicinal tree species, Hildegardia populifolia on laboratory animal. Methods: The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract has been determined by using carrageenan, formalin and histamine induced paw edema assays in Wistar rats. Indomethacin was used as a reference drug. The analgesic activity was tested by using acetic acid induced writhing res...

  17. Use of Artificial Propagation and Supplementation for Rebuilding Salmon Stocks Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 5 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichatowich, Jim; Watson, Bruce

    1993-06-01

    Conventional hatcheries, supplementation, and habitat protection are management activities located on a production continuum. At one end of the continuum is the conventional hatchery which attempts to separate artificially propagated fish from naturally reproducing populations. On the other end of the continuum is natural production. Supplementation which attempts to increase natural production through the use of artificial propagation lies somewhere between natural production and conventional hatcheries on the continuum. The use of artificial propagation in the recovery of listed species is controversial. Guidance on the use of artificial propagation in the recovery of listed species comes from three sources: The Endangered Species Act (ESA), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) policies and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) guidelines.

  18. Hearing sensitivity in context: Conservation implications for a highly vocal endangered species

    OpenAIRE

    Megan A. Owen; Keating, Jennifer L; Samuel K. Denes; Kathy Hawk; Angela Fiore; Julie Thatcher; Jennifer Becerra; Suzanne Hall; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing sensitivity is a fundamental determinant of a species’ vulnerability to anthropogenic noise, however little is known about the hearing capacities of most conservation dependent species. When audiometric data are integrated with other aspects of species’ acoustic ecology, life history, and characteristic habitat topography and soundscape, predictions can be made regarding probable vulnerability to the negative impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise. Here we used an adaptive ...

  19. Biobanking efforts and new advances in male fertility preservation for rare and endangered species

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Comizzoli

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and sustaining biodiversity is a multi-disciplinary science that benefits highly from the creation of organized and accessible collections of biomaterials (Genome Resource Banks). Large cryo-collections are invaluable tools for understanding, cataloging, and protecting the genetic diversity of the world′s unique animals and plants. Specifically, the systematic collection and preservation of semen from rare species has been developed significantly in recent decades with some biob...

  20. Naive Prey versus Nonnative Predators: A Role for Behavior in Endangered Species Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Stephanie A

    2009-01-01

    Fish are one of the most imperiled groups of vertebrates worldwide. Threats to fish fall into one of four general categories: physical habitat loss or degradation, chemical pollution, overfishing, and nonnative species introductions. Nonnative predatory fish often have a devastating impact on native prey, especially with endemic fish, whose restricted distribution and often limited evolutionary history with predators make them particularly susceptible to nonnative predators. One reason nonnat...

  1. Carex secalina (Cyperaceae, a critically endangered species of Europe: historic and new localities in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Lembicz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Carex secalina, a species recognized as extinct in Poland for 40 years, was re-discovered in 2000 and it’s natural populations covered by monitoring. From among nine historic localities, only for two - Jacewo and Turzany, in the vicinity of Inowrocław - the occurrence of the species was confirmed. In the course of the field studies, six new localities, not previously recorded in literature, were discovered. The sedge occupies sub-halophytic habitats in which it occurs along with halophytic species (particularly, such as Glaux maritima and Pucinellia distans and a group of ruderal taxons. One of the newly discovered localities of C. secalina comprises an anthropogenic habitat. On the whole, the population sizes ranged from 20 to 350 individuals. The studies revealed a positive correlation between the size of a population and cattle pasturing, i.e. C. secalina forms the largest populations in the habitats remaining under the intense pressure of grazing and treading. Moreover, it was found that the high generative reproduction rate compensates the damage caused by animal grazing. The results suggest that an active protection of the sedge populations through the agricultural use of its habitats is the only effective way of securing it’s further occurrence in Poland, while including the sub-halophytic pastures with C. secalina in the agricultural and environmental program should be a priority task in the nearest future.

  2. Predicting patch occupancy in fragmented landscapes at the rangewide scale for an endangered species: an example of an American warbler

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2011-08-25

    AIM: Our objective was to identify the distribution of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) in fragmented oak-juniper woodlands by applying a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model to better assist decision-makers in identifying suitable habitat across the species breeding range on which conservation or mitigation activities can be focused and thus prioritize management and conservation planning. LOCATION: Texas, USA. METHODS: We used repeated double-observer detection/non-detection surveys of randomly selected (n = 287) patches of potential habitat to evaluate warbler patch-scale presence across the species breeding range. We used a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model with remotely sensed habitat metrics (patch size and landscape composition) to predict patch-scale occupancy of golden-cheeked warblers in the fragmented oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, USA. RESULTS: Our spatially explicit model indicated that golden-cheeked warbler patch occupancy declined from south to north within the breeding range concomitant with reductions in the availability of large habitat patches. We found that 59% of woodland patches, primarily in the northern and central portions of the warbler\\'s range, were predicted to have occupancy probabilities ≤0.10 with only 3% of patches predicted to have occupancy probabilities >0.90. Our model exhibited high prediction accuracy (area under curve = 0.91) when validated using independently collected warbler occurrence data. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a distinct spatial occurrence gradient for golden-cheeked warblers as well as a relationship between two measurable landscape characteristics. Because habitat-occupancy relationships were key drivers of our model, our results can be used to identify potential areas where conservation actions supporting habitat mitigation can occur and identify areas where conservation of future potential habitat is possible. Additionally, our results can be

  3. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titain, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1995-1998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for greater than 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally- listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were

  4. Environmental Conditions and Threatened and Endangered Species Populations near the Titan, Atlas, and Delta Launch Complexes, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Hall, Patrice; Larson, Vickie L.; Turek, Shannon R.

    1999-01-01

    Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1 995-1 998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for > 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally-listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were located at

  5. Endangered West African Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus (Schwarz, 1934 (Primates: Hominidae in Senegal prefer Pterocarpus erinaceus, a threatened tree species, to build their nests: implications for their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.I. Ndiaye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The West African Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes verus is Endangered (A4cd ver 3.1 in Senegal (Humle et al. 2008, mainly due to habitat fragmentation and destruction. We gathered qualitative and quantitative data on the tree species preferences of the West African Chimpanzee for nest building in order to gain insight into habitat dependence. Between March 1998 and Febrary 2000 we identified tree species in which a sample of 1790 chimpanzee nests had been built, and ranked species in preference order. We compared this sample to the relative abundance of tree species in the chimpanzee habitat to determine whether particular species were chosen for nesting. We observed that about a quarter (25.42% of nests were built in Pterocarpus erinaceus, which is considerably greater than would be expected from the abundance of this species in the habitat (6.35%, indicating a strong preference by chimpanzees. We examined the physical traits of the most-used tree species and concluded that height and wood hardness may be key choice features. P. erinaceus is threatened in Senegal due to extensive cutting, which may endanger chimpanzees living outside the boundaries of protected areas. In the current anthropogenic setting our results provide conservation managers with information on how to protect a key aspect of the chimpanzee natural environment.

  6. The use of polliniferous resources by Melipona capixaba, an endangered stingless bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Bruna Danielle Vieira; da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pollen types present in samples from corbiculae of Melipona capixaba (Moure and Camargo) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponina) worker bees were analyzed, as well as pollen samples from food pots inside the hives in three sites located at the bees' original habitat. The aim was to find out the sources used as a trophic resource by this species. The dominant pollen grains in the spectrum of the samples belonged to the families Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae. Eucalyptus was the most frequent pollen type in the corbiculae in Conceição do Castelo municipality; Eucalyptus, Myrcia, and Melastomatacea/Combretaceae in the Fazenda do Estado district; and Eucalyptus and Myrcia in the São Paulo de Aracê district, both in the Domingos Martins municipality. Eucalyptus and Melastomataceae/Combretaceae were the predominant pollen types in the food pots. Eucalyptus was the most prevalent type all year round or most of the year. The most common pollen types in the months that Eucalyptus was not present or dominant in the samples were of remaining native forest species, "ruderal" (field) plants, fruit-bearing plants, and introduced ornamental plants. PMID:23464528

  7. In vitro propagation of critically endangered species Scilla autumnalis L. – biochemical analyses of the regenerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian BANCIU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study belongs to the international efforts for plant conservation from the areas threatened by human activities. The saline soils areas are restricting for agriculture and in some cases for fishery facilities and the plant species are extinct from those areas. Scilla autumnalis L. is one of the threatened plants (rare on the national red list of vascular plants from Romania that grows in the Natural Park Comana, Giurgiu County, South Romania. Seeds from plants grown in the natural habitat have been used for in vitro plant regeneration and multiplication. After successfully rooting and acclimatization of the regenerated plantlets from germinated seeds, biochemical studies have been performed in order to compare the regenerants from in vitro cultures with native plants from genetically point of view. Peroxydase and esterase’s spectra were the biochemical markers used.The results indicated that this plant species can be multiplicated, rooted and acclimatized on synthetic medium (MS supplemented with NAA, IBA, IAA, kinetin and BAP with a good efficiency and the regenerants had no genetic alterations determinated by culture conditions.

  8. The European medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis L.: Morphology and occurrence of an endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kutschera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis L. 1758 is one of the best-known members of the Hirudinea due to its use in phlebotomy, this species has been confused with the Mediterranean taxon H. verbana Carena 1820. Here we describe the morphology of adult and juvenile H. medicinalis and document its genetic distance to H. verbana, using newly acquired mitochondrial DNA-sequence (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, CO-I-data from specimens collected in Germany. Our CO-I analysis shows that H. medicinalis and H. verbana differ by 9.4 %. Hence, the original Hirudo-population diverged ca. 10 million years ago so that today two geographically separated biospecies exist that co-occur in only a few natural habitats. We analyzed the behaviour of adult H. medicinalis, but could not find differences with respect to its sister taxon H. verbana. Finally, we summarize the occurrence of H. medicinalis in Central Europe and conclude that this once widely distributed freshwater species largely disappeared in many countries. We suggest that the loss of natural freshwater ecosystems, with flat, warm banks, and amphibians (frogs, newts and toads as preferred host organisms for the juveniles, are largely responsible for the decline of H. medicinalis in Northern Europe.

  9. Recognition of endangered and protected species in the flora and their current condition: an example from Sokołowice forest administration region (Oleśnica forest district)

    OpenAIRE

    Gorzelak, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    This article is an attempt to draw attention to the differentiation used to conserve endangered and protected species of flora in an area that is administered by the management board of the State Forests. I also draw attention to areas of insufficient knowledge of this subject-matter. A detailed inventory of endangered and protected species of flora for the purpose of planning in forestry would be very useful in light of laws related to nature conservation and the problem of preserving biolo...

  10. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilting

    efforts for the flat-headed cat should focus on the identified remaining key localities and be implemented through a continuous dialogue between local stakeholders, conservationists and scientists to ensure its long-term survival. The flat-headed cat can serve as a flagship species for the protection of several other endangered species associated with the threatened tropical lowland forests and surface fresh-water sources in this region.

  11. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H Paiva

    Full Text Available Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers and trophic (stable isotope analysis ecology of a tropical seabird-the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii-during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models, existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing. During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird

  12. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D; Chen, Xue Dong; Johnson, Catherine S

    2012-05-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24-36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. PMID:22310058

  13. Endangered and Threatened Species at Kennedy Space Center Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdolfi, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Throughout my internship, I assisted with the long-term monitoring of the Florida Scrub- Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a threatened species endemic to Florida. The Florida Scrub Jay diet consists of insects and small vertebrates throughout most of the year; however, during the winter their primary diet is acorns because the insect population is low. Furthermore, the Florida Scrub-Jay is a habitat specialist that lives in a disappearing plant community called the scrub, which consists of sand live oak, myrtle oak and chapman oak. The Florida Scrub-Jay is considered threatened because its numbers are decreasing primarily due to the loss of habitat that it needs to survive. Scrub habitat is highly desirable for human development because it is high, dry, and sandy. Periodic controlled burns maintain the scrub in a low, open condition favored by Scrub-Jays. Florida Scrub-Jays build their nests approximately 3-5 feet (approximately 1.5 m) above the ground in shrubby oaks (Breininger 153), mate for life and are cooperative breeders; which means that the young jays remain in their natal territory for at least a year to help their parents defend their territory, feed the young, and mob predators. (Breininger 152). I assisted in conducting monthly censuses at long-term monitoring sites and a juvenile in July survey to determine reproductive success for the year. In addition, to Scrub-Jay monitoring, I also had the opportunity to assist with some long term monitoring of ecosystem recovery. Scrub is a fire maintained system. Fire maintains the structure of scrub necessary for many of the threatened species that reside in the scrub habitat.

  14. Distribución y conservación de especies amenazadas en Mesoamérica, Chocó y Andes tropicales Distribution and conservation of endangered species in Mesoamerica, Chocó and Tropical Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Londoño-Murcia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se modeló el nicho ecológico proyectado como distribución potencial de 313 especies amenazadas en Mesoamérica, Chocó y los Andes tropicales, según las listas de la UICN. De estas especies, 285 fueron plantas y 28 fueron vertebrados terrestres. La superposición de las distribuciones de las especies amenazadas cubrió prácticamente toda la región. Ecuador mostró cerca del 30% de su área con 50 especies. Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Panamá mostraron > 50, aunque en 50% de su área. El Salvador y Honduras, de 11 a 20 en > 50% de su área y México de 1 a 5 especies en > 50% de su área. La distribución de estas especies en áreas transformadas (agricultura y áreas urbanas varió del 11al 30%; El Salvador, Panamá y Guatemala mostraron > 50% de la distribución; Colombia, Honduras y México This study modeled ecological niches projected as potential distributions for 313 endangered species listed in the IUCN for Mesoamerica, Chocó and Tropical Andes, of which 285 were plants, and 28 terrestrial vertebrates. Overlapping of endangered species distributions covered most of the region. Ecuador showed close to 30% of its area with 50 endangered species. Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Panama showed more than 50 endangered species in 50% of its area with endangered species (21 to 50 species were Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Panama. El Salvador and Honduras showed > 50% of its area with 11 to 20 endangered species; Mexico showed 50% of endangered species in transformed areas; Colombia, Honduras and Mexico showed < 40%, and Belize and Ecuador showed < 25% of endangered species in transformed areas, respectively. El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Nicaragua and Mexico showed a high proportion of endangered species in transformed areas for the Classes Amphibia, Liliopsida, Polipodiopsida, and the Orders Asterales, Fabales, Laurales, Myrtales, Scrophulariales and Rubiales. Less than 35% of endangered

  15. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ► These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ► The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

  16. Biomimetic synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles using in vitro-propagated plantlets of a medicinally important endangered species: Phlomis bracteosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Sumaira; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2016-01-01

    In vitro-derived cultures of plants offer a great potential for rapid biosynthesis of chemical-free antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by enhancing their phytochemical reducing potential. Here, we developed an efficient protocol for in vitro micropropagation of a high-value endangered medicinal plant species, Phlomis bracteosa, in order to explore its biogenic potential in biomimetic synthesis of antimicrobial AgNPs. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L thidiazuron was found to be more efficient in inducing optimum in vitro shoot regeneration (78%±4.09%), and 2.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid was used for maximum root induction (86%±4.457%). Antimicrobial AgNPs were successfully synthesized by using aqueous extract (rich in total phenolics and flavonoids content) of in vitro derived plantlets of P. bracteosa. Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy of synthesized AgNPs showed characteristic surface plasmon band in the range of 420–429 nm. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Face-centered cubic AgNPs of almost uniform spherical size (22.41 nm) were synthesized within a short time (1 hour) at room temperature. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the polyphenols were mainly responsible for reduction and capping of synthesized AgNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further endorsed the presence of elemental silver in synthesized AgNPs. These biosynthesized AgNPs displayed significantly higher bactericidal activity against multiple drug-resistant human pathogens. The present work highlighted the potent role of in vitro-derived plantlets of P. bracteosa for feasible biosynthesis of antimicrobial AgNPs, which can be used as nanomedicines in many biomedical applications.

  17. A Mixed-Method Approach for Quantifying Illegal Fishing and Its Impact on an Endangered Fish Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Free

    Full Text Available Illegal harvest is recognized as a widespread problem in natural resource management. The use of multiple methods for quantifying illegal harvest has been widely recommended yet infrequently applied. We used a mixed-method approach to evaluate the extent, character, and motivations of illegal gillnet fishing in Lake Hovsgol National Park, Mongolia and its impact on the lake's fish populations, especially that of the endangered endemic Hovsgol grayling (Thymallus nigrescens. Surveys for derelict fishing gear indicate that gillnet fishing is widespread and increasing and that fishers generally use 3-4 cm mesh gillnet. Interviews with resident herders and park rangers suggest that many residents fish for subsistence during the spring grayling spawning migration and that some residents fish commercially year-round. Interviewed herders and rangers generally agree that fish population sizes are decreasing but are divided on the causes and solutions. Biological monitoring indicates that the gillnet mesh sizes used by fishers efficiently target Hovsgol grayling. Of the five species sampled in the monitoring program, only burbot (Lota lota showed a significant decrease in population abundance from 2009-2013. However, grayling, burbot, and roach (Rutilus rutilus all showed significant declines in average body size, suggesting a negative fishing impact. Data-poor stock assessment methods suggest that the fishing effort equivalent to each resident family fishing 50-m of gillnet 11-15 nights per year would be sufficient to overexploit the grayling population. Results from the derelict fishing gear survey and interviews suggest that this level of effort is not implausible. Overall, we demonstrate the ability for a mixed-method approach to effectively describe an illegal fishery and suggest that these methods be used to assess illegal fishing and its impacts in other protected areas.

  18. Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the field of vaccines for diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV which take a heavy toll in developing countries has faced major failures. This has led to a call for more basic science research, and development as well as evaluation of new vaccine candidates. Human-animal chimeras, developed with a 'humanized' immune system could be useful to study infectious diseases, including many neglected diseases. These would also serve as an important tool for the efficient testing of new vaccine candidates to streamline promising candidates for further trials in humans. However, developing human-animal chimeras has proved to be controversial. Discussion Development of human-animal chimeras for vaccine development has been slowed down because of opposition by some philosophers, ethicists and policy makers in the west-they question the moral status of such animals, and also express discomfort about transgression of species barriers. Such opposition often uses a contemporary western world view as a reference point. Human-animal chimeras are often being created for diseases which cause significantly higher morbidity and mortality in the developing world as compared to the developed world. We argue in our commentary that given this high disease burden, we should look at socio-cultural perspectives on human-animal chimera like beings in the developing world. On examination, it's clear that such beings have been part of mythology and cultural descriptions in many countries in the developing world. Summary To ensure that important research on diseases afflicting millions like malaria, HIV, Hepatitis-C and dengue continues to progress, we recommend supporting human-animal chimera research for vaccine development in developing countries (especially China and India which have growing technical expertise in the area. The negative perceptions in some parts of the west about human-animal chimeras can be used as an

  19. Induced spawning of the endangered Neotropical species Steindachneridion parahybae (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Caneppele

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The "surubim do Paraíba" (Steindachneridion parahybae is a freshwater catfish endemic to the Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. This species has been seriously threatened by environmental disturbances in the last several decades. Wild Steindachneridion parahybae males and females were collected in 2003 and taken to the hatchery of a power plant of the Companhia Energética de São Paulo (CESP. Steindachneridion parahybae broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduce in December 2003 using a combination of carp pituitary extract (CPE and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Oocytes and milt were stripped; the fertilized eggs were transferred to 60-liter conical incubators and hatched larvae distributed in nine horizontal trays. Exogenous feed was started just after yolk sac absorption. A high rate of cannibalism and photophobia were observed during the larval period, resulting in a 26% survival rate from larvae to fingerlings.O "surubim do Paraíba" (Steindachneridion parahybae é um bagre de água doce, endêmico da bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil. Esta espécie foi seriamente ameaçada por distúrbios ambientais nas últimas décadas. Machos e fêmeas selvagens de Steindachneridion parahybae foram coletados em 2003 e transferidos para a piscicultura da CESP (Companhia Energética de São Paulo. Reprodutores de S. parahybae foram induzidos à reprodução artificial em dezembro de 2003 usando uma combinação de extrato hipofisário de carpa (CPE e gonadotropina coriônica humana (hCG. Após a extrusão dos óvulos e do sêmen, os ovos fertilizados foram transferidos para incubadoras cônicas de 60 litros e, em seguida, as larvas eclodidas distribuídas em nove incubadoras horizontais. Após a absorção do saco vitelino, a alimentação exógena foi iniciada. Uma alta taxa de canibalismo e fotofobia foram observados durante o período larval, resultando em uma taxa de sobrevivência de 26% de larvas para os alevinos

  20. A continuation of base-line studies for environmentally monitoring Space Transportation Systems (STS) at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 4: Threatened and endangered species of the Kennedy Space Center. Part 2: Threatened and endangered birds and other threatened and endangered forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented which were collected by ground and aerial surveillance of 37 species of birds observed within the environs of KSC which are on lists of rare and endangered biota in Florida. Additional information was obtained on other threatened species such as the West Indian manatee, the salt marsh snake, the Indigo snake, the Gopher tortoise, the American alligator, and the Florida mouse. Results of the literature search were used to obtain a historical perspective and aid in the analysis of the field data collected.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of endangered Maroon-fronted Parrot (Rhynchopsitta terrisi) - conspecific relation of the species with Thick-billed Parrot (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Strzała, Tomasz; Grabowski, Krzysztof Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Maroon-fronted Parrot (Rhynchopsitta terrisi) is an endangered parrot endemic to pine-oak forests in north-eastern Mexico. According to all present classifications, R. terrisi as well as Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha are treated as a separate species based on some morphological and behavioral discrepancies. Despite this formal separation of the two species, some taxonomists conjecture their conspecific character. However, mutual taxonomic position of both species/subspecies was never verified by molecular research. We sequenced full mitochondrial genome of R. terrisi and constructed phylogenetic tree using sequences of mitochondrial ND2 gene from R. terrisi. R. pahyrchyncha and some other representative species of the tribe Arini. Our results indicated that in contrast to formal classification, both Rhynchopsitta taxa should be treated as subspecies. PMID:23841618

  2. Europeans: an endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Cube, A

    1986-10-01

    Below replacement fertility has become the norm in 21 of Europe's 27 countries. Their average total fertility rate is 1.69. This trend has raised concerns about insufficient numbers in the economically active population and prospective personnel shortages in the military. In the Federal Republic of Germany, fertility has been below replacement for the past 17 years and its 1985 total fertility rate of 1.28 is a record low. Only a few European countries (Bulgaria, France, and Romania) have explicitly pronatalist policies. Other nations (Belgium, Finland, Luxembourg, and the German Democratic Republic) have instituted a progressive system of child allowances, increasing payments with each additional birth. Ironically, policies that seek to promote social opportunities for women, such as participation in the labor force, are likely to reduce fertility even farther. Without increased services such as reasonably priced housing, child care centers, and economic incentives to compensate women for lost opportunity costs in the labor market, policies that seek to increase fertility will not succeed. Policy options that were once available to increase fertility (for example, prohibiting abortion) are no longer socially acceptable. New policies will have to be developed through research on the determinants of fertility behavior in postindustrial societies. PMID:12315251

  3. 76 FR 44564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... florentina FR 24062). curtisii. PLANTS Decurrent false aster Boltonia Threatened U.S.A. (IL, MO).. November... April 28, 1976 Southeastern (41 FR 17736). U.S.A. Bat, Indiana Myotis sodalis... Endangered Eastern and March 11, 1967 Midwestern U.S.A. (32 FR 4001). Snake, copperbelly water....... Nerodia Threatened...

  4. 78 FR 19510 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 56 Species in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    .... 1998. Dudleya abramsii subsp. parva... Conejo dudleya.... Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 62 FR..., delta green ground...... Elaphrus viridis.. Threatened........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 45 FR 52807; 08/08... 95825. Butterfly, bay checkerspot...... Euphydryas editha Threatened........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 49...

  5. 76 FR 30309 - Marine Mammals and Endangered Species; File Nos. 14245, 1596-03, and 14726-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ..., 2010 and December 29, 2010, notices were published in the Federal Register (75 FR 26715 and 81970... Arctic Oceans on marine mammals including endangered blue (Balaenoptera musculus), sei (B. borealis), fin.... On May 12, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 26715) that a modification...

  6. 77 FR 4169 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Final Rule To Revise the Critical Habitat Designation for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... PCE, with specific concerns regarding the impact of non-point source pollution, storm water runoff... along the California coast from Point Arena to Point Arguello east of the 3,000 meter depth contour; and... leatherback sea turtle was listed as endangered throughout its range on June 2, 1970 (35 FR 8491). Pursuant...

  7. 75 FR 17377 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Southern Resident killer whale distinct population segment (DPS) currently listed as endangered (70 FR... in November 2006 (71 FR 69054) and includes 2,560 square miles (6,630 sq km) of marine habitat in... final Recovery Plan was released in January 2008 (73 FR 4176), and contains detailed information...

  8. Endangered Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  9. 75 FR 45650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... with recovery activities throughout the species' range for the purpose of enhancing its survival and... endangered species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on this permit... issuance of enhancement of survival permit to conduct certain activities with endangered species...

  10. Length-weight relationships and condition factor of the eaglebeak pacu Ossubtus xinguense Jégu, 1992 (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae), an endangered species from Rio Xingu rapids, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M C; Jesus, A J S; Giarrizzo, T

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on the length-weight relationships and condition factor for the endangered rheophilic fish Ossubtus xinguense Jégu from Rio Xingu rapids. This species is threatened by construction of the third largest hydroelectric in the world, the Belo Monte dam close to the city of Altamira, northern Brazil. Specimens were collected in the dry season between July 2012 and September 2012. Male specimens have body length larger than females, atypical in serrasalmid fishes, and different length-weight relationships were found between adult and juvenile specimens. This study presents the first biological characteristics for O. xinguense. PMID:26691082

  11. Wetland Accretion Rate Model of Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER) and its application to habitat sustainability for endangered species in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Thorne, Karen M.; Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Callaway, John C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    Salt marsh faunas are constrained by specific habitat requirements for marsh elevation relative to sea level and tidal range. As sea level rises, changes in relative elevation of the marsh plain will have differing impacts on the availability of habitat for marsh obligate species. The Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER) is a 1-D model of elevation that incorporates both biological and physical processes of vertical marsh accretion. Here, we use WARMER to evaluate changes in marsh surface elevation and the impact of these elevation changes on marsh habitat for specific species of concern. Model results were compared to elevation-based habitat criteria developed for marsh vegetation, the endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), and the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) to determine the response of marsh habitat for each species to predicted >1-m sea-level rise by 2100. Feedback between vertical accretion mechanisms and elevation reduced the effect of initial elevation in the modeled scenarios. Elevation decreased nonlinearly with larger changes in elevation during the latter half of the century when the rate of sea-level rise increased. Model scenarios indicated that changes in elevation will degrade habitat quality within salt marshes in the San Francisco Estuary, and degradation will accelerate in the latter half of the century as the rate of sea-level rise accelerates. A sensitivity analysis of the model results showed that inorganic sediment accumulation and the rate of sea-level rise had the greatest influence over salt marsh sustainability.

  12. population viability analysis of gloydius shedaoensis from northeastern china: a contribution to the assessment of the conservation and management status of an endangered species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    shedao pit-vipers (gloydius shedaoensis) on snake island in the liaoning province,china,are among the most imperiled species in china.the isolated and unique populations are crucial in the recovery of this endangered species by providing a way for conservation and management.research based on the ecological simulation tools can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to the populations,which are vital for informed decision-making.in this paper,using the program vortex 9.42,we developed a population viability analysis (pva) for the shedao pit-viper to:(1) address the extinction likelihood of the population; (2) simulate population dynamics under various environment events,and (3) evaluate the efficacy of current protection and management strategies.overall,we found the population to be susceptible to the factors of catastrophic events,mortality and environment capacity.the population is recovering slowly at present on account of improvement of habitat and greater food availability.under the current conditions,the probability of extinction in 100 years is approximately zero.these data coincide with the evidence that the wild population may be arriving at k.our results strengthen the view that protection and management can create a pronounced effect on populations of this endangered species.

  13. Cost-effective, species-specific microsatellite development for the endangered Dwarf Bulrush (Typha minima) using next-generation sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csencsics, Daniela; Brodbeck, Sabine; Holderegger, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The dwarf bulrush (Typha minima Funck ex Hoppe) is an endangered pioneer plant species of riparian flood plains. In Switzerland, only 3 natural populations remain, but reintroductions are planned. To identify suitable source populations for reintroductions, we developed 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers with perfect repeats using the 454 pyrosequencing technique and tested them on 20 individuals with low-cost M13 labeling. We detected 2 to 7 alleles per locus and found expected and observed heterozygosities of 0.05-0.76 and 0.07-1, respectively. The whole process was finished in less than 6 weeks and cost approximately USD 5000. Due to low costs and reduced expenditure of time, the use of next-generation sequencing techniques for microsatellite development represent a powerful tool for population genetic studies in nonmodel species, as we show in this first application of the approach to a plant species of conservation importance. PMID:20562212

  14. Reproductive Ecology of the Endangered Alpine Species Eryngium alpinum L. (Apiaceae): Phenology, Gene Dispersal and Reproductive Success

    OpenAIRE

    GAUDEUL, M.; TILL‐BOTTRAUD, I.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims Eryngium alpinum (Apiaceae) is an endangered perennial, characteristic of the Alpine flora. Because the breeding system influences both demographic (reproductive success) and genetic (inbreeding depression, evolutionary potential) parameters that are crucial for population maintenance, the reproductive ecology of E. alpinum was investigated. Specifically, the aims of the study were (1) to determine the factors (resources and/or pollen) limiting plant fitness; and (2) to ...

  15. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume II. Natural areas of the Lake Michigan drainage basin and endangered or threatened plant and animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, F.; Lindsley, D.

    1977-09-01

    The accelerating encroachment of human activity on the natural landscape has made many citizens appreciate the need to save representative biotic communities before urbanization and technologically induced change eliminate such communities. Active programs in natural-area preservation are now in progress in the four basin states; these programs have strong public support and legislative mandate. Local, state, and federal agencies and private individuals have taken an active interest in protecting select areas as samples of the biotic communities and natural features of the Basin. Most natural areas described in this report have been dedicated or reserved in some fashion. Other areas are being added by the basin states each year. The maintenance of natural communities is closely linked to the preservation of endangered and threatened species of plants and animals which would cease to survive as isolated populations. Under federal regulations, certain plants and animals are listed as endangered or threatened in the Basin. As individual state lists are prepared and investigations proceed, it is probable that many more threatened species will be found.

  16. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp.) in Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Bleisch, William V.; Jiang, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp.) abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation. PMID:27159052

  17. Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fog Oil Smoke on Availability, Palatability, & Food Quality of Relevant Life Stages of Insects for Threatened and Endangered Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, Crystal J.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Rogers, Lee E.

    2007-04-01

    A methodology for quantifying population dynamics and food source value of insect fauna in areas subjected to fog oil smoke was developed. Our approach employed an environmentally controlled re-circulating wind tunnel outfitted with a high-heat vaporization and re-condensation fog oil generator that has been shown to produce aerosols of comparable chemistry and droplet-size distribution as those of field releases of the smoke. This method provides reproducible exposures of insects under realistic climatic and environmental conditions to fog oil aerosols that duplicate chemical and droplet-size characteristics of field releases of the smoke. The responses measured take into account reduction in food sources due to death and to changes in availability of relevant life stages of insects that form the prey base for the listed Threatened and Endangered Species. The influence of key environmental factors, wind speed and canopy structure on these responses were characterized. Data generated using this method was used to develop response functions related to particle size, concentration, wind speed, and canopy structure that will allow military personnel to assess and manage impacts to endangered species from fog oil smoke used in military training.

  18. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp. in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyou Li

    Full Text Available Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp. abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation.

  19. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp.) in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Bleisch, William V; Jiang, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp.) abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation. PMID:27159052

  20. 75 FR 54649 - Endangered Wildlife; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... a recovery permit to conduct certain activities with endangered species under section 10(a)(1)(A) of... to carry out recovery actions which will enhance the species' propagation and survival. Public... the requirements of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), we, the U.S. Fish...

  1. Before It's Too Late: Teaching about Endangered Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes a teaching unit on endangered species that helps students understand factors that cause species to become endangered, identify how personal attitudes and values impact solutions to the problem, and explore some alternatives for positive action. A list of ways to improve the situation for endangered species is provided. (BC)

  2. Towards the conservation of endangered avian species: a recombinant West Nile Virus vaccine results in increased humoral and cellular immune responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay A Young

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans. The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 'genes' were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that

  3. Assessing the risks of pesticides to threatened and endangered species using population modeling: A critical review and recommendations for future work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Galic, Nika; Schmolke, Amelie; Vavra, Janna; Pastorok, Rob; Thorbek, Pernille

    2016-08-01

    United States legislation requires the US Environmental Protection Agency to ensure that pesticide use does not cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment, including species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; hereafter referred to as listed species). Despite a long history of population models used in conservation biology and resource management and a 2013 report from the US National Research Council recommending their use, application of population models for pesticide risk assessments under the ESA has been minimal. The pertinent literature published from 2004 to 2014 was reviewed to explore the availability of population models and their frequency of use in listed species risk assessments. The models were categorized in terms of structure, taxonomic coverage, purpose, inputs and outputs, and whether the models included density dependence, stochasticity, or risk estimates, or were spatially explicit. Despite the widespread availability of models and an extensive literature documenting their use in other management contexts, only 2 of the approximately 400 studies reviewed used population models to assess the risks of pesticides to listed species. This result suggests that there is an untapped potential to adapt existing models for pesticide risk assessments under the ESA, but also that there are some challenges to do so for listed species. Key conclusions from the analysis are summarized, and priorities are recommended for future work to increase the usefulness of population models as tools for pesticide risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1904-1913. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27037541

  4. Cytochrome P4501A1 expression in blubber biopsies of endangered false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) and nine other odontocete species from Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Kerry M; Baird, Robin W; Ylitalo, Gina M; Jensen, Brenda A

    2014-11-01

    Odontocetes (toothed whales) are considered sentinel species in the marine environment because of their high trophic position, long life spans, and blubber that accumulates lipophilic contaminants. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a biomarker of exposure and molecular effects of certain persistent organic pollutants. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize CYP1A1 expression in blubber biopsies collected by non-lethal sampling methods from 10 species of free-ranging Hawaiian odontocetes: short-finned pilot whale, melon-headed whale, pygmy killer whale, common bottlenose dolphin, rough-toothed dolphin, pantropical spotted dolphin, Blainville's beaked whale, Cuvier's beaked whale, sperm whale, and endangered main Hawaiian Islands insular false killer whale. Significantly higher levels of CYP1A1 were observed in false killer whales and rough-toothed dolphins compared to melon-headed whales, and in general, trophic position appears to influence CYP1A1 expression patterns in particular species groups. No significant differences in CYP1A1 were found based on age class or sex across all samples. However, within male false killer whales, juveniles expressed significantly higher levels of CYP1A1 when compared to adults. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (∑PCBs) concentrations in 84% of false killer whales exceeded proposed threshold levels for health effects, and ∑PCBs correlated with CYP1A1 expression. There was no significant relationship between PCB toxic equivalent quotient and CYP1A1 expression, suggesting that this response may be influenced by agonists other than the dioxin-like PCBs measured in this study. No significant differences were found for CYP1A1 expression among social clusters of false killer whales. This work provides a foundation for future health monitoring of the endangered stock of false killer whales and other Hawaiian odontocetes. PMID:25134676

  5. Endangered West African Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus (Schwarz, 1934) (Primates: Hominidae) in Senegal prefer Pterocarpus erinaceus, a threatened tree species, to build their nests: implications for their conservation

    OpenAIRE

    P.I. Ndiaye; Galat-Luong, A; G. Galat; G. Nizinski

    2013-01-01

    The West African Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes verus is Endangered (A4cd ver 3.1) in Senegal (Humle et al. 2008), mainly due to habitat fragmentation and destruction. We gathered qualitative and quantitative data on the tree species preferences of the West African Chimpanzee for nest building in order to gain insight into habitat dependence. Between March 1998 and Febrary 2000 we identified tree species in which a sample of 1790 chimpanzee nests had been built, and ranked species in preference o...

  6. Micropropagation of Maclura tinctoria L.: an endangered woody species Micropropagação de Maclura Tinctoria L.: uma espécie lenhosa em extinção

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Augusto Canella Gomes; Renato Paiva; Rairys Cravo Herrera; Patrícia Duarte de Oliveira Paiva

    2010-01-01

    Some native species produce seeds with low germination percentage and in most cases with dormancy, which makes the appearance of new individuals by sexual propagation difficult. The Maclura tinctoria has been considered an endangered species due to the indiscriminate use of its wood and low rate of seed germination. In this context, the objective of the present study was to establish an in vitropropagation methodology for this species. Combinations of NAA + BAP, different concentrations of GA...

  7. Genetic Evidence of Hybridization between the Endangered Native Species Iguana delicatissima and the Invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae in the Lesser Antilles: Management Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vuillaume

    introgression, as observed in recent population history over several islands. These results have profound implications for species management of the endangered I. delicatissima and practical conservation recommendations are being discussed in the light of these findings.

  8. Genetic Evidence of Hybridization between the Endangered Native Species Iguana delicatissima and the Invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae) in the Lesser Antilles: Management Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillaume, Barbara; Valette, Victorien; Lepais, Olivier; Grandjean, Frédéric; Breuil, Michel

    2015-01-01

    observed in recent population history over several islands. These results have profound implications for species management of the endangered I. delicatissima and practical conservation recommendations are being discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:26046351

  9. 77 FR 51767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Five Species of Sturgeon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... species under the ESA (``DPS Policy''; 61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is... because of its life history and the age it must reach before it can reproduce. The species is prized for its flesh and its caviar and was an important commercial species until the beginning of the...

  10. Microsporogenesis in the endangered species Cupressus dupreziana A. Camus: evidence for meiotic defects yielding unreduced and abortive pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maâtaoui, M; Pichot, C

    2001-08-01

    To understand the reproductive biology of Cupressus dupreziana A. Camus (Cupressaceae), a highly endangered Mediterranean conifer, the processes of microsporogenesis and pollen differentiation were investigated cytologically. Pre-meiotic development proved to be similar to the coniferous pattern: the microsporangia differentiated sporogenous tissue in which microsporocytes separated and underwent meiosis. As the meiotic steps proceeded, unexpected irregularities were observed concerning chromosomal and nuclear behaviour. This mainly included: abnormal chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, and nuclear fusion of the meiotic products. The result was the formation, in the same microsporangium, of heterogeneous microspore populations arranged in monads, dyads, triads, tetrads, and polyads, and cytoplasts giving rise to pollen grains of different sizes. This indicates that in C. dupreziana both abortive and unreduced pollen grains are generated. The significance of the finding is discussed in relation to reproductive biology and vulnerability to extinction. PMID:11556786

  11. 76 FR 50051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... six foreign bird species as endangered under the Act (75 FR 286). Following publication of the... extinction'' under the National Catalog of Endangered Species, a recovery plan for the Cantabrian... recovery plan and adopts measures for the protection of the species in the Community of Castilla and...

  12. Analyses on population pattern and endangered causes of endangered species Manglietia grandis Hu et Cheng%濒危植物大果木莲种群格局及濒危原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少瑜; 付玉嫔; 吴涛; 司马永康; 郝佳波; 韩燕

    2012-01-01

    采用径级结构代替年龄结构以及方差均值比率法对木兰科(Magnoliaceae)木莲属(Manglietia Bl.)濒危植物大果木莲(Manglietia grandis Hu et Cheng)种群的年龄结构和种群格局进行了研究,并编制了大果木莲种群的特定时间生命表和存活曲线;结合生殖生物学特征以及遗传多样性研究结果,分析了导致大果木莲濒危的主要原因.根据株高和胸径可分别将大果木莲种群的年龄结构分为5级、高度结构分为6级;在大果木莲的5个年龄结构分级中,成年个体较多,幼年个体较少;其高度结构完整,个体高度主要在20 m以下.种群的方差均值比率为0.838 3,其空间分布格局属于随机分布.根据特定时间生命表可将大果木莲种群的发育分为3个阶段:幼树阶段(年龄级为Ⅱ~Ⅲ级)、成树阶段(年龄级为Ⅲ~Ⅳ级)、老树阶段(年龄级为Ⅳ~Ⅴ级),其中成树阶段个体死亡率最低.大果木莲种群存活曲线接近Deevey Ⅰ型,属于衰退型种群.种群自我更新能力差、种子生产力低下、有性生殖困难、生境片断化导致的基因流受限以及人为干扰是大果木莲濒危的主要原因.针对大果木莲濒危现状和致危原因,提出了相应的保护对策和建议.%Using the way of diameter structure instead of age structure and variance/mean ratio method, the age structure and population pattern of the endangered species Manglietia grandis Hu et Cheng belonging to Manglietia Bl. in Magnoliaceae were studied, and the time-specific life table and survival curve of the species was created. And combining with research results of propagation and genetic diversity, the main endangered causes were analyzed. According to tree height and diameter of breath height, age structure of M. grandis population is divided into five classes and its height structure into six classes. There are more adults and less young trees in five age classes. The height structure of M

  13. Status Survey of the Endangered Watercress Darter, Etheostoma nuchale

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Watercress Darter Etheostoma nuchale is one of the most imperiled fishes in the southeastern U.S. and is listed as endangered on the U.S. endangered species...

  14. Book review: Flight ways: Life and loss at the edge of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    In less than 200 pages, Thom van Dooren aims in his ambitious book, Flight Ways, to reconnect humans empathetically with the rest of the planet's inhabitants, but especially vanishing species. This is asking a lot, but he succeeds—or at least makes great strides—using evocative storytelling and compelling discourse. A number of themes are carefully woven together with the goal of awakening sensitivities, building understanding, and motivating commitment to stopping the decline of populations and species. As one who works in the field of endangered Hawaiian bird research, I found this book illuminating, thought-provoking, and insightful. It probes deeply into the evolution, ecology, and ethics of our interactions with other species and offers useful lessons for thinking about endangered species and extinction in more meaningful ways. It will likely spur self-examination and further inquiry by readers, which can open new lines of communication with the general public about conservation.

  15. Landscape-scale Habitat Templates and Life Histories of Endangered and Invasive Fish Species in Large Rivers of the Mid-Continent USA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Chapman, D.; DeLonay, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Many fish species migrate through river systems to complete their life cycles, occupying specific habitats during specific life stages. Regional geomorphology sets a template for their habitat-use patterns and ontogenetic development. In large rivers of the Mid-continent USA, understanding of relations of fish life histories to landscape-scale habitat templates informs recovery of endangered species and prevention of spread of invasive species. The endangered pallid sturgeon has evolved in the Missouri-Mississippi river system over 150 Ma. Its present-day distribution probably results from extensive drainage re-arrangements during the Pleistocene, followed by contemporary fragmentation. The reproductive and early life-stage needs of pallid sturgeon encompass hundreds of km, as adults migrate upstream to spawn and free embryos and larvae disperse downstream. Spawning requires coarse, hard substrate for incubation of adhesive eggs but adult pallid sturgeon are found predominately over sand, indicating that coarse substrate is a critical but transient habitat need. Once hatched, free-embryos initiate 9-17 days of downstream dispersal that distributes them over several hundreds of km. Lotic conditions at the dispersal terminus are required for survival. Persistent recruitment failure has been attributed to dams and channelization, which have fragmented migration and dispersal corridors, altered flow regimes, and diminished rearing habitats. Key elements of the natural history of this species remain poorly understood because adults are rare and difficult to observe, while the earliest life stages are nearly undetectable. Recent understanding has been accelerated using telemetry and hydroacoustics, but such assessments occur in altered systems and may not be indicative of natural behaviors. Restoration activities attempt - within considerable uncertainty -- to restore elements of the habitat template where they are needed. In comparison, invasive Asian carps have been

  16. 78 FR 63941 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 23 Species of Corals as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... deforestation activity somewhere near or within its range. While this species is restricted to a relatively... location or extent of the deforestation activity nor the extent of the range of the species affected by deforestation. Therefore, we find that for L. ranjithi, the species-specific information presented in...

  17. 75 FR 6616 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 83 Species of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ...' entire range, which includes shallow-water populations and deeper populations in the Gulf of Mexico in... available to indicate a need to list the species under the ESA'' (71 FR 61022; October 17, 2006). We... invasive species on the distribution and abundance of these coral species over the short- and...

  18. A holistic approach to taxonomic evaluation of two closely related endangered freshwater mussel species, the oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis and tan riffleshell Epioblasma florentina walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Hallerman, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Species in the genus Epioblasma have specialized life history requirements and represent the most endangered genus of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the world. A genetic characterization of extant populations of the oyster mussel E. capsaeformis and tan riffleshell E. florentina walkeri sensu late was conducted to assess taxonomic validity and to resolve conservation issues for recovery planning. These mussel species exhibit pronounced phenotypic variation, but were difficult to characterize phylogenetically using DNA sequences. Monophyletic lineages, congruent with phenotypic variation among species, were obtained only after extensive analysis of combined mitochondrial (1396 bp of 16S, cytochrome-b, and ND1) and nuclear (515 bp of ITS-1) DNA sequences. In contrast, analysis of variation at 10 hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci showed moderately to highly diverged populations based on FST and R ST values, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.39 and 0.15 to 0.71, respectively. Quantitative variation between species was observed in fish-host specificity, with transformation success of glochidia of E. capsaeformis significantly greater (P<0.05) on greenside darter Etheostoma blennioides, and that of E. f. walkeri significantly greater (P<0.05) on fantail darter Etheostoma flabellare. Lengths of glochidia differed significantly (P<0.001) among species and populations, with mean sizes ranging from 241 to 272 ??m. The texture and colour of the mantle-pad of E. capsaeformis sensu stricto is smooth and bluish-white, whereas that of E. f. walkeri is pustuled and brown, with tan mottling. Based on extensive molecular, morphological and life history data, the population of E. capsaeformis from the Duck River, Tennessee, USA is proposed as a separate species, and the population of E. f. walkeri from Indian Creek, upper Clinch River, Virginia, USA is proposed as a distinct subspecies.

  19. Karyotype description of two Neotropical Psittacidae species: the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus (Psittaciformes: Aves), and its significance for conservation plans

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor de Oliveira Lunardi; Mercival Roberto Francisco; Guaracy Tadeu Rocha; Beatriz Goldschmidt; Pedro Manoel Galetti Junior

    2003-01-01

    Neotropical parrots are among the most threatened groups of birds in the world, and many species are facing extinction in a near future. At the same time, the taxonomic position of many species remains unclear. Karyotype analysis has been used to elucidate the phylogenetic status of many bird groups, also providing important information for both in situ and ex situ conservation plans. The objective of the present study was to describe for the first time the karyotypes of the endangered Hyacin...

  20. Pollination and seedling ecology of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. (Periplocaceae, a commercially important, endemic and endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Decalepis hamiltonii is a woody climber and annual bloomer. The flowers are characterized by nectariferous coralline corona, gynostegium and pollinia containing tetrads. The floral features such as greenish white corolla, mild fragrance, flat-shape for easy access to floral rewards, and ovary protection from the biting mouthparts of the pollinator make up cantharophilous pollination syndrome. Brachinus beetle is the principal pollinator. Thrips use floral buds to raise their offspring; they also effect pollination while collecting nectar; but they are important largely for self-pollination due to their short distance flying ability. The plant is a self-incompatible, obligate outcrosser and is substantiated by 2% natural fruit set, but each fruit produces numerous seeds. Fruits dehisce during the dry season and seed dispersal is by wind. Seeds germinate as soon as they fall in a favourable place, but only a small percentage establish seedlings. Over-exploitation, bottlenecks in sexual reproduction and seedling establishment may contribute to the endangered status of D. hamiltonii.

  1. Phylogenetic analyses indicate little variation among reticuloendotheliosis viruses infecting avian species, including the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohls, Ryan L; Linares, Jose A; Gross, Shannon L; Ferro, Pam J; Silvy, Nova J; Collisson, Ellen W

    2006-08-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus infection, which typically causes systemic lymphomas and high mortality in the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken, has been described as a major obstacle in repopulation efforts of captive breeding facilities in Texas. Although antigenic relationships among reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) strains have been previously determined, phylogenetic relationships have not been reported. The pol and env of REV proviral DNA from prairie chickens (PC-R92 and PC-2404), from poxvirus lesions in domestic chickens, the prototype poultry derived REV-A and chick syncytial virus (CSV), and duck derived spleen necrosis virus (SNV) were PCR amplified and sequenced. The 5032bp, that included the pol and most of env genes, of the PC-R92 and REV-A were 98% identical, and nucleotide sequence identities of smaller regions within the pol and env from REV strains examined ranged from 95 to 99% and 93 to 99%, respectively. The putative amino acid sequences were 97-99% identical in the polymerase and 90-98% in the envelope. Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences indicated the closest relationship among the recent fowl pox-associated chicken isolates, the prairie chicken isolates and the prototype CSV while only the SNV appeared to be distinctly divergent. While the origin of the naturally occurring viruses is not known, the avian poxvirus may be a critical component of transmission of these ubiquitous oncogenic viruses. PMID:16497405

  2. Biological Characteristics of the Critically Endangered Species Hibiscus yunnanensis Population%极危植物云南芙蓉种群生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云琴; 杜凡; 冷天鑫; 汪建; 刘娟

    2012-01-01

    Hibiscus yunnanensis is one of the critically endangered (CR) species in the China Species Red List. The geographic distribution, habitat conditions, population status, growth and morphological characteristics of H. yunnanensis were surveyed, and the reasons leading to the critically endangered status were analyzed. According to the previous records, two old distribution spots of H. yunnanensis were found adjacent to Kunluo highway and close to Dong'e gas station, three new distribution points were discovered close to Wusa Village, adjacent to the Overseas Chinese Farm, and by the Agricultural Science and Technology Extension Station of Yuanjiang County. H. yun-nanensis is a heliophilous sub-shrub species, not drought resistant, it usually grows in the sunny but moist habitats, whose accompany plants are mainly tropical heliophilous secondary species. H. yunnanensis plants do not generate root suckers, and do not fall easily. There are seldom seedlings in the H. yunnanensis communities although the a-dult plants may regularly blossom and bear fruits, with long florescence duration and large quantity of fruits. The distribution area of H. yunnanensis is shrinking, and the number of the plants has decreased rapidly, showing the overall declining trend. It was proposed that the human interference has been the main reason to cause the sharp reduction of H. yunnanensis plant number in the wild populations. The limitation of its self pollination, the spreading way of its seeds by gravity and the poor ability of natural regeneration might be the internal reasons leading to be extremely endangered.%对云南芙蓉的分布、生境、居群现状、生长状况和形态学特征作专题调研,并分析其极危原因.结果表明:在元江县城附近昆洛公路边和元江县东俄加油站公路边2个原有分布点找寻到其植株,并发现元江边武洒村旁、元江县农业技术推广站附近和华侨农场附近3个新分布点;云南芙蓉为阳性不

  3. DNA Barcoding of the Endangered Aquilaria (Thymelaeaceae) and Its Application in Species Authentication of Agarwood Products Traded in the Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiou Yih; Ng, Wei Lun; Mahat, Mohd Noor; Nazre, Mohd; Mohamed, Rozi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of Aquilaria species from their resinous non-wood product, the agarwood, is challenging as conventional techniques alone are unable to ascertain the species origin. Aquilaria is a highly protected species due to the excessive exploitation of its precious agarwood. Here, we applied the DNA barcoding technique to generate barcode sequences for Aquilaria species and later applied the barcodes to identify the source species of agarwood found in the market. We developed a reference DNA barcode library using eight candidate barcode loci (matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoC1, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF, ITS, and ITS2) amplified from 24 leaf accessions of seven Aquilaria species obtained from living trees. Our results indicated that all single barcodes can be easily amplified and sequenced with the selected primers. The combination of trnL-trnF+ITS and trnL-trnF+ITS2 yielded the greatest species resolution using the least number of loci combination, while matK+trnL-trnF+ITS showed potential in detecting the geographical origins of Aquilaria species. We propose trnL-trnF+ITS2 as the best candidate barcode for Aquilaria as ITS2 has a shorter sequence length compared to ITS, which eases PCR amplification especially when using degraded DNA samples such as those extracted from processed agarwood products. A blind test conducted on eight agarwood samples in different forms using the proposed barcode combination proved successful in their identification up to the species level. Such potential of DNA barcoding in identifying the source species of agarwood will contribute to the international timber trade control, by providing an effective method for species identification and product authentication. PMID:27128309

  4. DNA Barcoding of the Endangered Aquilaria (Thymelaeaceae) and Its Application in Species Authentication of Agarwood Products Traded in the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiou Yih; Ng, Wei Lun; Mahat, Mohd Noor; Nazre, Mohd; Mohamed, Rozi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of Aquilaria species from their resinous non-wood product, the agarwood, is challenging as conventional techniques alone are unable to ascertain the species origin. Aquilaria is a highly protected species due to the excessive exploitation of its precious agarwood. Here, we applied the DNA barcoding technique to generate barcode sequences for Aquilaria species and later applied the barcodes to identify the source species of agarwood found in the market. We developed a reference DNA barcode library using eight candidate barcode loci (matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoC1, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF, ITS, and ITS2) amplified from 24 leaf accessions of seven Aquilaria species obtained from living trees. Our results indicated that all single barcodes can be easily amplified and sequenced with the selected primers. The combination of trnL-trnF+ITS and trnL-trnF+ITS2 yielded the greatest species resolution using the least number of loci combination, while matK+trnL-trnF+ITS showed potential in detecting the geographical origins of Aquilaria species. We propose trnL-trnF+ITS2 as the best candidate barcode for Aquilaria as ITS2 has a shorter sequence length compared to ITS, which eases PCR amplification especially when using degraded DNA samples such as those extracted from processed agarwood products. A blind test conducted on eight agarwood samples in different forms using the proposed barcode combination proved successful in their identification up to the species level. Such potential of DNA barcoding in identifying the source species of agarwood will contribute to the international timber trade control, by providing an effective method for species identification and product authentication. PMID:27128309

  5. INTEGRATED CONSERVATION OF THE RARE AND ENDANGERED THERMOPHILOUS SPECIES CYPERUS POLYSTACHYUS: INVESTIGATION ON RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES AND SHORT-TERM ASSESSMENT OF TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. FABRINI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus polystachyus Rottb. is a threatened species occurring in Europe only in two sites located in wetland habitat in mediterranean Southern Italy. According to the IUCN red list for Italy (1997, the species is listed as critically endangered (CR. This study investigated recruitment and habitat limitations referred to the population located south of Rome, in the Tor Caldara Regional Reserve. The site is an isolated island of vegetation. Natural expansion of the species is highly limited by the absence of “wet” sites in the surroundings. Importantly the study also endorsed an “in wild translocation program”, which aimed to decrease the risk of species extinction linked to demographic stochasticity, extreme climatic events or mismanagement. Seed germination, seed and site limitations, and germplasm translocation were investigated. Seed viability and seed germination were tested at the Rome Botanical Garden; results showed that the species has high recruitment potential, especially in thermophilous conditions. Germplasm (seeds was translocated in a vegetation remnant within the Protected Area of Decima Malafede overseen by RomaNatura, a Regional Agency for the management of PAs, which, together with the National Environment Research Institute (ISPRA was one of the partners in this research. The site limitation and translocation studies were undertaken in a glade with a seasonal pond. Seeds were sown and seedlings planted within an experimental framework, protected by a metal cage to prevent grazing. The new site is within the natural dispersion range of the species in an area with similar ecological and biogeographic conditions. It is surrounded by thermophilous oak woodland and cultivated fields which exclude germplasm escape. Results showed that, due to the germination behaviour, the establishment is limited by the absence of microsites suitable for recruitment. Competition with perennial species and delayed germination are the main

  6. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... erecta...... Asplenium New scientific name. No. dielerectum. 64 FR 48307 Rubiaceae Hedyotis Kadua cordata ssp. New scientific name. No. schlechtendahliana remyi. var. remyi 57 FR 46325 Rubiaceae Hedyotis... for 124 Species (76 FR 46362). Previous Federal Actions Twenty of the 40 species proposed...

  7. 75 FR 605 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... effects of climate change on these species or their habitats. You may submit your comments and materials... changes in air temperature and moisture can effectively change a species' habitat. Climate change is..., oceanic, and terrestrial conditions (Parmesan and Mathews 2005, p. 334). Global climate change and...

  8. Population biology of an endangered species: the common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos in Lebanese marine waters of the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lteif, M; Mouawad, R; Khalaf, G; Lenfant, P; Verdoit-Jarraya, M

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the population biology of the common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos, a cartilaginous fish listed as Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Between December 2012 and January 2014, 67 individuals were collected by bottom longlining in coastal Lebanese marine waters at different ports at depths ranging from 10 to 110 m. The total length (LT ) of the specimens ranged from 50 to 143 cm, and the mean ± s.d. was 76·2 ± 19·7 cm. The most common LT classes were between 60 and 70 cm. The total mass of the specimens ranged from 410 to 10 000 g, and the mean ± s.d. was 1841 ± 1987 g. A total of 34 males and 33 females were collected, and the sex ratio was not significantly different from 1:1. The mass and LT relationship showed positive allometric growth (b = 3·096 and r(2)  = 0·99), and the mean ± s.d. LT at which 50% of the individuals were sexually mature was 84·73 ± 5·81 cm for females and 78·57 ± 4·88 cm for males. The gonado-somatic and hepato-somatic indices were determined along with a condition factor, and parturition appeared to occur in winter. The primary prey items found in the fish stomachs during the autumn and winter seasons were Penaeidae. The results of this study will help to parameterize models of the population dynamics for this exploited fish stock to ensure the long-term sustainability of its fishery. PMID:26928654

  9. Entomophily, ornithophily and anemochory in the self-incompatible Boswellia ovalifoliolata Bal. & Henry (Burseraceae, an endemic and endangered medicinally important tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Boswellia ovalifoliolata (Burseraceae is a narrow endemic and endangered deciduous tree species. Its flowering, fruiting and seed dispersal events occur in a leafless state during the dry season. The flowers are small, bisexual, mildly odoriferous and actinomorphic; weakly protandrous but strictly self-incompatible. While insects and sunbirds pollinate the flowers, floral characteristics suggest that entomophily is the principal mode. Both bud and flower feeding by a weevil and flower and fruit feeding by the Palm Squirrel have been found to affect the success of sexual reproduction. The Garden Lizard serves as a predator of pollinating insects, especially bees and wasps, thus influencing pollination of this tree species. Fruit set in open pollination is below 10%, rising to 34% in manual cross-pollination. Limitation of cross-pollination, space constraints for seed production from all flower ovules and availability of limited resources in rocky, dry litter of the forest floor appear to constrain higher fruit set. Mature fruits dehisce and disseminate their lightweight, papery winged seeds with the aid of wind. The study site being windy provides the necessary driving force for effective dispersal of seeds away from parent trees. Seed germination occurs following rainfall but further growth depends on soil water and nutritional status. The success rate of seedling recruitment is highly limited, and it could be due to nutrient-poor soil and water stress resulting from dry spells during the rainy season.

  10. Joint estimation of habitat dynamics and species interactions: disturbance reduces co-occurrence of non-native predators with an endangered toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.W.; Brehme, Cheryl S.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    1. Ecologists have long been interested in the processes that determine patterns of species occurrence and co-occurrence. Potential short-comings of many existing empirical approaches that address these questions include a reliance on patterns of occurrence at a single time point, failure to account properly for imperfect detection and treating the environment as a static variable. 2. We fit detection and non-detection data collected from repeat visits using a dynamic site occupancy model that simultaneously accounts for the temporal dynamics of a focal prey species, its predators and its habitat. Our objective was to determine how disturbance and species interactions affect the co-occurrence probabilities of an endangered toad and recently introduced non-native predators in stream breeding habitats. For this, we determined statistical support for alternative processes that could affect co-occurrence frequency in the system. 3. We collected occurrence data at stream segments in two watersheds where streams were largely ephemeral and one watershed dominated by perennial streams. Co-occurrence probabilities of toads with non-native predators were related to disturbance frequency, with low co-occurrence in the ephemeral watershed and high co-occurrence in the perennial watershed. This occurred because once predators were established at a site, they were rarely lost from the site except in cases when the site dried out. Once dry sites became suitable again, toads colonized them much more rapidly than predators, creating a period of predator-free space. 4. We attribute the dynamics to a storage effect, where toads persisting outside the stream environment during periods of drought rapidly colonized sites when they become suitable again. Our results support that even in highly connected stream networks, temporal disturbance can structure frequencies with which breeding amphibians encounter non-native predators. 5. Dynamic multi-state occupancy models are a powerful tool

  11. Endangered and Rare Species of Marine Medicinal Organisms and Their Protection in China%中国海洋药用生物濒危珍稀物种及其保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅秀梅; 王长云; 邵长伦; 韩磊; 武云飞; 伍汉霖; 钱树本; 管华诗

    2009-01-01

    首次对中国海洋药用生物濒危珍稀物种及其资源状况进行了调查和评价.结果显示,中国海洋药用生物及具有药用开发价值的海洋生物物种被列入濒危或保护物种的达235种,濒危比率达14.0%.极危物种9种,濒危物种112种,易危物种88种,近危物种5种,珍稀物种1种;其中,国家一级保护动物10种,国家二级保护动物44种.过度开发利用和海洋环境恶化是造成海洋野生药用生物濒危的主要原因.加强海洋自然保护区和海洋特别保护区的建设是保护海洋药用生物物种多样性和遏制资源衰退的有效途径.%The states of endangered and rare species of marine medicinal organisms in China were investigated and evaluated for the first time by field survey and data analysis together with literature data. It revealed that up to 235 species of marine medicinal organisms in China are in the Red List Categories and as protected species, including 9 critically endangered species, 112 endangered species, 88 vulnerable species, 5 near threatened species and 1 rare species, with an endangered rate of 14.0%. Among the endangered medicinal organisms, the species belonging to national protected animal categories Ⅰ and Ⅱ are 10 and 44, respectively. Over-fishing, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have resulted in the destruction of marine bioresources, especially acute degradation of biodiversity of marine medicinal animals. The feasible strategies for conservation of biodiversities and bioresources of Chinese marine medicinal species should be to improve the construction and management of marine natural reserves system as well as marine special reserves.

  12. POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF ENDANGERED SPECIES PLATΥPHARODON EXTREMUS ( SCHIZOTHORACINAE, CYPRINIDAE )IN YELLOW RIVER, CHINA%黄河上游极边扁咽齿鱼种群遗传结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏军虎; 张艳萍; 娄忠玉; 刘焕章; 焦文龙; 魏彦明

    2012-01-01

    Plafypharodon extremis is one of an endemic Schizothoracin fishes and historically was distributed in several headwater streams of the Yellow River in the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. With the intensification of human activities, habitat destruction / alteration, water pollution and overexploitation, the wild populations of this species have rapidly declined in recent years and its distribution has been drastically reduced. Now mainly distributed in the upper reach of the Yellow River on the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau in Western China. And it was listed as endangered species in the " China Red Data Book (Pisces)" , Vulnerable (V) by the National Environmental Protection Agency and Endangered Species Scientific Commission. To assess the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of P. Extremus, three populations including 107 individuals from the upper reaches of the Yellow River were investigated based on 695 bp nudeoride sequences of mtDNA partial control region. The sequences analysis results showed that only 101 variable sites in the sequences (14. 5 % ) , including 58 parsimony informative sites. In the total 107 sequences, 87 haplotypes were detected, the haplotype diversity (h) and nudeotide diversity (π) were 0.995, 0.0129 respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that genetic variation within the populations was 5. 28 °/o , among the populations was 94. 72 %. Phylogenetic analysis failed to detect significant geographic structure. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests indicated that P. Extremus in this research hadn't experienced population expansion.%极边扁咽齿鱼Platypharodon extremus是黄河上游的特有鱼类,近年来由于过度捕捞、环境变迁等因素,其资源量剧减,种群处于濒危状态.研究中采集了分布于黄河上游的3个种群(n= 107),基于线粒体DNA控制区695bp 序列,共检测到101个可变位点,占总分析位点的14.5%,其中58

  13. 75 FR 18233 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 10 Southeastern Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... review of three species that are currently listed as threatened: Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus... Office (phone 601/321-1127, e-mail daniel_drennen@fws.gov ). For the gopher tortoise, contact...

  14. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  15. Association of Critically Endangered Bengal Florican with other bird species in two sites of Manas, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Brahma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Birds and animals group together for diverse benefits, including anti-predator, foraging, and reproductive advantages. Present study is aimed to know association of Bengal florican with other bird species found in two different habitats, one is natural and other human intervened based on association analysis in Manas National Park and understand potential benefits derived from these associations. This study was carried out in two site one in natural habitat of Bengal florican Kuribeel inside Manas National Park and other one in Koklabari Agricultural Farm outside Manas National Park which is man made habitat. Study was conducted from morning 0530 - 1000 hrs and afternoon 1500 hrs - 1700 hrs in 100 m radius circular plots, centre on the interactions of 50 m by 50 m regular grid in Bengal florican territories. Fourteen bird species found to associate with Bengal florican, of which nine species in Kuribeel, and thirteen species of birds in Koklabari seed farm. From association analysis, it is found that Bengal florican had stronger interspecific associations with Indian peafowl in the natural habitat (Kuribeel. However, in Kokalabari seed farm Bengal florican was found to associate with Red wattle lapwing. In this study, association strengths of Bengal florican with other bird species follow different trends in the two study sites.

  16. Recovery of a US Endangered Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mark B. Bain; Nancy Haley; Peterson, Douglas L.; Arend, Kristin K.; Mills, Kathy E.; Patrick J. Sullivan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More fish have been afforded US Endangered Species Act protection than any other vertebrate taxonomic group, and none has been designated as recovered. Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) occupy large rivers and estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America, and the species has been protected by the US Endangered Species Act since its enactment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on the shortnose sturgeon in the Hudson River (New York to Albany, NY, USA) were obtai...

  17. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Lists § 17.12 Endangered and threatened plants. (a) The list in this section contains the names of all species of plants which have...

  18. 76 FR 8374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... throughout the species' range for the purpose of enhancing its survival and recovery. Dated:January 28, 2011... species. The Endangered Species Act requires that we invite public comment on these permit applications... of enhancement of survival permit to conduct certain activities with endangered species pursuant...

  19. Apistogramma cinilabra sp. n. : description of a potentially endangered endemic cichlid species (Teleostei : Perciformes : Cichlidae) from the Departamenio Loreto, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, U.; Duponchelle, Fabrice; Diaz, A. V.; Davilla, C. G.; Sirvas, S.; Catchay, C. D.; Renno, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Apistogramma is described from Peru, based on a total of 35 specimens collected in a small forest lake in the wider catchment of the Rio Itaya about 80 kilometres south of Iquitos, Departamento Loreto (approximately 73 degrees 35' W / 04 degrees 24' S). Apistogramma cinilabra sp. n. is separated from all other Apistogramma species by the combination of (in adult males) strikingly red base of pectoral, red spots on chest, (in aggression and display) light ash-grey lips, except...

  20. Species diversity of rare and endangered species and endemic species and conservation of Guilin Karst World Heritage Nominated Property%桂林喀斯特世界自然遗产提名地珍稀濒危和特有生物物种多样性及保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈利娜; 侯满福; 张远海; 陈伟海; 向垂升; 李晓娜

    2014-01-01

    珍稀濒危和特有物种是地区生物物种的重要组成,研究珍稀濒危和特有物种的多样性对生物保护和良好生态环境的维护有重要意义。本文在对桂林喀斯特世界自然遗产提名地生物物种调查的基础上,对提名地内的珍稀濒危和特有生物物种及其受威胁级别情况进行了统计,并从种群、群落和生境3个层面对珍稀濒危和特有物种的保护提出了建议。结果表明,在167.5 hm2范围内共有高等植物754种,脊椎动物525种;列入 IUCN红色名录443种、濒危野生动植物国际贸易公约67种、中国物种红色名录145种、中国国家重点保护野生动植物55种,并包括部分古老孑遗植物,珍稀濒危生物多样性较高;此外提名地还拥有87种特有种,是动植物特有种的重要资源地。在珍稀濒危和特有物种多样性的保护上,应根据提名地的珍稀濒危物受威胁级别,有计划地开展种群调查和生境分析,确定不同级别珍稀濒危物种的最小生存种群和最小动态区,并采取就地保护或迁地保护的措施,以促进小种群的发展;加强顶级群落的保护和监测研究,实施封山育林和群落恢复工程,促进群落的正向演替;划定珍稀濒危和特有种群和群落保护范围,建立自然保护区,维护其生存繁衍所必需生境量;此外着重加强对野生兰科植物的研究及生存空间保护,加强洞穴、峰林、峭壁等独特生境的保护。%Rare and endangered species,and endemic species are important to regional biological species com-position.Rare and endangered species,and endemic species biodiversity research is very significant for bio-logical conservation and maintaining the ecological environment.The rare and endangered species,and en-demic species of Guilin Karst World Natural Heritage nominated area are statistical analysis based on species investigation.Conservation suggestions of rare

  1. 75 FR 69221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... calcareous soils derived from oil shale barrens of the Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin of..., 2009 (74 FR 57804). CNORs published since 1994 are available on our Web site, http://www.fws.gov... assigning an LPN for each candidate species (48 FR 43098). Using this guidance, we assign each candidate...

  2. 78 FR 70103 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That are Candidates for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... the U.S. are or will be managed for the benefit of P. stellaris by removing invasive, nonnative plants... invasive, nonnative plants has been addressed. We have no information as to the degree nonnative plants are... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That are Candidates for Listing...

  3. 75 FR 1582 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... for the Cook Inlet beluga whale in the Federal Register of December 2, 2009 (74 FR 63080). We received... rule published December 2, 2009 (74 FR 63080) is extended to March 3, 2010. ADDRESSES: Send comments to... Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale AGENCY: National Marine...

  4. 78 FR 66675 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Multiple Species of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... purposes of listing, delisting, and reclassifying a species under the ESA (``DPS Policy''; 61 FR 4722... openings for mucus glands. These glands secrete ] large amounts of mucus, or slime, that hagfish use to... associated with coral reefs. Aipysurids are also viviparous (i.e., give birth to live young), unlike...

  5. 77 FR 67390 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... June 14, 2011 (76 FR 34746), in which we requested information and recommendations on species proposals... notice on November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68778), in which we requested information and recommendations on... Federal Register notice, published on April 11, 2012 (77 FR 21798), we requested public comments...

  6. 75 FR 8293 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Federal Register on November 9, 2009 (74 FR 57804), regarding the review of species that are candidates.... Correction In the notice of review (74 FR 57804; November 9, 2009), we correct page 57830, under the section... Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of review; correction. SUMMARY: This document corrects language used...

  7. Endangered Metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Idström, Anna; Falzett, Tiber FM

    2012-01-01

    When the last speaker of a language dies, s/he takes to oblivion the memories, associations and the rich imagery this language community has once lived by. The cultural heritage encoded in conventional linguistic metaphors, handed down through generations, will be lost forever. This volume consists of fifteen articles about metaphors in endangered languages, from Peru to Alaska, from India to Ghana.The empirical data demonstrate that the assumptions of contemporary cognitive linguistic theory about "universal" metaphors and the underlying cognitive processes are still far from plausible, since

  8. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extract of the endangered tree species, Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott and Endl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saradha Maran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was aimed at to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extracts of the endangered medicinal tree species, Hildegardia populifolia on laboratory animal. Methods: The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract has been determined by using carrageenan, formalin and histamine induced paw edema assays in Wistar rats. Indomethacin was used as a reference drug. The analgesic activity was tested by using acetic acid induced writhing response and hot plate method in swiss albino mice. Aspirin and pentazocine were used as reference drugs respectively for these models. Results: The oral administration of leaf extract at doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05-0.01 inhibited the carrageenan, formalin and histamine induced inflammation. The acute treatment of the extract produced a significant (P < 0.05-0.01 antinociceptive effect in the animals of acetic acid induced pain and the animals tested in a hot plate method. Acute toxicity test showed that the plant may be safe for pharmacological uses. Conclusions: It is very clear that H. populifolia has both anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and so may be used as pharmaceuticals.

  9. Reproductive ecology of Scalesia cordata (Asteraceae), an endangered species from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2010-01-01

    The genus Scalesia is endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Scalesia cordata is a tree occurring only in the southern part of Isabela as small, remnant populations of larger forests. We studied the reproductive ecology of a population protected in an enclosure in order to reveal the extent to which the...... of the genus. The small population size, with its potential derived consequences, is most certainly a prominent threat to S. cordata. The pressure from introduced plant species found in the enclosure also contributes to the seemingly poor condition of the population. To recover S. cordata, we suggest...... enlarging the enclosure, removing the introduced plant species and continuing to cultivate plants as a genetic reserve. Introducing new genetic material is likely to increase the seed set of the population...

  10. The Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius (Fabaceae), a paradox in Denmark – an invasive plant or endangered native species?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmeier, Lars; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2013-01-01

    Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius, spreads rapidly in parts of Denmark and is considered an invasive species by some authors. However, the species has been present in the Danish flora for centuries and is therefore considered native to Denmark. In the present study we explore whether Danish Scotch...... broom consists of one or two gene pools with potential differences in phenotype and invasiveness. One plastid and five nuclear microsatellite markers were used to reveal potential substructuring of Danish Scotch broom. Nine populations were included representing populations exhibiting invasive behaviour...... and populations showing non-invasive behaviour. An Italian population was used as reference. Bayesian analysis based on genetic markers indicated that the sampled populations form two distinct gene pools, and this pattern was supported by neighbour-joining trees. Measurements of height and width of the analysed...

  11. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo-Adriani, Esteban A; Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts. PMID:27069801

  12. Genetic variation in Whitmania pigra, Hirudo nipponica and Poecilobdella manillensis, three endemic and endangered species in China using SSR and TRAP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Shi, Hong-Zhuan; Cheng, Bo-Xing; Lu, Yu-Xi; Gou, Ling; Wang, Jia; Shen, Wen-Biao; Yan, Shi-Meng; Wu, Man-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Leeches are not only important medicinal animals worldwide but also are endangered. We aimed to (i) explore the level of genetic diversity within/among populations of three leeches, (ii) assess genetic differentiation among these three leeches, and (iii) discuss an appropriate strategy for conserving leech germplasm. A total of 315 individuals of Whitmania pigra, Hirudo nipponica and Poecilobdella manillensis from 21 populations were collected in China and Vietnam. The genetic structure and genetic diversity among and within the 21 populations were evaluated using target region amplified polymorphism (TRAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Sixteen pairs of TRAP primers generated a total of 398 fragments, of which 396 (99.50%) were polymorphic; fourteen pairs of SSR primers generated a total of 60 fragments, of which 59 (98.33%) were polymorphic. Shannon's index (I) and Nei's gene diversity index (H) for the three leeches were high at the species level (I=0.4980 and H=0.3323 for TRAPs, I=0.4487 and H=0.2969 for SSRs in W. pigra; I=0.4147/0.3769, H=0.2788/0.2566 for H. nipponica; and I=0.4616/0.4717, H=0.3099/0.3203 for P. manillensis). However, low genetic diversity was determined at the population level; the average genetic diversity measures within populations were H=0.1767/0.1376, I=0.2589/0.2043 for W. pigra, H=0.2149/0.2021, I=0.3184/0.3000 for H. nipponica and H=0.2850/0.2724, I=0.4152/0.3967 for P. manillensis. We conclude that there was limited gene exchange within/among populations and species, as the gene flow number (Nm) was 0.5493/0.5807. However, for all three species, the genetic diversity was different at the population level. Gene differentiation (Gst) and Nm were 0.4682 /0.5364 and 0.5678/0.4321 for W. pigra, 0.2294/0.2127 and 1.6797/1.8512 for H. nipponica and 0.1214/0.1496 and 3.6202/2.8412 for P. manillensis. STRUCTURE analysis, Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic means (UPGMA) cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis

  13. Primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology produces viable pure-line Houbara bustard offspring: potential for repopulating an endangered species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wernery

    tool for propagation and conservation of endangered avian species that cannot breed in captivity.

  14. Relação preliminar das espécies de peixes (Pisces, Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii ameaçadas no Brasil Preliminary list of endangered fish species (Pisces, Elasmobranchii , Actinopterygii in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S Rosa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian fish fauna is still poorly known with respect to its diversity and conservation status, particularly of freshwater species. Human activities and population growth are rapidly impacting this fauna to an unchecked extent, so that many fish species are presently threatened. Also, some areas have been so critically altered that their fish fauna can no longer be properly inventoried. There is an urgent need to evaluate the conservation status of Brazilian fish species, since none are presently listed as endangered by federal legislation. Based on a literature search and a survey directed to the Neotropical ichthyologists, we present an unofficial list including a total of 78 threatened fish species (12 elasmobranchs and 66 actinopterygians. Of these, sixteen actinopterygian species are listed as endangered, three elasmobranchs and nine actinopterygians as vulnerable, and seven actinopterygians as rare; 40 species either have indeterminate status or are data deficient to yield an adequate assessment, and three species are listed as extinct or possibly extinct.

  15. Spatial diversity of rocky midlittoral macro-invertebrates associated with the endangered species Patella ferruginea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Tunisian coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Fguiri, Hosni; Diawara, Moctar; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2010-04-01

    The present study focuses on horizontal spatial variability of benthic macrofauna associated with Patella ferruginea. Thirty-six samples collected at 12 transects belonging to 4 midlittoral sites along the rocky Tunisian coastline, were examined. A total of 44 species belonging to 5 taxa were found. Multivariate analysis applied on gathered data did not show a horizontal spatial variability at small scale (between transects), but at large scale, between sites as well as sectors. Thus, three groups of communities were identified (GI: Korbous and El Haouaria; GIIa: Zembra Island and GIIb: Kelibia). The distribution of species abundance within these groups revealed that crustaceans were the most abundant taxon, due to the overwhelming dominance of Chthamalus stellatus. This substratum appeared to create favourable micro-habitats for the installation of molluscs including gastropods. Regarding the low diversity index ( H') and evenness ( J), they seemed to reflect a disturbance and a demographic unbalance within these communities. The heterogeneity of substrate surface, created by C. stellatus specimens appeared to be caused by various complex interactions established between the key components of these communities in particular suspension feeders, predators, herbivorous molluscs and macroalgae. Thus, the dynamic status of each of these communities is the result of these complex interactions.

  16. Endangered Animals Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1985-01-01

    Contains teaching activities designed to help elementary students understand the meaning of "endangered" and to recognize the major causes of species loss throughout the world. Organizes the exercises by grade levels and also by time required for the activity's completion. The major concepts and skills of each lesson are identified. (ML)

  17. Impact and Recovery Pattern of a Spring Fire on a Pacific Coast Marsh - Observations and Implications for Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. N.; Willis, K. S.; Ambrose, R. F.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The flammability of California coastal marsh vegetation is highest in winter and spring when dominant high marsh plants such as Sarcocornia pacifica are dormant. With climate change the number of cool-season fires are increasing in the state, and marsh systems are becoming more vulnerable to fire disturbance. Very little information exists in peer-reviewed or grey literature on the presence of fire in Pacific Coast tidal marshes. In 1993, the Green Meadows fire in Ventura County, California burned a small portion of tidally influenced Sarcocornia­-dominated marsh at Point Mugu. After the May 2013 Springs Fire burned a similar portion of the salt marsh vegetation, we conducted a two-year vegetation recovery survey using transects of surface vegetation plots and MODIS derived NDVI remote sensing monitoring. Recovery during the first year was limited. Sixteen months into the recovery period, percent plant coverage reached an average of approximately 60% for all plots in the burned area, as opposed to an average of 100% in control plots, and remained at that level for the duration of the study. NDVI did not approach near pre-fire conditions until 19 months after the fire. While recovery may have been influenced by California's current extreme drought conditions, the recurrence of fire and rate of recovery raise many important questions as to the role of fire in Pacific coast tidal marshes. For example, the lack of Salicornia cover over more than an entire breeding season would be detrimental to protected species such as Rallus obsoletus. Fire adds new vulnerabilities on critical tidal marsh habitat already taxed by the threat of sea-level rise, coastal squeeze and invasive species.

  18. Reproductive ecology of Syzygium alternifolium (Myrtaceae, an endemic and endangered tropical tree species in the southern Eastern Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium alternifolium is a semi-evergreen mass-flowering tree species of dry deciduous forest in the southern Eastern Ghats of India. It is a mass bloomer with flowering during dry season. The floral traits suggest a mixed pollination syndrome involving entomophily and anemophily together called as ambophily. Further, the floral traits suggest generalist pollination system adapted for a guild of pollinating insects. The plant is self-incompatible and obligate out-crosser. The flowers are many-ovuled but only a single ovule forms seed and hence, fruit and seed set rates are the same. Natural fruit set stands at 11%. Bud infestation by a moth, flower predation by the beetle, Popillia impressipyga and bud and flower mounds significantly limit fruit set rate. The ability of the plant to repopulate itself is limited by the collection of fruits by locals due to their edible nature, short viability of seeds, high seedling mortality due to water stress, nutrient deficiency and erratic rainfall or interval of drought within the rainy season. Therefore, S. alternifolium is struggling to populate itself under various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Further studies should focus on how to assist the plant to increase its population size in its natural area taking into account the information provided in this paper.

  19. 莲座蕨属五种珍稀濒危植物种群特征%Population Structure of 5 Rare and Endangered Species of Angiopteris (Marattiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信金伟; 王佳冠; 姜立举; 王崇云; 和兆荣

    2016-01-01

    本文以莲座蕨属5种珍稀濒危植物为研究对象,通过野外调查和数据统计,绘制了5个种的种群高度、丛径、叶柄数和马蹄数结构图,在此基础上编制了圆基莲座蕨和阔羽莲座蕨种群特定时间生命表,分析了存活曲线等重要参数。结果表明,圆基莲座蕨种群结构稳定,阔羽莲座蕨种群结构相对稳定,但受人为干扰较大;秦氏莲座蕨、二回莲座蕨种群目前仍表现为稳定型种群,但种群数量较少,容易受环境胁迫和人为干扰;法斗莲座蕨植株数极少,种群结构极不稳定,已濒临灭绝。5种莲座蕨均需就地保护和迁地保护,特别是法斗莲座蕨和二回莲座蕨亟需通过人工抚育来恢复种群数量,以实现抢救性保护。%Taking 5 rare and endangered species of Angiopteris (Marattiaceae) as research subject, specific life-time table of Angiopteris subrotundata and Angiopteris latipinna population was drawn and key parameters such as survival curve were analyzed based on structure charts of population heights, cluster diameters, petiole numbers and horseshoes drawn by sample plot survey and statistics data .The results showed that population structure of An-giopteris subrotundata was stable , and that of Angiopteris latipinna was relatively stable but influenced by human disturbance .The population structure of Angiopteris chingii and Angiopteirs bipinnata were also stable but their pop-ulation number were less and vulnerable to environmental stress and human disturbance .Population quantity of An-giopteris sparsisora was extreme low and its population structure was in a quite unstable situation even to species ex-tinction.This study indicated that all these 5 Angiopteris species are needed to take in situ and ex-situ conservation actions, and especially for Angiopteris sparsisora and Angiopteris bipinnata.

  20. 77 FR 36569 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Thick-Billed Parrot Draft Recovery Plan Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... listed as an endangered species on June 3, 1970 (35 FR 8491), pursuant to the Endangered Species... as endangered in the United States (see 45 FR 49844, page 49845). In 2009, the U.S. Department of the... always been listed as endangered throughout its entire range (see 74 FR 33957). Today, the...